WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods trained lay

  1. An evaluation of a refresher training intervention for HIV lay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles Msisuka a , Ikuma Nozaki b i-nozaki@it.ncgm.go.jpinozaki@hsph.harvard.edu, Kazuhiro Kakimoto c , Motoko Seko d & Mercy M S Ulaya e

    Twenty-five lay counsellors were selected by District Health Office and participated in ... The workshop included: the opening, a pre-training exercise, lectures on quality ... We conclude that the refresher training was effective for improving the ...

  2. Should trained lay providers perform HIV testing? A systematic review to inform World Health Organization guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C E; Yeh, P T; Johnson, C; Baggaley, R

    2017-12-01

    New strategies for HIV testing services (HTS) are needed to achieve UN 90-90-90 targets, including diagnosis of 90% of people living with HIV. Task-sharing HTS to trained lay providers may alleviate health worker shortages and better reach target groups. We conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating HTS by lay providers using rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). Peer-reviewed articles were included if they compared HTS using RDTs performed by trained lay providers to HTS by health professionals, or to no intervention. We also reviewed data on end-users' values and preferences around lay providers preforming HTS. Searching was conducted through 10 online databases, reviewing reference lists, and contacting experts. Screening and data abstraction were conducted in duplicate using systematic methods. Of 6113 unique citations identified, 5 studies were included in the effectiveness review and 6 in the values and preferences review. One US-based randomized trial found patients' uptake of HTS doubled with lay providers (57% vs. 27%, percent difference: 30, 95% confidence interval: 27-32, p lay providers. Studies from Cambodia, Malawi, and South Africa comparing testing quality between lay providers and laboratory staff found little discordance and high sensitivity and specificity (≥98%). Values and preferences studies generally found support for lay providers conducting HTS, particularly in non-hypothetical scenarios. Based on evidence supporting using trained lay providers, a WHO expert panel recommended lay providers be allowed to conduct HTS using HIV RDTs. Uptake of this recommendation could expand HIV testing to more people globally.

  3. Training Tribal Lay Advocates at Sitting Bull College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, W. L.

    2015-01-01

    Students in Sitting Bull College's lay advocate program develop a well-rounded understanding of the law, enabling them to represent defendants in tribal courts. The program offers legal training for its students--and illustrates how American Indian nations can broaden legal representation for Native defendants in tribal courts. It is one of only…

  4. Diabetes self-management education: acceptability of using trained lay educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandalia, P K; Stone, M A; Davies, M J; Khunti, K; Carey, M E

    2014-11-01

    The use of lay people to deliver education programmes for people with chronic conditions is a potential method of addressing healthcare staff capacity and increasing the cost efficiency of delivering education. This qualitative substudy is embedded within an equivalence trial (2008-2011 including development stage). In the qualitative substudy, we aimed to elicit the views of key stakeholders (patients, educators) about using lay people to deliver education to people recently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, alongside a healthcare professional educator with an equal role. In this way, we sought to explore perceptions about acceptability and also contribute to understanding the reasons underlying positive or negative quantitative findings from main trial. We conducted 27 telephone interviews with a purposive sample of patients, lay educators and healthcare professional educators involved in the main trial. Thematic analysis of transcribed data was underpinned by the constant comparative approach and structured using Framework methodology. Overall, the data suggested that the use of lay educators was acceptable to educators and patients. Perceived difference in knowledge levels between lay and healthcare professional educators did not appear to have an impact on perceived acceptability or the effectiveness of the education received. Additional themes explored were related to peer status of educators and feasibility. Some concerns were raised about lay educators with diabetes, transferring personal issues and about the impact of healthcare professional time taken up by mentoring and supporting lay educators. Positive perceptions about the use of lay educators support the positive quantitative findings from the main trial. Acceptability is an important consideration in relation to implementation of the model of delivery studied. Concerns raised within the interviews should be considered in the design of training for lay educators. ISRCTN 99350009. Published by the BMJ

  5. Culturally Competent Training Program: A Key to Training Lay Health Advisors for Promoting Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Song, Lixin; Seetoo, Amy; Cai, Cuijuan; Smith, Gary; Oakley, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    The lay health advisor (LHA) training program for breast cancer screening was conducted among Chinese-English bilingual trainees residing in Southeast Michigan. Guided by Bandura's Social Learning Theory, the development of the training curriculum followed the health communication process recommended by the National Cancer Institute. Data analysis…

  6. Training Lay Interventionists to Support Tobacco Cessation among Teachers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghi, Mira; Nagler, Eve; Lando, Harry; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gupta, Prakash; Sorensen, Glorian

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing burden of tobacco-related morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries, tobacco control initiatives - especially cessation - receive little emphasis. This is true despite low-cost methods that have potential for widespread dissemination. The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study example of how lay interventionists may be trained and supported to facilitate tobacco use cessation, based on the successful Tobacco Free Teachers-Tobacco Free Society program (TFT-TFS) implemented in Bihar, India. This school-based program included multiple components, with lay interventionists having a crucial role. The lay interventionists included health educators and lead teachers, both of whom were selected based on formative research, underwent extensive training and received continuing support. We emphasized encouraging and supporting teachers to quit tobacco use and engaging both tobacco users and nonusers to create a supportive environment for cessation. We also stressed that neither the health educators nor lead teachers were being trained as counselors or as cessation experts. We focused on the importance of respecting teachers as individuals and identifying locally relevant methods of cessation. Although we cannot isolate the precise contribution of the lay interventionists to the successful TFT-TFS intervention, the abstinence findings in favor of the intervention at follow up are highly encouraging. Teachers have been neglected as lay interventionists for tobacco cessation despite the fact that they tend to be highly respected and credible. The approach used for TFT-TFS could be disseminable in multiple low- and middle-income country contexts through train-the-trainer programs targeted to teachers.

  7. Co-producing public involvement training with members of the public and research organisations in the East Midlands: creating, delivering and evaluating the lay assessor training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horobin, Adele; Brown, George; Higton, Fred; Vanhegan, Stevie; Wragg, Andrew; Wray, Paula; Walker, Dawn-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Members of the public share their views with researchers to improve health and social care research. Lay assessing is one way of doing this. This is where people, drawing upon personal and general life experience, comment on material, such as grant applications and patient information, to highlight strengths and weaknesses and to suggest improvements. This paper reports on setting up a training programme for lay assessors. Meetings were held between interested public and staff from research organisations. People discussed what lay assessing is, why they want to do it, skills and support needed and if training was wanted. They were invited to form a group to develop the training together. Training was delivered in the East Midlands. People who attended gave their thoughts about it by completing questionnaires and joining a feedback event. The group developed the structure of the training programme together and it oversaw the development of the training content by individual members. People who attended training reported feeling more confident about lay assessing. This was particularly so for those who had not done lay assessing before. They indicated how valuable it was to talk with others at the training. Our findings support the National Institute for Health Research recommendations for improving learning and development for public involvement in research. This project has created a solid base for local research organisations to work together in public involvement training. Lay assessor training is now part of a wider programme of shared resources called the Sharebank. Background Involving members of the public in research can improve its quality and incorporate the needs and views of patients. One method for doing this is lay assessing, where members of the public are consulted to improve research materials. This paper documents the establishment of a pilot training programme for lay assessors. It describes a way of working that embodies a regional, cross

  8. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  9. Strength training in community settings: impact of lay leaders on program access and sustainability for rural older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T; Cornell, Carol E; Phillips, Martha; Felix, Holly; Traywick, LaVona

    2014-09-01

    The effect of volunteer lay leaders on availability and sustainability of strength-training programs for older adults has not been well explored. We describe implementation of the StrongWomen strength training program by the Arkansas Cooperative Extension Service, and report on the relationship between delivery approach (agent-led, lay-led, or combination of agent- and lay-led) and program access and sustainability. All state Extension agents (n = 66) were surveyed on program implementation, continuance, and use of lay leaders. Program records were used to identify the number of trained lay leaders. Regression models were used to examine the relationship between delivery approach and group availability. Counties using lay leaders had twice as many groups as counties using only agents. There was a significant, positive relationship between the number of lay leaders and the number of groups. Counties using lay leaders were 8.3 times more likely to have continuing groups compared with counties not using lay leaders. Program continuance was significantly and positively associated with lay leader use. Lay delivery expanded access to strength training programs and increased the likelihood that programs would continue. This approach can be used to increase access to and sustainability of strength training programs, particularly in resource-constrained areas.

  10. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John E.; Gunn, Jayleen K.L.; Center, Katherine E.; Li, Ying; Rouhani, Mae; Ezeanolue, Echezona E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs) and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014) with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only) conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania), Central America (Belize), and Asia (Myanmar) were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion Although available evidence

  11. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Ehiri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Methods: PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014 with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Results: Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania, Central America (Belize, and Asia (Myanmar were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Conclusion: Although

  12. Lay First Responder Training in Eastern Uganda: Leveraging Transportation Infrastructure to Build an Effective Prehospital Emergency Care Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter G; Bamuleke, Richard; Lee, Yang Jae

    2018-01-18

    Though road traffic injuries (RTIs) are a major cause of mortality in East Africa, few countries have emergency medical services. The aim was to create a sustainable and efficient prehospital lay first responder program, creating a system with lay first responders spread through the 53 motorcycle taxi stages of Iganga Municipality. One hundred and fifty-four motorcycle taxi riders were taught a first aid curriculum in partnership with a local Red Cross first aid trainer and provided with a first aid kit following WHO guidelines for basic first aid. Pre- and post-survey tests measured first aid knowledge improvement over the course. Post-implementation incident report forms were collected from lay first responders after each patient encounter over 6 months. Follow-up interviews were conducted with 110 of 154 trainees, 9 months post-training. Improvement was measured across all five major first aid categories: bleeding control (56.9 vs. 79.7%), scene management (37.6 vs. 59.5%), airway and breathing (43.4 vs. 51.6%), recovery position (13.1 vs. 43.4%), and victim transport (88.2 vs. 94.3%). From the incident report findings, first responders treated 250 victims (82.8% RTI related) and encountered 24 deaths (9.6% of victims). Of the first aid skills, bleeding control and bandaging was used most often (55.2% of encounters). Lay first responders provided transport in 48.3% of encounters. Of 110 lay first responders surveyed, 70 of 76 who had used at least one skill felt "confident" in the care they provided. A prehospital care system composed of lay first responders can be developed leveraging existing transport organizations, offering a scalable alternative for LMICs, demonstrating usefulness in practice and measurable educational improvements in trauma skills for non-clinical lay responders.

  13. Training lay-people to use automatic external defibrillators: are all of their needs being met?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison-Paul, Russell; Timmons, Stephen; van Schalkwyk, Wilna Dirkse

    2006-10-01

    We explored the experiences of lay people who have been trained to use automatic external defibrillators. The research questions were: (1) How can training courses help prepare people for dealing with real life situations? (2) Who is ultimately responsible for providing critical incident debriefing and how should this be organised? (3) What is the best process for providing feedback to those who have used an AED? Fifty-three semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted, some with those who had been trained and others with trainers. Locations included airports, railway stations, private companies and first responder schemes. Geographically, we covered Nottinghamshire, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, Staffordshire, Essex and the West Midlands in the UK. Our analysis of the data indicates that most people believe scenarios based within their place of work were most useful in preparing for 'real life'. Many people had not received critical incident debriefing after using an AED. There were a variety of systems in place to provide support after an incident, many of which were informal. Training scenarios should be conducted outside the classroom. There should be more focus on critical incident debriefing during training and a clear identification of who should provide support after an incident. Other issues which were of interest included: (1) people's views on do not attempt resuscitation (DNAR); (2) perceived boundaries of responsibility when using an AED; (3) when is someone no longer 'qualified' to use an AED?

  14. Performance of Commercial Laying Hen Submitted to Different Debeaking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Oka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the several factors required in breeding laying hens, debeaking is a factor that interferes with batch performance and affects animal welfare. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate three different debeaking procedures and to verify the best technique to be used. For this, the performance of the birds, the incidence of cannibalism, and in rearing phase, the quality of the eggs were evaluated. Dekalb White birds were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments, T1 (infrared radiation debeaking T2 (hot blade debeaking and T3 (V debeaking.The data was submitted to Analysis of Variance and compared by Tukey’s test (95%, using statistical software R. The frequencies of mortality and cannibalism were submitted to the Chi-Square test (Software R. It was observed that mortality was lower with IR debeaking in the breeding phase. Already in the rearing phase, the mortality was similar between the debeaking techniques and the cannibalism was null. The final mean weight (g, mean weight gain (g and average daily weight gain in the rearing and egg quality variables were higher for V debeaking when compared to other techniques. It is concluded that V-debeaking provides better bird performance, resistance and shell thickness when compared to the infrared radiations and hot blade debeaking, in addition to subjecting the birds to less stress.

  15. [Resuscitation training for lay persons in first aid courses: Transfer of knowledge, skills and attitude].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckwoldt, J; Lingemann, C; Wagner, P

    2016-01-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is the most effective intervention for out of hospital sudden cardiac arrest; therefore, basic life support (BLS) courses for lay persons have become well established in industrialized countries, often since decades. Despite this favorable situation bystander CPR rates still remain low in some countries (e.g. in Germany), indicating serious implementation problems. The quality of instruction in these courses could be one reason for low bystander CPR rates. We therefore analyzed official lay BLS courses in terms of the teaching quality in the domains of knowledge, skills and attitudes (according to Bloom's taxonomy). A total of 20 officially accredited lay BLS courses in Berlin, Germany, were analyzed by a participating observer, who remained blinded to the instructor and course participants until the end of the course. Courses were offered by German rescue organizations and private providers according to European Resuscitation Council (ERC) guidelines. Teaching quality was rated by a standardized checklist including 21 observable criteria of teaching quality for transfer of knowledge (n = 10), skills (n = 8) and attitudes (n = 3). In order to achieve comparability between items the results of each criterion were quantified by Likert scales ranging from +2 (very good) to -2 (very poor). The average score of all courses was +0.47 (SD ±0.46) for transfer of knowledge, +0.03 (SD ±0.61) for skills and -1.08 (SD ±0.73) for attitudes. In the domain of knowledge transfer, learning atmosphere and course structure were rated to be generally good, whilst marked deficits were found with respect to correctness of content. In the domain of skills the more positive ratings were given for teaching of single BLS elements (e.g. compressions and ventilation), in contrast to the training of BLS context, where e.g. realistic scenarios were only used by 3 out of 20 instructors. The domain of attitude transfer had the worst

  16. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  17. Cable laying methods in a multi-cable elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvornikov, V.I.; Makhinyan, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Based on the solution of differential equations describing the stress and deformation state of cables during rolling on the drum, a conclusion is made concerning a rational method for hanging cables with a free-spinning end.

  18. Current patterns of prehospital trauma care in Kampala, Uganda and the feasibility of a lay-first-responder training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha; Mabweijano, Jacqueline R; Lipnick, Michael S; Caldwell, Nolan; Miyamoto, Justin; Wangoda, Robert; Mijumbi, Cephas; Hsia, Renee; Dicker, Rochelle; Ozgediz, Doruk

    2009-12-01

    Uganda currently has no organized prehospital emergency system. We sought to measure the current burden of injury seen by lay people in Kampala, Uganda and to determine the feasibility of a lay first-responder training program. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of current prehospital care providers in Kampala: police officers, minibus taxi drivers, and Local Council officials, and collected data on types and frequencies of emergencies witnessed, barriers to aid provision, history of training, and current availability of first-aid supplies. A context-appropriate course on basic first-aid for trauma was designed and implemented. We measured changes in trainees' fund of knowledge before and after training. A total of 309 lay people participated in the study, and during the previous 6 months saw 18 traumatic emergencies each; 39% saw an injury-related death. The most common injury mechanisms were road crashes, assault, and burns. In these cases, 90% of trainees provided some aid, most commonly lifting (82%) or transport (76%). Fifty-two percent of trainees had previous first-aid training, 44% had some access to equipment, and 32% had ever purchased a first-aid kit. Before training, participants answered 45% of test questions correctly (mean %) and this increased to 86% after training (p emergencies and deaths in Kampala, Uganda and provide much needed care but are ill-prepared to do so. A context-appropriate prehospital trauma care course can be developed and improve lay people's knowledge of basic trauma care. The effectiveness of such a training program needs to be evaluated prospectively.

  19. Training and deployment of lay refugee/internally displaced persons to provide basic health services in camps: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John E; Gunn, Jayleen K L; Center, Katherine E; Li, Ying; Rouhani, Mae; Ezeanolue, Echezona E

    2014-01-01

    Training of lay refugees/internally displaced persons (IDPs) and deploying them to provide basic health services to other women, children, and families in camps is perceived to be associated with public health benefits. However, there is limited evidence to support this hypothesis. To assess the effects of interventions to train and deploy lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. PubMed, Science and Social Science Citation Indices, PsycINFO, EMBASE, POPLINE, CINAHL, and reference lists of relevant articles were searched (from inception to June 30, 2014) with the aim of identifying studies that reported the effects of interventions that trained and deployed lay refugees and/or IDPs for the provision of basic health service to other women, children, and families in camps. Two investigators independently reviewed all titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant articles. Discrepancies were resolved by repeated review, discussion, and consensus. Study quality assessment was undertaken using standard protocols. Ten studies (five cross-sectional, four pre-post, and one post-test only) conducted in Africa (Guinea and Tanzania), Central America (Belize), and Asia (Myanmar) were included. The studies demonstrated some positive impact on population health associated with training and deployment of trained lay refugees/IDPs as health workers in camps. Reported effects included increased service coverage, increased knowledge about disease symptoms and prevention, increased adoption of improved treatment seeking and protective behaviors, increased uptake of services, and improved access to reproductive health information. One study, which assessed the effect of peer refugee health education on sexual and reproductive health, did not demonstrate a marked reduction in unintended pregnancies among refugee/IDP women. Although available evidence suggests a positive impact of training and deployment

  20. Can trained lay providers perform HIV testing services? A review of national HIV testing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, David E; Johnson, Cheryl; Sands, Anita; Wong, Vincent; Figueroa, Carmen; Baggaley, Rachel

    2017-01-04

    Only an estimated 54% of people living with HIV are aware of their status. Despite progress scaling up HIV testing services (HTS), a testing gap remains. Delivery of HTS by lay providers may help close this testing gap, while also increasing uptake and acceptability of HIV testing among key populations and other priority groups. 50 National HIV testing policies were collated from WHO country intelligence databases, contacts and testing program websites. Data regarding lay provider use for HTS was extracted and collated. Our search had no geographical or language restrictions. This data was then compared with reported data from the Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting (GARPR) from July 2015. Forty-two percent of countries permit lay providers to perform HIV testing and 56% permit lay providers to administer pre-and post-test counseling. Comparative analysis with GARPR found that less than half (46%) of reported data from countries were consistent with their corresponding national HIV testing policy. Given the low uptake of lay provider use globally and their proven use in increasing HIV testing, countries should consider revising policies to support lay provider testing using rapid diagnostic tests.

  1. Methods of feed restriction for molt induction in commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josenio Cerbaro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to evaluate methods of quantitative or qualitative feed restriction for inducing molt on the performance of Hy - Line Brown layers in the second lay cycle. Two hundred and twenty - five birds with 88 wks-old Hy - Line Brown were used in a completely randomized design with five treatments: Quant100 – restriction of 100% of the daily amount recommended by lineage manual; Quant75 – restriction of 75% of the daily amount recommended; Quant50 – restriction of 50% of the daily amount recommended; Qual75 – supply of an ad libitum diet with 75% grinded rice hulls and 25% of basal diet; Qual50 – supply of an ad libitum diet with 50% of grinded rice hulls and 50% of basal diet. The feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and egg mass was similar (P=0.0035 and P=0.0139 between Quant75 and Qual75 methods, in relation to Quant100. The eggs production was similar (P=0.0122 among the hens from Quant75, Quant50 and Qual75 methods, in relation to Quant100. The methods of feed restriction did not alter the eggs density (P=0.8971. Quant75 or Qual75 methods can substitute the conventional method for inducing molt in Hy-Line Brown layers, without modifying the performance in the second lay cycle.

  2. Lay Patient Navigators' Perspectives of Barriers, Facilitators and Training Needs in Initiating Advance Care Planning Conversations With Older Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Soumya J; Huang, Chao-Hui S; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Halilova, Karina I; Pisu, Maria; Drentea, Patricia; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Bevis, Kerri S; Butler, Thomas W; Partridge, Edward E; Rocque, Gabrielle B

    2018-04-01

    Respecting Choices is an evidence-based model of facilitating advance care planning (ACP) conversations between health-care professionals and patients. However, the effectiveness of whether lay patient navigators can successfully initiate Respecting Choices ACP conversations is unknown. As part of a large demonstration project (Patient Care Connect [PCC]), a cohort of lay patient navigators underwent Respecting Choices training and were tasked to initiate ACP conversations with Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer. This article explores PCC lay navigators' perceived barriers and facilitators in initiating Respecting Choices ACP conversations with older patients with cancer in order to inform implementation enhancements to lay navigator-facilitated ACP. Twenty-six lay navigators from 11 PCC cancer centers in 4 states (Alabama, George, Tennessee, and Florida) completed in-depth, one-on-one semistructured interviews between June 2015 and August 2015. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. This evaluation identifies 3 levels-patient, lay navigator, and organizational factors in addition to training needs that influence ACP implementation. Key facilitators included physician buy-in, patient readiness, and navigators' prior experience with end-of-life decision-making. Lay navigators' perceived challenges to initiating ACP conversations included timing of the conversation and social and personal taboos about discussing dying. Our results suggest that further training and health system support are needed for lay navigators playing a vital role in improving the implementation of ACP among older patients with cancer. The lived expertise of lay navigators along with flexible longitudinal relationships with patients and caregivers may uniquely position this workforce to promote ACP.

  3. Training methods, tools and aids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1980-01-01

    The training programme, training methods, tools and aids necessary for staffing nuclear power plants depend very much on the overall contractual provisions. The basis for training programmes and methods is the definition of the plant organization and the prequalification of the personnel. Preselection tests are tailored to the different educational levels and precede the training programme, where emphasis is put on practical on-the-job training. Technical basic and introductory courses follow language training and give a broad but basic spectrum of power plant technology. Plant-related theoretical training consists of reactor technology training combined with practical work in laboratories, on a test reactor and of the nuclear power plant course on design philosophy and operation. Classroom instruction together with video tapes and other audiovisual material which are used during this phase are described; as well as the various special courses for the different specialists. The first step of on-the-job training is a practical observation phase in an operating nuclear power plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work or to the different special departments, depending on their future assignment. Training in manufacturers' workshops, in laboratories or in engineering departments necessitate other training methods. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists gives the practical feeling for nuclear power plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own nuclear power plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and are assisted during their process of practical learning on-the-job by special instructors. Personnel training also includes performance of training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well

  4. Novel methods for endoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessner, C E; Jowell, P S; Baillie, J

    1995-04-01

    The development of past, present, and future endoscopic training methods is described. A historical perspective of endoscopy training guidelines and devices is used to demonstrate support for the use of novel endoscopic training techniques. Computer simulation of endoscopy, interactive learning, and virtual reality applications in endoscopy and surgery are reviewed. The goals of endoscopic simulation and challenges facing investigators in this field are discussed, with an emphasis on current and future research.

  5. Implementation of new working methods in the floor-laying trade: Long-term effects on knee load and knee complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Friche, Claus

    2010-01-01

    This study compared floor laying using new working methods involving standing up, to the traditional methods involving working on one's knees.......This study compared floor laying using new working methods involving standing up, to the traditional methods involving working on one's knees....

  6. An audiovisual feedback device for compression depth, rate and complete chest recoil can improve the CPR performance of lay persons during self-training on a manikin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasteva, Vessela; Jekova, Irena; Didon, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the scarce data available about the abilities of untrained lay persons to perform hands-only cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on a manikin and the improvement of their skills during training with an autonomous CPR feedback device. The study focuses on the following questions: (i) Is there a need for such a CPR training device? (ii) How adequate are the embedded visual feedback and audio guidance for training of lay persons who learn and correct themselves in real time without instructor guidance? (iii) What is the achieved effect of only 3 min of training? This is a prospective study in which 63 lay persons (volunteers) received a debriefing to basic life support and then performed two consecutive 3 min trials of hands-only CPR on a manikin. The pre-training skills of the lay persons were tested in trial 1. The training process with audio guidance and visual feedback from a cardio compression control device (CC-Device) was recorded in trial 2. After initial debriefing for correct chest compressions (CC) with rate 85–115 min −1 , depth 3.8–5.4 cm and complete recoil, in trial 1 the lay persons were able to perform CC without feedback at mean rate 95.9 ± 18.9 min −1 , mean depth 4.13 ± 1.5 cm, with low proportions of 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' at 33%, 43%, 87%, resulting in the scarce proportion of 14% for compressions, which simultaneously fulfill the three quality criteria ('correct all'). In trial 2, the training process by the CC-Device was established by the significant improvement of the CC skills until the 60th second of training, when 'correct depth', 'correct rate' and 'correct recoil' attained the plateau of the highest quality at 82%, 90%, 96%, respectively, resulting in 73% 'correct all' compressions within 3 min of training. The training was associated with reduced variance of the mean rate 102.4 ± 4

  7. Trained lay health workers reduce common mental disorder symptoms of adults with suicidal ideation in Zimbabwe: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munetsi, Epiphany; Simms, Victoria; Dzapasi, Lloyd; Chapoterera, Georgina; Goba, Nyaradzo; Gumunyu, Tichaona; Weiss, Helen A; Verhey, Ruth; Abas, Melanie; Araya, Ricardo; Chibanda, Dixon

    2018-02-08

    Suicidal ideation may lead to deliberate self-harm which increases the risk of death by suicide. Globally, the main cause of deliberate self-harm is depression. The aim of this study was to explore prevalence of, and risk factors for, suicidal ideation among men and women with common mental disorder (CMD) symptoms attending public clinics in Zimbabwe, and to determine whether problem solving therapy delivered by lay health workers can reduce common mental disorder symptoms among people with suicidal ideation, using secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. At trial enrolment, the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ) was used to screen for CMD symptoms. In the intervention arm, participants received six problem-solving therapy sessions conducted by trained and supervised lay health workers, while those in the control arm received enhanced usual care. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for suicidal ideation at enrolment, and cluster-level logistic regression to compare SSQ scores at endline (6 months follow-up) between trial arms, stratified by suicidal ideation at enrolment. There were 573 participants who screened positive for CMD symptoms and 75 (13.1%) reported suicidal ideation at baseline. At baseline, after adjusting for confounders, suicidal ideation was independently associated with being aged over 24, lack of household income (household income yes/no; adjusted odds ratio 0.52 (95% CI 0.29, 0.95); p = 0.03) and with having recently skipped a meal due to lack of food (adjusted odds ratio 3.06 (95% CI 1.81, 5.18); p mental disorder symptoms but no suicidal ideation (adjusted mean difference - 4.86, 95% CI -5.68, - 4.04; p mental disorder symptoms among participants with suicidal thoughts who attended primary care facilities in Zimbabwe. pactr.org ldentifier: PACTR201410000876178.

  8. Lay and professional stakeholder involvement in scoping palliative care issues: Methods used in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Louise; Ingleton, Christine; Gardiner, Clare; Goyder, Elizabeth; Mozygemba, Kati; Lysdahl, Kristin Bakke; Tummers, Marcia; Sacchini, Dario; Leppert, Wojciech; Blaževičienė, Aurelija; van der Wilt, Gert Jan; Refolo, Pietro; De Nicola, Martina; Chilcott, James; Oortwijn, Wija

    2017-02-01

    Stakeholders are people with an interest in a topic. Internationally, stakeholder involvement in palliative care research and health technology assessment requires development. Stakeholder involvement adds value throughout research (from prioritising topics to disseminating findings). Philosophies and understandings about the best ways to involve stakeholders in research differ internationally. Stakeholder involvement took place in seven countries (England, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway and Poland). Findings informed a project that developed concepts and methods for health technology assessment and applied these to evaluate models of palliative care service delivery. To report on stakeholder involvement in the INTEGRATE-HTA project and how issues identified informed project development. Using stakeholder consultation or a qualitative research design, as appropriate locally, stakeholders in seven countries acted as 'advisors' to aid researchers' decision making. Thematic analysis was used to identify key issues across countries. A total of 132 stakeholders (82 professionals and 50 'lay' people) aged ⩾18 participated in individual face-to-face or telephone interviews, consultation meetings or focus groups. Different stakeholder involvement methods were used successfully to identify key issues in palliative care. A total of 23 issues common to three or more countries informed decisions about the intervention and comparator of interest, sub questions and specific assessments within the health technology assessment. Stakeholders, including patients and families undergoing palliative care, can inform project decision making using various involvement methods according to the local context. Researchers should consider local understandings about stakeholder involvement as views of appropriate and feasible methods vary. Methods for stakeholder involvement, especially consultation, need further development.

  9. Women's empowerment in India: assessment of women's confidence before and after training as a lay provider

    OpenAIRE

    Megan Storm; Alan Xi; Ayesha Khan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Gender is the main social determinant of health in India and affects women's health outcomes even before birth. As women mature into adulthood, lack of education and empowerment increases health inequities, acting as a barrier to seeking medical care and to making medical choices. Although the process of women's empowerment is complex to measure, one indicator is confidence in ability. We sought to increase the confidence of rural Indian women in their abilities by training them a...

  10. Lay Health Trainers Supporting Self-Management amongst Those with Low Heath Literacy and Diabetes: Lessons from a Mixed Methods Pilot, Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlam, Bernadette; Rathod, Trishna; Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a mixed methods process evaluation of a pilot feasibility randomised controlled trial comparing a Lay Health Trainer (LHT) intervention and usual care for those with poorly controlled Type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM). Set in a deprived area in the UK, this research explores patient and health care practitioner (HCP) views on whether a structured interview between a patient and a Lay Health Trainer (LHT), for the purpose of developing a tailored self-management plan for patients, is acceptable and likely to change health behaviours. In doing so, it considers the implications for a future, randomised controlled trial (RCT). Participants were patients, LHTs delivering the intervention, service managers, and practice nurses recruiting patients to the study. Patients were purposively sampled on their responses to a baseline survey, and semistructured interviews were conducted within an exploratory thematic analysis framework. Findings indicate that the intervention is acceptable to patients and HCPs. However, LHTs found it challenging to work with older patients with long-term and/or complex conditions. In order to address this, given an ageing population and concomitant increases in those with such health needs, LHT training should develop skills working with these populations. The design of any future RCT intervention should take account of this.

  11. Comparing interactive videodisc training effectiveness to traditional training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenworthy, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Videodisc skills training programs developed by Industrial Training Corporation are being used and evaluated by major industrial facilities. In one such study, interactive videodisc training programs were compared to videotape and instructor-based training to determine the effectiveness of videodisc in terms of performance, training time and trainee attitudes. Results showed that when initial training was done using the interactive videodisc system, trainee performance was superior to the performance of trainees using videotape, and approximately equal to the performance of those trained by an instructor. When each method was used in follow-up training, interactive videodisc was definitely the most effective. Results also indicate that training time can be reduced using interactive videodisc. Attitudes of both trainees and instructors toward the interactive videodisc training were positive

  12. Lay Bystanders' Perspectives on What Facilitates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Real Cardiac Arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders...... obligation to act. CONCLUSIONS: Several factors other than previous hands-on CPR training facilitate lay bystander instigation of CPR and AED use. The recognition and modification of these factors may increase lay bystander CPR rates and patient survival following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest....

  13. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... In this thesis, I investigate efficient training methods for conditional random fields with complex graphical structure, focusing on local methods which avoid propagating information globally along the graph...

  14. NRC methods for evaluation of industry training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Koontz, J.L.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    On March 20, 1985, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission published the Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The Policy Statement endorsed the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program because it encompasses the five elements of performance-based training. This paper described the multiple methods that the NRC is using to monitor industry efforts to improve training and implement the NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification. The results of the evaluation of industry training improvement programs will be reviewed by the Commissioners in April 1987 to determine the nature of continuing NRC policy and programs for ensuring effective training for the US nuclear industry

  15. Safety training for working youth: Methods used versus methods wanted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2016-04-07

    Safety training is promoted as a tool to prevent workplace injury; however, little is known about the safety training experiences young workers get on-the-job. Furthermore, nothing is known about what methods they think would be the most helpful for learning about safe work practices. To compare safety training methods teens get on the job to those safety training methods teens think would be the best for learning workplace safety, focusing on age differences. A cross-sectional survey was administered to students in two large high schools in spring 2011. Seventy percent of working youth received safety training. The top training methods that youth reported getting at work were safety videos (42%), safety lectures (25%), and safety posters/signs (22%). In comparison to the safety training methods used, the top methods youth wanted included videos (54%), hands-on (47%), and on-the-job demonstrations (34%). This study demonstrated that there were differences in training methods that youth wanted by age; with older youth seemingly wanting more independent methods of training and younger teens wanting more involvement. Results indicate that youth want methods of safety training that are different from what they are getting on the job. The differences in methods wanted by age may aid in developing training programs appropriate for the developmental level of working youth.

  16. Change in inflammatory parameters in prefrail and frail persons obtaining physical training and nutritional support provided by lay volunteers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Haider

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effects of home visits with physical training and nutritional support on inflammatory parameters to home visits with social support alone within a randomized controlled trial. Prefrail and frail persons received home visits from lay volunteers twice a week for 12 weeks. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 35 conducted two sets of six strength exercises and received nutritional support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 23 received visits only. TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and total leukocyte count were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes over time within groups were analyzed with paired t-tests; differences between groups were analyzed with ANCOVA for repeated measurements. In the PTN group, IL-6 and CRP remained stable, whereas in the SoSu group, IL-6 increased significantly from a median value of 2.6 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-10.2 to 3.0 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-20.8, and CRP rose from 0.2 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-0.9 to 0.3 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-3.0 after 12 weeks. In CRP, a significant difference between groups was found. TNF-α and total leukocyte count did not change in either the PTN group or the SoSu group. Persons showing an increase in physical performance (OR 4.54; 95% CI = 1.33-15.45 were more likely to have constant or decreased IL-6 values than persons who showed no improvement. In conclusion, in non-robust older adults, a physical training and nutritional support program provided by lay volunteers can delay a further increase in some inflammatory parameters.

  17. Change in inflammatory parameters in prefrail and frail persons obtaining physical training and nutritional support provided by lay volunteers: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Sandra; Grabovac, Igor; Winzer, Eva; Kapan, Ali; Schindler, Karin Emmi; Lackinger, Christian; Titze, Sylvia; Dorner, Thomas Ernst

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of home visits with physical training and nutritional support on inflammatory parameters to home visits with social support alone within a randomized controlled trial. Prefrail and frail persons received home visits from lay volunteers twice a week for 12 weeks. Participants in the physical training and nutritional intervention group (PTN, n = 35) conducted two sets of six strength exercises and received nutritional support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 23) received visits only. TNF-α, IL-6, CRP, and total leukocyte count were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Changes over time within groups were analyzed with paired t-tests; differences between groups were analyzed with ANCOVA for repeated measurements. In the PTN group, IL-6 and CRP remained stable, whereas in the SoSu group, IL-6 increased significantly from a median value of 2.6 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-10.2) to 3.0 pg/l (min-max = 2.0-20.8), and CRP rose from 0.2 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-0.9) to 0.3 mg/dl (min-max = 0.1-3.0) after 12 weeks. In CRP, a significant difference between groups was found. TNF-α and total leukocyte count did not change in either the PTN group or the SoSu group. Persons showing an increase in physical performance (OR 4.54; 95% CI = 1.33-15.45) were more likely to have constant or decreased IL-6 values than persons who showed no improvement. In conclusion, in non-robust older adults, a physical training and nutritional support program provided by lay volunteers can delay a further increase in some inflammatory parameters.

  18. Methods for evaluation of industry training programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morisseau, D.S.; Roe, M.L.; Persensky, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    The NRC Policy Statement on Training and Qualification endorses the INPO-managed Training Accreditation Program in that it encompasses the elements of effective performance-based training. Those elements are: analysis of the job, performance-based learning objectives, training design and implementation, trainee evaluation, and program evaluation. As part of the NRC independent evaluation of utilities implementation of training improvement programs, the staff developed training review criteria and procedures that address all five elements of effective performance-based training. The staff uses these criteria to perform reviews of utility training programs that have already received accreditation. Although no performance-based training program can be said to be complete unless all five elements are in place, the last two, trainee and program evaluation, are perhaps the most important because they determine how well the first three elements have been implemented and ensure the dynamic nature of training. This paper discusses the evaluation elements of the NRC training review criteria. The discussion will detail the elements of evaluation methods and techniques that the staff expects to find as integral parts of performance-based training programs at accredited utilities. Further, the review of the effectiveness of implementation of the evaluation methods is discussed. The paper also addresses some of the qualitative differences between what is minimally acceptable and what is most desirable with respect to trainee and program evaluation mechanisms and their implementation

  19. Control methods for Dermanyssus gallinae in systems for laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mul, M.; Fiks-van Niekerk, T.; Chirico, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a seminar on poultry red mite (PRM), Dermanyssus gallinae. Eighteen researchers from eight European countries discussed life cycle issues of the mite, effects of mites on hens and egg production, and monitoring and control methods for PRM in poultry facilities....... It was determined that PRM probably causes more damage than envisaged, with the cost in The Netherlands alone reaching 11 million euro per annum. However a great deal is still unknown about PRM (e.g. reproduction, survival methods, etc.) and that PRM monitoring is an important instrument in recognising...

  20. Finding out who is nesting where: a method for locating nest sites of hole-nesting species prior to egg laying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grieco, F.

    2000-01-01

    A method to find out which species is more likely to start egg laying in a certain nestbox is described. Nestboxes were visited daily and the behaviour of the birds (Great, Blue and Coal Tits) that appeared around the nestbox was observed. The birds' response consisted mainly of giving alarm calls

  1. Laying the Groundwork for NCLEX Success: An Exploration of Adaptive Quizzing as an Examination Preparation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A; Phelan, Julia C

    2015-05-01

    First-time NCLEX-RN pass rates are an important indicator of nursing school success and quality. Nursing schools use different methods to anticipate NCLEX outcomes and help prevent student failure and possible threat to accreditation. This study evaluated the impact of a shift in NCLEX preparation policy at a BSN program in the southeast United States. The policy shifted from the use of predictor score thresholds to determine graduation eligibility to a more proactive remediation strategy involving adaptive quizzing. A descriptive correlational design evaluated the impact of an adaptive quizzing system designed to give students ongoing active practice and feedback and explored the relationship between predictor examinations and NCLEX success. Data from student usage of the system as well as scores on predictor tests were collected for three student cohorts. Results revealed a positive correlation between adaptive quizzing system usage and content mastery. Two of the 69 students in the sample did not pass the NCLEX. With so few students failing the NCLEX, predictability of any course variables could not be determined. The power of predictor examinations to predict NCLEX failure could also not be supported. The most consistent factor among students, however, was their content mastery level within the adaptive quizzing system. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  2. Method Accelerates Training Of Some Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    Three-layer networks trained faster provided two conditions are satisfied: numbers of neurons in layers are such that majority of work done in synaptic connections between input and hidden layers, and number of neurons in input layer at least as great as number of training pairs of input and output vectors. Based on modified version of back-propagation method.

  3. Evaluations of Three Methods for Remote Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolford, B.; Chmielewski, C.; Pandya, A.; Adolf, J.; Whitmore, M.; Berman, A.; Maida, J.

    1999-01-01

    Long duration space missions require a change in training methods and technologies. For Shuttle missions, crew members could train for all the planned procedures, and carry documentation of planned procedures for a variety of contingencies. As International Space Station (ISS) missions of three months or longer are carried out, many more tasks will need to be performed for which little or no training was received prior to launch. Eventually, exploration missions will last several years, and communications with Earth will have long time delays or be impossible at times. This series of three studies was performed to identify the advantages and disadvantages of three types of training for self-instruction: video-conferencing; multimedia; and virtual reality. These studies each compared two types of training methods, on two different types of tasks. In two of the studies, the subject's were in an isolated, confined environment analogous to space flight; the third study was performed in a laboratory.

  4. Lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway. A mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Markova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Refugees are at high risk for mental health problems due to trauma in their pasts and to acculturation stress as they settle in a new country. To develop efficient health services to meet the needs of refugees from various regions, an understanding of how they make sense of and prefer to cope with mental health problems is warranted. This study aims to investigate lay explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies among Somali refugees in Norway.Methods. The study used a mixed-method design with a vignette describing a moderately depressed person based on ICD-10 criteria. Firstly, a survey study was performed among Somali refugees (n = 101. Respondents were asked to provide advice to the vignette character, completing the Cross-Cultural Depression Coping Inventory and the General Help-Seeking Questionnaire. Secondly, focus group interviews (n = 10 were done separately with males and females to examine the relationship between the explanatory models of depression and preferred coping strategies.Results. The participants showed a strong preference for coping with depression by religious practices and reliance on family, friends, and their ethnic/religious community rather than seeking professional treatment from public health services (e.g., medical doctors, psychologists. Depressive symptoms were conceptualized as a problem related to cognition (thinking too much and emotion (sadness, but not with biological mechanisms, and were thought to result from spiritual possessions, stress from social isolation, and/or past trauma. Independent of time in exile, the participants showed a strong identification with their ethnic origin and associated values. As participants emphasized the need to obey and follow the viewpoint of elders, fathers, and spiritual leaders, these authorities seemed to be gatekeepers for access to mental health services. Conclusion. The results highlight that mental health programs for Somali refugees

  5. Evaluation of a well-established task-shifting initiative: the lay counselor cadre in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledikwe, Jenny H; Kejelepula, Mable; Maupo, Kabelo; Sebetso, Siwulani; Thekiso, Mothwana; Smith, Monica; Mbayi, Bagele; Houghton, Nankie; Thankane, Kabo; O'Malley, Gabrielle; Semo, Bazghina-Werq

    2013-01-01

    Evidence supports the implementation of task shifting to address health worker shortages that are common in resource-limited settings. However, there is need to learn from established programs to identify ways to achieve the strongest, most sustainable impact. This study examined the Botswana lay counselor cadre, a task shifting initiative, to explore effectiveness and contribution to the health workforce. This evaluation used multiple methods, including a desk review, a national lay counselor survey (n = 385; response = 94%), in-depth interviews (n = 79), lay counselors focus group discussions (n = 7), lay counselors observations (n = 25), and client exit interviews (n = 47). Interview and focus group data indicate that lay counselors contribute to essentially all HIV-related programs in Botswana and they conduct the majority of HIV tests and related counseling at public health facilities throughout the country. Interviews showed that the lay counselor cadre is making the workload of more skilled health workers more manageable and increasing HIV acceptance in communities. The average score on a work-related knowledge test was 74.5%. However for 3 questions, less than half answered correctly. During observations, lay counselors demonstrated average competence for most skills assessed and clients (97.9%) were satisfied with services received. From the survey, lay counselors generally reported being comfortable with their duties; however, some reported clinical duties that extended beyond their training and mandate. Multiple factors affecting the performance of the lay counselors were identified, including insufficient resources, such as private counseling space and HIV test kits; and technical, administrative, and supervisory support. Lay counselors are fulfilling an important role in Botswana's healthcare system, serving as the entry point into HIV care, support, and treatment services. For this and other similar task shifting initiatives

  6. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing counsellors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maretha; Mabota, Princess

    2015-01-01

    The HIV testing, treatment and care programme of the South African public healthcare system depends on HIV counselling and testing (HCT) that is primarily delivered by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this influences the quality of services they provide. A mixed methods approach was used. The emotional wellbeing, level of burnout, depression and coping style of 50 lay HCT counsellors working at the City of Tshwane clinics were assessed. Additionally, five focus group discussions were conducted. The results showed that HCT counsellors reported average emotional wellbeing, high levels of emotional exhaustion and depression. They had a sense of personal accomplishment and positive coping skills. The results revealed that they may have difficulty dealing with clients' emotional distress without adequate training and supervision. This creates a dilemma for service delivery. In the light of the important role they play in service delivery, the role of the lay HCT counsellor needs to be reconsidered. HCT should develop as a profession with specific training and supervision to develop their emotional competencies to conduct effective counselling sessions.

  7. Scenistic Methods for Training: Applications and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to complement an earlier article (2010) in "Journal of European Industrial Training" in which the description and theory bases of scenistic methods were presented. This paper also offers a description of scenistic methods and information on theory bases. However, the main thrust of this paper is to describe, give suggested…

  8. Concrete laying laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastlova, K.

    1986-01-01

    The task of the concrete laying laboratory established within a special department for quality control and assurance at the Dukovany nuclear power plant, is to check the composition of concrete mixes produced by the central concrete production plant on the site, and the shipment, laying and processing of concrete. The composition is given of special barite and serpentinite concretes designed for biological shields. The system of checks and of filing the results is briefly described. Esperience is summed up from the operation of the concrete laying laboratory, and conclusions are formulated which should be observed on similar large construction sites. They include the precise definition of the designer's requirements for the quality of concrete, the surface finish of concrete surfaces, the method of concreting specific structures around bushings, increased density reinforcements and various technological elements, and requirements for shipment to poorly accessible or remote places. As for the equipment of the laboratory, it should be completed with an instrument for the analysis of fresh concrete mixes, a large capacity drying kiln, etc. (Z.M.)

  9. Barriers and Facilitators to Adoption of a Lay-Delivered Community-Based Strength Training Program for Women in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Lisa T.; Cornell, Carol E.; Traywick, LaVona; Felix, Holly C.; Phillips, Martha E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited access to fitness programs for rural older adults make lay or volunteer delivery approaches potentially desirable to extend reach. However, factors affecting adoption of such approaches are not well explored. Purpose: This study sought to identify barriers and facilitators affecting adoption of a volunteer lay delivery approach…

  10. The effectiveness of ultrabrief and brief educational videos for training lay responders in hands-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation: implications for the future of citizen cardiopulmonary resuscitation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Bentley J; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Spaite, Daniel W; Potts, Jerald; Denninghoff, Kurt; Chikani, Vatsal; Brazil, Paula R; Ramsey, Bob; Abella, Benjamin S

    2011-03-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) improves survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) but often is not performed. We hypothesized that subjects viewing very short Hands-Only CPR videos will (1) be more likely to attempt CPR in a simulated OHCA scenario and (2) demonstrate better CPR skills than untrained individuals. This study is a prospective trial of 336 adults without recent CPR training randomized into 4 groups: (1) control (no training) (n=51); (2) 60-second video training (n=95); (3) 5-minute video training (n=99); and (4) 8-minute video training, including manikin practice (n=91). All subjects were tested for their ability to perform CPR during an adult OHCA scenario using a CPR-sensing manikin and Laerdal PC SkillReporting software. One half of the trained subjects were randomly assigned to testing immediately and the other half after a 2-month delay. Twelve (23.5%) controls did not even attempt CPR, which was true of only 2 subjects (0.7%; P=0.01) from any of the experimental groups. All experimental groups had significantly higher average compression rates (closer to the recommended 100/min) than the control group (P38 mm) than the control group (PCPR videos are more likely to attempt CPR and show superior CPR skills than untrained laypersons. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01191736.

  11. Methods for training radiochemical technicians at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.R.; Nicol, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    The training of personnel to carry out radiochemical operations at ORNL is a formidable and recurrent task since repetitive, production-type operations are not involved, and programs are constantly shifting. It is essential that provisions be made for the routine retraining of personnel if they are to make effective contributions on a continuing basis. The present training methods have emerged as a result of thirty years experience in a variety of radiochemical pilot-plant programs. These programs have included operations performed in glove boxes, hot-cell manipulator work handling high-neutron-emitting isotopes, and the entire spectrum of remote solvent extraction operations. Present methods of training and the results obtained are summarized

  12. Methods for training radiochemical technicians at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, J.R.; Nicol, R.G.

    The training of personnel to carry out radiochemical operations at ORNL is a formidable and recurrent task since programs are constantly shifting. It is essential that provisions be made for the routine retraining of these personnel if they are to make effective contributions on a continuing basis. Training methods are described that have emerged as a result of thirty years experience in a variety of radiochemical pilot-plant programs. Emphasis is placed on training programs for technicians for the 233 U Processing Facility since essentially all aspects of radiochemical operations are encountered in this facility. These programs have included operations performed in glove boxes, hot-cell manipulator work handling high-neutron-emitting isotopes, and the entire spectrum of remote solvent extraction operations. (U.S.)

  13. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by trained responders versus lay persons and outcomes of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A community observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Mi; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Yu Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Ro, Young Sun; Ahn, Ki Ok

    2017-09-01

    The study aims to compare bystander processes of care (cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation) and outcomes for witnessed presumed cardiac etiology in OHCA patients in whom initial resuscitation was provided by dedicated trained responder (TR) versus lay person (LP) bystanders. Data on witnessed and presumed cardiac OHCA in adults (15 years or older) from 2011 to 2015 in a metropolitan city with 10 million persons were collected, excluding cases in which the information on TRs, bystander CPR, defibrillation, and clinical outcomes was unknown. Exposure variables were TRs who were legally designated with CPR education and response and LPs who were bystanders who witnessed the OHCA by chance. The primary/secondary/tertiary outcomes were a good cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1 or 2, survival to discharge, and bystander defibrillation. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 20,984 OHCA events, 6475 cases were ultimately analyzed. The TR group constituted 6.4% of the cases, and the patients showed significantly better survival and a good CPC. From the multivariable logistic regression analysis of the outcomes, by comparing the TR group with the LP group, the AOR (95% CIs) was 1.49 (1.04-2.15) for a good CPC, 1.59 (1.20-2.11) for survival to discharge, and 10.02 (7.04-14.26) for bystander defibrillation. The TR group witnessed a relatively low proportion of OHCA but was associated with better survival outcomes and good neurological recovery through higher CPR rates and defibrillation of adults older than 15 years with witnessed OHCA in a metropolitan city. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Machine Vision Method for the Monitoring of Laying Hens and Detection of Multiple Nest Occupations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Free range systems can improve the welfare of laying hens. However, the access to environmental resources can be partially limited by social interactions, feeding of hens, and productivity, can be not stable and damaging behaviors, or negative events, can be observed more frequently than in conventional housing systems. In order to reach a real improvement of the hens’ welfare the study of their laying performances and behaviors is necessary. With this purpose, many systems have been developed. However, most of them do not detect a multiple occupation of the nest negatively affecting the accuracy of data collected. To overcome this issue, a new “nest-usage-sensor” was developed and tested. It was based on the evaluation of thermografic images, as acquired by a thermo-camera, and the performing of patter recognitions on images acquired from the nest interior. The sensor was setup with a “Multiple Nest Occupation Threshold” of 796 colored pixels and a template of triangular shape and sizes of 43 × 33 pixels (high per base. It was tested through an experimental nesting system where 10 hens were reared for a month. Results showed that the evaluation of thermografic images could increase the detection performance of a multiple occupation of the nest and to apply an image pattern recognition technique could allow for counting the number of hens in the nest in case of a multiple occupation. As a consequence, the accuracy of data collected in studies on laying performances and behaviors of hens, reared in a free-range housing system, could result to be improved.

