WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods sixty-two children

  1. Comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余明

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the occurrence of comorbidity in school-aged children with autism disorder.Methods Sixty-two outpatients in Peking University Institute of Mental Health,aged 6 to 16 years old,meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental

  2. From sixty-two interviews on 'the worst and the best episode of your life'. Relationships between internal working models and a grammatical scale of subject-object affective connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, A; Carnevale, G; Mucelli, R; Solano, L; Target, M

    2000-06-01

    The authors address the issue of inferring unconscious internal working models of interaction through language. After reviewing Main's seminal work of linguistic assessment through the 'adult attachment interview', they stress the idea of adults' internal working models (IWMs) as information-processing devices, which give moment-to-moment sensory orientation in the face of any past or present, animate or inanimate object. They propose that a selective perception of the objects could match expected with actual influence of objects on the subject's self, through very simple 'parallel-processed' categories of internal objects. They further hypothesise that the isomorphism between internal working models of interaction and grammatical connections between subjects and objects within a clause could be a key to tracking positive and negative images of self and other during discourse. An experiment is reported applying the authors' 'scale of subject/object affective connection' to the narratives of sixty-two subjects asked to write about the 'worst' and 'best' episodes of their lives. Participants had previously been classified using Hazan & Shaver's self-reported 'attachment types' (avoidant, anxious and secure) categorising individuals' general expectations in relation to others. The findings were that the subject/object distribution of positive and negative experience, through verbs defined for this purpose as either performative or state verbs, did significantly differ between groups. In addition, different groups tended, during the best episodes, significantly to invert the trend of positive/negative subject/object distribution shown during the worst episode. Results are discussed in terms of a psychoanalytic theory of improvement through co-operative elaboration of negative relational issues.

  3. Comparing early design methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Robertson, J.; Skov, M.B.; Bekker, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a study which compares the outcome of two early design methods for children: brainstorming and prototyping. The hypothesis is that children will uncover more design ideas when prototyping than when brainstorming, because prototyping requires the use of a wider range of

  4. [Rehabilitation methods for children with complicated cataract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, G; Cuşnir, V; Septichina, Natalia; Cuşnir, Vitalie

    2010-01-01

    The work deals with the results of surgical treatment of 155 patients, who had uveal cataract, by method of facoemulsification with artificial crystalline lens transplanting. The age of the sick varied from 3 to 15 as a result of a complex treatment, involving determination of ethnic factor in the development of uveal cataract, before- and after-operation conservative medical treatment, surgical treatment of abscuration ambliopia 78.1% children and the keenness of sight 0.4 and 68.7% got binocularious sight. The study lot of posttraumatic cataract affected children included 189 patients, from them 68 with stationary cataract, 87 with intumescent cataract and 34 with postoperatorial aphakia. Age from 2 to 15 years. 76.3% cases of evolution without postoperatorial complications, in 13.7% intraoperatorial were observed different complications. The work presents the results of surgical treatment 196 of children, who had innate cataract, by the method of facoasoriation with soft intra-eyepiece lens transplanting from 133 patients who had two-sided cataract, 63 had monolateral cataract. All children underwent laser simulation and videocomputer auto-training in post-operation period. As a result of the treatment, 66.8% patients got the amelioration of sight with 0.4, and 58% got binocular sight. The children's age varied between 6 months and 15 years. This article presents a review of the treatment results of 213 children with posttraumatic, congenital and complicated cataracts. The rehabilitation of the patients with the lens pathology includes a complex of measures of early diagnosis, surgery, optimal correction, medical treatment before and after surgery, the prophilaxis and treatment of complications. This approach permits to increase the visual acuity in 83.8% and to restore the binocular vision in 71.4% patients.

  5. Suicide methods in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõlves, Kairi; de Leo, Diego

    2017-02-01

    There are notable differences in suicide methods between countries. The aim of this paper is to analyse and describe suicide methods in children and adolescents aged 10-19 years in different countries/territories worldwide. Suicide data by ICD-10 X codes were obtained from the WHO Mortality Database and population data from the World Bank. In total, 101 countries or territories, have data at least for 5 years in 2000-2009. Cluster analysis by suicide methods was performed for countries/territories with at least 10 suicide cases separately by gender (74 for males and 71 for females) in 2000-2009. The most frequent suicide method was hanging, followed by poisoning by pesticides for females and firearms for males. Cluster analyses of similarities in the country/territory level suicide method patterns by gender identified four clusters for both gender. Hanging and poisoning by pesticides defined the clusters of countries/territories by their suicide patterns in youth for both genders. In addition, a mixed method and a jumping from height cluster were identified for females and two mixed method clusters for males. A number of geographical similarities were observed. Overall, the patterns of suicide methods in children and adolescents reflect lethality, availability and acceptability of suicide means similarly to country specific patterns of all ages. Means restriction has very good potential in preventing youth suicides in different countries. It is also crucial to consider cognitive availability influenced by sensationalised media reporting and/or provision of technical details about specific methods.

  6. Comparison of Methods of Teaching Children Proper Lifting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was designed to determine the effects of three teaching methods on children\\'s ability to demonstrate and recall their mastery of proper lifting techniques. Method: Ninety-three primary five and six public school children who had no knowledge of proper lifting technique were assigned into three equal ...

  7. On the assessment of usability testing methods for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markopoulos, P.; Bekker, M.M.

    2003-01-01

    The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three

  8. Friendship in Young Children: Construction of a Behavioural Sociometric Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoogdalem, Anne-Greth; Singer, Elly; Eek, Anneloes; Heesbeen, Daniëlle

    2013-01-01

    We need methods to measure friendship among very young children to study the beginnings of friendship and the impact of experiences with friendship for later development. This article presents an overview of methods for measuring very young children's friendships. A behavioural sociometric method was constructed to study degrees of friendship…

  9. Methods of suicide used by children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Urs; Stulz, Niklaus; Unger-Köppel, Jürg; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2012-02-01

    Although relatively rare, suicide is a leading cause of death in children and adolescents in the Western world. This study examined whether children and adolescents are drawn to other methods of suicide than adults. Swiss suicides from 1998 to 2007 were examined. The main methods of suicide were analysed with respect to age and gender. Of the 12,226 suicides which took place in this 10-year period, 333 were committed by children and adolescents (226 males, 107 females). The most prevalent methods of suicide in children and adolescents 0-19 years were hanging, jumping from heights and railway-suicides (both genders), intoxication (females) and firearms (males). Compared to adults, railway-suicides were over-represented in young males and females (both P suicide chosen by children and adolescents. Restricting access to most favoured methods of suicide might be an important strategy in suicide prevention.

  10. Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undercooked meats wear gloves when gardening or working outdoors avoid caring for pets report any signs or ... Know (PDF, 1.67 MB) U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Medicare ... Benefits for Children with Disabilities (PDF, 413 KB) Clinical ...

  11. Considerations and Methods for Usability Testing with Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene Hjortboe; Khalid, Md. Saifuddin; Brooks, Eva Irene

    2017-01-01

    of these methods is that they are designed for adults and are not necessarily appropriate to investigations including children. The guiding questions for this systematic literature review are (1) the motivation for conducting usability tests with children, and (2) the kind of methodological, practical, and ethical...

  12. Children's Literature in the Undergraduate Course on Communication Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Students will develop positive attitudes toward communication research by linking new values and principles with the familiar values and principles contained in children's literature. Course: Communication Research Methods.

  13. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  14. Using Drawings and Collages as Data Generation Methods With Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nokhanyo Nomakhwezi Mayaba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate data generation methods are key to a successful research project to attain rich and relevant data. When doing research with children, the methods selected should be age appropriate and enable them to contribute their ideas in the research process. However, data generation with children is not “child’s play”—it is a challenging task that requires careful design on the part of the researcher. We conducted a study in South Africa with children between the ages of 9 and 14 who were orphaned and rendered vulnerable by HIV and AIDS in order to explore if, and how, the use of participatory visual methods might enhance resilience. In this article, we provide a reflective account of the research process and discuss lessons learnt from our experiences of using drawings and collage as data generation methods when doing research with children. This article contributes to the literature on the use of participatory visual methods as data generation strategies with children highlighting some caveats and offering insight into how challenges could be circumvented.

  15. Function combined method for design innovation of children's bike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Qiu, Tingting; Chen, Huijuan

    2013-03-01

    As children mature, bike products for children in the market develop at the same time, and the conditions are frequently updated. Certain problems occur when using a bike, such as cycle overlapping, repeating function, and short life cycle, which go against the principles of energy conservation and the environmental protection intensive design concept. In this paper, a rational multi-function method of design through functional superposition, transformation, and technical implementation is proposed. An organic combination of frog-style scooter and children's tricycle is developed using the multi-function method. From the ergonomic perspective, the paper elaborates on the body size of children aged 5 to 12 and effectively extracts data for a multi-function children's bike, which can be used for gliding and riding. By inverting the body, parts can be interchanged between the handles and the pedals of the bike. Finally, the paper provides a detailed analysis of the components and structural design, body material, and processing technology of the bike. The study of Industrial Product Innovation Design provides an effective design method to solve the bicycle problems, extends the function problems, improves the product market situation, and enhances the energy saving feature while implementing intensive product development effectively at the same time.

  16. Classification of Children Intelligence with Fuzzy Logic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahminan; ika Hidayati, Permata

    2018-04-01

    Intelligence of children s An Important Thing To Know The Parents Early on. Typing Can be done With a Child’s intelligence Grouping Dominant Characteristics Of each Type of Intelligence. To Make it easier for Parents in Determining The type of Children’s intelligence And How to Overcome them, for It Created A Classification System Intelligence Grouping Children By Using Fuzzy logic method For determination Of a Child’s degree of intelligence type. From the analysis We concluded that The presence of Intelligence Classification systems Pendulum Children With Fuzzy Logic Method Of determining The type of The Child’s intelligence Can be Done in a way That is easier And The results More accurate Conclusions Than Manual tests.

  17. The Diagnostic Value of ELISA Method for Pertussis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Popova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of low effectiveness of laboratory methods for diagnosing pertussis it is important to look for new ways of verification of this infection. The article presents the analysis of the diagnostic value of ELISA method, which involves the identification of antibodies of different isotypes (IgM, IgG, IgA to pertussis toxoid (PT and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA. The study included 279 children: 114 were under 1 year of age, 165 — older than 1 year. The pertussis was confirmed in 74.3 ± 2.6% of patients by using ELISA method. A significant proportion of seronegative patients (46.1 ± 6.2 per cent was revealed in the group of patients under 1 year. The pattern of production of antibodies in unvaccinated children was different. It depended on the age of the children and timing of illness. A low proportion of diagnostically significant indicators of IgM-antibodies at 2—3 weeks of illness was typical for patients under 1 year of age (e.g. 6.7 ± 6.5% as compared to 20.0 ± 7.9% and 50.0 ± 15.3 — 1—3 and 4—6 years of age. The diagnosis of pertussis in children under 1 year of age was confirmed mainly by the detection of IgG, starting from the 4th week of the disease. In the examination of vaccinated children diagnostically significant levels of IgA and IgG were identified (even in the late stages of the disease. Thus, the results of the analysis show special significance of using ELISA method for the diagnosis of pertussis in vaccinated children.

  18. Children's Text Messaging: Abbreviations, Input Methods and Links with Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, N.; Bushnell, C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of mobile phone text-messaging method (predictive and multi-press) and experience (in texters and non-texters) on children's textism use and understanding. It also examined popular claims that the use of text-message abbreviations, or "textese" spelling, is associated with poor literacy skills. A sample of 86…

  19. Barriers and facilitators of sports in children with physical disabilities : a mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, Eva A.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; de Blecourt, Alida C. E.; Geertzen, Jan H. B.; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Method: Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were

  20. Children Develop Initial Orthographic Knowledge during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether young children acquire orthographic knowledge during structured adult-led storybook reading even though minimal viewing time is devoted to print. Sixty-two kindergarten children were read 12 storybook "chapters" while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the children quickly acquired initial mental…

  1. A Review of Research Methods in Children's Technology Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janne Jul; Skov, Mikael B.

    2005-01-01

    Research methods have been objects of discussions for dec-ades and defining research methods is still a quite substan-tial challenge. However, it is important to understand how research methods have been adapted in different disciplines as it potentially informs us on future directions and influ......-ences on the discipline. Inspired by previous studies from other disciplines, we conduct a survey of research methods in paper publications. 105 papers on children's technology design are classified on a two-dimensional matrix on research method and pur-pose. Our results show a strong focus on engineering of products...... as applied research and on evaluation of devel-oped products in the field or in the lab. Also, we find that much research is conducted in natural setting environments with strong focus on field studies....

  2. Modern diagnostic method of microelementosis of school age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulov, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Human and animal pathology stipulated by deficiency of vitally important (or 'essential') microelements or their excess, has got its combined name microelementosis [1]. In connection with high biological activity of microelements in organism in different physiologic and pathologic status the quantitative determination of several metals in biomedium of organism is of great importance in the study of microelement metabolism. However, objective and representative data on estimation of school children's provision with microelements are practically absent. The objective of the study was to investigate contents of microelements connected with deficiency of biometals participating in hemopoiesis (Cu, Zn, Co, Mn) in biomedium of the organism of school children in Zarafshan region of the Republic of Uzbekistan. We have applied the method of neutron-activation analysis for determination of microelements (Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Mn) in hair, whole blood, blood serum, urine, saliva, food-stuff samples and in more than 20 elements of other biomedia, as per designed method in Nuclear Physics Institute, Republic of Uzbekistan [4]. The study was carried out on 245 practically healthy children aged 7-17, 131 boys and 33 girls living in four different areas of Samarkand region. According to the designed method the determination of Mn, Cu was done as follows: samples together with standards were packed in polyethylene container and underwent irradiation in vertical channel of the reactor by neutron flow 5x10 13 neutron cm -2 sec - 1 , (for 15 seconds). The measurement of direct activity was conducted in 2 hours for determining of Cu and Mn. For determining of iron, cobalt, zinc the irradiation test measurement was done within 15 hours one month after irradiation by the corresponding radionuclides. In all measurement of element contents different standards were applied: Intralaboratory data was received by fixing a certain number of elements on ashless filter paper and comparison

  3. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Юрьевна Федорова

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used:  the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing.The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps:  diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions.The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-31

  4. METHODIC OF DEVELOPMENT OF MOTOR GIFTEDNESS OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorova Svetlana Yurievna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Education and training of gifted children today appropriate to consider as an important strategic task of modern society. In this context, the purpose of research is the development motor giftedness, which is particularly relevant at the stage of pre-school education, which is caused by age-preschoolers. Preschoolers' motor giftedness is considered by the author as developing integrated quality, including psychomotor skills, inclinations, increased motivation for motor activity. In the process of study the following methods are used: the study and analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on studies, questioning, interview, testing of physical fitness, statistical data processing. The result of research work is methodic of development of motor giftedness on physical education in preschool. The author's methodic consists of four steps: diagnostic, prognostic, practice and activity, social and pedagogical. Each step determines the inclusion of preschool children in sports and developing environment that meets his or her abilities and needs through the creation of certain social and educational conditions. The area of using results of the author's methodic is preschool and the system of improvement professional skill of teachers.

  5. External laryngeal injuries in children--comparison of diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzka-Glos, L; Jakubowska, A; Frackiewicz, M; Brzewski, M

    2013-09-01

    The injuries of the larynx constitute around 1% of all injuries. The great majority of the injuries of the larynx happens during playing. The effects of these injuries may appear insignificant however, not always the direct clinical symptoms correlate with the degree of respiratory tract failure. The symptoms of laryngeal injuries depend on the extension and strength of the trauma and always relate to impair patency of respiratory tract. The aim of the study is to compare two diagnostic methods: laryngoscopy and ultrasonography in evaluation of laryngeal injuries in children. In the Department of Pediatric Otolaryngology, Medical University of Warsaw, in the period between 2004 and 2010 there were hospitalised 15 children with external injury of the larynx. From among 15 hospitalized children, 7 were qualified as not serious trauma and were treated preservatively and the other 8 as sever trauma. The mechanism of traumas was diverse. Dyspnea was a predominating symptom, the others included hoarsness, change in voice quality, even aphonia, pain while speaking and swallowing, cough and hemoptysis. Direct laryngoscopy is a standard in diagnostics of the injuries of the larynx. Ultrasonography of the larynx is recommended in every case of laryngeal injury as an additional non-invasive complementary diagnostic examination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes of Children with Hearing Loss: Data Collection and Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth A; McCreery, Ryan W; Arenas, Richard M; Harrison, Melody; Moeller, Mary Pat

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this article was to describe recruitment, data collection, and methods for a longitudinal, multicenter study involving children with bilateral mild to severe hearing loss. The goals of this research program were to characterize the developmental outcomes of children with mild to severe bilateral hearing loss during infancy and the preschool years. Furthermore, the researchers examined how these outcomes were associated with the child's hearing loss and how home background and clinical interventions mediated and moderated these outcomes. The participants in this study were children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) who provided comparison data. CHH were eligible for participation if (1) their chronological age was between 6 months and 7 years of age at the time of recruitment, (2) they had a better-ear pure-tone average of 25 to 75 dB HL, (3) they had not received a cochlear implant, (4) they were from homes where English was the primary language, and (5) they did not demonstrate significant cognitive or motor delays. Across the time span of recruitment, 430 parents of potential children with hearing loss made contact with the research group. This resulted in 317 CHH who qualified for enrollment. In addition, 117 CNH qualified for enrollment. An accelerated longitudinal design was used, in which multiple age cohorts were followed long enough to provide overlap. Specifically, children were recruited and enrolled continuously across an age span of 6.5 years and were followed for at least 3 years. This design allowed for tests of time (period) versus cohort age effects that could arise by changes in services and technology over time, yet still allowed for examination of important developmental relationships. The distribution of degree of hearing loss for the CHH showed that the majority of CHH had moderate or moderate-to-severe hearing losses, indicating that the sample undersampled children with mild HL. For

  7. PSYCHOTHERAPEUTICAL METHODS FOR WORK WITH CHILDREN SUFFERING FROM CEREBRAL PARALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivajlo PETROV

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Therapy in somatopedy is always viewed in the light of the ‘initial theoretical conception’ about the unity of the mental and the somatic (neurophysiological, both in the genesis of the physical and mental disturbances and in the system of therapeutic treatments. The body and the soul, or the physical and the mental represent an unbreakable unity.The psychotherapy is especially adequate method for work with children suffering from cerebral palsy.According to our research work connected with the studying of the utilization of various forms of psychotherapy in the rehabilitation schools for children with cerebral palsy in some places in Bulgaria, as well as our own long-range experiments, we can claim with certainty that the following methods give very good results:1. Music therapy2. Art therapy3. Puppet therapy4. Cultural therapy5. Biblio therapy6. Rational psychotherapy of P. Dubois7. Family therapy8. Cognitive-behavioural therapy9. Suggestion while awake10.Autogen training of J. Schlitz

  8. [Neurophysiological methods in evaliuation of neurorehabiltation in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerczyńska, Anna; Kłusek, Renata; Kaciński, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The authors reviewed neurophysiological methods, which are used in the evaluation of children referred for neurorehabilitation. Rehabilitation techniques which may stimulate or provoke pathological changes in EEG must be ruled out. Electrophysiological and clinical improvement allow for the extension and intensification of rehabilitation. Normal EEG pattern ensures the safe use of techniques consisting of neuromuscular re-education or passive verticalisation, electrotherapy and thermotherapy. Quantitative and qualitative assessment of cognitive impairment is based on neuropsychological tests and endogenous evoked potentials (most often P300). Presence of cognitive dysfunction needs the use of neuropsychological and neurologopedic therapy. Based on results of exogenous evoked potentials appropriate neurorehabilitation program (physiotherapy, kinezytherapy) can be determined and clinical outcome predicted. EMG allows appropriate usage of applications, patterns and principles in the PNF method (such as compression, stretching, resistance), adapting them optimally to the possibility of a child. ENG estimates conduction in motor and sensory nerves. Based on the results nerve impairment can be localized, severity and character of damage estimated (demyelinating, axonal or complex) and course of the disease and treatment monitored. Short characteristics of 37 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome referred for rehabilitation was presented. Special attention was drawn to floppy infants. Results of neuroelectrophysiological examinations determine suitable rehabilitation program adjusted to the course of central nervous system impairment.

  9. A Child-centered Method of Interviewing Children with Movement Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Hale, Leigh A; Mulligan, Hilda

    2018-08-01

    Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years. Various strategies, guided by children, were used to facilitate children's active involvement in the interview process. Twenty-two children (mean age 8.7 years) participated in the interview study, most of them in the presence of their parents or guardian (18 children) and some of them (9 children) with their siblings present. Children enjoyed and were actively engaged in the interview process. Along with talking, 19 children did drawings, 5 children used stickers, 4 children played quiet games, six children shared pictures of their leisure activities, and 16 children physically demonstrated some of their leisure activities, environment, and equipment. A wide range of data collection strategies facilitated children to communicate their leisure participation experiences and to represent children's views without being overly influenced by parental views.

  10. Improving Early Numeracy of Young Children with Special Education Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Luit, Johannes E. H.; Schopman, Esther A.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-two students from special needs kindergartens were given early mathematics intervention. The early numeracy program was developed for children with disabilities and early numeracy difficulties by basing instruction on perceptual gestalt theory. Children performed better at posttest than controls but failed to transfer their knowledge to…

  11. Behavioral and Electrophysiological Differences in Executive Control between Monolingual and Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Raluca; Moreno, Sylvain; Bialystok, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive control in sixty-two 5-year-old children who were monolingual or bilingual using behavioral and event-related potentials (ERPs) measures. All children performed equivalently on simple response inhibition (gift delay), but bilingual children outperformed monolinguals on interference suppression and complex response…

  12. Power Mobility Training Methods for Children: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Hostnik, Lisa; McElroy, Rachel; Peterson, Courtney; Farris, John P

    2018-01-01

    To summarize and critically appraise the existing evidence related to power mobility training methods used in research studies conducted with children 21 years or younger. A systematic review was conducted using 16 electronic databases to identify primary source quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Data extraction, determination of level of evidence, evaluation of methodological rigor, and assessment of the risk of bias were completed. The Evidence Alert Traffic Light Grading System (EATLS) was used. Twenty-seven studies were included in the review. Levels of evidence were II to V; scientific rigor scores were 2 to 7. An overall Yellow EATLS level of evidence was found indicating that therapists should use caution when providing power mobility training interventions and measure outcomes related to established goals in areas such as development, functional skills, or use of a power mobility device.

  13. Applying Cognitive Behavioural Methods to Retrain Children's Attributions for Success and Failure in Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, John; Boyle, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    This study involves the use of methods derived from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to change the attributions for success and failure of school children with regard to learning. Children with learning difficulties and/or motivational and self-esteem difficulties (n = 29) were identified by their schools. The children then took part in twelve…

  14. Methods of evaluating SPECT images. The usefulness of the Matsuda`s method by the Patlak plot method in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaishi, Yasuko [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Fujino, Osamu [and others

    1998-11-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a tool to study cerebral blood flow (CBF) kinetics. There are three methods of evaluating SPECT images: visual, semi-quantitative (evaluation of the radioactivity ratio of the cerebral region to the cerebellum (R/CE) or to the thalamus (R/TH)) and quantitative (Matsuda`s method by Patlak plot method using {sup 99m}Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime radionuclide angiography). We evaluated SPECT images by the quantitative method in 14 patients with neurological disorders and examined the correlation of the results to those obtained by the semi-quantitative method. There was no significant correlation between the R/CE or R/TH ratio and regional CBF except two regions. The evaluation by the semi-quantitative method may have been inappropriate, probably because the cerebellar or thalamic blood flow was not constant in each case. Evaluation by the quantitative method, on the other hand, seemed to be useful not only for the comparison of CBF among normal subjects, but also in the demonstration of progressive changes of CBF in the same case. The Matsuda`s method by the Patlak plot method is suitable for examination of children, since it dose not require aortic blood sampling. (author)

  15. A DRIED BLOOD SPOT METHOD TO EVALUATE CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field methods are needed to detect and monitor anticholinesterase pesticide exposure of young children. Twenty children, aged 11-18 months, living in an agricultural community along the US/Mexico border were enrolled in a pilot study investigating methods to detect pesticide expo...

  16. Development and application of a framework for comparing early-design methods for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis - Thiescheffer, R.J.W.; Bekker, M.M.; Eggen, J.H.; Vermeeren, A.P.O.S.; Ridder, de H.

    2011-01-01

    When designing with young children, designers usually select user centred design methods based on the children’s required level of engagement and the inspiration expected to be created according to the designer. User centred design methods should be selected for their suitability for children and

  17. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  18. Prolonged after-effects of pneumonia in children | Wesley | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty-two black children were prospectively followed up for 1 - 7 years after pneumonia contracted at a median age of 17 months. In 55% of cases the pneumonia was measles-associated and 27% had serological evidence of Infection with other respiratory viruses. Recurrence of cough or wheeze for more than 6 months ...

  19. Mission from Mars - a method for exploring user requirements for children in a narrative space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Ludvigsen, Martin; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper a particular design method is propagated as a supplement to existing descriptive approaches to current practice studies especially suitable for gathering requirements for the design of children's technology. The Mission from Mars method was applied during the design of an electronic...... school bag (eBag). The three-hour collaborative session provides a first-hand insight into children's practice in a fun and intriguing way. The method is proposed as a supplement to existing descriptive design methods for interaction design and children....

  20. In Defense of Children's Lies: On Ethics and Methods of Studying Children's Communication of Deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert S.

    Studies of children's deceptive behavior have scientific merit and can be carried out in an ethically defensible manner. Many arguments against studies requiring children to deceive others in an experimental context are relatively easy to refute. It is true, though, that the debriefing phase of deception studies presents ethical problems,…

  1. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G...

  2. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  3. The Effect of Montessori Method on Cognitive Tempo of Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    This study was undertaken to discover the effect of the Montessori Method on the cognitive tempo of 4-5-year-old children. Using an experimental pre-test-post-test paired control group design, the study sample included 60 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School (affiliated to Selcuk University, Department of Health Sciences) in…

  4. Multiple Contexts, Multiple Methods: A Study of Academic and Cultural Identity among Children of Immigrant Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdan, Tim; Munoz, Chantico

    2012-01-01

    Multiple methods were used to examine the academic motivation and cultural identity of a sample of college undergraduates. The children of immigrant parents (CIPs, n = 52) and the children of non-immigrant parents (non-CIPs, n = 42) completed surveys assessing core cultural identity, valuing of cultural accomplishments, academic self-concept,…

  5. Children's, Adolescents', and Adults' Judgments and Reasoning about Different Methods of Teaching Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.; Ryerson, Rachel; Prencipe, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated children's, adolescents', and young adults' judgments and reasoning about teaching two values (racial equality and patriotism) using methods that varied in provision for children's rational autonomy, active involvement, and choice. Ninety-six participants (7-8-, 10-11-, and 13-14-year-olds, and college students) evaluated…

  6. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  7. Children's Understanding of Advertising: An Investigation Using Verbal and Pictorially Cued Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Laura; Auty, Susan; Lewis, Charlie; Berridge, Damon

    2007-01-01

    Conflicting results on children's understanding of advertising may stem from differences in research methods. Most studies are conducted using interviewing techniques, employing only verbal questioning. In the present study, 136 children of two age groups (7 and 10 years) were first asked what advertising was for and, after responding, shown…

  8. Children's activities and their meanings for parents: a mixed-methods study in six Western cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Sara; Zylicz, Piotr Olaf; Super, Charles M; Welles-Nyström, Barbara; Bermúdez, Moisés Ríos; Bonichini, Sabrina; Moscardino, Ughetta; Mavridis, Caroline Johnston

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical perspectives and research in sociology, anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cultural psychology converge in recognizing the significance of children's time spent in various activities, especially in the family context. Knowing how children's time is deployed, however, only gives us a partial answer to how children acquire competence; the other part must take into account the culturally constructed meanings of activities, from the perspective of those who organize and direct children's daily lives. In this article, we report on a study of children's routine daily activities and on the meanings that parents attribute to them in six Western middle-class cultural communities located in Italy, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain, Sweden, and the United States (N = 183). Using week-long time diaries kept by parents, we first demonstrate similarities as well as significant differences in children's daily routines across the cultural samples. We then present brief vignettes--"a day in the life" --of children from each sample. Parent interviews were coded for themes in the meanings attributed to various activities. Excerpts from parent interviews, focusing on four major activities (meals, family time, play, school- or developmentally related activities), are presented to illustrate how cultural meanings and themes are woven into parents' organization and understanding of their children's daily lives. The results of this mixed-method approach provide a more reliable and nuanced picture of children's and families' daily lives than could be derived from either method alone.

  9. Clinical Characteristics and Low Vision Rehabilitation Methods for Partially Sighted School-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen Tunay, Zuhal; Çalışkan, Deniz; İdil, Aysun; Öztuna, Derya

    2016-04-01

    To determine the clinical features and the distribution of diagnosis in partially sighted school-age children, to report the chosen low vision rehabilitation methods and to emphasize the importance of low vision rehabilitation. The study included 150 partially sighted children between the ages of 6 and 18 years. The distribution of diagnosis, accompanying ocular findings, visual acuity of the children both for near and distance with and without low vision devices, and the methods of low vision rehabilitation (for distance and for near) were determined. The demographic characteristics of the children and the parental consanguinity were recorded. The mean age of children was 10.6 years and the median age was 10 years; 88 (58.7%) of them were male and 62 (41.3%) of them were female. According to distribution of diagnoses among the children, the most frequent diagnosis was hereditary fundus dystrophies (36%) followed by cortical visual impairment (18%). The most frequently used rehabilitation methods were: telescopic lenses (91.3%) for distance vision; magnifiers (38.7%) and telemicroscopic systems (26.0%) for near vision. A significant improvement in visual acuity both for distance and near vision were determined with low vision aids. A significant improvement in visual acuity can be achieved both for distance and near vision with low vision rehabilitation in partially sighted school-age children. It is important for ophthalmologists and pediatricians to guide parents and children to low vision rehabilitation.

  10. USAGE OF PICTOGRAMS TO INTRODUCE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AS AN ALTERNATIVE METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsu YILMA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine and investigate the perception ability of musical instruments of educable mentally retarded children with the support of visual elements. The research is conducted for every children individually in a special education and rehabilitation centre. The problematic of this research is the level of perception ability of musical instruments with visual support on mild mentally retarded children. In this research, perception ability of defining pictograms by music is introduced as an alternative method. It is researched that how educable mentally retarded children perceive pictograms by music tools. In this case, it is aimed to introduce musical instruments to educable mentally retarded children by pictograms with music. The research is applied with a qualitative approach. Data were obtained with the recorder, then they were turned into texts and analyzed with content analysis method.

  11. Barriers and facilitators of sports in children with physical disabilities: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Eva A; Dijkstra, Pieter U; de Blécourt, Alida C E; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2015-01-01

    This study explored barriers and facilitators of sports participation of children with physical disabilities from the perspective of the children, their parents and their health professionals. Thirty children and 38 parents completed a questionnaire, and 17 professionals were interviewed in a semi-structured way. Data from the three groups were combined in a mixed-method design, after which the results were triangulated. Mean age (SD) of the children was 14.1 (2.9) years old, 58% were boys. Sixty-seven percent of the children had cerebral palsy and 77% participated in sports after school. Most commonly practiced sports were swimming, cycling and football. Children specifically experienced dependency on others as a barrier, parents did not have enough information about sports facilities, and professionals observed that the family's attitude had influence on the child's sports participation. Facilitators were health benefits, fun and social contacts. Sports participation of children with physical disabilities is a complex phenomenon because children, their parents and professionals reported different barriers. Sports participation is more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already require much energy. However, the psychosocial benefits of sports are applicable to all children with physical disabilities. IMPLICATION FOR REHABILITATION: Perceived barriers seemed to differ for children, parents and health professionals, suggesting that sports participation is a complex phenomenon. Sports might be more physically challenging for children with severe physical disabilities, as their daily activities already take much energy. The psychosocial benefits of sports should be emphasized by rehabilitation professionals when advising children with physical disabilities about sports.

  12. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  13. APPLICATION OPPORTUNITIES FOR THE NONMEDICAMENTOUS PREVENTION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Bezrukova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors justify the necessity to apply non medicamentous treatment methods to the children with bronchial asthma. The scientists familiarize us with a new me dication, whose effect is based on the noninvasive impact of the electromagnetic radiation of the knowingly non thermal intensity. It is for normalization of the disturbed function of the respiratory system. The researchers showed the efficiency of the above said innovative medication, while treating bronchial asthma among children with no side effects whatsoever.Key words: bronchial asthma, nonmedicamentous treatment methods, children.

  14. A comparison of two analytical evaluation methods for educational computer games for young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Baauw, E.; Barendregt, W.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe a comparison of two analytical methods for educational computer games for young children. The methods compared in the study are the Structured Expert Evaluation Method (SEEM) and the Combined Heuristic Evaluation (HE) (based on a combination of Nielsen’s HE and the

  15. A Comparison of Two Methods for Recruiting Children with an Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dawn; Handley, Louise; Heald, Mary; Simkiss, Doug; Jones, Alison; Walls, Emily; Oliver, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recruitment is a widely cited barrier of representative intellectual disability research, yet it is rarely studied. This study aims to document the rates of recruiting children with intellectual disabilities using two methods and discuss the impact of such methods on sample characteristics. Methods: Questionnaire completion rates are…

  16. Methods and Rates of Punishment Implemented by Families to Enuretic Children in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ihsan Karaman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Nocturnal enuresis is a serious health problem affecting a significant portion of the population. In this study, we investigated the frequency of punishment methods in nocturnal enuresis (NE in Turkey and its relationship with other parameters. Materials and Methods A total of 501 children (301 boys and 200 girls who were admitted to our outpatient clinic due to nocturnal enuresis were included in the study. Mean age was 9.39 years (range 5-18. Prepared questionnaire form inquiring educational status of the family, frequency and implementation and duration of punishment methods was applied to patients and families. Results At least one punishment method was applied to 291 (58.1% of children with NE. Punishment methods of parents were detected as condemnation (257 patients, 51.3%, depriving desires of the child (120 patients, 23.9%, humiliating the child in the presence of other children (113 patients, 22.6%, reprimanding- threatening with punishment (203 patients, 40.5%. This application was found to continue for longer than 1 year in 52% of punished children. Families graduated of high school and above were found to use punishment methods significantly more than others. Conclusion According to the results of our study, a quite high proportion of enuretic children were detected to be exposed to punishment methods. Even, some parents consider that these methods are a part of nocturnal enuresis treatment. We, the doctors, should endeavor more for raising awareness of the community in order to diminish this worrisome behavior.

  17. Turkish Nurses' Use of Nonpharmacological Methods for Relieving Children's Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebioğlu, Ayda; Küçükoğlu, Sibel; Odabaşoğlu, Emel

    2015-01-01

    The experience of pain is frequently observed among children undergoing surgery. Hospitalization and surgery are stressful experiences for those children. The research was conducted to investigate and analyze Turkish nurses' use of nonpharmacological methods to relieve postoperative pain in children. The study was cross-sectional and descriptive. The study took place at 2 hospitals in eastern Turkey. Participants were 143 nurses whose patients had undergone surgical procedures at the 2 hospitals. The researchers used a questionnaire, a checklist of nonpharmacological methods, and a visual analogue scale (VAS) to collect the data. To assess the data, descriptive statistics and the χ² test were used. Of the 143 nurses, 73.4% initially had applied medication when the children had pain. Most of the nurses (58.7%) stated the children generally experienced a middle level of postoperative pain. The most frequent practices that the nurses applied after the children's surgery were (1) "providing verbal encouragement" (90.2%), a cognitive-behavioral method; (2) "a change in the child's position" (85.3%), a physical method; (3) "touch" (82.5%), a method of emotional support; and (4) "ventilation of the room" (79.7%), a regulation of the surroundings. Compared with participants with other educational levels, the cognitive-behavioral methods were the ones most commonly used by the more educated nurses (P encouraging patients with rewards, (2) helping them think happy thoughts, (3) helping them use their imaginations, (4) providing music, and (5) reading books. Female nurses used the following methods more than the male nurses did (P encouragement with rewards, (2) helping patients with deep breathing, (3) keeping a desired item beside them, (4) changing their positions, and (5) ventilating the room. Undergoing surgery is generally a painful experience for children. Nurses most commonly use cognitive-behavioral methods in the postoperative care of their pediatric patients

  18. Neuroradiological methods and findings on presurgical evaluation of epileptic children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertun, B.; Elger, C.E.; Solymosi, L.; Kurthen, M.; Schramm, J.