  15. Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petek, Metin; Gezen, S Sule; Alpay, Fazli; Cibik, Recep

    2008-08-01

    Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii) commercial layer ration (non-molted control group). Eggs obtained from groups in pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle periods were examined for several quality performance traits such as egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, eggshell weight, haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index and yolk color. Results indicated that non-feed removal molting programme based particularly on grain barley had positive effect on egg quality traits in laying hens. Notably, yolk color and haugh unit, which are considered as the most important quality parameters from the consumer point of view, were relatively improved in barley molted group.

  16. The effects of particle size, milling method, and thermal treatment of feed on performance, apparent ileal digestibility, and pH of the digesta in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnke, Isabelle; Röhe, Ilen; Krämer, Carolin; Goodarzi Boroojeni, Farshad; Knorr, Fanny; Mader, Anneluise; Schulze, Erin; Hafeez, Abdul; Neumann, Konrad; Löwe, Rainer; Zentek, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Various milling methods result in different particle size distributions and, in combination with mash and thermal treatment (expandate) of the feed, may have an impact on nutrient digestibility, pH of the digesta and subsequently the performance of an animal. Since this aspect has not been widely considered in laying hens, the objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of milling method, expansion, and particle size of feed on performance, apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, and pH of digesta in laying hens. Twelve variants of the same diet were produced. Four different milling techniques (hammer mill, roller mill, disc mill, and wedge-shaped disc mill) were used to grind the feed cereals. Coarse feed was obtained from all four mills. Additionally, fine feed was obtained from the hammer mill and the roller mill. Each of the six feed variants was offered as mash or expandate, resulting in a total of 12 treatments. The duration of the experimental period was 21 days. A total of 576 layers, each 19 weeks of age, were used in eight replicates. The statistical analysis for the four milling methods and two thermal treatments was performed using a 4×2 factorial arrangement. The effect of particle size was investigated using a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement including the coarse and fine particle sizes that were produced with the hammer mill and the roller mill as well as the mash and expandate. The animal performance and the pH of the digesta were not affected by the treatments. Ileal digestibility of starch was significantly improved by feeding mash compared to expandate (P=0.013) and by feeding coarse compared to fine feed (P=0.028). Based on this study, the tested milling methods can be used for the production of feed for laying hens without affecting performance and digestibility of nutrients. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  17. To improve training methods in an engine room simulator-based training

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Chingshin

    2016-01-01

    The simulator based training are used widely in both industry and school education to reduce the accidents nowadays. This study aims to suggest the improved training methods to increase the effectiveness of engine room simulator training. The effectiveness of training in engine room will be performance indicators and the self-evaluation by participants. In the first phase of observation, the aim is to find out the possible shortcomings of current training methods based on train...

  18. Development and evaluation of a training workshop for lay health promoters to implement a community-based intervention program in a public low rent housing estate: The Learning Families Project in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Agnes Y; Stewart, Sunita M; Wan, Alice; Fok, Helen; Lai, Hebe Y W; Lam, Tai-Hing; Chan, Sophia S

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development and evaluation of the train-the-trainer (TTT) workshop for lay resident leaders to be lay health promoters. The TTT workshop aimed to prepare the trainees to implement and/or assist in conducting a series of community-based family well-being activities for the residents in a public low rent housing estate, entitled "Learning Families Project", under the FAMILY project. The four-hour TTT workshop was conducted for 32 trainees (72% women, 43% aged ≥ 60, 41% ≤ elementary school education). The workshop aimed to promote trainees' knowledge, self-efficacy, attitude and practice of incorporating the positive psychology themes into their community activities and engaging the residents to join these activities and learn with their family members. Post-training support was provided. The effectiveness of the TTT was examined by self-administered questionnaires about trainees' reactions to training content, changes in learning and practice at three time points (baseline, and immediately and one year after training), and the difference in residents' survey results before and after participating in the community activities delivered by the trainees. The trainees' learning about the general concepts of family well-being, learning family, leadership skills and planning skills increased significantly with medium to large effect sizes (Cohen's d: 0.5-1.4) immediately after the training. The effects of perceived knowledge and attitude towards practice were sustained to one year (Cohen's d: 0.4-0.6). The application of planning skills to implement community activities was higher at one year (Cohen's d: 0.4), compared with baseline. At one year, the residents' survey results showed significant increases in the practice of positive communication behaviours and better neighbour cohesions after joining the family well-being activities of LFP. Qualitative feedback supported the quantitative results. Our TTT workshop could serve as a practical

  19. Effects of grinding method, particle size, and physical form of the diet on gastrointestinal morphology and jejunal glucose transport in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhe, I; Ruhnke, I; Knorr, F; Mader, A; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Löwe, R; Zentek, J

    2014-08-01

    Several studies illustrated that the structure of feed, i.e., the particle size, particle-size distribution, and the physical form of the diet, affects the avian gastrointestinal function and health leading to changes in productive performance. However, investigations concerning the effects of feeding differently processed diets on laying hens are limited and primarily concentrated on bird performance. The current study examines the effect of feed processing on the gastrointestinal morphology and on the jejunal glucose transport of laying hens. In 8 replicates, a total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 20 wk were randomly allocated to 8 different groups and fed over a period of 21 d in a 3-factorial design. Diets differed in 1) grinding method, either hammer or roller mill; 2) physical form, either mash or expandate; and 3) particle size, either coarsely or finely ground. During the experimental trial, the laying performance of each feeding group was recorded daily and the feed intake and BW determined weekly. After slaughtering, the weights of the pancreas, proventriculus, gizzard, and small intestine were measured. Villus lengths and crypt depths of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were determined. The jejunal electrogenic glucose transport was studied in Ussing chambers. Hens that received mash instead of expandate had higher proventriculus (P = 0.011), gizzard (P feeding of coarsely instead of finely ground diets led to higher gizzard weights (P hens showed longer duodenal (P hens had higher glucose transport rates than expandate-fed hens (P feeding of coarsely ground as well as mash diets had stimulating effects on the development of the gastrointestinal organs. Moreover, the feeding of mash influenced the intestinal microstructure of the epithelium that was accompanied by higher glucose transport capacities. © Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Lay Theories of Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, Simone; Rietzschel, Eric; Zedelius, Claire; Müller, Barbara; Schooler, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Creativity is of great appeal and importance to people, and they strive to understand creativity by developing lay theories. Such lay theories about creativity concern, for example, the characteristics of creative persons, such as the ‘mad genius’ idea, or environmental factors that contribute to

  1. Robustness in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Star, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the project ‘The genetics of robustness in laying hens’ was to investigate nature and regulation of robustness in laying hens under sub-optimal conditions and the possibility to increase robustness by using animal breeding without loss of production. At the start of the project, a robust

  2. The Functions and Methods of Mental Training on Competitive Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jianshe

    Mental training is the major training method of the competitive sports and the main factor of athletes skill and tactics level.By combining the psychological factor with the current competitive sports characteristics, this paper presents the function of mental training forward athletes, and how to improve the comprehensive psychological quality by using mental training.

  3. The impact of a knowledge translation intervention employing educational outreach and a point-of-care reminder tool vs standard lay health worker training on tuberculosis treatment completion rates: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M; van Lettow, Monique; Makwakwa, Austine; Chan, Adrienne K; Hamid, Jemila S; Kawonga, Harry; Martiniuk, Alexandra L C; Schull, Michael J; van Schoor, Vanessa; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Barnsley, Jan; Straus, Sharon E

    2016-09-07

    Despite availability of effective treatment, tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality globally, with low- and middle-income countries most affected. In many such settings, including Malawi, the high burden of disease and severe shortage of skilled healthcare workers has led to task-shifting of outpatient TB care to lay health workers (LHWs). LHWs improve access to healthcare and some outcomes, including TB completion rates, but lack of training and supervision limit their impact. The goals of this study are to improve TB care provided by LHWs in Malawi by refining, implementing, and evaluating a knowledge translation strategy designed to address a recognized gap in LHWs' TB and job-specific knowledge and, through this, to improve patient outcomes. We are employing a mixed-methods design that includes a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation using qualitative methods. Trial participants will include all health centers providing TB care in four districts in the South East Zone of Malawi. The intervention employs educational outreach, a point-of-care reminder tool, and a peer support network. The primary outcome is proportion of treatment successes, defined as the total of TB patients cured or completing treatment, with outcomes taken from Ministry of Health treatment records. With an alpha of 0.05, power of 0.80, a baseline treatment success of 0.80, intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.1 based on our pilot study, and an estimated 100 clusters (health centers providing TB care), a minimum of 6 patients per cluster is required to detect a clinically significant 0.10 increase in the proportion of treatment successes. Our process evaluation will include interviews with LHWs and patients, and a document analysis of LHW training logs, quarterly peer trainer meetings, and mentorship meeting notes. An estimated 10-15 LHWs and 10-15 patients will be required to reach saturation in each of 2 planned interview

  4. SPEED POWER AFTER DIFFERENT TRAINING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Gužvica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As the strength is a very important capability, with which are more or less, related and all other motor skills relevant to the successful conduct of sports fight in karate, we were interested in what extent the ability of the speed of force development changes under the influence of different types of loads. For this purpose we used two different methods: the development of speed power with weights and plyometric method. Research is organized on a sample of 20 subjects (first year students of the College of Internal Affairs in Banja Luka, divided into two groups, of which only 12 students responded to the demands of research. The program was implemented during the period of six weeks for two hours per week. Before beginning and three days after the training process, we also tested levels of speed power using eight specific motor tests. After completion of the initial and final measurements, data were analyzed by appropriate statistical procedures, where all respondents, across the various tests, achieved better results. However, statistically significant differences were not obtained in both groups. Specifically, statistically significant differences were obtained in the group T across the various tests, while in group P, statistically significant differences were not obtained in three tests conducted. Given results allowed us that, with caution, we conclude that the method of working with weights, in a limited period of time, when it comes to beginners, is still more efficient than the plyometric method of work. Therefore recommendation for increasing the speed power, in a limited period of time, is to use a method of working with weights.

  5. The Net Energy Values of Corn, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Wheat Bran for Laying Hens Using Indirect Calorimetry Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ning

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate the NE values of corn, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS and wheat bran (WB for laying hens based on an indirect calorimetry method and nitrogen balance measurements. A total of 576 twenty-eight-wk-old Dwarf Pink-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to four groups fed a basal diet (BD or a combination of BD with 50% corn or 20% DDGS or 20% WB, with four replicates each. After a 7-d adaptation period, each replicate with 36 hens were kept in one of the two respiration chambers to measure the heat production (HP for 6 days during the feeding period and subsequent 3-d fasting. The equilibrium fasting HP (FHP provided an estimate of NE requirements for maintenance (NEm. The NE values of test feedstuffs was estimated using the difference method. Results showed that the heat increment that contributed 35.34 to 37.85% of ME intake was not influenced by experimental diets (p>0.05 when expressed as Mcal/kg of DM feed intake. Lighting increased the HP in hens in an fed-state. The FHP decreased over time (p0.05. The estimated AME, AMEn, and NE values were 3.46, 3.44 and 2.25 Mcal/kg DM for corn, 3.11, 2.79, and 1.80 Mcal/kg DM for DDGS, 2.14, 2.10, and 1.14 Mcal/kg DM for WB, respectively. The net availability of AME of corn tended to be numerically higher than DDGS and WB (p = 0.096. In conclusion, compared with corn, the energy values of DDGS and WB were overestimated when expressed on an AME basis.

  6. Task-shifting HIV counselling and testing services in Zambia: the role of lay counsellors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapanda Paul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human resource shortage in Zambia is placing a heavy burden on the few health care workers available at health facilities. The Zambia Prevention, Care and Treatment Partnership began training and placing community volunteers as lay counsellors in order to complement the efforts of the health care workers in providing HIV counselling and testing services. These volunteers are trained using the standard national counselling and testing curriculum. This study was conducted to review the effectiveness of lay counsellors in addressing staff shortages and the provision of HIV counselling and testing services. Methods Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by means of semistructured interviews from all active lay counsellors in each of the facilities and a facility manager or counselling supervisor overseeing counseling and testing services and clients. At each of the 10 selected facilities, all counselling and testing record books for the month of May 2007 were examined and any recordkeeping errors were tallied by cadre. Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions with health care workers at each facility. Results Lay counsellors provide counselling and testing services of quality and relieve the workload of overstretched health care workers. Facility managers recognize and appreciate the services provided by lay counsellors. Lay counsellors provide up to 70% of counselling and testing services at health facilities. The data review revealed lower error rates for lay counsellors, compared to health care workers, in completing the counselling and testing registers. Conclusion Community volunteers, with approved training and ongoing supervision, can play a major role at health facilities to provide counselling and testing services of quality, and relieve the burden on already overstretched health care workers.

  7. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Charles A

    2008-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, parameter estimation in CRFs requires repeated inference. Complex graphical structures are increasingly desired in practical applications, but training time often becomes prohibitive...

  8. Vision training methods for sports concussion mitigation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph F; Colosimo, Angelo; Ellis, James K; Mangine, Robert; Bixenmann, Benjamin; Hasselfeld, Kimberly; Graman, Patricia; Elgendy, Hagar; Myer, Gregory; Divine, Jon

    2015-05-05

    There is emerging evidence supporting the use vision training, including light board training tools, as a concussion baseline and neuro-diagnostic tool and potentially as a supportive component to concussion prevention strategies. This paper is focused on providing detailed methods for select vision training tools and reporting normative data for comparison when vision training is a part of a sports management program. The overall program includes standard vision training methods including tachistoscope, Brock's string, and strobe glasses, as well as specialized light board training algorithms. Stereopsis is measured as a means to monitor vision training affects. In addition, quantitative results for vision training methods as well as baseline and post-testing *A and Reaction Test measures with progressive scores are reported. Collegiate athletes consistently improve after six weeks of training in their stereopsis, *A and Reaction Test scores. When vision training is initiated as a team wide exercise, the incidence of concussion decreases in players who participate in training compared to players who do not receive the vision training. Vision training produces functional and performance changes that, when monitored, can be used to assess the success of the vision training and can be initiated as part of a sports medical intervention for concussion prevention.

  9. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    OpenAIRE

    THANOS KRIEMADIS; ANNA KOURTESOPOULOU

    2008-01-01

    In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD). For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development ...

  10. Validation of multivariate classification methods using analytical fingerprints – concept and case study on organic feed for laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alewijn, Martin; Voet, van der Hilko; Ruth, van Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Multivariate classification methods based on analytical fingerprints have found many applications in the food and feed area, but practical applications are still scarce due to a lack of a generally accepted validation procedure. This paper proposes a new approach for validation of this type of

  11. Nurse led versus lay educators support for those with asthma in primary care: a costing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Regular review and support for asthma self-management is promoted in guidelines. A randomised controlled trial suggested that unscheduled health care usage was similar when patients were offered self management support by a lay-trainer or practice nurses. Methods Following the RCT, a costing study was undertaken using the trial data to account for the cost of delivery of the service under both strategies and the resulting impact on unscheduled healthcare (measure of effectiveness) in this trial. Results One year data (n = 418) showed that 29% (61/205) of the nurse group required unscheduled healthcare (177 events) compared with 30.5% (65/213) for lay-trainers (178 events). The training costs for the lay-trainers were greater than nurses (£36 versus £18 respectively per patient, play-trainers were lower than nurses (£6 per patient versus £24, play-trainers (mean difference £25, [95% CI = −£97, £149, p = 0.681]). The total costs (delivery and unscheduled healthcare) were £202 per patient for nurses versus £178 for lay-trainers, (mean difference £24, [95%CI = −£100, £147, p = 0.707]). Conclusions There were no significant differences in the cost of training and healthcare delivery between nurse and lay trainers, and no significant difference in the cost of unscheduled health care use. PMID:22958541

  12. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  13. Human resource training and development. The outdoor management method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THANOS KRIEMADIS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the age of international competition in today’s economy, companies must train their employees and prepare them for jobs in the future. There are many different types and educational approaches in human resource training, but the present study will focus on the Outdoor Management Development (OMD. For better understanding, the particular training method and the core stages of the training process will be examined and the definitions of OMD as an educational tool for management development will be presented. Basic theories and models will be analysed as well as the benefits earned and evaluation concerns about the effectiveness of such training programs.

  14. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  15. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  16. Evaluating methods to improve safeguards training courses of ISCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yo; Kawata, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Although questionnaires were used to receive feedbacks from participants at the end of each training course, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) did not establish a structured evaluation method. To this end, ISCN has started to study on methods to accurately evaluate the courses since April and started to introduce the evaluation method on trial, according to the Donald Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, so as to better develop and conduct more effective courses. This paper will focus on how ISCN has modified the Kirkpatrick's Four-level to adapt to its safeguards training courses. This will then be followed by two particular cases of how the evaluation method functioned for the Additional Protocol training courses held in Malaysia in 2014, and the feedbacks received to improve future training courses. (author)

  17. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Lanao, Jonathan; Moreno-Pérez, Diego; Cardona, Claudia A; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Muñoz, Iker; Sellés, Sergio; Cejuela, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k) and the Ironman (IM) training in recreational trained athletes. Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO 2max max, or endurance training experience ( p > 0.05). They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k). Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs) training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: As expected, Competition Time was significantly different (IM 11 h 45 min ± 1 h 54 min vs. 42k 3 h 6 min ± 28 min, p < 0.001). Similarly, Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9), and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118) were significantly higher in IM ( p < 0.001). However, the Ratio between Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8) ( p < 0.001). Finally, all ratios between training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k ( p < 0.001) (Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5), (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0). Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  18. Is Marathon Training Harder than the Ironman Training? An ECO-method Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Esteve-Lanao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the absolute and relative training load of the Marathon (42k and the Ironman (IM training in recreational trained athletes.Methods: Fifteen Marathoners and Fifteen Triathletes participated in the study. Their performance level was the same relative to the sex's absolute winner at the race. No differences were presented neither in age, nor in body weight, height, BMI, running VO2max max, or endurance training experience (p > 0.05. They all trained systematically for their respective event (IM or 42k. Daily training load was recorded in a training log, and the last 16 weeks were compared. Before this, gas exchange and lactate metabolic tests were conducted in order to set individual training zones. The Objective Load Scale (ECOs training load quantification method was applied. Differences between IM and 42k athletes' outcomes were assessed using Student's test and significance level was set at p < 0.05.Results: As expected, Competition Time was significantly different (IM 11 h 45 min ± 1 h 54 min vs. 42k 3 h 6 min ± 28 min, p < 0.001. Similarly, Training Weekly Avg Time (IM 12.9 h ± 2.6 vs. 42k 5.2 ± 0.9, and Average Weekly ECOs (IM 834 ± 171 vs. 42k 526 ± 118 were significantly higher in IM (p < 0.001. However, the Ratio between Training Load and Training Time was superior for 42k runners when comparing ECOs (IM 65.8 ± 11.8 vs. 42k 99.3 ± 6.8 (p < 0.001. Finally, all ratios between training time or load vs. Competition Time were superior for 42k (p < 0.001 (Training Time/Race Time: IM 1.1 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 1.7 ± 0.5, (ECOs Training Load/Race Time: IM 1.2 ± 0.3 vs. 42k 2.9 ± 1.0.Conclusions: In spite of IM athletes' superior training time and total or weekly training load, when comparing the ratios between training load and training time, and training time or training load vs. competition time, the preparation of a 42k showed to be harder.

  19. Flipped clinical training: a structured training method for undergraduates in complete denture prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Anbarasi; K, Kasim Mohamed; Vijayaraghavan, Phagalvarthy; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam

    2016-12-01

    To design and implement flipped clinical training for undergraduate dental students in removable complete denture treatment and predict its effectiveness by comparing the assessment results of students trained by flipped and traditional methods. Flipped training was designed by shifting the learning from clinics to learning center (phase I) and by preserving the practice in clinics (phase II). In phase I, student-faculty interactive session was arranged to recap prior knowledge. This is followed by a display of audio synchronized video demonstration of the procedure in a repeatable way and subsequent display of possible errors that may occur in treatment with guidelines to overcome such errors. In phase II, live demonstration of the procedure was given. Students were asked to treat three patients under instructor's supervision. The summative assessment was conducted by applying the same checklist criterion and rubric scoring used for the traditional method. Assessment results of three batches of students trained by flipped method (study group) and three traditionally trained previous batches (control group) were taken for comparison by chi-square test. The sum of traditionally trained three batch students who prepared acceptable dentures (score: 2 and 3) and unacceptable dentures (score: 1) was compared with the same of flipped trained three batch students revealed that the number of students who demonstrated competency by preparing acceptable dentures was higher for flipped training (χ 2 =30.996 with p<0.001). The results reveal the supremacy of flipped training in enhancing students competency and hence recommended for training various clinical procedures.

  20. Evaluating the impact of healthcare provider training to improve tuberculosis management: a systematic review of methods and outcome indicators used.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Roychowdhury, Imara; Khan, Mishal

    2017-03-01

    Developing human resources capacity is vital for tuberculosis (TB) control in low- and middle-income countries. Although investments in TB healthcare provider (HCP) training programmes have increased, it is unclear whether these are robustly evaluated. The objective of this systematic review was to synthesize the methods and outcome indicators used to assess TB HCP training programmes. A systematic scoping review of publications reporting on evaluations of training programmes for TB HCPs - including doctors, nurses, paramedics, and lay health workers - was conducted through a search in three electronic databases, Google Scholar, and five websites of non-profit organizations. Data on the study location, population trained, outcomes assessed, and evaluation approach were extracted. After screening 499 unique publications, 21 were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. The majority of evaluations were conducted in Africa. The most common evaluation methods were a review of patient records (n=8, 38%) and post-training interview with trainees (n=7, 33%). In terms of outcomes, more than half of the studies (n=12, 57%) evaluated knowledge acquisition of trainees, with only six (29%) assessing on-the-job behaviour change. Even though more funds have been invested in TB HCP training, publications from robust evaluations assessing the impact on quality of care and behaviour change are limited. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…

  2. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  3. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 hours of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 hours of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use

  4. Laying the keel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, Brian

    1989-12-15

    The start of construction of the 87-kilometre US Superconducting Supercollider (SSC) was celebrated in Dallas at the beginning of October with a Texas-style meeting on SSC physics and experiments. Chris Quigg described it as 'laying the keel of a new vessel of discovery'. The vessel is scheduled to make its maiden voyage with 20 TeV (20,000 GeV) proton beams in 1998.

  5. Training Methods for Image Noise Level Estimation on Wavelet Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Stefano

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the standard deviation of noise contaminating an image is a fundamental step in wavelet-based noise reduction techniques. The method widely used is based on the mean absolute deviation (MAD. This model-based method assumes specific characteristics of the noise-contaminated image component. Three novel and alternative methods for estimating the noise standard deviation are proposed in this work and compared with the MAD method. Two of these methods rely on a preliminary training stage in order to extract parameters which are then used in the application stage. The sets used for training and testing, 13 and 5 images, respectively, are fully disjoint. The third method assumes specific statistical distributions for image and noise components. Results showed the prevalence of the training-based methods for the images and the range of noise levels considered.

  6. Efficient Training Methods for Conditional Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Learning (ICML), 2007. [63] Bruce G. Lindsay. Composite likelihood methods. Contemporary Mathematics, pages 221–239, 1988. 189 [64] Yan Liu, Jaime ...Conference on Machine Learning (ICML), pages 737–744, 2005. [107] Erik F. Tjong Kim Sang and Sabine Buchholz. Introduction to the CoNLL-2000 shared task

  7. Cross-Country Skiing Injuries and Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Kyle B

    2015-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a low injury-risk sport that has many health benefits and few long-term health risks. Some concern exists that cross-country skiing may be associated with a higher incidence of atrial fibrillation; however, mortality rates among skiers are lower than those among the general population. While continuing to emphasize aerobic and anaerobic training, training methods also should promote ski-specific strength training to increase maximum force and its rate of delivery and to build muscular endurance to maintain that power through a race. Multiple tests are available to monitor training progress. Which tests are most appropriate depends on the specific events targeted. In addition to laboratory-based tests, there also are many simpler, more cost-effective tests, such as short time trials, that can be used to monitor training progress and predict performance particularly at the junior skier level where access and cost may be more prohibitive.

  8. Optimization methods for the Train Unit Shunting Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Lusby, Richard Martin; Wagenaar, Joris Camiel

    2017-01-01

    We consider the Train Unit Shunting Problem, an important planning problem for passenger railway operators. This problem entails assigning train units from shunting yards to scheduled train services in such a way that the resulting operations are without conflicts. The problem arises at every...... shunting yard in the railway network and involves matching train units to arriving and departing train services as well as assigning the selected matchings to appropriate shunting yard tracks. We present an extensive comparison benchmark of multiple solution approaches for this problem, some of which...... are novel. In particular, we develop a constraint programming formulation, a column generation approach, and a randomized greedy heuristic. We compare and benchmark these approaches with two existing methods, a mixed integer linear program and a two-stage heuristic. The benchmark contains multiple real...

  9. New Learning Methods for Marine Oil Spill Response Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justiina Halonen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In Finland the Regional Fire and Rescue Services (RFRS are responsible for near shore oil spill response and shoreline cleanup operations. In addition, they assist in other types of maritime incidents, such as search and rescue operations and fire-fighting on board. These statutory assignments require the RFRS to have capability to act both on land and at sea. As maritime incidents occur infrequently, little routine has been established. In order to improve their performance in maritime operations, the RFRS are participating in a new oil spill training programme to be launched by South-Eastern Finland University of Applied Sciences. This training programme aims to utilize new educational methods; e-learning and simulator based training. In addition to fully exploiting the existing navigational bridge simulator, radio communication simulator and crisis management simulator, an entirely new simulator is developed. This simulator is designed to model the oil recovery process; recovery method, rate and volume in various conditions with different oil types. New simulator enables creation of a comprehensive training programme covering training tasks from a distress call to the completion of an oil spill response operation. Structure of the training programme, as well as the training objectives, are based on the findings from competence and education surveys conducted in spring 2016. In these results, a need for vessel maneuvering and navigation exercises together with actual response measures training were emphasized. Also additional training for maritime radio communication, GMDSS-emergency protocols and collaboration with maritime authorities were seemed important. This paper describes new approach to the maritime operations training designed for rescue authorities, a way of learning by doing, without mobilising the vessels at sea.

  10. Methods of Physical Recreation of Students Trained in Kickboxing Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. А. Пашкевич

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing sports massage in recreation of kickboxing students to improve their sports performance. Materials and methods. The research used: review and analysis of literature, pedagogical observations, physiological (relay test, strength endurance test, fatigue intensity assessment and statistical methods. The participants of the research were three groups (5 persons in each group. The first group of students (C1 received preliminary warming massage (20 min, the second group (C2 received recreational massage after the training (20 min, the third group (C3 had passive rest before and after the training (20 min. Before and after the massage session, assessment of the response rate and strength endurance took place three times during the training (at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end with regard to the level of the students’ fatigue intensity during the training. For the rough evaluation of the cause-effect relationship between the influencing factor and the effect appearance, the research used the relative risk indicator (RR. Research results. The sports massage reduced the athletes’ fatigue during the training (RR = 5.0, p < 0.05, i.e. the coach could increase the training load without any significant impact on the functional systems of the athletes. The preliminary massage had a more distinct positive effect on the students’ response rate and endurance indicators. The recreational massage improved only the students’ endurance processes during the training.

  11. The Temporal Effect of Training Utility Perceptions on Adopting a Trained Method: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madera, Juan M.; Steele, Stacey T.; Beier, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the temporal effect of perceived training utility on adoption of a trained method and how perceived organizational support influences the relationship between perceived training utility perceptions and adoption of a trained method. With the use of a correlational-survey-based design, this longitudinal study required…

  12. An accelerated training method for back propagation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Robert O. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The principal objective is to provide a training procedure for a feed forward, back propagation neural network which greatly accelerates the training process. A set of orthogonal singular vectors are determined from the input matrix such that the standard deviations of the projections of the input vectors along these singular vectors, as a set, are substantially maximized, thus providing an optimal means of presenting the input data. Novelty exists in the method of extracting from the set of input data, a set of features which can serve to represent the input data in a simplified manner, thus greatly reducing the time/expense to training the system.

  13. Exact Methods for Solving the Train Departure Matching Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Bull, Simon Henry

    In this paper we consider the train departure matching problem which is an important subproblem of the Rolling Stock Unit Management on Railway Sites problem introduced in the ROADEF/EURO Challenge 2014. The subproblem entails matching arriving train units to scheduled departing trains at a railway...... site while respecting multiple physical and operational constraints. In this paper we formally define that subproblem, prove its NP- hardness, and present two exact method approaches for solving the problem. First, we present a compact Mixed Integer Program formulation which we solve using a MIP solver...

  14. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The importance of training in formal methods in Software Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Polansky

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of formal methods provides systematic techniques and rigorous to software develop and, due the crescent complexity and quality requirements of current products, is necessary introduce them in curriculum of software engineer. In this article is analyzed the importance of train in formal methods and described specific techniques to achieved it efficiently. This techniques are the result of an experimental process in the class room of more than fifteen years in undergraduate and graduate programs, the same as company training. Also are presented a proposal a curriculum to systematic introduction of this paradigm and description of a program in training methods that has been success to industry. Results shows that students gain confidence in formal methods just when found out of the benefits of this in the context of software engineer.

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT PHYSICAL ACTIVITY TRAINING METHODS ON OVERWEIGHT ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohreh Ghatrehsamani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In view of the growing trend of obesity around the world, including in our country, and the effect of reduced physical activity in increasing the incidence of obesity and overweight in children and adolescents and limitations of families in providing transport for their children to attend exercise classes, as well as time limitations of students in taking part in these classes, accessing appropriate methods for presenting physical activity training seems essential.    METHODS: This non-pharmacological clinical trial was performed during six months from May to November 2007 on 105 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years with obesity, randomly assigned to 3 groups of thirty-five. Nutrition and treatment behavior were the same in all groups, but physical activity training in the first group was taking part in physical activity training classes twice a week, in the second group by providing a training CD, and in the third group via face-to-face training. Before and after the intervention, anthropometric indicators were measured and recorded.    RESULTS: Mean body mass index (BMI of participants in group attended physical activity training classes, and in the group undergone training with CD, after the interventions was significantly lower than that before the intervention.     CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that training using CDs can also be effective in reducing BMI in overweight and obese children and adolescents as much as face-to-face education and participation in physical training classes. Extending such interventions can be effective at the community level.      Keywords: Children, adolescents, physical activity, education, obesity, treatment.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1504 - May I use alternative training methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use alternative training methods? 250... Safety Training § 250.1504 May I use alternative training methods? You may use alternative training methods. These methods may include computer-based learning, films, or their equivalents. This training...

  18. Timing, methods and prospective in citizenship training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Carta

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The current models of development are changing the balance between human activity and Nature on a local ands global level and the urgent need to establish a new relationship between Man and the environment is increasingly apparent. The move towards a more caring approach to the planet introducing concepts such as limits, impact on future generations, regeneration of resources, social and environmental justice and the right to citizenship should make us consider (aside from international undertakings by governments exactly how we can promote a culture of sustainability in schools in terms of methods, time scales, and location. Schools are directly involved in these processes of change however it is necessary to plan carefully and establish situations that will result in greater attention being paid to the interaction between man and the environment, and highlighting the lifestyles and attitudes that are currently incompatible with a sustainable future. These solutions, although based on technical-scientific knowledge, cannot be brought about without the involvement of the individual and local agencies working together. However we have chosen to concentrate on the links between educational policies and local areas interpreting declarations made by international bodies such as UNESCO and suggestions aimed at bringing sustainability to the centre of specific policies. Bringing about these aims requires great educational effort that goes well beyond simple environmental education since it requires a permanent process for educating adults. Looking at stages of the history of the theories regarding the development and education of adults shows how the topic of sustainability made its entry into the debate about permanent education and how in the last ten years it has taken on an unrivalled importance as a point of reference for educational policies and pedagogical reflection. The origin of the concept of sustainability, although belonging to natural

  19. Training Methods to Improve Evidence-Based Medicine Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Ozyigit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence based medicine (EBM is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients. It is estimated that only 15% of medical interventions is evidence-based. Increasing demand, new technological developments, malpractice legislations, a very speed increase in knowledge and knowledge sources push the physicians forward for EBM, but at the same time increase load of physicians by giving them the responsibility to improve their skills. Clinical maneuvers are needed more, as the number of clinical trials and observational studies increase. However, many of the physicians, who are in front row of patient care do not use this increasing evidence. There are several examples related to different training methods in order to improve skills of physicians for evidence based practice. There are many training methods to improve EBM skills and these trainings might be given during medical school, during residency or as continuous trainings to the actual practitioners in the field. It is important to discuss these different training methods in our country as well and encourage dissemination of feasible and effective methods. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3.000: 245-254

  20. An Overview of Bayesian Methods for Neural Spike Train Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural spike train analysis is an important task in computational neuroscience which aims to understand neural mechanisms and gain insights into neural circuits. With the advancement of multielectrode recording and imaging technologies, it has become increasingly demanding to develop statistical tools for analyzing large neuronal ensemble spike activity. Here we present a tutorial overview of Bayesian methods and their representative applications in neural spike train analysis, at both single neuron and population levels. On the theoretical side, we focus on various approximate Bayesian inference techniques as applied to latent state and parameter estimation. On the application side, the topics include spike sorting, tuning curve estimation, neural encoding and decoding, deconvolution of spike trains from calcium imaging signals, and inference of neuronal functional connectivity and synchrony. Some research challenges and opportunities for neural spike train analysis are discussed.

  1. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that approximately 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 h of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 h of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use. (U.S.)

  2. The role, practice and training of unregulated birth workers in Australia: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Elizabeth C; Schmied, Virginia; Peters, Kath; Dahlen, Hannah G

    2018-05-23

    In Australia, the provision of homebirth services by unregulated birthworkers (doulas, ex-registered midwives, traditional midwives and lay workers) has increased. Accessing a homebirth with a registered midwife via mainstream services is limited. Concern is growing that new legislation aimed at prohibiting unregulated birthworkers practice may result in homebirth going underground. To explore the role, practice and training of unregulated birthworkers in Australian and establish what they would do if legislation prohibited their practice. This study used a mixed methods sequential exploratory design to explore the practice, training and role of unregulated birthworkers in Australia. In phase one, four unregulated birthworkers were interviewed in-depth and the findings informed the development of a survey in phase two. This was distributed nationally through two consumer websites, social media, Facebook and email. Data from both phases were integrated. Unregulated birthworkers in Australia provide homebirth services to women with high and low-risk pregnancies when this choice is unavailable or unacceptable within mainstream services. They operate covertly to protect their practice and avoid the scrutiny of authorities. Unregulated birthworkers can be experienced and trained in childbirth care and practice, much like a midwife working within a holistic paradigm of care. Unregulated birthworkers believe they provide women with the homebirth service they want but cannot access. Mainstream service providers need to listen to consumer criticisms, as women seek answers outside the system. Change is needed to improve and align services with women's expectations of homebirth. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract in vocal training methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Irene Velsvik

    2005-01-01

    It is common practice in vocal training to make use of vocal exercise techniques that involve partial occlusion of the vocal tract. Various techniques are used; some of them form an occlusion within the front part of the oral cavity or at the lips. Another vocal exercise technique involves lengthening the vocal tract; for example, the method of phonation into small tubes. This essay presents some studies made on the effects of various vocal training methods that involve an artificially lengthened and constricted vocal tract. The influence of sufficient acoustic impedance on vocal fold vibration and economical voice production is presented.

  4. Assessment methods in surgical training in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenios Evgeniou

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A career in surgery in the United Kingdom demands a commitment to a long journey of assessment. The assessment methods used must ensure that the appropriate candidates are selected into a programme of study or a job and must guarantee public safety by regulating the progression of surgical trainees and the certification of trained surgeons. This review attempts to analyse the psychometric properties of various assessment methods used in the selection of candidates to medical school, job selection, progression in training, and certification. Validity is an indicator of how well an assessment measures what it is designed to measure. Reliability informs us whether a test is consistent in its outcome by measuring the reproducibility and discriminating ability of the test. In the long journey of assessment in surgical training, the same assessment formats are frequently being used for selection into a programme of study, job selection, progression, and certification. Although similar assessment methods are being used for different purposes in surgical training, the psychometric properties of these assessment methods have not been examined separately for each purpose. Because of the significance of these assessments for trainees and patients, their reliability and validity should be examined thoroughly in every context where the assessment method is being used.

  5. Designing Training for Temporal and Adaptive Transfer: A Comparative Evaluation of Three Training Methods for Process Control Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluge, Annette; Sauer, Juergen; Burkolter, Dina; Ritzmann, Sandrina

    2010-01-01

    Training in process control environments requires operators to be prepared for temporal and adaptive transfer of skill. Three training methods were compared with regard to their effectiveness in supporting transfer: Drill & Practice (D&P), Error Training (ET), and procedure-based and error heuristics training (PHT). Communication…

  6. Comparison of instructor-led automated external defibrillation training and three alternative DVD-based training methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Wiebe; Turner, Nigel M.; Monsieurs, Koenraad G.; Bierens, Joost J. L. M.; Koster, Rudolph W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Self-directed BLS-training, using a personal training manikin with video has been shown to be as effective as instructor-led training. This has not previously been investigated for AED-training. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized study with a non-inferiority design

  7. HIV rapid diagnostic testing by lay providers in a key population-led health service programme in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongkanya, Rapeeporn; Pankam, Tippawan; Wolf, Shauna; Pattanachaiwit, Supanit; Jantarapakde, Jureeporn; Pengnongyang, Supabhorn; Thapwong, Prasopsuk; Udomjirasirichot, Apichat; Churattanakraisri, Yutthana; Prawepray, Nanthika; Paksornsit, Apiluk; Sitthipau, Thidadaow; Petchaithong, Sarayut; Jitsakulchaidejt, Raruay; Nookhai, Somboon; Lertpiriyasuwat, Cheewanan; Ongwandee, Sumet; Phanuphak, Praphan; Phanuphak, Nittaya

    2018-01-01

    Introduction:  Rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for HIV has a quick turn-around time, which increases the proportion of people testing who receive their result. HIV RDT in Thailand has traditionally been performed only by medical technologists (MTs), which is a barrier to its being scaled up. We evaluated the performance of HIV RDT conducted by trained lay providers who were members of, or worked closely with, a group of men who have sex with men (MSM) and with transgender women (TG) communities, and compared it to tests conducted by MTs. Methods:  Lay providers received a 3-day intensive training course on how to perform a finger-prick blood collection and an HIV RDT as part of the Key Population-led Health Services (KPLHS) programme among MSM and TG. All the samples were tested by lay providers using Alere Determine HIV 1/2. HIV-reactive samples were confirmed by DoubleCheckGold Ultra HIV 1&2 and SD Bioline HIV 1/2. All HIV-positive and 10% of HIV-negative samples were re-tested by MTs using Serodia HIV 1/2. Results:  Of 1680 finger-prick blood samples collected and tested using HIV RDT by lay providers in six drop-in centres in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Chonburi and Songkhla, 252 (15%) were HIV-positive. MTs re-tested these HIV-positive samples and 143 randomly selected HIV-negative samples with 100% concordant test results. Conclusion:  Lay providers in Thailand can be trained and empowered to perform HIV RDT as they were found to achieve comparable results in sample testing with MTs. Based on the task-shifting concept, this rapid HIV testing performed by lay providers as part of the KPLHS programme has great potential to enhance HIV prevention and treatment programmes among key at-risk populations.

  8. Modern methodic of power cardio training in students’ physical education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Yu. Osipov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: significant increase of students’ physical condition and health level at the account of application of modern power cardio training methodic. Material: 120 students (60 boys and 60 girls participated in the research. The age of the tested was 19 years. The research took one year. We used methodic of power and functional impact on trainees’ organism (HOT IRON. Such methodic is some systems of physical exercises with weights (mini-barbells, to be fulfilled under accompaniment of specially selected music. Results: we showed advantages of power-cardio and fitness trainings in students’ health improvement and in elimination obesity. Control tests showed experimental group students achieved confidently higher physical indicators. Boys demonstrated increase of physical strength and general endurance indicators. Girls had confidently better indicators of physical strength, flexibility and general endurance. Increase of control group students’ body mass can be explained by students’ insufficient physical activity at trainings, conducted as per traditional program. Conclusions: students’ trainings by power-cardio methodic with application HOT IRON exercises facilitate development the following physical qualities: strength and endurance in boys and strength, flexibility and endurance in girls. Besides, it was found that such systems of exercises facilitate normalization of boys’ body mass and correction of girls’ constitution.

  9. The Reflecting Team: A Training Method for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The reflecting team (RT) is an innovative method used in the training and supervision of family counselors. In this article, I trace the history, development, and current uses of RTs and review current findings on RTs. In my opinion, many users of RTs have diverged from their original theoretical principles and have adopted RTs mainly as a…

  10. Counseling Psychology Doctoral Trainees' Satisfaction with Clinical Methods Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menke, Kristen Ann

    2015-01-01

    Counseling psychology doctoral trainees' satisfaction with their clinical methods training is an important predictor of their self-efficacy as counselors, persistence in graduate programs, and probability of practicing psychotherapy in their careers (Fernando & Hulse-Killacky, 2005; Hadjipavlou & Ogrodniczuk, 2007; Morton & Worthley,…

  11. Integrating Research Skills Training into Non--Research Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Jules

    2014-01-01

    Research skills are a valued commodity by industry and university administrators. Despite the importance placed on these skills students typically dislike taking research method courses where these skills are learned. However, training in research skills does not necessarily have to be confined to these courses. In this study participants at a…

  12. Lay Bystanders' Perspectives on What Facilitates Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Use of Automated External Defibrillators in Real Cardiac Arrests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malta Hansen, Carolina; Rosenkranz, Simone Mørk; Folke, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients who suffer an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will fail to receive bystander intervention (cardiopulmonary resuscitation [CPR] or defibrillation) despite widespread CPR training and the dissemination of automated external defibrillators (AEDs). We sought to investigate what...... factors encourage lay bystanders to initiate CPR and AED use in a cohort of bystanders previously trained in CPR techniques who were present at an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS AND RESULTS: One-hundred and twenty-eight semistructured qualitative interviews with CPR-trained lay bystanders...... to consecutive out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, where an AED was present were conducted (from January 2012 to April 2015, in Denmark). Purposive maximum variation sampling was used to establish the breadth of the bystander perspective. Twenty-six of the 128 interviews were chosen for further in-depth analyses...

  13. Method for integrating a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a method used to integrate a train of fast, nanosecond wide pulses. The pulses come from current transformers in a RF LINAC beamline. Because they are ac signals and have no dc component, true mathematical integration would yield zero over the pulse train period or an equally erroneous value because of a dc baseline shift. The circuit used to integrate the pulse train first stretches the pulses to 35 ns FWHM. The signals are then fed into a high-speed, precision rectifier which restores a true dc baseline for the following stage - a fast, gated integrator. The rectifier is linear over 55dB in excess of 25 MHz, and the gated integrator is linear over a 60 dB range with input pulse widths as short as 16 ns. The assembled system is linear over 30 dB with a 6 MHz input signal

  14. An Improved Method of Training Overcomplete Dictionary Pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuozheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Training overcomplete dictionary pair is a critical step of the mainstream superresolution methods. For the high time complexity and susceptible to corruption characteristics of training dictionary, an improved method based on lifting wavelet transform and robust principal component analysis is reported. The high-frequency components of example images are estimated through wavelet coefficients of 3-tier lifting wavelet transform decomposition. Sparse coefficients are similar in multiframe images. Accordingly, the inexact augmented Lagrange multiplier method is employed to achieve robust principal component analysis in the process of imposing global constraints. Experiments reveal that the new algorithm not only reduces the time complexity preserving the clarity but also improves the robustness for the corrupted example images.

  15. A novel method of assessing quality of postgraduate psychiatry training: experiences from a large training programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Most assessments of the quality of postgraduate training are based on anonymised questionnaires of trainees. We report a comprehensive assessment of the quality of training at a large postgraduate psychiatry training institute using non-anonymised face-to-face interviews with trainees and their trainers. Methods Two consultant psychiatrists interviewed 99 trainees and 109 trainers. Scoring of interview responses was determined by using a pre-defined criteria. Additional comments were recorded as free text. Interviews covered 13 domains, including: Clinical, teaching, research and management opportunities, clinical environment, clinical supervision, adequacy of job description, absence of bullying and job satisfaction. Multiple interview domain scores were combined, generating a ‘Combined’ score for each post. Results The interview response rate was 97% for trainers 88% for trainees. There was a significant correlation between trainee and trainer scores for the same interview domains (Pearson’s r = 0.968, ppsychiatry posts as compared to general adult psychiatry posts (Two tailed t-test, p psychiatry as compared to other specialist psychiatry posts (t-test: p = 0.038, 95% CI: -0.3901, -0.0118). Job satisfaction scores of year 1 to year 3 core trainees showed a significant increase with increasing seniority (Linear regression coefficient = 0.273, 95% CI: 0.033 to 0.513, ANOVA p= 0.026). Conclusions This in-depth examination of the quality of training on a large psychiatry training programme successfully elicited strengths and weakness of our programme. Such an interview scheme could be easily implemented in smaller schemes and may well provide important information to allow for targeted improvement of training. Additionally, trends in quality of training and job satisfaction amongst various psychiatric specialities were identified; specifically speciality posts and liaison posts in psychiatry were revealed to be the most popular with trainees. PMID

  16. IMPROVING THE METHODS OF ESTIMATION OF THE UNIT TRAIN EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro KOZACHENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of freight transportation by unit trains. The article is aimed at developing the methods of the efficiency evaluation of unit train dispatch on the basis of full-scale experiments. Duration of the car turnover is a random variable when dispatching the single cars and group cars, as well as when dispatching them as a part of a unit train. The existing methodologies for evaluating the efficiency of unit trains’ make-up are based on the use of calculation methodologies and their results can give significant errors. The work presents a methodology that makes it possible to evaluate the efficiency of unit train shipments based on the processing of results of experimental travels using the methods of mathematical statistics. This approach provides probabilistic estimates of the rolling stock use efficiency for different approaches to the organization of car traffic volumes, as well as establishes the effect for each of the participants in the transportation process.

  17. Treinamento esfincteriano: métodos, expectativas dos pais e morbidades associadas Toilet training: methods, parental expectations and associated dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise M. Mota

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisar a literatura científica e leiga sobre o treinamento esfincteriano, abordando expectativas dos pais, métodos disponíveis para aquisição do controle esfincteriano e morbidades associadas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Publicações no período de 1960 a 2007, obtidas a partir das bases bibliográficas MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration, ERIC, Web of Science, LILACS, SciELO e Google; busca em artigos relacionados, referências dos artigos, por autor e nas sociedades de pediatria. Foram examinados 473 artigos, sendo selecionados 85. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Os pais apresentam expectativas irreais sobre idade de retirada de fraldas, sem levar em conta o desenvolvimento infantil. As estratégias de treinamento não se modificaram nas últimas décadas, e a idade vem sendo postergada na maioria dos países. Métodos de treinamento raramente são utilizados. O início precoce do treinamento esfincteriano e eventos estressantes durante o período podem prolongar o processo de treinamento. Uma maior freqüência de enurese, infecção urinária, disfunção miccional, constipação, encoprese e recusa em ir ao banheiro é observada nas crianças com treinamento inadequado. A literatura leiga para os pais é abundante e adequada, veiculada através de livros e da Internet, mas não largamente disponível para a população brasileira. Apenas três sociedades internacionais de pediatria disponibilizam diretrizes sobre treinamento esfincteriano. CONCLUSÕES: O controle esfincteriano vem sendo postergado na maioria dos países. Os métodos de treinamento existentes são de décadas passadas, sendo pouco utilizados pelas mães e pouco valorizados pelos pediatras; o treinamento inadequado pode ser um dos fatores causadores de distúrbios miccionais e intestinais, que causam transtornos para as crianças e famílias.OBJECTIVE: To review both the scientific literature and lay literature on toilet training, covering parents' expectations, the methods available

  18. Teacher Acquisition of Functional Analysis Methods Using Pyramidal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Sacha T.; St. Peter, Claire C.; Giles, Aimee F.

    2014-01-01

    Pyramidal training involves an experienced professional training a subset of individuals who, in turn, train additional individuals. Pyramidal training is effective for training a variety of behavior-analytic skills with direct-care staff, parents, and teachers. As teachers' roles in behavioral assessment increase, pyramidal training may be…

  19. The Pilates method and cardiorespiratory adaptation to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Fernández, Maria; Jiménez-Martín, Miguel; Sánchez-Caravaca, M Angeles; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Ramírez-Rodrigo, Jesús; Villaverde-Gutiérrez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Although all authors report beneficial health changes following training based on the Pilates method, no explicit analysis has been performed of its cardiorespiratory effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate possible changes in cardiorespiratory parameters with the Pilates method. A total of 45 university students aged 18-35 years (77.8% female and 22.2% male), who did not routinely practice physical exercise or sports, volunteered for the study and signed informed consent. The Pilates training was conducted over 10 weeks, with three 1-hour sessions per week. Physiological cardiorespiratory responses were assessed using a MasterScreen CPX apparatus. After the 10-week training, statistically significant improvements were observed in mean heart rate (135.4-124.2 beats/min), respiratory exchange ratio (1.1-0.9) and oxygen equivalent (30.7-27.6) values, among other spirometric parameters, in submaximal aerobic testing. These findings indicate that practice of the Pilates method has a positive influence on cardiorespiratory parameters in healthy adults who do not routinely practice physical exercise activities.

  20. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison S Banks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care.In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia.Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue.A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  1. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-08-01

    Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  2. Simple method for generating adjustable trains of picosecond electron bunches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Muggli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, passive method for producing an adjustable train of picosecond electron bunches is demonstrated. The key component of this method is an electron beam mask consisting of an array of parallel wires that selectively spoils the beam emittance. This mask is positioned in a high magnetic dispersion, low beta-function region of the beam line. The incoming electron beam striking the mask has a time/energy correlation that corresponds to a time/position correlation at the mask location. The mask pattern is transformed into a time pattern or train of bunches when the dispersion is brought back to zero downstream of the mask. Results are presented of a proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating this novel technique that was performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory Accelerator Test Facility. This technique allows for easy tailoring of the bunch train for a particular application, including varying the bunch width and spacing, and enabling the generation of a trailing witness bunch.

  3. Power Mobility Training Methods for Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Hostnik, Lisa; McElroy, Rachel; Peterson, Courtney; Farris, John P

    2018-01-01

    To summarize and critically appraise the existing evidence related to power mobility training methods used in research studies conducted with children 21 years or younger. A systematic review was conducted using 16 electronic databases to identify primary source quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Data extraction, determination of level of evidence, evaluation of methodological rigor, and assessment of the risk of bias were completed. The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System (EATLS) was used. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review. Levels of evidence were II to V; scientific rigor scores were 2 to 7. An overall Yellow EATLS level of evidence was found indicating that therapists should use caution when providing power mobility training interventions and measure outcomes related to established goals in areas such as development, functional skills, or use of a power mobility device.

  4. A SHARED study-the benefits and costs of setting up a health research study involving lay co-researchers and how we overcame the challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockford, Carole; Murray, Matt; Seers, Kate; Oyebode, Jan; Grant, Richard; Boex, Sue; Staniszewska, Sophie; Diment, Yvonne; Leach, Jim; Sharma, Uma; Clarke, Rosemary; Suleman, Rashida

    2016-01-01

    memory loss and their carers, on discharge from acute hospital to the community. Methods This began with a discussion of an initial research idea with a lay group of carers and people living with dementia. Once funded, approval was sought from the Research Ethics Committee and NHS Trusts to conduct the research including the active involvement of lay co-researchers. Finally, to recruit, train and pay lay co-researchers in their role. Results The benefits of PPI have included developing ideas which are important to people living with memory loss; support for PPI received from the funders and research ethics committee, high levels of interest from volunteer groups, and lasting enthusiasm from many of the co-researchers. Organisational challenges were met in the requirement for research passports and with payment methods for the co-researchers. Training was beneficial but incurred extra costs for repeated training days. Discussion Overall the benefits outweighed the challenges which were overcome to varying degrees. The lay co-researchers gained membership of a study group and a beneficial partnership developed with the third sector. The biggest challenge was in overcoming the differences in approach to lay co-researchers between NHS Trusts. Organisational culture has been slow to incorporate PPI and this has not yet been fully addressed. It has the potential to delay the start of projects, affect recruitment time, incur extra research costs and disadvantage PPI. Conclusion Buy-in to service user involvement in research studies could be improved by clarifying the requirements for NHS Trust approval and by simplifying the system for financial reimbursement to lay co-researchers. This would improve inclusivity and provide a smoother process for the research team and the co-researchers.

  5. Academic Training Lecture: Statistical Methods for Particle Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    PH Department

    2012-01-01

    2, 3, 4 and 5 April 2012 Academic Training Lecture  Regular Programme from 11:00 to 12:00 -  Bldg. 222-R-001 - Filtration Plant Statistical Methods for Particle Physics by Glen Cowan (Royal Holloway) The series of four lectures will introduce some of the important statistical methods used in Particle Physics, and should be particularly relevant to those involved in the analysis of LHC data. The lectures will include an introduction to statistical tests, parameter estimation, and the application of these tools to searches for new phenomena.  Both frequentist and Bayesian methods will be described, with particular emphasis on treatment of systematic uncertainties.  The lectures will also cover unfolding, that is, estimation of a distribution in binned form where the variable in question is subject to measurement errors.

  6. Does befriending by trained lay workers improve psychological well-being and quality of life for carers of people with dementia, and at what cost? A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlesworth, G; Shepstone, L; Wilson, E; Thalanany, M; Mugford, M; Poland, F

    2008-03-01

    QALY gained. Where care-recipient QALYs were included, mean incremental cost per incremental QALY gained was 26,848 pounds, with a 51.4% probability of being below 30,000 pounds per QALY gained. Only 60 carers (52%) took up the offer of being matched with a trained lay befriender, and of these only 37 (32%) were befriended for 6 months or more. A subgroup analysis of controls versus those befriended for 6 months or more found a reduction in HADS-depression scores that approached statistical significance (95% CI -0.09 to 2.84). 'Access to a befriender facilitator' is neither an effective nor a cost-effective intervention in the support of carers of people with dementia, although there is a suggestion of cost-effectiveness for the care dyad (carer and care recipient). In common with many services for carers of people with dementia, uptake of befriending services was not high. However, the small number of carers who engaged with befrienders for 6 months or more reported a reduction in scores on HADS depression that approached statistical significance compared with controls (95% CI -0.09 to 2.84). While providing only weak evidence of any beneficial effect, further research into befriending interventions for carers is warranted.

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans Egg-Laying Detection and Behavior Study Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palm Megan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Egg laying is an important phase of the life cycle of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Previous studies examined egg-laying events manually. This paper presents a method for automatic detection of egg-laying onset using deformable template matching and other morphological image analysis techniques. Some behavioral changes surrounding egg-laying events are also studied. The results demonstrate that the computer vision tools and the algorithm developed here can be effectively used to study C. elegans egg-laying behaviors. The algorithm developed is an essential part of a machine-vision system for C. elegans tracking and behavioral analysis.

  8. Effect of different dietary concentrations of brown marine algae (Sargassum dentifebium prepared by different methods on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. El-Deek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different concentrations (0%, 3% and 6% of brown marine algae (BMA, Sargassum dentifebium prepared according to different methods (sun-dried, SBMA; boiled, BBMA; autoclaved, ABMA on plasma and yolk lipid profiles, carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin in egg yolks was studied in hens aged from 23 to 42 weeks (30 hens per treatment. We determined the fatty acid profiles in BMA and in the egg yolk of hens fed different levels of BMA prepared according to different methods. In addition, plasma and yolk lipid profiles, yolk total carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin were determined at week 42 of age. Plasma and yolk cholesterol were significantly lower in groups fed diets containing either 3% or 6% BMA than in the control group, but high-density lipoprotein (HDL significantly decreased as BMA concentration increased. There was a significant similar decline in yolk triglycerides with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA in the laying hen diet. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fatty acid (SFA found in BMA and oleic acid (omega-9 and linoleic acid (omega-6 were the main unsaturated fatty acids (UFA, while there was a significant increase in palmitic acid in egg yolk when BMA was included at 6%. There was a significant increase in oleic acid (omega-9 when feed containing 3% BMA was given compared to the control group, but this decreased with a further increase in BMA. Linoleic acid (omega-6 also significantly decreased with inclusion of either 3% or 6% BMA. There was a significant increase in total carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin in the laying hen eggs as a result of feeding diets containing 3% and 6% BMA.

  9. Phosphorus requirement in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, W.; Krimpen, van M.M.; Star, L.

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that P supply by feed in alternative housing systems can be lowered without negative effects on bone quality and production performance. Therefore, the objectives of the current study were 1) to update the retainable phosphorus (rP) needs of two modern laying hen breeds from 36

  10. Evaluation of an Efficient Method for Training Staff to Implement Stimulus Preference Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Fisher, Wayne W.

    2008-01-01

    We used a brief training procedure that incorporated feedback and role-play practice to train staff members to conduct stimulus preference assessments, and we used group-comparison methods to evaluate the effects of training. Staff members were trained to implement the multiple-stimulus-without-replacement assessment in a single session and the…

  11. Training and certification of the personnel of gas distribution pipe-laying contractor companies in Spain; Formation et certification du personnel des contracteurs pour la pose des gazoducs en Espagne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Since the end of the 1980's, the Spanish gas sector has been experiencing a strong rate of growth of consumption, extension of transportation and distribution networks, and numbers of customers, especially in the domestic and commercial market. Polyethylene is playing a primordial rote in the growing extension of distribution networks in Spain, being the material by far the most widely used both in terms of extension of the network and replacement of obsolete materials. For Spanish gas distribution companies, carrying out this extension of the transportation and distribution network is a primordial objective in order to reach and lay gas supplies on to new towns, with the highest levels of quality and safety. This payer describes the personnel certification work on the gas distribution pipe-laying contractor companies carried out by Sedigas within the framework of the requirements of the standard ISO 45013, on certification of personnel. (author)

  12. Recruiting and training labor for woods work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred C. Simmons

    1949-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers about the supervisory part of the logging job. It deals with recruiting and training men for logging; it stresses the need for safety. The previous paper in the series (Station Paper 18) dealt with choosing methods and equipment; other papers planned will be about job lay-out, purchase of timber, and marketing timber products....

  13. Content, Language and Method Integrated Teacher Training (CLMITT in Training Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Orosz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Content, Language and Method Integrated Teacher Training (CLMITT is an educational model for teacher training developed by the author. It refers to an approach where trainees learn teaching methodologies through experiencing them while simultaneously integrating English language development into the training process. CLMITT can be used to train teachers in any context where the course content includes teaching strategies, skills, approaches or methods and where trainees also need to learn English (or another foreign language. Therefore, it is an ideal approach for training non-native English speaker teachers. Applying CLMITT involves the teacher trainer teaching a classroom method or technique by using that method itself during training sessions while using materials about that method. In this way, the content of the session and the method used to teach the session are the same, and trainees are not only learning about a teaching model or strategy but also experiencing it in action from a student perspective at the same time. In addition, they are also improving their English, since the whole exercise takes place in English. CLMITT can be applied in Initial Teacher Training (ITT Programs as well as Continuous Professional Development courses. Trainee feedback after a CLMITT session showed that students felt it provided them with a much deeper understanding of the methods, approaches and strategies covered, while at the same time improving their English during the process.

  14. Validation of an UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Screening of Antimicrobial Residues in Eggs and Their Application to Analyses of Eggs from Laying Hens Subjected to Pharmacological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Gomes Magnago Caldeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method by UHPLC/MS-MS was optimized and validated for the screening and semiquantitative detection of antimicrobials residues from tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, quinolones, lincosamides, β-lactams, sulfonamides, and macrolides families in eggs. A qualitative approach was used to ensure adequate sensitivity to detect residues at the level of interest, defined as maximum residue limit (MRL, or less. The applicability of the methods was assessed by analyzing egg samples from hens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment with neomycin, enrofloxacin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline during five days and after discontinuation of medication (10 days. The method was adequate for screening all studied analytes in eggs, since the performance parameters ensured a false-compliant rate below or equal to 5%, except for flumequine. In the analyses of eggs from laying hens subjected to pharmacological treatment, all antimicrobial residues were detected throughout the experimental period, even after discontinuation of medication, except for neomycin, demonstrating the applicability of the method for analyses of antimicrobial residues in eggs.

  15. Post-School-Age Training among Women: Training Methods and Labor Market Outcomes at Older Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Elizabeth T.

    2001-01-01

    Uses the NLS Mature Women's Cohort to examine Labor Market effects of education and training at preretirement age. Younger, more educated women tend to train more than older women. On-the-job training is more strongly associated with wage growth than is formal education. (Contains 18 references.) (MLH)

  16. The Evaluation of Micro Teaching Method Used in the Training of Primary School Teachers in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Taskaya Serdarhan

    2014-01-01

    Micro teaching, one of the most frequently used methods in the pre-service education of teachers, is used in many lectures for the training of teachers in the faculties of education in Turkey. Micro teaching is a teaching method which is especially used in the pre-service training of teachers and it aims to train prospective teachers by making…

  17. The MEDIA model: An innovative method for digitizing and training community members to facilitate an HIV prevention intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfro, Tiffaney; Johnson, Erin; Lambert, Danielle N; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2018-02-17

    As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to disproportionately affect African American women, practitioners remain committed to developing innovative strategies to reduce HIV prevalence. These strategies include training community organizations, such as churches, and utilizing digital media to make intervention dissemination more sustainable. This article describes one such effort to train lay community members within predominantly Black churches in Atlanta, GA, to implement an HIV prevention intervention. Lay educators were trained by translating a face-to-face Training of Facilitators (TOF) to a digital platform using the MEDIA (Motivate-Engage-Digitize-Implement-Assess) model. Formative evaluations, consultation with experts in the digital platform of choice, and the experience of two P4 for Women Master Trainers informed our translation. The model guided the translation process as our research team worked alongside topical experts and a production company to develop storyboards for core curriculum activities, which were later scripted and filmed with mock participants. A user guide, toolkit, and program website were also developed as supplemental materials to accompany the video training. Lessons learned from this study indicate future attempts at digitizing TOFs should keep in mind that digitization can be a time-consuming process, pilot testing in the new format is necessary even for a previously tested intervention, and the structure provided by facilitators in face-to-face training must be embedded into the format of digitized trainings.

  18. Efeito de diferentes métodos de muda forçada sobre o desempenho de poedeiras comerciais Effect of different methods of molt induction on performance of commercial laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Bastos Ramos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para comparar o desempenho de poedeiras comerciais após serem submetidas a diferentes métodos de muda forçada. Noventa e seis poedeiras Hy Line brancas com 85 semanas de idade foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos. Os tratamentos foram: T1 - método convencional constituído da retirada do alimento durante os 12 primeiros dias do experimento; T2 - dieta com alto teor de zinco; T3 - dieta com baixa energia fornecida em quantidade limitada (45 g/ave.dia; e T4 - dieta com baixa energia fornecida à vontade. Os dados de produção após a muda foram registrados durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. A porcentagem de postura (ave/dia e a conversão alimentar (kg ração/kg ovo foram melhores para as aves submetidas à muda por intermédio dos métodos convencional (T1, alto teor de Zn (T2 e dieta com baixa energia fornecida à vontade (T4 em relação às aves submetidas à dieta com baixa energia fornecida em quantidade diária limitada (T3. O peso do ovo foi mais alto para as aves dos tratamentos convencional (T1 e dieta com baixa energia à vontade (T4 em relação às aves alimentadas com dietas com alto teor de zinco (T2 ou com baixa energia fornecida em quantidade limitada (T3. Os métodos de muda usados não influíram no consumo de ração. O uso de dieta com baixa energia, quando fornecida à vontade, e dieta com alto teor de Zn, como métodos para indução de muda, resultou em desempenho similar ao obtido com o método convencional.This experiment was carried out to compare the productive performance of commercial laying hens after being under different methods of induced molting. Ninety-six Hy-Line white laying hens, 85 weeks of age were allotted to a randomized block design with four treatments. The treatments were: T1 - the conventional method consisted of feed withdrawal during the 12 first days of the experiment; T2 - diet of high-zinc content; T3 - low

  19. 48 CFR 1371.117 - Lay days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1371.117 Section... REGULATIONS ACQUISITIONS INVOLVING SHIP CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.117 Lay days. Insert clause 1352.271-86, Lay Days, in all solicitations and contracts for ship repair. ...

  20. The nuclear industry in transition: Methods and effects of cross training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starrett, D.M.; Wilczek, T.A.; Armstrong, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    As DOE facilities transition from defense programs to environmental management, cross training is becoming increasingly important as an essential component of change management. When applied to those specific segments of nuclear industry undergoing transition, cross training methods can be especially effective. Use of methodologies such as team approach, change agents, strategic plans, operations plans, specific training, and formal transition techniques can generate many positive benefits to the industry. This paper explores the benefits of cross training, proposes methodology for use when developing cross training for the transition of employees from DOE defense programs to environmental projects, and provides two examples of successful implementation of cross training methods

  1. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice : A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. NEW METHOD: The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength

  2. Activating lay health influencers to promote tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramoto, Myra L; Hall, John R; Nichter, Mark; Nichter, Mimi; Aickin, Mikel; Connolly, Tim; Matthews, Eva; Campbell, Jean Z; Lando, Harry A

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco cessation brief-intervention (BI) training for lay "health influencers," on knowledge, self-efficacy and the proportion of participants reporting BI delivery post-training. Randomized, community-based study comparing In-person or Web-based training, with mailed materials. In-person and Web-training groups had significant post-training cessation knowledge and self-efficacy gains. All groups increased the proportion of individuals reporting BIs at follow-up, with no significant between-group differences. Irrespective of participants' prior intervention experience, 80%-86% reported BIs within the past 90 days; 71%-79% reported >1 in the past 30. Web and In-person training significantly increase health influencer cessation knowledge and self-efficacy. With minimal prompting and materials, even persons without BI experience can be activated to encourage tobacco cessation.

  3. Organization of training and teaching methods at Electricite de France (EDF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, J.

    1980-01-01

    The training of staff for the equipping, operating and servicing of EDF nuclear facilities was organized at a time when the undertaking had already developed its general training schemes and teaching methods. A brief account of these schemes and methods is given in the paper. Staff training at EDF was clearly devised with implicit regard for the educational and technological features of French society. This fact should not be forgotten when seeking to compare what is described here with developments abroad. The organization of training is based on a few relatively simple principles. The object of any training is to acquire competence, not just knowledge, and this calls for a combination of teaching and practical experience. Training programmes are drawn up taking into account the professional experience acquired in a particular trade, and training activities are, as far as possible, divorced from selection and examination procedures. The large number of workers needing to be trained in the nuclear field has led to standardization of training programmes. Teaching methods tend to be based on a combination of theoretical instruction and practical experience. Training thus involves the use of active or semi-active methods designed to promote familiarization with methods of working as well as the attainment of knowledge and ability. For these reasons, conditions of training as close as possible to actual work situations are created in the training centres, where great emphasis is placed on simulation techniques. (author)

  4. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  5. Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) as a Collaborative Evaluation Capacity Building Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmin, Alexey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes Participatory Training Evaluation Method (PATEM) of measuring participants' reaction to the training. PATEM provides rich information; allows to document evaluation findings; becomes organic part of the training that helps participants process their experience individually and as a group; makes sense to participants; is an…

  6. 20 CFR 617.23 - Selection of training methods and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection of training methods and programs. 617.23 Section 617.23 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for which training is undertaken shall not preclude the development of an individual retraining...

  7. A Comparison of Isotonic, Isokinetic, and Plyometric Training Methods for Vertical Jump Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christine D.

    This annotated bibliography documents three training methods used to develop vertical jumping ability and power: isotonic, isokinetics, and plyometric training. Research findings on all three forms of training are summarized and compared. A synthesis of conclusions drawn from the annotated writings is presented. The report includes a glossary of…

  8. Generation method of synthetic training data for mobile OCR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Yulia S.; Gayer, Alexander V.; Sheshkus, Alexander V.

    2018-04-01

    This paper addresses one of the fundamental problems of machine learning - training data acquiring. Obtaining enough natural training data is rather difficult and expensive. In last years usage of synthetic images has become more beneficial as it allows to save human time and also to provide a huge number of images which otherwise would be difficult to obtain. However, for successful learning on artificial dataset one should try to reduce the gap between natural and synthetic data distributions. In this paper we describe an algorithm which allows to create artificial training datasets for OCR systems using russian passport as a case study.

  9. Trip optimization system and method for a train

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Ajith Kuttannair; Shaffer, Glenn Robert; Houpt, Paul Kenneth; Movsichoff, Bernardo Adrian; Chan, David So Keung

    2017-08-15

    A system for operating a train having one or more locomotive consists with each locomotive consist comprising one or more locomotives, the system including a locator element to determine a location of the train, a track characterization element to provide information about a track, a sensor for measuring an operating condition of the locomotive consist, a processor operable to receive information from the locator element, the track characterizing element, and the sensor, and an algorithm embodied within the processor having access to the information to create a trip plan that optimizes performance of the locomotive consist in accordance with one or more operational criteria for the train.

  10. A novel CPR training method using a smar tphone app

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Elliot Srither

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to validate that a smartphone application can assist in the learning and skills retention for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training. This cardiopulmonary resuscitation feature of the Crowdsav platform is designed to record the chest compression performance as well as the rate of compressions of the trainee. Crowdsav is available for downloading in the public domain. The application, once downloaded can be utilised during training and be replayed by the trainee at his/her own will or via reminders from the training centre. The goal of using this application is to minimise the decay of the knowledge and compression skills and perhaps even reduce the resource for recertification, as skills and performance can be kept up, maintained and monitored remotely by a training centre using the application.

  11. Comparison of Online and Traditional Basic Life Support Renewal Training Methods for Registered Professional Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serwetnyk, Tara M; Filmore, Kristi; VonBacho, Stephanie; Cole, Robert; Miterko, Cindy; Smith, Caitlin; Smith, Charlene M

    2015-01-01

    Basic Life Support certification for nursing staff is achieved through various training methods. This study compared three American Heart Association training methods for nurses seeking Basic Life Support renewal: a traditional classroom approach and two online options. Findings indicate that online methods for Basic Life Support renewal deliver cost and time savings, while maintaining positive learning outcomes, satisfaction, and confidence level of participants.

  12. Training method for enhancement of safety attitude in nuclear power plant based on crew resource management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Karikawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Makoto; Wakabayashi, Toshio; Kitamura, Masaharu

    2010-01-01

    A conventional training program for nuclear power plant operators has been developed with emphasis on improvement of knowledge and skills of individual operators. Although it has certainly contributed to safety operation of nuclear power plants, some recent incidents have indicated the necessity of an improved training program aiming at improvement of the performance of operators working as a team. In the aviation area, crew resource management (CRM) training has shown the effect of resolving team management issues of flight crews, aircraft maintenance crews, and so on. In the present research, we attempted to introduce the CRM concept into operator training in nuclear power plants as training for conceptual skill enhancement. In this paper, a training method specially customized for nuclear power plant operators based on CRM is proposed. The proposed method has been practically utilized in the management training course of Japan Nuclear Technology Institute. The validity of the proposed method has been evaluated by means of a questionnaire survey. (author)

  13. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  14. Teen worker safety training: methods used, lessons taught, and time spent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zierold, Kristina M

    2015-05-01

    Safety training is strongly endorsed as one way to prevent teens from performing dangerous tasks at work. The objective of this mixed methods study was to characterize the safety training that teenagers receive on the job. From 2010 through 2012, focus groups and a cross-sectional survey were conducted with working teens. The top methods of safety training reported were safety videos (42 percent) and safety lectures (25 percent). The top lessons reported by teens were "how to do my job" and "ways to spot hazards." Males, who were more likely to do dangerous tasks, received less safety training than females. Although most teens are getting safety training, it is inadequate. Lessons addressing safety behaviors are missing, training methods used are minimal, and the time spent is insignificant. More research is needed to understand what training methods and lessons should be used, and the appropriate safety training length for effectively preventing injury in working teens. In addition, more research evaluating the impact of high-quality safety training compared to poor safety training is needed to determine the best training programs for teens. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Lay Consultations in Heart Failure Symptom Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Katherine M; Sims, Jessica L; Ercole, Patrick M; Shetty, Shivan S; Wallendorf, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Lay consultations can facilitate or impede healthcare. However, little is known about how lay consultations for symptom evaluation affect treatment decision-making. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of lay consultations in symptom evaluation prior to hospitalization among patients with heart failure. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated heart failure. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, along with logistic regression were used to characterize lay consultations in this sample. A large proportion of patients engaged in lay consultations for symptom evaluation and decision-making before hospitalization. Lay consultants provided attributions and advice and helped make the decision to seek medical care. Men consulted more often with their spouse than women, while women more often consulted with adult children. Findings have implications for optimizing heart failure self-management interventions, improving outcomes, and reducing hospital readmissions.

  16. SOME EFFECTIVE METHODS OF TRAINING COMMUNICATIONS AND IT SPECIALISTS FROM MILITARY STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BOARU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Service training military specialists in communications and informatics is part of the general system of training and education of the Romanian Armed Forces. Due to the place and the increasingly important role of the communications and information in the command and control of tactical, operational and strategic military structures, decision makers pay special attention to training this category of specialists, so that the technical support provided by them might meet all technical requirements and operational management of any military operation. There is a permanent concern to ensure the training principle of compatibility with modern armies of NATO, by choosing similar forms and methods of effective training, ensuring operational training. In this article we analyzed and proposed the most affordable and effective ways of training in communication and information, with suggestions for institutionalized training.

  17. Content and Methods used to Train Tobacco Cessation Treatment Providers: An International Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Gina R; Rigotti, Nancy A; Raw, Martin; McNeill, Ann; Murray, Rachael; Piné-Abata, Hembadoon; Bitton, Asaf; McEwen, Andy

    2017-12-01

    There are limited existing data describing the training methods used to educate tobacco cessation treatment providers around the world. To measure the prevalence of tobacco cessation treatment content, skills training and teaching methods reported by tobacco treatment training programs across the world. Web-based survey in May-September 2013 among tobacco cessation training experts across six geographic regions and four World Bank income levels. Response rate was 73% (84 of 115 countries contacted). Of 104 individual programs from 84 countries, most reported teaching brief advice (78%) and one-to-one counseling (74%); telephone counseling was uncommon (33%). Overall, teaching of knowledge topics was more commonly reported than skills training. Programs in lower income countries less often reported teaching about medications, behavioral treatments and biomarkers and less often reported skills-based training about interviewing clients, medication management, biomarker measurement, assessing client outcomes, and assisting clients with co-morbidities. Programs reported a median 15 hours of training. Face-to-face training was common (85%); online programs were rare (19%). Almost half (47%) included no learner assessment. Only 35% offered continuing education. Nearly all programs reported teaching evidence-based treatment modalities in a face-to-face format. Few programs delivered training online or offered continuing education. Skills-based training was less common among low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is a large unmet need for tobacco treatment training protocols which emphasize practical skills, and which are more rapidly scalable than face-to-face training in LMICs.

  18. A novel method of assessing quality of postgraduate psychiatry training: experiences from a large training programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizrah, Mukhtar; Iacoponi, Eduardo; Parker, Elizabeth; Rymer, Janice; Iversen, Amy; Wessely, Simon

    2013-06-14

    Most assessments of the quality of postgraduate training are based on anonymised questionnaires of trainees. We report a comprehensive assessment of the quality of training at a large postgraduate psychiatry training institute using non-anonymised face-to-face interviews with trainees and their trainers. Two consultant psychiatrists interviewed 99 trainees and 109 trainers. Scoring of interview responses was determined by using a pre-defined criteria. Additional comments were recorded as free text. Interviews covered 13 domains, including: Clinical, teaching, research and management opportunities, clinical environment, clinical supervision, adequacy of job description, absence of bullying and job satisfaction. Multiple interview domain scores were combined, generating a 'Combined' score for each post. The interview response rate was 97% for trainers 88% for trainees. There was a significant correlation between trainee and trainer scores for the same interview domains (Pearson's r = 0.968, pJob satisfaction scores of year 1 to year 3 core trainees showed a significant increase with increasing seniority (Linear regression coefficient = 0.273, 95% CI: 0.033 to 0.513, ANOVA p= 0.026). This in-depth examination of the quality of training on a large psychiatry training programme successfully elicited strengths and weakness of our programme. Such an interview scheme could be easily implemented in smaller schemes and may well provide important information to allow for targeted improvement of training. Additionally, trends in quality of training and job satisfaction amongst various psychiatric specialities were identified; specifically speciality posts and liaison posts in psychiatry were revealed to be the most popular with trainees.

  19. METHODICAL APPROACH TO DEFINING INFRASTRUCTURE COMPONENT OF THE COSTS FOR THE PARTICULAR PASSENGER TRAIN TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Barash

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the scientific paper a methodical approach concerning determining the infrastructure component of the costs for traffic of the particular passenger train should be developed. It takes into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Methodology. To achieve the research purposes was used a method which is based on apportionment of expenses for the traffic of a particular passenger train taking into account the factors affecting the magnitude of costs. This methodology allows allocating properly infrastructure costs for a particular train and, consequently, to determine the accurate profitability of each train. Findings. All expenditures relating to passenger traffic of a long distance were allocated from first cost of passenger and freight traffic. These costs are divided into four components. Three groups of expenses were allocated in infrastructure component, which are calculated according to the certain principle taking into account the individual characteristics of the particular train traffic. Originality. The allocation method of all passenger transportation costs of all Ukrzaliznytsia departments for a particular passenger train was improved. It is based on principles of general indicators formation of each department costs, which correspond to the main influential factors of operating trains. The methodical approach to determining the cost of infrastructure component is improved, which takes into account the effect of the speed and weight of a passenger train on the wear of the railway track superstructure and contact network. All this allows allocating to reasonably the costs of particular passenger train traffic and to determine its profitability. Practical value. Implementing these methods allows calculating the real, economically justified costs of a particular train that will correctly determine the profitability of a particular passenger train and on this basis it allows to make management

  20. A neural network driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youneng Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy-haul train has a series of characteristics, such as the locomotive traction properties, the longer length of train, and the nonlinear train pipe pressure during train braking. When the train is running on a continuous long and steep downgrade railway line, the safety of the train is ensured by cycle braking, which puts high demands on the driving skills of the driver. In this article, a driving curve generation method for the heavy-haul train based on a neural network is proposed. First, in order to describe the nonlinear characteristics of train braking, the neural network model is constructed and trained by practical driving data. In the neural network model, various nonlinear neurons are interconnected to work for information processing and transmission. The target value of train braking pressure reduction and release time is achieved by modeling the braking process. The equation of train motion is computed to obtain the driving curve. Finally, in four typical operation scenarios, comparing the curve data generated by the method with corresponding practical data of the Shuohuang heavy-haul railway line, the results show that the method is effective.

  1. Communication skills training in dementia care: a systematic review of effectiveness, training content, and didactic methods in different care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Eva; Heimerl, Katharina; Bennett, Michael I

    2013-03-01

    Caring for and caring about people with dementia require specific communication skills. Healthcare professionals and family caregivers usually receive little training to enable them to meet the communicative needs of people with dementia. This review identifies existent interventions to enhance communication in dementia care in various care settings. We searched MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Gerolit, and Web of Science for scientific articles reporting interventions in both English and German. An intervention was defined as communication skills training by means of face-to-face interaction with the aim of improving basic communicative skills. Both professional and family caregivers were included. The effectiveness of such training was analyzed. Different types of training were defined. Didactic methods, training content, and additional organizational features were qualitatively examined. This review included 12 trials totaling 831 persons with dementia, 519 professional caregivers, and 162 family caregivers. Most studies were carried out in the USA, the UK, and Germany. Eight studies took place in nursing homes; four studies were located in a home-care setting. No studies could be found in an acute-care setting. We provide a list of basic communicative principles for good communication in dementia care. Didactic methods included lectures, hands-on training, group discussions, and role-play. This review shows that communication skills training in dementia care significantly improves the quality of life and wellbeing of people with dementia and increases positive interactions in various care settings. Communication skills training shows significant impact on professional and family caregivers' communication skills, competencies, and knowledge. Additional organizational features improve the sustainability of communication interventions.

  2. Does the Use of Multifactorial Training Methods Increase Practitioners' Competence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Corinthus Omari; Lawdis, Katina

    2017-01-01

    Skilled therapy practitioners are required by their governing associations to seek professional development per licensure requirements. These requirements facilitate clinical reasoning and confidence during patient care. There are limited online professional development workshops, especially ones that offer multifactorial training as an…

  3. An Annotated Bibliography of Isotonic Weight-Training Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysong, John V.

    This literature study was conducted to compare and evaluate various types and techniques of weight lifting so that a weight lifting program could be selected or devised for a secondary school. Annotations of 32 research reports, journal articles, and monographs on isotonic strength training are presented. The literature in the first part of the…

  4. How Good Are Trainers' Personal Methods Compared to Two Structured Training Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Richard T.; And Others

    Training methods naturally employed by trainers were analyzed and compared to systematic structured training procedures. Trainers were observed teaching retarded subjects how to assemble a bicycle brake, roller skate, carburetor, and lawn mower engine. Trainers first taught using their own (personal) method, which was recorded in terms of types of…

  5. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  6. Practical Recommendations to Improve the Quality of Training and Methodical Support of Professional Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebennikov, Valery V.; Grudtsina, Ludmila Yu.; Marchuk, Nikolay N.; Sangadgiev, Badma V.; Kudyashev, Nail K.

    2016-01-01

    The research urgency is caused by the transition to the knowledge society and new demands for training and methodical provision of professional pedagogical education. The purpose of this paper is to develop practical recommendations to improve the quality of training and methodical support of professional pedagogical education. The leading…

  7. Sampling Methods and the Accredited Population in Athletic Training Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, W. David; Volberding, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Context: We describe methods of sampling the widely-studied, yet poorly defined, population of accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPs). Objective: There are two purposes to this study; first to describe the incidence and types of sampling methods used in athletic training education research, and second to clearly define the…

  8. A Frequency Matching Method for Generation of a Priori Sample Models from Training Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Katrine; Cordua, Knud Skou; Frydendall, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a Frequency Matching Method (FMM) for generation of a priori sample models based on training images and illustrates its use by an example. In geostatistics, training images are used to represent a priori knowledge or expectations of models, and the FMM can be used to generate...... new images that share the same multi-point statistics as a given training image. The FMM proceeds by iteratively updating voxel values of an image until the frequency of patterns in the image matches the frequency of patterns in the training image; making the resulting image statistically...... indistinguishable from the training image....

  9. The method research of the simulator training and examination of the nuclear electricity staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Fangzhi; Zhang Yuanfang

    1994-01-01

    The simulator training and examination of nuclear power plant operator are of an important guarantee for the nuclear power plant operation safety. The authors introduce various training courses which have been held in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University since 1988, and analyze the different requirements and features for different classes such as operator candidate training course, operator retraining course and nuclear and electricity staff course. The lesson arrangement, examination method and mark standard are presented, which is carried out in the Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Training Center of Tsinghua University

  10. improving performance of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted in order to study the effect of the supplementation of Avizyme 1500® (Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, UK on the performance of laying hens for one year. A control diet based on corn – soybean meal was formulated to meet nutrient requirement of ISA Brown laying hens. Two treatments, the control diet (C and C + 1000 g Avizyme/tonne diet were tested. Each diet was fed to 80 birds (20 replicates of 4 birds from 20 to 72 weeks of age, and performances of birds (feed intake, egg production, egg size, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg quality were measured. All data were subject to analyses of variance following the t-test. Results showed that the addition of Avizyme 1500 to the feed reduced feed intake by 4% (P < 0.01, mortality by 75 % or from 15% to 3.75% (P < 0.01 and improved the feed conversion ratio by 3 % (P < 0.05. The high mortality of the control treatment (15% is explained by an E.coli infection that was observed following the post-mortem examination of dead birds. The egg production (HD and HH, egg size and egg mass however were not significantly affected by the Avizyme supplementation. Egg quality (HU, yolk colour score, yolk weight and shell thickness was not significantly affected by Avizyme supplementation. It can be concluded that the supplementation of 1000 g Avizyme /tonne of diet improved feed efficiency and this was mediated via a reduction in feed intake.

  11. Effects of Learning Style and Training Method on Computer Attitude and Performance in World Wide Web Page Design Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Huey-Wen; Wang, Yu-Fang

    1999-01-01

    Compares the effects of two training methods on computer attitude and performance in a World Wide Web page design program in a field experiment with high school students in Taiwan. Discusses individual differences, Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory and Learning Style Inventory, Computer Attitude Scale, and results of statistical analyses.…

  12. Method of Parallel-Hierarchical Network Self-Training and its Application for Pattern Classification and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIMCHENKO, L.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Propositions necessary for development of parallel-hierarchical (PH network training methods are discussed in this article. Unlike already known structures of the artificial neural network, where non-normalized (absolute similarity criteria are used for comparison, the suggested structure uses a normalized criterion. Based on the analysis of training rules, a conclusion is made that application of two training methods with a teacher is optimal for PH network training: error correction-based training and memory-based training. Mathematical models of training and a combined method of PH network training for recognition of static and dynamic patterns are developed.

  13. Egg-laying rhythm in Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2008-12-31

    Dec 31, 2008 ... production of oocytes to egg-laying on selected sites (Alle- mand 1976b; Yang et al. .... (vii) Is the egg-laying rhythm regulated by hormones? .... were shown to be induced by factors synthesized in the re- productive tract of the ...

  14. A comparison between workshop and DVD methods of training for physiotherapists in diagnostic ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKiernan, Sharmaine; Chiarelli, Pauline; Warren-Forward, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Diagnostic ultrasound has expanded into physiotherapy though training in the modality appears to be and is reported by physiotherapists as limited. To address this, a training package was specifically developed for physiotherapists within Australia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the training package for improved educational outcome and to ascertain if there was a difference in outcome between two forms of delivery. The training package was delivered either during a workshop, where the training package was delivered face to face, or via a self paced DVD, which was mailed to participants. Both participant groups completed a web based assessment prior to and at the completion of the training. The assessment assessed their knowledge in ultrasound physics, scanning technique and anatomy. Pre and post training assessment scores were available for 84 participants who attended a workshop and 96 participants who received the DVD. Important and statistically significant (p < 0.05) increases in assessment scores from the beginning to the end of the training program were seen in both groups. On average, workshop participant scores improved by 37% and DVD participant scores improved by 27%. No statistical difference in the post assessment scores of the workshop trained or DVD trained participants was evident. On comparison, no statistically significant difference between the two methods of training; workshop and DVD, was found so both can be seen to be beneficial to the professional development of the physiotherapist in the use of diagnostic ultrasound within their profession.

  15. Tile Patterns with Logo--Part I: Laying Tile with Logo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clason, Robert G.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a method for drawing periodic tile patterns using LOGO. Squares, triangles, hexagons, shape filling, and random tile laying are included. These activities incorporate problem solving, programing methods, and the geometry of angles and polygons. (KR)

  16. Nuclear power plant training simulator system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.W.; Converse, R.E. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described for simulating the real-time dynamic operation of a full scope nuclear powered electrical generating plant for operator training utilizing apparatus that includes a control console with plant component control devices and indicating devices for monitoring plant operation. A general purpose digital computer calculates the dynamic simulation data for operating the indicating devices in accordance with the operation of the control devices. The functions for synchronization and calculation are arranged in a priority structure so as to insure an execution order that provides a maximum overlap of data exchange and simulation calculations. (Official Gazette)

  17. Structured Feedback Training for Time-Out: Efficacy and Efficiency in Comparison to a Didactic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Scott A; Blumberg, Sean; Browning, Megan

    2017-09-01

    Although time-out has been demonstrated to be effective across multiple settings, little research exists on effective methods for training others to implement time-out. The present set of studies is an exploratory analysis of a structured feedback method for training time-out using repeated role-plays. The three studies examined (a) a between-subjects comparison to more a traditional didactic/video modeling method of time-out training, (b) a within-subjects comparison to traditional didactic/video modeling training for another skill, and (c) the impact of structured feedback training on in-home time-out implementation. Though findings are only preliminary and more research is needed, the structured feedback method appears across studies to be an efficient, effective method that demonstrates good maintenance of skill up to 3 months post training. Findings suggest, though do not confirm, a benefit of the structured feedback method over a more traditional didactic/video training model. Implications and further research on the method are discussed.

  18. Target discrimination method for SAR images based on semisupervised co-training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Du, Lan; Dai, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) target discrimination is usually performed in a supervised manner. However, supervised methods for SAR target discrimination may need lots of labeled training samples, whose acquirement is costly, time consuming, and sometimes impossible. This paper proposes an SAR target discrimination method based on semisupervised co-training, which utilizes a limited number of labeled samples and an abundant number of unlabeled samples. First, Lincoln features, widely used in SAR target discrimination, are extracted from the training samples and partitioned into two sets according to their physical meanings. Second, two support vector machine classifiers are iteratively co-trained with the extracted two feature sets based on the co-training algorithm. Finally, the trained classifiers are exploited to classify the test data. The experimental results on real SAR images data not only validate the effectiveness of the proposed method compared with the traditional supervised methods, but also demonstrate the superiority of co-training over self-training, which only uses one feature set.

  19. Implementing Expertise-Based Training Methods to Accelerate the Development of Peer Academic Coaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The field of expertise studies offers several models from which to develop training programs that accelerate the development of novice performers in a variety of domains. This research study implemented two methods of expertise-based training in a course to develop undergraduate peer academic coaches through a ten-week program. An existing…

  20. Action First--Understanding Follows: An Expansion of Skills-Based Training Using Action Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Colin

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of training trainers in the skills they need to perform competently as trainers and how they follow their skills mastery with discussion on their new theoretical insight. Moreno's action method (psychodrama, sociodrama, sociometry, and role training) is the model used. (JOW)

  1. Dropouts in Swiss Vocational Education and the Effect of Training Companies' Trainee Selection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…

  2. Training Delivery Methods as Source of Dynamic Capabilities: The Case of Sports' Organisations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraya, Marco António Mexia; Porfírio, Jose António

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Training as an important source of dynamic capabilities (DC) is important to the performance of sports' organisations (SO) both to athletes and to non-athletic staff. There are a variety of training delivery methods (TDMs). The purpose of this study is to determine from a set of six TDMs which one is considered to be the most suitable to…

  3. The application of nursing process method in training nurses working in the department of interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Daihui; Wang Hongjuan; Yang Yajuan; Ye Rui; Qu Juan; Li Xinying; Xu Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the training procedure,typical training method and the clinical effect of nursing process method which was used to cultivate nurses working in the interventional ward. Methods: According to the evaluation index, the authors made a detail assessment of each nurse and found out individually the problems which needed to be perfected, then, the practicable measures were made for each individual nurse, after the training course the clinical results were evaluated. Results: After the nurses on different technical levels were cultivated with nursing process method, the comprehensive quality of each nurse was improved in different degree, and the general nursing quality of entire Department was also markedly improved. Conclusion: By using the nursing process method the cultivating period can be effectively shortened, the possible waste of time, manpower, material and energy cause by the blind training plan can be avoided. (authors)

  4. Optimizing lay counsellor services for chronic care in South Africa: a qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Fairall, Lara; Egbe, Catherine O; Bhana, Arvin

    2014-05-01

    To conduct a qualitative systematic review on the use of lay counsellors in South Africa to provide lessons on optimizing their use for psychological and behavioural change counselling for chronic long-term care in scare-resource contexts. A qualitative systematic review of the literature on lay counsellor services in South Africa. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Five randomized control trials and two cohort studies reported that lay counsellors can provide behaviour change counselling with good outcomes. One multi-centre cohort study provided promising evidence of improved anti-retroviral treatment adherence and one non-randomized controlled study provided promising results for counselling for depression. Six studies found low fidelity of lay counsellor-delivered interventions in routine care. Reasons for low fidelity include poor role definition, inconsistent remuneration, lack of standardized training, and poor supervision and logistical support. Within resource-constrained settings, adjunct behaviour change and psychological services provided by lay counsellors can be harnessed to promote chronic care at primary health care level. Optimizing lay counsellor services requires interventions at an organizational level that provide a clear role definition and scope of practice; in-service training and formal supervision; and sensitization of health managers to the importance and logistical requirements of counselling. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  6. A method for determining the content of knowledge training for nuclear professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    A developer of knowledge training materials for nuclear professionals is faced with the challenge of determining the appropriate scope and depth of training. This paper presents a method for establishing the content starting from overall objectives of the activity and breaking it down into the job and task level of an individual's specific jobs and tasks. Nuclear safety training is used as an example. In this case there are four stages of break down in the knowledge base before its implementation in jobs and tasks of the station's work processes. This process also satisfies the training principles for enabling effective operational decision making. (author)

  7. Standardising the Lay: Logics of Change in Programs of Disease Self-management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annegrete Juul Nielsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The health political discourse on self-care is dominated by the view that the selfmanaging patient represents a more democratic and patient-centric perspective, as he or she is believed to renegotiate the terms on which patient participation in health care has hitherto taken place. The self-managing patient is intended as a challenge to traditional medical authority by introducing lay methods of knowing disease. Rather than a meeting between authoritative professionals and vulnerable patients, the self-managing patient seeks to open up new spaces for a meeting between experts. The present paper questions these assumptions through an ethnographic exploration of a patient-led self-management program called the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program. The program is concerned with what its developers call the social and mental aspects of living with a chronic disease and uses trained patients as role models and program leaders. Drawing inspiration from Annemarie Mol’s term ‘logic’, we explore the rationale of ‘situations of selfmanagement’ and identify what we call a ‘logic of change’, which involves very specific ideas on how life with a chronic condition should be dealt with and directs attention towards particular manageable aspects of life with a chronic condition. This logic of change entails, we argue, a clash not between ‘medical’ and ‘lay’ forms of knowledge but between different logics or perceptions of how transformation can be achieved: through open-ended and ongoing reflection and experimentation in social settings or through standardised trajectories of change. Returning to the literature on lay forms of knowledge and illness perspectives, we question whether programs such as the Chronic Disease Self-Management Program – despite its apparent patient-centric perspective – reproduces classical hierarchical relations between lay and expert knowledge, albeit in new forms.

  8. Lay involvement in the analysis of qualitative data in health services research: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, S; Jheeta, S; Husson, F; Jacklin, A; Bischler, A; Norton, C; Franklin, B D

    2016-01-01

    There is a consensus that patients and the public should be involved in research in a meaningful way. However, to date, lay people have been mostly involved in developing research ideas and commenting on patient information.We previously published a paper describing our experience with lay partners conducting observations in a study of how patients in hospital are involved with their medicines. In a later part of the same study, lay partners were also involved in analysing interviews that a researcher had conducted with patients, carers and healthcare professionals about patient and carer involvement with medicines in hospital. We therefore wanted to build on our previous paper and report on our experiences with lay partners helping to conduct data analysis. We therefore interviewed the lay members and researchers involved in the analysis to find out their views.Both lay members and researchers reported that lay partners added value to the study by bringing their own perspectives and identifying further areas for the researcher to look for in the interviews. In this way researchers and lay partners were able to work together to produce a richer analysis than would have been possible from either alone. Background It is recognised that involving lay people in research in a meaningful rather than tokenistic way is both important and challenging. In this paper, we contribute to this debate by describing our experiences of lay involvement in data analysis. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with the lay partners and researchers involved in qualitative data analysis in a wider study of inpatient involvement in medication safety. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and coded using open thematic analysis. Results We interviewed three lay partners and the three researchers involved. These interviews demonstrated that the lay members added value to the analysis by bringing their own perspectives; these were systematically integrated into the analysis by the

  9. Health Promotion in the Community: Impact of Faith-Based Lay Health Educators in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Sundar, Siddhi; Qureshi, Adil; Ooi, Gavyn; Teague, Paula; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-06-01

    Promoting wellness and providing reliable health information in the community present serious challenges. Lay health educators, also known as community health workers, may offer a cost-effective solution to such challenges. This is a retrospective observational study of graduates from the Lay Health Educator Program (LHEP) at Johns Hopkins Bayview Medical Center from 2013 to 2014. Students were enrolled from the surrounding community congregations and from the hospital's accredited clinical pastoral education program. There were 50 events implemented by the lay health educators during the 2014-2015 time period, reaching a total of 2004 individuals. The mean time from date of graduation from the LHEP to implementation of their first health promotional event was 196 ± 76 days. A significant number of lay health educators implemented events within the first year after completing their training. Ongoing monitoring of their community activity and the clinical impact of their efforts should be a priority for future studies.

  10. Survey Shows Variation in Ph.D. Methods Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Leslie; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reports on a 1982 survey of journalism graduate studies indicating considerable variation in research methods requirements and emphases in 23 universities offering doctoral degrees in mass communication. (HOD)

  11. Acquiring and refining CBT skills and competencies: which training methods are perceived to be most effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Levy, James; McManus, Freda; Westling, Bengt E; Fennell, Melanie

    2009-10-01

    A theoretical and empirical base for CBT training and supervision has started to emerge. Increasingly sophisticated maps of CBT therapist competencies have recently been developed, and there is evidence that CBT training and supervision can produce enhancement of CBT skills. However, the evidence base suggesting which specific training techniques are most effective for the development of CBT competencies is lacking. This paper addresses the question: What training or supervision methods are perceived by experienced therapists to be most effective for training CBT competencies? 120 experienced CBT therapists rated which training or supervision methods in their experience had been most effective in enhancing different types of therapy-relevant knowledge or skills. In line with the main prediction, it was found that different training methods were perceived to be differentially effective. For instance, reading, lectures/talks and modelling were perceived to be most useful for the acquisition of declarative knowledge, while enactive learning strategies (role-play, self-experiential work), together with modelling and reflective practice, were perceived to be most effective in enhancing procedural skills. Self-experiential work and reflective practice were seen as particularly helpful in improving reflective capability and interpersonal skills. The study provides a framework for thinking about the acquisition and refinement of therapist skills that may help trainers, supervisors and clinicians target their learning objectives with the most effective training strategies.

  12. The open method of coordination in vocational education and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination.......Analysis of EU modes of governance within the Copenhagen Process with a specific focus on the Open Method of Coordination....

  13. The Evaluation on Data Mining Methods of Horizontal Bar Training Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanhui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of science and technology, data analysis has become an indispensable part of people’s work and life. Horizontal bar training has multiple categories. It is an emphasis for the re-search of related workers that categories of the training and match should be reduced. The application of data mining methods is discussed based on the problem of reducing categories of horizontal bar training. The BP neural network is applied to the cluster analysis and the principal component analysis, which are used to evaluate horizontal bar training. Two kinds of data mining methods are analyzed from two aspects, namely the operational convenience of data mining and the rationality of results. It turns out that the principal component analysis is more suitable for data processing of horizontal bar training.

  14. Proposal for outline of training and evaluation method for non-technical skills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasaka, Akihiko; Shibue, Hisao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to systematize measures for improvement of emergency response capability focused on non-technical skills. As the results of investigation of some emergency training in nuclear power plant and referring to CRM training, following two issues were picked up. 1) Lack of practical training method for improvement of non-technical skills. 2) Lack of evaluation method of non-technical skills. Then, based on these 7 non-technical skills 'situational awareness' 'decision making' 'communication' 'teamworking' 'leadership' 'managing stress' 'coping with fatigue' are promotion factors to improve emergency response capability, we propose practical training method for each non-technical skill. Also we give example of behavioral markers as evaluation factor, and indicate approaches to introduce the evaluation method of non-technical skills. (author)

  15. Peculiarities of application the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Shebanova, Vitaliya

    2014-01-01

    The article presented peculiarities of applying the method of autogenic training in the correction of eating disorders. Described stages of correction work with desadaptive eating behavior. Author makes accent on the rules self-assembly formula intentions.

  16. Lay-offs in the Blended Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Singh J P

    2002-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that the Government of India is favourably inclined to change policy and enable establishments employing less than 1,000 workers to lay-off employees and undertake retrenchments or closures without prior permission. Corporate lay-offs in the U.S. indicate an ever-increasing trend and do not make a comforting reading. The year 2001 for example, saw the highest number of job cuts in the Fortune 500 companies than in any year ever since the survey of lay-offs were launched...

  17. Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of French physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Bonnevie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Questions: How common is inspiratory muscle training by physiotherapists in the intensive care unit (ICU? Which patients receive the training? What methods are used to administer the training? Is maximal inspiratory pressure used to evaluate the need for the training and the patient's outcome after training? Design: Cross-sectional survey of all ICUs in France. Participants: Two hundred and sixty-five senior physiotherapists. Results: The response rate was 99% among eligible units. Therapist experience in ICU was significantly associated with the use of inspiratory muscle training (p = 0.02. Therapists mainly used inspiratory muscle training either systematically or specifically in patients who failed to wean from mechanical ventilation. The training was used significantly more in non-sedated patients (p < 0.0001. The most commonly nominated technique that respondents claimed to use to apply the training was controlled diaphragmatic breathing (83% of respondents, whereas 13% used evidence-based methods. Among those who applied some form of inspiratory muscle training, 16% assessed maximal inspiratory pressure. Six respondents (2%, 95% CI 1 to 5 used both an evidence-based method to administer inspiratory muscle training and the recommended technique for assessment of inspiratory muscle strength. Conclusion: Most physiotherapists in French ICUs who apply inspiratory muscle training use methods of uncertain efficacy without assessment of maximal inspiratory pressure. Further efforts need to be made in France to disseminate information regarding evidence-based assessment and techniques for inspiratory muscle training in the ICU. The alignment of inspiratory muscle training practice with evidence could be investigated in other regions. [Bonnevie T, Villiot-Danger J-C, Gravier F-E, Dupuis J, Prieur G, Médrinal C (2015 Inspiratory muscle training is used in some intensive care units, but many training methods have uncertain efficacy: a survey of

  18. Using of innovative educational and traning methods in the professional training of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiia Tymkiv

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of innovative methods of training professional values ofsocial workers. It has been shown, that the use of innovative technologies in the educationalprocess will enhance the mental and social activities of prospective specialists in the socialsphere and prepare them for independent decision-making consistent with the acquired values.Key words : innovative methods of training, role games, game situation of professionaldirection.