    1993-01-01

    Epilepsy in childhood is often caused by morphological abnormalities and is frequently pharmacoresistant. Therefore it represents a challenge to the neuroradiologist because early and accurate diagnosis of abnormal morphology is the basis for planning surgical intervention with a high change of controlling seizures and a low risk of complications. Both morphological (radiography, CT, MRI and angiography) and functional examinations [intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT)] are essential parts of the presurgical evaluation. In most cases MRI has proved to be most sensitive in detecting lesions except for some calcifications. Routine protocols for brain examinations are not sufficient, missing about 22% of lesions. Therefore a refined MRI and CT protocol is proposed. Even in very young children IAT can be performed at very low risk; these tests contribute highly valuable information about hemispheric dominance and other functions in more than 80% of procedures that is indispensable if postoperative neurological and neuropsychological deficits are to be avoided. (orig.) [de

  19. Spelling skills of Czech primary school children in relation to the method of literacy instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidlová Málková Gabriela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the importance of having a set reading instruction method for the development of spelling skills among Czech children ranging in age across the four beginning grades of primary school. 238 children learning to read and spell using an analytical-synthetic method and 251 children learning to read and spell using a genetic method participated in this study. The outcomes of word spelling tests were assessed for the different grade and age levels: first, second- third and fourth. Distributional patterns of spelling skills performance for both instruction method subgroups were created in each of the grade groups. Comparisons of spelling task outputs between both methods were conducted using a non-parametric Mann-Whitney test. Results indicate that children using the genetic method are more effective in acquiring phoneme-grapheme correspondences throughout the first grade, and thus show more accurate word spelling in the first grade spelling task. However, this initial advantage for children learning to spell using the genetic method soon disperses, and it is not reflected in better spelling performance throughout the second to third and fourth grade.

  20. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  1. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  2. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.

  3. Cultural responses to pain in UK children of primary school age: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azize, Pary M; Endacott, Ruth; Cattani, Allegra; Humphreys, Ann

    2014-06-01

    Pain-measurement tools are often criticized for not addressing the influence of culture and ethnicity on pain. This study examined how children who speak English as a primary or additional language discuss pain. Two methods were used in six focus group interviews with 34 children aged 4-7 years: (i) use of drawings from the Pediatric Pain Inventory to capture the language used by children to describe pain; and (ii) observation of the children's placing of pain drawings on red/amber/green paper to denote perceived severity of pain. The findings demonstrated that children with English as an additional language used less elaborate language when talking about pain, but tended to talk about the pictures prior to deciding where they should be placed. For these children, there was a positive significant relationship between language, age, and length of stay in the UK. The children's placement of pain drawings varied according to language background, sex, and age. The findings emphasize the need for sufficient time to assess pain adequately in children who do not speak English as a first language. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. The effects of three different distraction methods on pain and anxiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Nejla Canbulat; Bal, Meltem Demirgoz

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to investigate of three different distraction methods (distraction cards, listening to the music of cartoon and balloon inflation) on pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. This study is a prospective, randomized, and controlled trial. The sample consisted of 6 to 12 years old children who require blood tests. Children were randomized into four groups as the distraction cards, the music, the balloon inflation, and the control. Data were obtained by conducting interviews with the children, their parents, and the observer before and after the procedure. The pain levels of the children were assessed by the parent and observer reports as well as self-report using the Wong-Baker FACES. The anxiety levels of children were assessed by parent and observer reports using Children Fear Scale. One hundred and twenty children (mean age: 9.1 ± 1.6 years) were included. The self-reported procedural pain levels showed significant differences among the study groups (p = .040). The distraction card group (2.33 ± 3.24) had significantly lower pain levels (p = .057) than the control group (4.53 ± 3.23). The procedural child anxiety levels reported by the observer showed a significant difference among the study groups (p = .032). All the forms of distraction significantly reduced pain and anxiety perception. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Laboratory methods for determining pneumonia etiology in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murdoch, David R.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Karron, Ruth A.; Bhat, Niranjan; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.; Levine, Orin S.; Knoll, Maria Deloria; Feikin, Daniel R.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Driscoll, Amanda; DeLuca, Andrea; Crawley, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory diagnostics are a core component of any pneumonia etiology study. Recent advances in diagnostic technology have introduced newer methods that have greatly improved the ability to identify respiratory pathogens. However, determining the microbial etiology of pneumonia remains a challenge,

  6. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements using noninvasive 133Xe clearance method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Hiroshi; Maeda, Koji; Kagawa, Yukihide; Morozumi, Kunihiko; Hashimoto, Manami; Tsubokawa, Takashi.

    1985-01-01

    The noninvasive 133-Xe clearance method of estimating rCBF has been widely used in adult clinical studies. It is safe, noninvasive and reproducible, and has provided valuable insight into adult cerebrovascular pathophysiology. However, in children, this technique has not been used to measure rCBF for some fundamental problems. This study was performed to clarify these fundamental problems for applications of noninvasive 133-Xe clearance technique to children. The results showed that three fundamental problems concerning; (1) volume of dead spaces in airway circuits of the system, (2) increasing of look-through phenomenon and (3) correction methods for recirculated 133-Xe and airway artifacts to estimate rCBF are important for applications to children. These problems should be improved to measure as correct rCBF in children as in adults. (author)

  7. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  8. Splint therapy for trigger finger in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuguchi, Y; Tada, K; Kawaii, H

    1983-02-01

    During the last 9 years, 83 trigger digits in 65 children were treated using a modified coil spring splint which maintains the interphalangeal (IP) joint in neutral extension or hyperextension. Sixty-two digits (75%) were completely healed following splint therapy alone, after an average period of splinting for 9.4 months. Eight digits which did not improve with splinting were surgically treated. Splint therapy to maintain the IP joint in neutral extension or hyperextension proved markedly effective in our series.

  9. Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy in children - summary of our experience with 57 children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklair-Levy, M.; Lebensart, P.D.; Applbaum, Y.H.; Bar-Ziv, J.; Libson, E.; Ramu, N.; Freeman, A.; Gozal, D.; Gross, E.; Sherman, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Background: Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy in children has been slower to gain acceptance than in adults where it is regarded as the standard clinical practice in screening suspicious masses. Objectives: To report our experience with percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy in the pediatric population and assess its clinical use, efficacy and limitations. Material and methods: Sixty-nine percutaneous image-guided needle biopsies were performed in 57 children. The age of the children ranged from 4 days to 14 years (mean 5.6 years). We used 16- to-20-gauge cutting-edge needles. Sixty-two biopsies were core-needle biopsies and 7 fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Results: There were 50 malignant lesions, 10 benign lesions and 2 infectious lesions. In 55 (88.7 %) lesions the needle biopsy was diagnostic. In 7 (11.3 %) the biopsy was non-diagnostic and the diagnosis was made by surgery. Core-needle biopsy was diagnostic in 47 of 50 (94 %) of the malignant solid tumors. In 3 out of 5 children with lymphoma, an accurate diagnosis was obtained with needle aspiration. Seven children underwent a repeated core-needle biopsy, (5 for Wilms' tumor and 2 for neuroblastoma) that was diagnostic in all cases. All the biopsies were performed without complications. Conclusion: Percutaneous image-guided needle biopsy is a simple, minimally invasive, safe and accurate method for the evaluation of children with suspicious masses. These data suggest that image-guided needle biopsy is an excellent tool for diagnosing solid tumors in the pediatric population. Negative studies should be considered nondiagnostic and followed by excisional surgical biopsies when clinical suspicion of malignancy is high. (orig.)

  10. Exploring the potential of the drawing intervention method for design and evaluation by young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barendregt, W.; Bekker, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of an exploratory study on the use of the Drawing Intervention method for both design and evaluation activities with young children (4-7). In this study we wanted to a) investigate how a variant of this method can be used to evaluate a game with younger

  11. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  12. Encouraging Reading through an Enactive Method: Strategies for Hearing Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, M. A.

    The paper describes the enactive method, an alternative approach to introducing and teaching reading to young hearing impaired children. The method actively involves the child as a processor of the material rather than as a passive consumer. The approach is established for a short period of time each day until the student outgrows its original…

  13. KidReporter : a method for engaging children in making a newspaper to gather user requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.M.; Beusmans, J.; Keyson, D.V.; Lloyd, P.A.; Bekker, M.M.; Markopoulos, P.; Tsikalkina, M.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a design method, called the KidReporter method, for gathering user requirements from children. Two school classes participated in making a newspaper about a zoo, to gather requirements for the design process of an interactive educational game. The educational game was developed to

  14. Parent Training: A Review of Methods for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara; LoVullo, Santino V.

    2009-01-01

    Great strides have been made in the development of skills and procedures to aid children with developmental disabilities to establish maximum independence and quality of life. Paramount among the treatment methods that have empirical support are treatments based on applied behavior analysis. These methods are often very labor intensive. Thus,…

  15. Estimating Steatosis Prevalence in Overweight and Obese Children: Comparison of Bayesian Small Area and Direct Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Khalkhali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Often, there is no access to sufficient sample size to estimate the prevalence using the method of direct estimator in all areas. The aim of this study was to compare small area’s Bayesian method and direct method in estimating the prevalence of steatosis in obese and overweight children. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, was conducted on 150 overweight and obese children aged 2 to 15 years referred to the Children's digestive clinic of Urmia University of Medical Sciences- Iran, in 2013. After Body mass index (BMI calculation, children with overweight and obese were assessed in terms of primary tests of obesity screening. Then children with steatosis confirmed by abdominal Ultrasonography, were referred to the laboratory for doing further tests. Steatosis prevalence was estimated by direct and Bayesian method and their efficiency were evaluated using mean-square error Jackknife method. The study data was analyzed using the open BUGS3.1.2 and R2.15.2 software. Results: The findings indicated that estimation of steatosis prevalence in children using Bayesian and direct methods were between 0.3098 to 0.493, and 0.355 to 0.560 respectively, in Health Districts; 0.3098 to 0.502, and 0.355 to 0.550 in Education Districts; 0.321 to 0.582, and 0.357 to 0.615 in age groups; 0.313 to 0.429, and 0.383 to 0.536 in sex groups. In general, according to the results, mean-square error of Bayesian estimation was smaller than direct estimation (P

  16. Recommendations for a trans-European dietary assessment method in children between 4 and 14 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L. F.; Lioret, S.; Brants, H.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The main objective of European Food Consumption Validation (EFCOVAL)-child Project is to define and evaluate a trans-European methodology for undertaking national representative dietary surveys among children in the age group of 4-14 years. In the process of identifying...... was to investigate whether the method (two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDRs)) suggested for the adults in European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) would be usable for children in the age group between 4 and 14 years. However, all available dietary assessment methods were included...... of 4-14 years. Nevertheless, on the basis of the literature, the recommendations were separated for preschoolers (4-6 years) and schoolchildren (7-14 years). Conclusion: For preschoolers, two non-consecutive days of a structured food record are recommended, using a (for children adapted) picture...

  17. A Study on the Creation of Architectural Spaces for Children Using Rumi’s Storytelling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Moradi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Public areas of behavioral science knowledge on issues related to children's environmental architecture interested in building their studies, based on the theories of learning and development of children. Children have a particular position in spaces, where grownups live, therefore the quality of spaces, proportions, architectural details, materials and so on, should act in a way that create curiosity, understanding of space and communication, selection and finally, the desire to learn and develop creativity in children. The aim of this project is to create conditions and facilities regarding growing, nurturing, creativity, promotion of knowledge and ability of children. The research methodology in this paper consists of two parts: the field and library studies. Research goals include the creation of conditions and possibilities that are the development of creativity and promotion of children's knowledge and ability. Logical and comparative reasoning method has been used for the conclusion based on case studies. Using dynamic architecture can help to develop creativity in children and the dynamics of architectural space can add deepen the joy of playing and storytelling. As a result, the research tries to link psychology and its appearance in the architectural space. The study suggest that storytelling can be facilitated through architectural space and with the help of it, we can increase the architectural designing of educational and artistic spaces.

  18. Dental development in Down syndrome and healthy children: a comparative study using the Demirjian method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, M S; Vucic, S; van Marrewijk, D J F; Ongkosuwito, E M

    2017-05-01

    In children with Down syndrome, the timing of dental eruption is important for orthodontics treatment planning. Aim of this study was to determine whether tooth eruption and development of the dentition in children with Down syndrome are impaired. Dental development was scored on orthopantomograms (OPTs) of 95 children with Down syndrome. The dental age was determined at the left mandibular side according to the Demirjian method and by converting the assigned scores to the dental maturity score. Dental development scores of control children and DS children were compared with a mixed model linear regression analysis. The model showed statistically significant changes relating to increasing age (Pchildren and the control group after using the Nyström imputation (with and without hypodontia). The findings showed that dental development in DS children is similar to the development of control children and that a relationship exists between hypodontia and dental development. The clinically observed late eruption is probably not due to late dental development but due to the other processes that take place during eruption, such as the possible impaired processes at the apical side and the occlusal side of an erupting element. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. FEVER IN CHILDREN WITH RESPIRATORY VIRAL INFECTIONS: EFFECTIVE AND SAFE METHODS OF TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Taranushenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important — the problem of treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections — is discussed in this article. It is fever as one of the first symptoms of disease which often frightens parents and leads to inappropriate and excess usage of antipyretic agents, which in its turn can cause unfavorable consequences. The authors represent their own data on frequency of antipyretic drugs usage in children with respiratory viral infections, as well as the answers of pediatricians to the questionnaires on methods of choice in temperature normalization. According to the modern Russian as well as European and American clinical guidelines on treatment of fever in children the management of selection of patients demanding antipyretic treatment is detailed, indications and contraindications to such therapy are described, the most effective methods of temperature normalization in children with acute respiratory infection are discussed. The authors suggested the data on recommended dosages of paracetamol, which were revised in 2011 by the UK Medicines Control Agency, to be very useful. The current information on advantages of ibuprofen in comparison to paracetamol in treatment of fever in children with respiratory viral infections is shown. The main target of this article is understanding and acceptance by pediatricians of the modern recommendation on differential and reasonable approach to administration of antipyretic drugs in children with respiratory viral infections.

  20. Comparison of the effects of storytelling and creative drama methods on children's awareness about personal hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Hemmati, Soheila; Ashrafi-Rizi, Hassan; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining and improving the health situation of children requires them to become more aware about personal hygiene through proper education. Based on several studies, teachings provided through informal methods are fully understandable for children. Therefore, the goal of this study is to compare the effects of creative drama and storytelling education methods on increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene. This is an applied study conducted using semiempirical method in two groups. The study population consisted of 85 children participating in 4 th center for Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults in Isfahan, 40 of which were randomly selected and placed in storytelling and creative drama groups with 20 members each. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire created by the researchers whose content validity was confirmed by health education experts. The gathered information were analyzed using both descriptive (average and standard deviation) and analytical (independent t -test and paired t -test) statistical methods. The findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between the awareness score of both groups before and after intervention. The average awareness score of storytelling group was increased from 50.69 to 86.83 while the average score of creative drama group was increased from 57.37 to 85.09. Furthermore, according to paired t -test results, there was no significant difference between average scores of storytelling and creative drama groups. The results of the current study showed that although both storytelling and creative drama methods are effective in increasing the awareness of children regarding personal hygiene, there is no significant difference between the two methods.

  1. [Clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and conservative methods of rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudovskaya, T V; Filatova, I A; Kiseleva, T N; Bobrovskaya, Yu A; Kokoeva, N Sh

    2016-01-01

    To develop a comprehensive classification system of distinctive clinical and anatomical features of congenital microphthalmia and anophthalmia in children and to specify indications, contraindications, and optimal timing of the primary and subsequent prosthetic treatment. A total of 70 patients with congenital micro- or anophthalmia aged from 1 month to 12 years were examined. Besides the routine ophthalmic examination, all patients underwent eye and orbit ultrasound (axial length measurement and B-scan), computed tomography of the orbits and skull, and immunological tests for infectious diseases (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays). Basing on the examination we have determined the common types of congenital micro- and anophthalmia in children. We have also developed a stepwise prosthetic treatment aimed at better cosmetic rehabilitation. Indications and contraindications for the use of ocular prostheses in children with congenital micro- and anophthalmia have been identified. The proposed method of stepwise prosthetics is the principal option for conservative rehabilitation of children with congenital micro- or anophthalmia.

  2. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Dmytriieva

    2016-06-01

    Vinnitsa National Medical University M.I. Pirogov   Summary: The study was include in 23 children (12,4±1,2 years operated on for tumors of the retroperitoneal space (14 children, 61%, renal tumors (6 children, 26%, ovarian cancer (3 children, 13% showed that a comprehensive study of the reactions of pain behavior and central hemodynamics by ultrasonography showed that the use of the scheme KSME bupivacaine 0.3-0.4 mg / kg and a continuous infusion of drugs (fentanyl in a dose of 10 mcg/kg/h for postoperative pain relief leads to effective analgesia after traumatic operations and comprehensive ultrasound including color and spectral Doppler studies, is the main tool by enabling timely and accurately assess the condition of the central hemodynamics at different methods of analgesia.   Key words: central hemodynamics, ultrasound, anesthesia.

  3. What Do Children Know about the Interior of the Body? A Comparison of Two Methods of Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deluca, Paolo

    This research compared two methods used to investigate the knowledge of internal body parts by children ages 4 to 9 years. Subjects were 50 Italian children: 18 preschoolers, 21 first graders, and 11 second or third graders. Children performed two tasks, a Drawing Task in which they drew on the outline of a human figure all the body parts they…

  4. Effectivness of different teaching methods on ergonomics for 12-16 years old children working with computer

    OpenAIRE

    Jasionytė, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Effectivness of Different Teaching Methods on Ergonomics for 12-16 Years Old Children Working with Computer. Work author: Monika Jasionytė Work advisor: assistant Inga Raudonytė, Vilnius University faculty of Medicine Department of Rehabilitation, Physical and Sports Medicine. Main concept: ergonomics, children, methods. Work goal: figure out which teaching method is moust efficiant for 12-16 years old children, work with computer ergonomics Goals: 1. Figure out computer working place ergonom...

  5. Comparative efficiency of endoscopic hemostasis methods in bleeding undercomplicated peptic ulcer in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергій Олександрович Сокольник

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To compare the effectiveness of endoscopic hemostasis in complex treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding in children of Chernovtsy region with peptic ulcer disease.Methods. 43 cases of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children are analyzed. Argon plasma coagulation is undergone in order to stop the bleeding for 11 patients, for others – aminocaproic acid irrigation.Results. Using argon plasma coagulation, in contrast to the aminocaproic acid irrigation reduces the risk of rebleeding 0.59 times when the number of patients who must be treated – 2.99.Conclusions. The most effective method of endoscopic hemostasis of bleeding in peptic ulcer disease in children is argon plasma coagulation, which allows you to achieve a stable hemostasis and reduce the risk of rebleeding

  6. THE METHOD OF PNEUMATIC IMITATION OF WEIGHT-BEARING IN CHILDREN WITH SHIN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yu. Serova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains a comparative analysis of shin fracture treatment in 102 children at the age of 4–18 years old. The main group consisted of 51 (50% children, who received postoperative treatment according to the method of pneumatic imitation of weightbearing both on health and injured limbs with «Korvit» apparatus. The control group consisted of 51 (50% patients who did not received the afore-mentioned method of postoperative treatment. The groups were comparable on age, trauma mechanism and localization, surgical operation and complex postoperative therapy. Children of the first group were found to have shorter period of time needed to achievement of pain relief, soft tissue swelling decrease, restoration of the movements in adjacent joints and somatometry values normalization, which allowed earlier verticalization and shorter period of hospitalization.

  7. Efferent detoxification methods and evaluation of the intensive therapy efficacy in children with bacterial toxemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Kurochkin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of severe bacterial infections intensive therapy in children is toxemia, disorder of hemodynamic and oxygen transport. Aim. The aim of the work was to study the features of hemodynamics, oxygen transport, the level of toxemia during bacterial intoxication treatment in children, including discrete plasmapheresis. Methods and results. The study included 28 children with severe bacterial infections. We found that the inclusion of efferent methods of intensive care, such as a discrete plasmapheresis, helped to reduce circulation hyperdynamia and restore a balanced mode of delivery and oxygen consumption within 24 hours after the plasmapheresis session. Conclusion. Reduction of toxemia was noted after plasmapresis, which was confirmed by a significant decreasing in the toxicity markers level – middle molecules in the blood and leukocyte index of intoxication.

  8. Comparison of automated brain volumetry methods with stereology in children aged 2 to 3 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Kristina N. [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Latal, Beatrice [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Knirsch, Walter [University Children' s Hospital, Pediatric Cardiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Scheer, Ianina [University Children' s Hospital, Department for Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Rhein, Michael von [University Children' s Hospital, Child Development Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Reich, Bettina; Bauer, Juergen; Gummel, Kerstin [Justus-Liebig University, Pediatric Heart Center, University Hospital Giessen, Giessen (Germany); Roberts, Neil [University of Edinburgh, Clinical Research and Imaging Centre (CRIC), The Queens Medical Research Institute (QMRI), Edinburgh (United Kingdom); O' Gorman Tuura, Ruth [University Children' s Hospital of Zurich, Center for MR Research, Zurich (Switzerland); University Children' s Hospital, Children' s Research Center, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-09-15

    The accurate and precise measurement of brain volumes in young children is important for early identification of children with reduced brain volumes and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain volumes can be measured from cerebral MRI (cMRI), but most neuroimaging tools used for cerebral segmentation and volumetry were developed for use in adults and have not been validated in infants or young children. Here, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of three automated software methods (i.e., SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for brain volumetry in young children and compare the measures with corresponding volumes obtained using the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology. Cerebral MRI data were collected from 21 children with a complex congenital heart disease (CHD) before Fontan procedure, at a median age of 27 months (range 20.9-42.4 months). Data were segmented with SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer, and total intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) were compared with corresponding measures obtained using the Cavalieri method. Agreement between the estimated brain volumes (ICV and TBV) relative to the gold standard stereological volumes was strongest for FreeSurfer (p < 0.001) and moderate for SPM segment (ICV p = 0.05; TBV p = 0.006). No significant association was evident between ICV and TBV obtained using SPM NewSegment and FSL FAST and the corresponding stereological volumes. FreeSurfer provides an accurate method for measuring brain volumes in young children, even in the presence of structural brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of automated brain volumetry methods with stereology in children aged 2 to 3 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Kristina N.; Latal, Beatrice; Knirsch, Walter; Scheer, Ianina; Rhein, Michael von; Reich, Bettina; Bauer, Juergen; Gummel, Kerstin; Roberts, Neil; O'Gorman Tuura, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The accurate and precise measurement of brain volumes in young children is important for early identification of children with reduced brain volumes and an increased risk for neurodevelopmental impairment. Brain volumes can be measured from cerebral MRI (cMRI), but most neuroimaging tools used for cerebral segmentation and volumetry were developed for use in adults and have not been validated in infants or young children. Here, we investigate the feasibility and accuracy of three automated software methods (i.e., SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer) for brain volumetry in young children and compare the measures with corresponding volumes obtained using the Cavalieri method of modern design stereology. Cerebral MRI data were collected from 21 children with a complex congenital heart disease (CHD) before Fontan procedure, at a median age of 27 months (range 20.9-42.4 months). Data were segmented with SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer, and total intracranial volume (ICV) and total brain volume (TBV) were compared with corresponding measures obtained using the Cavalieri method. Agreement between the estimated brain volumes (ICV and TBV) relative to the gold standard stereological volumes was strongest for FreeSurfer (p < 0.001) and moderate for SPM segment (ICV p = 0.05; TBV p = 0.006). No significant association was evident between ICV and TBV obtained using SPM NewSegment and FSL FAST and the corresponding stereological volumes. FreeSurfer provides an accurate method for measuring brain volumes in young children, even in the presence of structural brain abnormalities. (orig.)

  10. A method to quantify visual information processing in children using eye tracking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J.G. Kooiker (Marlou); J.J.M. Pel (Johan); S.P. Van Der Steen-Kant; J. van der Steen (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractVisual problems that occur early in life can have major impact on a child's development. Without verbal communication and only based on observational methods, it is difficult to make a quantitative assessment of a child's visual problems. This limits accurate diagnostics in children

  11. Prevalence of family violence in adults and children : Estimates using the capture-recapture method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterlee, A.; Vink, R.M.; Smit, F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Reliable prevalence estimates of family violence in adults and children are difficult to obtain. Most are based on surveys or registration counts, whose research designs and methods are often questionable, making the results difficult to compare. This article presents an alternative

  12. L2 Vocabulary Acquisition in Children: Effects of Learning Method and Cognate Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonzar, Claudio; Lotto, Lorella; Job, Remo

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of two learning methods (picture- or word-mediated learning) and of word status (cognates vs. noncognates) on the vocabulary acquisition of two foreign languages: English and German. We examined children from fourth and eighth grades in a school setting. After a learning phase during which L2 words were…

  13. Obstructive sleep apnea in obese children and adolescents, treatment methods and outcome of treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida Gillberg; Holm, Jens-Christian; Homøe, Preben

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review and discuss the outcome of treating obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in obese children and adolescents. METHODS: In February 2016 Pub Med was searched using a predetermined string to retrieve all relevant articles. The search identified 518 publications. In total...... 10 and 38%. Positive airway pressure was effective for treating OSA, but the mean nightly use was needed...

  14. Supporting children to adhere to anti-retroviral therapy in urban Malawi: multi method insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phiri Sam

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring good adherence is critical to the success of anti-retroviral treatment (ART. However, in resource-poor contexts, where paediatric HIV burden is high there has been limited progress in developing or adapting tools to support adherence for HIV-infected children on ART and their caregivers. We conducted formative research to assess children's adherence and to explore the knowledge, perceptions and attitudes of caregivers towards children's treatment. Methods All children starting ART between September 2002 and January 2004 (when ART was at cost in Malawi were observed for at least 6 months on ART. Their adherence was assessed quantitatively by asking caregivers of children about missed ART doses during the previous 3 days at monthly visits. Attendance to clinic appointments was also monitored. In June and July 2004, four focus group discussions, each with 6 to 8 caregivers, and 5 critical incident narratives were conducted to provide complementary contextual data on caregivers' experiences on the challenges to and opportunities of paediatric ART adherence. Results We followed prospectively 47 children who started ART between 8 months and 12 years of age over a median time on ART of 33 weeks (2–91 weeks. 72% (34/47 never missed a single dose according to caregivers' report and 82% (327/401 of clinic visits were either as scheduled, or before or within 1 week after the scheduled appointment. Caregivers were generally knowledgeable about ART and motivated to support children to adhere to treatment despite facing multiple challenges. Caregivers were particularly motivated by seeing children begin to get better; but faced challenges in meeting the costs of medicine and transport, waiting times in clinic, stock outs and remembering to support children to adhere in the face of multiple responsibilities. Conclusion In the era of rapid scale-up of treatment for children there is need for holistic support strategies that focus

  15. A simple and secure method to fix laparoscopic trocars in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, K F; Tam, P K H; Li, M K W

    2006-04-01

    We introduce a simple method of fixing trocars to the abdominal wall in children. Before anchoring the trocar, a piece of Tegaderm polyurethrane adhesive (3M Healthcare, St. Paul, Minnesota) is attached to the trocar. A silk stitch is anchored to neighboring skin, and then transfixed over the shaft of the trocar through the adhesive. Both inward and outward movement of the trocar can be restrained. This method is simple, fast, secure, and can be applied to trocars of any size.

  16. Alternative method for predicting optimal insertion depth of the laryngeal tube in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J T; Jeon, S Y; Kim, C S; Kim, S D; Kim, H S

    2007-11-01

    Little information is available about the accuracy of the teeth mark on the laryngeal tube (LT) as a guide to correct placement in children. The aim of this crossover study was to evaluate three methods for optimal insertion depth of the size (#) 2 tube in children weighing 12-25 kg. In 24 children, the LT #2 was consecutively inserted by three different methods: (A) until the thick teeth mark on the tube was aligned with the upper incisors, (B) until resistance was felt, and (C) by inserting to a depth, previously measured, of the curved distance between the cricoid cartilage and the upper incisor. In each case, the depth of insertion, the degree of effective ventilation, the presence of leakage, and the fibreoptic view were assessed. Insertion based on the teeth mark led to a shorter insertion depth and a greater incidence of inadequate ventilation compared with the other two methods. There was no difference in the adequacy of ventilation between methods B and C. The vocal cords were more easily identified with methods B (62.5%) and C (75%) than with method A (12.5%). Insertion of the LT #2 aligned with the teeth mark can result in a shallow insertion depth and inadequate ventilation. The measured distance from the cricoid cartilage to the upper incisor offers alternative guidance for correct LT insertion.

  17. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G. Lozanov; he had studied out the suggestopedia method for foreign language teaching, and the theory of meta-subject education on the basis of artistic-creative activity and appeal to masterpieces of art. Monitoring and surveillance over non-verbal behavior of children, surveys and discussions were used as practical methods. Results. Musical experience of the child is considered as the process of the development of musical memory. Many suggestopedia techniques developed by Bulgarian and Russian researchers were selected and tested; those that involve the use of involuntary memorization of music when performing creative tasks: free movement or plastic intonation, paint color schemes, music and organizational tasks related to the preparation and conduct music lessons. Three series of diagnostic tasks associated with memory, remembering and recognition of classical pieces of music unknown for preschoolers were worked out to test the effectiveness of these methods and its integration into the process of preschoolers’ music education. The conducted experiment has shown that methods of suggestopedia provide memory activation – children keep in memory classical music. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates the application reasonability of suggestopedia methods used at foreign language teaching, music education of preschool children and juniors. It has been proved that involuntary memorizing of classical music by children listening to background

  18. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  19. The Strathclyde Evaluation of Children's Active Travel (SE-CAT: study rationale and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMinn David

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The school commute is a prime opportunity to increase children's physical activity levels. However, active commuting has decreased over the past 40 years. Strategies that increase walking to school are therefore needed. Travelling Green (TG is a school-based active travel resource aimed at increasing children's walking to school. The resource consists of a curriculum-based program of lessons and goal setting activities. A previous study found that children who received the TG intervention increased self-reported distance travelled to school by active modes and reduced the distance travelled by inactive modes. This study was limited by self-reported outcome measures, a small sample, and no follow-up measures. A more robust evaluation of TG is required to address these limitations. This paper describes the rationale and methods for such an evaluation of Travelling Green, and describes the piloting of various active commuting measures in primary school children. Methods/Design Measures of active commuting were piloted in a sample of 26 children (aged 8-9 years over one school week. These measures were subsequently used in an 18-month quasi-experimental design to evaluate the effect of TG on commuting behaviour. Participants were 166 children (60% male aged 8-9 years from 5 primary schools. Two schools (n = 79 children received TG in September/October 2009. Three schools (n = 87 children acted as a comparison group, and subsequently received TG at a later date. Physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Personal and environmental determinants of active commuting were measured via parent and child questionnaires, as were factors related to the Theory of Planned Behaviour and the construct of habit. Measures were taken pre- and post-intervention and at 5 and 12 months follow-up. Discussion The piloted protocol was practical and feasible and piloted measures were reliable and valid. All study data, including

  20. A mixed-method examination of food marketing directed towards children in Australian supermarkets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sarah; James, Erica L; Stacey, Fiona G; Bowman, Jennifer; Chapman, Kathy; Kelly, Bridget

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of children's food requests, and parents' experiences of food marketing directed towards children, in the supermarket environment. A mixed-method design was used. Firstly, intercept interviews were conducted with parents accompanied by a child/children on exiting supermarkets (sampled from a large regional centre in Australia). Parents were asked about the prevalence and types of food requests by child/children during their supermarket visit and whether they purchased these foods. Secondly, focus groups (n = 13) and telephone interviews (n = 3) were conducted exploring parents' experiences of supermarket shopping with children and the impact of child-directed marketing. Of the 158 intercept survey participants (30% response rate), 73% reported a food request during the supermarket visit. Most requested food items (88%) were unhealthy foods, with chocolate/confectionery being the most common food category requested (40%). Most parents (70%) purchased at least one food item requested during the shopping trip. Qualitative interviews identified four themes associated with food requests and prompts in the supermarket: parents' experience of pester power in the supermarket; prompts for food requests in the supermarket; parental responses to pestering in the supermarket environment, and; strategies to manage pestering and minimize requests for food items. Food requests from children are common during supermarket shopping. Despite the majority of the requests being unhealthy, parents often purchase these foods. Parents reported difficulties dealing with constant requests and expressed desire for environmental changes including confectionery-free checkouts, minimization of child friendly product placement and reducing children's exposure to food marketing.

  1. NetWorking News - A Method for Engaging Children Actively In Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Peter; Dindler, Christian; Fritsch, Jonas

    2003-01-01

    For many years cooperative design was primarily concerned with the development of IT supported systems for professional users. However, the cooperative design approach can embrace other social practices such as children’s everyday life. At a methodological level there is no difference in designing...... the Networking News workshop, offers an opportunity to make first hand studies of children’s IT supported social activities in an informal classroom setting....... with adults or children. However there is a need for new methods to support communication and collaboration between designers and children. This article proposes a new method for understandings children’s appropriation of new technology in an interactive workshop setting. The method, which we call...

  2. Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry: a mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, A; Janus, M

    2017-07-01

    The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 parents to understand their experience with services. Post transition, parents reported lower perceptions of services and decreased satisfaction than pre-transition. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: qualities of services and service providers, communication and information transfer, parent advocacy, uncertainty about services, and contrasts and contradictions in satisfaction. The qualitative findings indicate that parents were both satisfied and concerned with aspects of the post-transition service provision. While the quantitative results suggested that parents' experience with services became less positive after their children entered school, the qualitative findings illustrated the variability in parents' experiences and components of service provision that require improvements to facilitate a successful school entry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Effect of Coordinated Teaching Method Practices on Some Motor Skills of 6-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkok, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the effects of Coordinated Teaching Method activities applied for 10 weeks on 6-year-old children, and to examine the effects of these activities on the development of some motor skills in children. Research Methods: The "Experimental Research Model with Pre-test and Post-test Control Group"…

  4. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... and its relationship to several other key Agency initiatives that are currently under development and... Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses... for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers...

  5. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  6. The reliability of the Greulich-Pyle method in bone age determination among Australian children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, Mark L.; Lamont, Anthony C.; Stillwell, Andrew P.

    2013-01-01

    Bone age (BA) determination in skeletally immature children has been used as a measurement of growth for many years. The Greulich-Pyle (G&P) method of estimating BA is most commonly used. The standards used within this atlas were compiled from research conducted on normal white children in the United States, during the 1930s. The applicability of G&P beyond populations similar to its own can be variable. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of G&P in BA determination among Australian children. Hand X-rays of children under the age of 18, investigated for trauma, were recruited. Mean differences between BA, according to the standards of G&P, and chronological age (CA) were compared among all patients and subgroups according to age, gender and left versus right hand. Between January and December 2010, 654 children underwent hand X-rays, 406 of these were included (276 males and 130 females). Overall BA was 2.2 months less than CA (P-value=0.005). BA of males and females was estimated to be 1.5 months (P-value=0.142) and 3.7 months (P-value=0.002) less than their CA respectively. No statistically significant difference was identified with intra-observer (P-value=0.846) and inter-observer interpretations (P-value=0.102). Our results show that the standards of G&P are an accurate means of BA determination in Australian children.

  7. A gamma camera method for quantitation of split renal function in children followed for vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminen, T.E.; Riihimaeki, E.J.; Taehti, E.E.; Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital

    1978-01-01

    A method for quantitative estimation of split renal function using a computerized gamma camera system is described. 42 children and adolescents with existing or preexisting vesicouretric reflux and recurrent urinary tract infection were investigated. Total renal clearance of DTPA was calculated with a disapperarance curve derived from the largest extrarenal area in the field of view of a gamma camera with diverging collimator. Split renal function was estimated with the slopes of second phase renograms. The plasma disaapearance clearance of DTPA, calculated using one compartement model with two late blood samples, gave similar resusults with the clearance estimated from the body disappearance curves. The proportional planimetric renal parenchymal areas had good correlation with the split clearance estimated from renogram slopes. The method offers data on renal function and urinary tract dynamics which is very valuable in the follow-up of children with recurrent urinary tract infection and vesicoureteric reflux. (orig.) [de

  8. Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunilla; Tomicić, Sara; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Oldaeus, Göran; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-magnusson, Karin

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate common methods of investigation and treatment in children younger than 2 y of age with eczema, with or without sensitization to food allergens. One hundred and twenty-three children younger than 2 y of age with eczema and suspected food allergy were included in this prospective study. The children underwent skin-prick test with cow's milk, fresh hen's egg white and wheat. Specific IgE to milk and egg white was analysed. The eczema extent and severity was estimated with SCORAD before and after treatment. Children with a positive skin-prick test were instructed to exclude that food item from their diet. All children were treated with emollients and topical steroids when needed. Sixty-two of the children were skin-prick positive to at least one of the allergens; 62% had mild, 30% moderate and 8% severe eczema at their first visit. After treatment, 90% had mild, 10% moderate and 0% severe eczema. Forty-six per cent of the children had circulating IgE antibodies to milk or egg white. Ten per cent had specific IgE but negative skin-prick test to the same allergen. This subgroup improved their eczema significantly without elimination diet. The conventional treatments for children with eczema, i.e. skin care and food elimination, are effective. The beneficial effect of skin care as the first step should not be neglected, and it may not be necessary to eliminate food allergens to relieve skin symptoms in all food-sensitized children with eczema.