  19. A Review of Training Methods and Instructional Techniques: Implications for Behavioral Skills Training in U.S. Astronauts (DRAFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J.; Galarza, Laura; Holland, Albert W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-duration space missions (LDM) place unique physical, environmental and psychological demands on crewmembers that directly affect their ability to live and work in space. A growing body of research on crews working for extended periods in isolated, confined environments reveals the existence of psychological and performance problems in varying degrees of magnitude. The research has also demonstrated that although the environment plays a cathartic role, many of these problems are due to interpersonal frictions (Wood, Lugg, Hysong, & Harm, 1999), and affect each individual differently. Consequently, crewmembers often turn to maladaptive behaviors as coping mechanisms, resulting in decreased productivity and psychological discomfort. From this body of research, critical skills have been identified that can help a crewmember better navigate the psychological challenges of long duration space flight. Although most people lack several of these skills, most of them can be learned; thus, a training program can be designed to teach crewmembers effective leadership, teamwork, and self-care strategies that will help minimize the emergence of maladaptive behaviors. Thus, it is the purpose of this report is twofold: 1) To review the training literature to help determine the optimal instructional methods to use in delivering psychological skill training to the U.S. Astronaut Expedition Corps, and 2) To detail the structure and content of the proposed Astronaut Expedition Corps Psychological Training Program.

  20. Validity and reliability of the session-RPE method for quantifying training load in karate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, M; Tourny, C; Haddad, M; Chaabane, H; Chamari, K; Coquart, J B

    2015-04-24

    To test the construct validity and reliability of the session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) method by examining the relationship between RPE and physiological parameters (heart rate: HR and blood lactate concentration: [La --] ) and the correlations between sRPE and two HR--based methods for quantifying internal training load (Banister's method and Edwards's method) during karate training camp. Eighteen elite karate athletes: ten men (age: 24.2 ± 2.3 y, body mass: 71.2 ± 9.0 kg, body fat: 8.2 ± 1.3% and height: 178 ± 7 cm) and eight women (age: 22.6 ± 1.2 y, body mass: 59.8 ± 8.4 kg, body fat: 20.2 ± 4.4%, height: 169 ± 4 cm) were included in the study. During training camp, subjects participated in eight karate--training sessions including three training modes (4 tactical--technical, 2 technical--development, and 2 randori training), during which RPE, HR, and [La -- ] were recorded. Significant correlations were found between RPE and physiological parameters (percentage of maximal HR: r = 0.75, 95% CI = 0.64--0.86; [La --] : r = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.49--0.75; P training load ( r = 0.65--0.95; P reliability of the same intensity across training sessions (Cronbach's α = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.61--0.92). This study demonstrates that the sRPE method is valid for quantifying internal training load and intensity in karate.

  1. A novel heterogeneous training sample selection method on space-time adaptive processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Yongshun; Guo, Yiduo

    2018-04-01

    The performance of ground target detection about space-time adaptive processing (STAP) decreases when non-homogeneity of clutter power is caused because of training samples contaminated by target-like signals. In order to solve this problem, a novel nonhomogeneous training sample selection method based on sample similarity is proposed, which converts the training sample selection into a convex optimization problem. Firstly, the existing deficiencies on the sample selection using generalized inner product (GIP) are analyzed. Secondly, the similarities of different training samples are obtained by calculating mean-hausdorff distance so as to reject the contaminated training samples. Thirdly, cell under test (CUT) and the residual training samples are projected into the orthogonal subspace of the target in the CUT, and mean-hausdorff distances between the projected CUT and training samples are calculated. Fourthly, the distances are sorted in order of value and the training samples which have the bigger value are selective preference to realize the reduced-dimension. Finally, simulation results with Mountain-Top data verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. The Effect of 4-week Difference Training Methods on Some Fitness Variables in Youth Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhossein a Parnow

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Handball is a team sport in which main activities such as sprinting, arm throwing, hitting, and so on involve. This Olympic team sport requires a standard of preparation in order to complete sixteen minutes of competitive play and to achieve success. This study, therefore, was done to determinate the effect of a 4-week different training on some physical fitness variables in youth Handball players. Thirty high-school students participated in the study and assigned into the Resistance Training (RT (n = 10: 16.75± 0.36 yr; 63.14± 4.19 kg; 174.8 ± 5.41 cm, Plyometric Training (PT (n = 10: 16.57± 0.26 yr; 65.52± 6.79 kg; 173.5 ± 5.44 cm, and Complex Training (CT (n=10, 16.23± 0.50 yr; 58.43± 10.50 kg; 175.2 ± 8.19 cm groups. Subjects were evaluated in anthropometric and physiological characteristics 48 hours before and after of a 4-week protocol. Because of study purposes, statistical analyses consisted of a repeated measure ANVOA and one-way ANOVA were used. In considering with pre to post test variables changes in the groups, data analysis showed BF, strength, speed, agility, and explosive power were affected by training protocols (P0.05. In conclusion, complex training result in advantageous effect on variables such as strength, explosive power, speed and agility in youth handball players compare with resistance and plyometric training although we also reported positive effect of these training methods. Coaches and players, therefore, could consider complex training as alternative method for other training methods.

  3. Methods in Professional Training: Indoctrination from Step One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Marjorie

    A preliminary classification of methods used during first-year law courses to develop a sense of professional identification among students is presented. Professors' images of lawyers conveyed to students are described based on faculty comments. In addition, informal student interviews were conducted to determine their awareness of this…

  4. Provider and lay perspectives on intra-uterine contraception: a global review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniele, Marina A S; Cleland, John; Benova, Lenka; Ali, Moazzam

    2017-09-26

    Intra-uterine contraception (IUC) involves the use of an intra-uterine device (IUD), a highly effective, long-acting, reversible contraceptive method. Historically, the popularity of IUC has waxed and waned across different world regions, due to policy choices and shifts in public opinion. However, despite its advantages and cost-effectiveness for programmes, IUC's contribution to contraceptive prevalence is currently negligible in many countries. This paper presents the results of a systematic review of the global literature on provider and lay perspectives on IUC. It aims to shed light on the reasons for low use of IUC and reflect on potential opportunities for the method's promotion. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in four peer-reviewed journals and four electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and Global Health). Screening resulted in the inclusion of 68 relevant publications. Most included studies were conducted in areas where IUD use is moderate or low. Findings are similar across these areas. Many providers have low or uneven levels of knowledge on IUC and limited training. Many wrongly believe that IUC entails serious side effects such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and are reluctant to provide it to entire eligible categories, such as HIV-positive women. There is particular resistance to providing IUC to teenagers and nulliparae. Provider opinions may be more favourable towards the hormonal IUD. Some health-care providers choose IUC for themselves. Many members of the public have low knowledge and unfounded misconceptions about IUC, such as the fear of infertility. Some are concerned about the insertion and removal processes, and about its effect on menses. However, users of IUC are generally satisfied and report a number of benefits. Peers and providers exert a strong influence on women's attitudes. Both providers and lay people have inaccurate knowledge and misconceptions about IUC, which contribute to explaining its low

  5. Training methods in non-destructive examination with ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walte, F.

    1986-01-01

    German concept for inspection of LWR, leak before break, basic safety; General inspection methods; Ultrasonic inspection - basic principle, generation of ultrasound, bulk and surface waves, piezo electric and electromagnetic transducers, energy balance, scattering and adsorption, divergence; Ultra techniques in compliance with KTA-rules - pulse-echo, tandem, throughtransmission; Valuation of ultrasonic indications; Pre- and in-service inspection; Practical part - ultrasonic equipment, ultrasonic piezo electric transducers, wall thickness measurement, crack depth measurement with potential drop technique. (orig.)

  6. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Adapting a perinatal empathic training method from South Africa to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Caprice; Honikman, Simone; Wirsching, Michael; Husni-Pascha, Gidah; Hänselmann, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Maternal mental health conditions are prevalent across the world. For women, the perinatal period is associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety. At the same time, there is widespread documentation of disrespectful care for women by maternity health staff. Improving the empathic engagement skills of maternity healthcare workers may enable them to respond to the mental health needs of their clients more effectively. In South Africa, a participatory empathic training method, the "Secret History" has been used as part of a national Department of Health training program with maternity staff and has showed promising results. For this paper, we aimed to describe an adaptation of the Secret History empathic training method from the South African to the German setting and to evaluate the adapted training. The pilot study occurred in an academic medical center in Germany. A focus group ( n  = 8) was used to adapt the training by describing the local context and changing the materials to be relevant to Germany. After adapting the materials, the pilot training was conducted with a mixed group of professionals ( n  = 15), many of whom were trainers themselves. A pre-post survey assessed the participants' empathy levels and attitudes towards the training method. In adapting the materials, the focus group discussion generated several experiences that were considered to be typical interpersonal and structural challenges facing healthcare workers in maternal care in Germany. These experiences were crafted into case scenarios that then formed the basis of the activities used in the Secret History empathic training pilot. Evaluation of the pilot training showed that although the participants had high levels of empathy in the pre-phase (100% estimated their empathic ability as high or very high), 69% became more aware of their own emotional experiences with patients and the need for self-care after the training. A majority, or 85%, indicated that the training

  8. Cyber visual training as a new method for the mastery of endoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiguchi, S; Sekimoto, M; Yasui, M; Miyata, H; Fujiwara, Y; Yasuda, T; Yano, M; Monden, M

    2005-09-01

    We devised a new method incorporating cyber visual training whereby novices in endoscopic surgery are instructed via repetition of a video-recorded procedure. We then conducted a study designed to investigate the impact of this cyber visual training on the mastery of intracorporeal knot-tying as an endoscopic technique. For the cyber visual training a 10-min video of the same procedure was replayed at normal, slow, and rapid speeds or presented in a series of still images. The training was undertaken by 36 medical students and 1st year trainee doctors who had had no experience of endoscopic surgery. They were divided into three groups, each of all received the same introductory lecture. Group A was only given training with the instructor for 15 min. Group B trained with the instructor for 15 min and was allowed self-training for 10 min. Group C viewed the cyber video beforehand and then underwent training with the instructor for 15 min. For all participants, the time required to complete a knot-tying task was measured and the level of endoscopic skill before and after the training was assessed using a virtual reality system the minimally Invasive Surgical Trainer-Virtual Reality (MIST-VR), in terms of the following three parameters: time, errors, and efficiency of hand movements. The Steel-Dwass test was used to evaluate the differences among the three groups in task performance. Group C completed the knot-tying task faster than group A (p = 0.0375), but there were significant differences between groups A and B and groups B and C. There were no significant differences in the parameters assessed using the MIST-VR. Our new concept of cyber visual training is effective for mastering the knot-tying technique. This type of training should be widely applicable to other procedures, such as dissection, clipping, and hemostasis.

  9. Training NOAA Staff on Effective Communication Methods with Local Climate Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeyeva, M. M.; Mayes, B.

    2011-12-01

    Since 2002 NOAA National Weather Service (NWS) Climate Services Division (CSD) offered training opportunities to NWS staff. As a result of eight-year-long development of the training program, NWS offers three training courses and about 25 online distance learning modules covering various climate topics: climate data and observations, climate variability and change, NWS national and local climate products, their tools, skill, and interpretation. Leveraging climate information and expertise available at all NOAA line offices and partners allows delivery of the most advanced knowledge and is a very critical aspect of the training program. NWS challenges in providing local climate services includes effective communication techniques on provide highly technical scientific information to local users. Addressing this challenge requires well trained, climate-literate workforce at local level capable of communicating the NOAA climate products and services as well as provide climate-sensitive decision support. Trained NWS climate service personnel use proactive and reactive approaches and professional education methods in communicating climate variability and change information to local users. Both scientifically-unimpaired messages and amiable communication techniques such as story telling approach are important in developing an engaged dialog between the climate service providers and users. Several pilot projects NWS CSD conducted in the past year applied the NWS climate services training program to training events for NOAA technical user groups. The technical user groups included natural resources managers, engineers, hydrologists, and planners for transportation infrastructure. Training of professional user groups required tailoring the instructions to the potential applications of each group of users. Training technical user identified the following critical issues: (1) Knowledge of target audience expectations, initial knowledge status, and potential use of climate

  10. Clustering and training set selection methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F.; Wiens, Roger C.; Morris, Richard V.; Clegg, Samuel M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated five clustering and training set selection methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis of geologic samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The LIBS spectra were previously acquired for 195 rock slabs and 31 pressed powder geostandards under 7 Torr CO 2 at a stand-off distance of 7 m at 17 mJ per pulse to simulate the operational conditions of the ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The clustering and training set selection methods, which do not require prior knowledge of the chemical composition of the test-set samples, are based on grouping similar spectra and selecting appropriate training spectra for the partial least squares (PLS2) model. These methods were: (1) hierarchical clustering of the full set of training spectra and selection of a subset for use in training; (2) k-means clustering of all spectra and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster; (3) iterative use of PLS2 to predict sample composition and k-means clustering of the predicted compositions to subdivide the groups of spectra; (4) soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification of spectra, and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each class; (5) use of Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to determine an optimal number of clusters and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster. The iterative method and the k-means method using 5 clusters showed the best performance, improving the absolute quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) by ∼ 3 wt.%. The statistical significance of these improvements was ∼ 85%. Our results show that although clustering methods can modestly improve results, a large and diverse training set is the most reliable way to improve the accuracy of quantitative LIBS. In particular, additional sulfate standards and specifically

  11. ARN Training Course on Advance Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of Ideas Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Gossio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. The IDEAS Guidelines provide a method to harmonize dose evaluations using criteria and flow chart procedures to be followed step by step. The EURADOS Working Group 7 'Internal Dosimetry', in collaboration with IAEA and Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague, promoted the 'EURADOS/IAEA Regional Training Course on Advanced Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of IDEAS Guidelines' to broaden and encourage the use of IDEAS Guidelines, which took place in Prague (Czech Republic) from 2-6 February 2009. The ARN identified the relevance of this training and asked for a place for participating on this activity. After that, the first training course in Argentina took place from 24-28 August for training local internal dosimetry experts. (authors)

  12. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  13. Quality of dispatch-assisted cardiopulmonary resuscitation by lay rescuers following a standard protocol in Japan: an observational simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Hideki; Fukushima, Hidetada; Bolstad, Francesco; Okuchi, Kazuo

    2018-04-01

    Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential for improving the outcomes of sudden cardiac arrest patients. It has been reported that dispatch-assisted CPR (DACPR) accounts for more than half of the incidence of CPR undertaken by bystanders. Its quality, however, can be suboptimal. We aimed to measure the quality of DACPR using a simulation study. We recruited laypersons at a shopping mall and measured the quality of CPR carried out in our simulation. Dispatchers provided instruction in accordance with the standard DACPR protocol in Japan. Twenty-three laypersons (13 with CPR training experience within the past 2 years and 10 with no training experience) participated in this study. The median chest compression rate and depth were 106/min and 33 mm, respectively. The median time interval from placing the 119 call to the start of chest compressions was 119 s. No significant difference was found between the groups with and without training experience. However, subjects with training experience more frequently placed their hands correctly on the manikin (84.6% versus 40.0%; P = 0.026). Twelve participants (52.2%, seven in trained and five in untrained group) interrupted chest compressions for 3-18 s, because dispatchers asked if the patient started breathing or moving. This current simulation study showed that the quality of DACPR carried out by lay rescuers can be less than optimal in terms of depth, hand placement, and minimization of pauses. Further studies are required to explore better DACPR instruction methods to help lay rescuers perform CPR with optimal quality.

  14. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Using data from the train driver schedule of the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the Train Driver Recovery Problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP...... the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. Preliminarily results are encouraging, showing that nearly all tested real-life instances produce integer solutions to the LP relaxation and solutions are found within a few seconds....

  15. Communication of technical information to lay audiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowes, J.E.; Stamm, K.R.; Jackson, K.M.; Moore, J.

    1978-05-01

    One of the objectives of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to provide terminal storage facilities for commercial radioactive wastes in various geologic formations at multiple locations in the United States. The activities performed under the NWTS Program will affect regional, state, and local areas, and widespread public interest in this program is expected. Since a large part of the NWTS Program deals with technical information it was considered desirable to initiate a study dealing with possible methods of effectively transmitting this technical information to the general public. This study has the objective of preparing a state-of-the-art report on the communication of technical information to lay audiences. The particular task of communicating information about the NWTS Program to the public is discussed where appropriate. The results of this study will aid the NWTS Program in presenting to the public the quite diverse technical information generated within the program so that a widespread, thorough public understanding of the NWTS Program might be achieved. An annotated bibliography is included

  16. FEATURES OF METHODS OF FUTURE PHYSICAL CULTURE TEACHERS’ TRAINING FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петро Джуринський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the methodical approaches and recommendations on implementation of methods of future Physical Culture teachers to physical education of high school students into study process at a higher educational institution. The role of the approbated study discipline “Theory and methods of physical education at high school” has been determined in this research. It has also been defined, that future Physical Culture teacher’s training for physical education of high school students is a system of organizational and educational measures, ensuring the formation of future teacher’s professional knowledge and skills. The article presents the defined tasks, criteria, tools, forms, pedagogical conditions and stages of students’ training for teaching classes of Physical Education to high school students. Approbation of methodical approaches to future Physical Culture teachers’ training for physical education of high school students demonstrated their efficacy

  17. The Modeling as Didactic Method in the Scientific-Professional Training of the Psychologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Ramiro Gross Tur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The modeling method has often been developed or recognized in various processes related to training of psychologists studies. It has educational value as its application favors the appropriation of skills and capacity necessary for the performance on the student. However, the method has limitations because it does not exhaust the content praxiological psychology in the teaching-learning process. Therefore, the modeling required to be valued its limitations and potentials in order to plan actions necessary to improve or complement other methods, which serve to improve the process of scientific and professional training of psychologists, with emphasis on the labor dimension.

  18. A multi-method evaluation of a training course on dual diagnosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rani, S

    2012-08-01

    A training course on dual diagnosis was developed within the Irish forensic mental health service, to bridge the gap in the lack of training on dual diagnosis in Ireland. The course was designed for service providers within mental health and addiction services. Twenty participants involving nursing, social work, police and social welfare disciplines attended the first training course. A mixed methodology research design was adapted to describe participants\\' evaluation of the training course. Data were collected using multiple methods: pre- and post-test, daily evaluation and focus group interviews. Quantitative data were analysed using the spss Version 16.0 and qualitative data were analysed thematically. Findings from the pre- and post-test suggest an increase in participants\\' knowledge of dual diagnosis and an increase in confidence in conducting groups. Daily evaluation indicates that the course content largely met participants\\' needs. Finally, three themes emerged from the focus group interview: increased confidence, the training course\\/teaching methods and personal\\/organizational challenges. This study implies that service providers within mental health and addiction services benefit from inter-professional, needs and skills based courses incorporating a variety of teaching methods. The way forward for future dual diagnosis training course developments would be working in partnership with service users and carers.

  19. 48 CFR 3052.217-94 - Lay days (USCG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days (USCG). 3052.217... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.217-94 Lay days (USCG). As prescribed in USCG guidance at (HSAR) 48 CFR 3017.9000(a) and (b), insert the following clause: Lay Days (DEC 2003) (a) Lay day time...

  20. 48 CFR 1352.271-86 - Lay days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1352.271-86... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-86 Lay days. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1371.117, insert the following clause: Lay Days (APR 2010) (a) A lay day is defined as an...

  1. 48 CFR 1252.217-75 - Lay days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lay days. 1252.217-75... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 1252.217-75 Lay days. As prescribed at (TAR) 48 CFR 1217.7001(c) and (e), insert the following clause: Lay Days (OCT 1994) (a) Lay day...

  2. An exploration of learning to link with Wikipedia: features, methods and training collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, J.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our participation in the Link-the-Wiki track at INEX 2009. We apply machine learning methods to the anchor-to-best-entry-point task and explore the impact of the following aspects of our approaches: features, learning methods as well as the collection used for training the models. We

  3. Reflections from the Application of Different Type of Activities: Special Training Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Mihriban Hacisalihoglu

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the benefits gained from "Special Training Methods II" course and the problems prospective mathematics teachers encountered with it. The case study method was used in the study. The participants in the study were 34 prospective mathematics teachers studying at a Primary School Mathematics Education…

  4. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  5. Methods for the Determination of Chemical Contaminants in Drinking Water. Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    This training manual, intended for chemists and technicians with little or no experience in chemical procedures required to monitor drinking water, covers analytical methods for inorganic and organic chemical contaminants listed in the interim primary drinking water regulations. Topics include methods for heavy metals, nitrate, and organic…

  6. The Effect of Vocal Training Methods on Improving Turkish Accent Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Kivanc; Evren, Gul Fahriye

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Despite analyses of how vocal training methods can correct or improve Turkish-language accent defects, for most voice educators, the most important methods continue to be breathe management control and correct vocalization exercises. We therefore sought to demonstrate the relationship of song lyrics to breathe control, accent…

  7. Remote training as one of the methods of effective training for foreign students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Белоглазов

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents methodical aspects of distance education. Due attention is paid to historical retrospect in the field under investigation. The possibilities of distance learning are presented in the work. The interpretation of the definition of “Distance Education” is presented and a comprehensive presentation of its essence and content is given. The article demonstrates the basic technologies of distance education. The paper considers the main problems that stand in the way of effective learning for foreign students. The study carried out a comparative analysis of opportunities and conditions for traditional and distance learning for an international student. As a result of the analysis, it was concluded that the use of distance education is a serious tool for achieving high quality of education by foreign students.

  8. Family Caregivers as Lay Trainers: Perceptions of Learning and the Relationship between Life Experience and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…

  9. Exploring How Lay Rescuers Overcome Barriers to Provide Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiesen, Wenche Torunn; Bjørshol, Conrad Arnfinn; Høyland, Sindre; Braut, Geir Sverre; Søreide, Eldar

    2017-02-01

    Survival rates after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) vary considerably among regions. The chance of survival is increased significantly by lay rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) before Emergency Medical Services (EMS) arrival. It is well known that for bystanders, reasons for not providing CPR when witnessing an OHCA incident may be fear and the feeling of being exposed to risk. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of why barriers to providing CPR are overcome. Using a semi-structured interview guide, 10 lay rescuers were interviewed after participating in eight OHCA incidents. Qualitative content analysis was used. The lay rescuers were questioned about their CPR-knowledge, expectations, and reactions to the EMS and from others involved in the OHCA incident. They also were questioned about attitudes towards providing CPR in an OHCA incident in different contexts. The lay rescuers reported that they were prepared to provide CPR to anybody, anywhere. Comprehending the severity in the OHCA incident, both trained and untrained lay rescuers provided CPR. They considered CPR provision to be the expected behavior of any community citizen and the EMS to act professionally and urgently. However, when asked to imagine an OHCA in an unclear setting, they revealed hesitation about providing CPR because of risk to their own safety. Mutual trust between community citizens and towards social institutions may be reasons for overcoming barriers in providing CPR by lay rescuers. A normative obligation to act, regardless of CPR training and, importantly, without facing any adverse legal reactions, also seems to be an important factor behind CPR provision. Mathiesen WT , Bjørshol CA , Høyland S , Braut GS , Søreide E . Exploring how lay rescuers overcome barriers to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a qualitative study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(1):27-32.

  10. What are lay theories of social class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnum, Michael E W

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.

  11. Gene Expression Profiling in the Pituitary Gland of Laying Period and Ceased Period Huoyan Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhong Luan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Huoyan goose is a Chinese local breed famous for its higher laying performance, but the problems of variety degeneration have emerged recently, especially a decrease in the number of eggs laid. In order to better understand the molecular mechanism that underlies egg laying in Huoyan geese, gene profiles in the pituitary gland of Huoyan geese taken during the laying period and ceased period were investigated using the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH method. Total RNA was extracted from pituitary glands of ceased period and laying period geese. The cDNA in the pituitary glands of ceased geese was subtracted from the cDNA in the pituitary glands of laying geese (forward subtraction; the reverse subtraction was also performed. After sequencing and annotation, a total of 30 and 24 up and down-regulated genes were obtained from the forward and reverse SSH libraries, respectively. These genes mostly related to biosynthetic process, cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process, transport, cell differentiation, cellular protein modification process, signal transduction, small molecule metabolic process. Furthermore, eleven genes were selected for further analyses by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. The qRT-PCR results for the most part were consistent with the SSH results. Among these genes, Synaptotagmin-1 (SYT1 and Stathmin-2 (STMN2 were substantially over-expressed in laying period compared to ceased period. These results could serve as an important reference for elucidating the molecular mechanism of higher laying performance in Huoyan geese.

  12. METHODS OF TRAINING OF MODERN AIRCRAFT FLIGHT CREWS FOR INFLIGHT ABNORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurii Hryshchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is the theoretical justification of the existing methods and development of new methods of training the crews of modern aircraft for inflight abnormal circumstances. Methods: The article describes the research methods of engineering psychology, mathematical statistics and analysis of the correlation functions. Results: The example of the two accidents of aircraft with modern avionics is shown in the problem statement. The pilot made a sharp movement of the steering wheel while go-around, which has led to a sharp diving and impossibility of coming out of it. It was shown that the developed anti-stress training methods allow crews to train a human operator to prevent such events. The theoretical solution of the problem of optimization of the flight on the final approach, considering the human factor, is suggested to solve using the method of analysis of the autocorrelation function. Conclusions: It is necessary to additionally implement methods of teaching the counteracting of factorial overlaps into the training course using the complex modern aircraft simulators. It is enough to analyze a single pitch angle curve of the autocorrelation function to determine the phenomena of amplification of integral-differential motor dynamic stereotype of the pilot.

  13. Articulating training methods using Job Task Analysis (JTA) - determined proficiency levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The INPO task analysis process, as well as that of many utilities, is based on the approach used by the US Navy. This is undoubtedly due to the Navy nuclear background of many of those involved in introducing the systems approach to training to the nuclear power industry. This report outlines an approach, used by a major North-Central utility, which includes a process developed by the Air Force. Air Force task analysis and instructional system development includes the use of a proficiency code. The code includes consideration of three types of learning - task performance, task knowledge, and subject knowledge - and four levels of competence for each. The use of this classification system facilitates the identification of desired competency levels at the completion of formal training in the classroom and lab, and of informal training on the job. By using the Air Force's proficiency code. The utility's program developers were able to develop generic training for its main training facility and site-specific training at its nuclear plants, using the most efficiency and cost-effective training methods

  14. ACHIEVING THE NATURAL VOICE: THE ANALYSIS OF THE LINKLATER METHOD FROM A TRAINING PERSPECTİVE–

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli YILMAZ DAVUTOGLU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the 20th century, one of the most widespread of the voice training methods that start with the concepts “natural voice” and “the rediscovery of voice” is the Linklater Method. The primary target group of this method is actors. With its exercises designed for the "reconstruction of the body, the voice and the mind", this method aims at utilizing the innate voice capacity. As a multidisciplinary method fostered by many a scientific discipline and Eastern teaching, Linklater method comes with a language that is imbued with sophisticated and metaphorical expressions, scientific terminology and acting jargon, which makes the method prone to false and/or superficial references. The target of the present study is to explicate with a “trainer's perspective” the fundamental concepts and propositions of the Linklater Method, most notably the “natural voice”. Also, the present study aims at analysing the relation between the basic practices of the method and recent scientific data, thus examining the mental substructure these practices are based on and their physical/technical goals. In this direction, the present study involves the adopting of a general framework with respect to the inclinations and scientific sources of voice training in the 20th century that affected Linklater's propositions, a simplified summarisation of the neuro-anatomic process producing the voice, the selection of exercises on which the principles and goals of the method can be seen concretely and the grouping of these exercises under titles pertaining to the four basic steps of voice production. In the conclusion part of the study, it is argued that this method, despite being regarded as “alternative/experimental” when compared to conventional methods in Turkey, is one of the mainstream methods in contemporary voice training and that it is shaped through a multi-purpose system whose aim is not only voice training but also to develop the creativity and

  15. Apparatus and Method for Low-Temperature Training of Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Trigwell, S.; Gibson, T. L.; Williams, M. K.; Benafan, O.

    2015-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the low-temperature thermo-mechanical training of shape memory alloys (SMA) has been developed. The experimental SMA materials are being evaluated as prototypes for applicability in novel thermal management systems for future cryogenic applications. Alloys providing two-way actuation at cryogenic temperatures are the chief target. The mechanical training regimen was focused on the controlled movement of rectangular strips, with S-bend configurations, at temperatures as low as 30 K. The custom holding fixture included temperature sensors and a low heat-leak linear actuator with a magnetic coupling. The fixture was mounted to a Gifford-McMahon cryocooler providing up to 25 W of cooling power at 20 K and housed within a custom vacuum chamber. Operations included both training cycles and verification of shape memory movement. The system design and operation are discussed. Results of the training for select prototype alloys are presented.

  16. Participatory/problem-based methods and techniques for training in health and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosskam, E

    2001-01-01

    More knowledgeable and trained people are needed in the area of occupational health, safety, and environment (OSHE) if work-related fatalities, accidents, and diseases are to be reduced. Established systems have been largely ineffective, with few employers taking voluntary measures to protect workers and the environment and too few labor inspectors available. Training techniques using participatory methods and a worker empowerment philosophy have proven value. There is demonstrated need for the use of education for action, promoting the involvement of workers in all levels of decision-making and problem-solving in the workplace. OSH risks particular to women s jobs are virtually unstudied and not addressed at policy levels in most countries. Trade unions and health and safety professionals need to demystify technical areas, empower workers, and encourage unions to dedicate special activities around women s jobs. Trained women are excellent motivators and transmitters of safety culture. Particular emphasis is given to train-the-trainer approaches.

  17. Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method for RÖSSLER Chaotic System Fuzzy Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Qing-Xian; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Li; Fang, Wei

    Generally, fuzzy approximation models require some human knowledge and experience. Operator's experience is involved in the mathematics of fuzzy theory as a collection of heuristic rules. The main goal of this paper is to present a new method for identifying unknown nonlinear dynamics such as Rössler system without any human knowledge. Instead of heuristic rules, the presented method uses the input-output data pairs to identify the Rössler chaotic system. The training algorithm is a modified Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) method, which can adjust the parameters of each linear polynomial and fuzzy membership functions on line, and do not rely on experts' experience excessively. Finally, it is applied to training Rössler chaotic system fuzzy identification. Comparing this method with the standard L-M method, the convergence speed is accelerated. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Carvalho Picoli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (Vpeak_K in mice.Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO2max (GVO2, 2. group trained by Vpeak_K (GVP. After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO2 and VCO2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO2max and Vpeak_K in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions.Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO2max (ml·kg−1·min−1 (GVO2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%, Vpeak_K (cm·s−1 (GVO2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%, EE (ml·kg−0,75·min−1 (GVO2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%, and run distance (cm (GVO2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%, after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05; there were no differences between the groups.Conclusions: Vpeak_K, as well as vVO2max, can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  19. Peak Velocity as an Alternative Method for Training Prescription in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Gilio, Gustavo R; Guariglia, Débora A; Tófolo, Laize P; de Moraes, Solange M F; Machado, Fabiana A; Peres, Sidney B

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the efficiency of an aerobic physical training program prescribed according to either velocity associated with maximum oxygen uptake (vVO 2max ) or peak running speed obtained during an incremental treadmill test (V peak_K ) in mice. Methods: Twenty male Swiss mice, 60 days old, were randomly divided into two groups with 10 animals each: 1. group trained by vVO 2max (GVO 2 ), 2. group trained by V peak_K (GVP). After the adaptation training period, an incremental test was performed at the beginning of each week to adjust training load and to determine the amount of VO 2 and VCO 2 fluxes consumed, energy expenditure (EE) and run distance during the incremental test. Mice were submitted to 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training of moderate intensity (velocity referring to 70% of vVO 2max and V peak_K ) in a programmable treadmill. The sessions lasted from 30 to 40 min in the first week, to reach 60 min in the fourth week, in order to provide the mice with a moderate intensity exercise, totaling 20 training sessions. Results: Mice demonstrated increases in VO 2max (ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 49.1% and GVP = 56.2%), V peak_K (cm·s -1 ) (GVO 2 = 50.9% and GVP = 22.3%), EE (ml·kg -0,75 ·min -1 ) (GVO 2 = 39.9% and GVP = 51.5%), and run distance (cm) (GVO 2 = 43.5% and GVP = 33.4%), after 4 weeks of aerobic training (time effect, P < 0.05); there were no differences between the groups. Conclusions: V peak_K , as well as vVO 2max , can be adopted as an alternative test to determine the performance and correct prescription of systemized aerobic protocol training to mice.

  20. Methods of extending signatures and training without ground information. [data processing, pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, R. G.; Thomas, G. S.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of performing signature extension, using LANDSAT-1 data, are explored. The emphasis is on improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of large area wheat surveys. Two methods were developed: ASC, and MASC. Two methods, Ratio, and RADIFF, previously used with aircraft data were adapted to and tested on LANDSAT-1 data. An investigation into the sources and nature of between scene data variations was included. Initial investigations into the selection of training fields without in situ ground truth were undertaken.

  1. PARTIAL TRAINING METHOD FOR HEURISTIC ALGORITHM OF POSSIBLE CLUSTERIZATION UNDER UNKNOWN NUMBER OF CLASSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Viattchenin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A method for constructing a subset of labeled objects which is used in a heuristic algorithm of possible  clusterization with partial  training is proposed in the  paper.  The  method  is  based  on  data preprocessing by the heuristic algorithm of possible clusterization using a transitive closure of a fuzzy tolerance. Method efficiency is demonstrated by way of an illustrative example.

  2. Causes of mortality in laying hens in different housing systems in 2001 to 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etterlin Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The husbandry systems for laying hens were changed in Sweden during the years 2001 – 2004, and an increase in the number of submissions for necropsy from laying hen farms was noted. Hence, this study was initiated to compare causes of mortality in different housing systems for commercial laying hens during this change. Methods Based on results from routine necropsies of 914 laying hens performed at the National Veterinary Institute (SVA in Uppsala, Sweden between 2001 and 2004, a retrospective study on the occurrence of diseases and cannibalism, i.e., pecking leading to mortality, in different housing systems was carried out. Using the number of disease outbreaks in caged flocks as the baseline, the expected number of flocks with a certain category of disease in the other housing systems was estimated having regard to the total number of birds in the population. Whether the actual number of flocks significantly exceeded the expected number was determined using a Poisson distribution for the variance of the baseline number, a continuity correction and the exact value for the Poisson distribution function in Excel 2000. Results Common causes of mortality in necropsied laying hens included colibacillosis, erysipelas, coccidiosis, red mite infestation, lymphoid leukosis and cannibalism. Less common diagnoses were Newcastle Disease, pasteurellosis and botulism. Considering the size of the populations in the different housing systems, a larger proportion of laying hens than expected was submitted for necropsy from litter-based systems and free range production compared to hens in cages (P P P Conclusion The results of the present study indicated that during 2001–2004 laying hens housed in litter-based housing systems, with or without access to outdoor areas, were at higher risk of infectious diseases and cannibalistic behaviour compared to laying hens in cages. Future research should focus on finding suitable prophylactic

  3. Task shifting in maternal and newborn care: a non-inferiority study examining delegation of antenatal counseling to lay nurse aides supported by job aids in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affo Jean

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shifting the role of counseling to less skilled workers may improve efficiency and coverage of health services, but evidence is needed on the impact of substitution on quality of care. This research explored the influence of delegating maternal and newborn counseling responsibilities to clinic-based lay nurse aides on the quality of counseling provided as part of a task shifting initiative to expand their role. Methods Nurse-midwives and lay nurse aides in seven public maternities were trained to use job aids to improve counseling in maternal and newborn care. Quality of counseling and maternal knowledge were assessed using direct observation of antenatal consultations and patient exit interviews. Both provider types were interviewed to examine perceptions regarding the task shift. To compare provider performance levels, non-inferiority analyses were conducted where non-inferiority was demonstrated if the lower confidence limit of the performance difference did not exceed a margin of 10 percentage points. Results Mean percent of recommended messages provided by lay nurse aides was non-inferior to counseling by nurse-midwives in adjusted analyses for birth preparedness (β = -0.0, 95% CI: -9.0, 9.1, danger sign recognition (β = 4.7, 95% CI: -5.1, 14.6, and clean delivery (β = 1.4, 95% CI: -9.4, 12.3. Lay nurse aides demonstrated superior performance for communication on general prenatal care (β = 15.7, 95% CI: 7.0, 24.4, although non-inferiority was not achieved for newborn care counseling (β = -7.3, 95% CI: -23.1, 8.4. The proportion of women with correct knowledge was significantly higher among those counseled by lay nurse aides as compared to nurse-midwives in general prenatal care (β = 23.8, 95% CI: 15.7, 32.0, birth preparedness (β = 12.7, 95% CI: 5.2, 20.1, and danger sign recognition (β = 8.6, 95% CI: 3.3, 13.9. Both cadres had positive opinions regarding task shifting, although several preferred 'task sharing

  4. Methodical basis of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Anatskyi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to develop methodical bases of training of cadets for the military applied heptathlon competitions. Material and methods: Cadets of 2-3 courses at the age of 19-20 years (n=20 participated in researches. Cadets were selected by the best results of exercises performing included into the program of military applied heptathlon competitions (100 m run, 50 m freestyle swimming, Kalashnikov rifle shooting, pull-up, obstacle course, grenade throwing, 3000 m run. Preparation took place on the basis of training center. All trainings were organized and carried out according to the methodical basics: in a week preparation microcycle five days cadets had two trainings a day (on Saturday was one training, on Sunday they had rest. The selected exercises with individual loads were performed, Results : Sport scores demonstrated top results in the performance of 100 m run, 3000 m run and pull-up. The indices of performing exercise "obstacle course" were much lower than expected. Rather low results were demonstrated in swimming and shooting. Conclusions . Results of researches indicate the necessity of quality improvement: cadets’ weapons proficiency; physical readiness to perform the exercises requiring complex demonstration of all physical qualities.

  5. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p falls).

  6. Effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Galdames-Maliqueo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The low levels of maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max evaluated in Chilean schoolchildren suggest the startup of trainings that improve the aerobic capacity. Objective: To analyze the effect of a High-intensity Interval Training method on maximum oxygen consumption in Chilean schoolchildren. Materials and methods: Thirty-two high school students from the eighth grade, who were divided into two groups, were part of the study (experimental group = 16 students and control group = 16 students. The main analyzed variable was the maximum oxygen consumption through the Course Navette Test. A High-intensity Interval training method was applied based on the maximum aerobic speed obtained through the Test. A mixed ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. Results: The experimental group showed a significant increase in the Maximum Oxygen Consumption between the pretest and posttest when compared with the control group (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of the study showed a positive effect of the High-intensity Interval Training on the maximum consumption of oxygen. At the end of the study, it is concluded that High-intensity Interval Training is a good stimulation methodology for Chilean schoolchildren.

  7. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaraman Divya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. Methods The intervention was based on the WHO’s Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility, the uptake of services (acceptability, and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility, evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Results Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students’ anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the

  8. Efficiency of developing 15–17-year weightlifters’ training process for a one-year macrocycle with the use of various speed and strength training methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr Piven

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: developed and experimentally tested the construction of the training process of weightlifters of 15–17 years during a one-year macrocycle with the use of various speed and strength training methods. Material & Methods: to the experiment were attracted 30 young weightlifters at the age of 15–17 years, they all had II and III sports categories. Results: it was found that the athletes of the experimental group who used the unconventional training method, using different training regimes – isokinetic, plyometric, half-dynamic, impact method with speed-strength training, which included jumping with various devices in depth and jumping out, after the experiment, they improved their strengths in the amount of the duathlon by 16,5 kg, and also set their own records in contrast to the control group that trained by the traditional method and improved the power results by 7,2 kg. Conclusion: it is established that the use of non-traditional methods for the development of speed-strength qualities of weightlifters, namely, different training regimes – isokinetic, plyometric, half-dynamic, shock method, contributes to the more efficient development of speed-strength qualities, and, consequently, leads to an increase in sports performance in weightlifting.

  9. Investigating bang for your training buck: a randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of training clinicians in two core strategies of dialectical behavior therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeff, Linda A; Harned, Melanie S; Woodcock, Eric A; Skutch, Julie M; Koerner, Kelly; Linehan, Marsha M

    2015-05-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of online training (OLT), instructor-led training (ILT), and a treatment manual (TM) in training mental health clinicians in two core strategies of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT): chain analysis and validation. A randomized controlled trial compared OLT, ILT, and TM among clinicians naïve to DBT (N=172) who were assessed at baseline, post-training, and 30, 60, and 90 days following training. Primary outcomes included satisfaction, self-efficacy, motivation, knowledge, clinical proficiency, and clinical use. Overall, ILT outperformed OLT and TM in satisfaction, self-efficacy, and motivation, whereas OLT was the most effective method for increasing knowledge. The conditions did not differ in observer-rated clinical proficiency or self-reported clinical use, which both increased to moderate levels after training. In addition, ILT was particularly effective at improving motivation to use chain analysis, whereas OLT was particularly effective at increasing knowledge of validation strategies. These findings suggest that these types of brief, didactic trainings may be effective methods of increasing knowledge of new treatment strategies, but may not be sufficient to enable clinicians to achieve a high level of clinical use or proficiency. Additional research examining the possible advantages of matching training methods to types of treatment strategies may help to determine a tailored, more effective approach to training clinicians in empirically supported treatments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Statistical and optimization methods to expedite neural network training for transient identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Vitela, E.J.; Lee, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Two complementary methods, statistical feature selection and nonlinear optimization through conjugate gradients, are used to expedite feedforward neural network training. Statistical feature selection techniques in the form of linear correlation coefficients and information-theoretic entropy are used to eliminate redundant and non-informative plant parameters to reduce the size of the network. The method of conjugate gradients is used to accelerate the network training convergence and to systematically calculate the Teaming and momentum constants at each iteration. The proposed techniques are compared with the backpropagation algorithm using the entire set of plant parameters in the training of neural networks to identify transients simulated with the Midland Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 simulator. By using 25% of the plant parameters and the conjugate gradients, a 30-fold reduction in CPU time was obtained without degrading the diagnostic ability of the network

  11. A Dynamic Linear Hashing Method for Redundancy Management in Train Ethernet Consist Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Nie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive transportation systems like trains are considered critical systems because they use the communication network to control essential subsystems on board. Critical system requires zero recovery time when a failure occurs in a communication network. The newly published IEC62439-3 defines the high-availability seamless redundancy protocol, which fulfills this requirement and ensures no frame loss in the presence of an error. This paper adopts these for train Ethernet consist network. The challenge is management of the circulating frames, capable of dealing with real-time processing requirements, fast switching times, high throughout, and deterministic behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the in-depth analysis it makes of network parameters imposed by the application of the protocols to train control and monitoring system (TCMS and the redundant circulating frames discarding method based on a dynamic linear hashing, using the fastest method in order to resolve all the issues that are dealt with.

  12. Effect of Multi-condition Training and Speech Enhancement Methods on Spoofing Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hong; Sarkar, Achintya Kumar; Thomsen, Dennis Alexander Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    enhancement methods on a state of-the-art spoofing detection system based on the dynamic linear frequency cepstral coefficients (LFCC) feature and a Gaussian mixture model maximum-likelihood (GMM-ML) classifier. In the experiment part we consider three additive noise types, Cantine, Babble and white Gaussian......Many researchers have demonstrated the good performance of spoofing detection systems under clean training and testing conditions. However, it is well known that the performance of speaker and speech recognition systems significantly degrades in noisy conditions. Therefore, it is of great interest...... to investigate the effect of noise on the performance of spoofing detection systems. In this paper, we investigate a multi-conditional training method where spoofing detection models are trained with a mix of clean and noisy data. In addition, we study the effect of different noise types as well as speech...

  13. New control method of on-board ATP system of Shinkansen trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, N.; Watanabe, T. [Railway Technical Research Inst. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    We studied a new control method of the on-board automatic train protection (ATP) system for Shinkansen trains to shorten the operation time and not to degrade ride comfort at changes in deceleration of the train, while maintaining the safety and reliability of the present ATP signal system. We propose a new on-board pattern brake control system based on the present ATP data without changing the wayside equipment. By simulating the ATP braking of the proposed control method, we succeeded in shortening the operation time by 48 seconds per one station in comparison with the present ATP brake control system. This paper reports the concept of the system and simulation results of the on-board pattern. (orig.)

  14. Improvement of training set structure in fusion data cleaning using Time-Domain Global Similarity method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Lan, T.; Qin, H.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional data cleaning identifies dirty data by classifying original data sequences, which is a class-imbalanced problem since the proportion of incorrect data is much less than the proportion of correct ones for most diagnostic systems in Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) devices. When using machine learning algorithms to classify diagnostic data based on class-imbalanced training set, most classifiers are biased towards the major class and show very poor classification rates on the minor class. By transforming the direct classification problem about original data sequences into a classification problem about the physical similarity between data sequences, the class-balanced effect of Time-Domain Global Similarity (TDGS) method on training set structure is investigated in this paper. Meanwhile, the impact of improved training set structure on data cleaning performance of TDGS method is demonstrated with an application example in EAST POlarimetry-INTerferometry (POINT) system.

  15. A Control Simulation Method of High-Speed Trains on Railway Network with Irregular Influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lixing; Li Xiang; Li Keping

    2011-01-01

    Based on the discrete time method, an effective movement control model is designed for a group of highspeed trains on a rail network. The purpose of the model is to investigate the specific traffic characteristics of high-speed trains under the interruption of stochastic irregular events. In the model, the high-speed rail traffic system is supposed to be equipped with the moving-block signalling system to guarantee maximum traversing capacity of the railway. To keep the safety of trains' movements, some operational strategies are proposed to control the movements of trains in the model, including traction operation, braking operation, and entering-station operation. The numerical simulations show that the designed model can well describe the movements of high-speed trains on the rail network. The research results can provide the useful information not only for investigating the propagation features of relevant delays under the irregular disturbance but also for rerouting and rescheduling trains on the rail network. (general)

  16. Model-based verification method for solving the parameter uncertainty in the train control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Ruijun; Zhou, Jin; Chen, Dewang; Song, Yongduan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a parameter analysis method to solve the parameter uncertainty problem for hybrid system and explore the correlation of key parameters for distributed control system. For improving the reusability of control model, the proposed approach provides the support for obtaining the constraint sets of all uncertain parameters in the abstract linear hybrid automata (LHA) model when satisfying the safety requirements of the train control system. Then, in order to solve the state space explosion problem, the online verification method is proposed to monitor the operating status of high-speed trains online because of the real-time property of the train control system. Furthermore, we construct the LHA formal models of train tracking model and movement authority (MA) generation process as cases to illustrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. In the first case, we obtain the constraint sets of uncertain parameters to avoid collision between trains. In the second case, the correlation of position report cycle and MA generation cycle is analyzed under both the normal and the abnormal condition influenced by packet-loss factor. Finally, considering stochastic characterization of time distributions and real-time feature of moving block control system, the transient probabilities of wireless communication process are obtained by stochastic time petri nets. - Highlights: • We solve the parameters uncertainty problem by using model-based method. • We acquire the parameter constraint sets by verifying linear hybrid automata models. • Online verification algorithms are designed to monitor the high-speed trains. • We analyze the correlation of key parameters and uncritical parameters. • The transient probabilities are obtained by using reliability analysis.

  17. Evaluation of the HIV lay counselling and testing profession in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwisongo, Aziza; Mehlomakhulu, Vuyelwa; Mohlabane, Neo; Peltzer, Karl; Mthembu, Jacque; Van Rooyen, Heidi

    2015-07-22

    With the launch of the national HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT) campaign in South Africa (SA), lay HIV counsellors, who had been trained in blood withdrawal, have taken up the role of HIV testing. This study evaluated the experiences, training, motivation, support, supervision, and workload of HIV lay counsellors and testers in South Africa. The aim was to identify gaps in their resources, training, supervision, motivation, and workload related to HCT services. In addition it explored their experiences with providing HIV testing under the task shifting context. The study was conducted in eight of South Africa's nine provinces. 32 lay counsellors were recruited from 67 HCT sites, and were interviewed using two questionnaires that included structured and semi-structured questions. One questionnaire focused on their role as HIV counsellors and the other on their role as HIV testers. Ninety-seven percent of counsellors reported that they have received training in counselling and testing. Many rated their training as more than adequate or adequate, with 15.6% rating it as not adequate. Respondents reported a lack of standardised counselling and testing training, and revealed gaps in counselling skills for specific groups such as discordant couples, homosexuals, older clients and children. They indicated health system barriers, including inadequate designated space for counselling, which compromises privacy and confidentiality. Lay counsellors carry the burden of counselling and testing nationally, and have other tasks such as administration and auxiliary duties due to staff shortages. This study demonstrates that HCT counselling and testing services in South Africa are mainly performed by lay counsellors and testers. They are challenged by inadequate work space, limited counselling skills for specific groups, a lack of standardised training policies and considerable administrative and auxiliary duties. To improve HCT services, there needs to be training needs with a

  18. Methods and means for the in-house training of mining machine operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velikanov Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the quality issue of the in-house training process for mining machine operators. The authors prove the urgency of the designated problem. The changes in modern society, as well as the development of science and technology have a direct impact on the vocational education system. This paper describes the main aspects of the in-house training process of mining machine operators; define the essence, structure, contents, and main directions of its revitalization. The following solutions are proposed in order to improve the quality of the in-house training process: to use the original method based on a rating system of the operator knowledge evaluation, active and interactive forms of using modern training technologies. The authors conducted testing techniques in mining enterprises with the aim of confirming the adequacy of the suggested approaches. The results are given in the work. It was proposed that the methods and tools integration has a positive impact on professional training system.

  19. Optimization of instruction and training process through content, form and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozinek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The content orientation and development of forms and methods of nuclear power plant personnel training are described. The subject matter content consisted of two units: group and professional. Professional was divided into specialized sub-units: the primary circuit part, secondary circuit part, electric, chemistry, dosimetry. The system of final examinations is described. (J.P.)