  9. Methods and Practices of Urban Filipino Parents in Promoting Mabuting Asal among Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perlita E. de Leon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a portion of an ethnographic study conducted in an urbanizing community in Valenzuela City. The study aimed to investigate and discuss the concepts and practices that parents have in promoting mabuting asal or positive social behavior among their preschool children. The participantswere 15 two-parent families with at least two children, one of whom was between ages 3 and 6 years. Seven of the participating families were dualearner while the rest were single-earner. They were visited at home for at leastan hour twice a week for a period of six months. Afterwards, face-to-face interviews were conducted with the parents in each family. Results suggested that the methods that parents use to promote mabuting asal among the young ones can be categorized into three – physical, verbal, and cognitivetypes. Mothers in both income groups used the physical and cognitive types, although single-earner families would use physical methods more often than cognitive ones. On the other hand, fathers in both income groups would useverbal methods more, possibly as a result of their compensating behavior for their own experiences of harsh and coercive upbringing as young children. The study recommends comprehensive, integrative, sensitive, and flexible child-rearing seminars for parents as well as health and day care workers in the community. In terms of methodology, conducting the research in several localities, across different social groups, with a larger sample could provideanother perspective to the relationships between variables utilized in this research.

  10. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yam Philippa S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. Methods/design The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry; body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. Discussion The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical

  11. 13C mixed triglyceride breath test: a noninvasive method to assess lipase activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk-van Aalst, K; Van Den Driessche, M; van Der Schoor, S; Schiffelers, S; van't Westeinde, T; Ghoos, Y; Veereman-Wauters, G

    2001-05-01

    Results from the 13C mixed triglyceride (MTG) breath test correlate with duodenal lipase activity in adults. This noninvasive test is a potential screening and diagnostic tool for children with fat malabsorption. The aim of this study was to adapt the methodology of the MTG breath test to study test meals and sampling methods and to define normal values for healthy children of all age groups; premature and full-term infants have similar pancreatic lipase deficiencies. After parental consent was obtained, 12 premature infants ( 2 kg), 12 full-term infants (1-6 months old), 20 children (3-10 years old), and 20 teenagers (11-17 years old) were tested. All children were thriving well, had no gastrointestinal or respiratory problems, and had not received any medication that contained natural 13C. For the premature and full-term infants, a formula was prepared that had a low and stable natural 13C content mixed with 100 mg 13C-labeled MTG (1,3-distearyl, 2-[13C-carboxyl] octanoyl glycerol) and 1 g polyethylene-glycol 3350. The best accepted test meal for children over 3 years old was a slice of white bread with 5 g butter and 15 g chocolate paste, mixed with 250 mg 13C-labeled MTG, and a glass of 100 mL whole-fat milk. Children over 3 years old were able to blow through a straw in a vacutainer for collecting the breath samples. In children under 3 years old, expired air was collected by aspirating breath via a nasal prong. Carbon dioxide production was calculated according to weight, age, and sex. For healthy pediatric control participants, the mean values for cumulative excretion of 13CO2 as a percentage of the administered dose after 6 hours were 23.9 +/- 5.2% in premature infants, 31.9 +/- 7.7% in full-term infants, 32.5 +/- 5.3% in children, and 28.0 +/- 5.4% in teenagers. The mean value for healthy adults is 35.6% with a lower reference limit of 22.8%. Age-specific test meals and breath-sampling techniques for the MTG breath test were defined. The mean values for

  12. Heavy metals assessment in the hair of street children by INAA method, Isfahan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadijeh Rezaee Ebrahim Saraee; Gharipour, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The street children phenomenon is an increasing problem in most cities of the world including Isfahan, which is a fast growing town. The number of street children with the growth of the town is increased. It is therefore important to have baseline data on their health problems. Hair element analysis remains an important tool in the nutritional and environmental assessment of them. A measurement of the elemental concentration in recently-grown hair provides an integrated view of the element status in the follicular cells and their blood supply, unaffected by short term fluctuations in the nutrient intake of the subject. This study aimed to assess heavy metals concentrations in the hair of street children in Isfahan using neutron activation analysis method. The concentration of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mn, and Zn) of 17 Iranian street children (Isfahan) was examined. Data analysis found that different profiles of the concentrations of Cr, Hg, Mn, and Zn were seen in each sample. These results were discussed with reference to show of environmental effects. (author)

  13. Dynamical Methods for Evaluating the Time-Dependent Unfolding of Social Coordination in Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula eFitzpatrick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD suffer from numerous impairments in social interaction that affect both their mental and bodily coordination with others. We explored here whether interpersonal motor coordination may be an important key for understanding the profound social problems of children with ASD. We employed a set of experimental techniques to evaluate not only traditional cognitive measures of social competence but also the dynamical structure of social coordination by using dynamical measures of social motor coordination and analyzing the time series records of behavior. Preliminary findings suggest that children with ASD were equivalent to typically developing children on many social performance outcome measures. However, significant relationships were found between cognitive social measures (e.g., intentionality and dynamical social motor measures. In addition, we found that more perceptually-based measures of social coordination were not associated with social motor coordination. These findings suggest that social coordination may not be a unitary construct and point to the promise of this multi-method and process-oriented approach to analyzing social coordination as an important pathway for understanding ASD-specific social deficits.

  14. [METHOD FOR DETERMINING EROSIVE LESIONS OF THE GASTRIC MUCOUSA IN CHILDREN WITH JUVENILE ARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listopadova, A P; Novikova, V P; Melnikova, I U; Petrovskiy, A N; Slizovskiy, N V

    2015-01-01

    To detect the clinical diagnostic criteria for non-invasive diagnosis of erosive gastritis in children with juvenile arthritis have been studied the 92 children aged 9 to 16 years (mean age-13,9 ± 2,3 years) with verified diagnosis of juvenile arthritis, of whom 10 had erosive gastritis (group 1) and 82 without erosions (group 2). A comparison of the groups on 23 grounds by analysis of contingency tables and the subsequent discriminant analysis, has developed a new non-invasive method for determining the erosive lesions of the mucous membrane of the stomach in children with juvenile arthritis, including a score of history, complaints and the results of laboratory studies the level of the G-17, pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and the ratio of pepsinogen I to pepsinogen II, the presence of autoantibodies to the H+, K+/ATPase of the parietal cells of the stomach, the test for occult blood "Colon View Hb and Hb/Hp". Developed a diagnostic table, including 11 features with scores each. The total score 27 or higher allows a high degree of probability to determine the erosive lesions of the gastric mucosa in children with juvenile arthritis.

  15. Methacholine challenge test: Comparison of tidal breathing and dosimeter methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazi, Ahlam; Lands, Larry C; Zielinski, David

    2018-02-01

    Methacholine Challenge Test (MCT) is used to confirm, assess the severity and/or rule out asthma. Two MCT methods are described as equivalent by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), the tidal breathing and the dosimeter methods. However, the majority of adult studies suggest that individuals with asthma do not react at the same PC 20 between the two methods. Additionally, the nebulizers used are no longer available and studies suggest current nebulizers are not equivalent to these. Our study investigates the difference in positive MCT tests between three methods in a pediatric population. A retrospective, chart review of all MCT performed with spirometry at the Montreal Children's Hospital from January 2006 to March 2016. A comparison of the percentage positive MCT tests with three methods, tidal breathing, APS dosimeter and dose adjusted DA-dosimeter, was performed at different cutoff points up to 8 mg/mL. A total of 747 subjects performed the tidal breathing method, 920 subjects the APS dosimeter method, and 200 subjects the DA-dosimeter method. At a PC 20 cutoff ≤4 mg/mL, the percentage positive MCT was significantly higher using the tidal breathing method (76.3%) compared to the APS dosimeter (45.1%) and DA-dosimeter (65%) methods (P < 0.0001). The choice of nebulizer and technique significantly impacts the rate of positivity when using MCT to diagnose and assess asthma. Lack of direct comparison of techniques within the same individuals and clinical assessment should be addressed in future studies to standardize MCT methodology in children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-12-26

    Although the sensitivity of Wet mount technique is questionable, it is the major diagnostic technique for routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitosis in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was the evaluation performance of diagnostic methods of intestinal parasitosis in school age children in Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from May to June 2013. Single stool sample was processed for direct, Formol ether concentration (FEC) and Kato Katz methods. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of diagnostic tests were calculated in terms of the "Gold" standard method (the combined result of the three methods altogether). A total of 422 school age children were participated in this study. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was high (74.6%) with Kato Katz technique. The sensitivity of Wet mount, FEC and Kato Katz tests against the Gold standard test was 48.9, 63.1 and 93.7%, respectively. Kato Katz technique revealed a better NPV 80.4 (80.1-80.6) as compared to the Wet mount (33.7%) and FEC techniques (41.3%). In this study, the Kato Katz technique outperformed the other two methods but the true values for sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic values are not known. Moreover, it is labor intensive and not easily accessible. Hence, it is preferable to use FEC technique to complement the Wet mount test.

  17. Psycho-Rehabilitation Method (Dohsa-Hou and Quality of Life in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Poursadoughi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of psycho-rehabilitation (Dohsa-hou on improving the quality of life of 4-12 year old children with cerebral palsy. Methods: The present research is a semi-experimental study with a pre-test - post-test design, follow-up and control group. The statistical population fully consists of children with cerebral palsy in Yazd. 30 male patients were selected using a convenience sampling method and were divided into the experiment and control groups. Before beginning treatment, parents filled out the quality of life questionnaire and at the end of the treatment period in the post-test and follow-up phase the same assessment was done. The treatment period in the experiment group was 12 sessions (three sessions per week and the follow-up phase was done 50 days after the test. Results: The results obtained from the analysis of covariance showed that psychological rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy improves their quality of life and that this difference was persistent in the follow-up phase (P<0.001. Discussion: Since the rate of cerebral palsy is rising and the symptoms are wide, patients may have an increased need for rehabilitation in the future. Dohsa-hou as a psychological rehabilitation approach is an effective treatment to improve the quality of life of these patients

  18. Evaluation of segmental body composition by gender in obese children using bioelectric impedance analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Çetin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate segmental body composition of children diagnosed with obesity using bioelectrical impedance analysis method in terms of different gender. Methods: 48 children, aged between 6-15 years, 21 of whom were boys while 27 were girls, diagnosed with obesity in Erciyes University Medical Faculty Department of Pediatric Endocrinology Outpatient Clinic were included in our study from April to June in 2011. Those over 95 percentile were defined as obese group. Tanita BC-418 device was used to analyze the body composition. Results: As a result of bioelectrical impedance analysis, lean body mass and body muscle mass were found to be statistically significantly higher in obese girls compared with obese boys. However, lean mass of the left arm, left leg muscle mass and basal metabolic rate were found to be statistically significantly lower in obese girls compared with obese boys. Conclusion: Consequently, it may be suggest that segmental analysis, where gender differences are taken into account, can provide proper exercise pattern and healthy way of weight loss in children for prevention of obesity and associated diseases including obesity and type 2 diabetics and cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Perceptions of Weight and Health Practices in Hispanic Children: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Alexander Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Perception of weight by parents of obese children may be associated with willingness to engage in behavior change. The relationship between parents’ perception of their child’s weight and their health beliefs and practices is poorly understood, especially among the Hispanic population which experiences disparities in childhood obesity. This study sought to explore the relationship between perceptions of weight and health beliefs and practices in a Hispanic population. Methods. A cross-sectional, mixed-methods approach was used with semistructured interviews conducted with parent-child (2–5 years old dyads in a primarily Hispanic, low-income population. Parents were queried on their perceptions of their child’s health, health practices, activities, behaviors, and beliefs. A grounded theory approach was used to analyze participants’ discussion of health practices and behaviors. Results. Forty parent-child dyads completed the interview. Most (58% of the parents of overweight and obese children misclassified their child’s weight status. The qualitative analysis showed that accurate perception of weight was associated with internal motivation and more concrete ideas of what healthy meant for their child. Conclusions. The qualitative data suggest there may be populations at different stages of readiness for change among parents of overweight and obese children, incorporating this understanding should be considered for interventions.

  20. Astigmatism and Amblyopia among Native American Children (AANAC): design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J M; Dobson, V M; Harvey, E M; Sherrill, D L

    2000-09-01

    The overall goal of the AANAC study is to improve detection of astigmatism and prevention of amblyopia in populations with a high prevalence of astigmatism. To meet this goal, the study will evaluate four methods of screening for astigmatism in preschool children and will assess both the short-term and long-term benefits of early correction of astigmatism in improving acuity and preventing amblyopia. This paper presents an overview of the design and methodology of the AANAC study. Subjects are members of the Tohono O'Odham Nation, a Native American tribe with a high prevalence of astigmatism. Preschool-age children who attend Head Start are screened with four tools: the Marco Nidek KM-500 autokeratometer, the MTI photoscreener, the Nikon Retinomax K-Plus autorefractor, and the Lea Symbols acuity chart. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of significant astigmatism, as measured by a technique that uses both cycloplegic retinoscopy and cycloplegic autorefraction, is determined for each of the four screening tools. Presence of amblyopia is evaluated by measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings. Spectacles are provided to all 3-year-old children with > or =2.00 diopters (D) of astigmatism and all 4- and 5-year-old children with > or =1.50 D of astigmatism. Persistence of amblyopia after glasses wearing is evaluated by follow-up measurement of best-corrected recognition acuity and acuity for orthogonal gratings, conducted 2-5 months after glasses are prescribed. Long-term effectiveness of early screening and glasses prescription is evaluated through measurement of recognition acuity in two groups of first-grade children: one group who participated in the Head Start program before the intensive vision screening program was initiated, and a second group who participated in the study's Head Start vision screening program.

  1. How Do Children with ADHD (Mis)Manage Their Real-Life Dyadic Friendships? A Multi-Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Sebastien; Schneider, Barry H.; Lee, Matthew D.; Maisonneuve, Marie-France; Kuehn, Sally M.; Robaey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This multimethod study provides detailed information about the friendships of 87 children (76% boys) with ADHD and 46 comparison children aged 7-13 years. The methods included parent and teacher ratings, self-report measures and direct observation of friends' dyadic behaviors in three structured analogue tasks. Results indicated that, in contrast…

  2. Methods of, and Reasons for, Emotional Expression and Control in Children with Internalizing, Externalizing, and Somatic Problems in Urban India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Vaishali V.; Martini, Tanya S.; Raval, Pratiksha H.

    2010-01-01

    Although cross-cultural research concerning children's emotions is growing, few studies have examined emotion dysregulation in culturally diverse populations. This study compared 6- to 8-year-old children's reported methods of expressing and controlling anger, sadness, and physical pain, and their justifications for doing so across four groups in…

  3. Estimating core temperature in infants and children after cardiac surgery: a comparison of six methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxton, Fiona J C; Justin, Linda; Gillies, Donna

    2004-01-01

    Monitoring temperature in critically ill children is an important component of care, yet the accuracy of methods is often questioned. Temperature measured in the pulmonary artery is considered the 'gold standard', but this route is unsuitable for the majority of patients. An accurate, reliable and less invasive method is, however, yet to be established in paediatric intensive care work. To determine which site most closely reflects core temperature in babies and children following cardiac surgery, by comparing pulmonary artery temperature to the temperature measured at rectal, bladder, nasopharyngeal, axillary and tympanic sites. A convenience sample of 19 postoperative cardiac patients was studied. Temperature was recorded as a continuous measurement from pulmonary artery, rectal, nasopharyngeal and bladder sites. Axillary and tympanic temperatures were recorded at 30 minute intervals for 6 1/2 hours postoperatively. The small sample size of 19 infants and children limits the generalizability of the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no significant difference between pulmonary artery and bladder temperatures, and pulmonary artery and nasopharyngeal temperatures. Intraclass correlation showed that agreement was greatest between pulmonary artery temperature and temperature measured by bladder catheter. There was a significant difference between pulmonary artery temperature and temperature measured at rectal, tympanic and pulmonary artery and axillary sites. Repeated measures analysis showed a significant lag between pulmonary artery and rectal temperature of between 0 and 150 minutes after the 6-hour measurement period. In this study, bladder temperature was shown to be the best estimate of pulmonary artery temperature, closely followed by the temperature measured by nasopharyngeal probe. The results support the use of bladder or nasopharyngeal catheters to monitor temperature in critically ill children after cardiac surgery.

  4. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Alexander K; Onikpo, Faustin; Lama, Marcel; Deming, Michael S

    2012-10-08

    The simulated client (SC) method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO) by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method's full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy), we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other) of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO - SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points). Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points) than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points). SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might be greater for health workers exposed to quality improvement

  5. Evaluating health worker performance in Benin using the simulated client method with real children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Alexander K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simulated client (SC method for evaluating health worker performance utilizes surveyors who pose as patients to make surreptitious observations during consultations. Compared to conspicuous observation (CO by surveyors, which is commonly done in developing countries, SC data better reflect usual health worker practices. This information is important because CO can cause performance to be better than usual. Despite this advantage of SCs, the method’s full potential has not been realized for evaluating performance for pediatric illnesses because real children have not been utilized as SCs. Previous SC studies used scenarios of ill children that were not actually brought to health workers. During a trial that evaluated a quality improvement intervention in Benin (the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness [IMCI] strategy, we conducted an SC survey with adult caretakers as surveyors and real children to evaluate the feasibility of this approach and used the results to assess the validity of CO. Methods We conducted an SC survey and a CO survey (one right after the other of health workers in the same 55 health facilities. A detailed description of the SC survey process was produced. Results of the two surveys were compared for 27 performance indicators using logistic regression modeling. Results SC and CO surveyors observed 54 and 185 consultations, respectively. No serious problems occurred during the SC survey. Performance levels measured by CO were moderately higher than those measured by SCs (median CO – SC difference = 16.4 percentage-points. Survey differences were sometimes much greater for IMCI-trained health workers (median difference = 29.7 percentage-points than for workers without IMCI training (median difference = 3.1 percentage-points. Conclusion SC surveys can be done safely with real children if appropriate precautions are taken. CO can introduce moderately large positive biases, and these biases might

  6. Efficacy of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the efficacy and safety of artificial tears for children xerophthalmia.METHODS:Fifty-eight cases with 116 eyes were diagnosed as xerophthalmia by tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠt, tear meniscus height, corneal staining, meibomian gland function test and were given artificial tears therapy for 1mo. Then the aforementioned tests were conducted again for statistical analysis.RESULTS:The mean BUT of all the children before treatments was 6.03±1.19s, SⅠt was 7.67±2.32mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.20±0.02mm, corneal staining was 1.02±0.13 scores and meibomian gland function was 2.45±0.86 scores. Sixty-two eyes in 31 cases were the lipid-deficient type, 40 eyes in 20 cases were aqueous-deficient type, and 14 eyes in 7 cases were other types. According to their types, corresponding artificial tears therapy was given. At 1mo after treatments, the clinical symptoms were improved significantly. BUT was 13.72±1.83s, SⅠt was 12.38±3.64mm/5min, tear meniscus height was 0.36±0.08mm, corneal fluorescein staining was 0.03±0.24 scores and meibomian gland function was 1.57±0.93 scores. Compared with those before treatments, the difference of each observed indicators was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION:Artificial tears treatment for children xerophthalmia is safe and effective.

  7. [Diagnosis of insulin resistance by indirect methods in obese school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Nerkis; de Szarvas, Sobeida Barbella; Mathison, Yaira; Hadad, Erika; González, Dora; Hernández, Ana; Guevara, Harold

    2013-06-01

    Obesity leads to a deterioration of glucose tolerance and the action of insulin. The purpose of this study was to determine insulin resistance (IR) by indirect methods, and its correlation with clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables in obese normoglycemic school children. This was a descriptive-correlational study of 72 school prepubescent children, who attended the ambulatory "El Concejo" of the University of Carabobo (UC) and at the Gastroenterology and Pediatric Nutrition service of the city hospital "Enrique Tejera" (CHET), in Valencia, Venezuela, between January-April 2011. exogenous obesity. We assessed personal and family history, presence of Acanthosis Nigricans and nutritional and biochemical status. We found a higher percentage of IR, through the use of the QUICKI method (66.7%), followed by the HOMA (55.6%) and basal insulin (45.9%). The mean (chi) indexes of body mass and waist circumference were significantly greater (p method detected significant differences (p methods. In conclusion, the evaluated techniques, QUICKI, HOMA and basal insulin indexes, were most effective for detecting the IR.

  8. Assessment of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children: Comparison among the Korean standard bone age chart, Greulich-Pyle method, and Tanner-Whitehouse method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Jeong Rye; Lee, Young Seok; Yu, Jee Suk

    2015-01-01

    To compare the reliability of the Greulich-Pyle (GP) method, Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3) method and Korean standard bone age chart (KS) in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children. Left hand-wrist radiographs of 212 prepubertal healthy Korean children aged 7 to 12 years, obtained for the evaluation of the traumatic injury in emergency department, were analyzed by two observers. Bone age was estimated using the GP method, TW3 method and KS, and was calculated in months. The correlation between bone age measured by each method and chronological age of each child was analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient, scatterplot. The three methods were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Significant correlations were found between chronological age and bone age estimated by all three methods in whole group and in each gender (R2 ranged from 0.87 to 0.9, p < 0.01). Although bone age estimated by KS was slightly closer to chronological age than those estimated by the GP and TW3 methods, the difference between three methods was not statistically significant (p > 0.01). The KS, GP, and TW3 methods show good reliability in the evaluation of bone age of prepubertal healthy Korean children without significant difference between them. Any are useful for evaluation of bone age in prepubertal healthy Korean children.

  9. Comparing a Perceptual and an Automated Vision-Based Method for Lie Detection in Younger Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serras Pereira, Mariana; Cozijn, Reinier; Postma, Eric; Shahid, Suleman; Swerts, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology - the combination of perception studies (in which eye-tracking technology is being used) and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not. Results reveal that judges are able to accurately distinguish truthful clips from lying clips in both perception studies. Even though the automated movement analysis for overall and specific body regions did not yield significant results between the experimental conditions, we did find a positive correlation between the amount of movement in a child and the perception of lies, i.e., the more movement the children exhibited during a clip, the higher the chance that the clip was perceived as a lie. The eye-tracking study revealed that, even when there is movement happening in different body regions, judges tend to focus their attention mainly on the face region. This is the first study that compares a perceptual and an automated method for the detection of deceptive behavior in children whose data have been elicited through an ecologically valid paradigm.

  10. [Methods of a posteriori identification of food patterns in Brazilian children: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Carolina Abreu de; Fonsêca, Poliana Cristina de Almeida; Nobre, Luciana Neri; Priore, Silvia Eloiza; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide guidance for identifying dietary patterns using the a posteriori approach, and analyze the methodological aspects of the studies conducted in Brazil that identified the dietary patterns of children. Articles were selected from the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences, Scientific Electronic Library Online and Pubmed databases. The key words were: Dietary pattern; Food pattern; Principal Components Analysis; Factor analysis; Cluster analysis; Reduced rank regression. We included studies that identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach. Seven studies published between 2007 and 2014 were selected, six of which were cross-sectional and one cohort, Five studies used the food frequency questionnaire for dietary assessment; one used a 24-hour dietary recall and the other a food list. The method of exploratory approach used in most publications was principal components factor analysis, followed by cluster analysis. The sample size of the studies ranged from 232 to 4231, the values of the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test from 0.524 to 0.873, and Cronbach's alpha from 0.51 to 0.69. Few Brazilian studies identified dietary patterns of children using the a posteriori approach and principal components factor analysis was the technique most used.

  11. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  12. A method of assessing the resilience of whole communities of children: An example from rural Australia

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    Dunstan Debra A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children living in socioeconomic disadvantage are at risk of poor mental health outcomes. In order to focus and evaluate population health programs to facilitate children’s resilience, it is important to accurately assess baseline levels of functioning. With this end in mind, the aim of this study was to test the utility of 1 a voluntary random sampling method and 2 quantitative measures of adaptation (with national normative data for assessing the resilience of children in an identified community. Method This cross-sectional study utilized a sample of participants (N = 309, including parents (n = 169, teachers (n = 20 and children (n = 170; age range = 5-16 years, recruited from the schools in Tenterfield; a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in New South Wales, Australia. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ; including parent, teacher and youth versions was used to measure psychological well-being and pro-social functioning, and NAPLAN results (individual children’s and whole school’s performance in literacy and numeracy were used to measure level of academic achievement. Results The community’s disadvantage was evident in the whole school NAPLAN performance but not in the sample’s NAPLAN or SDQ results. The teacher SDQ ratings appeared to be more reliable than parent’s ratings. The voluntary random sampling method (requiring parental consent led to sampling bias. Conclusions The key indicators of resilience - psychological well-being, pro-social functioning and academic achievement – can be measured in whole communities using the teacher version of the SDQ and whole school results on a national test of literacy and numeracy (e.g., Australia’s NAPLAN. A voluntary random sample (dependent upon parental consent appears to have limited value due to the likelihood of sampling bias.

  13. Comparison of different screening methods for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alves Mourato

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare different methods of screening for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents. METHOD: A database with 17,083 medical records of patients from a pediatric cardiology clinic was used. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,650 were selected. These were divided into two age groups: between 5 and 13 years and between 13 and 18 years. The blood pressure measurement was classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, or hypertensive, consistent with recent guidelines and the selected screening methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were then calculated according to gender and age range. RESULTS: The formulas proposed by Somu and Ardissino's table showed low sensitivity in identifying pre-hypertension in all age groups, whereas the table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results. The ratio between blood pressure and height showed low specificity in the younger age group, but showed good performance in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Screening tools used for the assessment of blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents may be useful to decrease the current rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. The table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results; however, the ratio between BP and height demonstrated specific advantages, as it does not require tables.

  14. Cost effectiveness of recruitment methods in an obesity prevention trial for young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jodie L; Fuerch, Janene H; Winiewicz, Dana D; Salvy, Sarah J; Roemmich, James N; Epstein, Leonard H

    2007-06-01

    Recruitment of participants for clinical trials requires considerable effort and cost. There is no research on the cost effectiveness of recruitment methods for an obesity prevention trial of young children. This study determined the cost effectiveness of recruiting 70 families with a child aged 4 to 7 (5.9+/-1.3) years in Western New York from February 2003 to November 2004, for a 2-year randomized obesity prevention trial to reduce television watching in the home. Of the 70 randomized families, 65.7% (n=46) were obtained through direct mailings, 24.3% (n=17) were acquired through newspaper advertisements, 7.1% (n=5) from other sources (e.g., word of mouth), and 2.9% (n=2) through posters and brochures. Costs of each recruitment method were computed by adding the cost of materials, staff time, and media expenses. Cost effectiveness (money spent per randomized participant) was US $0 for other sources, US $227.76 for direct mailing, US $546.95 for newspaper ads, and US $3,020.84 for posters and brochures. Of the methods with associated costs, direct mailing was the most cost effective in recruiting families with young children, which supports the growing literature of the effectiveness of direct mailing.

  15. Method of surgical renewal of continuity of pelvic ring in children with extrophy of bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shchekin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Section of back and interbone sacroiliac ligaments from both sides, at extrophy of bladder, instead of osteotomу of iliac bones allows easily to liquidate large diastasis between pubic bones, to carry out them osteosintez, to normalize the location of hip joints and enables to carry out plastic of bladder. Thus there is no bleeding, as ligament have not blood vessels, and there is no cutting or damage of ligatures in the place of osteosinthesis of pubic bones. 3 children aged from 3 weeks to 1 year are operated according to this method. Complications were not present.

  16. Do children's health resources differ according to preschool physical activity programmes and parental behaviour? A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterdt, Elena; Pape, Natalie; Kramer, Silke; Liersch, Sebastian; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf; Walter, Ulla

    2014-02-26

    Preschool can have positive effects on the development of a healthy lifestyle. The present study analysed to what extent different conditions, structures and behavioural models in preschool and family-children's central social microsystems-can lead to differences in children's health resources. Using a cross-sectional mixed methods approach, contrast analyses of "preschools with systematic physical activity programmes" versus "preschools without physical activity programmes" were conducted to assess the extent to which children's physical activity, quality of life and social behaviour differ between preschools with systematic and preschools without physical activity programmes. Differences in children's physical activity according to parental behaviour were likewise assessed. Data on child-related outcomes and parent-related factors were collected via parent questionnaires and child interviews. A qualitative focused ethnographic study was performed to obtain deeper insight into the quantitative survey data. Two hundred and twenty seven (227) children were interviewed at 21 preschools with systematic physical activity programmes, and 190 at 25 preschools without physical activity programmes. There was no significant difference in children's physical activity levels between the two preschool types (p = 0.709). However, the qualitative data showed differences in the design and quality of programmes to promote children's physical activity. Data triangulation revealed a strong influence of parental behaviour. The triangulation of methods provided comprehensive insight into the nature and extent of physical activity programmes in preschools and made it possible to capture the associations between systematic physical activity promotion and children's health resources in a differential manner.

  17. Children as ethnobotanists: methods and local impact of a participatory research project with children on wild plant gathering in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasser, Susanne; Schunko, Christoph; Vogl, Christian R

    2016-10-10

    Ethically sound research in applied ethnobiology should benefit local communities by giving them full access to research processes and results. Participatory research may ensure such access, but there has been little discussion on methodological details of participatory approaches in ethnobiological research. This paper presents and discusses the research processes and methods developed in the course of a three-year research project on wild plant gathering, the involvement of children as co-researchers and the project's indications for local impact. Research was conducted in the Grosses Walsertal Biosphere Reserve, Austria, between 2008 and 2010 in four research phases. In phase 1, 36 freelist interviews with local people and participant observation was conducted. In phase 2 school workshops were held in 14 primary school classes and their 189 children interviewed 506 family members with structured questionnaires. In phase 3, 27 children and two researchers co-produced participatory videos. In phase 4 indications for the impact of the project were investigated with questionnaires from ten children and with participant observation. Children participated in various ways in the research process and the scientific output and local impact of the project was linked to the phases, degrees and methods of children's involvement. Children were increasingly involved in the project, from non-participation to decision-making. Scientific output was generated from participatory and non-participatory activities whereas local impact - on personal, familial, communal and institutional levels - was mainly generated through the participatory involvement of children as interviewers and as co-producers of videos. Creating scientific outputs from participatory video is little developed in ethnobiology, whereas bearing potential. As ethnobotanists and ethnobiologists, if we are truly concerned about the impact and benefits of our research processes and results to local communities, the

  18. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Comparison of different screening methods for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourato, Felipe Alves; Lima Filho, José Luiz; Mattos, Sandra da Silva

    2015-01-01

    To compare different methods of screening for blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents. A database with 17,083 medical records of patients from a pediatric cardiology clinic was used. After analyzing the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5,650 were selected. These were divided into two age groups: between 5 and 13 years and between 13 and 18 years. The blood pressure measurement was classified as normal, pre-hypertensive, or hypertensive, consistent with recent guidelines and the selected screening methods. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were then calculated according to gender and age range. The formulas proposed by Somu and Ardissino's table showed low sensitivity in identifying pre-hypertension in all age groups, whereas the table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results. The ratio between blood pressure and height showed low specificity in the younger age group, but showed good performance in adolescents. Screening tools used for the assessment of blood pressure disorders in children and adolescents may be useful to decrease the current rate of underdiagnosis of this condition. The table proposed by Kaelber showed the best results; however, the ratio between BP and height demonstrated specific advantages, as it does not require tables. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of Giardia infections by PCR-based methods in children of an endemic area

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    EB David

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to estimate the prevalence of Giardia infection in preschool- and school-aged children living in an endemic area. Fecal samples from 573 children were processed by zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation, centrifugal sedimentation (using a commercial device for fecal concentration - TF-Test kit® and polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based methods. Of the stool samples assessed, 277 (48.3% were positive for intestinal parasites and/or commensal protozoa. Centrifugal flotation presented the highest diagnostic sensitivity for Giardia infections. The kappa index revealed that both coproparasitological techniques closely agreed on the Giardia diagnosis (86% versus satisfactory (72% and poor (35% concordances for commensal protozoan and helminth infections, respectively. Concerning Giardia molecular diagnosis, from the 71 microscopy-positive samples, specific amplification of gdh and tpi fragments was noted in 68 (95.7% and 64 (90% samples, respectively. Amplification of gdh and tpi genes was observed, respectively, in 95.7% and 90% of microscopy-positive Giardia samples. For 144 microscopy-negative samples, gdh and tpi gene amplification products were obtained from 8.3% and 35.9% samples, respectively. The agreement between these genes was about 40%. The centrifuge-flotation based method was the most suitable means of Giardia diagnosis assessed in the present study by combining accuracy and low cost.

  1. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahdouh, S; Wiart, J; Bloch, I; Varsier, N; Nunez Ochoa, M A; Peyman, A

    2016-01-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties. (paper)

  2. Asthma management simulation for children: translating theory, methods, and strategies to effect behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shegog, Ross; Bartholomew, L Kay; Gold, Robert S; Pierrel, Elaine; Parcel, Guy S; Sockrider, Marianna M; Czyzewski, Danita I; Fernandez, Maria E; Berlin, Nina J; Abramson, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Translating behavioral theories, models, and strategies to guide the development and structure of computer-based health applications is well recognized, although a continued challenge for program developers. A stepped approach to translate behavioral theory in the design of simulations to teach chronic disease management to children is described. This includes the translation steps to: 1) define target behaviors and their determinants, 2) identify theoretical methods to optimize behavioral change, and 3) choose educational strategies to effectively apply these methods and combine these into a cohesive computer-based simulation for health education. Asthma is used to exemplify a chronic health management problem and a computer-based asthma management simulation (Watch, Discover, Think and Act) that has been evaluated and shown to effect asthma self-management in children is used to exemplify the application of theory to practice. Impact and outcome evaluation studies have indicated the effectiveness of these steps in providing increased rigor and accountability, suggesting their utility for educators and developers seeking to apply simulations to enhance self-management behaviors in patients.

  3. Infants and young children modeling method for numerical dosimetry studies: application to plane wave exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdouh, S.; Varsier, N.; Nunez Ochoa, M. A.; Wiart, J.; Peyman, A.; Bloch, I.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical dosimetry studies require the development of accurate numerical 3D models of the human body. This paper proposes a novel method for building 3D heterogeneous young children models combining results obtained from a semi-automatic multi-organ segmentation algorithm and an anatomy deformation method. The data consist of 3D magnetic resonance images, which are first segmented to obtain a set of initial tissues. A deformation procedure guided by the segmentation results is then developed in order to obtain five young children models ranging from the age of 5 to 37 months. By constraining the deformation of an older child model toward a younger one using segmentation results, we assure the anatomical realism of the models. Using the proposed framework, five models, containing thirteen tissues, are built. Three of these models are used in a prospective dosimetry study to analyze young child exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. The results lean to show the existence of a relationship between age and whole body exposure. The results also highlight the necessity to specifically study and develop measurements of child tissues dielectric properties.

  4. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Martha; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Satcher, David

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC). SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, approaches and practices to engage African American parents to lead in addressing health inequity conditions in their families and communities. It adds to the growing scientific literature on the association between parent–child relationship quality and a wide variety of children physical, emotional and social outcomes. SSC applied principles of developmental theories; community based participatory research (CBPR), and iterative Delphi method between the community stakeholders, parents and researchers. The delivery approach of SSC was revamped from professional-led to parent-led content presentation and delivery methods using a conversational learning approach, referred to as ‘conversepedia’. Parents’ leadership development training and delivery of this curriculum in social supportive groups improved their mental wellbeing, parenting capacity and leadership skills. Parents do matter and can choose positive influence in their lives and are capable of reversing negative peer influence. PMID:24366048

  5. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Okafor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC. SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, approaches and practices to engage African American parents to lead in addressing health inequity conditions in their families and communities. It adds to the growing scientific literature on the association between parent–child relationship quality and a wide variety of children physical, emotional and social outcomes. SSC applied principles of developmental theories; community based participatory research (CBPR, and iterative Delphi method between the community stakeholders, parents and researchers. The delivery approach of SSC was revamped from professional-led to parent-led content presentation and delivery methods using a conversational learning approach, referred to as ‘conversepedia’. Parents’ leadership development training and delivery of this curriculum in social supportive groups improved their mental wellbeing, parenting capacity and leadership skills. Parents do matter and can choose positive influence in their lives and are capable of reversing negative peer influence.

  6. Comparison between Greulich-Pyle and Girdany-Golden methods for estimating skeletal age of children in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awais, Muhammad; Nadeem, Naila; Husen, Yousuf; Rehman, Abdul; Beg, Madiha; Khattak, Yasir Jamil

    2014-12-01

    To compare Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Girdany-Golden (GG) methods for estimation of Skeletal Age (SA) in children referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Cross-sectional study. Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from July 2010 to June 2012. Children up to the age of 18 years, who had undergone X-ray for the evaluation of trauma were included. Each X-ray was interpreted using both methods by two consultant paediatric radiologists having at least 10 years experience, who were blinded to the actual Chronologic Age (CA) of children. A total of 283 children were included. No significant difference was noted in mean SA estimated by GP method and mean CA for female children (p=0.695). However, a significant difference was noted between mean CA and mean SA by GG method for females (p=0.011). For males, there was a significant difference between mean CA and mean SA estimated by both GP and GG methods. A stronger correlation was found between CA and SA estimated by GP method (r=0.943 for girls, r=0.915 for boys) as compared to GG method (r=0.909 for girls, r=0.865 for boys) respectively. Bland- Altman analysis also revealed that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. Excellent correlation was seen between the two readers for both GP and GG methods. There was no additional benefit of using GP and GG methods simultaneously over using GP method alone. Moreover, although GP was reliable in estimating SA in girls, it was unable to accurately assess SA in boys. Therefore, it would be ideal to develop indigenous standards of bone age estimation based on a representative sample of healthy native children.