  20. Model-based acoustic substitution source methods for assessing shielding measures applied to trains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, A.C.; Thompson, D.J.; Verheij, J.W.

    2001-01-01

    A promising means of reducing the rolling noise from trains is local shielding in the form of vehicle-mounted shrouds combined with low trackside barriers. This is much less visually intrusive than classic lineside noise barriers. Various experimental methods have been proposed that allow the

  1. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the

  2. A pre-trained convolutional neural network based method for thyroid nodule diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinlian; Wu, Fa; Zhu, Jiang; Xu, Dong; Kong, Dexing

    2017-01-01

    In ultrasound images, most thyroid nodules are in heterogeneous appearances with various internal components and also have vague boundaries, so it is difficult for physicians to discriminate malignant thyroid nodules from benign ones. In this study, we propose a hybrid method for thyroid nodule diagnosis, which is a fusion of two pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with different convolutional layers and fully-connected layers. Firstly, the two networks pre-trained with ImageNet database are separately trained. Secondly, we fuse feature maps learned by trained convolutional filters, pooling and normalization operations of the two CNNs. Finally, with the fused feature maps, a softmax classifier is used to diagnose thyroid nodules. The proposed method is validated on 15,000 ultrasound images collected from two local hospitals. Experiment results show that the proposed CNN based methods can accurately and effectively diagnose thyroid nodules. In addition, the fusion of the two CNN based models lead to significant performance improvement, with an accuracy of 83.02%±0.72%. These demonstrate the potential clinical applications of this method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Delphi Method: An Approach for Facilitating Evidence Based Practice in Athletic Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrey, Michelle A.; Bulger, Sean M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The growing importance of evidence based practice in athletic training is necessitating academics and clinicians to be able to make judgments about the quality or lack of the body of research evidence and peer-reviewed standards pertaining to clinical questions. To assist in the judgment process, consensus methods, namely brainstorming,…

  4. [How timely are the methods taught in psychotherapy training and practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Michal, Matthias; Wiltink, Jörg; Subic-Wrana, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Even though many psychotherapists consider themselves to be eclectic or integrative, training and reimbursement in the modern healthcare system are clearly oriented toward the model of distinct psychotherapy approaches. Prompted by the proposition to favor general, disorder-oriented psychotherapy, we investigate how timely distinctive methods are that are taught in training and practice. We reviewed the pertinent literature regarding general and specific factors, the effectiveness of integrative and eclectic treatments, orientation toward specific disorders, manualization and psychotherapeutic training. There is a lack of systematic studies on the efficacy of combining therapy methods from different approaches. The first empirical findings reveal that a superiority of combined versus single treatmentmethods has yet to be demonstrated. The development of transnosological manuals shows the limits of disorder-specific treatment.General factors such as therapeutic alliance or education about the model of disease and treatment rationale require specific definitions. Taking reference to a specific treatment approach provides important consistency of theory, training therapy and supervision, though this does not preclude an openness toward other therapy concepts. Current manualized examples show that methods and techniques can indeed be integrated from other approaches. Integrating different methods can also be seen as a developmental task for practitioners and researchers which may be mastered increasingly better with more experience.

  5. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  6. 30 CFR 48.3 - Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training plans; time of submission; where filed....3 Training plans; time of submission; where filed; information required; time for approval; method... training plan shall be filed with the District Manager for the area in which the mine is located. (c) Each...

  7. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  8. Teaching Special Relativity to Lay Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egdall, Ira Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe a lay course in special relativity (SR) given at the Osher Lifelong Learning Institutes (OLLI's) at Florida International University and the University of Miami. Courses are also offered in general relativity quantum theory cosmology the nature of time, and the fine-tuned universe. Each course is presented in six…

  9. Lay belief in biopolitics and political prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhay, E; Brandt, M.J.; Proulx, T.

    2017-01-01

    Building on psychological research linking essentialist beliefs about human differences with prejudice, we test whether lay belief in the biological basis of political ideology is associated with political intolerance and social avoidance. In two studies of American adults (Study 1: N = 288, Study

  10. Modern nuclear medicine methods as a topic of biophysics in veterinary training at UVM in Kosice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanicova, J.; Lohajova, L.

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)

  11. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE NATURAL EGG LAYING HABITS OF DOMESTIC GEESE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Pandur

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was based on the examination of the natural egg laying habits of domestic geese. The authors studied Grey Landes geese during the summer laying period. On the day of arrival of the birds a TyniTalk II artificial egg was placed in each nest. These eggs contain a microchip which detects and records data on the temperature of the surroundings. The results obtained demonstrate that after laying a certain number of eggs females laying under natural conditions sit on the nest not only when laying new eggs, but also to warm the eggs in it. The time devoted to warming increases with the laying period.

  12. Overcoming Barriers to Disseminating Exposure Therapies for Anxiety Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Training Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Harned, Melanie S.; Dimeff, Linda A.; Woodcock, Eric A.; Skutch, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated methods for training mental health providers (N=46) in exposure therapies (ETs) for anxiety disorders. A pilot randomized controlled trial compared: 1) an interactive, multimedia online training (ET OLT), 2) the ET OLT plus a brief Motivational Interviewing-based intervention (ET OLT + MI), and 3) a placebo control OLT. Assessments were completed at baseline, post-training, and one week following training. Both ET OLT and ET OLT + MI received high satisfaction rati...

  13. Does training managers enhance the effects of implementing teamworking? A longitudinal, mixed methods field study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Randall, R; Christensen, KB

    2010-01-01

    , transformational leadership and change management on the outcomes of team implementation. We used a combination of quantitative and qualitative research methods to isolate the impact of manager training on the success of the teamwork intervention. The results identified some significant, but modest, incremental......The introduction of team-working often has positive effects on team members but places significant new demands on managers. Unfortunately, little research has examined whether the impact of the intervention may be enhanced by providing managers with training during the change process. To test...

  14. The acceptability, feasibility and impact of a lay health counsellor delivered health promoting schools programme in India: a case study evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaraman, Divya; Travasso, Sandra; Chatterjee, Achira; Bhat, Bhargav; Andrew, Gracy; Parab, Suraj; Patel, Vikram

    2012-05-25

    Studies in resource-limited settings have shown that there are constraints to the use of teachers, peers or health professionals to deliver school health promotion interventions. School health programmes delivered by trained lay health counsellors could offer a cost-effective alternative. This paper presents a case study of a multi-component school health promotion intervention in India that was delivered by lay school health counsellors, who possessed neither formal educational nor health provider qualifications. The intervention was based on the WHO's Health Promoting Schools framework, and included health screening camps; an anonymous letter box for student questions and complaints; classroom-based life skills training; and, individual psycho-social and academic counselling for students. The intervention was delivered by a lay school health counsellor who had attained a minimum of a high school education. The counsellor was trained over four weeks and received structured supervision from health professionals working for the implementing NGO. The evaluation design was a mixed methods case study. Quantitative process indicators were collected to assess the extent to which the programme was delivered as planned (feasibility), the uptake of services (acceptability), and the number of students who received corrective health treatment (evidence of impact). Semi-structured interviews were conducted over two years with 108 stakeholders, and were analysed to identify barriers and facilitators for the programme (feasibility), evaluate acceptability, and gather evidence of positive or negative effects of the programme. Feasibility was established by the high reported coverage of all the targeted activities by the school health counsellor. Acceptability was indicated by a growing number of submissions to the students' anonymous letter-box; more students self-referring for counselling services over time; and, the perceived need for the programme, as expressed by principals

  15. Clustering and training set selection methods for improving the accuracy of quantitative laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Ryan B., E-mail: randerson@astro.cornell.edu [Cornell University Department of Astronomy, 406 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Bell, James F., E-mail: Jim.Bell@asu.edu [Arizona State University School of Earth and Space Exploration, Bldg.: INTDS-A, Room: 115B, Box 871404, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Wiens, Roger C., E-mail: rwiens@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663 MS J565, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morris, Richard V., E-mail: richard.v.morris@nasa.gov [NASA Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Clegg, Samuel M., E-mail: sclegg@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663 MS J565, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    We investigated five clustering and training set selection methods to improve the accuracy of quantitative chemical analysis of geologic samples by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) using partial least squares (PLS) regression. The LIBS spectra were previously acquired for 195 rock slabs and 31 pressed powder geostandards under 7 Torr CO{sub 2} at a stand-off distance of 7 m at 17 mJ per pulse to simulate the operational conditions of the ChemCam LIBS instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover. The clustering and training set selection methods, which do not require prior knowledge of the chemical composition of the test-set samples, are based on grouping similar spectra and selecting appropriate training spectra for the partial least squares (PLS2) model. These methods were: (1) hierarchical clustering of the full set of training spectra and selection of a subset for use in training; (2) k-means clustering of all spectra and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster; (3) iterative use of PLS2 to predict sample composition and k-means clustering of the predicted compositions to subdivide the groups of spectra; (4) soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) classification of spectra, and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each class; (5) use of Bayesian information criteria (BIC) to determine an optimal number of clusters and generation of PLS2 models based on the training samples within each cluster. The iterative method and the k-means method using 5 clusters showed the best performance, improving the absolute quadrature root mean squared error (RMSE) by {approx} 3 wt.%. The statistical significance of these improvements was {approx} 85%. Our results show that although clustering methods can modestly improve results, a large and diverse training set is the most reliable way to improve the accuracy of quantitative LIBS. In particular, additional sulfate standards and

  16. Technical Training: EMAG-2005 - Electromagnetic Design and Mathematical Optimization Methods in Magnet Technology

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    CERN Technical Training 2005: Learning for the LHC! CERN Technical Training, in collaboration with the AT-MEL-EM section, is organising a new course series in the framework of the 2005 CERN Technical Training programme: EMAG-2005 - Electromagnetic Design and Mathematical Optimization Methods in Magnet Technology, composed of three-hour lectures in the morning and topical seminars in the afternoon. The EMAG-2005 course series will run at CERN from Monday April 4 until Thursday April 14 (no lectures on Friday 8). The course series, in English, will focus on the foundations of electromagnetism and the design of accelerator magnets, both normal conducting and superconducting, employing analytical and numerical field computations. Examples of the LHC magnet design using the CERN field computation program ROXIE will be presented. However, EMAG-2005 is not a ROXIE user course: it is rather a course for users or potential users of numerical field computation software, and for magnet designers. The course will be o...

  17. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - a Set Partitioning Based Model and Solution Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna; Ryan, David

    2010-01-01

    The need to recover a train driver schedule occurs during major disruptions in the daily railway operations. Based on data from the Danish passenger railway operator DSB S-tog A/S, a solution method to the train driver recovery problem (TDRP) is developed. The TDRP is formulated as a set...... branching strategy using the depth-first search of the Branch & Bound tree. The LP relaxation of the TDRP possesses strong integer properties. We present test scenarios generated from the historical real-life operations data of DSB S-tog A/S. The numerical results show that all but one tested instances...... partitioning problem. We define a disruption neighbourhood by identifying a small set of drivers and train tasks directly affected by the disruption. Based on the disruption neighbourhood, the TDRP model is formed and solved. If the TDRP solution provides a feasible recovery for the drivers within...

  18. Innovative teaching methods in the professional training of nurses – simulation education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Miertová

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article is aimed to highlight usage of innovative teaching methods within simulation education in the professional training of nurses abroad and to present our experience based on passing intensive study programme at School of Nursing, Midwifery and Social Work, University of Salford (United Kingdom, UK within Intensive EU Lifelong Learning Programme (LPP Erasmus EU RADAR 2013. Methods: Implementation of simulation methods such as role-play, case studies, simulation scenarios, practical workshops and clinical skills workstation within structured ABCDE approach (AIM© Assessment and Management Tool was aimed to promote the development of theoretical knowledge and skills to recognize and manage acutely deteriorated patients. Structured SBAR approach (Acute SBAR Communication Tool was used for the training of communication and information sharing among the members of multidisciplinary health care team. OSCE approach (Objective Structured Clinical Examination was used for student’s individual formative assessment. Results: Simulation education is proved to have lots of benefits in the professional training of nurses. It is held in safe, controlled and realistic conditions (in simulation laboratories reflecting real hospital and community care environment with no risk of harming real patients accompanied by debriefing, discussion and analysis of all activities students have performed within simulated scenario. Such learning environment is supportive, challenging, constructive, motivated, engaging, skilled, flexible, inspiring and respectful. Thus the simulation education is effective, interactive, interesting, efficient and modern way of nursing education. Conclusion: Critical thinking and clinical competences of nurses are crucial for early recognition and appropriate response to acute deterioration of patient’s condition. These competences are important to ensure the provision of high quality nursing care. Methods of

  19. Musical training as an alternative and effective method for neuro-education and neuro-rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Clément; Grau-Sánchez, Jennifer; Duarte, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology, and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive, and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional, and cognitive deficits observed in patients with non-communicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favor the idea that the structural, multimodal, and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  20. MUSICAL TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE AND EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR NEURO-EDUCATION AND NEURO-REHABILITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clément eFrançois

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, important advances in the field of cognitive science, psychology and neuroscience have largely contributed to improve our knowledge on brain functioning. More recently, a line of research has been developed that aims at using musical training and practice as alternative tools for boosting specific perceptual, motor, cognitive and emotional skills both in healthy population and in neurologic patients. These findings are of great hope for a better treatment of language-based learning disorders or motor impairment in chronic non-communicative diseases. In the first part of this review, we highlight several studies showing that learning to play a musical instrument can induce substantial neuroplastic changes in cortical and subcortical regions of motor, auditory and speech processing networks in healthy population. In a second part, we provide an overview of the evidence showing that musical training can be an alternative, low-cost and effective method for the treatment of language-based learning impaired populations. We then report results of the few studies showing that training with musical instruments can have positive effects on motor, emotional and cognitive deficits observed in patients with noncommunicable diseases such as stroke or Parkinson Disease. Despite inherent differences between musical training in educational and rehabilitation contexts, these results favour the idea that the structural, multimodal and emotional properties of musical training can play an important role in developing new, creative and cost-effective intervention programs for education and rehabilitation in the next future.

  1. The use of the case study method in radiation worker continuing training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    Typical methods of continuing training are often viewed by employees as boring, redundant and unnecessary. It is hoped that the operating experience lesson in the required course, Radiation Worker Requalification, will be well received by employees because actual RFP events will be presented as case studies. The interactive learning atmosphere created by the case study method stimulates discussion, develops analytical abilities, and motivates employees to use lessons learned in the workplace. This problem solving approach to continuing training incorporates cause and effect analysis, a technique which is also used at RFP to investigate events. A method of designing the operating experience lesson in the Radiation Worker Requalification course is described in this paper. 7 refs., 2 figs

  2. Electricity price forecast using Combinatorial Neural Network trained by a new stochastic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinia, O.; Amjady, N.; Shafie-khah, M.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a Combinatorial Neural Network. • Suggesting a new stochastic search method. • Adapting the suggested method as a training mechanism. • Proposing a new forecast strategy. • Testing the proposed strategy on real-world electricity markets. - Abstract: Electricity price forecast is key information for successful operation of electricity market participants. However, the time series of electricity price has nonlinear, non-stationary and volatile behaviour and so its forecast method should have high learning capability to extract the complex input/output mapping function of electricity price. In this paper, a Combinatorial Neural Network (CNN) based forecasting engine is proposed to predict the future values of price data. The CNN-based forecasting engine is equipped with a new training mechanism for optimizing the weights of the CNN. This training mechanism is based on an efficient stochastic search method, which is a modified version of chemical reaction optimization algorithm, giving high learning ability to the CNN. The proposed price forecast strategy is tested on the real-world electricity markets of Pennsylvania–New Jersey–Maryland (PJM) and mainland Spain and its obtained results are extensively compared with the results obtained from several other forecast methods. These comparisons illustrate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  3. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  4. Utility of Combining a Simulation-Based Method With a Lecture-Based Method for Fundoscopy Training in Neurology Residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Khandker, Namir; Stacy, Kristin; Tatsuoka, Curtis M; Preston, David C

    2017-10-01

    Fundoscopic examination is an essential component of the neurologic examination. Competence in its performance is mandated as a required clinical skill for neurology residents by the American Council of Graduate Medical Education. Government and private insurance agencies require its performance and documentation for moderate- and high-level neurologic evaluations. Traditionally, assessment and teaching of this key clinical examination technique have been difficult in neurology residency training. To evaluate the utility of a simulation-based method and the traditional lecture-based method for assessment and teaching of fundoscopy to neurology residents. This study was a prospective, single-blinded, education research study of 48 neurology residents recruited from July 1, 2015, through June 30, 2016, at a large neurology residency training program. Participants were equally divided into control and intervention groups after stratification by training year. Baseline and postintervention assessments were performed using questionnaire, survey, and fundoscopy simulators. After baseline assessment, both groups initially received lecture-based training, which covered fundamental knowledge on the components of fundoscopy and key neurologic findings observed on fundoscopic examination. The intervention group additionally received simulation-based training, which consisted of an instructor-led, hands-on workshop that covered practical skills of performing fundoscopic examination and identifying neurologically relevant findings on another fundoscopy simulator. The primary outcome measures were the postintervention changes in fundoscopy knowledge, skills, and total scores. A total of 30 men and 18 women were equally distributed between the 2 groups. The intervention group had significantly higher mean (SD) increases in skills (2.5 [2.3] vs 0.8 [1.8], P = .01) and total (9.3 [4.3] vs 5.3 [5.8], P = .02) scores compared with the control group. Knowledge scores (6.8 [3

  5. ARN Training on Advance Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of Ideas Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo, A.M.; Gomez Parada, I.; Puerta Yepes, N.; Gossio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Dose assessment in case of internal exposure involves the estimation of committed effective dose based on the interpretation of bioassay measurement, and the assumptions of hypotheses on the characteristics of the radioactive material and the time pattern and the pathway of intake. The IDEAS Guidelines provide a method to harmonize dose evaluations using criteria and flow chart procedures to be followed step by step. The EURADOS Working Group 7 'Internal Dosimetry', in collaboration with IAEA and Czech Technical University (CTU) in Prague, promoted the 'EURADOS/IAEA Regional Training Course on Advanced Methods for Internal Dose Assessment: Application of IDEAS Guidelines' to broaden and encourage the use of IDEAS Guidelines, which took place in Prague (Czech Republic) from 2-6 February 2009. The ARN identified the relevance of this training and asked for a place for participating on this activity. After that, the first training course in Argentina took place from 24-28 August for training local internal dosimetry experts. This paper resumes the main characteristics of this activity. (authors) [es

  6. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  7. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  8. Post-analysis methods for lactate threshold depend on training intensity and aerobic capacity in runners. An experimental laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Lazzaretti Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate different mathematical post-analysis methods of determining lactate threshold in highly and lowly trained endurance runners. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental laboratory study, in a tertiary-level public university hospital. METHOD: Twenty-seven male endurance runners were divided into two training load groups: lowly trained (frequency < 4 times per week, < 6 consecutive months, training velocity ≥ 5.0 min/km and highly trained (frequency ≥ 4 times per week, ≥ 6 consecutive months, training velocity < 5.0 min/km. The subjects performed an incremental treadmill protocol, with 1 km/h increases at each subsequent 4-minute stage. Fingerprint blood-lactate analysis was performed at the end of each stage. The lactate threshold (i.e. the running velocity at which blood lactate levels began to exponentially increase was measured using three different methods: increase in blood lactate of 1 mmol/l at stages (DT1, absolute 4 mmol/l blood lactate concentration (4 mmol, and the semi-log method (semi-log. ANOVA was used to compare different lactate threshold methods and training groups. RESULTS: Highly trained athletes showed significantly greater lactate thresholds than lowly trained runners, regardless of the calculation method used. When all the subject data were combined, DT1 and semi-log were not different, while 4 mmol was significantly lower than the other two methods. These same trends were observed when comparing lactate threshold methods in the lowly trained group. However, 4 mmol was only significantly lower than DT1 in the highly trained group. CONCLUSION: The 4 mmol protocol did not show lactate threshold measurements comparable with DT1 and semi-log protocols among lowly trained athletes.

  9. A simulation training evaluation method for distribution network fault based on radar chart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhang Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of automatic evaluation of dispatcher fault simulation training in distribution network, a simulation training evaluation method based on radar chart for distribution network fault is proposed. The fault handling information matrix is established to record the dispatcher fault handling operation sequence and operation information. The four situations of the dispatcher fault isolation operation are analyzed. The fault handling anti-misoperation rule set is established to describe the rules prohibiting dispatcher operation. Based on the idea of artificial intelligence reasoning, the feasibility of dispatcher fault handling is described by the feasibility index. The relevant factors and evaluation methods are discussed from the three aspects of the fault handling result feasibility, the anti-misoperation correctness and the operation process conciseness. The detailed calculation formula is given. Combining the independence and correlation between the three evaluation angles, a comprehensive evaluation method of distribution network fault simulation training based on radar chart is proposed. The method can comprehensively reflect the fault handling process of dispatchers, and comprehensively evaluate the fault handling process from various angles, which has good practical value.

  10. Tensor-Train Split-Operator Fourier Transform (TT-SOFT) Method: Multidimensional Nonadiabatic Quantum Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Samuel M; Batista, Victor S

    2017-09-12

    We introduce the "tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform" (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wave functions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wave function in its full-rank tensor product grid space. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the TT-SOFT method as applied to propagation of 24-dimensional wave packets, describing the S 1 /S 2 interconversion dynamics of pyrazine after UV photoexcitation to the S 2 state. Our results show that the TT-SOFT method is a powerful computational approach for simulations of quantum dynamics of polyatomic systems since it avoids the exponential scaling problem of full-rank grid-based representations.

  11. Increasing capacity to deliver diabetes self-management education: results of the DESMOND lay educator non-randomized controlled equivalence trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, M E; Mandalia, P K; Daly, H; Gray, L J; Hale, R; Martin Stacey, L; Taub, N; Skinner, T C; Stone, M; Heller, S; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2014-11-01

    To develop and test a format of delivery of diabetes self-management education by paired professional and lay educators. We conducted an equivalence trial with non-randomized participant allocation to a Diabetes Education and Self Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed Type 2 diabetes (DESMOND) course, delivered in the standard format by two trained healthcare professional educators (to the control group) or by one trained lay educator and one professional educator (to the intervention group). A total of 260 people with Type 2 diabetes diagnosed within the previous 12 months were referred for self-management education as part of routine care and attended either a control or intervention format DESMOND course. The primary outcome measure was change in illness coherence score (derived from the Diabetes Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised) between baseline and 4 months after attending education sessions. Secondary outcome measures included change in HbA1c level. The trial was conducted in four primary care organizations across England and Scotland. The 95% CI for the between-group difference in positive change in coherence scores was within the pre-set limits of equivalence (difference = 0.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52). Equivalent changes related to secondary outcome measures were also observed, including equivalent reductions in HbA1c levels. Diabetes education delivered jointly by a trained lay person and a healthcare professional educator with the same educator role can provide equivalent patient benefits. This could provide a method that increases capacity, maintains quality and is cost-effective, while increasing access to self-management education. © 2014 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2014 Diabetes UK.

  12. A smartphone application for dispatch of lay responders to out-of-hospital cardiac arrests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Ellinor; Claesson, Andreas; Nordberg, Per; Djärv, Therese; Lundgren, Peter; Folke, Fredrik; Forsberg, Sune; Riva, Gabriel; Ringh, Mattias

    2018-05-01

    Dispatch of lay volunteers trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and equipped with automated external defibrillators (AEDs) may improve survival in cases of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The aim of this study was to investigate the functionality and performance of a smartphone application for locating and alerting nearby trained laymen/women in cases of OHCA. A system using a smartphone application activated by Emergency Dispatch Centres was used to locate and alert laymen/women to nearby suspected OHCAs. Lay responders were instructed either to perform CPR or collect a nearby AED. An online survey was carried out among the responders. From February to August 2016, the system was activated in 685 cases of suspected OHCA. Among these, 224 cases were Emergency Medical Services (EMSs)-treated OHCAs (33%). EMS-witnessed cases (n = 11) and cases with missing survey data (n = 15) were excluded. In the remaining 198 OHCAs, lay responders arrived at the scene in 116 cases (58%), and prior to EMSs in 51 cases (26%). An AED was attached in 17 cases (9%) and 4 (2%) were defibrillated. Lay responders performed CPR in 54 cases (27%). Median distance to the OHCA was 560 m (IQR 332-860 m), and 1280 m (IQR 748-1776 m) via AED pick-up. The survey-answering rate was 82%. A smartphone application can be used to alert CPR-trained lay volunteers to OHCAs for CPR. Further improvements are needed to shorten the time to defibrillation before EMS arrival. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Do All Ducks Lay Eggs? The Generic Overgeneralization Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Sarah-Jane; Khemlani, Sangeet; Glucksberg, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Generics are statements such as "tigers are striped" and "ducks lay eggs". They express general, though not universal or exceptionless, claims about kinds (Carlson & Pelletier, 1995). For example, the generic "ducks lay eggs" seems true even though many ducks (e.g. the males) do not lay eggs. The universally quantified version of the statement…

  14. Postgraduate Education in Quality Improvement Methods: Initial Results of the Fellows' Applied Quality Training (FAQT) Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, David E; Burkart, Thomas A; Choi, Calvin Y; McKillop, Matthew S; Beyth, Rebecca J; Dahm, Phillipp

    2016-06-01

    Training in quality improvement (QI) is a pillar of the next accreditation system of the Accreditation Committee on Graduate Medical Education and a growing expectation of physicians for maintenance of certification. Despite this, many postgraduate medical trainees are not receiving training in QI methods. We created the Fellows Applied Quality Training (FAQT) curriculum for cardiology fellows using both didactic and applied components with the goal of increasing confidence to participate in future QI projects. Fellows completed didactic training from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Open School and then designed and completed a project to improve quality of care or patient safety. Self-assessments were completed by the fellows before, during, and after the first year of the curriculum. The primary outcome for our curriculum was the median score reported by the fellows regarding their self-confidence to complete QI activities. Self-assessments were completed by 23 fellows. The majority of fellows (15 of 23, 65.2%) reported no prior formal QI training. Median score on baseline self-assessment was 3.0 (range, 1.85-4), which was significantly increased to 3.27 (range, 2.23-4; P = 0.004) on the final assessment. The distribution of scores reported by the fellows indicates that 30% were slightly confident at conducting QI activities on their own, which was reduced to 5% after completing the FAQT curriculum. An interim assessment was conducted after the fellows completed didactic training only; median scores were not different from the baseline (mean, 3.0; P = 0.51). After completion of the FAQT, cardiology fellows reported higher self-confidence to complete QI activities. The increase in self-confidence seemed to be limited to the applied component of the curriculum, with no significant change after the didactic component.

  15. Lay theories of gender identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Sen, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    This study examined lay theories regarding gender identity disorder (GID). Pilot interviews were completed with participants (n = 10) regarding their views on possible causes and treatments of GID. Participants (mainly young British people and students; n = 124) then completed a questionnaire that was based on the interviews and a review of the salient literature on lay theories. As hypothesized, participants believed most in biomedical causes and treatments of GID. Factor analysis (with varimax rotation) identified 4 factors in relation to causes of GID: upbringing and personal factors, pregnancy and brain abnormalities, environmental factors, and biomedical causes. Five factors that were identified in relation to the cure/treatment of GID were psychological assistance and personal factors, extreme medical and behavioral changes, alternative therapies, external factors, and medical treatments. The results indicated that participants neither agreed nor strongly disagreed about causes and cures regarding GID, but that these beliefs were logically related. Limitations, particularly of sampling, were considered.

  16. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  17. Lay and expert perceptions of zoonotic risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten Klint; Lassen, Jesper; Robinson, P.

    2005-01-01

    As in many other areas, there is a divide between lay and expert perceptions of risk within the food sector, and this can lead to disagreement over priorities in food risk management. The risk perception literature tends to stress that the parties involved in this disagreement have different...... concepts of risk and hence are bound more or less to talk at cross-purposes. This paper suggests an alternative analysis: In the light of moral theory, the conflicting perspectives can be understood as a genuine moral conflict. When this conflict is conceptualised, a rational dialogue becomes possible....... The paper reports a series of qualitative interviews with lay people and experts on zoonotic food risks. The interviews are used to reconstruct the values underlying some of the dominant perspectives. The conflict between these stylised perspectives is then analysed with the help of moral theory. Finally...

  18. Teaching methods and surgical training in North American graduate periodontics programs: exploring the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiabi, Edmond; Taylor, K Lynn

    2010-06-01

    This project aimed at documenting the surgical training curricula offered by North American graduate periodontics programs. A survey consisting of questions on teaching methods employed and the content of the surgical training program was mailed to directors of all fifty-eight graduate periodontics programs in Canada and the United States. The chi-square test was used to assess whether the residents' clinical experience was significantly (Pperiodontal plastic procedures, hard tissue grafts, and implants. Furthermore, residents in programs offering a structured preclinical component performed significantly more procedures (P=0.012) using lasers than those in programs not offering a structured preclinical program. Devising new and innovative teaching methods is a clear avenue for future development in North American graduate periodontics programs.

  19. Substantiation of effectiveness of trainings on health related methodic for students with weakened motor fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Kuzmin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to work out methodic, facilitating successful conduct of health related trainings of students withy weakened motor (physical fitness. Material: in the research 47 students with weakened motor fitness participated. Analysis of indicators of morbidity frequency and duration was carried out on the base of medical records’ studying during all academic year. Experimental methodic consisted of three chapters: execution of specifically selected Hatha yoga static postures, breathing exercises and boxing techniques. Breathing exercises were grouped in four complexes. Every complex was fulfilled during 6 trainings, after each of them the next followed. Results: it was found that frequency and duration of diseases statistically confidently decreased in academic year. It was shown that formation of healthy life style skills statistically confidently improved. Conclusions: we have determined: increased students’ interest to physical culture practicing; reduction of frequency and duration of diseases; higher level of formation of healthy life style skills.

  20. The ancient art of laying rope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Olsen, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains...... for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes....

  1. Kinematics of Laying an Automated Weapon System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-19

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 899 Technical Report ARWSE-TR-16024 KINEMATICS OF LAYING AN AUTOMATED WEAPON SYSTEM...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of

  2. Distracting laying hens with a 'toy'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of a commercially available plastic device, intended to distract laying hens, was investigated and found not to have the claimed effect. ... table for the white birds, 15 week egg production. Source of variation df2. SS3. MS4. F ratio. SLs. East. Blocks. 35. 67627.61. 1932.22. Treatments. I. 1233.39. 1233.39. 0.7104. 0.4050.

  3. The changing role of indigenous lay midwives in Guatemala: new frameworks for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Anita; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Henderson, Brent; Rohloff, Peter

    2013-08-01

    to examine the present-day knowledge formation and practice of indigenous Kaqchikel-speaking midwives, with special attention to their interactions with the Guatemalan medical community, training models, and allopathic knowledge in general. a qualitative study consisting of participant-observation in lay midwife training programs; in-depth interviews with 44 practicing indigenous midwives; and three focus groups with midwives of a local non-governmental organization. Kaqchikel Maya-speaking communities in the Guatemalan highlands. the cumulative undermining effects of marginalization, cultural and linguistic barriers, and poorly designed training programs contribute to the failure of lay midwife-focused initiatives in Guatemala to improve maternal-child health outcomes. Furthermore, in contrast to prevailing assumptions, Kaqchikel Maya midwives integrate allopathic obstetrical knowledge into their practice at a high level. as indigenous midwives in Guatemala will continue to provide a large fraction of the obstetrical services among rural populations for many years to come, maternal-child policy initiatives must take into account that: (1)Guatemalan midwife training programs can be significantly improved when instruction occurs in local languages, such as Kaqchikel, and (2)indigenous midwives' increasing allopathic repertoire may serve as a productive ground for synergistic collaborations between lay midwives and the allopathic medical community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  5. Pharmaceutical policy and the lay public

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Marie; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Almost every national and supranational health policy document accords high importance to the need to listen to and 'empower' patients. The relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the lay public is not direct but mediated by several actors, including health care workers, patient organisati......Almost every national and supranational health policy document accords high importance to the need to listen to and 'empower' patients. The relationship between pharmaceutical policy and the lay public is not direct but mediated by several actors, including health care workers, patient...... organisations, industry and, most recently, the media. Although the overall aim of health and pharmaceutical policy is to address the needs of all citizens, there are only a few, well organised groups who are actually consulted and involved in the policymaking process, often with the support of the industry....... The reasons for this lack of citizen involvement in health and pharmaceutical policymaking are many, for example: there is no consensus about what public involvement means; there is a predominance of special interest groups with narrow, specific agendas; not all decision makers welcome lay participation...

  6. Infectious Bronchitis Vaccination Protocols for Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sulaiman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted to investigate the effects of vaccination protocols for Infectious Bronchitis (IB on egg production, egg quality, and IB antibody titres of laying hens. Different initial vaccination (Control, VicS eye, VicS spray, VicS water, A3 eye, A3 spray, and A3 water for IB were administered to day-old Isa Brown hens. Half the hens were revaccinated regularly during lay whereas the other hens were not vaccinated. Results showed that initial vaccination treatment had significant effects on hen day egg production and egg quality of egg weight, shell reflectivity, shell breaking strength, shell thickness, albumen height, Haugh Units, and IB antibody titre levels, but had no effect on percentage of shell and yolk colour. Egg weight and shell reflectivity were less favourable in the control hens. In contrast, shell breaking strength and shell thickness were highest for the group that initially received A3 vaccine in water. However, regular revaccination had some deleterious effects on egg production and egg quality. There were no significant effects of revaccination on IB antibody titres. It is concluded that there was little advantage in regularly revaccinating laying hens for IB virus, since they had received appropriate initial vaccination.

  7. THE MODERN TRENDS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS OF TRAINING FUTURE SPECIALISTS IN THE FIELD OF HISTRIONIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Sergeevna Skvortsova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the specific ways of training specialists in the sphere of histrionic art, contemporary trends and special scientific experiments in the education of actors.We consider the traditional aspects of histrionic art specialists’ occupational fitness and modern requirements upon actor’s psycho-physical training.There also follows historical parallels in studying actor’s energy in the researches of K. Stanislavsky, M. Chekhov, T. Reebo, W. James, A. Maneggetty as well as in the modern researches of L. Gracheva.And there was proved the reason for including some Yoga elements and Academician M.Norbecov’s exercises system into the actors training practice.In the article Yoga for actors considers as a system of emotional and physical preparation to the artistic creative work, as a method of self-control that let an actor be really deep in his creative condition.There also was described an advantageous result of applying at our experimental laboratory of actors Yoga classes some exercises that reveal connection of person’s carriage and his condition in the process of working on the outward demonstration of this or that emotion in order to create appropriate inner state.Object: Studying the influence on the productivity of actors’ professional education of the Yoga elements included into the actors’ psycho-technique practice training.Methods: theoretical, experimental and observational methods of research.Results: After using these methods during the classes the rate of student’s psycho-physical APPARATUS has extremely increased.The area of application: the educational process at artistic creative high schools.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-52

  8. The Effects of E-Training versus Traditional Training Delivery Methods on Professional Students in Contemporary Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated the limitations of Albert Bandura's theory of observational training (also known as observational learning) when applied to e-learning. The study focused on professional employees in different industries around the United States. These professionals engaged in continuous training either in the classroom or on in an…

  9. [Which learning methods are expected for ultrasound training? Blended learning on trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, S; Hempel, D; Stenger, T; Armbruster, W; Seibel, A; Walcher, F; Breitkreutz, R

    2014-10-01

    Current teaching methods in graduate and postgraduate training often include frontal presentations. Especially in ultrasound education not only knowledge but also sensomotory and visual skills need to be taught. This requires new learning methods. This study examined which types of teaching methods are preferred by participants in ultrasound training courses before, during and after the course by analyzing a blended learning concept. It also investigated how much time trainees are willing to spend on such activities. A survey was conducted at the end of a certified ultrasound training course. Participants were asked to complete a questionnaire based on a visual analogue scale (VAS) in which three categories were defined: category (1) vote for acceptance with a two thirds majority (VAS 67-100%), category (2) simple acceptance (50-67%) and category (3) rejection (learning program with interactive elements, short presentations (less than 20 min), incorporating interaction with the audience, hands-on sessions in small groups, an alternation between presentations and hands-on-sessions, live demonstrations and quizzes. For post-course learning, interactive and media-assisted approaches were preferred, such as e-learning, films of the presentations and the possibility to stay in contact with instructors in order to discuss the results. Participants also voted for maintaining a logbook for documentation of results. The results of this study indicate the need for interactive learning concepts and blended learning activities. Directors of ultrasound courses may consider these aspects and are encouraged to develop sustainable learning pathways.

  10. New teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kuriplachová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present new teaching methods for practical training in nursing within the project Tempus IV – CCNURCA (Competency based Curriculum Reform in Nursing and Healthcare in Western Balkan Universities No. 544169-TEMPUS-1-2013-1-BE-TEMPUS-JPCR. Implementation of new practical teaching methods, such as learning with simulator mannequins, practical workshop, nursing process, mind mapping, case studies and problem-based learning (PBL in practical training could help to improve the quality of the educational process in nursing at Universities of Western Balkan countries that have been involved in this project. The realistic conditions in simulation laboratories are reflecting real hospital and patient´s care, communication with patient and hospital staff, discussion and analysis of all student´s activities. The methods of next nursing generation in practical training that can help nurses to get used to the recognition and management of patients by using of simulated real life situations.

  11. SAGRAD: A Program for Neural Network Training with Simulated Annealing and the Conjugate Gradient Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Javier; Torres-Jimenez, Jose

    2015-01-01

    SAGRAD (Simulated Annealing GRADient), a Fortran 77 program for computing neural networks for classification using batch learning, is discussed. Neural network training in SAGRAD is based on a combination of simulated annealing and Møller's scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the latter a variation of the traditional conjugate gradient method, better suited for the nonquadratic nature of neural networks. Different aspects of the implementation of the training process in SAGRAD are discussed, such as the efficient computation of gradients and multiplication of vectors by Hessian matrices that are required by Møller's algorithm; the (re)initialization of weights with simulated annealing required to (re)start Møller's algorithm the first time and each time thereafter that it shows insufficient progress in reaching a possibly local minimum; and the use of simulated annealing when Møller's algorithm, after possibly making considerable progress, becomes stuck at a local minimum or flat area of weight space. Outlines of the scaled conjugate gradient algorithm, the simulated annealing procedure and the training process used in SAGRAD are presented together with results from running SAGRAD on two examples of training data.

  12. HEALS: A Faith-Based Hypertension Control and Prevention Program for African American Churches: Training of Church Leaders as Program Interventionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodani, Sunita; Sullivan, Debra; Pankey, Sydney; Champagne, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Background. A 12-session church-based HEALS program (healthy eating and living spiritually) was developed for hypertension control and prevention program in African Americans (AAs). This study presents specifics of training lay health educators to effectively deliver HEALS to high-risk AAs. Methods. A one-day workshop was conducted by the research experts in an AA church. Five church members were recruited to be program interventionists called church health counselors (CHCs). Results. Using principles of adult education, a training protocol was developed with the intention of recognizing and supporting CHCs skills. CHCs received training on delivering HEALS program. The process of training emphasized action methods including role playing and hands-on experience with diet portion measurements. Conclusion. With adequate training, the community lay health educator can be an essential partner in a community-based hypertension control programs. This may motivate program participants more and encourages the individual to make the behavior modifications on a permanent basis.

  13. Intravenous catheter training system: computer-based education versus traditional learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engum, Scott A; Jeffries, Pamela; Fisher, Lisa

    2003-07-01

    Virtual reality simulators allow trainees to practice techniques without consequences, reduce potential risk associated with training, minimize animal use, and help to develop standards and optimize procedures. Current intravenous (IV) catheter placement training methods utilize plastic arms, however, the lack of variability can diminish the educational stimulus for the student. This study compares the effectiveness of an interactive, multimedia, virtual reality computer IV catheter simulator with a traditional laboratory experience of teaching IV venipuncture skills to both nursing and medical students. A randomized, pretest-posttest experimental design was employed. A total of 163 participants, 70 baccalaureate nursing students and 93 third-year medical students beginning their fundamental skills training were recruited. The students ranged in age from 20 to 55 years (mean 25). Fifty-eight percent were female and 68% percent perceived themselves as having average computer skills (25% declaring excellence). The methods of IV catheter education compared included a traditional method of instruction involving a scripted self-study module which involved a 10-minute videotape, instructor demonstration, and hands-on-experience using plastic mannequin arms. The second method involved an interactive multimedia, commercially made computer catheter simulator program utilizing virtual reality (CathSim). The pretest scores were similar between the computer and the traditional laboratory group. There was a significant improvement in cognitive gains, student satisfaction, and documentation of the procedure with the traditional laboratory group compared with the computer catheter simulator group. Both groups were similar in their ability to demonstrate the skill correctly. CONCLUSIONS; This evaluation and assessment was an initial effort to assess new teaching methodologies related to intravenous catheter placement and their effects on student learning outcomes and behaviors

  14. The development of a lay health worker delivered collaborative community based intervention for people with schizophrenia in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Madhumitha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Care for schizophrenia in low and middle income countries is predominantly facility based and led by specialists, with limited use of non-pharmacological treatments. Although community based psychosocial interventions are emphasised, there is little evidence about their acceptability and feasibility. Furthermore, the shortage of skilled manpower is a major barrier to improving access to these interventions. Our study aimed to develop a lay health worker delivered community based intervention in three sites in India. This paper describes how the intervention was developed systematically, following the MRC framework for the development of complex interventions. Methods We reviewed the lierature on the burden of schizophrenia and the treatment gap in low and middle income countries and the evidence for community based treatments, and identified intervention components. We then evaluated the acceptability and feasibility of this package of care through formative case studies with individuals with schizophrenia and their primary caregivers and piloted its delivery with 30 families. Results Based on the reviews, our intervention comprised five components (psycho-education; adherence management; rehabilitation; referral to community agencies; and health promotion to be delivered by trained lay health workers supervised by specialists. The intervention underwent a number of changes as a result of formative and pilot work. While all the components were acceptable and most were feasible, experiences of stigma and discrimination were inadequately addressed; some participants feared that delivery of care at home would lead to illness disclosure; some participants and providers did not understand how the intervention related to usual care; some families were unwilling to participate; and there were delivery problems, for example, in meeting the targeted number of sessions. Participants found delivery by health workers acceptable, and

  15. Using means and methods of general physical training in education of bowlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanigina O.U.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There were discovered the main directions of bowlers education. The means and methods of physical education, which insure the formation of high quality moves being the part of main skill, are discovered. There were shown different means of general education accounting individual peculiarities of bowler. The principles of choosing general developing exercises and main direction of influence on developing different abilities are represented. It's created the scientific-methodic support of physical education in teaching-training process for children who play bowing in sport schools.

  16. Development and implementation of a novel measure for quantifying training loads in rowing: the T2minute method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Jacqueline; Rice, Anthony J; Main, Luana C; Gastin, Paul B

    2014-04-01

    The systematic management of training requires accurate training load measurement. However, quantifying the training of elite Australian rowers is challenging because of (a) the multicenter, multistate structure of the national program; (b) the variety of training undertaken; and (c) the limitations of existing methods for quantifying the loads accumulated from varied training formats. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to develop a new measure for quantifying training loads in rowing (the T2minute method). Sport scientists and senior coaches at the National Rowing Center of Excellence collaborated to develop the measure, which incorporates training duration, intensity, and mode to quantify a single index of training load. To account for training at different intensities, the method uses standardized intensity zones (T zones) established at the Australian Institute of Sport. Each zone was assigned a weighting factor according to the curvilinear relationship between power output and blood lactate response. Each training mode was assigned a weighting factor based on whether coaches perceived it to be "harder" or "easier" than on-water rowing. A common measurement unit, the T2minute, was defined to normalize sessions in different modes to a single index of load; one T2minute is equivalent to 1 minute of on-water single scull rowing at T2 intensity (approximately 60-72% VO2max). The T2minute method was successfully implemented to support national training strategies in Australian high performance rowing. By incorporating duration, intensity, and mode, the T2minute method extends the concepts that underpin current load measures, providing 1 consistent system to quantify loads from varied training formats.

  17. Lay-Offs in The Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åkerstrøm Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    A number of articles have shown that the relationship between organisation and employee has become an intimate relationship. This is indeed the case in Denmark. This article shows how the problem of lay-off is discursively rearticulated in the context of passion as a problem of intimate breaks. Lay......-off becomes a tricky problem of breaking up in a loving way. This article is a semantic analysis of the lay-off semantics in Denmark after the financial crisis, comparing lay-off semantics with the semantics of divorces. Handbooks on lay-offs use divorce metaphors, and particular strategies for divorces can...... be found in advisory tools on the termination of employees. Lay-offs are split in two: a formal lay-off and an intimate break. This creates a number of interesting discursive paradoxes for both managers and employees....

  18. Helpful and Hindering Factors in Psychodrama Field Training: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study of Student Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracha Azoulay

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature indicates that students in mental health professions start to form their professional identity and competence in graduate school, there are few studies on the in-training experience of creative arts therapies students. This mixed methods study examined how five first-year students in a psychodrama master’s degree program in Israel experienced their field training, with the aim of identifying the factors likely to promote or hinder the development of their professional identity and sense of professional ability. Longitudinal data were collected weekly throughout the 20-week field training experience. The students reported qualitatively on helpful and hindering factors and were assessed quantitatively on questionnaires measuring professional identity, perceived demands-abilities fit, client involvement, and therapy session evaluations. A thematic analysis of the students’ reports indicated that a clear and defined setting and structure, observing the instructor as a role model, actively leading parts of the session, and observing fellow students were all helpful factors. The hindering factors included role confusion, issues related to coping with client resistance and disciplinary problems, as well as school end-of-year activities that disrupted the continuity of therapy. The quantitative results indicated that students’ professional identity did not significantly change over the year, whereas a U-shaped curve trajectory characterized the changes in demands-abilities fit and other measures. Students began their field training with an overstated sense of ability that soon declined and later increased. These findings provide indications of which helping and hindering factors should be maximized and minimized, to enhance students’ field training.

  19. Helpful and Hindering Factors in Psychodrama Field Training: A Longitudinal Mixed Methods Study of Student Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, Bracha; Orkibi, Hod

    2018-01-01

    Although the literature indicates that students in mental health professions start to form their professional identity and competence in graduate school, there are few studies on the in-training experience of creative arts therapies students. This mixed methods study examined how five first-year students in a psychodrama master's degree program in Israel experienced their field training, with the aim of identifying the factors likely to promote or hinder the development of their professional identity and sense of professional ability. Longitudinal data were collected weekly throughout the 20-week field training experience. The students reported qualitatively on helpful and hindering factors and were assessed quantitatively on questionnaires measuring professional identity, perceived demands-abilities fit, client involvement, and therapy session evaluations. A thematic analysis of the students' reports indicated that a clear and defined setting and structure, observing the instructor as a role model, actively leading parts of the session, and observing fellow students were all helpful factors. The hindering factors included role confusion, issues related to coping with client resistance and disciplinary problems, as well as school end-of-year activities that disrupted the continuity of therapy. The quantitative results indicated that students' professional identity did not significantly change over the year, whereas a U-shaped curve trajectory characterized the changes in demands-abilities fit and other measures. Students began their field training with an overstated sense of ability that soon declined and later increased. These findings provide indications of which helping and hindering factors should be maximized and minimized, to enhance students' field training.

  20. Method and system for training dynamic nonlinear adaptive filters which have embedded memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Described herein is a method and system for training nonlinear adaptive filters (or neural networks) which have embedded memory. Such memory can arise in a multi-layer finite impulse response (FIR) architecture, or an infinite impulse response (IIR) architecture. We focus on filter architectures with separate linear dynamic components and static nonlinear components. Such filters can be structured so as to restrict their degrees of computational freedom based on a priori knowledge about the dynamic operation to be emulated. The method is detailed for an FIR architecture which consists of linear FIR filters together with nonlinear generalized single layer subnets. For the IIR case, we extend the methodology to a general nonlinear architecture which uses feedback. For these dynamic architectures, we describe how one can apply optimization techniques which make updates closer to the Newton direction than those of a steepest descent method, such as backpropagation. We detail a novel adaptive modified Gauss-Newton optimization technique, which uses an adaptive learning rate to determine both the magnitude and direction of update steps. For a wide range of adaptive filtering applications, the new training algorithm converges faster and to a smaller value of cost than both steepest-descent methods such as backpropagation-through-time, and standard quasi-Newton methods. We apply the algorithm to modeling the inverse of a nonlinear dynamic tracking system 5, as well as a nonlinear amplifier 6.

  1. Methods of selection and training of personnel for the Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, M.S.R.; Wagadarikar, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Personnel selected to work in a nuclear electric generating station rarely have the necessary knowledge and experience in all the related fields. A station can be operated and maintained and at the same time radiation doses absorbed by station personnel can be kept to a minimum only if the operating personnel are familiar with, and can be used for, all phases of station operation and the maintainers have more than one skill or trade. More technical knowledge and more diversified skills, in addition to those required in other industries, are needed because of the nature of the nuclear reactor and the associated radiation environment and high automation. A training programme has been developed at the Nuclear Training Centre (NTC) near the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS), Kota, India, to cater to the needs of the operation and maintenance personnel for nuclear power stations including the Madras Atomic Power Station. This programme has been in operation for the last five years. The paper describes the method of recruitment/selection of various categories of personnel and the method of training them to meet the job requirements. (author)

  2. Non-linguistic learning in aphasia: Effects of training method and stimulus characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallila-Rohter, Sofia; Kiran, Swathi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to explore non-linguistic learning ability in patients with aphasia, examining the impact of stimulus typicality and feedback on success with learning. Method Eighteen patients with aphasia and eight healthy controls participated in this study. All participants completed four computerized, non-linguistic category-learning tasks. We probed learning ability under two methods of instruction: feedback-based (FB) and paired-associate (PA). We also examined the impact of task complexity on learning ability, comparing two stimulus conditions: typical (Typ) and atypical (Atyp). Performance was compared between groups and across conditions. Results Results demonstrated that healthy controls were able to successfully learn categories under all conditions. For our patients with aphasia, two patterns of performance arose. One subgroup of patients was able to maintain learning across task manipulations and conditions. The other subgroup of patients demonstrated a sensitivity to task complexity, learning successfully only in the typical training conditions. Conclusions Results support the hypothesis that impairments of general learning are present in aphasia. Some patients demonstrated the ability to extract category information under complex training conditions, while others learned only under conditions that were simplified and emphasized salient category features. Overall, the typical training condition facilitated learning for all participants. Findings have implications for therapy, which are discussed. PMID:23695914

  3. Methods of technical and tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments using innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L Kozina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop information technology for technical and tactical training of skilled basketball players with hearing impairments. Material : the study involved 24 women's national team athletes Ukrainian Basketball hearing impaired (age - 25-30 years. Technical protocols were processed 12 games from the World Cup and Europe, XXII Summer Deaflympics. Fixed number of shots and hit free throws, steals, rebounds and on its offensive rebounds, fouls and errors. Results : the developed system of tactical training basketball players with hearing impairments. Accentuation was made of the prevalence of method visibility while developing tactical interactions. The main result was the development of the author's method of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Also, use the lamp LS Line-3-65-12-C to control the training process athletes. Conclusions : there was a significant improvement in competitive activity athletes. Athletes performed significantly more hits from the foul line and successful shots from long range compared to main rivals. Also increased the number of interceptions in games. Application of information technology had an impact on the competitive result: basketball team of Ukraine took the second place in the Deaflympics in Sofia in 2013.

  4. A Training Method to Improve Police Use of Force Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith P. Andersen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Police safety and use of force decisions during critical incidents are an ongoing source of concern for both police practitioners and the public. Prior research in the area of police performance reveals that psychological and physiological stress responses during critical incidents can shape the outcome of the incident, either positively or negatively. The goal of this study was to test a training method to improve use of force decision making among police. This randomized controlled pilot study consisted of training officers to apply techniques to enhance psychological and physiological control during stressful critical incidents. Of a pool of 80 police officers, potential participants were invited based on equivalent age, years of experience, physiological characteristics (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and cardiovascular reactivity, and expertise. Results revealed that the intervention group displayed significantly better physiological control, situational awareness, and overall performance, and made a greater number of correct use of force decisions than officers in the control group (all ps < .01. The relevant improvements in use of force decision-making found in this pilot study indicate that this training method warrants further investigation. Improved use of force decision making directly translates into potential lifesaving decisions for police and the civilians they are working with.

  5. Robustness and versatility of a nonlinear interdependence method for directional coupling detection from spike trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvestio, Irene; Kreuz, Thomas; Andrzejak, Ralph G.

    2017-08-01

    The detection of directional couplings between dynamics based on measured spike trains is a crucial problem in the understanding of many different systems. In particular, in neuroscience it is important to assess the connectivity between neurons. One of the approaches that can estimate directional coupling from the analysis of point processes is the nonlinear interdependence measure L . Although its efficacy has already been demonstrated, it still needs to be tested under more challenging and realistic conditions prior to an application to real data. Thus, in this paper we use the Hindmarsh-Rose model system to test the method in the presence of noise and for different spiking regimes. We also examine the influence of different parameters and spike train distances. Our results show that the measure L is versatile and robust to various types of noise, and thus suitable for application to experimental data.

  6. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  7. Steam generators lay-up optimization and derived wastes reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabeau, A.M.; Viricel, L.; Foct, F.; Lemaire, P.; Moreaux, D.

    2002-01-01

    Today, EDF plants face a new release permit after a steam generators (SGs) wet lay-up, so that the legal authorizations for wastes release to the environment, renewed or being renewed by the safety authorities, allow smallest quantities of wastes than earlier. In this context, EDF studies the optimization of SGs lay-up conditions, and especially of the hydrazine concentration, in order to reduce the liquid wastes releases to the environment, while keeping low corrosion conditions. At the same time, EDF examines a treatment for hydrazine elimination in liquid wastes before their releases. An experimental study has been conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of hydrazine to control materials corrosion and of nitrogen gas phase to deaerate water. The consequences of lay-up conditions on carbon steel corrosion has also been studied. In the absence of an efficient alternative reagent, hydrazine remains necessary but implies a great care due to its carcinogenic risks and to its toxicity for aquatic organisms. This choice implies studying a method for hydrazine elimination before its release to the environment. The hydrazine elimination from SGs lay-up wastes could be achieved within about one day, by adding about 700 to 800 liters of 30% hydrogen peroxide solution to eliminate 100 kg hydrazine. Copper sulfate would have to be added if copper is not present in the wastes; the copper content in the wastes should be around 100 to 200 μg/kg for the reaction to be fast enough, which is consistent with the legal authorization for copper release to the environment. The nuclear power plants would have to adjust the quantity of hydrogen peroxide to add to the wastes to be treated, based on the quantity of hydrazine to eliminate, in order to avoid any excess of hydrogen peroxide in the wastes at the end of the treatment, since this species is not allowed to be released to the environment. Moreover, the hydrogen peroxide treatment should not have any significant impact on

  8. Detection of bursts in neuronal spike trains by the mean inter-spike interval method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Chen; Yong Deng; Weihua Luo; Zhen Wang; Shaoqun Zeng

    2009-01-01

    Bursts are electrical spikes firing with a high frequency, which are the most important property in synaptic plasticity and information processing in the central nervous system. However, bursts are difficult to identify because bursting activities or patterns vary with phys-iological conditions or external stimuli. In this paper, a simple method automatically to detect bursts in spike trains is described. This method auto-adaptively sets a parameter (mean inter-spike interval) according to intrinsic properties of the detected burst spike trains, without any arbitrary choices or any operator judgrnent. When the mean value of several successive inter-spike intervals is not larger than the parameter, a burst is identified. By this method, bursts can be automatically extracted from different bursting patterns of cultured neurons on multi-electrode arrays, as accurately as by visual inspection. Furthermore, significant changes of burst variables caused by electrical stimulus have been found in spontaneous activity of neuronal network. These suggest that the mean inter-spike interval method is robust for detecting changes in burst patterns and characteristics induced by environmental alterations.

  9. Effect of Different Training Methods on Stride Parameters in Speed Maintenance Phase of 100-m Sprint Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Emel; Hindistan, I Ethem; Ozkaya, Y Gul

    2018-05-01

    Cetin, E, Hindistan, IE, Ozkaya, YG. Effect of different training methods on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1263-1272, 2018-This study examined the effects of 2 different training methods relevant to sloping surface on stride parameters in speed maintenance phase of 100-m sprint running. Twenty recreationally active students were assigned into one of 3 groups: combined training (Com), horizontal training (H), and control (C) group. Com group performed uphill and downhill training on a sloping surface with an angle of 4°, whereas H group trained on a horizontal surface, 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Speed maintenance and deceleration phases were divided into distances with 10-m intervals, and running time (t), running velocity (RV), step frequency (SF), and step length (SL) were measured at preexercise, and postexercise period. After 8 weeks of training program, t was shortened by 3.97% in Com group, and 2.37% in H group. Running velocity also increased for totally 100 m of running distance by 4.13 and 2.35% in Com, and H groups, respectively. At the speed maintenance phase, although t and maximal RV (RVmax) found to be statistically unaltered during overall phase, t was found to be decreased, and RVmax was preceded by 10 m in distance in both training groups. Step length was increased at 60-70 m, and SF was decreased at 70-80 m in H group. Step length was increased with concomitant decrease in SF at 80-90 m in Com group. Both training groups maintained the RVmax with a great percentage at the speed maintenance phase. In conclusion, although both training methods resulted in an increase in running time and RV, Com training method was more prominently effective method in improving RV, and this improvement was originated from the positive changes in SL during the speed maintaining phase.

  10. The Effect of Communication Skills Training by Video Feedback Method on Clinical Skills of Interns of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences Compared to Didactic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managheb, S. E.; Zamani, A.; Shams, B.; Farajzadegan, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Effective communication is essential to the practice of high-quality medicine. There are methodological challenges in communication skills training. This study was performed in order to assess the educational benefits of communication skills training by video feedback method versus traditional formats such as lectures on clinical…

  11. In-Hospital Basic Life Support: Major Differences in Duration, Retraining Intervals, and Training Methods - A Danish Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditte K; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Staerk, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: High-quality chest compressions and early defibrillation is essential to improve survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient training in basic life support (BLS) for clinical staff is therefore important. This study aimed to investigate duration, training methods...... and retraining intervals for BLS training of clinical staff in Danish hospitals.Methods: We included all public, somatic hospitals in Denmark with a cardiac arrest team. Online questionnaires were distributed to resuscitation officers in each hospital. Questionnaires inquired information on: A) Course duration...... and retraining interval, and B) Training methods and setting.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). BLS training for clinical staff was conducted in 41 hospitals (93%). Median (Q1;Q3) course duration was 1.5 (1;2.5) hours. Retraining was conducted every year (17%), every second year (56...

  12. Where There is No EMS: Lay Providers in Emergency Medical Services Care - EMS as a Public Health Priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debenham, Sierra; Fuller, Matthew; Stewart, Matthew; Price, Raymond R

    2017-12-01

    By 2030, road traffic accidents are projected to be the fifth leading cause of death worldwide, with 90% of these deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). While high-quality, prehospital trauma care is crucial to reduce the number of trauma-related deaths, effective Emergency Medical Systems (EMS) are limited or absent in many LMICs. Although lay providers have long been recognized as the front lines of informal trauma care in countries without formal EMS, few efforts have been made to capitalize on these networks. We suggest that lay providers can become a strong foundation for nascent EMS through a four-fold approach: strengthening and expanding existing lay provider training programs; incentivizing lay providers; strengthening locally available first aid supply chains; and using technology to link lay provider networks. Debenham S , Fuller M , Stewart M , Price RR . Where there is no EMS: lay providers in Emergency Medical Services care - EMS as a public health priority. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):593-595.

  13. A Qualitative Assessment of Human Cadavers Embalmed by Thiel's Method Used in Laparoscopic Training for Renal Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Tang, Benjie; Eisma, Roos; Soames, Roger W.; Wen, Haitao; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-01-01

    Human cadaveric tissue is the fundamental substrate for basic anatomic and surgical skills training. A qualitative assessment of the use of human cadavers preserved by Thiel's method for a British Association of Urological Surgeons--approved, advanced laparoscopic renal resection skills training course is described in the present study. Four…

  14. Laparoscopy training in surgical education: the utility of incorporating a structured preclinical laparoscopy course into the traditional apprenticeship method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Win, Gunter; Van Bruwaene, Siska; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Crea, Nicola; Zhang, Zhewen; De Ridder, Dirk; Miserez, Marc

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether preclinical laparoscopy training offers a benefit over standard apprenticeship training and apprenticeship training in combination with simulation training. This randomized controlled trial consisted of 3 groups of first-year surgical registrars receiving a different teaching method in laparoscopic surgery. The KU LEUVEN Faculty of Medicine is the largest medical faculty in Belgium. Thirty final-year medical students starting a general surgical career in the next academic year. Thirty final-year medical students were randomized into 3 groups, which differed in the way they were exposed to laparoscopic simulation training but were comparable in regard to ambidexterity, sex, age, and laparoscopic psychomotoric skills. The control group received only clinical training during surgical residentship, whereas the interval group received clinical training in combination with simulation training. The registrars were allowed to do deliberate practice. The Centre for Surgical Technologies Preclinical Training Programme (CST PTP) group received a preclinical simulation course during the final year as medical students, but was not exposed to any extra simulation training during surgical residentship. At the beginning of surgical residentship and 6 months later, all subjects performed a standardized suturing task and a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a POP Trainer. All procedures were recorded together with time and motion tracking parameters. All videos were scored by a blinded observer using global rating scales. At baseline the 3 groups were comparable. At 6 months, for suturing, the CST PTP group was better than both the other groups with respect to time, checklist, and amount of movements. The interval group was better than the control group on only the time and checklist score. For the cholecystectomy evaluation, there was a statistical difference between the CST PTP study group and both other groups on all evaluation scales in favor of the CST PTP

  15. Training management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    The following topics to be covered in this report are: Design principles for training programmes; training methods, materials and facilities; national and international organization; training assessment and documentation; relation between supplier and customer, licensing requirements and practices. (orig.)

  16. Motivational interviewing: experiences of primary care nurses trained in the method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth

    2015-03-01

    Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.

  17. Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoem Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this review is to (1 retrieve all data validating the Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE-method using various criteria, (2 highlight the rationale of this method and its ecological usefulness, and (3 describe factors that can alter RPE and users of this method should take into consideration.Method: Search engines such as SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in the English language between 2001 and 2016 were consulted for the validity and usefulness of the session-RPE method. Studies were considered for further analysis when they used the session-RPE method proposed by Foster et al. in 2001. Participants were athletes of any gender, age, or level of competition. Studies using languages other than English were excluded in the analysis of the validity and reliability of the session-RPE method. Other studies were examined to explain the rationale of the session-RPE method and the origin of RPE.Results: A total of 950 studies cited the Foster et al. study that proposed the session RPE-method. 36 studies have examined the validity and reliability of this proposed method using the modified CR-10.Conclusion: These studies confirmed the validity and good reliability and internal consistency of session-RPE method in several sports and physical activities with men and women of different age categories (children, adolescents, and adults among various expertise levels. This method could be used as “standing alone” method for training load (TL monitoring purposes though some recommend to combine it with other physiological parameters as heart rate.

  18. Saturated salt solution method: a useful cadaver embalming for surgical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Homma, Hiroshi; Naito, Munekazu; Oda, Jun; Nishiyama, Takahisa; Kawamoto, Atsuo; Kawata, Shinichi; Sato, Norio; Fukuhara, Tomomi; Taguchi, Hirokazu; Mashiko, Kazuki; Azuhata, Takeo; Ito, Masayuki; Kawai, Kentaro; Suzuki, Tomoya; Nishizawa, Yuji; Araki, Jun; Matsuno, Naoto; Shirai, Takayuki; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Fukui, Hidekimi; Ohseto, Kiyoshige; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Itoh, Masahiro

    2014-12-01

    This article evaluates the suitability of cadavers embalmed by the saturated salt solution (SSS) method for surgical skills training (SST). SST courses using cadavers have been performed to advance a surgeon's techniques without any risk to patients. One important factor for improving SST is the suitability of specimens, which depends on the embalming method. In addition, the infectious risk and cost involved in using cadavers are problems that need to be solved. Six cadavers were embalmed by 3 methods: formalin solution, Thiel solution (TS), and SSS methods. Bacterial and fungal culture tests and measurement of ranges of motion were conducted for each cadaver. Fourteen surgeons evaluated the 3 embalming methods and 9 SST instructors (7 trauma surgeons and 2 orthopedists) operated the cadavers by 21 procedures. In addition, ultrasonography, central venous catheterization, and incision with cauterization followed by autosuture stapling were performed in some cadavers. The SSS method had a sufficient antibiotic effect and produced cadavers with flexible joints and a high tissue quality suitable for SST. The surgeons evaluated the cadavers embalmed by the SSS method to be highly equal to those embalmed by the TS method. Ultrasound images were clear in the cadavers embalmed by both the methods. Central venous catheterization could be performed in a cadaver embalmed by the SSS method and then be affirmed by x-ray. Lungs and intestines could be incised with cauterization and autosuture stapling in the cadavers embalmed by TS and SSS methods. Cadavers embalmed by the SSS method are sufficiently useful for SST. This method is simple, carries a low infectious risk, and is relatively of low cost, enabling a wider use of cadavers for SST.

  19. Models and Methods for Adaptive Management of Individual and Team-Based Training Using a Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisitsyna, L. S.; Smetyuh, N. P.; Golikov, S. P.

    2017-05-01

    Research of adaptive individual and team-based training has been analyzed and helped find out that both in Russia and abroad, individual and team-based training and retraining of AASTM operators usually includes: production training, training of general computer and office equipment skills, simulator training including virtual simulators which use computers to simulate real-world manufacturing situation, and, as a rule, the evaluation of AASTM operators’ knowledge determined by completeness and adequacy of their actions under the simulated conditions. Such approach to training and re-training of AASTM operators stipulates only technical training of operators and testing their knowledge based on assessing their actions in a simulated environment.

  20. Training in Information Management for Army Brigade and Battalion Staff: Methods and Preliminary Findings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Freeman, Jared

    1997-01-01

    Training, training Support software, and measurement instruments were developed to help Army brigade and below staff manage information and overcome information overload in a digital messaging environment...

  1. Impact of the lay-off length on +Gz tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuliszyn, Romuald; Kowalski, Wieslaw; Kowalczuk, Krzysztof

    2002-07-01

    There are many factors affecting pilots' +Gz-tolerance. Recently, attention of the aviation community has been focused on lay-off and it's impact on +Gz-tolerance. Pilots of the Polish Air Force (PAF) have dealt with that problem for several years now. The aim of the study was to provide insight on how lay-off periods with different duration impact +Gz-tolerance. 95 male jet pilots from the PAF participated in the study. Every one had at least two weeks lay-off period (non-medical reasons). Subjects were divided into four groups according to the length of lay-off period (2-4 weeks; 5-13 weeks; 14-26 weeks; 27-154 weeks), All pilots were subjected to a centrifuge exposure in GOR (0.1 G/s) or ROR (1.0 G/s) profiles, depending on the pre-lay-off exposure. Post-lay-off exposures were carried out directly after lay-off. 18 jet pilots without any lay-off constituted the control group. The difference between pre- and post-lay-off G-tolerance limit (-0,93 +/- 0,53) was statistically significant (p<0.01) only for one group, where lay-off period ranged between two and four weeks. No statistically significant differences were found where influence of other factors like total and yearly flight hours, heart rate gain (AHR) or physical activity measured as maximal oxygen intake were considered. 2-4 weeks of lay-off period decreases +Gz tolerance is statistically significant manner. Subsequent increase of lay-off period does not result in mean tolerance changes for group, however in certain individuals critical decrement of +Gz tolerance occurs. Total and last year flying hours, physical fitness does not modify impact of lay-off period on +Gz tolerance.

  2. Redrawing the line: An exploration of how lay people construct child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sasha Emma

    2017-06-01

    While there has been an increasing professional and political focus on the prevalence and harmfulness of child neglect, little has been done to explore what child neglect means outside child protection circles. This qualitative study explores lay constructions of child neglect by thematically analyzing focus group discussions between 46 self-defined 'lay' people in England. Participants viewed neglect as extremely damaging for children and as arising when children's physical, emotional, training and supervisory needs were unmet due to abnormal parental behavior. Children with unmet needs were positioned as deprived, unloved, uncontrolled and escaping. They were only positioned as neglected when failure to meet their needs was attributable to a lack of parental knowledge and skill (clueless parents), a lack of appropriate parental disposition (underinvested parents) or both (unsuitable parents). 'Normal' parents - those with the appropriate parental disposition, skills and knowledge - who failed to meet their children's needs were not seen as neglectful but rather as overburdened. As 'normal parenting' has fragmented in late modernity, society wide consensus on child neglect was felt by participants to have retreated to child protection definitions, alienating lay understandings. If child neglect really is 'everybody's business', then it is important that lay people are included in forging new definitions of and responses to meeting the needs of children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hybrid Decision-making Method for Emergency Response System of Unattended Train Operation Metro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobo Zhao

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Suitable selection of the emergency alternatives is a critical issue in emergency response system of Unattended Train Operation (UTO metro system of China. However, there is no available method for dispatcher group in Operating Control Center (OCC to evaluate the decision under emergency situation. It was found that the emergency decision making in UTO metro system is relative with the preferences and the importance of multi-dispatcher in emergency. Regarding these factors, this paper presents a hybrid method to determinate the priority weights of emergency alternatives, which aggregates the preference matrix by constructing the emergency response task model based on the Weighted Ordered Weighted Averaging (WOWA operator. This calculation approach derives the importance weights depending on the dispatcher emergency tasks and integrates it into the Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA operator weights based on a fuzzy membership relation. A case from train fire is given to demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of the proposed methods for Group Multi-Criteria Decision Making (GMCDM in emergency management of UTO metro system. The innovation of this research is paving the way for a systematic emergency decision-making solution which connects the automatic metro emergency response system with the GMCDM theory.

  4. Development of methods for nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed additions and revisions to Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 50 and 55, and to Regulatory Guides 1.8 and 1.149. ORNL is developing methods and some aspects of the technical basis for the implementation and assessment of training programs, personnel qualifications, and simulation facilities. The paper describes the three methodologies which were developed during the FY-1984 research: a task sort procedure (TSORT); a simulation facility evaluation methodology; and a task analysis profiling system (TAPS)

  5. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaocui Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50. The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%, had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05 and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05. Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  6. Deposition of melamine in eggs from laying hens exposed to melamine contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqiang; Yang, Wenjun; Wang, Zongyi; Peng, Yong; Li, Bin; Zhang, Liying; Gong, Limin

    2010-03-24

    The deposition profile of melamine was studied in eggs obtained from laying hens fed melamine contaminated feed. A total of 180 laying hens were divided into five groups and were fed diets spiked with 0, 5, 25, 50, or 100 mg of melamine per kg of feed. Eggs collected on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 were analyzed by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method, which was fully validated for melamine analysis prior to use. For each treatment group, the melamine level in the eggs was similar from day 1 to day 15 (P > 0.05), suggesting that laying hens did not accumulate melamine for later deposition in eggs. The average melamine concentrations in eggs were 0.00 (below limit of detection), 0.16, 0.47, 0.84, and 1.48 mg/kg for the 0, 5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg treatment groups, respectively, which demonstrated an apparent dose-response relationship, and a safety threshold of 164 mg/kg melamine in the feed of laying hen was estimated when a maximum tolerance level of 2.5 mg/kg melamine in egg was adopted. These results provide a scientific basis for the risk assessment of melamine in feeds fed to laying hens.

  7. What is healthy food? Objective nutrient profile scores and subjective lay evaluations in comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucher, T; Müller, B; Siegrist, M

    2015-12-01

    To date, it is unclear how consumers evaluate the healthiness of individual foods and meals and how consumers' perceptions are related to expert opinions. This knowledge is essential for efficient communication of nutrition information with the goal of promoting healthy eating. This study used the fake food buffet method to investigate health perceptions of selected meals and of 54 individual foods and beverages. Lay consumers' subjective healthiness evaluations of meals and foods were compared to objective nutrient profile scores, which were previously shown to correlate highly with expert opinions. The results show that nutrition profile scores and lay evaluations were highly correlated, which indicates that lay people used similar criteria as experts to evaluate the healthiness of foods. However, lay consumers tended to neglect the amount of saturated fat, protein and sodium for their judgments. Also, it was found that while lay consumers were quite able to evaluate single food products, they had difficulties in evaluating entire meals. Future interventions should focus particularly on educating the consumer about the negative effects of diets high in salt and saturated fat and they should improve the consumer's abilities to evaluate entire meals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lay perceptions of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peretti-Watel, P.; Hammer, B.

    2006-01-01

    Using the data from the French Environment Barometer EDF-RD 2004 (national representative sample of French citizens aged over 15) and surveys by ADEME between 2000 and 2005, the paper investigates lay perceptions of the causes and consequences of the greenhouse effect, which may be considered as archetypical of contemporary environmental risks. Beyond lay lack of knowledge, the greenhouse effect gives rise to coherent and meaningful cognitions, including causal explanations, shaped by the pre-existing cognitive framework. This cognitive work, based on analogic rather than scientific thought, strings together the greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, air pollution and even nuclear power. The cognitive process is also fed by the individuals' general conceptions of Nature and of the rights and duties of humankind towards Nature. People are not greatly worried about the unseen and controversial consequences of the greenhouse effect: such worry could be one of those 'elite fears' mentioned by Beck. Finally, while the efficiency of public policies to counter the greenhouse effect requires extensive societal involvement, low confidence towards both political and scientific authorities may prevent the population from becoming aware of the environmental stakes tied to the greenhouse effect. (authors)

  9. Affective cognition: Exploring lay theories of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Desmond C; Zaki, Jamil; Goodman, Noah D

    2015-10-01

    Humans skillfully reason about others' emotions, a phenomenon we term affective cognition. Despite its importance, few formal, quantitative theories have described the mechanisms supporting this phenomenon. We propose that affective cognition involves applying domain-general reasoning processes to domain-specific content knowledge. Observers' knowledge about emotions is represented in rich and coherent lay theories, which comprise consistent relationships between situations, emotions, and behaviors. Observers utilize this knowledge in deciphering social agents' behavior and signals (e.g., facial expressions), in a manner similar to rational inference in other domains. We construct a computational model of a lay theory of emotion, drawing on tools from Bayesian statistics, and test this model across four experiments in which observers drew inferences about others' emotions in a simple gambling paradigm. This work makes two main contributions. First, the model accurately captures observers' flexible but consistent reasoning about the ways that events and others' emotional responses to those events relate to each other. Second, our work models the problem of emotional cue integration-reasoning about others' emotion from multiple emotional cues-as rational inference via Bayes' rule, and we show that this model tightly tracks human observers' empirical judgments. Our results reveal a deep structural relationship between affective cognition and other forms of inference, and suggest wide-ranging applications to basic psychological theory and psychiatry. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nutritional potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the potassium requirement for laying Japanese quails. Two hundred and forty quails were distributed in a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with eight birds each. The treatments consisted of a basal diet deficient in potassium (K (2.50 g/kg, supplemented with potassium carbonate, to replace the inert, to reach levels of 2.50, 3.50, 4.50, 5.50 and 6.50 (g/kg of K in the diet. There was a quadratic effect of K levels on feed intake, egg production, egg mass and feed conversion per egg mass and per egg dozen, estimating the requirements of 4.26, 4.41, 4.38, 4.43 and 4.48 (g/kg of K diet, respectively. There was no significant effect on the levels of K in the diet on egg weight, albumen weight, percentage of yolk or shell and yolk color. However, yolk and shell weights reduced and the albumen percentage increased linearly with increasing levels of K in the diet. Despite the reduction of shell weight, the increased levels of K did not influence the specific gravity and shell thickness. The use of 4.41 g/kg of potassium is recommended in the diet for laying Japanese quails.

  11. Shrimp cephalothorax meal in laying hen diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas-Duran, Catalina; Chacon-Villalobos, Alejandro; Zamora-Sanchez, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The effect of shrimp meal (SM) was measure in commercial laying hen diets. Pleuroncodes planipes was used in Costa Rica, from April to September 2013, to obtain a meal (SM) with a yield of 15%, particle size of 256 μg and negative for Salmonella sp. Proximate analysis was performed to the SM: crude protein (40,67%), ether extract (11,05%), crude fiber (7,12%), ash (27,48%), calcium (9,03%), phosphorus (2,66%), amino acid profile, pepsin digestibility (84%) and acidity (8,34). Subsequently, a trial was performed with 140 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens, fed with four different diets containing increasing levels of inclusion of SM (0%, 5%, 10%, and 15%) during four weeks; and formulated according to the ideal protein and digestible amino acids concepts; being isocaloric and isoproteic. The variables experimentally evaluated were: production percentage, feed intake, body weight, mortality, egg weight and feed conversion ratio. Only egg weight changed significantly between treatments in the third week (p [es

  12. Effectiveness of different tutorial recitation teaching methods and its implications for TA training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endorf, Robert

    2008-04-01

    We present results from a comparative study of student understanding for students who attended recitation classes that used different teaching methods. The purpose of the study was to evaluate which teaching methods would be the most effective for recitation classes associated with large lectures in introductory physics courses. Student volunteers from our introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Cincinnati attended a special recitation class that was taught using one of four different teaching methods. A total of 272 students were divided into approximately equal groups for each method. Students in each class were taught the same topic, ``Changes in Energy and Momentum,'' from ``Tutorials in Introductory Physics'' by Lillian McDermott, Peter Shaffer and the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington. The different teaching methods varied in the amount of student and teacher engagement. Student understanding was evaluated through pretests and posttests. Our results demonstrate the importance of the instructor's role in teaching recitation classes. The most effective teaching method was for students working in cooperative learning groups with the instructors questioning the groups using Socratic dialogue. In addition, we investigated student preferences of modes of instruction through an open-ended survey. Our results provide guidance and evidence for the teaching methods which should be emphasized in training course instructors.

  13. Development of furnished cages for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, M C; Walker, A W; Nicol, C J; Lindberg, A C; Freire, R; Hughes, B O; Elson, H A

    2002-09-01

    1. A 3-year trial was carried out of cages for laying hens, occupying a full laying house. The main cage designs used were 5000 cm2 in area, 50 cm high at the rear and furnished with nests and perches. F cages had a front rollaway nest at the side, lined with artificial turf. FD cages also had a dust bath containing sand over the nest. H cages had two nest hollows at the side, one in front of the other. They were compared with conventional cages 2500 cm2 in area and 38 cm high at the rear. 2. Cages were stocked with from 4 to 8 ISA Brown hens per cage, resulting in varied allowances of area, feeder and perch per bird. No birds were beak trimmed. In F and FD cages two further treatments were applied: nests and dust baths were sometimes fitted with gates to exclude birds from dust baths in the morning and from both at night; elevated food troughs, with a lip 33 cm above the cage floor, were compared with standard troughs. 3. Management of the house was generally highly successful, with temperature control achieved by ventilation. Egg production was above breeders' standards and not significantly affected by cage design. More eggs per bird were collected when there were fewer birds per cage but food consumption also then tended to be higher. 4. The number of downgraded eggs was variable, with some tendency for more in furnished cages. Eggs laid in dust baths were often downgraded. Those laid at the back of the cage were frequently dirty because of accumulation of droppings. H nests were unsuccessful, with less than 50% of eggs laid in the nest hollows. However, up to 93% of eggs were laid in front rollaways, and few of these were downgraded. 5. Feather and foot damage were generally less in furnished than in conventional cages, greater where there were more birds per cage. With an elevated food trough there was less feather damage but more overgrowth of claws. In year 2, mortality was greater in cages with more birds. 6. Pre-laying behaviour was mostly settled in

  14. Development of a competencies profile for the inspector of the regulatory body for nuclear facilities using the systematic approach to training(SAT) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Mok; Kim, Byung Sun; Kim, Yang Hee; Kim, Wang Kyun; Myung, Chang Yeon; Min, Kung Han

    2005-12-01

    The information of the basis for the training program development is needed to ensure whether the training regulation and the training program is appropriate. These objective information should be developed through the systematic approach to training (SAT). But, KINS does not have the training program development system and the basic information system yet. Through this project, we have established the education and training program development system that is applied by the Developing A Curriculum (DACUM) method

  15. Implementing a virtual community of practice for family physician training: a mixed-methods case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Stephen; Jones, Sandra C; Caton, Tim; Iverson, Don; Bennett, Sue; Robinson, Laura

    2014-03-12

    GP training in Australia can be professionally isolating, with trainees spread across large geographic areas, leading to problems with rural workforce retention. Virtual communities of practice (VCoPs) may provide a way of improving knowledge sharing and thus reducing professional isolation. The goal of our study was to review the usefulness of a 7-step framework for implementing a VCoP for general practitioner (GP) training and then evaluated the usefulness of the resulting VCoP in facilitating knowledge sharing and reducing professional isolation. The case was set in an Australian general practice training region involving 55 first-term trainees (GPT1s), from January to July 2012. ConnectGPR was a secure, online community site that included standard community options such as discussion forums, blogs, newsletter broadcasts, webchats, and photo sharing. A mixed-methods case study methodology was used. Results are presented and interpreted for each step of the VCoP 7-step framework and then in terms of the outcomes of knowledge sharing and overcoming isolation. Step 1, Facilitation: Regular, personal facilitation by a group of GP trainers with a co-ordinating facilitator was an important factor in the success of ConnectGPR. Step 2, Champion and Support: Leadership and stakeholder engagement were vital. Further benefits are possible if the site is recognized as contributing to training time. Step 3, Clear Goals: Clear goals of facilitating knowledge sharing and improving connectedness helped to keep the site discussions focused. Step 4, A Broad Church: The ConnectGPR community was too narrow, focusing only on first-term trainees (GPT1s). Ideally there should be more involvement of senior trainees, trainers, and specialists. Step 5, A Supportive Environment: Facilitators maintained community standards and encouraged participation. Step 6, Measurement Benchmarking and Feedback: Site activity was primarily driven by centrally generated newsletter feedback. Viewing

  16. Projective methodical system of students training to the course «History of computer science»

    OpenAIRE

    С А Виденин

    2008-01-01

    Components of teachers readiness to professional activity are described in the item. The projective methods of training to a course « History of computer science « in favour to improve professional grounding of students' are considered.

  17. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  18. Coaching – A successful training and educational method of an individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Current level of development demands an ever growing forms of the personal and customized, as a result in the last few decades group trainings (seminars, courses, public lectures have been replaced by individual forms of education/training, such as: mentoring, educational counseling and e-training. Among these a special individual form of education/training has appeared, called coaching.

  19. Differences in characteristics of raters who use the visual estimation method in hospitals based on their training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Tamaura, Yuki; Akamatsu, Rie; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko

    2018-02-07

    Despite a clinical need, only a few studies have provided information concerning visual estimation training for raters to improve the validity of their evaluations. This study aims to describe the differences in the characteristics of raters who evaluated patients' dietary intake in hospitals using the visual estimation method based on their training experiences. We collected data from three hospitals in Tokyo from August to September 2016. The participants were 199 nursing staff members, and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic data; working career; training in the visual estimation method; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity of and skills of visual estimation. We classified participants into two groups, experienced and inexperienced, based on whether they had received training. Square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to describe the differences between these two groups in terms of their characteristics; knowledge, attitude, and practice associated with nutritional care; and self-evaluation of method validity and tips used in the visual estimation method. Of the 158 staff members (79.4%) (118 nurses and 40 nursing assistants) who agreed to participate in the analysis, thirty-three participants (20.9%) were trained in the visual estimation method. Participants who had received training had better knowledge (2.70 ± 0.81, score range was 1-5) than those who had not received any training (2.34 ± 0.74, p = 0.03). Score of self-evaluation of method validity of the visual estimation method was higher in the experienced group (3.78 ± 0.61, score range was 1-5) than the inexperienced group (3.40 ± 0.66, p trained had adequate knowledge (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.05-7.35) and frequently used tips in visual estimation (OR: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.26-2.73). Trained participants had more required knowledge and

  20. Can postponement of an adverse outcome be used to present risk reductions to a lay audience?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Rasmus; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø

    2007-01-01

    to test the hypothesis that lay people may be able to discriminate between therapies when their effectiveness is expressed in terms of postponement of an adverse disease event. METHODS: In 2004 a random sample of 1,367 non-institutionalized Danes aged 40+ was interviewed in person. The participants were...... month, 6 months, 12 months, 2 years, 4 years and 8 years respectively. Participants who thought that the effectiveness information was difficult to understand, were less likely to consent to therapy (p = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Lay people can discriminate between levels of treatment effectiveness when...

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Traditional Training Methods in Non-Traditional Training Programs for Adult Learners through a Pre-Test/Post-Test Comparison of Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Caleb D.; Burris, Scott; Fraze, Steve; Doerfert, David; McCulloch, Abigail

    2013-01-01

    The incorporation of hot and cold food bars into grocery stores in an effort to capture a portion of the home meal replacement industry is presenting new challenges for retail food establishments. To ensure retail success and customer safety, employees need to be educated in food safety practices. Traditional methods of training are not meeting…

  2. Substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for univeristies students with muscular skeletal apparatuse affections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San. Zhen Qiang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: substantiation of health related power lifting training methodic for universities students, who have disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus. Material: in experimental researches 126 students of 18-24 years’ age, having disorders of muscular skeletal apparatus, participated. With the help of testing we registered changes of students’ functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness indicators. Results: optimal correlation of specific and non specific loads was found: 60% of specific and 40% of non specific. It is recommended to follow certain correlation of exercises in easy and complicated conditions: for first year students - 3:2; for second year students - 3:2; for third year - 2:3; for forth year - 2:3; for fifth year students - 1:3. Specific only for power lifting conditions and temps of students’ (with muscular skeletal apparatus affections functional, physical and psycho-physiological fitness improvement were determined. Conclusions: The requirements of the training methodic envisage correction of loads for bringing every indicator on proper level.

  3. Development of methods for nuclear power plant personnel qualifications and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed that additions and revisions should be made to Title 10 of the ''Code of Federal Regulations,'' Parts 50 and 55, and to Regulatory Guides 1.8 and 1.149. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing methods and some aspects of the technical basis for the implementation and assessment of training programs, personnel qualifications, and simulation facilities to be designed in accordance with the proposed rule changes. The paper describes the three methodologies which were developed during the FY-1984 research. The three methodologies are: (1) a task sort procedure (TSORT); (2) a simulation facility evaluation methodology; and (3) a task analysis profiling system (TAPS). TAPS is covered in detail in this paper. The task analysis profiling system has been designed to support training research. It draws on artificial intelligence concepts of pattern matching to provide an automated task analysis of normal English descriptions of job behaviors. TAPS development consisted of creating a precise method for the definition of skills, knowledge, abilities, and attitudes (SKAA), and generating SKAA taxonomic elements. It systematically outputs skills, knowledge, attitudes, and abilities, and information associated with them

  4. Effectiveness of different tutorial recitation teaching methods and its implications for TA training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M. Koenig

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We present results from a comparative study of student understanding for students who attended recitation classes that used different teaching methods. Student volunteers from our introductory calculus-based physics course attended a special recitation class that was taught using one of four different teaching methods. A total of 272 students were divided into approximately equal groups for each method. Students in each class were taught the same topic, “Changes in Energy and Momentum,” from Tutorials in Introductory Physics. The different teaching methods varied in the amount of student and teacher engagement. Student understanding was evaluated through pre- and post-tests. Our results demonstrate the importance of the instructor’s role in teaching recitation classes. The most effective teaching method was for students working in cooperative learning groups with the instructors questioning the groups using Socratic dialogue. In addition, we investigated student preferences for modes of instruction through an open-ended survey. Our results provide guidance and evidence for the teaching methods that should be emphasized in training course instructors.

  5. The Train Driver Recovery Problem - Solution Method and Decision Support System Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezanova, Natalia Jurjevna

    2009-01-01

    the proposed model and solution method is suitable for solving in real-time. Recovery duties are generated as resource constrained paths in duty networks, and the set partitioning problem is solved with a linear programming based branch-and-price algorithm. Dynamic column generation and problem space expansion...... driver decision support system in their operational environment. Besides solving a particular optimization problem, this thesis contributes with a description of the railway planning process, tactical crew scheduling and the real-time dispatching solutions, taking a starting point in DSB S....... Rezanova NJ, Ryan DM. The train driver recovery problem–A set partitioning based model and solution method. Computers and Operations Research, in press, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.cor.2009.03.023. 2. Clausen J, Larsen A, Larsen J, Rezanova NJ. Disruption management in the airline industry–Concepts, models...

  6. Study on Students' Impression Data in Practical Training Using Text Mining Method-Analysis of Considerable Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramachi, Hitomi; Sugita, Ikuto; Ino, Yoko; Hayashi, Yuta; Yoshida, Aki; Otsubo, Manami; Ueno, Anri; Katsuno, Hayato; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Kazuhiro; Tachi, Tomoya

    2017-09-01

    We analyzed impression data and the scale of communication skills of students using text mining method to clarify which area a student was conscious of in communication in practical training. The results revealed that students tended to be conscious of the difference between practical hospital training and practical pharmacy training. In practical hospital training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient-visit", "counseling-conduct", "patient-counseling", and "patient-talk". In practical pharmacy training, specific expressions denoting relationships were "patient counseling-conduct", "story-listen", "patient-many", and "patient-visit". In practical hospital training, the word "patient" was connected to many words suggesting that students were conscious of a patient-centered communication. In practical pharmacy training, words such as "patient counseling", "patient", and "explanation" were placed in center and connected with many other words and there was an independent relationship between "communication" and "accept". In conclusion, it was suggested that students attempted active patient-centered communication in practical hospital training, while they were conscious of listening closely in patient counseling in practical pharmacy training.

  7. Rotor Design of IPMSM Traction Motor Based on Multi- Objective Optimization using BFGS Method and Train Motion Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a multiobjective optimal design method of interior permanent magnet synchronous motor ( IPMSM for traction applications so as to maximize average torque and to minimize torque ripple has been presented. Based on train motion equations and physical properties of train, desired specifications such as steady state speed, rated output power, acceleration time and rated speed of traction motor are related to each other. By considering the same output power, steady state speed, rated voltage, rated current and different acceleration time for a specified train, multiobjective optimal design has been performed by Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno (BFGS method and finite element method (FEM has been chosen as an analysis tool. BFGS method is one of Quasi Newton methods and is counted in classic approaches. Classic optimization methods are appropriate when FEM is applied as an analysis tool and objective function isn’t expressed in closed form in terms of optimization variables.

  8. Standardising the Lay: Logics of Change in Programs of Disease Self-management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Nielsen, Annegrete; Grøn, Lone

    2012-01-01

    -managing patient is intended as a challenge to traditional medical authority by introducing lay methods of knowing disease. Rather than a meeting between authoritative professionals and vulnerable patients, the self-managing patient seeks to open up new spaces for a meeting between experts. The present paper...

  9. Comparative analysis of methods of training and dietary habits of skilled bodybuilders in the run-general preparatory stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzhym V.Y.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative analysis of the characteristics of methods of training and nutrition bodybuilders in the run-general of the preparatory phase (duration 4 - 5 months or 20 microcycles. Analyzed the characteristics of different methods of training bodybuilders to increase muscle mass. Material : the study involved 8 skilled bodybuilders, are included in the team of the Kharkiv region. Results : a comparative characteristic of the most commonly used methods of exercise and nutrition in bodybuilding. Discovered and proved the optimal technique for athletes depending on the original form at the beginning of general-preparatory phase of training. Driven changes in body weight, depending on the amount used Athlete of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Conclusions : throughout the training period was characterized by severe protein diet orientation. The proportion of the nutrient was 40% in the first quarter, 50% - in the second, 60% in the third. Only in the last two microcycle decreased to 50%.

  10. Insiders and incomers: how lay public health workers' knowledge might improve public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeli, Heather; Cattan, Mima

    2017-11-01

    Since 2005, health trainers and other lay public health workers (LPHWs) have been increasingly active in the UK. Although elsewhere in the world LPHWs are expected to come from the communities within which they work and know that their knowledge is valued, neither is the case for LPHWs in the UK. This study sought to discover the lay knowledge of health trainers and other LPHWs, aiming to ascertain how this knowledge might more effectively be utilised within UK public health services. This paper describes a participatory and ethnographic case study research project undertaken on an anonymised urban estate in North East England. Findings were generated by a range of means including by participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Seven LPHWs took part, as did 32 other community members. This study found that the lay health knowledge of an individual UK LPHW is determined primarily by his or her position within, or in relation to, the community within which he or she works. Insider LPHWs possess an embodied knowledge and incomer LPHWs possess an experiential knowledge which, although different from one another, are essentially interpersonal in nature. Lay health knowledge can take different forms, and different LPHWs can provide different forms of lay health knowledge. Public health structures and services in the UK should make better use of all forms of LPHW knowledge, and should seek from LPHWs training on how to engage the most 'hard-to-reach' or 'difficult-to-engage' groups. Services recruiting LPHWs should decide whether they are seeking embodied insider LPHW knowledge, experiential incomer LPHW knowledge or a mixture of both. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The ancient art of laying rope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, J.; Olsen, K.

    2011-03-01

    We describe a geometrical property of helical structures and show how it accounts for the early art of rope-making. Helices have a maximum number of rotations that can be added to them — and it is shown that this is a geometrical feature, not a material property. This geometrical insight explains why nearly identically appearing ropes can be made from very different materials and it is also the reason behind the unyielding nature of ropes. Maximally rotated strands behave as zero-twist structures. Hence, under strain they neither rotate in one direction nor in the other. The necessity for the rope to be stretched while being laid, known from Egyptian tomb scenes, follows straightforwardly, as does the function of the top, an old tool for laying ropes.

  12. Smartphone apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation training and real incident support: a mixed-methods evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marc; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-03-19

    No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the perspective of medical experts and end-users. The study aims to assess the quality of current mobile apps for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training and real incident support from expert as well as end-user perspective. Two independent medical experts evaluated the medical content of CPR apps from the Google Play store and the Apple App store. The evaluation was based on pre-defined minimum medical content requirements according to current Basic Life Support (BLS) guidelines. In a second phase, non-medical end-users tested usability and appeal of the apps that had at least met the minimum requirements. Usability was assessed with the System Usability Scale (SUS); appeal was measured with the self-developed ReactionDeck toolkit. Out of 61 apps, 46 were included in the experts' evaluation. A consolidated list of 13 apps resulted for the following layperson evaluation. The interrater reliability was substantial (kappa=.61). Layperson end-users (n=14) had a high interrater reliability (intraclass correlation 1 [ICC1]=.83, Ptraining and real incident support are available, very few are designed according to current BLS guidelines and offer an acceptable level of usability and hedonic quality for laypersons. The results of this study are intended to optimize the development of CPR mobile apps. The app ranking supports the informed selection of mobile apps for training situations and CPR campaigns as well as for real incident support.

  13. A Method to Train Marmosets in Visual Working Memory Task and Their Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Katsuki; Koba, Reiko; Miwa, Miki; Yamaguchi, Chieko; Suzuki, Hiromi; Takemoto, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Learning and memory processes are similarly organized in humans and monkeys; therefore, monkeys can be ideal models for analyzing human aging processes and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. With the development of novel gene modification methods, common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus ) have been suggested as an animal model for neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, the common marmoset's lifespan is relatively short, which makes it a practical animal model for aging. Working memory deficits are a prominent symptom of both dementia and aging, but no data are currently available for visual working memory in common marmosets. The delayed matching-to-sample task is a powerful tool for evaluating visual working memory in humans and monkeys; therefore, we developed a novel procedure for training common marmosets in such a task. Using visual discrimination and reversal tasks to direct the marmosets' attention to the physical properties of visual stimuli, we successfully trained 11 out of 13 marmosets in the initial stage of the delayed matching-to-sample task and provided the first available data on visual working memory in common marmosets. We found that the marmosets required many trials to initially learn the task (median: 1316 trials), but once the task was learned, the animals needed fewer trials to learn the task with novel stimuli (476 trials or fewer, with the exception of one marmoset). The marmosets could retain visual information for up to 16 s. Our novel training procedure could enable us to use the common marmoset as a useful non-human primate model for studying visual working memory deficits in neurodegenerative diseases and aging.

  14. Selection for low mortality in laying hens affects catecholamine levels in the arcopallium, a brain area involved in fear and motor regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kops, M.S.; Haas, de E.N.; Rodenburg, T.B.; Ellen, E.D.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.H.; Olivier, B.; Güntürkün, O.; Korte, S.M.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Feather pecking (FP) in laying hens may cause mortality due to cannibalism. Novel breeding methods using survival days of group-housed siblings allow for the genetic selection of laying hens with low mortality (LML: low mortality line) due to cannibalism. Previous studies have demonstrated less

  15. Lay health worker experiences administering a multi-level combination intervention to improve PMTCT retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiCarlo, Abby; Fayorsey, Ruby; Syengo, Masila; Chege, Duncan; Sirengo, Martin; Reidy, William; Otieno, Juliana; Omoto, Jackton; Hawken, Mark P; Abrams, Elaine J

    2018-01-10

    The recent scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) services has rapidly accelerated antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake among pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa. The Mother and Infant Retention for Health (MIR4Health) study evaluates the impact of a combination intervention administered by trained lay health workers to decrease attrition among HIV-positive women initiating PMTCT services and their infants through 6 months postpartum. This was a qualitative study nested within the MIR4Health trial. MIR4Health was conducted at 10 health facilities in Nyanza, Kenya from September 2013 to September 2015. The trial intervention addressed behavioral, social, and structural barriers to PMTCT retention and included: appointment reminders via text and phone calls, follow-up and tracking for missed clinic visits, PMTCT health education at home visits and during clinic visits, and retention and adherence support and counseling. All interventions were administered by lay health workers. We describe results of a nested small qualitative inquiry which conducted two focus groups to assess the experiences and perceptions of lay health workers administering the interventions. Discussions were recorded and simultaneously transcribed and translated into English. Data were analyzed using framework analysis approach. Study findings show lay health workers played a critical role supporting mothers in PMTCT services across a range of behavioral, social, and structural domains, including improved communication and contact, health education, peer support, and patient advocacy and assistance. Findings also identified barriers to the uptake and implementation of the interventions, such as concerns about privacy and stigma, and the limitations of the healthcare system including healthcare worker attitudes. Overall, study findings indicate that lay health workers found the interventions to be feasible, acceptable, and well received by clients. Lay

  16. Commissioning methods applied to the Hunterston 'B' AGR operator training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacking, D.

    1985-01-01

    The Hunterston 'B' full scope AGR Simulator, built for the South of Scotland Electricity Board by Marconi Instruments, encompasses all systems under direct and indirect control of the Hunterston central control room operators. The resulting breadth and depth of simulation together with the specification for the real time implementation of a large number of highly interactive detailed plant models leads to the classic problem of identifying acceptance and acceptability criteria. For example, whilst the ultimate criterion for acceptability must clearly be that within the context of the training requirement the simulator should be indistinguishable from the actual plant, far more measurable (i.e. less subjective) statements are required if a formal contractual acceptance condition is to be achieved. Within the framework, individual models and processes can have radically different acceptance requirements which therefore reflect on the commissioning approach applied. This paper discusses the application of a combination of quality assurance methods, design code results, plant data, theoretical analysis and operator 'feel' in the commissioning of the Hunterston 'B' AGR Operator Training Simulator. (author)

  17. Police training in interviewing and interrogation methods: A comparison of techniques used with adult and juvenile suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C

    2016-06-01

    Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  19. Non-stationary random vibration analysis of a 3D train-bridge system using the probability density evolution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-wu; Mao, Jian-feng; Guo, Feng-qi; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Rail irregularity is one of the main sources causing train-bridge random vibration. A new random vibration theory for the coupled train-bridge systems is proposed in this paper. First, number theory method (NTM) with 2N-dimensional vectors for the stochastic harmonic function (SHF) of rail irregularity power spectrum density was adopted to determine the representative points of spatial frequencies and phases to generate the random rail irregularity samples, and the non-stationary rail irregularity samples were modulated with the slowly varying function. Second, the probability density evolution method (PDEM) was employed to calculate the random dynamic vibration of the three-dimensional (3D) train-bridge system by a program compiled on the MATLAB® software platform. Eventually, the Newmark-β integration method and double edge difference method of total variation diminishing (TVD) format were adopted to obtain the mean value curve, the standard deviation curve and the time-history probability density information of responses. A case study was presented in which the ICE-3 train travels on a three-span simply-supported high-speed railway bridge with excitation of random rail irregularity. The results showed that compared to the Monte Carlo simulation, the PDEM has higher computational efficiency for the same accuracy, i.e., an improvement by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Additionally, the influences of rail irregularity and train speed on the random vibration of the coupled train-bridge system were discussed.