  7. Comparison between greulich-pyle and girdany-golden methods for estimating skeletal age of children in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.; Nadeem, N.; Rehman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Girdany-Golden (GG) methods for estimation of Skeletal Age (SA) in children referred to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Radiology, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from July 2010 to June 2012. Methodology: Children up to the age of 18 years, who had undergone X-ray for the evaluation of trauma were included. Each X-ray was interpreted using both methods by two consultant paediatric radiologists having at least 10 years experience, who were blinded to the actual Chronologic Age (CA) of children. Results: A total of 283 children were included. No significant difference was noted in mean SA estimated by GP method and mean CA for female children (p=0.695). However, a significant difference was noted between mean CA and mean SA by GG method for females (p=0.011). For males, there was a significant difference between mean CA and mean SA estimated by both GP and GG methods. A stronger correlation was found between CA and SA estimated by GP method (r=0.943 for girls, r=0.915 for boys) as compared to GG method (r=0.909 for girls, r=0.865 for boys) respectively. Bland- Altman analysis also revealed that the two methods cannot be used interchangeably. Excellent correlation was seen between the two readers for both GP and GG methods. Conclusion: There was no additional benefit of using GP and GG methods simultaneously over using GP method alone. Moreover, although GP was reliable in estimating SA in girls, it was unable to accurately assess SA in boys. Therefore, it would be ideal to develop indigenous standards of bone age estimation based on a representative sample of healthy native children. (author)

  8. Measurement of cardiac output in children by pressure-recording analytical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Javier; López, Jorge; González, Rafael; Solana, María José; Fernández, Sarah N; Bellón, José M; López-Herce, Jesús

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated two pressure-recording analytical method (PRAM) software versions (v.1 and v.2) to measure cardiac index (CI) in hemodynamically stable critically ill children and investigate factors that influence PRAM values. The working hypothesis was that PRAM CI measurements would stay within normal limits in hemodynamically stable patients. Ninety-five CI PRAM measurements were analyzed in 47 patients aged 1-168 months. Mean CI was 4.1 ± 1.4 L/min/m(2) (range 2.0-7.0). CI was outside limits defined as normal (3-5 L/min/m(2)) in 53.7% of measurements (47.8% with software v.1 and 69.2% with software v.2, p = 0.062). Moreover, 14.7% of measurements were below 2.5 L/min/m(2), and 13.6% were above 6 L/min/m(2). CI was significantly lower in patients with a clearly visible dicrotic notch than in those without (3.7 vs. 4.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.004) and in children with a radial arterial catheter (3.5 L/min/m(2)) than in those with a brachial (4.4 L/min/m(2), p = 0.021) or femoral catheter (4.7 L/min/m(2), p = 0.005). By contrast, CI was significantly higher in children under 12 months (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.034) and weighing under 10 kg (4.2 vs. 3.6 L/min/m(2), p = 0.026). No significant differences were observed between cardiac surgery patients and the rest of children. A high percentage of CI measurements registered by PRAM were outside normal limits in hemodynamically stable, critically ill children. CI measured by PRAM may be influenced by the age, weight, location of catheter, and presence of a dicrotic notch.

  9. Method for assessment of skeletal maturity in children below one year of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmie, U.; Ringertz, H.

    1980-07-01

    Although there is a continuing clinical interest in the radiological determination of skeletal development in children below one year of age, none of the existing methods is particularly appropriate. We have therefore developed a new and simple method of assessment. This takes into account the dose of radiation and the two aspects of size and maturity of the skeleton; and so we choose to study the lateral view of the tarsus. The calcaneous and talus are ossification centers appearing before birth. The sum of length and height of these centers constitutes the first part of the assessment. The second part of our evaluation includes an appraisal of the cuboid, the third cuneiform and the distal epiphyses of tibia and fibula. For practical purposes we have chosen to relate the two different aspects of skeletal maturity which we have assessed to the weight of the baby.

  10. Effectiveness of the different methods of inhalation drugs delivery in children with bronchial asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the work — to evaluate the effectiveness of inhalation technique when using different types of inhalers (dry powder inhalers — Turbuhaler, Diskus, metered-dose inhalers, breath-actuated inhalers — Easyhaler. Materials and methods. 45 patients aged 6–17 years underwent the evaluation of inhalation technique accuracy with the use of In-Check-Dial — apparatus, which imitates the airway resistance that should be overcome during inspiration through different inhaler types, and measure inspiration velocity. Incidence of mistakes was studied in different age groups. Results. 80 % of children aged 6–7 years made mistakes while using Turbuhaler, 73.3 % — metered-dose inhaler, 60 % — Easyhaler. There were no mistakes in patients making inhalation by means of Diskhaler. 100 % of children aged 12–14 years incorrectly used metered-dose inhaler. Easyhaler was incorrectly used in 66.6 % of cases, Diskhaler — in 26.6 %. Among elder group, incidence of mistakes when making inhalations through Turbuhaler was lower — 40 % in 12–14-year-old group and 25 % — in 15–17-year-old (р < 0.05. Children of 15–17 years old are able to use Turbuhaler and Diskus (mistakes in 33.3 and 46.6 %, respectively. At the same time, none of the patients have done the correct inhalation by means of metered-dose inhaler, 93.3 % of the patients have mistakes when using Easyhaler. Conclusions. The incidence of mistakes depends on the age and inhaler type and reaches 26–100 %. Minimal quantity of mistakes is seen for Diskus (in all age groups, maxi­mal — for metered-dose inhaler. For the purpose of optimal inhaler choice in a child with bronchial asthma, it is advisable to measure the inspiratory flow with the help of In-Check-Dial before therapy administration.

  11. Determination of CMV infection in CSF of children with meningoencephalitis: PCR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorbakhsh S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: In recent years, many ill cases with cytomegalovirus reactivation in non-immuno compromised persons reported. Goal of study: to determine the CMV infection in cerebrospinal fluid of aseptic meningoencephalitis children hospitalized in Rasul & Mofid hospital (2005-2007. "nMethods: In a cross sectional study 132 cases selected with simple sampling. CMV-DNA in their Cerebro spinal fluids searched by qualitative PCR. "nResults: The age range of the study patients was 5 month- 13 years, median age= 2±3.7 years; 87(65.9% male and 45(34.1% was female. The presenting signs and symptoms were convulsion 77(69.4%; meningitis 25(18.8%, loss of consciousness 47(37%; neurologic defects 15.9%. DNA extrated in 11 cases. Mycoplasma- DNA in 2cases; DNA-CMV detected 2(1.5%. Positive DNA HSV found in 7(15.3% of patients. DNA- HSV type- 15.3% (7/132 cases. An infant 5 month age with developmental delay, microcephaly and recurrent convulsions. A 1 year girl with brain atrophy and progressive hydrocephaly with intracranial shunt "nConclusions: Differentiation between herpes meningoencephalitis and other encephalopathy based on clinical signs in children is too difficult. CMV (1.5% has lower rate than herpes simplex type-1 (5.7%. In addition to CMV and HSV1 all of herpes family viruses (varicella, herpes 6, 7, Epstein barr virus could have role in  children with meningoencephalitis. In recent years a sensitive, rapid, simple diagnostic  test "Single tube Multiplex PCR" in cerebro spinal fluid recommend. Rapid diagnosis and faster treatment is necessary for decreasing mortality and morbidity in all of herpes meningoencephalitis cases

  12. Sixty-two years of change in subtropical wet forest structure and composition at El Verde, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.P. Drew; J.D. Boley; Y. Zhao; F.H. Wadsworth

    2009-01-01

    A plot established in 1943 in a subtropical wet forest at the Luquillo Experimental Forest of Puerto Rico has been assessed periodically for changes in species and size of all trees >4cm diameter. Forest dynamics on a 0.72ha plot (EV-3) at 400masl at El Verde show recovery principally from hurricanes of 1928 and 1932, timber stand improvement in 1958, and from...

  13. A comparative evaluation of Oratest with the microbiological method of assessing caries activity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Meenakshi; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Ramalingam, Krishnakumar; Reddy, Venugopal; Rao, Arun Prasad; Mathian, Mahesh

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study is to find out whether Oratest can be used as a diagnostic tool in assessing the caries activity by evaluating its relationship to the existing caries status and the salivary streptococcus mutans level. Materials and Methods: The study sample consists of 90 students divided into two groups. Group I (test group) and Group II (control group) consisting of 30 children for control group and 60 children for test group. The sampling of unstimulated saliva for the estimation of streptococcus mutans was done as per the method suggested by Kohler and Bratthall. The plates were then incubated. Rough surface colonies were identified as streptococcus mutans on a pre-determined area of the tip (approximately 1.5 cm2) were counted for each side of spatula pressed against mitis salivarius bacitracin agar using digital colony counter. The results were expressed in colony forming units (CFU). Oratest was carried out in the same patients after the collection of salivary sample for the microbiological method to evaluate the relationship between the two tests. Statistical Analysis Used: The tests used were ANOVA, Pearson Chi-square test, Pearson′s correlation analysis, Mann-Whitney U test and Student′s independent t-test. Results: In the control group and test group, when the streptococcus mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time (minutes) were correlated using Pearson′s correlation analysis, the streptococcus mutans counts was found to be in a statistically significant negative linear relationship with the Oratest time. When the caries status of the children, participated in the test group were correlated with mutans count (CFU) and Oratest time, caries status were found to be in a statistically significant positive linear relationship with streptococcus mutans count and in a significant negative linear relationship with Oratest time. Conclusions: The test proved to be a simple, inexpensive and rapid technique for assessing caries activity since a

  14. [Review of assessment methods used to evaluate feeding for children with pervasive developmental disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, G; Ehrmann Feldman, D; Gisel, E

    2008-08-01

    Current evaluations used by occupational therapists to assess and treat feeding problems derive mainly from the domain of dysphagia. The purpose of this article is to familiarize the reader with tools used, in research, for children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) and to determine if any of these meet the needs of occupational therapists. The following data bases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, HAPI and PsyINFO, using the terms pervasive developmental disorder, autism, Asperger syndrome, pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified, eating behavior, eating disorder, food preference, food selectivity, feeding disorders, picky eater and child. All articles published between 1980 and 2006 (n=27) were reviewed. A total of 20 studies met our selection criteria. Assessment methods are compared using the Disability Creation Model (DCP). The DCP is the Quebec alternative to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). None of the evaluation tools reviewed met all factors that may influence eating in children with PDD. Implications for research and practice in occupational therapy are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of a method of assessing faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leech, S.C.; Sullivan, P.B.; McHugh, K.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Childhood constipation is common and assessment is often difficult. Plain abdominal radiography is simple and commonly used to assess constipation. The role of radiography with the use of a simple scoring system has not been fully evaluated. Objective. To assess the reliability of scoring faecal loading on plain abdominal radiographs in children with intractable constipation. Materials and methods. Plain abdominal radiographs from 33 constipated and 67 control children were independently assessed by three observers on two separate occasions. A scoring system was devised with scores from 0 (no stool) to 5 (gross faecal loading with bowel dilatation) in three areas of the colon, giving a total score of 0-15. Results. There were significant differences between the scores of the constipated and control radiographs for each observer (P = 0.05). There was no intra-observer variation (P = 0.12-0.69), but significant inter-observer variation was demonstrated (P = 0.00). Conclusions. We have found this scoring system to be a clinically useful and a reproducible tool in assessing childhood constipation. Assessment of faecal loading is subjective and varies between observers, although one observer will consistently score faecal loading on the same radiograph on successive occasions. To limit exposure to ionising radiation, we recommend that radiography be reserved for the investigation of intractable constipation, and its accuracy is improved if all radiographs are scored by the same observer. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosing clinically significant dehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis using noninvasive methods: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Stephen B; Vandermeer, Ben; Milne, Andrea; Hartling, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    To determine the most accurate, noninvasive method of assessing dehydration. The following data sources were searched: electronic databases, gray literature, scientific meetings, reference lists, and authors of unpublished studies. Eligible studies were comparative outpatient evaluations that used an accepted reference standard and were conducted in developed countries in children aged Dehydration Scale (CDS), the "Gorelick" score, and unstructured physician assessment were evaluated in 3, 2, and 5 studies, respectively. Bedside ultrasound, capillary digital videography, and urinary measurements were each evaluated in one study. The CDS had a positive likelihood ratio (LR) range of 1.87-11.79 and a negative LR range of 0.30-0.71 to predict 6% dehydration. When combined with the 4-item Gorelick Score, the positive LR was 1.93 (95% CI 1.07-3.49) and negative LR was of 0.40 (95% CI 0.24-0.68). Unstructured dehydration assessment had a pooled positive LR of 2.13 (95% CI 1.33-3.44) and negative LR of 0.48 (95% CI 0.28-0.82) to detect ≥ 5% dehydration. Overall, the clinical scales evaluated provide some improved diagnostic accuracy. However, test characteristics indicate that their ability to identify children both with and without dehydration is suboptimal. Current evidence does not support the routine use of ultrasound or urinalysis to determine dehydration severity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoos, Y.; Brunser, O.; Lawson, F.; Muzeke, A.; Ndjaye, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, 13 CO 2 and H 2 breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)

  18. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoos, Y [UZ Gasthuisberg, Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile); Lawson, F [Clinique Padre Pio, Cotonou (Benin); Muzeke, A [Faculte de Medicine, University of Kinshasa, Kinshasa (Congo); Ndjaye, M F [Cercle Senegalais Gastroenterologie, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-07-01

    It is stated that in developing countries a high rate of Helicobacter pylori infection among newborns and young children occurs. It is further assumed that this incidence may lead to inhibition of defense mechanism (inhibition of acid secretion) against bacteria, per orally ingested. This may result in excessive colonisation of the small intestine by bacteria. This situation may become a major cause for chronic malnutrition and diarrhoea syndrome with failure to thrive. This project aims at determining the occurrence of Helicobacter pylori infection in children at young age. It is aimed also at tracing the relationship between the Helicobacter pylori infection and the state of undernourishment. Finally it is aimed at comparing the usefulness of pre-/probiotics as anti-infection treatment. The methods used to demonstrate above mentioned parameters are based on stable isotopes, {sup 13}CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} breath tests mainly. To assess nutritional status and progress in growth conventional anthropometric techniques will be used, complementary to the results obtained by stable isotopes. It is put forward that the use of pre-/probiotics, instead of antibiotics, will suppress upper gastrointestinal infection and restore the intestinal cell capacity to assimilate all food ingredients. (author)

  19. Thematic Analysis of the Children's Drawings on Museum Visit: Adaptation of the Kuhn's Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisovar-Ivanda, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    Researchers are using techniques that allow children to express their perspectives. In 2003, Kuhn developed the method of data collection and analysis which combined thematic drawing and focused, episodic interview. In this article the Kuhn's method is adjusted using the draw and write technique as a research methodology. Reflections on the…

  20. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J.; Schulze, Matthias B.; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; van’t Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children

  1. Comparison of Saliva Collection Methods in Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: Acceptability and Recovery of Cortisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Susan K.; Lopata, Christopher; Fox, Jeffery D.; Thomeer, Marcus L.; Rodgers, Jonathan D.; Volker, Martin A.; Lee, Gloria K.; Neilans, Erik G.; Werth, Jilynn

    2012-01-01

    This study compared cortisol concentrations yielded using three saliva collection methods (passive drool, salivette, and sorbette) in both in vitro and in vivo conditions, as well as method acceptability for a sample of children (n = 39) with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. No cortisol concentration differences were observed between…

  2. Knowledge of Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder of Behavior Modification Methods and Their Training Needs Accordingly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeb, Raid Mousa Al-Shaik

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying knowledge of parents of children with autism spectrum disorder of behavior modification methods and their training needs accordingly. The sample of the study consisted of (98) parents in Jordan. A scale of behavior modification methods was constructed, and then validated. The results of the study showed that the…

  3. Total Energy Expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in rural pre-school children in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Triana, M.H.; Gonzalez-Calderin, S.; Sanchez, V.; Basabe-Tuero, B.; Salazar, G.; Diaz, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) was measured by the doubly labelled water method in nineteen 5 y old children of a rural mountain community in Cuba. Materials and Methods. Ten males and nine females (18.4 and 18.5 kg average weight) with mean BMI values of 16.3 and 16.1 kg/m2 were included in the study. RMR was previously measured in year 2000 by indirect calorimetry in a sample of 11 children and values correlated properly with the estimations using the proposed equations of Henry and Rees. This estimate was used then for the whole group. Energy intake measured by 3-day weighed dietary record was 3.73 MJ/day. Tee was measured by the doubly labelled water method. Results: TEE values of well nourished children were 7.15 and 5.77 MJ/d for boys and girls, respectively. These findings imply that well nourished boys and girls are having a moderate to heavy physical activity requiring 93 and 75 kcal/kg per day. Physical activity of normal Cuban boys and girls living in rural areas was 1.88 and 1.59 METS, which is much higher than those values reported for children from developed countries using DLW. Energy intake was 1639 ± 381 in boys and 1230 ± 355 kcal/d in girls. Conclusions: TEE and physical activity level of rural Cuban children was higher than reported values of children living in developed countries

  4. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed-Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macherera, Margaret; Moyo, Lindani; Ncube, Mkhanyiseli; Gumbi, Angella

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe. Methods A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest. Results A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI) clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs. Conclusions and Public Health Implications Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for universal

  5. Social, Cultural, and Environmental Challenges Faced by Children on Antiretroviral Therapy in Zimbabwe: a Mixed Method Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Macherera, MSc

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:Despite the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART, many children, particularly in the rural communities of Zimbabwe, remain vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors and challenges facing children on antiretroviral therapy (ART in Brunapeg area of Mangwe District, Zimbabwe.Methods:A mixed-method approach involving interviewer-guided focus group discussions and piloted semi-structured questionnaires was utilized to collect data from different key population groups. The data obtained were analyzed through content coding procedures based on a set of predetermined themes of interest.Results:A number of challenges emerged as barriers to the success of antiretroviral therapy for children. Primary care givers were less informed about HIV and AIDS issues for people having direct impact on the success of antiretroviral therapy in children whilst some were found to be taking the antiretroviral drugs meant for the children. It also emerged that some primary care givers were either too young or too old to care for the children while others had failed to disclose to the children why they frequently visited the Opportunistic Infections (OI clinic. Most primary care givers were not the biological parents of the affected children. Other challenges included inadequate access to health services, inadequate food and nutrition and lack of access to clean water, good hygiene and sanitation. The lack of community support and stigma and discrimination affected their school attendance and hospital visits. All these factors contributed to non-adherence to antiretroviral drugs.Conclusions and Public Health Implications:Children on ART in rural communities in Zimbabwe remain severely compromised and have unique problems that need multi-intervention strategies both at policy and programmatic levels. Effective mitigating measures must be fully established and implemented in rural communities of developing countries in the fight for

  6. [Evaluation of psychological methods for determining the degree of psychological stress in children in dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenin, V V; Ostreĭkov, I F; Vasil'ev, Ia I

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with results of comparative evaluation of system of assessment of children's fear and anxiety in dentistry (SDS test) and other objective and subjective methods for assessing anxiety in pediatric patients. We studied 381 pediatric patients aged from 3 to 7 years. The aim of the study was to prove validity mathematical derived FCD test as a technique of anxiety detection in dentistry. During the study following subjective test were used: MAS, DAS, mYPAS, VAS, STAI, STAIC, EASI, PHBQ, and some history data and stress factors were also considered. Objective data used were vital signs (hemodynamics and respiratory rate). Test SDS has strong correlation with YALE, MAS, DAS, STAIlich, VAS and other parameters such as age, sex, person which is responsible for bringing up a child and so on.

  7. Analysis backpropagation methods with neural network for prediction of children's ability in psychomotoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhari, F.; Dhany, H. W.; Zarlis, M.; Sutarman

    2018-03-01

    A good age in optimizing aspects of development is at the age of 4-6 years, namely with psychomotor development. Psychomotor is broader, more difficult to monitor but has a meaningful value for the child's life because it directly affects his behavior and deeds. Therefore, there is a problem to predict the child's ability level based on psychomotor. This analysis uses backpropagation method analysis with artificial neural network to predict the ability of the child on the psychomotor aspect by generating predictions of the child's ability on psychomotor and testing there is a mean squared error (MSE) value at the end of the training of 0.001. There are 30% of children aged 4-6 years have a good level of psychomotor ability, excellent, less good, and good enough.

  8. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  9. Clustering of attitudes towards obesity: a mixed methods study of Australian parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olds, Tim; Thomas, Samantha; Lewis, Sophie; Petkov, John

    2013-10-12

    Current population-based anti-obesity campaigns often target individuals based on either weight or socio-demographic characteristics, and give a 'mass' message about personal responsibility. There is a recognition that attempts to influence attitudes and opinions may be more effective if they resonate with the beliefs that different groups have about the causes of, and solutions for, obesity. Limited research has explored how attitudinal factors may inform the development of both upstream and downstream social marketing initiatives. Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews were conducted with 159 parents and 184 of their children (aged 9-18 years old) in two Australian states. A mixed methods approach was used to assess attitudes towards obesity, and elucidate why different groups held various attitudes towards obesity. Participants were quantitatively assessed on eight dimensions relating to the severity and extent, causes and responsibility, possible remedies, and messaging strategies. Cluster analysis was used to determine attitudinal clusters. Participants were also able to qualify each answer. Qualitative responses were analysed both within and across attitudinal clusters using a constant comparative method. Three clusters were identified. Concerned Internalisers (27% of the sample) judged that obesity was a serious health problem, that Australia had among the highest levels of obesity in the world and that prevalence was rapidly increasing. They situated the causes and remedies for the obesity crisis in individual choices. Concerned Externalisers (38% of the sample) held similar views about the severity and extent of the obesity crisis. However, they saw responsibility and remedies as a societal rather than an individual issue. The final cluster, the Moderates, which contained significantly more children and males, believed that obesity was not such an important public health issue, and judged the extent of obesity to be less extreme than the other clusters

  10. Play-Based Interview Methods for Exploring Young Children's Perspectives on Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Donna; San Juan, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    Inclusive education provides learning opportunities for children with disabilities in regular settings with other children. Despite the prevalence of inclusive education, few qualitative studies have adequately explored young children's perspectives on inclusion. This paper reviews the findings of a preliminary qualitative study where play-based…

  11. Building a Method for Researching Attribution of Meaning by Children Aged 5 to 6 in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertoolen, Anja; van Oers, Bert; Geldens, Jeannette; Popeijus, Herman

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The question is which settings, under which circumstances,…

  12. Building a method for researching attribution of meaning by children aged 5 to 6 in school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tertoolen, A.; van Oers, B.; Geldens, J.; Popeijus, H.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on the first phase of a research project in which we looked for the voices of young children, aged 5 to 6, in school. What do children experience in school? What do they see as the meaning of school? What is their motivation? Children have the right to be listened to. The

  13. Using the Debate Method for Teaching Argumentation to 10-12 Year-Old Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Rybka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to peculiarities of using the debate method in teaching argumentation to 10–12 year-old children. The research is aimed at identifying the most effective ways and means of applying the given method. According to the author’s hypothesis, regular integration of discussions into the training course of rhetoric should promote learners’ argumentation, changing it from a mere fantasy through egocentric attitudes to the objective position expressed in a conclusive argumentative way. To achieve the research objectives, the experimental training method was developed applying the debate technique in the form of role plays adapted to peculiarities of children’s age. The experimental results indicated the decentration dynamics in the training process and, therefore, the effectiveness of the experimental training course. The presented training program can be used in teaching rhetoric to 10–12 year- olds, as well as in the optional argumentation course based on the debate technique. In addition, the analysis of children’s argumentation position in the context of socio-cognitive approach can give an impetus for further studies of children’s speech and thinking. 

  14. Study on cardiac output in children with orthostatic disturbances measured by the external dilution method with a radioisotope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, K [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo

    1975-04-01

    As one of the studies on circulation dynamics which possibly contributed to orthostatic disturbance, application to children of the external measurement of cardiac output with /sup 131/I labeled human serum albumin was examined. The effect of orthostatic load was then studied by this method on the children with orthostatic disturbances and the patients improving from other diseases, and the following results were obtained: (1) As in the external method with radioisotope, the head of the scintillation detector was easily oriented, and the diversion of orientation was examined by circulation dilution curve, and the cardiac output was easily and safely measured without causing severe pain to the subjects. This method was performed on 40 children in the recumbent position and 27 in orthostatic load, and it was confirmed that the method was fully applicable to the pediatric field. (2) In half of the 20 patients with orthostatic disturbances and 20 control subjects, the cardiac index in the recumbent position was between 3 l/min/m/sup 2/ and 5 l/min/m/sup 2/. Mean cardiac index was 4.45 l/min/m/sup 2/ in male children, while 4.72 l/min/m/sup 2/ in female children. This mean value was the same or a little higher than the reported adult value.

  15. Noninvasive diagnostic methods for perceptual and motor disabilities in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Lampe

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The field of neuroorthopedics centers on chronic diseases demanding close clinical monitoring. We shall use several examples to show how the various noninvasive diagnostic instruments can be used to obtain insight into the central nervous system as well as into the musculoskeletal system and its morphology. The choice of the most appropriate method depends on the problem; that is, whether the method is to be applied for clinical use or for basic research. In this report we introduce various technical examination methods that are being used successfully in the fields of pediatrics, orthopedics, and neurology. The major examination instrument in pediatric diagnostics is sonography, which is being used in this report as a research instrument for the biomechanics of the musculoskeletal system, but which also gives insight into neurofunctional sequences. In orthopedics, pedography is used for diagnosing deformities of the feet. In neuroorthopedics for children pedography acts as a functional monitor for apraxia and thus allows, for example, a classification of the degree of neurological malfunctions in the lower extremities. The 3D bodyscan is used to minimize x-raying in patients with neurogenic scoliosis. This report introduces examples of the application of MRI and fMRI for basic research. The biometric measuring methods introduced provide precise data in the areas of diagnostics and monitoring and are highly valuable for further neuroorthopedic basic research. In future we expect the ever-evolving technical measuring methods to enable a deeper understanding of the primary neurological causes of and the implications for patients with cerebral palsy and other neuroorthopedic conditions. This may allow the development of new forms of therapy not necessarily predictable today.

  16. Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method in emergency setting in children presenting with incarcerated inguinal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kin Wai Edwin; Lee, Kim Hung; Tam, Yuk Him; Sihoe, Jennifer Dart Yin; Cheung, Sing Tak; Mou, Jennifer Wai Cheung

    2011-10-01

    The development of laparoscopic hernia repair has provided an alternative approach to the management of incarcerated inguinal hernia in children. Different laparoscopic techniques for hernia repair have been described. However, we hereby review the role of laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in the emergency setting for incarcerated inguinal hernias in children. A retrospective review was conducted of all children who presented with incarcerated inguinal hernia and underwent laparoscopic hernia repair using the hook method in emergency setting between 2004 and 2010. There were a total of 15 boys and 1 girl with a mean age of 30 ± 36 months (range, 4 months to 12 years). The hernia was successfully reduced after sedation in 7 children and after general anesthesia in 4 children. In 5 children, the hernia was reduced by a combined manual and laparoscopic-assisted approach. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair using the hook method was performed after reduction of the hernia. The presence of preperitoneal fluid secondary to recent incarceration facilitated the dissection of the preperitoneal space by the hernia hook. All children underwent successful reduction and hernia repair. The median operative time was 37 minutes. There was no postoperative complication. The median hospital stay was 3 days. At a median follow-up of 40 months, there was no recurrence of the hernia or testicular atrophy. Emergency laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair by the hook method is safe and feasible. Easier preperitoneal dissection was experienced, and repair of the contralateral patent processus vaginalis can be performed in the same setting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The method of joint drawing in the practice of teaching drawing to the elementary school children with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyalova O.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available While teaching children with autism spectrum disorders how to draw the teacher needs to focus on the fact that each child has creative potential and art activities play important part in the brain development. Often children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder have serious speech impairments, for example, they can talk to parents and family members, but not to classmates and teachers. In that case, one can communicate with a child through drawings, and to access their mood and desires through them. The article describes the method of joint drawing during teaching elementary school children with autism spectrum disorders from the school at the Center for Psychological, Medical and Social Support to Children and Adolescents.

  18. Barriers, facilitators and preferences for the physical activity of school children. Rationale and methods of a mixed study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Andrés María

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity interventions in schools environment seem to have shown some effectiveness in the control of the current obesity epidemic in children. However the complexity of behaviors and the diversity of influences related to this problem suggest that we urgently need new lines of insight about how to support comprehensive population strategies of intervention. The aim of this study was to know the perceptions of the children from Cuenca, about their environmental barriers, facilitators and preferences for physical activity. Methods/Design We used a mixed-method design by combining two qualitative methods (analysis of individual drawings and focus groups together with the quantitative measurement of physical activity through accelerometers, in a theoretical sample of 121 children aged 9 and 11 years of schools in the province of Cuenca, Spain. Conclusions Mixed-method study is an appropriate strategy to know the perceptions of children about barriers and facilitators for physical activity, using both qualitative methods for a deeply understanding of their points of view, and quantitative methods for triangulate the discourse of participants with empirical data. We consider that this is an innovative approach that could provide knowledges for the development of more effective interventions to prevent childhood overweight.

  19. [THE CORRECTION OF TROPHIC DISORDERS IN CHILDREN OF CHRONIC GASTRODUODENITIS WITH METHOD LOW-FREQUENCY LIGHT-MAGNETOTHERAPY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, T A; Sadovnikova, I V; Belousova, T E

    2015-01-01

    The results of a survey of school children with chronic gastroduodenitis when applying at an early period the medical rehabilitation with method low-frequency light-magnetotherapy. During treatment of hospital was evaluated vegetative-trophic status with methods of cardiointervalography and thermovision functional tests. In normalizes clinical parameters was correction in dynamics of the vegetative status in children, it confirms the effectiveness of the therapy. It is proved, that the use of low-frequency light-magnetotherapy has a positive effect on the vegetative--trophic provision an organism and normalizes the vegetative dysfunction.

  20. Methods and representativeness of a European survey in children and adolescents: the KIDSCREEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Rueden Ursula

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of the present study was to compare three different sampling and questionnaire administration methods used in the international KIDSCREEN study in terms of participation, response rates, and external validity. Methods Children and adolescents aged 8–18 years were surveyed in 13 European countries using either telephone sampling and mail administration, random sampling of school listings followed by classroom or mail administration, or multistage random sampling of communities and households with self-administration of the survey materials at home. Cooperation, completion, and response rates were compared across countries and survey methods. Data on non-respondents was collected in 8 countries. The population fraction (PF, respondents in each sex-age, or educational level category, divided by the population in the same category from Eurostat census data and population fraction ratio (PFR, ratio of PF and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze differences by country between the KIDSCREEN samples and a reference Eurostat population. Results Response rates by country ranged from 18.9% to 91.2%. Response rates were highest in the school-based surveys (69.0%–91.2%. Sample proportions by age and gender were similar to the reference Eurostat population in most countries, although boys and adolescents were slightly underrepresented (PFR Conclusion School-based sampling achieved the highest overall response rates but also produced slightly more biased samples than the other methods. The results suggest that the samples were sufficiently representative to provide reference population values for the KIDSCREEN instrument.

  1. Parenting Practices and Child Misbehavior: A Mixed Method Study of Italian Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombi, Anna Silvia; Di Norcia, Anna; Di Giunta, Laura; Pastorelli, Concetta; Lansford, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study uses a mixed qualitative and quantitative method to examine three main research questions: What are the practices that mothers report they use when trying to correct their children’s misbehaviors? Are there common patterns of these practices? Are the patterns that emerge related to children’s well-being? Design Italian mother-child dyads (N=103) participated in the study (when children were 8 years of age). At Time 1 (T1), mothers answered open-ended questions about discipline; in addition, measures of maternal physical discipline and rejection and child aggression were assessed in mothers and children at T1, one year later (T2), and two years later (T3). Results Mothers’ answers to open-ended questions about what they would do in three disciplinary situations were classified in six categories: physical or psychological punishment, control, mix of force and reasoning, reasoning, listening, and permissiveness. Cluster analysis yielded 3 clusters: Group 1, Induction (predominant use of reasoning and listening; 74%); Group 2, Punishment (punitive practices and no reasoning; 16%); Group 3, Mixed practices (combination of reasoning and punishment, as well as high control and no listening; 10%). Multiple-group latent growth curves of maternal physical discipline, maternal rejection, and child aggression were implemented to evaluate possible differences in the developmental trends from T1 to T3, as a function of cluster. Conclusions Qualitative data deepen understanding of parenting because they shed light on what parents think about themselves; their self-descriptions, in turn, help to identify ways of parenting that may have long-lasting consequences for children’s adjustment. PMID:26877716

  2. Treatment of children with H. pylori infection with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunser, O; Cruchet, S; Gotteland, M; Verbeke, S [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2000-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a high proportion of the population of the less developed countries since an early age. In the developed countries this occurs at a later age and with less frequency. This pathogen causes mostly asymptomatic infection but in a proportion of the population it is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis. A subset of these individuals will eventually develop gastric carcinoma. For this reason there has always been considerable interest in developing innocuous, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, specific and noninvasive methods for diagnosis. The {sup 13}C-urea breath test ({sup 13}C-UBT) satisfies most of these requirements. Eradication of H. pylori is accomplished by administration of proton pump blockers and a variety of antibiotics singly or in associations. The rate of success is rather high but treatment is long, expensive, it has secondary effects and it increases bacterial resistance. For this reason it is worth looking at other forms of treatment. Probiotics have demonstrated capacity to stimulate defensive mechanisms and to inhibit and even kill H. pylori in vitro and in animal experiments. We propose to conduct a study in which children 10 to 18 years of age colonized by H. pylori will receive a probiotic (Lactobacillus GG) twice daily for 4 or 8 weeks and the rate of infection will be assessed by the {sup 13}C-UBT. Local immune responses will be evaluated by measuring quantitatively total salivary slgA and specific slgA. A group of children who will not receive Lactobacillus GG will serve as controls for all procedures. We believe that Lactobacillus GG will eradicate H. pylori and thus make it possible to treat this infection without recourse to antibiotics.

  3. Treatment of children with H. pylori infection with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunser, O.; Cruchet, S.; Gotteland, M.; Verbeke, S.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of a high proportion of the population of the less developed countries since an early age. In the developed countries this occurs at a later age and with less frequency. This pathogen causes mostly asymptomatic infection but in a proportion of the population it is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer, atrophic gastritis. A subset of these individuals will eventually develop gastric carcinoma. For this reason there has always been considerable interest in developing innocuous, fast, inexpensive, sensitive, specific and noninvasive methods for diagnosis. The 13 C-urea breath test ( 13 C-UBT) satisfies most of these requirements. Eradication of H. pylori is accomplished by administration of proton pump blockers and a variety of antibiotics singly or in associations. The rate of success is rather high but treatment is long, expensive, it has secondary effects and it increases bacterial resistance. For this reason it is worth looking at other forms of treatment. Probiotics have demonstrated capacity to stimulate defensive mechanisms and to inhibit and even kill H. pylori in vitro and in animal experiments. We propose to conduct a study in which children 10 to 18 years of age colonized by H. pylori will receive a probiotic (Lactobacillus GG) twice daily for 4 or 8 weeks and the rate of infection will be assessed by the 13 C-UBT. Local immune responses will be evaluated by measuring quantitatively total salivary slgA and specific slgA. A group of children who will not receive Lactobacillus GG will serve as controls for all procedures. We believe that Lactobacillus GG will eradicate H. pylori and thus make it possible to treat this infection without recourse to antibiotics

  4. Comparison of Three Methods Used in the Diagnosis of Extraesophageal Reflux in Children with Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion

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    Martin Formánek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Detection of extraesophageal reflux (EER in children with chronic otitis media with effusion (OME using three different diagnostic methods. Methods. Children between 1 and 7 years with OME who underwent adenoidectomy and myringotomy with insertion of a ventilation tube were included in this prospective study. EER was detected using three methods: oropharyngeal pH was monitored for 24 hours using the Restech system; detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid obtained during myringotomy was done using Peptest, and detection of pepsin in an adenoid specimen was done immunohistochemically. Results. Altogether 21 children were included in the study. Pathological oropharyngeal pH was confirmed in 13/21 (61.9% children. Pepsin in the middle ear fluid was present in 5/21 (23.8% children; these 5 patients were diagnosed with the most severe EER established through monitoring of oropharyngeal pH. No specimen of adenoids tested was positive for pepsin upon immunohistochemical examination. Conclusions. Diagnosis of EER in patients with OME using Restech is sensitive but less specific when compared to the detection of pepsin in middle ear fluid using Peptest. Pepsin in the middle ear was consistently present in patients with RYAN score above 200, and these patients in particular could potentially profit from antireflux therapy.

  5. Exploring the Use of Emoji as a Visual Research Method for Eliciting Young Children's Voices in Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fane, Jennifer; MacDougall, Colin; Jovanovic, Jessie; Redmond, Gerry; Gibbs, Lisa

    2018-01-01

    Recognition of the need to move from research "on" children to research "with" children has prompted significant theoretical and methodological debate as to how young children can be positioned as active participants in the research process. Visual research methods such as drawing, photography, and videography have received…

  6. Influence author methodic teaching swimming on coordination quality of children 6–10 years old with hearing disabilities

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    Julia Karbunarova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the influence of the author's methodic of teaching swimming on coordination skills of children with hearing disability of primary school age. Material & Methods: in 20 deaf children’s who are studies in special school of Lviv region we make experimental and control groups, and defined the level of static balance by methodic of Romberg and Bondarevskyy, preserve the active balance while walking on the increase by test «Walk on gymnastic beam» and comprehensive display of coordination skills we used test «Three somersaults forward». The survey was conducted before and after the implementation of our methods of teaching swimming. Results: revealed low level of capacity to preserve static balance and ability to preserve the active balance while walking on the increase at the beginning of research. Conclusion: the defined positive impact of the methodic of teaching swimming in deaf children of experimental group according to results of static balance.