  20. History and future of human cadaver preservation for surgical training: from formalin to saturated salt solution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shogo; Naito, Munekazu; Kawata, Shinichi; Qu, Ning; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Hirai, Shuichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, surgical training meant on-the-job training with live patients in an operating room. However, due to advancing surgical techniques, such as minimally invasive surgery, and increasing safety demands during procedures, human cadavers have been used for surgical training. When considering the use of human cadavers for surgical training, one of the most important factors is their preservation. In this review, we summarize four preservation methods: fresh-frozen cadaver, formalin, Thiel's, and saturated salt solution methods. Fresh-frozen cadaver is currently the model that is closest to reality, but it also presents myriad problems, including the requirement of freezers for storage, limited work time because of rapid putrefaction, and risk of infection. Formalin is still used ubiquitously due to its low cost and wide availability, but it is not ideal because formaldehyde has an adverse health effect and formalin-embalmed cadavers do not exhibit many of the qualities of living organs. Thiel's method results in soft and flexible cadavers with almost natural colors, and Thiel-embalmed cadavers have been appraised widely in various medical disciplines. However, Thiel's method is relatively expensive and technically complicated. In addition, Thiel-embalmed cadavers have a limited dissection time. The saturated salt solution method is simple, carries a low risk of infection, and is relatively low cost. Although more research is needed, this method seems to be sufficiently useful for surgical training and has noteworthy features that expand the capability of clinical training. The saturated salt solution method will contribute to a wider use of cadavers for surgical training.

  1. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  2. Method to generate a pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Garcia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method to generate a long pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation by modulating an electron beam with a high power laser. The large energy modulation disperses the beam in a radiating undulator and leads to the production of phase-locked few-cycle coherent radiation pulses. These pulses are produced at a high harmonic of the modulating laser, and are longitudinally separated by the modulating laser wavelength. We discuss an analytical model for this scheme and investigate the temporal and spectral properties of this radiation. This model is compared with numerical simulation results using the unaveraged code Puffin. We examine various harmful effects and how they might be avoided, as well as a possible experimental realization of this scheme.

  3. Autogenic feedback training experiment: A preventative method for space motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.

    1993-01-01

    Space motion sickness is a disorder which produces symptoms similar to those of motion sickness on Earth. This syndrome has affected approximately 50 percent of all astronauts and cosmonauts exposed to microgravity in space, but it differs from what is commonly known as motion sickness in a number of critical ways. There is currently no ground-based method for predicting susceptibility to motion sickness in space. Antimotion sickness drugs have had limited success in preventing or counteracting symptoms in space, and frequently caused debilitating side effects. The objectives were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of Autogenic-Feedback Training as a countermeasure for space motion sickness; (2) to compare physiological data and in-flight symptom reports to ground-based motion sickness data; and (3) to predict susceptibility to space motion sickness based on pre-flight data of each treatment group crew member.

  4. Training simulator for nuclear power plant reactor control model and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerbuejewski, F.R.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a method and system for the real-time dynamic simulation of a nuclear power plant for training purposes, wherein a control console has a plurality of manual and automatic remote control devices for operating simulated control rods and has indicating devices for monitoring the physical operation of a simulated reactor. Digital computer means are connected to the control console to calculate data values for operating the monitoring devices in accordance with the control devices. The simulation of the reactor control rod mechanism is disclosed whereby the digital computer means operates the rod position monitoring devices in a real-time that is a fraction of the computer time steps and simulates the quick response of a control rod remote control lever together with the delayed response upon a change of direction

  5. Scenario Management Methods for On-Board, Self-Directed Training of a Naval Command Team

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiël, E.F.T.; Kampen, R.J. van

    2004-01-01

    TNO Physics and Electronics Laboratory, The Hague (The Netherlands), investigates the potentials of embedded training for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN). Embedded training is defined as an interactive, simulation-based training capability built into operational systems in order to enhance and

  6. Effects of Training Leaders in Needs-Based Methods of Running Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Emily M.; Malouff, John M.; Rangan, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of brief training in how to lead organizational meetings. The training was based on an attendee-needs-based model of running meetings. Twelve mid-level managers completed the training. The study showed a significant pre to post increase in the number of needs-based behaviors displayed by meeting leaders and in…

  7. 10 CFR 904.11 - Lay off of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lay off of energy. 904.11 Section 904.11 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON PROJECT Power Marketing § 904.11 Lay off of energy. (a) If any Contractor determines that it is temporarily...

  8. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  9. The emotional wellbeing of lay HIV counselling and testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lay counsellors are expected to educate clients about HIV/AIDS, advocate behaviour change, convey test results and support those infected and affected to cope with the emotional and social challenges associated with HIV/AIDS. This research focuses on the emotional wellbeing of lay HCT counsellors because this ...

  10. Performance and economy of production of laying hens fed graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of laying hens fed fermented wild cocoyam corm (FWCC) as a partial replacement for maize. Two hundred and forty (240) Nera black laying birds were randomly allocated to four experimental diets formulated on 0, 10, 20 and 30% FWCC as graded replacement ...

  11. Digestibility of organic processed feed ingredients in laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    van Krimpen, M.M.; van Diepen, J.T.M; Reuvekamp, B.F.J.; van Harn, J.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, digestibility and nutritive value for laying hens of organically-grown feed raw materials was assessed. Digestibility and metabolisable energy content of the products differed considerably compared to those listed in the CVB Feedstuff Table. Laying hens, organic feed raw materials, digestibility, nutritive value

  12. Genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitenhuis, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the genetic analysis of feather pecking behavior in laying hens. Feather pecking (FP) is a major welfare problem in laying hens.In the European

  13. Case report of misdiagnosis of Avian Colibacillosis in laying Birds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two freshly dead 27 weeks old Issa brown laying birds from a population of about 3000 birds with history of blindness, greenish-whitish diarrhoea, symptomatic diagnosis of coccidiosis, treatment failure, reduced egg lay and increased mortality was presented for postmortem examination and diagnosis. Postmortem ...

  14. Lay health advisers: scoping the role and intervention landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Susan M; Lhussier, Monique; Forster, Natalie

    2017-01-01

    The use of lay health advisers has become an established approach within public health, in particular for impact on health inequalities and engaging socially excluded groups. Evidence on how differences in terms of the multiple role dimensions impact the outcomes of programs is limited. This creates ambiguity for decision makers on which roles should be implemented in different contexts for different needs. This paper applies realist logic to an inquiry to explore the mechanisms that may operate in lay-led intervention models and understand how, why, and in what respect these lead to particular outcomes. It draws on a project focusing on health-related lifestyle advisers and further insights gained from a subsequent related project about outreach with traveler communities. Analysis highlights multiple and potentially interacting aspects of lay health-adviser roles that may influence their success, including characteristics of lay health advisers, characteristics of target populations, purpose or intent of interventions, and how advice is given. A model is proposed from which to examine the contexts and mechanisms of lay health advisers that may impact outcomes, and is subsequently applied to two examples of reported lay health-adviser interventions. The combination of skills and characteristics of lay health advisers must be considered when planning which interventions might be appropriate when targeting specific needs or target populations. Focus only on the peer/layperson distinction may overlook other potentially important skills and mechanisms of action integral to lay health-adviser roles.

  15. 29 CFR 18.701 - Opinion testimony by lay witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. 18.701 Section 18.701 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS... Opinion testimony by lay witnesses. If the witness is not testifying as an expert, the witness' testimony...

  16. Boiler system lay-up; Avstaellning och konservering av pannanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats

    2007-04-15

    Corrosion in power plant equipment is to a large extent a result of poor lay-up procedures. This applies for all equipment on the water and steam side e.g. condensers, boilers, turbines, heat exchangers etc. In theory, lay-up procedures are quite straightforward. The main objective is to avoid a combination of water and oxygen on the steel surfaces within the system. When using dry lay-up procedure, a totally dry environment is essential. The corrosion of steel cannot take place if there is no humidity; in spite of the abundance of oxygen i.e. air. As an alternative the steam side system can be purged with nitrogen so that no air ingress can take place. When using wet lay-up procedures it is important to achieve an oxygen free environment. Creating a slight over-pressure thus avoiding air in leakage can achieve this. Oxygen scavengers might be used as an alternative. Usually problems of maintaining the above mentioned conditions are rarely of technical art. More likely it is due to a lack of knowledge and commitment or short sighted economical considerations. This report summarises the experiences gathered at several visits at plants and discussions with vendors, users and consultants in the power industry. In addition to that, guidelines from well-reputed organisations, international and domestic, have been studied. In many cases the power plant managers believe they have proper lay-up routines but often the routines just regard long time lay-up. This may be regarded as the most important case. However, a number of shorter plant outages in combination with poor lay-up routines can result in severe damages. There is a consensus that a proper lay-up can only be achieved by plant specific lay-up procedures. Each unit is unique in terms of needs and requirements. In order to have as low corrosion as possible a systematic review to evaluate and revise lay-up procedures is preferred. A high in-house knowledge of the power plant enhances the possibility to maintain the

  17. Implementation of laparoscopic virtual-reality simulation training in gynaecology: a mixed-methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Christy; Appleyard, Tracy-Louise; Angouri, Jo; Draycott, Timothy J; McDermott, Leanne; Fox, Robert

    2013-10-01

    Virtual-reality (VR) training has been demonstrated to improve laparoscopic surgical skills in the operating theatre. The incorporation of laparoscopic VR simulation into surgical training in gynaecology remains a significant educational challenge. We undertook a pilot study to assess the feasibility of the implementation of a laparoscopic VR simulation programme into a single unit. An observational study with qualitative analysis of semi-structured group interviews. Trainees in gynaecology (n=9) were scheduled to undertake a pre-validated structured training programme on a laparoscopic VR simulator (LapSim(®)) over six months. The main outcome measure was the trainees' progress through the training modules in six months. Trainees' perceptions of the feasibility and barriers to the implementation of laparoscopic VR training were assessed in focus groups after training. Sixty-six percent of participants completed six of ten modules. Overall, feedback from the focus groups was positive; trainees felt training improved their dexterity, hand-eye co-ordination and confidence in theatre. Negative aspects included lack of haptic feedback, and facility for laparoscopic port placement training. Time restriction emerged as the main barrier to training. Despite positive perceptions of training, no trainee completed more than two-thirds of the modules of a self-directed laparoscopic VR training programme. Suggested improvements to the integration of future laparoscopic VR training include an additional theoretical component with a fuller understanding of benefits of VR training, and scheduled supervision. Ultimately, the success of a laparoscopic VR simulation training programme might only be improved if it is a mandatory component of the curriculum, together with dedicated time for training. Future multi-centred implementation studies of validated laparoscopic VR curricula are required. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Leptin receptor signaling inhibits ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Nutrition intake during growth strongly influences ovarian follicle development and egg laying in chicken hens, yet the underlying endocrine regulatory mechanism is still poorly understood. The relevant research progress is hindered by difficulties in detection of leptin gene and its expression in the chicken. However, a functional leptin receptor (LEPR) is present in the chicken which has been implicated to play a regulatory role in ovarian follicle development and egg laying. The present study targeted LEPR by immunizing against its extracellular domain (ECD), and examined the resultant ovarian follicle development and egg-laying rate in chicken hens. Methods Hens that have been immunized four times with chicken LEPR ECD were assessed for their egg laying rate and feed intake, numbers of ovarian follicles, gene expression profiles, serum lipid parameters, as well as STAT3 signaling pathway. Results Administrations of cLEPR ECD antigen resulted in marked reductions in laying rate that over time eventually recovered to the levels exhibited by the Control hens. Together with the decrease in egg laying rate, cLEPR-immunized hens also exhibited significant reductions in feed intake, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein. Parallelled by reductions in feed intake, mRNA gene expression levels of AgRP, orexin, and NPY were down regulated, but of POMC, MC4R and lepR up-regulated in Immunized hen hypothalamus. cLEPR-immunization also promoted expressions of apoptotic genes such as caspase3 in theca and fas in granulosa layer, but severely depressed IGF-I expression in both theca and granulosa layers. Conclusions Immunization against cLEPR ECD in egg-laying hens generated antibodies that mimic leptin bioactivity by enhancing leptin receptor transduction. This up-regulated apoptotic gene expression in ovarian follicles, negatively regulated the expression of genes that promote follicular development

  19. New Methods of Evaluation for Postgraduate Training in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Jalilian

    2015-09-01

    necessary accuracy of other methods to evaluate assistants and cost of time and money for the groups were not statistically significant. There is an extended use of the OSCE and MCQ in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in evaluating education assistants (3 and evaluation of five-year period of residency MCQ both quantitatively and qualitatively represents designer's assistant to the quality of exam questions in this type of methods (4. But considerable point in this study is lack of attention and unwillingness among faculty members in departments to use other new methods in evaluating the residents. This finding has also been reported in other universities of medical sciences (5, and it is proposed to hold effective and useful workshops to train and change point of views of faculty members about the new methods of evaluation practices.

  20. Bruce Unit 2 lay-up engineering assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iley, D.

    1995-01-01

    The overall lay-up program initiated as a result of the strategic decision to shut down Bruce A unit 2 is briefly described as an introduction to the engineering assessment of the unit 2 systems. The assessment has identified the need to prepare 67 system and 9 equipment lay-up specifications. A summary of the selected system specifications is described. A complete summary and the specifications and the status of unit 2 systems and equipment required to support lay-up and/or the other three operating units is available on request due to the volume of the information. Some logistical details of the lay-up implementation plans, results, and problems to date demonstrate the complexity of the lay-up requirements for a nuclear unit in a multi-unit CANDU station. (author)

  1. Comparative Analysis of Neural Network Training Methods in Real-time Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motions of body and tumor in some regions such as chest during radiotherapy treatments are one of the major concerns protecting normal tissues against high doses. By using real-time radiotherapy technique, it is possible to increase the accuracy of delivered dose to the tumor region by means of tracing markers on the body of patients. Objective: This study evaluates the accuracy of some artificial intelligence methods including neural network and those of combination with genetic algorithm as well as particle swarm optimization (PSO estimating tumor positions in real-time radiotherapy. Method: One hundred recorded signals of three external markers were used as input data. The signals from 3 markers thorough 10 breathing cycles of a patient treated via a cyber-knife for a lung tumor were used as data input. Then, neural network method and its combination with genetic or PSO algorithms were applied determining the tumor locations using MATLAB© software program. Results: The accuracies were obtained 0.8%, 12% and 14% in neural network, genetic and particle swarm optimization algorithms, respectively. Conclusion: The internal target volume (ITV should be determined based on the applied neural network algorithm on training steps.

  2. The EURADOS-KIT training course on Monte Carlo methods for the calibration of body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Broggio, D.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.; Lopez, M.A.; Leone, D.; Poelz, S.; Marzocchi, O.; Shutt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are numerical simulation techniques that can be used to extend the scope of calibrations performed in in vivo monitoring laboratories. These methods allow calibrations to be carried out for a much wider range of body shapes and sizes than would be feasible using physical phantoms. Unfortunately, nowadays, this powerful technique is still used mainly in research institutions only. In 2013, EURADOS and the in vivo monitoring laboratory of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) organized a 3-d training course to disseminate knowledge on the application of MC methods for in vivo monitoring. It was intended as a hands-on course centered around an exercise which guided the participants step by step through the calibration process using a simplified version of KIT's equipment. Only introductory lectures on in vivo monitoring and voxel models were given. The course was based on MC codes of the MCNP family, widespread in the community. The strong involvement of the participants and the working atmosphere in the classroom as well as the formal evaluation of the course showed that the approach chosen was appropriate. Participants liked the hands-on approach and the extensive course materials on the exercise. (authors)

  3. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  4. Synthetic social support: Theorizing lay health worker interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Nicola K; Kenyon, Sara; MacArthur, Christine; Jolly, Kate; Hope, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Levels of social support are strongly associated with health outcomes and inequalities. The use of lay health workers (LHWs) has been suggested by policy makers across the world as an intervention to identify risks to health and to promote health, particularly in disadvantaged communities. However, there have been few attempts to theorize the work undertaken by LHWs to understand how interventions work. In this article, the authors present the concept of 'synthetic socialsupport' and distinguish it from the work of health professionals or the spontaneous social support received from friends and family. The authors provide new empirical data to illustrate the concept based on qualitative, observational research, using a novel shadowing method involving clinical and non-clinical researchers, on the everyday work of 'pregnancy outreach workers' (POWs) in Birmingham, UK. The service was being evaluated as part of a randomized controlled trial. These LHWs provided instrumental, informational, emotional and appraisal support to the women they worked with, which are all key components of social support. The social support was 'synthetic' because it was distinct from the support embedded in spontaneous social networks: it was non-reciprocal; it was offered on a strictly time-limited basis; the LHWs were accountable for the relationship, and the social networks produced were targeted rather than spontaneous. The latter two qualities of this synthetic form of social support may have benefits over spontaneous networks by improving the opportunities for the cultivation of new relationships (both strong and weak ties) outside the women's existing spontaneous networks that can have a positive impact on them and by offering a reliable source of health information and support in a chaotic environment. The concept of SSS can help inform policy makers about how deploying lay workers may enable them to achieve desired outcomes, specify their programme theories and evaluate

  5. The Use of Qualitative Case Studies as an Experiential Teaching Method in the Training of Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Ilhami

    2018-01-01

    This study presents the suitability of case studies, which is a qualitative research method and can be used as a teaching method in the training of pre-service teachers, for experiential learning theory. The basic view of experiential learning theory on learning and the qualitative case study paradigm are consistent with each other within the…

  6. Issues in Selecting Methods of Evaluating Clinical Competence in the Health Professions: Implications for Athletic Training Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemas, David A.; Hensal, Carleton

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine methods used to evaluate the clinical competence and proficiency of students in medicine and allied health professions. To identify factors that would be valuable to educators in athletic training and other medical and allied health professions in the development and use of clinical assessment methods. Data Sources: We…

  7. Knowledge of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder of Behavior Modification Methods and Their Training Needs Accordingly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Raid Mousa Al-Shaik

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying knowledge of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder of behavior modification methods and their training needs accordingly. The sample of the study consisted of (98) parents in Jordan. A scale of behavior modification methods was constructed, and then validated. The results of the study showed that the…

  8. STRUCTURAL AND METHODICAL MODEL OF INCREASING THE LEVEL OF THEORETICAL TRAINING OF CADETS USING INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav V. Bulgakov

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Features of training in higher educational institutions of system of EMERCOM of Russia demand introduction of the new educational techniques and the technical means directed on intensification of educational process, providing an opportunity of preparation of cadets at any time in the independent mode and improving quality of their theoretical knowledge. The authors have developed a structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets using information and communication technologies. The proposed structural and methodological model that includes elements to stimulate and enhance cognitive activity, allows you to generate the trajectory of theoretical training of cadets for the entire period of study at the University, to organize a systematic independent work, objective, current and final control of theoretical knowledge. The structural and methodological model for improving the level of theoretical training consists of three main elements: the base of theoretical questions, functional modules "teacher" and "cadet". The basis of the structural and methodological model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is the base of theoretical issues, developed in all disciplines specialty 20.05.01 – fire safety. The functional module "teacher" allows you to create theoretical questions of various kinds, edit questions and delete them from the database if necessary, as well as create tests and monitor their implementation. The functional module "cadet" provides ample opportunities for theoretical training through independent work, testing for current and final control, the implementation of the game form of training in the form of a duel, as well as for the formation of the results of the cadets in the form of statistics and rankings. Structural and methodical model of increasing the level of theoretical training of cadets is implemented in practice in the form of a multi-level automated system

  9. Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes Using Computer-Based and Face-to-Face Personal Hygiene Training Methods in Food Processing Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Ginger D.; LaBorde, Luke F.; Radhakrishna, Rama B.; Brown, J. Lynne; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2006-01-01

    Computer-based training is increasingly favored by food companies for training workers due to convenience, self-pacing ability, and ease of use. The objectives of this study were to determine if personal hygiene training, offered through a computer-based method, is as effective as a face-to-face method in knowledge acquisition and improved…

  10. Lay perspectives on lay health worker roles, boundaries and participation within three UK community-based health promotion projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, J; Kinsella, K; Meah, A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines lay interpretations of lay health worker roles within three UK community-based health promotion projects. It argues that understanding lay health worker roles requires critical analysis of the complex interrelationships between professionals, lay workers and the communities receiving a programme. Findings are presented that are drawn from a qualitative study of lay engagement in public health programme delivery where a key objective was to examine the perspectives of community members with the experience of receiving services delivered by lay health workers. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with 46 programme recipients from three case study projects; a breastfeeding peer support service, a walking for health scheme and a neighbourhood health project. The results show how participants interpreted the function and responsibilities of lay health workers and how those roles provided personalized support and facilitated engagement in group activities. Further insights into community participation processes are provided revealing the potential for active engagement in both formal and informal roles. The paper concludes that social relationships are core to understanding lay health worker programmes and therefore analysis needs to take account of the capacity for community members to move within a spectrum of participation defined by increasing responsibility for others.

  11. Métodos alternativos de restrição alimentar na muda forçada de poedeiras comerciais Alternative methods of feed restriction in the forced molt of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Márcia Ribeiro de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados métodos alternativos de restrição alimentar qualitativa em comparação à técnica convencional de muda forçada. Utilizaram-se 480 galinhas Babcock de 78 semanas distribuídas em três níveis de restrição alimentar (100, 75 e 50% e três percentuais de redução de peso corporal (15, 20 e 25%, cada um com cinco repetições de 32 aves. Quando as aves atingiram o percentual de redução de peso corporal, determinaram-se o volume globular, os percentuais de ovário, oviduto, moela, intestino e gordura abdominal e o comprimento de oviduto. A partir do 28º dia e durante cinco períodos de 28 dias, observaram-se as características quantitativas e qualitativas de produção pós-muda. O maior período de restrição foi observado no nível de 50% e proporcionou menores percentuais de gordura abdominal (0,66%, ovário (0,60%, oviduto (0,77% e comprimento de oviduto (32 cm. O percentual de produção de ovos foi maior no primeiro período para as aves submetidas aos métodos de 75 e 100% de restrição com 15 e 20% de redução de peso, respectivamente. Entretanto, para as aves com 50% de restrição e 25% de redução de peso, as maiores produções (86,80 e 83,20% ocorreram no quarto e quinto períodos. A restrição alimentar qualitativa, em 50% da dieta com ração e casca de arroz, por ser menos agressiva, proporciona melhores condições de bem-estar e facilita o manejo da granja.Alternative methods were assessed of qualitative feed restriction compared to the conventional forced molt technique. Four hundred and eighty Babcock hens were used distributed in three levels of feed restriction (100, 75 and 50% and three body weight reduction percentages (15, 20 and 25%, with five replications of 32 hens. When the birds reached the body weight reduction percentage the packed cell volume, percentages of ovary, oviduct, gizzard, intestine, abdominal fat and oviduct length were determined. Starting on day 28 and during five 28-day

  12. Training toward Advanced 3D Seismic Methods for CO2 Monitoring, Verification, and Accounting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Liner

    2012-05-31

    The objective of our work is graduate and undergraduate student training related to improved 3D seismic technology that addresses key challenges related to monitoring movement and containment of CO{sub 2}, specifically better quantification and sensitivity for mapping of caprock integrity, fractures, and other potential leakage pathways. We utilize data and results developed through previous DOE-funded CO{sub 2} characterization project (DE-FG26-06NT42734) at the Dickman Field of Ness County, KS. Dickman is a type locality for the geology that will be encountered for CO{sub 2} sequestration projects from northern Oklahoma across the U.S. midcontinent to Indiana and Illinois. Since its discovery in 1962, the Dickman Field has produced about 1.7 million barrels of oil from porous Mississippian carbonates with a small structural closure at about 4400 ft drilling depth. Project data includes 3.3 square miles of 3D seismic data, 142 wells, with log, some core, and oil/water production data available. Only two wells penetrate the deep saline aquifer. In a previous DOE-funded project, geological and seismic data were integrated to create a geological property model and a flow simulation grid. We believe that sequestration of CO{sub 2} will largely occur in areas of relatively flat geology and simple near surface, similar to Dickman. The challenge is not complex geology, but development of improved, lower-cost methods for detecting natural fractures and subtle faults. Our project used numerical simulation to test methods of gathering multicomponent, full azimuth data ideal for this purpose. Our specific objectives were to apply advanced seismic methods to aide in quantifying reservoir properties and lateral continuity of CO{sub 2} sequestration targets. The purpose of the current project is graduate and undergraduate student training related to improved 3D seismic technology that addresses key challenges related to monitoring movement and containment of CO{sub 2

  13. Laying the Foundations of Contemporary Romanian Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Sorin

    2017-11-01

    This article describes the first stage in the history of Romanian astronomy represented by the events, processes and evolution which led to the formation of great scientific personalities, development drives and the creation of the material base for the contemporary Romanian astronomy, having a focus point on the activity of Bucharest Observatory. The article discusses the roots of an evolution pathway determined and inspired by the activity of several scientific personalities of Romania such as Stefan Hepites, Spiru Haret, Nicolae Coculescu and others. It also underlines that a great importance for the astronomical research in Romania was given by the outstanding technical value of the main instruments used at the Observatory in the first decades of activity and, consequentially, by their longevity in service: in the Equatorial Dome - the impressive 6 m. Prin-Mertz telescope and in the Meridian Hall - the GautierPrin telescope. This determined the formation of a powerful astrometry division and a research drive which led over time to important scientific works such as the ultraprecise stellar catalogues developed in Romania at Bucharest Observatory, which were appreciated and awarded nationally and internationally. Therefore, the article includes the moments and the people which determined the success of laying the foundations of the Observatory in 1908 and then having completed the initial scientific infrastructure in 1912 when the construction work was finished, and briefly presents the features, scientific utilisation and outputs of its telescopes, some of the best in the world in their golden years.

  14. The conspiratorial style in lay economic thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates patterns of lay perception of economics, and in particular the place of conspiratorial thinking regarding the economic domain. We devised four types of accounts in the economic domain, over a range of questions regarding different aspects of the economy: the classical neo-liberal economic view (which we labeled Econ101), and the Conspiracy view (the destructive outcomes of economy are due to small and powerful groups who are manipulating the markets), to which we added the Government malfunction view (failures in the economy are due to the authorities), and the Bad Invisible Hand view (the invisible hand may go wrong, and the equilibrium reached by its doings may be undesirable). The last two views are the ones most strongly endorsed by our respondents, in the US, Israel and Switzerland. The pattern of inter-correlations between the four accounts, and that between each and the psycho-social variables we examined, exhibits two clusters, Econ101 vs. the other three views of economy. This corresponds to a general opposition between people who trust the neoliberal economic system, and those opposed to it. What sets economic conspiratorial thinking apart are its links with other conspirational beliefs and with paranormal beliefs. PMID:28257506

  15. Corporate personhood: Lay perceptions and ethical consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, Arthur S; Laurin, Kristin

    2017-03-01

    Modern conceptions of corporate personhood have spurred considerable debate about the rights that society should afford business organizations. Across eight experiments, we compare lay perceptions of how corporations and people use rights, and also explore the consequences of these judgments. We find that people believe corporations, compared to humans, are similarly likely to use rights in protective ways that prevent harm but more likely to use rights in nonprotective ways that appear independent from-or even create-harm (Experiments 1a through 1c and Experiment 2). Because of these beliefs, people support corporate rights to a lesser extent than human rights (Experiment 3). However, people are more supportive of specific corporate rights when we framed them as serving protective functions (Experiment 4). Also as a result of these beliefs, people attribute greater ethical responsibility to corporations, but not to humans, that gain access to rights (Experiments 5a and 5b). Despite their equitability in many domains, people believe corporations and humans use rights in different ways, ultimately producing different reactions to their behaviors as well as asymmetric moral evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A pilot evaluation of Arthritis Self-Management Program by lay leaders in patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ying-Ying; Kwan, Jackie; Chan, Patsy; Poon, Peter K K; Leung, Christine; Tam, Lai-Shan; Li, Edmund K; Kwok, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this paper are to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based lay-led Arthritis Self-Management Program (ASMP) among patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis and evaluate the effectiveness of "shared care collaboration" between hospital and community. We trained 17 lay leaders and recruited patients with chronic inflammatory arthritis via a new shared-care model between hospital rheumatology centers and community organizations. Participants were allocated to interventional group or a wait list control group. Evaluations were completed before, after (6 weeks), and 3 months after ASMP. We performed analysis of covariance with adjustment with age, sex, marital status, education, employment, duration of illness, and disability at baseline. A total of 65 participants and 32 controls completed the study. The mean (SD) age and duration of illness were 52.0 (11.4) and 5.6 (7.3) years, 90.7 % were female, 80.4 % had rheumatoid arthritis; 25.8, 53.6, and 12.4 % referrals were from hospitals, community organizations, and patient self-help groups, respectively. The interventional group had significantly less pain (p = 0.049 at 6 weeks), used more cognitive coping methods (p = 0.008 at 6 weeks, p = 0.041 at 3 months) and practiced more aerobic exercise (p = 0.049 at 6 weeks, p = 0.008 at 3 months) after adjustment of covariance. The interventional group had a trend of improvement in self-efficacy, fatigue, self-rated health, and health distress. A community-based lay-led ASMP showed positive beneficial effects on participants with chronic inflammatory arthritis. Shared-care collaboration between hospitals, community organizations, and patient self-help groups was demonstrated.

  17. When the Ostrich-Algorithm Fails: Blanking Method Affects Spike Train Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Joseph

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern electroceuticals are bound to employ the usage of electrical high frequency (130–180 Hz stimulation carried out under closed loop control, most prominent in the case of movement disorders. However, particular challenges are faced when electrical recordings of neuronal tissue are carried out during high frequency electrical stimulation, both in-vivo and in-vitro. This stimulation produces undesired artifacts and can render the recorded signal only partially useful. The extent of these artifacts is often reduced by temporarily grounding the recording input during stimulation pulses. In the following study, we quantify the effects of this method, “blanking,” on the spike count and spike train statistics. Starting from a theoretical standpoint, we calculate a loss in the absolute number of action potentials, depending on: width of the blanking window, frequency of stimulation, and intrinsic neuronal activity. These calculations were then corroborated by actual high signal to noise ratio (SNR single cell recordings. We state that, for clinically relevant frequencies of 130 Hz (used for movement disorders and realistic blanking windows of 2 ms, up to 27% of actual existing spikes are lost. We strongly advice cautioned use of the blanking method when spike rate quantification is attempted.Impact statementBlanking (artifact removal by temporarily grounding input, depending on recording parameters, can lead to significant spike loss. Very careful use of blanking circuits is advised.

  18. When the Ostrich-Algorithm Fails: Blanking Method Affects Spike Train Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Kevin; Mottaghi, Soheil; Christ, Olaf; Feuerstein, Thomas J; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2018-01-01

    Modern electroceuticals are bound to employ the usage of electrical high frequency (130-180 Hz) stimulation carried out under closed loop control, most prominent in the case of movement disorders. However, particular challenges are faced when electrical recordings of neuronal tissue are carried out during high frequency electrical stimulation, both in-vivo and in-vitro . This stimulation produces undesired artifacts and can render the recorded signal only partially useful. The extent of these artifacts is often reduced by temporarily grounding the recording input during stimulation pulses. In the following study, we quantify the effects of this method, "blanking," on the spike count and spike train statistics. Starting from a theoretical standpoint, we calculate a loss in the absolute number of action potentials, depending on: width of the blanking window, frequency of stimulation, and intrinsic neuronal activity. These calculations were then corroborated by actual high signal to noise ratio (SNR) single cell recordings. We state that, for clinically relevant frequencies of 130 Hz (used for movement disorders) and realistic blanking windows of 2 ms, up to 27% of actual existing spikes are lost. We strongly advice cautioned use of the blanking method when spike rate quantification is attempted. Blanking (artifact removal by temporarily grounding input), depending on recording parameters, can lead to significant spike loss. Very careful use of blanking circuits is advised.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION FOR THE TRAINING METHOD AND MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PILOT SKILL FORMATION IN MAINTENANCE OF ATTITUDE ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim BARABANOV

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to overcome the drawbacks in artificial horizon indicator (HI of inside-in type (a view from an aircraft (A/C, where pilots produce mistakes in maintenance of attitude orientation most of all, the authors offer a novel training method. The method is based on the hypothesis that the manipulative ability of a human visual system can be trained. A mathematical model for the data accumulation during the corresponding training procedure has been proposed. Construction, design and results of the model evaluation are presented in the article. The experimental results revealed the increase of the probability of faultless operation by the test group of up to 0,892, whereas the faultless operation probability of a control group was 0,726. Thus, the trainee-students have statistically increased the reliability for the maintenance of attitude orientation thanks to the proposed method, and the hypothesis was confirmed.

  20. A cascade method of training for the revised CEGB Radiological Safety Rules and the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.R.; John, P.G.L.

    1986-01-01

    In order to achieve compliance with the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 the CEGB has introduced a revised set of Radiological Safety Rule. These Rules are for implementation at all sites under the Board's control where ionising radiations are used. It was a requirement that the new Safety Rules be brought into operation on a common date and to a consistent standard of performance throughout the industry; this necessitated a considerable training programme to familiarise and inform some 8,000 staff working at a large number of locations. The training week of identified groups of staff varied widely, according to their different levels of authority and responsibility. The paper sets out the means by which the chosen cascade method of training was selected and developed, and gives details of the modular package of training material which was produced. It also relates how the management objectives were met within the constraints of an uncompromising time schedule. (author)

  1. Methods and results of implementing a commercially available videotaped health physics training program in a multi-disciplined DOE facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neal, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Sandia, a prime contractor for DOE, is a multi-disciplined research and development laboratory. Its various activities include the operations of two nuclear reactors, several multi-kilocurie gamma irradiation facilities, a transuranic hot cell facility, various and numerous particle accelerators and x-ray generators, and many other areas involving employees working with or around radioactive materials or radiation producing machines. Since March 1979, Sandia has conducted a formalized basic radiation safety training program using a commercially available videotaped training package. The videotapes are generic in nature and are accompanied with hard copy text material, vu-graphs, quizzes, and an instructor's guide. Sandia's overall training program and the methods, results, and problem areas of implementing an off the shelf, commercially available videotaped training program are described. Results are summarized using an instructor/course/student evaluation form

  2. Automation of Underground Cable Laying Equipment Using PLC and Hmi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal Kothari, Kesar; Samba, Vishweshwar; Tania, Kinza; Udayakumar, R., Dr; Karthikeyan, Ram, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Underground cable laying is an alternative for overhead cable laying of telecommunication and power transmission lines. It is becoming very popular in recent times because of some of its advantages over overhead cable laying. This type of cable laying is mostly practiced in developed countries because it is more expensive than overhead cable laying. Underground cable laying is more suitable when land is not available, and it also increases the aesthetics. This paper implements the automation on a manually operated cable pulling winch machine using programmable logic controller (PLC). Winch machines are useful in underground cable laying. The main aim of the project is to replace all the mechanical functions with electrical controls which are operated through a touch screen (HMI). The idea is that the machine should shift between parallel and series circuit automatically based on the pressure sensed instead of manually operating the solenoid valve. Traditional means of throttling the engine using lever and wire is replaced with a linear actuator. Sensors such as proximity, pressure and load sensor are used to provide the input to the system. The HMI used will display the speed, length and tension of the rope being winded. Ladder logic is used to program the PLC.

  3. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.N. Malema

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  4. Experiences of lay counsellors who provide VCT for PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Malema

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV and Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS still carry a stigma in the community. Many people do not know their status and they are still reluctant to be tested including pregnant women despite the fact that Voluntary Counselling and Testing (VCT is offered for free in South Africa. In South Africa VCT for HIV and AIDS is offered by lay counsellors in public hospitals and clinics. The study conducted by Mate, Bennet, Mphatswe, Barker and Rollins (2009:5483 outlined that in South Africa the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV guidelines have raised hope that the national goal of reducing perinatal HIV transmission rates to less than 5% can be attained. A qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual study was conducted in 15 public clinics of the Polokwane Municipality in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. The purpose of the study was to determine the experiences of the lay counsellors who provide VCT for the PMTCT of HIV and AIDS in the Capricorn District, Limpopo Province. Data were collected through one-to-one interviews using a semi-structured guide (De Vos et al, 2006:296. The findings of the study reflected the following: the content of training and counselling skills received by lay counsellors were satisfactory, there was lack of counsellor support and in-service education. A program for in-service education and support for all lay counsellors who have had VCT training should be conceptualised and implemented.

  5. Avian metapneumovirus excretion in vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen free laying chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M; Huggins, M B; Mudzamiri, R; Heincz, U

    2004-02-01

    Vaccinated and non-vaccinated specified pathogen-free White Leghorn laying chickens were challenged at peak of lay by the intravenous or oculonasal route with a virulent avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) subtype B chicken strain. Severe clinical signs and a drop in egg production were induced in the non-vaccinated intravenously challenged birds whereas the vaccinates were not affected. Live virus excretion was demonstrated in the faeces and respiratory tract of non-vaccinated hens for up to 7 days post intravenous challenge. After oculonasal challenge, virus excretion could only be demonstrated in the respiratory tract for up to 5 days. No live virus excretion was found in either the faeces or the respiratory tract of vaccinated birds. Concurrent with live virus isolation, the presence of viral RNA was demonstrated by single reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Nested RT-PCR was more sensitive and viral RNA could be detected in non-vaccinated birds up to 28 days post either intravenous or oculonasal challenge, at which time the experiment was terminated. Viral RNA was detected for up to 12 days in vaccinated birds. This is the first study investigating excretion of aMPV and viral RNA in vaccinated and non-vaccinated laying hens challenged under experimental conditions. The results are of importance with regard to the persistence of aMPV and the appropriate diagnostic detection method in laying birds.

  6. Formation of professional competence of the future teachers of physical training by methods of pedagogical situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyakov V.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of usage of pedagogical situations during professional training of the future teachers of physical training is shown. In creation of model is used practical experience of usage of pedagogical situations during teaching and educational process at faculty of physical training. Efficiency of application of pedagogical situations during formation of professional competence of the future teachers of physical training is proved. The main element of the technology of forming professional competence was research and problem-educational tasks that stimulate students' activity.

  7. Training methods and facilities on reactor and simulators at the Grenoble Nuclear Research Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Siebert, S.

    1987-01-01

    Siloette is a CEA unit with a threshold vocation: operation of the Siloette 100 KW pool-type research reactor; basic training in reactor physics for nuclear power plant operators; and production of nuclear power plant simulators: PWR, GCR and more generally of all types of industrial unit simulators, thermal power plant, network, chemical plant, etc. From this experience, they would emphasize in particular the synergy arising from these complementary activities, the essential role of training in basic principles as a complement to operation training, and the ever-increasing importance of design ergonomics of the training means

  8. Early Onset of Laying and Bumblefoot Favor Keel Bone Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Fröhlich, Ernst K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Numerous studies have documented a high prevalence of keel bone fractures in laying hens. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. More new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with broken keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Abstract Numerous studies have demonstrated influences of hybrid, feed, and housing on prevalence of keel bone fractures, but influences of behavior and production on an individual level are less known. In this longitudinal study, 80 white and brown laying hens were regularly checked for keel bone deviations and fractures while egg production was individually monitored using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) from production until depopulation at 65 weeks of age. These focal birds were kept in eight pens with 20 hens per pen in total. About 62% of the hens had broken keel bones at depopulation. The occurrence of new fractures was temporally linked to egg laying: more new fractures occurred during the time when laying rates were highest. Hens with fractured keel bones at depopulation had laid their first egg earlier than hens with intact keel bones. However, the total number of eggs was neither correlated with the onset of egg laying nor with keel bone fractures. All birds with bumblefoot on both feet had a fracture at depopulation. Hens stayed in the nest for a longer time during egg laying during the ten days after the fracture than during the ten days before the fracture. In conclusion, a relationship between laying rates and keel bone fractures seems likely. PMID:26633520

  9. Effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates of laying hens and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2005-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins on hepatic fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of laying hens. Thirty-six 32-wk-old laying hens were fed diets formulated with 1) uncontaminated grains, 2) contaminated grains, or 3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent for a period of 4 wk. Hepatic FSR were measured in vivo by the flooding-dose method. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased hepatic FSR in laying hens compared with controls after 4 wk. The hepatic FSR of birds fed contaminated grains and contaminated grains + glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent were not different. It was concluded that the in vivo hepatic FSR of laying hens was inhibited by the feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins and that this may explain some of the adverse effects seen when contaminated grains were fed to laying hens.

  10. Designing Excellence and Quality Model for Training Centers of Primary Health Care: A Delphi Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrizi, Jafar-Sadegh; Farahbakhsh, Mostafa; Shahgoli, Javad; Rahbar, Mohammad Reza; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Ahadi, Hamid-Reza; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2015-10-01

    Excellence and quality models are comprehensive methods for improving the quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to design excellence and quality model for training centers of primary health care using Delphi method. In this study, Delphi method was used. First, comprehensive information were collected using literature review. In extracted references, 39 models were identified from 34 countries and related sub-criteria and standards were extracted from 34 models (from primary 39 models). Then primary pattern including 8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards was developed as a Delphi questionnaire and evaluated in four stages by 9 specialists of health care system in Tabriz and 50 specialists from all around the country. Designed primary model (8 criteria, 55 sub-criteria, and 236 standards) were concluded with 8 criteria, 45 sub-criteria, and 192 standards after 4 stages of evaluations by specialists. Major criteria of the model are leadership, strategic and operational planning, resource management, information analysis, human resources management, process management, costumer results, and functional results, where the top score was assigned as 1000 by specialists. Functional results had the maximum score of 195 whereas planning had the minimum score of 60. Furthermore the most and the least sub-criteria was for leadership with 10 sub-criteria and strategic planning with 3 sub-criteria, respectively. The model that introduced in this research has been designed following 34 reference models of the world. This model could provide a proper frame for managers of health system in improving quality.

  11. Nest sharing under semi-natural conditions in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    problems to laying hens, and egg production may also be negatively affected. Understanding what causes this difference in nest location selection may provide solutions to the problems associated with simultaneous nest sharing. The aims were to investigate whether a commercial strain of laying hens normally...... daily of each nest with regard to number of eggs, position, and materials used. On five mornings nesting behaviour was observed. Nest sharing occurred on all but the first 5 days of egg-laying. The majority of hens (n = 14) chose to visit an occupied nest at least once, but no hens exclusively used...

  12. Gregarious nesting - An anti-predator response in laying hens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch

    2012-01-01

    Gregarious nesting can be defined as a behaviour that occurs when a laying hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) given the choice between an occupied and an unoccupied nest site chooses the occupied nest site. It occurs frequently in flocks of laying hens kept under commercial conditions, contrasting...... the behaviour displayed by feral hens that isolate themselves from the flock during nesting activities. What motivates laying hens to perform gregarious nesting is unknown. One possibility is that gregarious nesting is an anti-predator response to the risk of nest predation emerging from behavioural flexibility...

  13. Effect of a reminder video using a mobile phone on the retention of CPR and AED skills in lay responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ji Yun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Shon, You Dong; Park, Seung Min; Kang, Ku Hyun

    2011-12-01

    Skills related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) use by lay responders decay rapidly after training, and efforts are required to maintain competence among trainees. We examined whether repeated viewing of a reminder video on a mobile phone would be an effective means of maintaining CPR and AED skills in lay responders. In a single-blind case-control study, 75 male students received training in CPR and AED use. They were allocated either to the control or to the video-reminded group, who received a memory card containing a video clip about CPR and AED use for their mobile phone, which they were repeatedly encouraged to watch by SMS text message. CPR and AED skills were assessed in scenario format by examiners immediately and 3 months after initial training. Three months after initial training, the video-reminded group showed more accurate airway opening (PCPR after defibrillation (PCPR confidence scores and increased willingness to perform bystander CPR in cardiac arrest than the controls at 3 months (PCPR and AED skills in lay responders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two Methods of Interpersonal Skills Training; Conceptual- versus Response-Oriented Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohart, Arthur C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Training people in warmth, empathy, and genuineness might fulfill a specific helping role and increase their general social comfort for others. By using conceptual and response-oriented approaches, authors show that training individuals to be effective counselors also helped them be more interpersonally effective. (Author/BEF)

  15. Best Practices for Controlling Tuberculosis-Training in Correctional Facilities: A Mixed Methods Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ellen R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the literature, identifying and treating tuberculosis (TB) in correctional facilities have been problematic for the inmates and also for the communities into which inmates are released. The importance of training those who can identify this disease early into incarceration is vital to halt the transmission. Although some training has…

  16. Classroom versus Computer-Based CPR Training: A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Instructional Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehberg, Robb S.; Gazzillo Diaz, Linda; Middlemas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether computer-based CPR training is comparable to traditional classroom training. Design and Setting: This study was quantitative in design. Data was gathered from a standardized examination and skill performance evaluation which yielded numerical scores. Subjects: The subjects were 64…

  17. Perceptual Training Methods Compared: The Relative Efficacy of Different Approaches to Enhancing Sport-Specific Anticipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Bruce; Schorer, Jorg; Jackson, Robin C.; Hagemann, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of different perceptual training approaches for the improvement of anticipation was examined using a goalkeeping task from European handball that required the rapid prediction of shot direction. Novice participants (N = 60) were assigned equally to four different training groups and two different control groups (a placebo…

  18. Modeling and Solution Methods for the Energy-Efficient Train Timetables Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr, Jørgen Thorlund; Kidd, Martin Philip

    2015-01-01

    Timely recuperation of energy through regenerative braking is crucial in order to ensure energy ecient railway timetables. This requires a careful synchronisation of train departures such that high energy peaks, as a result of simultaneously accelerating trains, can be avoided. In this report we...

  19. Evaluating Behaviorally Oriented Aviation Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) Training and Programs: Methods, Results, and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James C.; Thomas, Robert L., III

    2003-01-01

    Assessment of the impact of Aviation Resource Management Programs on aviation culture and performance has compelled a considerable body of research (Taylor & Robertson, 1995; Taylor, 1998; Taylor & Patankar, 2001). In recent years new methods have been applied to the problem of maintenance error precipitated by factors such as the need for self-assessment of communication and trust. The present study - 2002 -- is an extension of that past work. This research project was designed as the conclusion of a larger effort to help understand, evaluate and validate the impact of Maintenance Resource Management (MRM) training programs, and other MRM interventions on participant attitudes, opinions, behaviors, and ultimately on enhanced safety performance. It includes research and development of evaluation methodology as well as examination of psychological constructs and correlates of maintainer performance. In particular, during 2002, three issues were addressed. First, the evaluation of two (independent & different) MRM programs for changing behaviors was undertaken. In one case we were able to further apply the approach to measuring written communication developed during 2001 (Taylor, 2002; Taylor & Thomas, 2003). Second, the MRM/TOQ surveys were made available for completion on the internet. The responses from these on-line surveys were automatically linked to a results calculator (like the one developed and described in Taylor, 2002) to aid industry users in analyzing and evaluating their local survey data on the internet. Third, the main trends and themes from our research about MRM programs over the past dozen years were reviewed.

  20. Fluid distribution network and steam generators and method for nuclear power plant training simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alliston, W.H.; Johnson, S.J.; Mutafelija, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a training simulator for the real-time dynamic operation of a nuclear power plant which utilizes apparatus that includes control consoles having manual and automatic devices corresponding to simulated plant components and indicating devices for monitoring physical values in the simulated plant. A digital computer configuration is connected to the control consoles to calculate the dynamic real-time simulated operation of the plant in accordance with the simulated plant components to provide output data including data for operating the control console indicating devices. In the method and system for simulating a fluid distribution network of the power plant, such as that which includes, for example, a main steam system which distributes steam from steam generators to high pressure turbine steam reheaters, steam dump valves, and feedwater heaters, the simultaneous solution of linearized non-linear algebraic equations is used to calculate all the flows throughout the simulated system. A plurality of parallel connected steam generators that supply steam to the system are simulated individually, and include the simulation of shrink-swell characteristics

  1. Cross-cultural perspectives on physician and lay models of the common cold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Roberta D; Weller, Susan C; de Alba García, Javier García; Rocha, Ana L Salcedo

    2008-06-01

    We compare physicians and laypeople within and across cultures, focusing on similarities and differences across samples, to determine whether cultural differences or lay-professional differences have a greater effect on explanatory models of the common cold. Data on explanatory models for the common cold were collected from physicians and laypeople in South Texas and Guadalajara, Mexico. Structured interview materials were developed on the basis of open-ended interviews with samples of lay informants at each locale. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information from each sample on causes, symptoms, and treatments for the common cold. Consensus analysis was used to estimate the cultural beliefs for each sample. Instead of systematic differences between samples based on nationality or level of professional training, all four samples largely shared a single-explanatory model of the common cold, with some differences on subthemes, such as the role of hot and cold forces in the etiology of the common cold. An evaluation of our findings indicates that, although there has been conjecture about whether cultural or lay-professional differences are of greater importance in understanding variation in explanatory models of disease and illness, systematic data collected on community and professional beliefs indicate that such differences may be a function of the specific illness. Further generalizations about lay-professional differences need to be based on detailed data for a variety of illnesses, to discern patterns that may be present. Finally, a systematic approach indicates that agreement across individual explanatory models is sufficient to allow for a community-level explanatory model of the common cold.

  2. Comparing Lay Community and Academic Survey Center Interviewers in Conducting Household Interviews in Latino Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan-Golston, Alec M; Friedlander, Scott; Glik, Deborah C; Prelip, Michael L; Belin, Thomas R; Brookmeyer, Ron; Santos, Robert; Chen, Jie; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    The employment of professional interviewers from academic survey centers to conduct surveys has been standard practice. Because one goal of community-engaged research is to provide professional skills to community residents, this paper considers whether employing locally trained lay interviewers from within the community may be as effective as employing interviewers from an academic survey center with regard to unit and item nonresponse rates and cost. To study a nutrition-focused intervention, 1035 in-person household interviews were conducted in East Los Angeles and Boyle Heights, 503 of which were completed by lay community interviewers. A chi-square test was used to assess differences in unit nonresponse rates between professional and community interviewers and Welch's t tests were used to assess differences in item nonresponse rates. A cost comparison analysis between the two interviewer groups was also conducted. Interviewers from the academic survey center had lower unit nonresponse rates than the lay community interviewers (16.2% vs. 23.3%; p < 0.01). However, the item nonresponse rates were lower for the community interviewers than the professional interviewers (1.4% vs. 3.3%; p < 0.01). Community interviewers cost approximately $415.38 per survey whereas professional interviewers cost approximately $537.29 per survey. With a lower cost per completed survey and lower item nonresponse rates, lay community interviewers are a viable alternative to professional interviewers for fieldwork in community-based research. Additional research is needed to assess other important aspects of data quality interviewer such as interviewer effects and response error.