  7. Play with online virtual pets as a method to improve mirror neuron and real world functioning in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Eric Lewin

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a severe disease with no known cause and no cure or treatment. Recently, ourselves and subsequently others found that so-called "mirror neurons" - neurons that respond not only when a person moves, but upon observation of movement in another - are dysfunctional in autistic children. Here I suggest an easy, simple, inexpensive and fun method to improve mirror neuron functioning in autistic children, increase appreciation in autistic children for the theory of mind and thinking of others, and most importantly hopefully to improve real world functioning: play with virtual online pets that are the "embodiment" of a stuffed animal the child has. Adoption and then care and play with online pets forces, in a fun way, one to think about the world through the eyes and needs of the pet. A simple method to test this play with online virtual pet therapy is described.

  8. Prevalence of proteinuria in school children (aged 12-14 years in Kashmir valley, India, using dipstick method

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    Hilal Ahmad Malla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Screening for kidney diseases by urinalysis in school children is being conducted in many parts of the world with inexpensive tools such as urinary dipsticks. We conducted this study to know the prevalence of asymptomatic proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley as no previous study is available. After applying exclusion criteria, 2068 children were screened for proteinuria by dipstick method. Another test was performed in the children with abnormal findings in the first sample with dipstick of the same brand, after a period of one-month. These children were also assessed by timed urine collection (i.e., 24 h urinary protein. In the first dipstick test, the prevalence of proteinuria in the studied population was 6.2% which persisted in 2.17% after second dipstick examination. No child in the studied group was found to have glycosuria. In our study, no statistically significant association was found between proteinuria and gender, body mass index, or hypertension. In our study, the prevalence of persistent proteinuria in school children (age group 12-14 years in Kashmir valley was almost similar to the studies conducted in different parts of the world.

  9. Incremental Validity and Informant Effect from a Multi-Method Perspective: Assessing Relations between Parental Acceptance and Children's Behavioral Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Sotorrío, Eva; Holgado-Tello, Francisco P; Carrasco, Miguel Á

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between perceived parental acceptance and children's behavioral problems (externalizing and internalizing) from a multi-informant perspective. Using mothers, fathers, and children as sources of information, we explore the informant effect and incremental validity. The sample was composed of 681 participants (227 children, 227 fathers, and 227 mothers). Children's (40% boys) ages ranged from 9 to 17 years (M = 12.52, SD = 1.81). Parents and children completed both the Parental Acceptance Rejection/Control Questionnaire (PARQ/Control) and the check list of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Statistical analyses were based on the correlated uniqueness multitrait-multimethod matrix (model MTMM) by structural equations and different hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed a significant informant effect and a different incremental validity related to which combination of sources was considered. A multi-informant perspective rather than a single one increased the predictive value. Our results suggest that mother-father or child-father combinations seem to be the best way to optimize the multi-informant method in order to predict children's behavioral problems based on perceived parental acceptance.

  10. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods

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    Seyed Mohsen DEHGHANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background - Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. Objectives - The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. Methods - This study included children with the range of ages (2-21 who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA were used for data analysis. Results - In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%, 36 (94.73%, and 14 (82.35% of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05. For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion - There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  11. Storyline and Associations Pyramid as Methods of Creativity Enhancement: Comparison of Effectiveness in 5-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smogorzewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study comparing the originality, the length, the number of neologisms and the syntactic complexity of fairy tales created with "Storyline" and "Associations Pyramid." Both methods were developed to enhance children's language abilities and their creative thinking. One hundred twenty eight 5-year-old children…

  12. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  13. Cooking time but not cooking method affects children's acceptance of Brassica vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.; Delahunty, C.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    The home environment potentially presents a simple means to increase acceptance of sensory properties of vegetables by preparation. This research investigated how preparation can effectively impact upon children's acceptance for vegetables. Five- and six-year old children (n = 82, balanced for

  14. Kindergarten Children's Interactions with Touchscreen Mathematics Virtual Manipulatives: An Innovative Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Stephen I.; Lommatsch, Christina W.; Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Anderson-Pence, Katie L.; Symanzik, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of mathematical practices evident during children's interactions with touchscreen mathematics virtual manipulatives. Researchers analyzed 33 Kindergarten children's interactions during activities involving apps featuring mathematical content of early number sense or quantity in base ten, recorded…

  15. When Kids Act Out: A Comparison of Embodied Methods to Improve Children's Memory for a Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenhaus, Molly; Oakhill, Jane; Rusted, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, embodied cognition, the idea that sensorimotor processes facilitate higher cognitive processes, has proven useful for improving children's memory for a story. In order to compare the benefits of two embodiment techniques, active experiencing (AE) and indexing, for children's memory for a story, we compared the immediate…

  16. Elementary School Children's Reasoning about Social Class: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia S.; White, Elizabeth S.; Chow, Kirby A.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined children's identification and reasoning about their subjective social status (SSS), their beliefs about social class groups (i.e., the poor, middle class, and rich), and the associations between the two. Study participants were 117 10- to 12-year-old children of diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds…

  17. Identification of Aurally Handicapped Children and Methods and Procedures of Developing a Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. Div. of Special Education Services.

    An article on identification of preschool and school age aurally handicapped children and program development by John J. O'Neill precedes discussions of the role of the audiologist in evaluation of these children by Jack A. Willeford, and educational aspects of planning by John J. O'Neill. Three articles are presented on the role of the teacher in…

  18. An Overview of Dyscalculia: Methods for Ascertaining and Accommodating Dyscalculic Children in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelson, Matthew Thomas

    2007-01-01

    For many children, mathematics is an inherently difficult subject to learn. Between 5 and 8 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 14 have a particular type of cognitive deficiency that limits their aptitude to acquire knowledge and understanding of fundamental ideas in numeracy. Increasingly, researchers in the cognitive sciences are…

  19. Diversity effect in category-based inductive reasoning of young children: evidence from two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Luojin; Lee, Myung Sook; Huang, Yulan; Mo, Lei

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that diverse pieces of evidence, rather than similar pieces of evidence, are considered to have greater strength in adults' inductive reasoning. However, this diversity effect is inconsistently recognized by children. Three experiments using the same materials but different tasks examined whether young children consider the diversity principle in their reasoning. Although Experiment 1 applied a data selection task showed five-year-old children in both China and Korea were not sensitive to the diversity of evidence, Experiments 2 and 3 employed an identification task and demonstrated that children as young as five years were sensitive to diverse evidence. These findings indicated that young children, less than nine years of age, may have diversity effect. Methodological and cultural differences were discussed.

  20. Successful applications of montessori methods with children at risk for learning disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, J S

    1992-12-01

    The critical elements in the Montessori philosophy are respect for the child, individualization of the program to that child, and the fostering of independence. With her research background, Maria Montessori devised a multisensory developmental method and designed materials which isolate each concept the teacher presents to the child.In presenting these materials the teacher observes the concept and skill development level of the child, ascertaining areas of strength and weakness and matching the next presentation to the child's level of development. Using small sequential steps, the teacher works to ameliorate weakness and guide the student to maximize his strengths. These presentations, usually initiated by the child, enhance cognitive growth using a process which integrates his physical, social, and emotional development.The curriculum contains four major content areas: Practical Life; Sensorial; Oral and Written Language; and Mathematics. Geography, History, Science, Art, Music, Literature, and Motor Skills are also included. In all of these the Montessori presentations build from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract, and from percept to concept. Vocabulary and language usage are integral to each presentation.The procedures introduced through these presentations are designed to enhance attention, increase self-discipline and self-direction, and to promote order, organization, and the development of a work cycle. At-risk children benefit from the structure, the procedures, and the curriculum. Applications of this method require more teacher selection of materials and direct teaching, particularly of language and math symbols and their manipulations.This early childhood intervention provides an individualized program which allows the at-risk child a successful experience at the preschool level. The program includes a strong conceptual preparation for later academic learning and it promotes the development of a healthy self-concept.

  1. BOWEL PREPARATION BEFORE COLONOSCOPY FOR CHILDREN: comparison of efficacy of three different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Javaherizadeh, Hazhir; Haghighat, Mahmood; Imanieh, Mohammad-Hadi; Ghanbari, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Colonoscopy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. Adequate bowel preparation is mandatory. Several regimens were discussed in the literature. Among the drugs which has recently used, polyethylene glycol is one of the most popular agents. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy of three different methods for 1 day preparation before colonoscopy. This study included children with the range of ages (2-21) who had an indication of colonoscopy. Exclusion criteria were based on the history of previous surgery, parental disagreement, and patients who did not use preparation protocol. Three methods for bowel preparation were studied: 1- Polyethylene glycol only; 2- Polyethylene glycol and bisacodyl suppositories; 3- Polyethylene glycol plus normal saline enema. Boston Bowel Preparation Score was used for evaluation of preparation. SPSS version 16.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) were used for data analysis. In this study 83 cases completed the bowel preparation completely. Acceptable bowel preparation was seen in 24 (85.71%), 36 (94.73%), and 14 (82.35%) of cases in PEG, PEG + bisacodyl, and PEG + normal saline enema groups respectively. PEG + bisacodyl suppositories was more effective than PEG + normal saline for the preparation of the first segment ( P=0.05). For second and third segment of colon, BPPS score was higher in PEG + bisacodyl suppositories compared to other regimens, but this difference was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between 1 day colonoscopy regimens in terms of bowel preparation score. Lowest score was seen in PEG + enema group compared to other group.

  2. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in children: a mixed method study on healthcare professionals attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Angela; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Ciofi Degli Atti, Marta Luisa; Colaceci, Sofia; Raschetti, Roberto; Arace, Pasquale; Spiazzi, Raffaele; Raponi, Massimiliano

    2016-12-05

    Qualitative and quantitative research investigating determinants of adherence to clinical guidelines (GLs) on surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) are scarce. We conducted a mixed-method study aimed at investigating barriers and at describing attitudes of healthcare professionals (HCPs) regarding SAP in three Italian children's hospitals. The study comprised two sequential phases: 1) collection of qualitative data through focus groups; 2) conduction of a survey on HCPs attitudes towards SAP. Focus groups were carried out in each hospital with a theoretical convenience sample of 10-15 HCPs. Categorical analysis was conducted. Emerging categories and additional topics derived by literature search were used to develop the survey questionnaire, which included 13 questions expressed through a 4-point Likert scale. Members of surgical teams were invited by e-mail to fill in the questionnaire. We summed up the points assigned to each 4-point Likert scale response and calculated a cumulative score expressing overall concordance to expected HCPs attitudes on SAP. We conducted univariate and multivariate analysis to evaluate the relationship among characteristics of respondents and concordance with expected attitudes. The main categories identified in the qualitative phase included determinants of general adherence to GLs (e.g., relevance of clinical judgment), individual determinants (e.g., poor knowledge on hospital data) and organizational/structural determinants (e.g., patient flows). A total of 357 HCPs participated in the survey (response rate: 82.1%). Among respondents, 75% reported that SAP should be performed with first or second-generation cephalosporins, 44% that 2-3 days of antibiotic administration are useful as a precaution after surgery, 32% that SAP is needed for all surgical procedures. At multivariate analysis, professional category (physicians vs nurses; OR: 3.31; 95%CI: 1.88-5.82), and hospital (hospital 1 and 2 vs hospital 3; ORs: 2.79, 95%CI: 1

  3. The Effectiveness of Verbal Self-Instruction Method on Pessimistic Attribution Style about Negative Events in Children with Dyslexia

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    Zahra Eyni Mirkoohi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of verbal self-Instruction on pessimistic attribution style about negative events in children with dyslexia. Methods: The study was experimental with pre-test-post-test and control group. The statistical population consists of all dyslexic students of Maktab Ali School in Tehran City. Forty students were selected by convenience sampling method and randomly allocated to two groups: experimental and control. Experimental group received verbal self-Instruction, Mychnbam and Goodman method in 8 sessions (2 sessions per week, each lasting 45 minutes while the control group received only the routine school training. The measurement was Children's Attribution Style Questionnaire (CASQ.‌‌ Data analysis using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: Negative pessimistic attribution style (general, stable and internal were significantly decreased (P<0.005. in the experimental group in comparison with control group after intervention. Discussion: Verbal self instruction can be applied in children with dyslexia for improvement of attribution style by psychologists, teachers, educators, special schools, parents and all those who are dealing with these children

  4. The Use of Key Informant Method for Identifying Children with Blindness and Severe Visual Impairment in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Rènée; Courtright, Paul; Lewallen, Susan

    2017-06-01

    An estimated 19 million children are visually impaired; of these, 1.4 million are irreversibly blind. A key challenge is to identify them early in life to benefit maximally from visual rehabilitation, and/or treatment. This aggregative review and structured literature analysis summarizes evidence of what it is about the key informant (KI) approach that works to identify children with blindness or severe visual impairment (B/SVI) in the community (for whom, to what extent, in what circumstances, in what respect, how and why). Peer-reviewed (PubMed, hand search) and grey literature (Google, World Health Organization website, academic theses, direct requests) were included, and methods and criteria used for identification, productivity (number of children referred per KI), accuracy of referrals (positive predictive value, PPV), age of children with B/SVI, KI definition, sex, information about cost and comparisons aggregated. We included 31 documents describing 22 unique KI programs. Mostly KIs identified children with B/SVI in 1-3 weeks, i.e. "campaign mode." In 60%, KIs were community volunteers, others formal health sector workers (FHSW). Around 0.02-1.56 children per KI (median = 0.25) were successfully recruited. PPV ranged from 12 to 66%. In two studies comparing FHSWs and community KIs, the latter were 8 and 10 times more productive. KIs working in campaign mode may provide an effective approach to identifying children with B/SVI in communities. Including identification of ocular problems and/or other impairments has been recommended. Research on factors that influence effectiveness and on whether KIs continue to contribute could inform programs.

  5. Analysis of food advertisements on cable television directed to children based on the food guide for the Brazilian population and current legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya da Rocha BRITTO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study examined food product advertisements directed to children and aired on closed television channels in Brazil, according to the types of foods and beverages advertised and the advertising content. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted on the adequacy of food commercials directed to children and aired by six pay-television broadcasters according to two parameters: "The Food Guide for the Brazilian Population, 2014", and the National Council on Children's and Adolescents' Rights Resolution nº 163 of 2014 about food advertising. The advertisements were recorded in July 2015, at different times and days of the week. Results: One hundred and sixty-two hours were recorded, registering 3,468 commercials: 1,850 were related to internal programming and 1,618 advertised toys (22.15%, food and beverages (5.61%, applications for electronic devices (5.58%, and entertainment/events (5.56%. The Fisher exact test showed fewer number of food commercials compared to other types of commercials (p<0.001. The main food items advertised by all television stations were ultraprocessed foods and no advertisements of fresh food were observed (p<0.001. Most of the food commercials (64.30% used children's language and characters; 43.00% used songs in children's voices, and 21.40% linked gift distribution to food. Conclusion: The number of food commercials observed was lower than in previous national studies. However, the advertisements did not follow current legislation, indicating the abuse of marketing communication to children. More effective public policies and the respect and enforcement of legislation on child advertising could protect children from high consumption of ultraprocessed foods.

  6. The methodical approach to determining the heterogeneity of cognitive function in preschool children requiring correction of speech impediments

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    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been confirmed that children who suffer from speech impediments may experience difficulties in their cognitive activity, limitations in communication, asociality and sense detachment. It is also clear that these children require not only logopedic treatment, but also assistance in developing functions of their cognitive and mental activities. Aims. To identify the case of uniformity lack of cognitive and somatomental functions of 5-6 year old children with speech impediments in a group; to evaluate the method used for this research. Methods. Use estimates of major mental and cognitive activities by means of tests increases the difficulty. Scores from 1 to 10 were given. Such factors as movement coordination, musicality and body plasticity were taken into consideration too. StatSoft STATISTICA10.0. programme was used to run the statistical analysis. Results. The changes of the group with uniformity of physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities were analysed and estimated at the beginning and at the end of the academic year. The results of the claster analysis have shown that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities. Also it was estimated that the level of uniformity has increased in the group. Conclusions. Having done the research we can state that with the help of cluster analysis children with speech impediments can be grouped according to their physical, cognitive, somatomental and dance abilities. With the help of the results of the claster analysis that notifies that the children managed to develop their cognitive and somatomental abilities, we can observe the positivie effects of the suggested dance-cognitive teaching elements in an educational programme.

  7. Çocuk Eğitiminde Reiki Yöntemi Reiki Method Of Children's Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YALÇIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing the use of reiki in Turkey and in theworld. In a study conducted in Turkey, reiki% of regular users is 0.4.Reiki is, "universal energy" or "life energy" means. On our bodies,"chakra" centers of energy are called. Each chakra, the energy indifferent frequency is considered as the gateway. Reiki philosophy, thisenergy blockage occurs in one of the gates of the body, based on thestrain energy intake. As a result of these energy blockages believed to bemediated disorders and behavioral changes. These chakras locatedalong the spine, glands and nerve centers of the network intersect.Thus, reiki, chakras and glands are gaining the ability to act on thebody as a joint project. This method is based on hormones and bodymovements, child development, and holds an important place in thedevelopment of positive behavior in children. During the practice ofReiki hands, head, neck, chest, abdomen, groin, by touching eachposition is held for 3-5 minutes. This period may be extended 10-20minutes in problem areas. Mean duration of 30-90 minutes, 20-30minutes in childhood. Children have a wide variety of alternativemethods of education, the implementation of alternative methodsoutside the relevant centers, scientific studies about the reliability ofthese methods are difficult to make. Scientific study on alternativemethods used in the education of children is extremely rare. This studyis enough to work with children in our country due to a lackbiomagnetic both informative and will be helpful in further studies. Son yıllarda dünyada ve Türkiye’de reikinin kullanımı artmaktadır. Türkiye’de yapılan bir çalışmada reikiyi düzenli kullananların oranı %0,4’tür. Reiki; “evrensel enerji” ya da “yaşam enerjisi” demektir. Vücudumuz üzerinde, “çakra” adı verilen enerji merkezleri bulunmaktadır. Her çakra, farklı frekanstaki bir enerjinin giriş kapısı olarak değerlendirilir. Reiki felsefesi, bu enerji kap

  8. Micronutrient Daily Intake of Elementary School Children in Bandung as Determined by Using NAA and AAS Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients in human diet are known to be among the most essential sources of nutrition, that required by the human body in small amount to maintain normal physiological function. Micronutrient malnutrition (MNM is widespread all over the world, mostly in the developing country, where young children tend to be the most at risk of developing micronutrient deficiencies. In Indonesia, data of micronutrient status of children is limited. Therefore, the assessment of micronutrient intake of young children is needed to carry out. Food samples were taken by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children in Bandung and were analyzed using neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1548a Typical Diet. The result was giving the average daily intake of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Se and Zn were 228, 0.15, 0.57, 9.3, 929, 106, 2,1, 2314, 0.022 and 4.6 mg/day respectively and gives 22, 527, 86, 111, 17, 54, 116, 49 and 63% of Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA values. Its generally concluded that these children are still lack of micronutrient intake, and many of them were below their recommended dietary allowances. These result were expected could be used as baseline data and reference to encourage government and related institution in making policies for public health improvement and micronutrient malnutrition solution as well.

  9. Outcomes 18 years after implementation of a nonoperative caries preventive program - the Nexö-method - on children in Moscow, Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmina, Irina; Ekstrand, Kim R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To report the long-term effect (18 years) of the Nexö-method, initially implemented in groups of children in Moscow in 1994. METHODS: Three groups of children were included in the initial study in 1994. This study is a follow-up study of two of the three initial groups: a group of 6-y...

  10. Using quality improvement methods to reduce clear fluid fasting times in children on a preoperative ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Richard J G; Stuart, Grant M; Willdridge, Daniel J; Thomas, Mark

    2017-08-01

    We applied quality improvement (QI) methodology to identify the different aspects of why children fasted for prolonged periods in our institution. Our aim was for 75% of all children to be fasted for clear fluid for less than 4 hours. Prolonged fasting in children can increase thirst and irritability and have adverse effects on haemodynamic stability on induction. By reducing this, children may be less irritable, more comfortable and more physiologically stable, improving the preoperative experience for both children and carers. We conducted a QI project from January 2014 until August 2016 at a large tertiary pediatric teaching hospital. Baseline data and the magnitude of the problem were obtained from pilot studies. This allowed us to build a key driver diagram, a process map and conduct a failure mode and effects analysis. Using a framework of Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles our key interventions primarily focused on reducing confusion over procedure start times, giving parents accurate information, empowering staff and reducing variation by allowing children to drink on arrival (up to one hour) before surgery. Prior to this project, using the 6,4,2 fasting rule for solids, breast milk, and clear fluids, respectively, 19% of children were fasted for fluid for less than 4 hours, mean fluid fasting time was 6.3 hours (SD 4.48). At the conclusion 72% of patients received a drink within 4 hours, mean fluid fasting reduced to 3.1 hours (SD 2.33). The secondary measures of aspiration (4.14:10 000) and cancellations have not increased since starting this project. By using established QI methodology we reduced the mean fluid fasting time for day admissions at our hospital to 3.1 hours and increased the proportion of children fasting for less than 4 hours from 19% to 72%. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Investigating the Effects of Glottal Stop Productions on Voice in Children With Cleft Palate Using Multidimensional Voice Assessment Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydınlı, Fatma Esen; Özcebe, Esra; Kulak Kayıkçı, Maviş E; Yılmaz, Taner; Özgür, Fatma F

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of glottal stop productions (GS) on voice in children with cleft palate using multidimensional voice assessment methods. This is a prospective case-control study. Children with repaired cleft palate (n = 34) who did not have any vocal fold lesions were separated into two groups based on the results of the articulation test. The glottal stop group (GSG) consisted of 17 children who had GS. The control group (CG) consisted of an equal number of age- and gender-matched children who did not have GS. The voice evaluation protocol included acoustic analysis, Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI), and perceptual analysis (Grade, Roughness, Breathiness, Asthenia, Strain method). The velopharyngeal statuses of the groups were compared using the nasopharyngoscopy and the nasometer. The total pVHI score and the subscales of the pVHI were found to be significantly higher in the GSG. The F0, jitter, and shimmer were found to be numerically higher in the GSG with the difference being statistically significant in jitter (P speech and language pathology intervention including voice therapy techniques. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Participatory assessment of the environment from children's viewpoints: development of a method and its trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriyama, M; Suwa, T; Kabuto, M; Fukushima, T

    2001-02-01

    To understand the actual viewpoints of children about daily life and the environment, the authors, adopting a participatory strategy, visited 21 classes of Japanese school children, improved in a stepwise process their ways of question-asking, and developed "WIFY"(what is important for you); a set of interactive questions composed of a basic question and three accompanying instructions. In applying WIFY, 59 fourth graders, 22 in Nagasaki, Japan and 37 in Beijing, China, reported their viewpoints in each of classroom settings. In both settings, when children were allowed to communicate with each other by the use of WIFY answering sheet, spontaneous exchanges arose and continued. WIFY itself is supposed to bring out and enhance mutual collaboration and spontaneous networking. In this instance, WIFY functioned as a communication tool. When answering sheets were collected and obtained responses were analyzed as cases, a rather materialistic view was suggested among Japanese children and a more disciplined view, which put much value on school and home, was suggested among Chinese children. Further studies are needed to confirm the changing environmental views of children from the collaborative research framework.

  13. Methods for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Deramore Denver

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vision influences functioning and disability of children with cerebral palsy, so there is a growing need for psychometrically robust tools to advance assessment of children’s vision abilities in clinical practice and research. Vision is a complex construct, and in the absence of clarity about this construct it is challenging to know whether valid, reliable measures exist. This study reports a method for conceptualising ‘visual ability’ as a measurable construct. Methods Using the items from 19 assessment tools previously identified in a systematic review, this study used a two-phase process: first, deductive content analysis linked items to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Child and Youth version (ICF-CY, and second, vision-specific ‘Activity’-level items were explored using inductive thematic analysis. Results The linking and content analysis identified that existing assessment tools are measuring vision across the ICF-CY domains of Body Functions, Activities and Participation, and Environmental and Personal Factors. Items specifically coded to vision at the Activity level were defined as measuring ‘how vision is used’, and these items form the basis of the conceptualisation that ‘visual ability’ is measurable as a single construct. The thematic analysis led to the identification of 3 categories containing 13 themes that reflect a child’s observable visual behaviours. Seven abilities reflect how a child uses vision: responds or reacts, initiates, maintains or sustains looking, changes or shifts looking, searches, locates or finds, and follows. Four interactions reflect the contexts in which a child uses their vision to purposefully interact: watches and visually interacts with people and faces, objects, over distance, and with hands. Finally, two themes reflect a child’s overall use of vision in daily activities: frequency of use, and efficiency of use

  14. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndiaye, M F; Mbengue, M; Mbaye, P S; Diouf, S [Societe Senegalaise de Gasto-enterologie et d' hepatologie, Dakar (Senegal); Ghoos, Y [Labo. Digestie Absorptie, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection (82 %) in Senegal where malnutrition is common in children (25 %). Our aims were to definite prevalence of H. pylori, to determine the relationship between Hp infection and undernourishment and to verify the efficiency of treatment with probiotic. In some studies a positive effect of Saccharomyces boulardii has been demonstrated against H. pylori. We have included healthy children 7 to 10 years of age. 108 out of 129 (84%) were H. pylori-positive by breath-test. Two groups were randomised. Group A was treated with ten days' standard triple therapy (Omeprazole 1 mg Kg/day in single day gift, Amoxycillin 50 mg/kg/two times per day and Clarithromycin 250 mg two times per day). Group B received probiotic (250 mg of Saccharomyces boulardii with 5g Inulin three times per day) for 3 months. Evaluation of treatment was done one month after the end of therapy. Seventy one children out of 110 (64.5%) had digestive symptoms in their medical history. The main signs were recurrent abdominal pain in 64 cases. BMI were less than 18.50 in all the children with H. pylori infection without other nutritional abnormaly. Eight children were eradicated after treatment seven in the group under conventional treatment (58%) and one in the group under probiotics (6%). We concluded that prevalence of H. pylori infection is very high in young children as of the 7 years' age in urban as in rural environments. Symptoms are not specific. No significant difference in the nutritional state is observed between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative children. Treatment by probiotics does not seem to give efficient results for eradication of H. pylori. (author)

  15. A Survey of Restraint Methods for the Safe Transport of Children in Ground Ambulances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rashida H; Shah, Manish; Doughty, Cara; Gilchrest, Anthony

    2018-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) released draft recommendations in 2010 on the safe transport of children in ground ambulances. The purpose of this study was to assess awareness of these guidelines among emergency medical service (EMS) agencies and to identify implementation barriers. We conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous online survey of 911-responding, ground transport EMS agencies in Texas. Demographics, modes of transport based on case scenarios, and barriers to implementation were assessed. Of 62 eligible EMS agencies that took the survey, 35.7% were aware of the NHTSA guidelines, 62.5% agreed they would improve safety, and 41.1% planned to implement them. Seventy-five percent of EMS agencies used the ideal or acceptable alternative to transport children requiring continuous monitoring, and 69.5% chose ideal or acceptable alternatives for children requiring spinal immobilization. The ideal or acceptable alternative was not chosen for children who were not injured or ill (93.2%), ill or injured but not requiring continuous monitoring (53.3%), and situations when multiple patients required transport (57.6%). The main requirements for implementation were provider education, ambulance interior modifications, new guidelines in the EMS agency, and purchase of new equipment. Few EMS agencies are aware of the NHTSA guidelines on safe transport of children in ground ambulances. Although most agencies appropriately transport children who require monitoring, interventions, or spinal immobilization, they use inappropriate means to transport children in situations with multiple patients, lack of injury or illness, or lack of need for monitoring.

  16. Central intake to improve access to physiotherapy for children with complex needs: a mixed methods case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmeier, Kristy D M; Restall, Gayle; Mulder, Kathy; Dufault, Brenden; Paterson, Marie; Thiessen, Matthew; Lix, Lisa M

    2016-08-31

    Children with complex needs can face barriers to system access and navigation related to their need for multiple services and healthcare providers. Central intake for pediatric rehabilitation was developed and implemented in 2008 in Winnipeg Manitoba Canada as a means to enhance service coordination and access for children and their families. This study evaluates the process and impact of implementing a central intake system, using pediatric physiotherapy as a case example. A mixed methods instrumental case study design was used. Interviews were completed with 9 individuals. Data was transcribed and analyzed for themes. Quantitative data (wait times, referral volume and caregiver satisfaction) was collected for children referred to physiotherapy with complex needs (n = 1399), and a comparison group of children referred for orthopedic concerns (n = 3901). Wait times were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, caregiver satisfaction was analyzed using Fisher exact test and change point modeling was applied to examine referral volume over the study period. Interview participants described central intake implementation as creating more streamlined processes. Factors that facilitated successful implementation included 1) agreement among stakeholders, 2) hiring of a central intake coordinator, 3) a financial commitment from the government and 4) leadership at the individual and organization level. Mean (sd) wait times improved for children with complex needs (12.3(13.1) to 8.0(6.9) days from referral to contact with family, p physiotherapy (i.e., decreasing wait times) for families of children with complex needs. Future research is needed to build on this single discipline case study approach to examine changes in wait times, therapy coordination and stakeholder satisfaction within the context of continuing improvements for pediatric therapy services within the province.

  17. [Reconsidering children's dreams. A critical review of methods and results in developmental dream research from Freud to contemporary works].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Piroska; Bódizs, Róbert

    2014-01-01

    Examining children's dream development is a significant challenge for researchers. Results from studies on children's dreaming may enlighten us on the nature and role of dreaming as well as broaden our knowledge of consciousness and cognitive development. This review summarizes the main questions and historical progress in developmental dream research, with the aim of shedding light on the advantages, disadvantages and effects of different settings and methods on research outcomes. A typical example would be the dreams of 3 to 5 year-olds: they are simple and static, with a relative absence of emotions and active self participation according to laboratory studies; studies using different methodology however found them to be vivid, rich in emotions, with the self as an active participant. Questions about the validity of different methods arise, and are considered within this review. Given that methodological differences can result in highly divergent outcomes, it is strongly recommended for future research to select methodology and treat results more carefully.

  18. THE EMPIRICAL METHOD OF INVESTIGATING THE CHILDHOOD SUBCULTURE: GROUP OF CHILDREN BEHAVIOR OBSERVATION IN THE GUESTHOUSE POOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Yelena N. Suvorkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the empirical research methods investigating the childhood sub-culture. The method is called observation. The author marked general theoretical position, recommendations on its implementation. Based on observations of the group of children behavior in the guesthouse pool it is found out that such category, as honesty is very important in the organization of the order, taking into account that the subculture of childhood is an open, self-organizing system. In the pool, the children come up with a wide variety of games. The adjacent areas are also involved. The author identified two borders, taking place for the child: a clear (fixed border is the side of the pool and unclear border as the transitional designation of states, qualities (dangerous – safe.

  19. Modern methods of breast feeding maintenance in children with intestinal colics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of long-term breast feeding maintenance is relevant for medical communities of many countries of the world. Long-term breast feeding is especially important in premature children and children born with a perinatal pathology. According to scientific literature, the main reasons of breast feeding termination/reduction and early transfer of children to milk formula feeding include impossibility of breast feeding due to condition severity, prematurity, mother’s milk supply failure and, therefore, various functional digestive disorders (aerophagias, regurgitations, flatulence, colics. It is important to ensure proper latching of the baby to the breast, as it is conductive of effective sucking, and recover complete breast feeding in the event of temporary supplementary and mixed feeding. The article presents results of a trial conducted at the FSBI Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Use of special medical products (nipples, phials developed on the basis of thorough study of maternal breast sucking physiology in the breast feeding termination risk group children (n = 33 allows maintaining children’s need in breast feeding and promotes effective breast feeding recovery.Key words: breast feeding, aerophagia, neonates, premature children, causes of weaning, special medical products (phials, nipples.

  20. Efficacy of Medication and Nonmedication Methods on Working Memory of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Working memory is the ability to keep and manipulate information in a short time. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are among the people suffering from deficiency in the active memory, and this deficiency has been attributed to the problem of frontal lobe. This study utilized a new approach with suitable tasks and methods for training active memory and assessment of its effects. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal and behavioral therapies on working memory of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder. Patients and Methods The children participating in this study were 7 - 15 years old, and were diagnosed with ADHD by the psychiatrist and psychologist based on DSM-IV criteria. The intervention group comprised 8 boys and 6 girls with the average age of 11 (± 2 years, and the control group comprised 2 girls and 5 boys with an average age of 11.4 (± 3. Three children in the test group and 2 in the control group were under medicinal therapy. Results Training of working memory significantly improved the performance in nontrained areas as visual-spatial working memory as well as the performance in Raven progressive tests which are a perfect example of nonverbal, complicated reasoning tasks. Conclusions The performance of working memory improved through training, and these trainings extended to other areas of cognition functions not receiving any training. Trainings resulted in the improvement of performance in the tasks related to prefrontal area. They had also a positive and significant impact on the movement activities of hyperactive children.

  1. The method of educational assessment affects children's neural processing and performance: behavioural and fMRI Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Steven J.; Burianová, Hana; Calleia, Alysha; Fynes-Clinton, Samuel; Kervin, Lisa; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2017-08-01

    Standardised educational assessments are now widespread, yet their development has given comparatively more consideration to what to assess than how to optimally assess students' competencies. Existing evidence from behavioural studies with children and neuroscience studies with adults suggest that the method of assessment may affect neural processing and performance, but current evidence remains limited. To investigate the impact of assessment methods on neural processing and performance in young children, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify and quantify the neural correlates during performance across a range of current approaches to standardised spelling assessment. Results indicated that children's test performance declined as the cognitive load of assessment method increased. Activation of neural nodes associated with working memory further suggests that this performance decline may be a consequence of a higher cognitive load, rather than the complexity of the content. These findings provide insights into principles of assessment (re)design, to ensure assessment results are an accurate reflection of students' true levels of competency.

  2. Validity of 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake by planar posterior-view method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Shiga, Toru; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Itoh, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    Renal uptake 99m Tc-DMSA has been quantified by various methods. The aim of this study is to obtain a normal value for 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake calculated by the posterior view method and age variation, and to assess its clinical validity. Scintigrams of 238 children (0-12 years) with 99m Tc-DMSA were reviewed. All the children had a clinical history of primary vesicoureteral reflux and/or neurogenic bladder, ureteral or urethral anomalies. Their kidneys were divided into two groups, ''normal'' and abnormal'' according to their scintigraphic findings and split renal functions. Percent renal uptake per injected dose (% RU) was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours after injection of an age-adjusted dose (26-95 MBq) of 99m Tc-DMSA. Calculated total % RU, individual % UR of the right and left kidneys (mean±sd) in patients with normal kidneys were 40.7±5.0%, 20.2±3.0%, 20.4±2.7%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between % RU and age (r=0.231). Longitudinal variation in the % RU in 9 patients ranged from 1.2% to 18%. Our conventional method for quantifying % RU is simple, practical and feasible in routine clinical practice, especially for children under follow up. (author)

  3. A method to measure the effect of food appearance factors on children's visual preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kildegaard, Heidi; Olsen, Annemarie; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine children’s visual preferences for two food products; yoghurts and smoothies, by using a conjoint layout. In total, 274 children performed an incomplete ranking of 8 pictures formed by three factors each with two levels (23 design). The three food appearance...... for the eight smoothies. The children visually preferred the two products without visible fruit and colour had a large influence on visual preferences too. As regards the yoghurts, the children accepted a less simple variant whereas the most preferred smoothie was very simple. Significant synergetic effects...... between food appearance factors and segmentation factors were found. Additionally gender and ethnicity were found to be influential drivers for food choice....

  4. Modified Ponseti method of treatment for correction of neglected clubfoot in older children and adolescents--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Ramin Haj Zargar; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abdi, Reza; Aslani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus may be the most common congenital orthopedic condition requiring treatment. Nonoperative treatment including different methods is generally accepted as the first step in the deformity correction. Ignacio Ponseti introduced his nonsurgical approach to the treatment of clubfoot in the early 1940s. The method is reportedly successful in treating clubfoot in patients up to 9 years of age. However, whether age at the beginning of treatment affects the rate of effective correction and relapse is unknown. We have applied the Ponseti method successfully with some modifications for 11 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 6 to 19 years) with neglected and untreated clubbed feet. The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 36 months). Correction was achieved with a mean of nine casts (six to 13). Clinically, 17 out of 18 feet (94.4%) were considered to achieve a good result with no need for further surgery. The application of this method of treatment is very simple and also cheap in developing countries with limited financial and social resources for health service. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a modified method as a correction method for clubfoot in older children and adolescents has not been applied previously for neglected clubfeet in older children in the literature.

  5. Hospitalization costs of severe bacterial pneumonia in children: comparative analysis considering different costing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sheila Elke Araujo; Minamisava, Ruth; Vieira, Maria Aparecida da Silva; Itria, Alexander; Pessoa, Vicente Porfirio; Andrade, Ana Lúcia Sampaio Sgambatti de; Toscano, Cristiana Maria

    2017-01-01

    To determine and compare hospitalization costs of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia cases via different costing methods under the Brazilian Public Unified Health System perspective. Cost-of-illness study based on primary data collected from a sample of 59 children aged between 28 days and 35 months and hospitalized due to bacterial pneumonia. Direct medical and non-medical costs were considered and three costing methods employed: micro-costing based on medical record review, micro-costing based on therapeutic guidelines and gross-costing based on the Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates. Costs estimates obtained via different methods were compared using the Friedman test. Cost estimates of inpatient cases of severe pneumonia amounted to R$ 780,70/$Int. 858.7 (medical record review), R$ 641,90/$Int. 706.90 (therapeutic guidelines) and R$ 594,80/$Int. 654.28 (Brazilian Public Unified Health System reimbursement rates). Costs estimated via micro-costing (medical record review or therapeutic guidelines) did not differ significantly (p=0.405), while estimates based on reimbursement rates were significantly lower compared to estimates based on therapeutic guidelines (pmetodologias de custeio, na perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde. Estudo de custo, com coleta de dados primários de uma amostra de 59 crianças com 28 dias a 35 meses de idade hospitalizadas por pneumonia bacteriana. Foram considerados custos diretos médicos e não médicos. Três metodologias de custeio foram utilizadas: microcusteio por revisão de prontuários, microcusteio considerando diretriz terapêutica e macrocusteio por ressarcimento do Sistema Único de Saúde. Os custos estimados pelas diferentes metodologias foram comparados utilizando o teste de Friedman. Os custos hospitalares de crianças com pneumonia grave foram R$ 780,70 ($Int. 858.7) por revisão de prontuários, R$ 641,90 ($Int. 706.90) por diretriz terapêutica e R$ 594,80 ($Int. 654.28) por

  6. Low-Income, African American and American Indian Children's Viewpoints on Body Image Assessment Tools and Body Satisfaction: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberger, Lindsay; Smith, Chery

    2018-03-03

    Objectives Pediatric obesity is complicated by many factors including psychological issues, such as body dissatisfaction. Body image assessment tools are used with children to measure their acceptance of their body shape or image. Limited research has been conducted with African American and American Indian children to understand their opinions on assessment tools created. This study investigated: (a) children's perception about body image and (b) differences between two body image instruments among low-income, multi-ethnic children. Methods This study uses mixed methodology including focus groups (qualitative) and body image assessment instruments (quantitative). Fifty-one children participated (25 girls, 26 boys); 53% of children identified as African American and 47% as American Indian. The average age was 10.4 years. Open coding methods were used by identify themes from focus group data. SPSS was used for quantitative analysis. Results Children preferred the Figure Rating Scale (FRS/silhouette) instrument over the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS/photo) because their body parts and facial features were more detailed. Children formed their body image perception with influence from their parents and the media. Children verbalized that they have experienced negative consequences related to poor body image including disordered eating habits, depression, and bullying. Healthy weight children are also aware of weight-related bullying that obese and overweight children face. Conclusions for Practice Children prefer that the images on a body image assessment tool have detailed facial features and are clothed. Further research into body image assessment tools for use with African American and American Indian children is needed.

  7. Children, parents, and pets exercising together (CPET) randomised controlled trial: study rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Philippa S; Morrison, Ryan; Penpraze, Viki; Westgarth, Carri; Ward, Dianne S; Mutrie, Nanette; Hutchison, Pippa; Young, David; Reilly, John J

    2012-03-19

    Objectively measured physical activity is low in British children, and declines as childhood progresses. Observational studies suggest that dog-walking might be a useful approach to physical activity promotion in children and adults, but there are no published public health interventions based on dog-walking with children. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study aims to develop and evaluate a theory driven, generalisable, family-based, dog walking intervention for 9-11 year olds. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together Study is an exploratory, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled trial as defined in the UK MRC Framework on the development and evaluation of complex interventions in public health. The trial will follow CONSORT guidance. Approximately 40 dog-owning families will be allocated randomly in a ratio of 1.5:1 to receive a simple behavioural intervention lasting for 10 weeks or to a 'waiting list' control group. The primary outcome is change in objectively measured child physical activity using Actigraph accelerometry. Secondary outcomes in the child, included in part to shape a future more definitive randomised controlled trial, are: total time spent sedentary and patterning of sedentary behaviour (Actigraph accelerometry); body composition and bone health from dual energy x-ray absorptiometry; body weight, height and BMI; and finally, health-related quality of life using the PedsQL. Secondary outcomes in parents and dogs are: changes in body weight; changes in Actigraph accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Process evaluation will consist of assessment of simultaneous child, parent, and dog accelerometry data and brief interviews with participating families. The Children, Parents, and Pets Exercising Together trial should be the first randomised controlled study to establish and evaluate an intervention aimed at dog-based physical activity promotion in families. It should advance our

  8. Calcium Absorption in Infants and Small Children: Methods of Determination and Recent Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Abrams

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Determining calcium bioavailability is important in establishing dietary calcium requirements. In infants and small children, previously conducted mass balance studies have largely been replaced by stable isotope-based studies. The ability to assess calcium absorption using a relatively short 24-hour urine collection without the need for multiple blood samples or fecal collections is a major advantage to this technique. The results of these studies have demonstrated relatively small differences in calcium absorption efficiency between human milk and currently available cow milk-based infant formulas. In older children with a calcium intake typical of Western diets, calcium absorption is adequate to meet bone mineral accretion requirements.

  9. Food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs of primary food preparers in families with young children. A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meysenburg, Rebecca; Albrecht, Julie A; Litchfield, Ruth; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K

    2014-02-01

    Food preparers in families with young children are responsible for safe food preparation and handling to prevent foodborne illness. To explore the food safety perceptions, beliefs, and practices of primary food preparers in families with children 10 years of age and younger, a mixed methods convergent parallel design and constructs of the Health Belief Model were used. A random sampling of 72 primary food handlers (36.2±8.6 years of age, 88% female) within young families in urban and rural areas of two Midwestern states completed a knowledge survey and participated in ten focus groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Transcribed interviews were analyzed for codes and common themes. Forty-four percent scored less than the average knowledge score of 73%. Participants believe children are susceptible to foodborne illness but perceive its severity to be low with gastrointestinal discomfort as the primary outcome. Using safe food handling practices and avoiding inconveniences were benefits of preventing foodborne illness. Childcare duties, time and knowledge were barriers to practicing food safety. Confidence in preventing foodborne illness was high, especially when personal control over food handling is present. The low knowledge scores and reported practices revealed a false sense of confidence despite parental concern to protect their child from harm. Food safety messages that emphasize the susceptibility and severity of foodborne illness in children are needed to reach this audience for adoption of safe food handling practices. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Methods to quantify soft-tissue based facial growth and treatment outcomes in children: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sander Brons

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Technological advancements have led craniofacial researchers and clinicians into the era of three-dimensional digital imaging for quantitative evaluation of craniofacial growth and treatment outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To give an overview of soft-tissue based methods for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age and to assess the reliability of these methods in studies with good methodological quality. DATA SOURCE: PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL were searched. A hand search was performed to check for additional relevant studies. STUDY SELECTION: Primary publications on facial growth and treatment outcomes in children younger than six years of age were included. DATA EXTRACTION: Independent data extraction by two observers. A quality assessment instrument was used to determine the methodological quality. Methods, used in studies with good methodological quality, were assessed for reliability expressed as the magnitude of the measurement error and the correlation coefficient between repeated measurements. RESULTS: In total, 47 studies were included describing 4 methods: 2D x-ray cephalometry; 2D photography; anthropometry; 3D imaging techniques (surface laser scanning, stereophotogrammetry and cone beam computed tomography. In general the measurement error was below 1 mm and 1° and correlation coefficients range from 0.65 to 1.0. CONCLUSION: Various methods have shown to be reliable. However, at present stereophotogrammetry seems to be the best 3D method for quantitative longitudinal assessment of facial dimensions in children until six years of age due to its millisecond fast image capture, archival capabilities, high resolution and no exposure to ionizing radiation.

  11. PARENTING STRESS AND RESILIENCE IN PARENTS OF CHILDREN WITH AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDER (ASD) IN THE MALAYSIAN CONTEXT: A MIXED METHODS PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    KARTINI ILIAS

    2018-01-01

    The multi-phase study aimed to better understand the resilience of parents of children with ASD (autism) in Malaysia. The study utilised a mixed methods, constructive grounded theory design with quantitative parent surveys and qualitative interviews with parents and professionals. Parents of children with ASD reported more parenting stress and depression symptoms as well as poorer sleep quality and family functioning than parents of children without ASD. The findings revealed numerous risk an...

  12. [Hygienic Assesment of Educational Texts: Methodical Approaches and Evaluation of Difficulties for Children of Secondary Textbooks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchma, V R; Tkachuk, E A

    2015-01-01

    The understandability and readability of the text are significant indicators of evaluation of textbooks. The aim of the study - rationale of improving the readability and understandability of textbooks. 60 modern textbooks for 5-11th classes on History, Physics, Biology and 23 textbooks of 1960-1980's edition. Flesch index was used to assess the readability, Fogh index - to evaluate understandability. The readability and understandability of texts in textbooks of 1960-1980's and modern editions have no differences and show the same complexity of old and modern textbooks for students. The indicator of understandability of textbooks for primary classes corresponds to age norm and is 4.4±0.2 points. The indicator of readability for these books is less age norm and is 53.8±2.9 points, which increases the physiological cost of educational activities of children of primary school age. Children's readability and understandability of school textbooks are a significant factor of intensity of training activities and can be objectively assessed by Flesch and Fogh indices, that it is appropriate for an objective hygienic assessment of the tension of the educational activities for children. The main direction of optimization of the tension of educational activity is to reduce the intellectual and emotional loads in children by increasing the easiness of reading textbooks due to their compliance with the age peculiarities of students.

  13. Methods for Assessing Sleep in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Danelle; Parnell, Andrea M. N.; Hoffman, Charles D.; Sweeney, Dwight P.

    2012-01-01

    A literature review completed by Bauer and Blunden (2008) determined that compared to objective measures, subjective assessments of sleep for typically developing children (e.g., parental reports) were of limited utility. No comparable literature review has been undertaken to determine whether subjective measures are appropriate for assessing…

  14. Method of Abdominal Cavity Postoperative Infiltrates Treatment in Children with Appendiceal Peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Melnichenko, M. G.; Antoniuk, V. V.; Tkachenko, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of postoperative abdominal infiltrates in children operated on appendicular peritonitis with the use of antibiotics and physical factors on the abdominal region according to the utility model includes two stages. The first stage involves regional antibacterial electrophoresis and therapeutic antibacterial microclysters. The second stage includes the impact of diadynamic therapy in infiltration projection and NSAIDs as rectal suppositories.

  15. How U.S. children's hospitals use social media: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Charlene A; Ostapovich, Gabrielle; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Griffis, Heather; Asch, David A; Merchant, Raina M

    2016-03-01

    Social media provide new channels for hospitals to engage with communities, a goal of increasing importance as non-profit hospitals face stricter definitions of community benefit under the Affordable Care Act. We describe the variability in social media presence among US children's hospitals and the distribution of their Facebook content curation. Social media data from freestanding children's hospitals were extracted from September-November 2013. Social media adoption was reviewed for each hospital-generated Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Google+ and Pinterest platform. Facebook page (number of Likes) and Twitter account (number of followers) engagement were examined by hospital characteristics. Facebook posts from each hospital over a 6-week period were thematically characterized. We reviewed 5 social media platforms attributed to 45 children's hospitals and 2004 associated Facebook posts. All hospitals maintained Facebook and Twitter accounts and most used YouTube (82%), Google+ (53%) and Pinterest (69%). Larger hospitals were more often high performers for Facebook (67% versus 10%, pSocial media adoption by US children's hospitals was widespread. Beyond its traditional marketing role, social media can serve as a conduit for health education, engagement with communities, including community benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Lego Serious Play as a participatory research method to involve children in action research projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nunez, Heilyn Camacho

    2018-01-01

    as the materialization of students’ tacit knowledge, experience, and feelings. Furthermore, LSP makes use of visual representation, imagination, creativity, and two-way communication to embrace the voice of children. This approach allows participants to assume ownership of the process, to construct a joint narrative...

  17. Sticker charts: a method for improving adherence to treatment of chronic diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luersen, Kara; Davis, Scott A; Kaplan, Sebastian G; Abel, Troy D; Winchester, Woodrow W; Feldman, Steven R

    2012-01-01

    Poor adherence is a common problem and may be an underlying cause of poor clinical outcomes. In pediatric populations, positive reinforcement techniques such as sticker charts may increase motivation to adhere to treatment regimens. To review the use of sticker charts to improve adherence in children with chronic disease, Medline and PsycINFO searches were conducted using the key words "positive reinforcement OR behavior therapy" and "adherence OR patient compliance" and "child." Randomized controlled retrospective cohort or single-subject-design studies were selected. Studies reporting adherence to the medical treatment of chronic disease in children using positive reinforcement techniques were included in the analysis. The systematic search was supplemented by identifying additional studies identified through the reference lists and authors of the initial articles found. Positive reinforcement techniques such as sticker charts increase adherence to medical treatment regimens. In several studies, this effect was maintained for months after the initial intervention. Better adherence correlated with better clinical outcomes in some, but not all, studies. Few studies examining the use of sticker charts were identified. Although single-subject-design studies are useful in establishing the effect of a behavioral intervention, larger randomized controlled trials would help determine the precise efficacy of sticker chart interventions. Adherence to medical treatments in children can be increased using sticker charts or other positive reinforcement techniques. This may be an effective means to encourage children with atopic dermatitis to apply their medications and improve clinical outcomes. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Dental anomalies in children with cleft lip and palate in Western Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to describe the prevalence and type of dental anomalies in the primary and permanent dentition in children with a cleft condition at Princess Margaret Hospital in Perth, Western Australia. Materials and Methods: The details of 162 current dental patients extracted from the main dental database through their year of birth for the period 1998–2001 were selected consecutively. Dental records and X-rays were examined by one examiner (WN) and verified by a second examiner (RB) to determine dental development. The mean age of the subjects was 10.8 years with equal numbers of males and females. Subjects were further divided into cleft type; unilateral cleft lip (UCL) and palate, bilateral cleft lip (BCL) and palate, UCL, BCL, and cleft palate. Results: One hundred sixty-two subjects were grouped into 21 categories of anomaly or abnormality. Prevalence rates for the categories were calculated for the overall group and for gender and cleft type. Conclusion: Overall, 94% of patients were found to have at least one dental anomaly, with fifty-six (34%) patients having more than one anomaly or abnormality. PMID:27095907

  19. Trends in Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Korean Children (1999-2012) Based on Palpation and Nonpalpation Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoon Young; Jang, Hye Won; Joung, Ji Young; Park, Sun-Mi; Jeong, Dae Joon; Kim, Sun Wook; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer is increasing in several populations; however, contributing factors have not been adequately discussed. Objectives Our aim was to identify trends of childhood thyroid cancer based on the Korea Central Cancer Registry (KCCR) database and to elucidate changes in detection methods of cancers using a single-center database. Methods Data from the KCCR and Statistics Korea between 1999 and 2012 were used to calculate the crude incidence of thyroid cancer in children. To analyze detection methods for cancers, pediatric patients (aged 0-19 years, n = 126) who underwent thyroid surgery for thyroid cancers at our institution were identified. Subjects were divided into two groups by detection method: (1) palpation group and (2) screening group. Results The crude incidence of childhood thyroid cancer increased from 0.5 per 100,000 in 1999 to 1.7 in 2012. The proportion of thyroid cancer among total cancers also increased from 4.4% in 1999 to 10.6% in 2012. Among 126 children from our institution, 91 cases (72%) were identified as palpable neck masses, and the remainder were discovered during imaging studies. The numbers in both groups gradually increased during the study period. Conclusions The incidence of childhood thyroid cancer has steadily increased in Korea. Regarding the detection methods of cancers, most tumors are detected by palpation rather than screening, although the rate of masses identified during screening has increased. PMID:26835429

  20. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: the importance of mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roerig, Simone; van Wesel, Floryt; Evers, Sandra J T M; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2015-01-01

    In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigate empathy in inter-relational contexts. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualizations of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results from one classroom that was part of a larger study and included 28 children (m = 13, f = 15). Participants (aged 9-11) were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; in addition an observational study was also conducted over a period of 3 months. Initial results showed how children's expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children's positions within classroom networks. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  1. A mixed methods study of food safety knowledge, practices and beliefs in Hispanic families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Kristen M; Ritter-Gooder, Paula K; Perry, Christina; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-12-01

    Children are at a higher risk for foodborne illness. The objective of this study was to explore food safety knowledge, beliefs and practices among Hispanic families with young children (≤10 years of age) living within a Midwestern state. A convergent mixed methods design collected qualitative and quantitative data in parallel. Food safety knowledge surveys were administered (n = 90) prior to exploration of beliefs and practices among six focus groups (n = 52) conducted by bilingual interpreters in community sites in five cities/towns. Descriptive statistics determined knowledge scores and thematic coding unveiled beliefs and practices. Data sets were merged to assess concordance. Participants were female (96%), 35.7 (±7.6) years of age, from Mexico (69%), with the majority having a low education level. Food safety knowledge was low (56% ± 11). Focus group themes were: Ethnic dishes popular, Relating food to illness, Fresh food in home country, Food safety practices, and Face to face learning. Mixed method analysis revealed high self confidence in preparing food safely with low safe food handling knowledge and the presence of some cultural beliefs. On-site Spanish classes and materials were preferred venues for food safety education. Bilingual food safety messaging targeting common ethnic foods and cultural beliefs and practices is indicated to lower the risk of foodborne illness in Hispanic families with young children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  3. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  4. 16 CFR 1500.53 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but not over 96 months of age. 1500.53... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 36 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  5. 16 CFR 1500.52 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but not over 36 months of age. 1500.52... methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children over 18 but... to simulate the normal and reasonably foreseeable use, damage, or abuse of toys and other articles...

  6. The method of urine sampling is not a valid predictor for vesicoureteral reflux in children after febrile urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haid, Bernhard; Roesch, Judith; Strasser, Christa; Oswald, Josef

    2017-10-01

    The likelihood of detecting vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) after febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) in children logically should correlate with the correct diagnosis of the UTI. Beneath the unspecific symptoms of fever urine analysis is the main diagnostic criterion for the exact diagnosis of febrile UTIs in children. Use of inadequate urine sampling techniques during diagnosis may lead to impaired accuracy in UTI diagnosis. This could lead to the assumption that children, having diagnosed their UTI by the use of possibly inadequate urine sampling techniques should not be evaluated as consequently compared to those, where the diagnosis relied on sterile urine sampling techniques. We hypothesized that children with possibly contaminated urine samples during the initial diagnosis may show a lower rate of VUR in subsequent VCUGs because of a wrong diagnosis initially compared to children, where accurate urine sampling techniques were used. Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 555 patients underwent a primary VCUG at our department indicated because of febrile UTIs. Patients with urine collection methods other than bag urine and catheter/suprapubic aspiration (SPA) were excluded from this study (mid-stream urine, potty urine, n = 149). We evaluated 402 patients (male/female 131/271, mean age 1.91 years), VUR rates and grades were compared between patients where urine was sampled by the use of a urine bag only at the time of diagnosis (n = 296, 73.6%) and those where sterile urine sampling (catheter, suprapubic puncture) was performed (n = 106, 26.3%). 4 patients were excluded due to equivocal data on urine sampling. VUR rate in children after sterile urine sampling using a catheter or SPA accounted to 31.1%. In those where urine samples acquired by the use of urine bags were used, 33.7% showed VUR on subsequent VCUG (p = 0.718). There were no significant differences as to VUR grades or gender, although VUR was much more commonly diagnosed in female patients (37

  7. A Mixed Methods Approach to Equity and Justice Research: Insights from Research on Children's Reasoning About Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Rashmita S; White, Elizabeth S; Chow, Kirby A; Griffin, Katherine M; Nenadal, Lindsey

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research approaches are gaining traction across various social science disciplines, including among developmental scientists. In this chapter, we discuss the utility of a mixed methods research approach in examining issues related to equity and justice. We incorporate a brief overview of quantitative and qualitative monomethod research approaches in our larger discussion of the advantages, procedures, and considerations of employing a mixed methods design to advance developmental science from an equity and justice perspective. To better illustrate the theoretical and practical significance of a mixed methods research approach, we include examples of research conducted on children and adolescents' conceptions of economic inequality as one example of developmental science research with an equity and justice frame. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A comparison of methods for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders: a systematic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Laura L; Kodak, Tiffany; Carr, James E

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the conditional-only method (starting with a multiple-stimulus array) is more efficient than the simple-conditional method (progressive incorporation of more stimuli into the array) for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders (Grow, Carr, Kodak, Jostad, & Kisamore,). The current study systematically replicated the earlier study by comparing the 2 approaches using progressive prompting with 2 boys with autism. The results showed that the conditional-only method was a more efficient and reliable teaching procedure than the simple-conditional method. The results further call into question the practice of teaching simple discriminations to facilitate acquisition of conditional discriminations. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. New method for single-breath fraction of exhaled nitric oxide measurement with improved feasibility in preschool children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijkenskjöld-Rentzhog, Charlotte; Kalm-Stephens, Pia; Nordvall, Lennart; Malinovschi, Andrei; Alving, Kjell

    2015-11-01

    Respiratory societies recommend use of standardized methodologies for fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measurements in adults and children, but in preschoolers, feasibility remains a problem. The exhalation time needed to obtain steady-state FeNO is unclear. Our primary aim was to study the feasibility of an adapted single-breath FeNO method with age-adjusted exhalation times. We also studied the association between time to steady-state NO level and height, as well as FeNO in relation to asthma and current treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). Sixty-three children aged 3-10 years performed FeNO measurements with a hand-held electrochemical device with a newly developed flow-control unit. Exhalation times were pre-adapted to age. Exhaled air was simultaneously sampled to a chemiluminescence analyzer to measure time to steady-state NO level. Eighty-one percent of the children achieved at least one approved measurement. From 4 years upwards, success rate was high (96%). Time to steady-state [NO] (median and interquartile range) was 2.5 s (2.4-3.5) at the age of 3-4 years and 3.5 s (2.7-3.8) at the age of 5-6 years. Height was associated with time to steady state (r(2) = 0.13, p = 0.02). FeNO (geometric mean [95% CI]) was higher in ICS-naïve asthmatic children (n = 19): 15.9 p.p.b. (12.2-20.9), than in both healthy controls (n = 8) 9.1 p.p.b. (6.6-12.4) and asthmatic subjects on treatment (n = 24) 11.5 p.p.b. (9.7-13.6). We found this adapted single-breath method with age-adjusted exhalation times highly feasible for children aged 4-10 years. ICS-naïve asthmatic children had FeNO levels under the current guideline cutoff level (20 p.p.b.), highlighting the importance of taking age into account when setting reference values. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical Utility of Noninvasive Method to Measure Specific Gravity in the Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeanine E; Huynh, Pauline P; Mody, Ameer P; Wang, Vincent J

    2018-04-01

    Clinicians rely on any combination of signs and symptoms, clinical scores, or invasive procedures to assess the hydration status in children. Noninvasive tests to evaluate for dehydration in the pediatric population are appealing. The objective of our study is to assess the utility of measuring specific gravity of tears compared to specific gravity of urine and the clinical assessment of dehydration. We conducted a prospective cohort convenience sample study, in a pediatric emergency department at a tertiary care children's hospital. We approached parents/guardians of children aged 6 months to 4 years undergoing transurethral catheterization for evaluation of urinary tract infection for enrollment. We collected tears and urine for measurement of tear specific gravity (TSG) and urine specific gravity (USG), respectively. Treating physicians completed dehydration assessment forms to assess for hydration status. Among the 60 participants included, the mean TSG was 1.0183 (SD = 0.007); the mean USG was 1.0186 (SD = 0.0083). TSG and USG were positively correlated with each other (Pearson Correlation = 0.423, p = 0.001). Clinical dehydration scores ranged from 0 to 3, with 87% assigned a score of 0, by physician assessment. Mean number of episodes of vomiting and diarrhea in a 24-hour period were 2.2 (SD = 3.9) and 1.5 (SD = 3.2), respectively. Sixty-two percent of parents reported decreased oral intake. TSG measurements yielded similar results compared with USG. Further studies are needed to determine if TSG can be used as a noninvasive method of dehydration assessment in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enteral feeding and its impact on family mealtime routines for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marion; Jewell, Vanessa; Poskey, Gail A; Russell, Asa

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feedings are part of the daily mealtime experience for many caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. The scope of occupational therapy practice incorporates multiple aspects of the enteral feeding process. Yet, the research in this area is very limited. The purpose of this study was to provide practitioners with better understanding of the impact enteral feedings of children with cerebral palsy have on family mealtime routines. Using a complimentary mixed method approach, data were obtained through an online survey containing the Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding (SAGA-8) and supplementary questions, and qualitative semi-structured phone interviews. Participants were caregivers of children with cerebral palsy who receive their primary nutrition through a gastrostomy tube. This study's cohort consisted of n = 36, SAGA-8, and n = 6 in-depth interviews. The mean age of children of was 9.4 (6.94 SD) with a mean age of 3.4 (5.35 SD) when enteral feeding was introduced. While families' overall situations positively changed after the gastronomy tube placement, environmental barriers and length of feeding time continued to present a challenge to mealtime routines. The mixed methods data analysis revealed that successful adjustment to having a child with a gastronomy tube and problem solving are closely linked and a consistent part of mealtime experience. Findings highlighted the necessity of comprehensive support from health professionals in achieving positive mealtime experience. Themes in this study indicated that caregivers would benefit from a professional with knowledge in the development and integration of rituals and routines to support positive outcomes. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  12. HPLC method for urinary theobromine determination: Effect of consumption of cocoa products on theobromine urinary excretion in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adrian; Costa-Bauza, Antonia; Saez-Torres, Concepcion; Rodrigo, Dolores; Grases, Felix

    2015-11-01

    To validate a simple method of urinary theobromine determination, to assess urinary theobromine levels in 80 healthy children and to relate these levels to consumption of cocoa products. Urine samples were diluted, directly injected into an HPLC system, separated by gradient elution on a C18 column, and detected by UV spectrometry. The method was validated for linearity, limits of detection and quantification, imprecision, accuracy, recovery and interferences. The proposed method was used to assess 12-h day and 12-h night urinary theobromine excretion by 80 healthy children, divided into four groups based on consumption of cocoa products. In addition, urinary excretion of magnesium and oxalate, also present in cocoa, was measured in these four groups. The method was linear to a theobromine concentration of 278μmol/L (50mg/L). LOD and LOQ for urine samples, diluted 1:5 (vol/vol) with water, were 1.1 and 3.6μmol/L respectively. Within-run and between-run imprecisions (CV) were each cocoa products (pcocoa products. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, P F [CDU Padre Pio, Cotonou (Benin); De Maio, G; Andriulli, A [Ospedale CSS, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Ghoos, Y [Lab. Digestie Absorptie, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by {sup 13}CO{sub 2} Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  14. Treatment of children with Helicobacter infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, P F [Clinique des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Cotonou (Benin); Lawson, W [Clinique des Maladies de l' Appareil Digestif, Cotonou (Benin); De Maio, G; Andriulli, A [Ospedale Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Ghoos, Y [Lab. Digestie Absoptie, Leuven (Belgium); Brunser, O [Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    There is a large interest about Heliobacter pylori infection in childhood nowadays. The prevalence of infection is very high in developing countries and this is extremely correlated to the living conditions with consequences on the future health of children. Contamination mode is not well known but environment factors are involved. We used {sup 13}C Urea Breath Test to assess the prevalence rate in beninese asymptomatic children aged 7-11 years old (about 86%). We evaluated the influence of either conventional or probiotics therapy in eradicating Hp infection and some relationships with growth parameters. We concluded that conventional therapy or use of probiotics might improve infection status and probably influence growth factors in childhood. (author)

  15. INTESTINAL DYSBIOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH FOOD ALLERGY: PATHOGENETIC ASPECTS AND MODERN CORRECTION METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Makarova

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background paper analyses the role of intestinal micro-flora at the stage of forming immunity, the importance of intestinal microflora abnormalities during the periods of allergic diseases development (primarily food allergies, as well as mechanisms of dysbiosis effect on the allergic processes in child's body. The study discusses the mechanisms of treatment and prevention effect of probiotics for cases of child allergic diseases. The work also specifies modern approaches to correcting dysbiotic abnormalities for children with food allergies, reviews the options of diet and medication treatment of food allergy, suggests a new algorithm of gradual treatment that targets correction of dysbiosis in this patient category.Key words: children, food allergy, dysbiosis, probiotics, prebiotics, diet therapy.

  16. Treatment of children with (Helicobacter pylori) infection and malabsorption syndromes with probiotics comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, P.F.; De Maio, G.; Andriulli, A.; Ghoos, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is very high in the developing world where primary infection is acquired in early infancy. It may play a role as aggravating factor of malnutrition. This prevalence is decreasing in industrialised countries. In more cases symptomatology include recurrent abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea. Endoscopy in children is not always available in developing countries. The non-invasive 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Test is particularly indicated in these cases and has been validated as a reliable diagnostic and follow-up tool. The main problem in some countries is to find the good antibiotics without resistance. In this project the authors aim at long-term studying the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection and nutritional status in young children of developing countries. The conditions of infection as well as absorption and pre- and post treatment period will be monitored by 13 CO 2 Urea Breath Tests. (author)

  17. Improving Health Outcomes of Children through Effective Parenting: Model and Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Okafor, Martha; Sarpong, Daniel; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Satcher, David

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the design, development, testing and presentation of preliminary evidence of a translational, culturally relevant parenting education model, titled Smart and Secured Children (SSC). SSC, a quality parenting curriculum, prepares disparate African American parents as leaders for transforming their parenting behaviors and leading their peers and community in changing existing parenting culture. The article recommends expanded utility of identified promising processes, app...

  18. Oscillometric and auscultatory blood pressure measurement methods in children: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncombe, Stephanie L; Voss, Christine; Harris, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    The phase-out of mercury from clinical settings calls for valid alternatives to assess blood pressure (BP) in children. Aneroid devices provide a mercury-free alternative to BP measurements by auscultation, whereas oscillometric (automated) devices are increasingly becoming the norm in clinical practice due to their ease of use. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the accuracy of oscillometric and aneroid BP devices compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer for the measurement of BP in children. We systematically searched four electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Web of Science) and relevant journals for eligible articles published before 30 July 2015. We screened 1415 articles, and two authors independently reviewed 92 full-text articles. We included 29 articles (38 studies) with 26 879 children. Random-effects model meta-analyses revealed that oscillometric devices yield higher measurements of SBP than auscultation with a mercury sphygmomanometer (pooled effect estimate 2.53 mmHg; 95% CI 0.57-4.50; P devices and found comparable results. Oscillometric devices may serve as a suitable alternative to auscultation for initial BP screening in the pediatric population.

  19. Method for Assessing Risk of Road Accidents in Transportation of School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogotovkina, N. S.; Volodkin, P. P.; Demakhina, E. S.

    2017-11-01

    The rationale behind the problem being investigated is explained by the remaining high level of the accident rates with the participation of vehicles carrying groups of children, including school buses, in the Russian Federation over the period of several years. The article is aimed at the identification of new approaches to improve the safety of transportation of schoolchildren in accordance with the Concept of children transportation by buses and the plan for its implementation. The leading approach to solve the problem under consideration is the prediction of accidents in the schoolchildren transportation. The article presents the results of the accident rate analysis with the participation of school buses in the Russian Federation for five years. Besides, a system to monitor the transportation of schoolchildren is proposed; the system will allow analyzing and forecasting traffic accidents which involve buses carrying groups of children, including school buses. In addition, the article presents a methodology for assessing the risk of road accidents during the transportation of schoolchildren.

  20. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadel Ndiaye, M.

    2000-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection in the world. In Senegal prevalence rates is high as well in symptomatic patients (85,8%) as in general population (82%). Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in earlier age and leads to chronic infection (80% of children under 5 years old are infected in Senegal). On the other hand, malnutrition is common in children under 5 years old in Senegal (25%). H. pylori can cause malnutrition in a variety of ways including decreased food intake due to dyspepsia, defective digestion/absorption, diarrhea and may impact on the growth of children. H. pylori infection is a deep public health problem because non-invasive diagnosis tests are not available in routine practice and mainly because there are many difficulties in its treatment: no availability of drug (Clarithromycine); too much high cost of classic and effective therapeutic strategy ( three times minimal salary); high rate of resistance to antibiotics: 60-95% to Metronidazole, 50-60% to Tetracyclines, 30-40% to Macrolides as Azithromycine and Roxithromycine. So, the main problem in Senegal is to find the good, available and cheep treatment without resistance. Probiotics have been considered as a possible tool for this purpose

  1. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadel Ndiaye, M [Institute Cercle Senegalais de Gastro-Enterlogie, Dakar (Senegal)

    2000-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the most common bacterial infection in the world. In Senegal prevalence rates is high as well in symptomatic patients (85,8%) as in general population (82%). Helicobacter pylori infection occurs in earlier age and leads to chronic infection (80% of children under 5 years old are infected in Senegal). On the other hand, malnutrition is common in children under 5 years old in Senegal (25%). H. pylori can cause malnutrition in a variety of ways including decreased food intake due to dyspepsia, defective digestion/absorption, diarrhea and may impact on the growth of children. H. pylori infection is a deep public health problem because non-invasive diagnosis tests are not available in routine practice and mainly because there are many difficulties in its treatment: no availability of drug (Clarithromycine); too much high cost of classic and effective therapeutic strategy ( three times minimal salary); high rate of resistance to antibiotics: 60-95% to Metronidazole, 50-60% to Tetracyclines, 30-40% to Macrolides as Azithromycine and Roxithromycine. So, the main problem in Senegal is to find the good, available and cheep treatment without resistance. Probiotics have been considered as a possible tool for this purpose.

  2. Pediatricians' communication about weight with overweight Latino children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turer, Christy B; Montaño, Sergio; Lin, Hua; Hoang, Kim; Flores, Glenn

    2014-11-01

    To examine pediatrician weight-management communication with overweight Latino children and their parents and whether communication differs by pediatrician-patient language congruency. Mixed-methods analysis of video-recorded primary care visits with overweight 6- to 12-year-old children. Three independent reviewers used video/transcript data to identify American Academy of Pediatrics-recommended communication content and establish communication themes/subthemes. Language incongruence (LI) was defined as pediatrician limited Spanish proficiency combined with parent limited English proficiency (LEP). Bivariate analyses examined associations of LI with communication content/themes. The mean child age (N = 26) was 9.5 years old; 81% were obese. Sixty-two percent of parents had LEP. Twenty-seven percent of pediatricians were Spanish-proficient. An interpreter was used in 25% of LI visits. Major themes for how pediatricians communicate overweight included BMI, weight, obese, chubby, and no communication (which only occurred in LI visits). The pediatrician communicated child overweight in 81% of visits, a weight-management plan in 50%, a culturally relevant dietary recommendation in 42%, a recommendation for a follow-up visit in 65%, and nutrition referral in 50%. Growth charts were used in 62% of visits but significantly less often in LI (13%) versus language-congruent (83%) visits (P receive direct communication of overweight, culturally sensitive dietary advice, or follow-up visits. LI is associated with a lower likelihood of growth chart use. During primary care visits with overweight Latino children, special attention should be paid to directly communicating child overweight, formulating culturally sensitive weight-management plans, and follow-up. With LEP families, vigilance is needed in providing a trained interpreter and using growth charts. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. The improvement of autism spectrum disorders on children communication ability with PECS method Multimedia Augmented Reality-Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taryadi; Kurniawan, I.

    2018-01-01

    This research was done to examine the usage of PECS method (Picture Exchange Communication System) multimedia augmented reality based as a learning alternative in training the communication of autism childen. The aim of this research were developing an approach to improve the communication ability before and after an intervension with PECS multimedia augmented reality method. The subject of this research were 12 autism children in Inclusion school in Pekalongan region. The experiment method was used with the single subject research approach. The research resulted that the average ability level in communication before and after the treatment has shown 47% while during the treatment the average level is 65%. Whereas there is an improvement after intervension stage with the average of 76%..

  4. Development and reliability of an observation method to assess food intake of young children in child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Sarah C; Benjamin, Sara E; Ward, Dianne S

    2007-04-01

    To our knowledge, a direct observation protocol for assessing dietary intake among young children in child care has not been published. This article reviews the development and testing of a diet observation system for child care facilities that occurred during a larger intervention trial. Development of this system was divided into five phases, done in conjunction with a larger intervention study; (a) protocol development, (b) training of field staff, (c) certification of field staff in a laboratory setting, (d) implementation in a child-care setting, and (e) certification of field staff in a child-care setting. During the certification phases, methods were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of all observers at estimating types and amounts of food and beverages commonly served in child care. Tests of agreement show strong agreement among five observers, as well as strong accuracy between the observers and 20 measured portions of foods and beverages with a mean intraclass correlation coefficient value of 0.99. This structured observation system shows promise as a valid and reliable approach for assessing dietary intake of children in child care and makes a valuable contribution to the growing body of literature on the dietary assessment of young children.