  3. Effect of communication skill training using group psychoeducation method on the stress level of psychiatry ward nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazavi, Zahra; Lohrasbi, Fatemeh; Mehrabi, Tayebeh

    2010-12-01

    Nursing is a dynamic and supportive job, with the main role of taking care of patients. Maintaining appropriate communication of the nurse with the patients is particularly known as the main core of care in mental health. However, in spite of the importance of providing communication, one of the main sources of stress in nurses of psychiatry wards is communication with the patients. Some important reasons for inappropriate relationship between the nurse and patient can be lack of necessary skills to communicate with patients because of insufficient training. Although training communication skills is an important part of the education of medical and paramedical students, in recent studies it has been demonstrated that the communication skills learned in theoretical courses would not necessarily be transferred to clinical settings, and proving training in clinical settings is a must. The present study was carried out to determine the effect of training communication skills using psychoeducation method on the stress level of nurses of psychiatry wards in 2010. This is a quasi-experimental study. The participants were 45 nurses; 23 and 22 in the experiment and control groups, respectively, working in psychiatry wards of Noor and Farabi hospitals, Isfahan, Iran. The sampling was carried out by the census method, and then the participants were randomly assigned to the two groups of experiment and control, using random number table. The two groups filled out the demographic data form and also the questionnaire on nurses' occupational stress, designed by the researcher. The questionnaire was filled out three times; before, immediately after, and one month after the training. Training of communication skills was carried out using group psychoeducation method, in six sessions, each lasted for 1.5 hours. The training sessions of the experiment group were held in Farabi Hospital. The findings indicated that before the intervention, the members of the two groups had a high

  4. Neighborhood-Level and Spatial Characteristics Associated with Lay Naloxone Reversal Events and Opioid Overdose Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Vittinghoff, Eric; Wheeler, Eliza; Davidson, Peter; Coffin, Philip O

    2016-02-01

    There were over 23,000 opioid overdose deaths in the USA in 2013, and opioid-related mortality is increasing. Increased access to naloxone, particularly through community-based lay naloxone distribution, is a widely supported strategy to reduce opioid overdose mortality; however, little is known about the ecological and spatial patterns of the distribution and utilization of lay naloxone. This study aims to investigate the neighborhood-level correlates and spatial relationships of lay naloxone distribution and utilization and opioid overdose deaths. We determined the locations of lay naloxone distribution sites and the number of unintentional opioid overdose deaths and reported reversal events in San Francisco census tracts (n = 195) from 2010 to 2012. We used Wilcoxon rank-sum tests to compare census tract characteristics across tracts adjacent and not adjacent to distribution sites and multivariable negative binomial regression models to assess the association between census tract characteristics, including distance to the nearest site, and counts of opioid overdose deaths and naloxone reversal events. Three hundred forty-two opioid overdose deaths and 316 overdose reversals with valid location data were included in our analysis. Census tracts including or adjacent to a distribution site had higher income inequality, lower percentage black or African American residents, more drug arrests, higher population density, more overdose deaths, and more reversal events (all p lay naloxone distribution sites in areas with high levels of substance use and overdose risk facilitates reversals of opioid overdoses in those immediate areas but suggests that alternative delivery methods may be necessary to reach individuals in other areas with less concentrated risk.

  5. Testing the Link Between Empathy and Lay Theories of Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullett, Alexa M; Plaks, Jason E

    2016-09-20

    Happiness is a topic that ignites both considerable interest and considerable disagreement. Thus far, however, there has been little attempt to characterize people's lay theories about happiness or explore their consequences. We examined whether individual differences in lay theories of happiness would predict empathy. In Studies 1a and 1b, we validated the Lay Theories of Happiness Scale (LTHS), which includes three dimensions: flexibility, controllability, and locus. In Study 2, higher dispositional empathy was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, controllable, and internal. In Studies 3 and 4, higher empathy toward a specific target was predicted by the belief that happiness is flexible, uncontrollable, and external In conjunction, Studies 2, 3, and 4 provide evidence that trait and state empathy are separable and can have opposing relationships with people's lay theories. Overall, these findings highlight generalized beliefs that may guide empathic reactions to the unhappiness of others. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  6. Lay-friendliness in translated Patient Information Leaflets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Matilde Nisbeth; Zethsen, Karen Korning

    This paper seeks to empirically explore the claim that translated Danish Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) are less lay-friendly than their English source texts. The last two decades have seen an increased focus on providing patients with lay-friendly, easily understood information, enabling them...... to make informed decisions concerning their health. For this purpose, many new genres have been created, one such genre being the PIL, a mandatory text which in an EU context has to accompany all medication informing patients about dosage, side effects etc. Legally, the PIL genre is required to ensure lay......-friendly information as it must be “written and designed to be clear and understandable, enabling the users to act appropriately” (Article 63(2) of EU Directive 2001/83/EC). Despite the legal requirements and the intensified focus on lay-friendly health communication, many studies have shown that PILs are often...

  7. Medullary bone and humeral breaking strength in laying hens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, R.H.; McCormack, H.A.; McTeir, L.; Whitehead, C.C.

    1998-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that large amounts of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis may increase breaking strength, various parameters of bone quality and quantity were examined in two large flocks of hens near end of lay. We conclude that the amount of medullary bone in the humerus of hens during the laying period influences bone strength. This medullary bone may not have any intrinsic strength, but may act by contributing to the fracture resistance of the surrounding cortical bone. Using a quantitative, low dose, radiographic technique, we can predict, from early in the laying period, those birds which will develop large amounts of medullary bone in their humeri by the end of the laying period. The formation of medullary bone in the humeral diaphysis is not at the expense of the surrounding radiographed cortical bone

  8. An adaptive vibration control method to suppress the vibration of the maglev train caused by track irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Danfeng; Yu, Peichang; Wang, Lianchun; Li, Jie

    2017-11-01

    The levitation gap of the urban maglev train is around 8 mm, which puts a rather high requirement on the smoothness of the track. In practice, it is found that the track irregularity may cause stability problems when the maglev train is traveling. In this paper, the dynamic response of the levitation module, which is the basic levitation structure of the urban maglev train, is investigated in the presence of track irregularities. Analyses show that due to the structural configuration of the levitation module, the vibration of the levitation gap may be amplified and "resonances" may be observed under some specified track wavelengths and train speeds; besides, it is found that the gap vibration of the rear levitation unit in a levitation module is more significant than that of the front levitation unit, which agrees well with practice. To suppress the vibration of the rear levitation gap, an adaptive vibration control method is proposed, which utilizes the information of the front levitation unit as a reference. A pair of mirror FIR (finite impulse response) filters are designed and tuned by an adaptive mechanism, and they produce a compensation signal for the rear levitation controller to cancel the disturbance brought by the track irregularity. Simulations under some typical track conditions, including the sinusoidal track profile, random track irregularity, as well as track steps, indicate that the adaptive vibration control scheme can significantly reduce the amplitude of the rear gap vibration, which provides a method to improve the stability and ride comfort of the maglev train.

  9. Comparison between Synchronous and Asynchronous Instructional Delivery Method of Training Programme on In-Service Physical Educators' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanouilidou, Kyriaki; Derri, Vassiliki; Antoniou, Panagiotis; Kyrgiridis, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the influences of a training programme's instructional delivery method (synchronous and asynchronous) on Greek in-service physical educators' cognitive understanding on student assessment. Forty nine participants were randomly divided into synchronous, asynchronous, and control group. The experimental groups…

  10. Quantitative Research Methods Training in Education Leadership and Administration Preparation Programs as Disciplined Inquiry for Building School Improvement Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative research methods course is a staple of graduate programs in education leadership and administration. Historically, these courses serve to train aspiring district and school leaders in fundamental statistical research topics. This article argues for programs to focus as well in these courses on helping aspiring leaders develop…

  11. A Videotape-Based Training Method for Improving the Detection of Depression in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Stacey; Cummings, Jeffrey L.; Schnelle, Betha; Stephens, Mary

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the effectiveness of a new training program for improving nursing staffs' detection of depression within long-term care facilities. The course was designed to increase recognition of the Minimal Data Set (MDS) Mood Trigger items, to be brief, and to rely on images rather than didactics. Design and Methods: This study…

  12. Virtual reality lead extraction as a method for training new physicians: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maytin, Melanie; Daily, Thomas P; Carillo, Roger G

    2015-03-01

    It is estimated that the demand for transvenous lead extraction (TLE) has reached an annual extraction rate of nearly 24,000 patients worldwide. Despite technologic advances, TLE still has the potential for significant morbidity and mortality. Complication rates with TLE directly parallel operator experience. However, obtaining adequate training during and postfellowship can be difficult. Given the potential for catastrophic complications and the steep learning curve (up to 300 cases) associated with this procedure, we sought to validate a virtual reality (VR) lead extraction simulator as an innovative training and evaluation tool for physicians new to TLE. We randomized eight electrophysiology fellows to VR simulator versus conventional training. We compared procedural skill competency between the groups using simulator competency, tactile measurements, markers of proficiency and attitudes, and cognitive abilities battery. Practical skills and simulator complications differed significantly between the VR simulator and conventional training groups. The VR simulator group executed patient preparation and procedure performance better than the conventional group (P training experienced a simulator complication (two superior vena cava [SVC] tears, three right ventricle [RV] avulsions) versus one fellow in the VR simulator group (one SVC tear) (P = 0.02). Tactile measurements revealed a trend toward excess pushing versus pulling forces among the conventionally trained group. The time for lead removal was also significantly higher in the conventional training group (12.46 minutes vs 5.54 minutes, P = 0.02). There was no significant difference in baseline or posttraining cognitive ability. We contend that the implementation of alternative training tools such as a VR simulation model will improve physician training and allow for an innovative pathway to assess the achievement of competency. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The use of a rein tension device to compare different training methods for neck flexion in base-level trained Warmblood horses at the walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, I; Killian, D; Vlaminck, L; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W

    2018-03-08

    Debate surrounds the use of high rein tension for obtaining different head and neck positions in the training of sport horses on account of possible welfare issues. To compare auxiliary rein tension in two methods (Draw Reins and Concord Leader) for obtaining a standardised head and neck position on a hard and a soft surface. Intervention study. Left and right rein tensions were measured in 11 base-level trained client-owned sport horses (mean age ± s.d.; 10 ± 3.2 years) exercised in-hand with, in a random order, conventional draw reins or the newly developed Concord Leader in a standardised head and neck position. Rein tension was measured using a calibrated device operating at 10 Hz during six runs of 15 s in a straight line for each training method on both a hard and a soft surface. A linear mixed model and grouped logistic regression analysis were applied to compare the two methods (Preins than with the Concord Leader. The rein tension (mean sum of the force applied, in N) of the draw reins was 13.8 times higher than that of the Concord Leader. This study was performed on horses exercised in-hand; however, these auxiliary aids are normally used when lungeing. Possible redirection of rein tension towards the poll was not measured. We showed that when using the Concord Leader a similar head and neck position is achieved with a much lower rein tension than with the draw reins and, more importantly, with a much greater likelihood of 0 N. It is unnecessary to use high auxiliary rein tension to obtain a standard, flexed head and neck position. © 2018 The Authors. Equine Veterinary Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of EVJ Ltd.

  14. The Involvement of the Lay Faithful in Consecratio Mundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Osewska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The term consecratio mundi , despite its introduction to theology already before the Second Vatican Council, still sparks a lot of discussion and controversy. In this article we will address the issue of the sanctification of the world by lay people in accordance with the Church teaching. First, consecratio mundi will be presented as a specific mission of the lay faithful, then the article will present the basic planes of their involvement.

  15. Disclosure of the peaceful use of nuclear energy to the lay audience of elementary school children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, M.R.; Neder, D.L.S.M.; Batista, A.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    The peaceful use of nuclear energy, both to obtain safe energy and in medical applications, need to be disseminated among lay public so that fear is not expressed as risk due to lack of knowledge. For this, it is valid the training effort among children of Basic Education, in the instigation to the conscious knowledge that must be consolidated throughout their school career. Thus, in the context of an extension project with a partnership between the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG) and the Municipal Department of Education of the city of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais, was worked, between the public school students, the theme 'Energy: knowing to understand', using as background the Disney Monsters S / A movie (2001). In the movie the monsters use the energy of the children's shout, but they know them little, considering them toxic and serves in the project to establish analogy with the fear of Nuclear Energy. Methods: The project was developed in twelve public schools in the city of Santa Luzia, Minas Gerais. The film Monstro S / A and Gnose book (produced for the project) were used between October and December 2016. Classroom activities, lectures, model construction and distribution of children's magazines granted by Eletronuclear were the instruments used to observe the appropriation of concepts. Results: Speech records, filming and photographs included a survey of impressions that confirmed a demystification of the association between nuclear energy and unsafety. Conclusion: The elementary school children involved in the research had a mystified view of the use of nuclear energy, with immediate correlations with the atomic bomb. With the development of the project, a critical knowledge formation was demonstrated regarding the safe use of nuclear energy, through new correlations now turned to a plausible comparison with other sources of energy

  16. Level-Three Training Evaluation: The Coast Guard's Method and Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adgate, Gene

    1998-01-01

    .... In such a case, an organization may train, create job aids, buy new equipment or institute any number of other interventions without the means to determine whether these "investments" actually...

  17. Training of trainers in active learning methods at the Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ikonen, Anne Leena; Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    (from SDU to Princess Nourah University - PNU) in Bachelor level education in 2013-17. The SDU BSc in Public Health curriculum was adjusted into a BSc in Health Education and Promotion and BSc in Epidemiology Programmes to fit into the Saudi context and culture and education needs. Training the PNU......Abstract title: Training of trainers in active learning methods at the Princess Nourah Bint Abdul Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Students’ learning outcome of teaching activity/course presented: University of Southern Denmark (SDU) conducted a cross-cultural knowledge transfer project...

  18. The assessment of surgical skills as a complement to the training method. Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, J; Bachiller-Burgos, J; Serrano-Pascual, Á; Cózar-Olmo, J M; Díaz-Güemes Martín-Portugués, I; Pérez-Duarte, F J; Hernández-Hurtado, L; Álvarez-Ossorio, J L; Sánchez-Margallo, F M

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition and improvement of surgical skills constitute a fundamental element in the training of any practitioner. At present, however, the assessment of these skills is a scarcely developed area of research. The aim of this study was to analyse the peculiarities of the various assessment systems and establish the minimum criteria that a skills and knowledge assessment system should meet as a method for assessing surgical skills in urological surgery. Scientific literature review aimed at the various currently available assessment systems for skills and competencies (technical and nontechnical), with a special focus on the systematic reviews and prospective studies. After conducting the review, we found that the various assessment systems for surgical competence have, in our opinion, a number of shortcomings. There is a certain degree of subjectivity in the assessment of surgeons by the evaluators. The assessment of nontechnical competencies is not formally recorded. There is no description of a follow-up assessment or any basic parameters associated with healthcare quality. There is no registration of associated competencies associated with the various surgical techniques. There is also no ranking of these competencies and the specific peculiarities for their application. We believe that the development of a new assessment system for surgical competencies (technical and nontechnical) aimed at assessing urologists in the various surgical techniques is necessary. To this end, our team has worked on developing the Evaluation System for Surgical Competencies on Laparoscopy, which is based on the definition, ranking and assessment of competencies demonstrated by surgeons. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Methodic of coordination’s perfection of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashkov I.N.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: experimental substantiation of effectiveness of coordination training methodic of junior taekwondo athletes at stage of pre-basic training. Material: in the research 30 taekwondo athletes of 12-14 yrs age, who composed control and experimental groups, participated. Results: we determined means and methods of training of taekwondo athletes coordination abilities. Correlation of exercises for sense of space, muscular sense, sense of time took from 15 to 25% of total time of training. During 5 seconds’ work quantity of repetitions was from 8 to 12-15 times. Rest pauses between exercises were from 1 to 1-2 minutes. The offered methodic facilitated improvement of coordination fitness indicators of taekwondo athletes: keeping of static balance with open eyes - by 5.08 % and with closed eyes - by 5.63 %; Romberg’s test on left foot - by 11,4% and on tight - by 8.22%; response of choice - by 15.9%; high jump from the spot - by 11.39%; shuttle run - by 5.8%. Conclusions: in the process of perfection of taekwondo athletes coordination it is necessary to solve the following tasks: master more and more complex coordination structures of motor tasks; master quick re-switching of motor functioning, depending on change of situation; improve accuracy of required motor actions; develop stability of space orientation.

  20. Investigating behavior changes of laying hens molted by high dietary zinc

    OpenAIRE

    Smayyeh Salari; Somayyeh Salari

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The commercial egg industry commonly uses induced molt procedures to rejuvenate flocks for a second or third laying cycle. Molting may be induced by feed withdrawal for up to 10 days (7), water withdrawal for 2 days (19), or both, along with a reduction of day length (14). Such programs cause concern about animal welfare because it is thought that they may be harmful to hens (28). Given the concerns for potential bird stress, various methods of nutrient restriction that would avo...

  1. [Technology: training centers--a new method for learning surgery in visceral surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troidl, H

    1996-01-01

    The importance of training centers can be best described after first answering a few questions like: 1. What kind of surgery will we deal with in the future? 2. What kind of surgeon do we need for this surgery, if it is basically different? 3. How will this surgeon have to be educated/trained for this different surgery? Although I am aware of the fact, that statements about future prospects are usually doomed to fail, I maintain that endoscopic surgery will be an essential part of general surgery. If this is so, surgery will be dominated by extremely complicated technology, new techniques and new instruments. It will be a "different" surgery. It will offer more comfort at the same safety. The surgeon of the future will still need a certain personality; he will still need intuition and creativity. To survive in our society, he will have to be an organiser and even a businessman. Additionally, something new has to be added: he will have to understand modern, complicated technology and will have to use totally different instruments for curing surgical illness. This makes it clear that we will need a different education/training and may be even a different selection of surgeons. We should learn from other professions sharing common interests with surgery, for example, sports where the common interest is achieving most complicated motions and necessarily highly differentiated coordination. Common interest with airline pilots is the target of achieving absolute security. They have a highly differentiated selection and training concept. Training centers may be-under certain prerequisites-a true alternative for this necessary form of training. They must have a concept, i.e. contents and aims have to be defined, structured and oriented on the requirements of surgery for the patient. Responsibility for the concept, performance and control can only be in the hands of Surgical Societies and Universities. These prerequisites correspond most likely to training centers being

  2. The efficacy of downhill running as a method to enhance running economy in trained distance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-06-01

    Running downhill, in comparison to running on the flat, appears to involve an exaggerated stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) due to greater impact loads and higher vertical velocity on landing, whilst also incurring a lower metabolic cost. Therefore, downhill running could facilitate higher volumes of training at higher speeds whilst performing an exaggerated SSC, potentially inducing favourable adaptations in running mechanics and running economy (RE). This investigation assessed the efficacy of a supplementary 8-week programme of downhill running as a means of enhancing RE in well-trained distance runners. Nineteen athletes completed supplementary downhill (-5% gradient; n = 10) or flat (n = 9) run training twice a week for 8 weeks within their habitual training. Participants trained at a standardised intensity based on the velocity of lactate turnpoint (vLTP), with training volume increased incrementally between weeks. Changes in energy cost of running (E C ) and vLTP were assessed on both flat and downhill gradients, in addition to maximal oxygen uptake (⩒O 2max). No changes in E C were observed during flat running following downhill (1.22 ± 0.09 vs 1.20 ± 0.07 Kcal kg -1  km -1 , P = .41) or flat run training (1.21 ± 0.13 vs 1.19 ± 0.12 Kcal kg -1  km -1 ). Moreover, no changes in E C during downhill running were observed in either condition (P > .23). vLTP increased following both downhill (16.5 ± 0.7 vs 16.9 ± 0.6 km h -1 , P = .05) and flat run training (16.9 ± 0.7 vs 17.2 ± 1.0 km h -1 , P = .05), though no differences in responses were observed between groups (P = .53). Therefore, a short programme of supplementary downhill run training does not appear to enhance RE in already well-trained individuals.

  3. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The NIH Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Creswell, John W.; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K.; Castro, Felipe G.; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C.; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: “Research question,” “Design/approach,” “Sampling,” “Data collection,” “Analysis,” and “Dissemination.” Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha to assess reliability and an ANOVA that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion-relatedness. Results Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (.95) and adequate (>=.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (e.g., published a mixed methods paper) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. Discussion This Self-Rated Mixed Methods Assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning. PMID:28562495

  4. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF SUBJECT CONTENT OF TRAINING COURSESFOR INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В С Корнилов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific and methodical aspects of forming the content of education inverse problems for differential equations for students of higher educational institutions of physical, mathematical and natural science training areas. The goals are formulated and the principles of training are the content of learning inverse problems for differential equations. Attention is drawn to the particular issues of teaching courses inverse problems. Describes the classification criteria and target modules that play the role of tools to create and analyze the model and curriculum, forming learning content inverse problems for differential equations. The content classification features and target modules. Formulate conclusions that learning the inverse problems for differential equations has scientific, educational and humanitarian potential of students and as a result of this training they gain the fundamental knowledge in the applied and computational mathematics, and also develop scientific worldview, applied, environmental, information thinking.

  5. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (pfeed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  6. Using longitudinal mixed methods to study the development of professional behaviours during pharmacy work-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Samuel D; Schafheutle, Ellen I; Noyce, Peter R

    2017-05-01

    Recent longitudinal investigations of professional socialisation and development of professional behaviours during work-based training are lacking. Using longitudinal mixed methods, this study aimed to explore the development of professional behaviours during a year of intensive work-based (pre-registration) training in pharmacy. Twenty trainee pharmacists and their tutors completed semi-structured interview and professional behaviour questionnaires at four time points during 2011/2012: months 1, 4 and 9 during training and 4 months after registration; tutors participated in months 1 and 9. Interviews were analysed thematically using template analysis, and questionnaires were analysed using ANOVA and t-tests. Self-assessed (trainee) and tutor ratings of all elements of professional behaviours measured in questionnaires (appearance, interpersonal/social skills, responsibility, communication skills) increased significantly from the start of pre-registration training to post-registration. Some elements, for example, communication skills, showed more change over time compared with others, such as appearance, and continued to improve post-registration. Qualitative findings highlighted the changing roles of trainees and learning experiences that appeared to facilitate the development of professional behaviours. Trainees' colleagues, and particularly tutors, played an essential part in trainees' development through offering support and role modelling. Trainees noted that they would have benefited from more responsibilities during training to ease the transition into practising as a responsible pharmacist. Longitudinal mixed methods can unpack the way in which professional behaviours develop during work-based training and allow researchers to examine changes in the demonstration of professional behaviours and how they occur. Identifying areas less prone to change allows for more focus to be given to supporting trainees in areas where there is a development need, such as

  7. Civil Justice: Lay Judges in the EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Machura

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lay judges fulfill important functions for the justice system of a country. In the European Union member states, scholars have analysed the use of lay judges in criminal cases. However, little is known about lay participation in civil justice. The paper introduces commonly cited reasons to have lay judges as well as the principal forms of lay participation and then surveys the EU countries for its implementation in civil cases. Mixed tribunals, involving lay judges under the leadership of a professional judge, are relatively frequent. Several countries have special labour courts or commercial courts with lay members and others have single lay judges, or all-lay judge panels. Roughly a third of the 28 EU member states have no lay participation in civil justice but only three of those have no lay judges in any branch of the courts. Almost all the reasons for including lay decision makers are served somehow by the existing forms, including providing different experiences and perhaps expert knowledge. The article concludes, citing non-EU states and lay participation in criminal and administrative courts as further evidence, that lay judges in one form or another are an element of European legal systems. Los jueces legos cumplen funciones importantes para el sistema de justicia de un país. En los Estados miembro de la Unión Europea, académicos han analizado el uso de jueces legos en casos criminales. Sin embargo, se sabe poco acerca de la participación de los legos en la justicia civil. El artículo presenta las razones que habitualmente se citan para tener jueces legos, así como las formas principales de la participación de legos, para a continuación medir su implementación en casos civiles en los países de la Unión Europea. Son relativamente frecuentes los tribunales mixtos, en los que participan jueces legos, bajo la dirección de un juez profesional. Varios países tienen tribunales laborales especiales o tribunales comerciales con

  8. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Fouad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64% to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05. The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05, whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  9. Dynamic reflexivity in action: an armchair walkthrough of a qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods study of mindfulness training in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Julianne; Lipschitz, David L; Abrams, Elizabeth M; Vago, David R; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-06-01

    Dynamic reflexivity is central to enabling flexible and emergent qualitatively driven inductive mixed-method and multiple methods research designs. Yet too often, such reflexivity, and how it is used at various points of a study, is absent when we write our research reports. Instead, reports of mixed-method and multiple methods research focus on what was done rather than how it came to be done. This article seeks to redress this absence of emphasis on the reflexive thinking underpinning the way that mixed- and multiple methods, qualitatively driven research approaches are thought about and subsequently used throughout a project. Using Morse's notion of an armchair walkthrough, we excavate and explore the layers of decisions we made about how, and why, to use qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods research in a study of mindfulness training (MT) in schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The National Institutes of Health Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Creswell, John W; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K; Castro, Felipe G; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a self-rated mixed methods skills assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: "Research question," "Design/approach," "Sampling," "Data collection," "Analysis," and "Dissemination." Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using the Cronbach alpha to assess reliability and an analysis of variance that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion relatedness. Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (0.95) and adequate (≥0.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (eg, published a mixed methods article) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. This self-rated mixed methods assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning.

  11. Individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopic training:a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Liv; Weurlander, Maria; Hedman, Leif; Nisel, Henry; Lindqvist, Pelle G; Felländer-Tsai, Li; Enochsson, Lars

    2015-07-29

    This study aimed to explore the value of individualized feedback on performance, flow and self-efficacy during simulated laparoscopy. Furthermore, we wished to explore attitudes towards feedback and simulator training among medical students. Sixteen medical students were included in the study and randomized to laparoscopic simulator training with or without feedback. A teacher provided individualized feedback continuously throughout the procedures to the target group. Validated questionnaires and scales were used to evaluate self-efficacy and flow. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between groups regarding laparoscopic performance (instrument path length), self-efficacy and flow. Qualitative data was collected by group interviews and interpreted using inductive thematic analyses. Sixteen students completed the simulator training and questionnaires. Instrument path length was shorter in the feedback group (median 3.9 m; IQR: 3.3-4.9) as compared to the control group (median 5.9 m; IQR: 5.0-8.1), pfeedback group were more concentrated on the task and also more anxious. Both groups had high ambitions to succeed and also expressed the importance of getting feedback. The authenticity of the training scenario was important for the learning process. This study highlights the importance of individualized feedback during simulated laparoscopy training. The next step is to further optimize feedback and to transfer standardized and individualized feedback from the simulated setting to the operating room.

  12. LEAP: A randomized-controlled trial of a lay-educator inpatient asthma education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jessica L; Matlack, Kristen M; Simmons, Marsha D; Steinfeld, Jonathan; Laws, Margaret A; Dovey, Mark E; Cohen, Robyn T

    2015-06-29

    To evaluate the impact of LEAP, a volunteer-based, inpatient asthma education program for families of inner-city children with asthma. 711 children ages 2-17 years admitted with status asthmaticus were randomized to receive usual care or usual care plus a supplemental education intervention. Both groups completed a baseline interview. Trained volunteer lay educators conducted individualized bedside education with the intervention group. Primary outcome was attendance at a post-hospitalization follow-up visit 7-10 days after discharge. Secondary outcomes included parent-reported asthma management behaviors, symptoms, and self-efficacy scores from a one month follow-up interview. Post-hospitalization asthma clinic attendance was poor (38%), with no difference between groups. Families randomized to the intervention group were more likely to report use of a controller (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.2, peducation by trained lay volunteers was associated with improved asthma management behaviors. This novel volunteer-based program could have widespread implications as a sustainable model for asthma education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  14. Workability’s recreation methodic with application of cupping massage and autogenic training of women student teams’ basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to experimentally subsituate effectiveness of non traditional complex methodic of recreation in female basketball players’ training process. Material: 22 basketball players of women student’s team participated in the research. Pedagogic testing was conducted by 12 tests in special physical and technical fitness. Psycho-physiological testing was conducted by program PSYCHO-DIAGNOSTIC. Groups were trained by identical programs during 9 weeks. Results: we authors observed increased physical and technical fitness of basketball players. Besides, quantity of mistakes in response to visual irritator reduced. It indirectly witnesses about strengthening of nervous processes. There was registered influence of mind on quality of organism’s recreation after physical loads. Conclusions: the authors recommend methodic of cupping massage, combined with autogenic training. Autogenic training implies repeated pronouncing by instructor (or independently by sportswomen of text, describing coming turn by turn natural images. Peculiarities of massage were influence of massage passes on muscles and ligaments. Cupping massage was used after warming up classic massage techniques.

  15. Autogenic-feedback training: A preventive method for space adaptation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Sharp, Joseph C.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.

    1987-01-01

    The progress made to date on the reduction of data for Spacelab 3 Shuttle experiment, No. 3AFT23 is reported. Four astronauts participated as subjects in this experiment. Crewmen A and B served as treatment subjects (i.e., received preflight training for control of their own motion sickness symptoms) and Crewmen C and D served as control (i.e., did not receive training). A preliminary evaluation of Autogenic Feedback Training (AFT) was made from visual inspections of graphs that were generated from the preflight and inflight and inflight physiological data which included: (1) Baseline rotating chair tests for all crewmen; (2) Posttraining rotating chair tests of treatment groups subjects; (3) Preflight data from Joint Integrated Simulations for all crewmen; and (4) Flight data for all crewmen during mission days 0 through 4, and mission day 6 for treatment subjects only. A summary of the findings suggested by these data is outlined.

  16. Disseminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation training by distributing 35,000 personal manikins among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isbye, Dan L; Rasmussen, Lars S; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Because most cardiac arrests occur at home, widespread training is needed to increase the incidence of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by lay persons. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of mass distribution of CPR instructional materials among schoolchildren. METHODS...... AND RESULTS: We distributed 35,002 resuscitation manikins to pupils (12 to 14 years of age) at 806 primary schools. Using the enclosed 24-minute instructional DVD, they trained in CPR and subsequently used the kit to train family and friends (second tier). They completed a questionnaire on who had trained...... in CPR using the kit. Teachers also were asked to evaluate the project. The incidence of bystander CPR in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the months following the project was compared with the previous year. In total, 6947 questionnaires (19.8%) were returned. The 6947 kits had been used to train 17...

  17. MODERN METHODS OF COMPETENCE BUILDING APPROACH IMPLEMENTATION IN THE SYSTEM OF TRAINING SPECIALISTS IN HIGHER EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Gutsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses a problem of the changing of requirements of professional competence of teacher of university connected with transition to a competence model of professional education. The article tackles upon the problem of using the portfolio method in the process of the article introduces the short review of such notions as: forms and different variants of using methods. Besides, the author of the article points out the use of the portfolio method in the training of the specialists (social teachers, teachers of primary school during the whole process of studying at the Pedagogical Institute.

  18. THE EFFICIENCY IMPROVING OF PILOTS AND CADETS TRAINING TO SAFETY CONTROL USING THE MODIFICATIONS OF CLASSICAL METHOD OF "ROY" (PSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Yurasov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article explains the use of modifications the classical method PSO to optimize the training pilots task on aircraft simulators. Model is based on the identification of the specific guarantee of safety in the task of training pilots of the features of simulation with the use of modern optimization models for long-term quantitative forecast of random processes. The author proved that the classical optimization techniques to aircraft supporting function, the input and output variables, and classes of equations defined by the model author. These circumstances lead to the fact that the obtained models do not have sufficient flexibility that in turn affects their behavior when adding new data points. The increased accuracy and the introduction of additional variables in the optimization problem of security is solved based on the methodology PSO. On the basis of mathematical simulation shows the potential of the PSO for the identification of quality indicators of a new level for the purpose of guaranteeing flight safety. The method of group accounting of arguments presents an original method for solving problems that require structural and parametric identification of models. The author's approach to the problem of optimization consists in taking into account qualitative indicators in terms of aviation events at the gym. On the basis of the mathematical apparatus created a dynamic model based on the classical method PSO. The results obtained are of high precision in compliance with international regulations guaranteeing flight safety and pilot training ICAO and SHEL. Therefore, the method of group accounting of arguments will be effective mathematical tool to build the model and training procedures.

  19. Influence of the Training Methods in the Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis Using Radial Basis Functions Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Gutiérrez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The data available in the average clinical study of a disease is very often small. This is one of the main obstacles in the application of neural networks to the classification of biological signals used for diagnosing diseases. A rule of thumb states that the number of parameters (weights that can be used for training a neural network should be around 15% of the available data, to avoid overlearning. This condition puts a limit on the dimension of the input space. Different authors have used different approaches to solve this problem, like eliminating redundancy in the data, preprocessing the data to find centers for the radial basis functions, or extracting a small number of features that were used as inputs. It is clear that the classification would be better the more features we could feed into the network. The approach utilized in this paper is incrementing the number of training elements with randomly expanding training sets. This way the number of original signals does not constraint the dimension of the input set in the radial basis network. Then we train the network using the method that minimizes the error function using the gradient descent algorithm and the method that uses the particle swarm optimization technique. A comparison between the two methods showed that for the same number of iterations on both methods, the particle swarm optimization was faster, it was learning to recognize only the sick people. On the other hand, the gradient method was not as good in general better at identifying those people.

  20. Digital gene-expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenna Fan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death worldwide, so people are advised to limit their intake of dietary cholesterol [1]. Egg consumption has been seriously reduced because of the high levels of cholesterol [2]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cholesterol metabolism effects of alfalfa saponin extract (ASE in liver and ovary tissues using digital gene-expression (DGE profiling analysis. The liver and ovary tissues were isolated from laying hens fed with ASE for RNA sequencing. Here, we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis pipeline in our study to identify digital gene expression of alfalfa saponin extract on laying hens and analysis pipeline published by Singh and colleagues in the PLOS ONE [3]. The data generated in our work provide meaningful information for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the cholesterol-lowering effects of ASE.

  1. Lay health workers perceptions of an anemia control intervention in Karnataka, India: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shet, Arun S; Rao, Abha; Jebaraj, Paul; Mascarenhas, Maya; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Atkins, Salla

    2017-09-18

    Lay health workers (LHWs) are increasingly used to complement health services internationally. Their perceptions of the interventions they implement and their experiences in delivering community based interventions in India have been infrequently studied. We developed a novel LHW led intervention to improve anemia cure rates in rural community dwelling children attending village day care centers in South India. Since the intervention is delivered by the village day care center LHW, we sought to understand participating LHWs' acceptance of and perspectives regarding the intervention, particularly in relation to factors affecting daily implementation. We conducted a qualitative study alongside a cluster randomized controlled trial evaluating a complex community intervention for childhood anemia control in Karnataka, South India. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with trained LHWs assigned to deliver the educational intervention. These were complemented by non-participant observations of LHWs delivering the intervention. Transcripts of the FGDs were translated and analyzed using the framework analysis method. Several factors made the intervention acceptable to the LHWs and facilitated its implementation including pre-implementation training modules, intervention simplicity, and ability to incorporate the intervention into the routine work schedule. LHWs felt that the intervention impacted negatively on their preexisting workload. Fluctuating relationships with mothers weakened the LHWs position as providers of the intervention and hampered efficient implementation, despite the LHWs' highly valued position in the community. Modifiable barriers to the successful implementation of this intervention were seen at two levels. At a broader contextual level, hindering factors included the LHW being overburdened, inadequately reimbursed, and receiving insufficient employer support. At the health system level, lack of streamlining of LHW duties, inability of LHWs to

  2. Literary and Documentary Evidence for Lay Medical Practice in the Roman Republic and Empire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draycott, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The majority of surviving ancient medical literature was written by medical practitioners and produced for the purpose of ensuring the effective diagnosis and treatment of their patients, suggesting an audience of medical professionals ranging from instructors to students. This has led historians to concentrate on the professional medical practitioner and their theories, methods and practices, rather than on lay medical practitioners, or even patients themselves. This chapter seeks to redress this imbalance, and examine the ancient literary and documentary evidence for lay medical theories, methods and practices in the Roman Republic and Empire in an attempt to reconstruct the experiences of lay medical practitioners and their patients. The Roman agricultural treatises of Cato, Varro and Columella, papyri and ostraca from Egypt, and tablets from Britain are investigated, and it is established that the individual's personal acquisition of knowledge and expertise, not only from medical professionals and works of medical literature, but also from family members and friends, and through trial and error, was considered fundamental to domestic medical practice.

  3. Comparing three methods of computerised cognitive training for older adults with subclinical cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Amanda L; Choi, Jimmy; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Wilkins, Kirsten; Kirwin, Paul D; van Dyck, Christopher H; Devanand, Davangere; Bell, Morris D; Rivera Mindt, Monica

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early Alzheimer's disease is readily available to the geriatric population. Initial evidence suggests that techniques incorporating motivational strategies to enhance treatment engagement may provide more benefit than computerised training alone. Seventy four adults with subclinical cognitive decline were randomly assigned to computerised cognitive training (CCT), Cognitive Vitality Training (CVT), or an Active Control Group (ACG), and underwent neuropsychological evaluations at baseline and four-month follow-up. Significant differences were found in changes in performance on the Modified Mini Mental State Examination (mMMSE) and measures of verbal learning and memory across treatment groups. Experimental groups showed greater preservation of functioning on the mMMSE than the ACG group, the CVT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and both measures of verbal memory, and the CCT group performed better than the ACG group on one measure of verbal learning and one measure of verbal memory. There were no significant group differences between the CVT and CCT groups on measures of verbal learning or memory. It was concluded that computerised cognitive training may offer the most benefit when incorporated into a therapeutic milieu rather than administered alone, although both appear superior to more generic forms of cognitive stimulation.

  4. Relaxation training methods for nurse managers in Hong Kong: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Paul M B; Fung, Man Yi; Chan, Tony M F; Lau, Bernard W K

    2004-12-01

    Nurse managers are under increased stress because of excessive workloads and hospitals' restructuring which is affecting their work tasks. High levels of stress could affect their mental health. Yet, few stress management training programmes are provided for this population. The purpose of this study was to apply stretch-release relaxation and cognitive relaxation training to enhance the mental health for nurse managers. A total of 65 nurse managers in Hong Kong were randomly assigned to stretch-release relaxation (n = 17), cognitive relaxation (n = 18), and a test control group (n = 35). Mental health status was assessed using the Chinese version of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Chinese version of the General Health Questionnaire. Participants were assessed at the pretreatment session, the fourth posttreatment session, and at the 1-month follow-up session. The results revealed both the stretch-release and cognitive relaxation training enhanced mental health in nurse managers in Hong Kong. The application of relaxation training in enhancing mental health status for nurses and health professionals is discussed.

  5. Household training vs. mass campaigns: a better method of health communication for preventing malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chourasia, Mehul Kumar; Abraham, Vinod J; John, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Malaria is endemic in several states of India with high tribal population. Effective use of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLITNs) can reduce the burden of malaria in these settings. This study assessed the knowledge and behaviour regarding malaria in a tribal population and compared two health education strategies for enhancing effective utilisation of bed nets. A community-based intervention study was carried out among 218 households in two villages. One community received household level training on effective utilisation of LLITNs while the others received training in a mass campaign and outcomes were measured after 2 months. The study showed that the proportion utilising LLITNs was significantly higher among those receiving household level training as compared to those who received the mass campaign. Household level training appears to be a more effective form of health education for improving knowledge and promoting use of LLITNs in these isolated community groups. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Use of Case Study Methods in Human Resource Management, Development, and Training Courses: Strategies and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, James R.; Gilberti, Anthony F.; Mupinga, Davison M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will study some of the problems associated with case studies and make recommendations using standard and innovative methodologies effectively. Human resource management (HRM) and resource development cases provide context for analysis and decision-making designs in different industries. In most HRM development and training courses…

  7. Imagery and Verbal Counseling Methods in Stress Inoculation Training for Pain Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Everett L., Jr.; Shumate, Michael

    1981-01-01

    Pleasant imagery relieves pain and may account for much of the effectiveness of stress inoculation training. Women who used imagery controlled their pain better; women who did not use imagery had longer tolerance when they heard pain conceptualized as a multistage process. Self-instruction did not affect pain control. (Author)

  8. Developing a Business Intelligence Process for a Training Module in SharePoint 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtchen, Bryce; Solano, Wanda M.; Albasini, Colby

    2015-01-01

    Prior to this project, training information for the employees of the National Center for Critical Processing and Storage (NCCIPS) was stored in an array of unrelated spreadsheets and SharePoint lists that had to be manually updated. By developing a content management system through a web application platform named SharePoint, this training system is now highly automated and provides a much less intensive method of storing training data and scheduling training courses. This system was developed by using SharePoint Designer and laying out the data structure for the interaction between different lists of data about the employees. The automation of data population inside of the lists was accomplished by implementing SharePoint workflows which essentially lay out the logic for how data is connected and calculated between certain lists. The resulting training system is constructed from a combination of five lists of data with a single list acting as the user-friendly interface. This interface is populated with the courses required for each employee and includes past and future information about course requirements. The employees of NCCIPS now have the ability to view, log, and schedule their training information and courses with much more ease. This system will relieve a significant amount of manual input and serve as a powerful informational resource for the employees of NCCIPS in the future.

  9. First things first: effectiveness and scalability of a basic prehospital trauma care program for lay first-responders in Kampala, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Jayaraman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that in the absence of a formal emergency system, lay people face a heavy burden of injuries in Kampala, Uganda, and we demonstrated the feasibility of a basic prehospital trauma course for lay people. This study tests the effectiveness of this course and estimates the costs and cost-effectiveness of scaling up this training. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For six months, we prospectively followed 307 trainees (police, taxi drivers, and community leaders who completed a one-day basic prehospital trauma care program in 2008. Cross-sectional surveys and fund of knowledge tests were used to measure their frequency of skill and supply use, reasons for not providing aid, perceived utility of the course and kit, confidence in using skills, and knowledge of first-aid. We then estimated the cost-effectiveness of scaling up the program. At six months, 188 (62% of the trainees were followed up. Their knowledge retention remained high or increased. The mean correct score on a basic fund of knowledge test was 92%, up from 86% after initial training (n = 146 pairs, p = 0.0016. 97% of participants had used at least one skill from the course: most commonly haemorrhage control, recovery position and lifting/moving and 96% had used at least one first-aid item. Lack of knowledge was less of a barrier and trainees were significantly more confident in providing first-aid. Based on cost estimates from the World Health Organization, local injury data, and modelling from previous studies, the projected cost of scaling up this program was $0.12 per capita or $25-75 per life year saved. Key limitations of the study include small sample size, possible reporter bias, preliminary local validation of study instruments, and an indirect estimate of mortality reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Lay first-responders effectively retained knowledge on prehospital trauma care and confidently used their first-aid skills and supplies for at least six months. The costs of

  10. Quantitative Assessment of Blood Pressure Measurement Accuracy and Variability from Visual Auscultation Method by Observers without Receiving Medical Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yong; Chen, Aiqing

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify blood pressure (BP) measurement accuracy and variability with different techniques. Thirty video clips of BP recordings from the BHS training database were converted to Korotkoff sound waveforms. Ten observers without receiving medical training were asked to determine BPs using (a) traditional manual auscultatory method and (b) visual auscultation method by visualizing the Korotkoff sound waveform, which was repeated three times on different days. The measurement error was calculated against the reference answers, and the measurement variability was calculated from the SD of the three repeats. Statistical analysis showed that, in comparison with the auscultatory method, visual method significantly reduced overall variability from 2.2 to 1.1 mmHg for SBP and from 1.9 to 0.9 mmHg for DBP (both p auscultation methods). In conclusion, the visual auscultation method had the ability to achieve an acceptable degree of BP measurement accuracy, with smaller variability in comparison with the traditional auscultatory method. PMID:29423405

  11. Music and dyslexia: A new musical training method to improve reading and related disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eHabib

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous arguments in the recent neuroscientific literature support the use of musical training as a therapeutic tool among the arsenal already available to therapists and educators for treating children with dyslexia. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of a specially-designed Cognitivo-Musical Training (CMT protocol based upon three principles : 1- music-language analogies : training dyslexics with music could contribute to improve brain circuits which are common to music and language processes; 2 – the temporal and rhythmic features of music, which could exert a positive effect on the multiple dimensions of the temporal deficit characteristic of dyslexia; and 3- cross-modal integration, based on converging evidence of impaired connectivity in dyslexia and related disorders. Accordingly, we developed a series of musical exercises involving jointly and simultaneously sensory (visual, auditory, somatosensory and motor systems, with special emphasis on rhythmic perception and production in addition to intensive training of various features of the musical auditory signal. Two separate studies were carried out, one in which dyslexic children received intensive musical exercises concentrated over 18 hours during three consecutive days, and the other in which the 18 hours of musical training were spread over six weeks. Both studies showed significant improvements in some untrained, linguistic and non-linguistic variables. The first one yielded significant improvement in categorial perception and auditory perception of temporal components of speech. The second study revealed additional improvements in auditory attention, phonological awareness (syllable fusion, reading abilities and repetition of pseudo-words. Importantly, most improvements persisted after an untrained period of 6 weeks. These results provide new additional arguments for using music as part of systematic therapeutic and instructional practice for dyslexic children.

  12. Applying the trigger review method after a brief educational intervention: potential for teaching and improving safety in GP specialty training?

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, John; de Wet, Carl; Kelly, Moya; Bowie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background:\\ud The Trigger Review Method (TRM) is a structured approach to screening clinical records for undetected patient safety incidents (PSIs) and identifying learning and improvement opportunities. In Scotland, TRM participation can inform GP appraisal and has been included as a core component of the national primary care patient safety programme that was launched in March 2013. However, the clinical workforce needs up-skilled and the potential of TRM in GP training has yet to be teste...

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  14. Fuzzy logic controller architecture for water level control in nuclear power plant steam generator using ANFIS training method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosoughi, Naser; Ekrami, AmirHasan; Naseri, Zahra

    2003-01-01

    Since suitable control of water level can greatly enhance the operation of a power station, a fuzzy logic controller is applied to control the steam generator water level in a pressurized water reactor. The method does not require a detailed mathematical model of the object to be controlled. It is shown that two inputs, a single output and the least number of rules (9 rules) are considered for a controller, and the ANFIS training method is employed to model functions in a controlled system. By using ANFIS training method, initial membership functions will be trained and appropriate functions are generated to control water level inside the steam generator while using the stated rules. The proposed architecture can construct an input-output mapping based on both human knowledge (in the from of fuzzy if - then rules) and stipulated input-output data. This fuzzy logic controller is applied to the steam generator level control by computer simulations. The simulation results confirm the excellent performance of this control architecture in compare with a well-turned PID controller. (author)

  15. Lay Worker Health Literacy: A Concept Analysis and Operational Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadman, Kathleen Paco

    2017-10-01

    The concept of lay worker health literacy is created by concurrently analyzing and synthesizing two intersecting concepts, lay workers and health literacy. Articulation of this unique intersection is the result of implementing a simplified Wilson's Concept Analysis Procedure. This process incorporates the following components: a) selecting a concept, b) determining the aims/purposes of analysis, c) identifying all uses of the concept, d) determining defining attributes, e) identifying a model case, f) identifying borderline, related, contrary, and illegitimate cases, g) identifying antecedents and consequences, and h) defining empirical referents. Furthermore, as current literature provides no operational definition for lay worker health literacy, one is created to contribute cohesion to the concept. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Principles of macro-methodic of junior female gymnasts’ training to sport exercises for gymnastic all round competitions at specialized basic stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Potop

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: working out of principles of junior female gymnasts’ macro-methodic training to sport exercises for all round competitions at stage of specialized basic training. Material: in the research 19 girl-gymnasts from reserve of combined team of Romania participated. Measurements and assessment of technical fitness at training sessions and in conditions of competitions were conducted at 120 training sessions (10 sessions a week. Results: we worked out and realized experimentally and in training sessions principles of macro-methodic training to gymnastic exercises. Macro-methodic of training is presented in structure of long-term programs of training for all round competitions. Macro-methodic is presented as combination of elements of motor, technical, didactic and technological structures of sport exercises (in the present article it was described on material of vaults of Yurchenko’s type. Conclusions: macro-methodic permits to state optimal algorithm of mastering of theoretical and practical materials at training sessions. Besides, it permits to demonstrate steady growth of sport results at competitions. With it individual-age features of junior female gymnasts, tendencies and specialists’ requirements are considered.

  17. The effectiveness of a training method using self-modeling webcam photos for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taieb-Maimon, Meirav; Cwikel, Julie; Shapira, Bracha; Orenstein, Ido

    2012-03-01

    An intervention study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of an innovative self-modeling photo-training method for reducing musculoskeletal risk among office workers using computers. Sixty workers were randomly assigned to either: 1) a control group; 2) an office training group that received personal, ergonomic training and workstation adjustments or 3) a photo-training group that received both office training and an automatic frequent-feedback system that displayed on the computer screen a photo of the worker's current sitting posture together with the correct posture photo taken earlier during office training. Musculoskeletal risk was evaluated using the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method before, during and after the six weeks intervention. Both training methods provided effective short-term posture improvement; however, sustained improvement was only attained with the photo-training method. Both interventions had a greater effect on older workers and on workers suffering more musculoskeletal pain. The photo-training method had a greater positive effect on women than on men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Mapping of forest types confined to the lay of land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Farber

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The principles for the formation of forest typological classification and outlines promising areas for development, allowing to solve problems of not only inventory and forest management, but also mapping forest types are discussed in the paper. The analysis is performed by interpreting the concept of «natural regularity» proposed by D. L. Armand (1975. It is shown when the left side of the pattern is a set of indicators of site condition, structure of forest typological constructions will take into account not only the static indicators of the stands, but also their location, the origin and direction of the succession. For relatively similar climatic conditions, the indicators of the lay of land mainly limit the environment of formation of vegetation cover. The method of mapping forest types provides for consideration of site condition and indicators of stands of forest types. Testing is conducted on a test axis West-Sayan forest district, located in the mountains of southern Siberia. Conjugation types of forests, indicators of the topography revealed through the analysis of literary sources and characteristics of forest types accompanying diagnostic table (Smagin et al., 1980. The work is done in a GIS environment using DEM SRTM and Landsat space images. For indexing locations, the inputs are accepted: altitude (gradation 100 m, flat location, slope up to 20° and 20° slopes with northern and southern exposure. Classification of pixels of satellite images is conducted by the method of unsupervised classification separately for each scene, the high-altitude zone and location, which allows increase of the quality of interpretation, because the types of forests are confined to the topography. However completely avoiding mistakes is not possible. The main reasons are an inaccuracy of the DEM and the hit in one class of spectral brightness of different objects of interpretation. The map legend includes characteristics of the terrain, description

  19. A set packing inspired method for real-time junction train routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffic make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to re-schedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...

  20. A Set Packing Inspired Method for Real-Time Junction Train Routing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusby, Richard Martin; Larsen, Jesper; Ehrgott, Matthias

    Efficiently coordinating the often large number of interdependent, timetabled train movements on a railway junction, while satisfying a number of operational requirements, is one of the most important problems faced by a railway company. The most critical variant of the problem arises on a daily...... basis at major railway junctions where disruptions to rail traffi c make the planned schedule/routing infeasible and rolling stock planners are forced to reschedule/re-route trains in order to recover feasibility. The dynamic nature of the problem means that good solutions must be obtained quickly....... In this paper we describe a set packing inspired formulation of this problem and develop a branch-and-price based solution approach. A real life test instance arising in Germany and supplied by the major German railway company, Deutsche Bahn, indicates the efficiency of the proposed approach by confirming...