  5. Sleep deprivation in parents caring for children with complex needs at home: a mixed methods systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Damhnat; Bull, Rosalind; Winzenberg, Tania

    2015-02-01

    A significant number of children with a range of complex conditions and health care needs are being cared for by parents in the home environment. This mixed methods systematic review aimed to determine the amount of sleep obtained by these parents and the extent to which the child-related overnight health or care needs affected parental sleep experience and daily functioning. Summary statistics were not able to be determined due to the heterogeneity of included studies, but the common themes that emerged are that parents of children with complex needs experience sleep deprivation that can be both relentless and draining and affects the parents themselves and their relationships. The degree of sleep deprivation varies by diagnosis, but a key contributing factor is the need for parents to be vigilant at night. Of particular importance to health care professionals is the inadequate overnight support provided to parents of children with complex needs, potentially placing these parents at risk of poorer health outcomes associated with sleep deprivation and disturbance. This needs to be addressed to enable parents to remain well and continue to provide the care that their child and family require. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Accuracy of Demirjian′s 8 teeth method for age prediction in South Indian children: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezwana Begum Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Demirjian′s method of tooth development is most commonly used to assess age in individuals with emerging teeth. However, its application on numerous populations has resulted in wide variations in age estimates and consequent suggestions for the method′s adaptation to the local sample. Original Demirjian′s method utilized seven mandibular teeth, to which recently third molar is added so that the method can be applied on a wider age group. Furthermore, the revised method developed regression formulas for assessing age. In Indians, as these formulas resulted in underestimation, India-specific regression formulas were developed recently. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the accuracy and applicability of original regression formulas (Chaillet and Demirjian 2004 and India-specific regression formulas (Acharya 2010 using Demirjian′s 8 teeth method in South Indian children of age groups 9-20 years. Methods: The present study consisted of 660 randomly selected subjects (330 males and 330 females were in the aged ranging from 9 to 20 years divided into 11 groups according to their age. Demirjian′s 8 teeth method was used for staging of teeth. Results: Demirjian′s method underestimated the dental age (DA by 1.66 years for boys and 1.55 years for girls and 1.61 years in total. Acharya′s method over estimated DA by 0.21 years for boys and 0.85 years for girls and 0.53 years in total. The absolute accuracy was better for Acharya′s method compared with Demirjian method. Conclusion: This study concluded that both the Demirjian and Indian regression formulas were reliable in assessing age making Demirjian′s 8 teeth method applicable for South Indians.

  7. Evaluation of methods to relieve parental perceptions of vaccine-associated pain and anxiety in children: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthy, Karlen E; Beckstrand, Renea L; Pulsipher, Amy

    2013-01-01

    The pain and anxiety associated with vaccination is a significant reason why parents are reluctant to have their children vaccinated. Distraction methods and vapocoolant sprays may be use to modify the parent's perceptions of their child's pain and anxiety, thus encouraging parents to return for the child's next vaccination. A convenience sample of 68 parents with children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years was selected. The parents and the child were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, a DVD distraction group, or a vapocoolant spray group. After the child was vaccinated, parents evaluated the child's pain and anxiety. No significant difference in the parents' perception of their child's pain or anxiety was found between the two treatment groups compared with the control group. Some parents expressed the desire to be able to choose the type of distraction method their child received rather than having them randomly assigned to a group. Although quantitative results were not statistically significant in this pilot study, parents commented that the DVD distraction method seemed helpful before and/or after vaccination, but not during vaccination, and parents appreciated the distraction. Parents, however, would prefer to choose the intervention rather than being randomly assigned to a group. The effectiveness of interventions with regard to parental perceptions of pain or anxiety warrants further study. Copyright © 2013 National Association of Pediatric Nurse Practitioners. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Drug-binding ability of human serum albumin at children with chronic virus hepatitis radiochemical definition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.A.; Dadakhanov, J.A.; Djuraeva, G.T.; Shukurov, B.V.; Mavlyanov, I.R.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The chronic virus hepatitis produces numerous abnormalities of liver function. The viruses of B, C, D, F and G hepatitis possess the ability to cause chronically proceeding diseases. Earlier we have found that binding ability of serum albumin at patients with acute forms of virus hepatitis is authentically reduced in comparison with the given parameters of control group. At an acute virus hepatitis B with middle severity the reducing of binding ability of serum albumin was observed at 70 % of patients. At an acute virus hepatitis A the reduce of binding ability of serum albumin is less expressed than at acute virus hepatitis B. At of chronic virus intoxication in human organism there is a formation and accumulation of toxic compounds in the excessive concentrations, which are not inherent to a normal metabolism. One of universal mechanisms of reaction of an organism on the increasing concentration of metabolism products is formation of complexes of various compounds with blood plasma proteins. The formation in an organism of endo- and exotoxins excessive concentrations results in blocking the binding centers of albumin molecule that causes the change of its complexing ability. The purpose of the present research: investigation of binding ability of serum albumin with use of radiochemical method at children with a chronic virus hepatitis B and C. Materials and methods. Under clinical observation there were 52 children in the age from 3 till 14 years. From them at 32 the chronic virus hepatitis B was confirmed, at 20 chronic virus - hepatitis C. Etiological diagnostics was carried out by definition of specific markers of a hepatitis B and C method IFA and PCR. Binding ability of serum albumin was defined by radiochemical method with use of the tritium labeled no-spa (drotaverine hydrochloride). The control group consists from 10 conditionally health children of similar age. Results and their discussion. The results of investigation have shown, that at a

  9. Improved radionuclide method for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children (milk scan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyman, S.; Kirkpatrick, J.A.; Winter, H.S.; Treves, S.

    1979-01-01

    A radionuclide study using technetium-99m-labelled milk feeding is described for the detection of gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration in children. A comparison of findings in 39 patients referred for both radiographic and radionuclide studies showed that barium studies were positive in 25.6% and radionuclide studies in 59% of cases, reflecting the sensitivity of the radionuclide technique. This technique is also physiological and allows prolonged patient monitoring. It is simple to perform and should prove useful in the evaluation of patients suspected of having gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration

  10. Optimal sampling strategies to assess inulin clearance in children by the inulin single-injection method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, Lyonne K.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Cransberg, Karlien; Vulto, Arnold G.

    2003-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate in patients can be determined by estimating the plasma clearance of inulin with the single-injection method. In this method, a single bolus injection of inulin is administered and several blood samples are collected. For practical and convenient application of this method

  11. Two sampling methods yield distinct microbial signatures in the nasopharynges of asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Crandall, Keith A; Freishtat, Robert J

    2016-06-16

    The nasopharynx is a reservoir for pathogens associated with respiratory illnesses, such as asthma. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been used to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiome during health and disease. Most studies so far have surveyed the nasopharynx as a whole; however, less is known about spatial variation (biogeography) in nasal microenvironments and how sampling techniques may capture that microbial diversity. We used targeted 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and two different sampling strategies [nasal washes (NW) and nasal brushes (NB)] to characterize the nasopharyngeal microbiota in 30 asthmatic children. Nasal brushing is more abrasive than nasal washing and targeted the inner portion of the inferior turbinate. This region is expected to be different from other nasal microenvironments. Nasal washing is not spatially specific. Our 30 × 2 nasal microbiomes generated 1,474,497 sequences, from which we identified an average of 157 and 186 OTUs per sample in the NW and NB groups, respectively. Microbiotas from NB showed significantly higher alpha-diversity than microbiotas from NW. Similarly, both nasal microbiotas were distinct from each other (PCoA) and significantly differed in their community composition and abundance in at least 9 genera (effective size ≥1 %). Nasopharyngeal microenvironments in asthmatic children contain microbiotas with different diversity and structure. Nasal washes and brushes capture that diversity differently. Future microbial studies of the nasopharynx need to be aware of potential spatial variation (biogeography).

  12. Comparing a perceptual and an automated vision-based method for lie detection in younger children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Serras Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates how easily it can be detected whether a child is being truthful or not in a game situation, and it explores the cue validity of bodily movements for such type of classification. To achieve this, we introduce an innovative methodology – the combination of perception studies (in which one uses eye-tracking technology and automated movement analysis. Film fragments from truthful and deceptive children were shown to human judges who were given the task to decide whether the recorded child was being truthful or not. Results reveal that judges are able to accurately distinguish truthful clips from lying clips in both perception studies. Even though the automated movement analysis for overall and specific body regions did not yield significant results between the experimental conditions, we did find a positive correlation between the amount of movement in a child and the perception of lies, i.e., the more movement the children exhibited during a clip, the higher the chance that the clip was perceived as a lie. The eye-tracking study revealed that, even when there is movement happening on different body regions, judges tend to focus their attention mainly on the face region.

  13. Treatment of children with Helicobacter pylori infection and malabsorption syndrome with probiotics: Comparison with conventional methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunser, O; Gotteland, M; Cruchet, S; Poliak, L [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    From the perspective of public health, one of the main characteristics of the less developed countries is their high levels of microbiological contamination of the environment and foodstuffs which manifests itself by repeated episodes of diarrhea; these affect all age groups but mainly infants and children, whose immune system is nor mature and makes them more susceptible. Food, water, flies, fomites and the hands of many individuals carry enteropathogenic bacteria which are transmitted via the fecal-oral cycle. In this way repeated infections become an important factor in the pathogenesis of the cycle of infantile diarrhea - malnutrition which in these countries explains a high proportion of the infantile and preschool morbidity and mortality.

  14. Substautiation of kineziological methods of rehabilitation of children suffering from scoliotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamozhanskaya G.V.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shows the results of screening studies of the frequency and severity of violations of scoliotic spine. It is noted that this pathology occurs in any population, regardless of the race, and geographic location of its location. Installations constant manifestation of this disease in the range of 0.5% -3% by weight of observations. This indicates that these morphologic variations in the total population of three sigmoid zone are deviations from the average functional characteristics oscillation growth period. In order to ensure early diagnosis and prevention organization corrective measures necessary to systematically monitor physical development, physical fitness and physical condition of the controlled population. Diagnosing the predisposition of children makes it possible means of prevention kinesiology scoliotic prevent violations of I - II degree.

  15. Do parents of obese children use ineffective parenting strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, Alina; West, Felicity

    2013-12-01

    Research has shown mixed findings about the relationship between parenting style and child lifestyle outcomes. This paper describes a cross-sectional study that aimed to clarify the relationship between ineffective parenting and childhood obesity by using multiple measures of child and family functioning. Sixty-two families with an obese child (aged four to 11 years) were matched with 62 families with a healthy weight child on key sociodemographic variables. Significant differences were found on several measures, including general parenting style, domain-specific parenting practices, and parenting self-efficacy (d = .53 to 1.96). Parents of obese children were more likely to use permissive and coercive discipline techniques, and to lack confidence in managing children's lifestyle behaviour. In contrast, parents of healthy weight children were more likely to implement specific strategies for promoting a healthy lifestyle.

  16. A structured expert evaluation method for the evaluation of children's computer games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baauw, E.; Bekker, M.M.; Barendregt, W.; Costabile, M.F.; Paternò, F.

    2005-01-01

    Inspection-based evaluation methods predicting usability problems can be applied for evaluating products without involving users. A new method (named SEEM), inspired by Norman’s theory-of-action model [18] and Malone’s concepts of fun [15], is described for predicting usability and fun problems in

  17. The Model Method: Singapore Children's Tool for Representing and Solving Algebraic Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Swee Fong; Lee, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Solving arithmetic and algebraic word problems is a key component of the Singapore elementary mathematics curriculum. One heuristic taught, the model method, involves drawing a diagram to represent key information in the problem. We describe the model method and a three-phase theoretical framework supporting its use. We conducted 2 studies to…

  18. Teaching Hearing-Impaired Children in Iraq Using a New Teaching Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, N. D. C.; Mustafa, N.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a field test and results of a new didactic teaching method involving resource-based learning to teach various aspects of mathematics and science (fractions, magnetism, planets) to elementary aged hearing impaired student in Iraq. The dramatic improvements in language for learners is described and implications of the methods are…

  19. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  20. Comparative characteristics of the efficiency of different methods of operational treatment for pectus excavatum in children: a multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Yu. Razumovsky

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital malformations of the chest are observed in 1%–4% of the population, and the most common among these is pectus excavatum (90%. Aim. We aimed to conduct a retrospective multicenter study to compare the effectiveness of various methods of operative removal of pectus excavatum in children. Material and methods. We retrospectively analyzed the results of the surgical treatment of funnel-like deformity of the thorax in children conducted in clinics of pediatric surgery in seven regions of Russia (1,226 patients. The ratio of boys to girls in the study population was 2.2:1. The study population was divided as per their age into the following groups: 4–7 years (n = 180, 14.7%, 8–14 years (n = 731, 59.6%, and > 14 years (n = 315, 25.7%. The average age at which most children were operated was 11.83 ± 1.24 years. All children underwent a standard preoperative laboratory examination, including a general blood test, urine tests, a biochemical blood test, a hemostasiogram; radiographic diagnostic methods were used with the calculation of the Gizycka index; functional methods of investigation, such as electrocardiography, spirography, and radioisotope scintigraphy of the lungs were also used. Children with second- or third-degree pectus excavatum underwent surgical treatment almost exclusively. The symmetrical forms of the pectus excavatum were more prevalent. In most cases, the main pathological course was complicated. Results and discussion. The operated patients were divided into the following 3 groups: the first (n = 62: operations with the resection of the curved cartilages and external fixation of the sternum-rib complex (Bairov’s operation, the second (n = 374: thoracoplasty with the resection of warped cartilages using internal metal fixators by Timoshchenko, Ravitch, Paltia, Kondrashin, and the third (n = 790: minimally invasive operations without resection with internal fixation (Nuss operations: original and modified

  1. Surveillance of healthcare-associated infection in hospitalised South African children: Which method performs best?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dramowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In 2012, the South African (SA National Department of Health mandated surveillance of healthcare-associated infection (HAI, but made no recommendations of appropriate surveillance methods. Methods. Prospective clinical HAI surveillance (the reference method was conducted at Tygerberg Children’s Hospital, Cape Town, from 1 May to 31 October 2015. Performance of three surveillance methods (point prevalence surveys (PPSs, laboratory surveillance and tracking of antimicrobial prescriptions was compared with the reference method using surveillance evaluation guidelines. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI were identified by logistic regression analysis. Results. The reference method detected 417 HAIs among 1 347 paediatric hospitalisations (HAI incidence of 31/1000 patient days; 95% confidence interval (CI 28.2 - 34.2. Surveillance methods had variable sensitivity (S and positive predictive value (PPV: PPS S = 24.9% (95% CI 21 - 29.3, PPV = 100%; laboratory surveillance S = 48.4% (95% CI 43.7 - 53.2, PPV = 55.2% (95% CI 50.1 - 60.2; and antimicrobial prescriptions S = 66.4% (95% CI 61.8 - 70.8%, PPV = 88.5% (95% CI 84.5 - 91.6. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved superior HAI detection (S = 84.7% (95% CI 80.9 - 87.8%, PPV = 97% (95% CI 94.6 - 98.4%. Factors associated with failure to detect HAI included patient transfer (odds ratio (OR 2.0, single HAI event (OR 2.8, age category 1 - 5 years (OR 2.1 and hospitalisation in a general ward (OR 2.3. Conclusions. Repeated PPSs, laboratory surveillance and/or antimicrobial prescription tracking are feasible HAI surveillance methods for low-resource settings. Combined laboratory-antimicrobial surveillance achieved the best sensitivity and PPV. SA paediatric healthcare facilities should individualise HAI surveillance, selecting a method suited to available resources and practice context.

  2. USING THE METHOD KINESIOTAPING IN REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN WITH HEMIPARETIC FORM OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Evgenevich Tuchkov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the impact of a new kind of impact in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic form of cerebral palsy – a method kinesiotaping «Concept 4 tapes». Within this framework, the receptor patient unit gradually turned on, resulting in a restructuring of the program abnormal movement, the conditions of use of other methods to increase the efficiency and depth of the order of their influence. The advantage of a technique kinesiotaping is the standard approach, allowing you to apply effects diagram method to all patients without loss of efficacy of therapeutic effects.

  3. Using LMS Method in Smoothing Reference Centile Curves for Lipid Profile of Iranian Children and Adolescents: A CASPIAN Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: LMS is a general monitoring method for fitting smooth reference centile curves in medical sciences. They provide the distribution of a measurement as it changes according to some covariates like age or time. This method describes the distribution of changes by three parameters; Mean, Coefficient of variation and Cox-Box power (skewness. Applying maximum penalized likelihood and spline function, the three curves are estimated and fitted and optimum smoothness is expressed by three curves. This study was conducted to provide the percentiles of lipid profile of Iranian children and adolescents by LMS.

     

    Methods: Smoothed reference centile curves of four groups of lipids (triglycerides, total-LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were developed from the data of 4824 Iranian school students, aged 6-18 years, living in six cities (Tabriz, Rasht, Gorgan, Mashad, Yazd and Tehran-Firouzkouh in Iran. Demographic and laboratory data were taken from the national study of the surveillance and prevention of non-communicable diseases from childhood (CASPIAN Study. After data management, data of 4824 students were included in the statistical analysis, which was conducted by the modified LMS method proposed by Cole. The curves were developed with a degree of freedom of four to ten with some tools such as deviance, Q tests, and detrended Q-Q plot were used for monitoring goodness of fit models.

     

    Results: All tools confirmed the model, and the LMS method was used as an appropriate method in smoothing reference centile. This method revealed the distributing features of variables serving as an objective tool to determine their relative importance.

     

    Conclusion: This study showed that the triglycerides level is higher and

  4. The indoor air and children's health study: methods and incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbury, M C; Maldonado, G; Waller, L

    1996-03-01

    The Indoor Air and Children's Health Study is a prospective cohort study of the relation between indoor air pollution and lower respiratory illness (LRI) during the first 2 years of life. Information on family and household characteristics was obtained from a health maintenance organization for 1,424 infants enrolled at birth. Data on LRI were abstracted from medical records. The incidence of all LRI was 48.4 per 100 child-years. Wheezing-associated respiratory illness (WARI)/asthma was the most common specific LRI, with an incidence of 11.5 per 100 child-years. Total LRI incidence was lowest during the first 6 months of life. Girls had lower incidence than boys [rate ratio (RR) = 0.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-0.8)]. With the exception of croup, all LRI were most common during February and March. These results are comparable with those of other prospective studies. Consistent with other studies, self-reported maternal smoking demonstrated an RR of 1.5 (95% CI = 1.2-1.8) for total LRI, but the association varied for specific LRIs from 2.3 (95% CI = 1.5-3.0) for WARI/asthma to 1.0 (95% CI = 0.7-1.6) for bronchitis.

  5. A review of social media methods and lessons learned from the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Winseck, Kate; Jouvenal, Leslie Cooke; Hubble, David; Kulbicki, Kathryn M

    2017-08-01

    Given the reach and influence of social media, the National Children's Study Vanguard Study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and cost of using social media to support participant retention. We describe a social media experiment designed to assess the impact of social media on participant retention, discuss several key considerations for integrating social media into longitudinal research, and review factors that may influence engagement in research-related social media. User participation varied but was most active when at launch. During the short life of the private online community, a total of 39 participants joined. General enthusiasm about the prospect of the online community was indicated. There were many lessons learned throughout the process in areas such as privacy, security, and Institutional Review Board clearance. These are described in detail. The opportunity to engage participants in longitudinal research using online social networks is enticing; however, more research is needed to consider the feasibility of their use in an ongoing manner. Recommendations are presented for future research seeking to use social media to improve retention in longitudinal research.

  6. The treatment of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in children by the Ilizarov method. A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Yang, M S; Chung, C Y; Cho, T J; Sohn, Y J

    2001-07-01

    Between 1994 and 1997 we used the Ilizarov apparatus to treat 12 recurrent arthrogrypotic club feet in nine patients with a mean age of 5.3 years (3.2 to 7). After a mean of three weeks (two to seven) for correction of the deformity and 1.5 weeks (one to four) for stabilisation in the apparatus, immobilisation in a cast was carried out for a mean of 14 weeks (7 to 24). The mean follow-up period was 35 months (27 to 57). Before operation there were one grade-II (moderate), eight grade-III (severe) and three grade-IV (very severe) club feet, according to the rating system of Dimeglio et al. After operation, all the club feet except one were grade I (benign) with a painless, plantigrade platform. Radiological assessment and functional evaluation confirmed significant improvement. Two complications occurred in one patient, namely, epiphysiolysis of the distal tibia and recurrence of the foot deformity. These results suggest that our proposed modification of the Ilizarov technique is effective in the management of recurrent arthrogrypotic club foot in young children.

  7. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.; Bogdanowicz Marta

    2016-01-01

    Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. I...

  8. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  9. Suitability of imaging methods (X-ray, CT, MRI) in the diagnostics of Ewings sarcoma in children - analysis of own material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuleta-Bosak, E.; Machnik-Broncel, J.; Kluczewska, E.; Madziara, W.; Ciupinska-Kajor, M.; Sojka, D.; Rogala, W.; Juszczyk, J.; Wilk, R.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ewing sarcoma is a malignant, small round cell bone tumor, presenting predominantly in children and adolescents. Ewing sarcoma may develop in every bone; diaphyses of long bones, ribs and flat bones are the main locations. Local and systemic clinical symptoms are nonspecific - pain, swelling, fever or ill-being. The aim of the study was to assess the role of radiography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the analysis of bone lesions in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma. Material/Methods: Twenty-seven patients, aged between 1 year and 10 months, and 17 years and 2 months, with histologically verified Ewing sarcoma of the bone, referred to the Radiological Department of University Hospital No 6., John Paul II Upper Silesian Centre for Child Health Katowice, in the period from 1996 to 2007, were included in the study.Plain radiography was performed in every child, CT in 20 and MRI in 12 individuals. Tumour location, extension of the tumour, soft tissue mass, and periosteal reaction were taken into consideration in the evaluation of the lesion. In some cases, pathological features of the MRI and CT were compared. The prevalence of some radiological features was compared to the literature data. Results: The most common site of tumor was: ribs (6 children), femoral bone (6 children), pelvis (4 children) and tibia (3 children). In 2 children, a primary tumor was diagnosed in the spine (multifocal in 1 child). X-rays revealed: periosteal reaction in 17 children (63%), soft tissue involvement in 19 children (70%), permeative component in 16 children (59%), and sclerotic component in 5 children (19%). In 10 children (37%), periosteal reaction was not detected. The examination revealed: soft tissue calcifications in 7 cases (26%), a well-delineated focus of destruction within bones in 3 children (11%), cortical thickening in 4 children (15%), cortical destruction in 4 children (15%), saucerisation in 3 children (11%), bone expansion

  10. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeviciute, Greta; Narbutaite, Julija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ(2)), Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman's rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51), practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4) (P = 0.58). Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004). Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they're based on practical skills training.

  11. Parent-to-parent peer support for parents of children with a disability: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Lucy; Carter, Bernie; Sanders, Caroline; Blake, Lucy; Keegan, Kimberley

    2017-08-01

    This paper will report on the findings of a study which investigated the influence of a befriending (parent-to-parent peer support) scheme on parents whose children have a disability or additional need. The scheme operated from an acute children's tertiary setting in the UK. A prospective concurrent mixed method design collected interview (n=70) and questionnaire (n=68) data at two time-points from befrienders (n=13) and befriendees (n=26). The main qualitative findings of the study relate to the different degrees parents (befriendees and befrienders) moved from being lost, to finding and being a guide and getting to a better place. The quantitative findings demonstrate that parent-to-parent peer support has a positive influence on parents' levels of psychological distress and their ability to cope with being a parent of a child with a disability. The befriending scheme acted as a catalyst for many parents to move towards a place where they could grow and begin to flourish and thrive. Professionals should inform parents who have a child with a disability that peer-to-peer parenting support schemes are a valuable and appropriate source of support and help. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effectiveness of Backward Chaining Methods to Improve Skills in Children with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arip Apriyadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A child with intellectual disability has problems in adaptive behavior such as eating skill. The research objective was to describe: 1 the ability of the child with intellectual disability before being given intervention using backward chaining method, 2 the ability of the child with intellectual disability after being given intervention using backward chaining method, and 3 the effectiveness of backward chaining method to increase the eating skills for child with intellectual disability. The method of this study was an experimental method by using the Single Subject Research (SSR with the A-B-A design model. The results showed that the percentage of overlap between the baseline condition-1 and the intervention condition was 0%. The calculation declared that there was increase eating skill for child with intellectual disability with backward chaining. Anak disabilitas intelektual memiliki masalah dalam perilaku adaptif seperti pada keterampilan makan. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mendeskripsikan: 1 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual sebelum diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, 2 kemampuan anak disabilitas intelektual setelah diberikan intervensi menggunakan backward chaining, dan 3 keefektifan backward chaining untuk meningkatkan keterampilan makan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode eksperimen dengan menggunakan Single Subject Reseach (SSR dengan desain A-B-A. Hasil penelitian menunjukan perolehan presentase overlap antara kondisi baseline-1 ke kondisi intervensi sebesar 0%. Perhitungan tersebut menyatakan adanya pengaruh keefektifan backward chaining sebagai intervensi terhadap peningkatan keterampilan makan sebagai target behavior.

  13. Exploring the Effectiveness of Implementing Seminars as a Teaching and an Assessment Method in a Children's Literature Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'Adawi, Sharifa Said Ali

    2017-01-01

    The classroom environment should support students' autonomy through teaching and assessment methods. This article highlights students' perceptions about the value of implementing seminars as a teaching and an assessment method in a children's literature course in a college of applied sciences (XCAS). Additionally, preparation considerations and…

  14. "Mastery Learning" Como Metodo Psicoeducativo para Ninos con Problemas Especificos de Aprendizaje. ("Mastery Learning" as a Psychoeducational Method for Children with Specific Learning Problems.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coya, Liliam de Barbosa; Perez-Coffie, Jorge

    1982-01-01

    "Mastery Learning" was compared with the "conventional" method of teaching reading skills to Puerto Rican children with specific learning disabilities. The "Mastery Learning" group showed significant gains in the cognitive and affective domains. Results suggested Mastery Learning is a more effective method of teaching…

  15. Dynamic balance in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with cognitive functions and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goetz M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Michal Goetz,1 Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova,2 Zdenek Hlavka,3 Radek Ptacek,4 Craig BH Surman5 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Second Faculty of Medicine, Motol University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, 3Department of Statistics, 4Department of Psychiatry, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; 5Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Background: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is linked to the presence of motor deficiencies, including balance deficits. The cerebellum serves as an integrative structure for balance control and is also involved in cognition, including timing and anticipatory regulation. Cerebellar development may be delayed in children and adolescents with ADHD, and inconsistent reaction time is commonly seen in ADHD. We hypothesized that dynamic balance deficits would be present in children with ADHD and they would correlate with attention and cerebellar functions. Methods: Sixty-two children with ADHD and no other neurological conditions and 62 typically developing (TD children were examined with five trials of the Phyaction Balance Board, an electronic balancing platform. Cerebellar clinical symptoms were evaluated using an international ataxia rating scale. Conners’ Continuous Performance Test was used to evaluate patterns of reaction. Results: Children with ADHD had poorer performance on balancing tasks, compared to TD children (P<0.001. They exhibited significantly greater sway amplitudes than TD children (P<0.001 in all of the five balancing trials. The effect size of the difference between the groups increased continuously from the first to the last trial. Balance score in both groups was related to the variation in the reaction time, including reaction time standard error (r =0.25; P=0.0409, respectively, r =0.31; P=0.0131 and Variability of Standard Error (r =0.28; P=0.0252, respectively, r =0.41; P<0.001. The burden of cerebellar symptoms was strongly related to

  16. A simple lead dust fall method predicts children's blood lead level: New evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan

    2017-11-01

    We have measured dust fall accumulation in petri dishes (PDD) collected 6 monthly from inside residences in Sydney urban area, New South Wales, Australia as part of a 5-year longitudinal study to determine environmental associations, including soil. with blood lead (PbB) levels. The Pb loading in the dishes (n = 706) had geometric means (GM) of 24µg/m 2 /30d, a median value of 22µg/m 2 /30d with a range from 0.2 to 11,390µg/m 2 /30d. Observed geometric mean PbB was 2.4µg/dL at ages 2-3 years. Regression analyses showed a statistically significant relationship between predicted PbB and PDD. The predicted PbB values from dust in our study are consistent with similar analyses from the US in which floor dust was collected by wipes. Predicted PbB values from PDD indicate that an increase in PDD of about 100µg/m 2 /30d would increase PbB by about 1.5µg/dL or a doubling PbB at the low levels currently observed in many countries. Predicted PbB values from soil indicate that a change from 0 to 1000mg Pb/kg results in an increase of 1.7µg/dL in PbB, consistent with earlier investigations. Blood Pb levels can be predicted from dust fall accumulation (and soil) in cases where blood sampling is not always possible, especially in young children. Petri dish loading data could provide an alternative or complementary "action level" at about 100µg Pb/m 2 /30 days, similar to the suggested level of about 110µg Pb/m 2 for surface wipes, for use in monitoring activities such as housing rehabilitation, demolition or soil resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Capacity Profile: a method to classify additional care needs in children with neurodevelopmental disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester-Delver, Anke; Beelen, Anita; Hennekam, Raoul; Nollet, Frans; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the interrater reliability and stability over time of the Capacity Profile (CAP). The CAP is a standardized method for classifying additional care needs indicated by current impairments in five domains of body functions: physical health, neuromusculoskeletal

  18. Diuretic ultrasound - noninvasive method for assessment of congenital hydronephrosis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueva, A.; Gaidarova, M.; Zlatanova, G.

    2012-01-01

    Ureteropelvic junction obstruction is the most common congenital abnormality of the urinary tract. Its incidence is 5 cases per 100 000 population annually. Several functional methods are available: diuretic renography, diuretic ultrasound and diuretic urography. The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity and the specificity of the diuretic ultrasound and renography in the evaluation of upper urinary tract obstruction. (authors)

  19. Caregivers' interest in using smokeless tobacco products: Novel methods that may reduce children's exposure to secondhand smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Theodore L; Tackett, Alayna P; Borrelli, Belinda

    2016-10-01

    The study examined caregivers' interest in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products for smoking cessation, reduction, and to help them not smoke in places such as around their child, as all three methods would potentially lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure for their children. A sample of 136 caregivers completed carbon monoxide testing to assess smoking status and a brief survey. Few caregivers had ever used potentially reduced exposure tobacco products (smoke around their child or in the home (55%). Caregivers less motivated to quit smoking and with no home smoking ban were more interested in using potentially reduced exposure tobacco products to help them quit/stay quit from smoking (p < .05). © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Methods and results of diuresis renography in infants and children. Methodik und Ergebnisse der Diurese-Nephrographie im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinhans, E. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Rohrmann, D. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Stollbrink, C. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Mertens, R. (Paediatrische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Jakse, G. (Urologische Klinik, RWTH Aachen (Germany)); Buell, U. (Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, RWTH Aachen (Germany))

    1994-02-01

    In infants and children with hydronephrosis, the decision-making process for those instances of urinary tract dilatation that require surgical correction and those that do not is based in part on the findings of diuresis renography. Quantitative analysis of renogram curve pattern is a well established tool which, in addition, provides comparable results in follow-up studies. However, standardization of the method including data analysis does not yet exist. In this study, three parameters obtained by mathematical curve analysis were examined: clearance half-time for diuretic response, clearance within 5 minutes and clearance within 16 minutes. As a result, 16 minutes clearance revealed superior results in discriminating obstructive impairments of urine drainage from not obstructive ones. Compared to the clearance halftime, the markedly shorter duration of the examination (16 minutes) is an additional benefit. (orig.)

  1. An ecological method for the sampling of nonverbal signalling behaviours of young children with profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Keith; Lorch, Marjorie Perlman

    2016-08-01

    Profound and multiple learning disabilities (PMLD) are a complex range of disabilities that affect the general health and well-being of the individual and their capacity to interact and learn. We developed a new methodology to capture the non-symbolic signalling behaviours of children with PMLD within the context of a face-to-face interaction with a caregiver to provide analysis at a micro-level of descriptive detail incorporating the use of the ELAN digital video software. The signalling behaviours of participants in a natural, everyday interaction can be better understood with the use of this innovation in methodology, which is predicated on the ecology of communication. Recognition of the developmental ability of the participants is an integral factor within that ecology. The method presented establishes an advanced account of the modalities through which a child affected by PMLD is able to communicate.

  2. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  3. Effectiveness of a Motivation and Practical Skills Development Methods on the Oral Hygiene of Orphans Children in Kaunas, Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Markeviciute

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a motivation and practical skills development methods on the oral hygiene of orphans. Material and Methods: Sixty eight orphans aged between 7 and 17 years from two orphanages in Kaunas were divided into two groups: practical application group and motivation group. Children were clinically examined by determining their oral hygiene status using Silness-Löe plaque index. Questionnaire was used to estimate the oral hygiene knowledge and practices at baseline and after 3 months. Statistical analysis included: Chi-square test (χ2, Fisher‘s exact test, Student‘s t-test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test, Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient and Kappa coefficient. Results: All children had a plaque on at least one tooth in both groups: motivation 1.14 (SD 0.51, practical application 1.08 (SD 0.4 (P = 0.58. Girls in both groups showed significantly better oral hygiene than boys (P < 0.001. After 3 months educational program oral hygiene status improved in both groups significantly 0.4 (SD 0.35 (P < 0.001. Significantly better oral hygiene was determined in practical application group 0.19 (SD 0.27 in comparison with motivation group 0.55 (SD 0.32 (P < 0.001. By comparing results of first and second questionnaire surveys on use of soft drinks, the statistically significant decline of their use was in both groups (P = 0.004. Conclusions: Educational programs are effective in improving oral hygiene, especially when they’re based on practical skills training.

  4. Integrated complex care coordination for children with medical complexity: A mixed-methods evaluation of tertiary care-community collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Eyal

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care medical homes may improve health outcomes for children with special healthcare needs (CSHCN, by improving care coordination. However, community-based primary care practices may be challenged to deliver comprehensive care coordination to complex subsets of CSHCN such as children with medical complexity (CMC. Linking a tertiary care center with the community may achieve cost effective and high quality care for CMC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of community-based complex care clinics integrated with a tertiary care center. Methods A before- and after-intervention study design with mixed (quantitative/qualitative methods was utilized. Clinics at two community hospitals distant from tertiary care were staffed by local community pediatricians with the tertiary care center nurse practitioner and linked with primary care providers. Eighty-one children with underlying chronic conditions, fragility, requirement for high intensity care and/or technology assistance, and involvement of multiple providers participated. Main outcome measures included health care utilization and expenditures, parent reports of parent- and child-quality of life [QOL (SF-36®, CPCHILD©, PedsQL™], and family-centered care (MPOC-20®. Comparisons were made in equal (up to 1 year pre- and post-periods supplemented by qualitative perspectives of families and pediatricians. Results Total health care system costs decreased from median (IQR $244 (981 per patient per month (PPPM pre-enrolment to $131 (355 PPPM post-enrolment (p=.007, driven primarily by fewer inpatient days in the tertiary care center (p=.006. Parents reported decreased out of pocket expenses (p© domains [Health Standardization Section (p=.04; Comfort and Emotions (p=.03], while total CPCHILD© score decreased between baseline and 1 year (p=.003. Parents and providers reported the ability to receive care close to home as a key benefit. Conclusions Complex

  5. No Impact of the Analytical Method Used for Determining Cystatin C on Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberer, Martin; Hoefele, Julia; Benz, Marcus R; Bökenkamp, Arend; Weber, Lutz T

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of inulin clearance is considered to be the gold standard for determining kidney function in children, but this method is time consuming and expensive. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is on the other hand easier to calculate by using various creatinine- and/or cystatin C (Cys C)-based formulas. However, for the determination of serum creatinine (Scr) and Cys C, different and non-interchangeable analytical methods exist. Given the fact that different analytical methods for the determination of creatinine and Cys C were used in order to validate existing GFR formulas, clinicians should be aware of the type used in their local laboratory. In this study, we compared GFR results calculated on the basis of different GFR formulas and either used Scr and Cys C values as determined by the analytical method originally employed for validation or values obtained by an alternative analytical method to evaluate any possible effects on the performance. Cys C values determined by means of an immunoturbidimetric assay were used for calculating the GFR using equations in which this analytical method had originally been used for validation. Additionally, these same values were then used in other GFR formulas that had originally been validated using a nephelometric immunoassay for determining Cys C. The effect of using either the compatible or the possibly incompatible analytical method for determining Cys C in the calculation of GFR was assessed in comparison with the GFR measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl). Unexpectedly, using GFR equations that employed Cys C values derived from a possibly incompatible analytical method did not result in a significant difference concerning the classification of patients as having normal or reduced GFR compared to the classification obtained on the basis of CrCl. Sensitivity and specificity were adequate. On the other hand, formulas using Cys C values derived from a compatible analytical method partly showed insufficient

  6. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mergler, Sandra; de Man, Stella A.; Boot, Annemieke M; Bindels-de Heus, Karen G. C. B.; Huijbers, Wim A. R.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children

  7. Well-Child Care Redesign: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Parent Experiences in the PARENT Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimila, Naomi A; Chung, Paul J; Elliott, Marc N; Bethell, Christina D; Chacon, Sandra; Biely, Christopher; Contreras, Sandra; Chavis, Toni; Bruno, Yovana; Moss, Tanesha; Coker, Tumaini R

    Parent-focused Redesign for Encounters, Newborns to Toddlers (PARENT), is a well-child care (WCC) model that has demonstrated effectiveness in improving the receipt of comprehensive WCC services and reducing emergency department utilization for children aged 0 to 3 in low-income communities. PARENT relies on a health educator ("parent coach") to provide WCC services; it utilizes a Web-based previsit prioritization/screening tool (Well-Visit Planner) and an automated text message reminder/education service. We sought to assess intervention feasibility and acceptability among PARENT trial intervention participants. Intervention parents completed a survey after a 12-month study period; a 26% random sample of them were invited to participate in a qualitative interview. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative analysis; survey responses were analyzed using bivariate methods. A total of 115 intervention participants completed the 12-month survey; 30 completed a qualitative interview. Nearly all intervention participants reported meeting with the coach, found her helpful, and would recommend continuing coach-led well visits (97-99%). Parents built trusting relationships with the coach and viewed her as a distinct and important part of their WCC team. They reported that PARENT well visits more efficiently used in-clinic time and were comprehensive and family centered. Most used the Well-Visit Planner (87%), and found it easy to use (94%); a minority completed it at home before the visit (18%). Sixty-two percent reported using the text message service; most reported it as a helpful source of new information and a reinforcement of information discussed during visits. A parent coach-led intervention for WCC for young children is a model of WCC delivery that is both acceptable and feasible to parents in a low-income urban population. Copyright © 2017 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  8. Prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in the lorestan province of iran, using the key informant method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Hessom; Kuper, Hannah; Rezvan, Farhad; Amelie, Khatere; Mahboobi-Pur, Hassan; Oladi, Mohammad Reza; Muhit, Mohammad; Hashemi, Hassan

    2010-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of severe visual impairment and blindness among children in Lorestan province of Iran, and to assess the feasibility of the Key Informant Method in this setting. Potential cases were identified using the Key Informant Method, in 3 counties of Lorestan province during June through August 2008, and referred for examination. Causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were determined and categorized using standard World Health Organization methods. Of 123 children referred for examination, 27 children were confirmed to have severe visual impairment/blindness or blindness. The median age was11 years (interquartile range 6-13), and 59% were girls. After adjusting for non-attenders, the estimated prevalence of severe visual impairment/blindness was 0.04% (0.03-0.05). The main site of abnormality was retina (44%), followed by disorders of the whole eye (33%). The majority of causes had a hereditary etiology (70%), which was associated with a family history of blindness (P = 0.002). Potentially avoidable causes of severe visual impairment/blindness were found in 14 children (52%). Almost all children with severe visual impairment/blindness had a history of parental consanguinity (93%). Our findings suggest a moderate prevalence of childhood blindness in the Lorestan province of Iran, a high proportion of which may be avoidable, given improved access to ophthalmic and genetic counselling services in rural areas. The Key Informant Method is feasible in Iran; future research is discussed.

  9. [Application and comparison of NDT-Bobath and Vojta methods in treatment of selected pathologies of the nervous system in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Podogrodzki, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The paper compares effectiveness of NDT-Bobath and Vojta methods in the treatment of selected dysfunctions of the nervous system in children. It evaluates applicability of both methods in prenatal and perinatal injury of the central nervous system, myelomeningocele, Down syndrome and spasticity. The existing literature is supplemented by own clinical experience of the authors. The paper forms the opinion on the constant debates on the superiority of one method over another.

  10. [Study of gene mutation in 62 hemophilia A children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q; Liu, A G; Zhang, L Q; Zhang, A; Wang, Y Q; Wang, S M; Lu, Y J; Wang, X

    2017-11-02

    Objective: To analyze the mutation type of FⅧ gene in children with hemophilia A and to explore the relationship among hemophilia gene mutation spectrum, gene mutation and clinical phenotype. Method: Sixty-two children with hemophilia A from Department of Pediatric Hematology, Tongji Hospital of Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology between January 2015 and March 2017 were enrolled. All patients were male, aged from 4 months to 7 years and F Ⅷ activity ranged 0.2%-11.0%. Fifty cases had severe, 10 cases had moderate and 2 cases had mild hemophilia A. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood in hemophilia A children and the target gene fragment was amplified by PCR, in combination with the second generation sequencing, 22 and 1 introns were detected. Negative cases were detected by the second generation sequencing and results were compared with those of the international FⅧ gene mutation database. Result: There were 20 cases (32%) of intron 22 inversion, 2 cases (3%) of intron 1 inversion, 18 cases (29%) of missense mutation, 5 cases (8%) of nonsense mutation, 7 cases (11%) of deletion mutation, 1 case(2%)of splice site mutation, 2 cases (3%) of large fragment deletion and 1 case of insertion mutation (2%). No mutation was detected in 2 cases (3%), and 4 cases (7%) failed to amplify. The correlation between phenotype and genotype showed that the most common gene mutation in severe hemophilia A was intron 22 inversion (20 cases), accounting for 40% of severe patients, followed by 11 cases of missense mutation (22%). The most common mutation in moderate hemophilia A was missense mutation (6 cases), accounting for 60% of moderate patients. Conclusion: The most frequent mutation type in hemophilia A was intron 22 inversion, followed by missense mutation, again for missing mutation. The relationship between phenotype and genotype: the most frequent gene mutation in severe hemophilia A is intron 22 inversion, followed by missense

  11. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, A.J.

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs

  12. Radiation dose to children in diagnostic radiology. Measurements and methods for clinical optimisation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, A J

    1995-09-01

    A method for estimating mean absorbed dose to different organs and tissues was developed for paediatric patients undergoing X-ray investigations. The absorbed dose distribution in water was measured for the specific X-ray beam used. Clinical images were studied to determine X-ray beam positions and field sizes. Size and position of organs in the patient were estimated using ORNL phantoms and complementary clinical information. Conversion factors between the mean absorbed dose to various organs and entrance surface dose for five different body sizes were calculated. Direct measurements on patients estimating entrance surface dose and energy imparted for common X-ray investigations were performed. The examination technique for a number of paediatric X-ray investigations used in 19 Swedish hospitals was studied. For a simulated pelvis investigation of a 1-year old child the entrance surface dose was measured and image quality was estimated using a contrast-detail phantom. Mean absorbed doses to organs and tissues in urography, lung, pelvis, thoracic spine, lumbar spine and scoliosis investigations was calculated. Calculations of effective dose were supplemented with risk calculations for special organs e g the female breast. The work shows that the examination technique in paediatric radiology is not yet optimised, and that the non-optimised procedures contribute to a considerable variation in radiation dose. In order to optimise paediatric radiology there is a need for more standardised methods in patient dosimetry. It is especially important to relate measured quantities to the size of the patient, using e g the patient weight and length. 91 refs, 17 figs, 8 tabs.

  13. Comparison of conventional methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in children of the Center-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvone M. Brustoloni

    Full Text Available In Brazil, sophisticated techniques currently employed for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis, such as polymerase chain reaction-based assays, are only available in major research centers, whereas conventional methods are still used in many areas where the disease occurs. In the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the country's Center-West Region, visceral leishmaniasis has recently emerged in many cities, and duration of the disease, from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis, has been short. Considering that results of diagnostic tests may depend on the phase of the disease, we compared direct examination of bone marrow aspirates (BMAs, BMA culture, and serology by Indirect Immunofluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT for diagnosis in children, according to time of evolution (30 days and to spleen size ( 5 cm at admission. Duration of the illness did not interfere with test positivity: direct smear examination and IFAT were positive in more than 80% of patients, as was culture in around 60%. Results of positive microscopy, however, where predominant in patients with larger spleens. Thanks to the association of traditional techniques, only a few patients had to begin a treatment trial without confirming the diagnosis. Conventional methods for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis are still indispensable in our region, and training professionals in basic techniques should be incremented. The highest sensitivity in laboratory diagnosis among the cases investigated was that obtained with a combination of BMA direct examination and IFAT, nearing 100%.

  14. Researching children's individual empathic abilities in the context of their daily lives: The importance of Mixed Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eRoerig

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In social neuroscience, empathy is often approached as an individual ability, whereas researchers in anthropology focus on empathy as a dialectic process between agents. In this perspective paper, we argue that to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying development of empathy, social neuroscience research should draw on insights and methods from anthropology. First, we discuss neuropsychological studies that investigated empathy in inter-relational context. Second, we highlight differences between the social neuroscience and anthropological conceptualization of empathy. Third, we introduce a new study design based on a mixed method approach, and present initial results of one classroom that was part of the larger study and included 28 children (m=13, f =15. Participants (age 9-11 were administered behavioral tasks and a social network questionnaire; an observational study was conducted during a period of 10 - 14 weeks. Initial results showed how children’s expressions of their empathic abilities were influenced by situational cues in classroom processes. This effect was further explained by children’s position in the classroom network. Our results emphasize the value of interdisciplinary research in the study of empathy.

  15. Effectiveness of various surgical methods in treatment of Hirschsprung’s disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukač Marija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hirschsprung’s disease is the most common identifiable developmental disorder of the enteric nervous system, characterized by a failure of its formation in a variable segment of distal bowel. Currently available surgical therapies for Hirschsprung’s disease, although lifesaving, are associated with numerous complications. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different surgical methods and the incidence of serious complications after radical surgery of rectosigmoid Hirschsprung’s disease. Methods. A retrospective analysis, from June 1997 until May 2012 was carried out on 84 patients operated for Hirschsprung’s disease of rectosigmoid colon. Transanal endorectal pull-through was performed in 30 (35.7% patients (group I, while 54 (64.3% patients were operated by other (Soave, Duhamel or Swenson procedures (group II. The age at operation, the incidence and severity of postoperative complications, the need for previous colostomy and the number of reoperations are countered in order to evaluate the efficacy of surgical procedures. Results. In the group I, the mean age at operation was 9.41 ± 6.37 months and in the group II the mean age at operation was 16.8 ± 13.9 months which was significantly higher (p < 0.01. In the group I there were only 3 (10% patients with complications, one (3% of them was prone to only one redo procedure (1.00 ± 0.00 and there was no need for previous colostomy in all patients (100%. In the group II there were 16 (30% patients with significantly frequent complications (p < 0.05, about 2 reoperations on the average (1.94 ± 1.84 in 4 of them (25% and 22 (41% redo procedures, which was, in total, significantly higher than in the group I (p < 0.01. Only Soave’s procedure was performed without previous colostomy in 20 (37% patients. Conclusion. Transanal endorectal pull-through in surgical treatment of patients with Hirschsprung’s disease is more effective than other procedures

  16. Children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherian, Ali; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    Topical anesthesia has been widely advocated as an important component of atraumatic administration of intraoral local anesthesia. The aim of this study was to use direct observation of children's behavioral pain reactions during local anesthetic injection using cotton-roll vibration method compared with routine topical anesthesia. Forty-eight children participated in this randomized controlled clinical trial. They received two separate inferior alveolar nerve block or primary maxillary molar infiltration injections on contralateral sides of the jaws by both cotton-roll vibration (a combination of topical anesthesia gel, cotton roll, and vibration for physical distraction) and control (routine topical anesthesia) methods. Behavioral pain reactions of children were measured according to the author-developed face, head, foot, hand, trunk, and cry (FHFHTC) scale, resulting in total scores between 0 and 18. The total scores on the FHFHTC scale ranged between 0-5 and 0-10 in the cotton-roll vibration and control methods, respectively. The mean ± standard deviation values of total scores on FHFHTC scale were lower in the cotton-roll vibration method (1.21 ± 1.38) than in control method (2.44 ± 2.18), and this was statistically significant (P anesthesia in reducing behavioral pain reactions in children during local anesthesia administration.

  17. Echocardiography as a Predicting Method in Diagnosis, Evaluation and Assessment of Children with Subvalvar Aortic Stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejiqi, Ramush; Bejiqi, Hana; Retkoceri, Ragip

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obstruction to the left ventricular outflow of the heart may be above the aortic valve (5%), at the valve (74%), or in the subvalvar region (23%). These anomalies represent 3 to 6% of all patients with congenital heart defects (CHD), and it occurs more often in males (male-female ratio of 4:1). AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of transthoracic echocardiography in diagnosis of discrete subaortic membrane, to determine convenient time for surgical intervention, and for identifying involvement of the aortic valve by subaortic shelf. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records and echocardiograms of 18 patients [14 male (77%) and 4 female (23%)] with discrete subaortic membrane, aged 11 month to 12 years, with mean age of 5 years and 3 month, diagnosed at the Pediatric Clinic in Prishtina, during the period September, 1999 and December, 2010 were done. RESULTS: Four patients, in neonatal age were operated from critical coarctation of the aorta and, initial signs of congestive heart failure were presented. 2 of them were operated in Belgrade, Serbia and 2 in Lausanne, Switzerland. CONCLUSION: In all presented patients bicuspid aortic valve was noted, but none of them subaortic membrane was registered. PMID:27275334

  18. Gender differences and age-related changes in body fat mass in Tibetan children and teenagers: an analysis by the bioelectrical impedance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Long; Fu, Qiang; Li, Wen-Hui; Liu, Su-Wei; Zhong, Hua; Duoji, Bai-Ma; Zhang, Mei-Zhi; Lv, Po; Xi, Huan-Jiu

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to obtain the fat base value and the fat distribution characteristics of Tibetan children and teenagers by estimating their body fat content with the bioelectrical impedance method. We recruited 1427 healthy children and teenagers by a stratified cluster sampling method. By using bioelectrical impedance analysis, we obtained various values relevant to fat. We found that total body fat mass and the fat mass of various body parts increased with age in boys and girls. Yet there were no differences between age groups until 11 years. However, fat mass increased quickly between 11 and 18 years, and significant differences were seen between adolescent boys and girls; all fat indices were higher in girls than in boys (pfat in Tibetan children and teenagers in Tibet is related to age and gender related hormone secretion, which reflects the physiological characteristics in different developmental stages.

  19. Evaluation of the stress level of children with idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and parameters of the deformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszczewska, Justyna; Czaprowski, Dariusz; Pawłowska, Paulina; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs) were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.

  20. Evaluation of the Stress Level of Children with Idiopathic Scoliosis in relation to the Method of Treatment and Parameters of the Deformity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Leszczewska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress level due to existing body deformity as well as to the treatment with a corrective brace is one of factors influencing the quality of life of children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing non-surgical management. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the stress level among children suffering from idiopathic scoliosis in relation to the method of treatment and the parameters of the deformity. Seventy-three patients with idiopathic scoliosis participated in the study. Fifty-two children were treated by means of physiotherapy, while 21 patients were treated with both Cheneau corrective brace and physiotherapy. To assess the stress level related to the deformity itself and to the method of treatment with corrective brace, the two Bad Sobernheim Stress Questionnaires (BSSQs were applied, the BSSQ Deformity and the BSSQ Brace, respectively.

  1. Active children through incentive vouchers – evaluation (ACTIVE: a mixed-method feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Christian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents face many barriers to physical activity, demonstrated by the decline in physical activity levels in teenage populations. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of overcoming such barriers via the implementation of an activity-promoting voucher scheme to teenagers in deprived areas. Methods All Year 9 pupils (n = 115; 13.3 ± 0.48 years; 51 % boys from one secondary school in Wales (UK participated. Participants received £25 of activity vouchers every month for six months for physical activity or sporting equipment. Focus groups (n = 7, with 43 pupils, and qualitative interviews with teachers (n = 2 were conducted to assess feasibility, in addition to a process evaluation utilising the RE-AIM framework. Quantitative outcomes at baseline, five months (during intervention and twelve months (follow-up included: physical activity (accelerometer, aerobic fitness (12 min Cooper run and self-reported activity (PAQ-A. Motivation to exercise (BREQ-2 was measured three months post-baseline and at follow-up. Results Qualitative findings showed that vouchers encouraged friends to socialise through activity, provided opportunities to access local activities that pupils normally could not afford, and engaged both those interested and disinterested in physical education. Improvements in weekend moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and reductions in sedentary behaviour were observed in both sexes. Boys’ fitness significantly improved during the voucher scheme. ‘Non-active’ pupils (those not meeting recommended guidelines of 60 mins∙day−1 and those with higher motivation to exercise had higher voucher use. Conclusions Adolescents, teachers and activity providers supported the voucher scheme and felt the vouchers enabled deprived adolescents to access more physical activity opportunities. Voucher usage was associated with improved attitudes to physical activity, increased socialisation with

  2. TREATMENT OF TRANSCONDYLAR EXTENSOR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: ON THE ISSUE OF HISTORY OF THE METHOD “COLLAR AND CUFF”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of one of the methods of conservative treatment humeral transcondylar extensor fractures in children - a method «collar and cuff». The second and very common name of this method is connected with the name of the american orthopaedist Walter Blount. «The method of Blount» is mentioned in many domestic and foreign sources. Nevertheless the analysis of publications on the history of the discussed method of treatment indicates the priority in this matter other famous doctor - British podiatrist Robert Jones.

  3. Prolonged fasting of children before anaesthesia is common in private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, Y; Sims, C

    2016-01-01

    Fasting guidelines for children are well established. Despite these guidelines, previous studies have shown children are often fasted for prolonged periods before anaesthesia, potentially causing discomfort and distress. Moreover, recent publications indicate shorter fasting times for oral clear fluids in children may be safe. We audited fasting times of children having elective surgery at a local large private hospital that provides care for both adults and children. We gave feedback and education to our caregivers, then repeated the audit. Data were collected from 307 children (age 6.0 ± 4.1 years) in an initial eight-week audit, and from 153 children (age 6.7 ± 4.5 years) in a follow-up four-week audit. We found fasting durations were excessive in many children. Sixty-two percent of children in each audit fasted longer than four hours for clear fluids. Children on morning lists fasted longer than children on afternoon lists. Fasting from solids was also excessively long. In the initial audit, 30% fasted more than 12 hours for solids, including 18 who last ate more than 16 hours before surgery. Data from the follow-up audit were similar. We conclude that fasting of children at our hospital is excessive, despite our efforts to shorten the duration. We suspect that our hospital is not the only one with a high incidence of prolonged fasting for children and suggest possible solutions.

  4. The effects of coping style on virtual reality enhanced videogame distraction in children undergoing cold pressor pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Soumitri; Dahlquist, Lynnda M; Thompson, Caitlin; Hahn, Amy; Herbert, Linda; Wohlheiter, Karen; Horn, Susan

    2014-02-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) enhanced interactive videogame distraction for children undergoing experimentally induced cold pressor pain and examined the role of avoidant and approach coping style as a moderator of VR distraction effectiveness. Sixty-two children (6-13 years old) underwent a baseline cold pressor trial followed by two cold pressor trials in which interactive videogame distraction was delivered both with and without a VR helmet in counterbalanced order. As predicted, children demonstrated significant improvement in pain tolerance during both interactive videogame distraction conditions. However, a differential response to videogame distraction with or without the enhancement of VR technology was not found. Children's coping style did not moderate their response to distraction. Rather, interactive videogame distraction with and without VR technology was equally effective for children who utilized avoidant or approach coping styles.

  5. Using a mixed-methods approach to measure impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention study on fruit and vegetable intake of Italian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Elena; Evans, Alexandra; Ranjit, Nalini; Pria, Simona Dalla; Messina, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the impact of a school-based nutrition and media education intervention on the promotion of fruit and vegetable consumption to help prevent childhood obesity. The 10-week-long intervention included sessions on nutrition education and media literacy. It also included a health communication media-based campaign workshop during which the children created posters, newsletters and video commercials related to fruits and vegetables targeted to their parents. For evaluation purposes, the study utilized a mixed-methods approach, including a quasi-experimental study (with one intervention group and one control group) and a focus group study. Four different elementary schools in Treviso (Veneto Region of Italy) agreed to participate in the research. The target population for the study included 10-year-old Italian children and their parents. Data indicate that this intervention was effective for children but not for parents. Evaluation results show that the intervention was effective in significantly increasing children's fruit and vegetable intake (Pmedia education intervention to address the children's obesity issue and, in particular, to increase children's fruit and vegetable intake. The study also opens a new perspective on the theoretical constructs investigated, because the development of 'ability of expression' could be considered one of the most important factors to determine the efficacy of the intervention.

  6. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergler, Sandra; Man, Stella A. de; Boot, Annemieke M.; Heus, Karen G.C.B.B.; Huijbers, Wim A.R.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  7. Automated radiogrammetry is a feasible method for measuring bone quality and bone maturation in severely disabled children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergler, Sandra [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Care and Service Centre for People with Intellectual Disabilities, Medical Department ASVZ, Sliedrecht (Netherlands); Man, Stella A. de [Amphia Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Breda (Netherlands); Boot, Annemieke M. [University of Groningen, Department of Paediatric Endocrinology, University Medical Centre Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Heus, Karen G.C.B.B. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Paediatrics, Sophia Children' s Hospital, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Huijbers, Wim A.R. [Beatrix Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Gorinchem (Netherlands); Rijn, Rick R. van [Emma Children' s Hospital/Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Penning, Corine; Evenhuis, Heleen M. [Erasmus MC, Department of General Practice and Intellectual Disability Medicine, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Children with severe neurological impairment and intellectual disability are prone to low bone quality and fractures. We studied the feasibility of automated radiogrammetry in assessing bone quality in this specific group of children. We measured outcome of bone quality and, because these children tend to have altered skeletal maturation, we also studied bone age. We used hand radiographs obtained in 95 children (mean age 11.4 years) presenting at outpatient paediatric clinics. We used BoneXpert software to determine bone quality, expressed as paediatric bone index and bone age. Regarding feasibility, we successfully obtained a paediatric bone index in 60 children (63.2%). The results on bone quality showed a mean paediatric bone index standard deviation score of -1.85, significantly lower than that of healthy peers (P < 0.0001). Almost 50% of the children had severely diminished bone quality. In 64% of the children bone age diverged more than 1 year from chronological age. This mostly concerned delayed bone maturation. Automated radiogrammetry is feasible for evaluating bone quality in children who have disabilities but not severe contractures. Bone quality in these children is severely diminished. Because bone maturation frequently deviated from chronological age, we recommend comparison to bone-age-related reference values. (orig.)

  8. Comparing Methods for Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeser, Karin; Zemtsovski, Mikhail; Kofoed, Klaus F

    2018-01-01

    of the left ventricular outflow tract. METHODS: The primary aim was a systematic comparison of CO with Doppler-derived 3D TEE and CO by thermodilution in a broad population of patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A subanalysis was performed comparing cross-sectional area by TEE with cardiac computed...... tomography (CT) angiography. Sixty-two patients, scheduled for elective heart surgery, were included; 1 was subsequently excluded for logistic reasons. Inclusion criteria were coronary artery bypass surgery (N = 42) and aortic valve replacement (N = 19). Exclusion criteria were chronic atrial fibrillation......, left ventricular ejection fraction below 0.40 and intracardiac shunts. Nineteen randomly selected patients had a cardiac CT the day before surgery. All images were stored for blinded post hoc analyses, and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between measurement methods, defined as the bias...

  9. “The Good Start Method for English” or how to support development, prevent and treat risk of dyslexia in children learning English as a second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanowicz Katarzyna M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Children with developmental dyslexia and at its risk have difficulties in the acquisition of foreign languages, especially non-transparent English. The problems of such pupils concern various aspects of the language system but in particular relate to the ability to read and spell. The research literature dedicated to effective preventative methods and dyslexia treatment suggests that both children with dyslexia and at its risk need phonological awareness training and multi-sensory learning. It is also known that prevention and early treatment is more effective than therapeutic intervention used in older students. Experts in foreign language acquisition recommend that children have contact with longer oral texts and live language (e.g., poems and songs. A recently-published report on the methods of English language teaching in Polish primary schools shows that the lessons conducted there do not realise the majority of the aforementioned recommendations. As a consequence, they do not serve any pupils including those with dyslexia and at its risk. A method which meets most of the demands mentioned above is “The Good Start Method for English”. It is a new program of teaching the English language designed for five to seven-year-olds, which at the same time ensures support for the psychomotor development of children, leading to acceleration in learning progress.

  10. The Effects of Head Start on Children's Kindergarten Retention, Reading and Math Achievement in Fall Kindergarten--An Application of Propensity Score Method and Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nianbo

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), this paper applied optimal propensity score matching method to evaluate the effects of Head Start on children's kindergarten retention, reading and math achievement in fall kindergarten comparing with center-based care. Both parametric and nonparametric…

  11. A Fresh Pair of Eyes : A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H.; Mulder, Erik J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1

  12. A Fresh Pair of Eyes: A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H.; Mulder, Erik J.; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1 years. The interrater reliability was found to be…

  13. 16 CFR 1500.50 - Test methods for simulating use and abuse of toys and other articles intended for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an article is not age-labeled in a clear and conspicuous manner or, based on such factors as marketing practices and the customary patterns of usage of a product by children, is inappropriately age... are provided in parentheses for convenience and information only. (3) Each of the test methods...

  14. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  15. Assessment of the effect of population and diary sampling methods on estimation of school-age children exposure to fine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, W W; Frey, H Christopher; Lau, Alexis K H

    2014-12-01

    Population and diary sampling methods are employed in exposure models to sample simulated individuals and their daily activity on each simulation day. Different sampling methods may lead to variations in estimated human exposure. In this study, two population sampling methods (stratified-random and random-random) and three diary sampling methods (random resampling, diversity and autocorrelation, and Markov-chain cluster [MCC]) are evaluated. Their impacts on estimated children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) are quantified via case studies for children in Wake County, NC for July 2002. The estimated mean daily average exposure is 12.9 μg/m(3) for simulated children using the stratified population sampling method, and 12.2 μg/m(3) using the random sampling method. These minor differences are caused by the random sampling among ages within census tracts. Among the three diary sampling methods, there are differences in the estimated number of individuals with multiple days of exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern of 25 μg/m(3) due to differences in how multiday longitudinal diaries are estimated. The MCC method is relatively more conservative. In case studies evaluated here, the MCC method led to 10% higher estimation of the number of individuals with repeated exposures exceeding the benchmark. The comparisons help to identify and contrast the capabilities of each method and to offer insight regarding implications of method choice. Exposure simulation results are robust to the two population sampling methods evaluated, and are sensitive to the choice of method for simulating longitudinal diaries, particularly when analyzing results for specific microenvironments or for exposures exceeding a benchmark of concern. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  16. Preliminary clinical experience using the method of 31P MR spectroscopy in investigations of neuromuscular diseases in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, M.; Horska, A.; Grosmanova, A.; Urban, P.; Suchanek, M.; Jirasek, A.

    1990-01-01

    31 P MR spectroscopy was used to investigate neuromuscular diseases of various origin in 35 patients, mostly children. In devising the procedure of MR examination and of evaluation of results, pattern recognition analysis was used. According to the results of 31 P MR spectroscopy, the patients can be divided into three groups. Group A comprises patients with severe muscular lesions such as Duchenne dystrophy. The second, B group is characterized by milder atrophic changes of muscle fibres. The third group comprises dubious cases. The 31 P MRS method was also used for investigating the development of the disease in time - a decrease in parameter P CR /P i (P CR is an indicator of phosphocreatinine and P i an indicator of inorganic phosphate) corresponds to a deterioration of the clinical condition of patients from group one. In group B fairly stable values of the parameter were observed. An increase in P CR /P i was also observed during administration of Prednisone in a patient with child polymyositis. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 23 refs

  17. Examining Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes about School Issues for Children with Epilepsy: A Mixed-Method Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Amy Loomis

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common diseases to affect the human nervous system, affecting approximately 0.5% of school-age children (Leppik, 2001; Kaleyias et al., 2005). Epilepsy has the potential to profoundly impact a child's adjustment to school. A large body of literature documents that children with epilepsy are at an increased risk for…

  18. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  19. Procedural pain in children with Cystic Fibrosis: an international survey on the methods used by CF centres to prevent and reduce it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation......Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world......, throat swab). Completed questionnaires were sent back by 50 CFCs from 12 countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark) which take care of 4577 CF children overall. Results: 46% of CFCs collaborate with a local Pain Therapy Unit...

  20. Parents' knowledge, attitudes, use of pain relief methods and satisfaction related to their children's postoperative pain management: a descriptive correlational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Hui Yi; He, Hong-Gu; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Liam, Joanne Li Wee; Zhu, Lixia; Cheng, Karis Kin Fong

    2015-06-01

    To examine parents' knowledge about and attitudes towards pain management, use of pain relief strategies and satisfaction with their children's postoperative pain management, as well as the relationships among these variables. Children's postoperative pain is inadequately managed worldwide. Despite increasing emphasis on parental involvement in children's postoperative pain management, few studies have examined parents' management of their child's postoperative pain in Singapore. A descriptive correlational study. A convenience sample of 60 parents having 6- to 14-year-old children undergoing inpatient elective surgery in a public hospital in Singapore was recruited. Data were collected one day after each child's surgery using the Pain Management Knowledge and Attitudes questionnaire and the Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U tests, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient were used for data analyses. Parents displayed moderate levels of knowledge, attitudes and use of pain relief methods in relation to their children's postoperative pain and pain management. They were generally satisfied with the management of their child's postoperative pain. There was significant difference in Parents' Use of Pain Relief Strategies scores between parents with and without previous experience of caring for their hospitalised child. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between parents' knowledge and attitude, knowledge and satisfaction, attitude and satisfaction, knowledge and pain relief strategies, as well as attitude and pain relief strategies. This study indicates the need to provide parents with more information regarding their children's postoperative pain management. Future studies are needed to develop educational interventions for parents to improve their knowledge and attitudes, which will eventually improve their use of pain relief strategies for their children. Health

  1. Endocarditis - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective ...

  2. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  3. FEVER AS KEY SYMPTOM OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS AND MODERN METHODS OF THERAPY FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Solntseva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia is the key symptom of acute respiratory infections (ARI. An increase in the body temperature is accompanied with phagocytosis activation, increased interferon synthesis, antibody genesis stimulation, lymphocytes activation and differentiation. Nevertheless, significant hyperthermia may result in my unfavourable consequences. It may particularly cause an exacerbation of chronic diseases. Modern therapy for hyperthermia is, therefore, an important aspect of treating children with ARI. The article outlines the modern approach to treating fever in children, identifies key criteria for selecting a medication. It also contains a case study of applying ibuprofen and data from various trials which verify the rationale for applying ibuprofen in children with hyperthermia that developed in conjunction with ARI.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, hyperthermia, ibuprofen.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(5:80-84

  4. Methods University Health System Can Use to Expand Medicaid Coverage to Uninsured Poor Parents with Medicaid Eligible Children: Policy Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMahon, III, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    Bexar County, low-income, uninsured parents with Medicaid-eligible children have been negatively impacted by reductions in Medicaid eligibility standards made by the Texas State Legislature in 2003...

  5. An exploratory study investigating children's perceptions of dental behavioural management techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, E Bethan; Buchanan, Heather

    2013-07-01

    Behaviour management techniques (BMTs) are utilised by dentists to aid children's dental anxiety (DA). Children's perceptions of these have been underexplored, and their feedback could help inform paediatric dentistry. To explore children's acceptability and perceptions of dental communication and BMTs and to compare these by age, gender, and DA. A total of sixty-two 9- to 11-year-old school children participated in the study. Children's acceptability of BMTs was quantified using a newly developed Likert scale, alongside exploration of children's experiences and perceptions through interviews. anova and t-tests explored BMT acceptability ratings by age, gender, and DA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse interviews. Statistical analyses showed no effect of age, gender, or DA upon BMT acceptability. Children generally perceived the BMTs as acceptable or neutral; stop signals were the most acceptable, and voice control the least acceptable BMT. Beneficial experiences of distraction and positive reinforcement were common. Children described the positive nature of their dentist's communication and BMT utilisation. Dental anxiety did not affect children's perceptions of BMTs. Children were generally positive about dentist's communication and established BMTs. Children's coping styles may impact perceptions and effectiveness of BMTs and should be explored in future investigations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, BSPD and IAPD.

  6. Effect of a 6-Week Active Play Intervention on Fundamental Movement Skill Competence of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, J D; Knowles, Z; Fairclough, S J; Stratton, G; O'Dwyer, M; Ridgers, N D; Foweather, L

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of an active play intervention on fundamental movement skills of 3- to 5-year-old children from deprived communities. In a cluster randomized controlled trial design, six preschools received a resource pack and a 6-week local authority program involving staff training with help implementing 60-minute weekly sessions and postprogram support. Six comparison preschools received a resource pack only. Twelve skills were assessed at baseline, postintervention, and at a 6-month follow-up using the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol. One hundred and sixty-two children (Mean age = 4.64 ± 0.58 years; 53.1% boys) were included in the final analyses. There were no significant differences between groups for total fundamental movement skill, object-control skill or locomotor skill scores, indicating a need for program modification to facilitate greater skill improvements.

  7. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-15

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  8. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH, which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a to compare energy intake (EI using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water (DLW; and (b to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH was not statistically different from TEE (DLW (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively. No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001. In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

  9. Treatment of Congenital Toxoplasmosis: Safety of the Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine Combination in Children Based on a Method of Causality Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teil, Julie; Dupont, Damien; Charpiat, Bruno; Corvaisier, Stéphane; Vial, Thierry; Leboucher, Gilles; Wallon, Martine; Peyron, François

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of newborns and infants with congenital toxoplasmosis is standard practice. Some observational studies have examined safety in newborns, but most of these failed to provide sufficient details for a provisional assessment of causality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and biological adverse effects of the combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. Sixty-five children treated for 1 year with a combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (1 dose every 10 days) for congenital toxoplasmosis were followed up to evaluate abnormal hematological values and potential adverse events using a standardized method of causality assessment. Nine patients (13.8%) presented at least 1 adverse clinical event that was nonspecific, such as diarrhea on the day of drug administration, vomiting and agitation. In 1 patient, erythema appeared at the end of the treatment and resolved within 10 days. None of these events was attributed to the treatment. Six patients (9.2%) developed an adverse hematological event (neutropenia, n = 3; eosinophilia, n = 2 and both anemia and eosinophilia, n = 1) that was considered to be possibly related to the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination. Four treatments were temporarily interrupted, and toxicity was observed after readministration of treatment in 1 case only. However, none of these adverse events was life threatening. According to our results and previously published data, the combination of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine seems to be well tolerated. However, the sample size of our study was too small to rule out the risk of less frequent, but nevertheless severe, reactions and, in particular, of hypersensitivity reactions.

  10. A school-based interdisciplinary approach to promote health and academic achievement among children in a deprived neighborhood: study protocol for a mixed-methods evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Mariëlle E; Jonkman, Caroline S; Harting, Janneke

    2018-04-10

    The large number of children that grow up in poverty is concerning, especially given the negative developmental outcomes that can persist into adulthood. Poverty has been found as a risk factor to negatively affect academic achievement and health outcomes in children. Interdisciplinary interventions can be an effective way to promote health and academic achievement. The present study aims to evaluate a school-based interdisciplinary approach on child health, poverty, and academic achievement using a mixed-method design. Generally taken, outcomes of this study increase the knowledge about effective ways to give disadvantaged children equal chances early in their lives. An observational study with a mixed-methods design including both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods will be used to evaluate the interdisciplinary approach. The overall research project exists of three study parts including a longitudinal study, a cross-sectional study, and a process evaluation. Using a multi-source approach we will assess child health as the primary outcome. Child poverty and child academic achievement will be assessed as secondary outcomes. The process evaluation will observe the program's effects on the school environment and the program's implementation in order to obtain more knowledge on how to disseminate the interdisciplinary approach to other schools and neighborhoods. The implementation of a school-based interdisciplinary approach via primary schools combining the cross-sectoral domains health, poverty, and academic achievement is innovative and a step forward to reach an ethnic minority population. However, the large variety of the interventions and activities within the approach can limit the validity of the study. Including a process evaluation will therefore help to improve the interpretation of our findings. In order to contribute to policy and practice focusing on decreasing the unequal chances of children growing up in deprived neighborhoods, it is

  11. A systematic review on ‘Foveal Crowding’ in visually impaired children and perceptual learning as a method to reduce Crowding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huurneman Bianca

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This systematic review gives an overview of foveal crowding (the inability to recognize objects due to surrounding nearby contours in foveal vision and possible interventions. Foveal crowding can have a major effect on reading rate and deciphering small pieces of information from busy visual scenes. Three specific groups experience more foveal crowding than adults with normal vision (NV: 1 children with NV, 2 visually impaired (VI children and adults and 3 children with cerebral visual impairment (CVI. The extent and magnitude of foveal crowding as well as interventions aimed at reducing crowding were investigated in this review. The twofold goal of this review is : [A] to compare foveal crowding in children with NV, VI children and adults and CVI children and [B] to compare interventions to reduce crowding. Methods Three electronic databases were used to conduct the literature search: PubMed, PsycINFO (Ovid, and Cochrane. Additional studies were identified by contacting experts. Search terms included visual perception, contour interaction, crowding, crowded, and contour interactions. Results Children with normal vision show an extent of contour interaction over an area 1.5–3× as large as that seen in adults NV. The magnitude of contour interaction normally ranges between 1–2 lines on an acuity chart and this magnitude is even larger when stimuli are arranged in a circular configuration. Adults with congenital nystagmus (CN show interaction areas that are 2× larger than those seen adults with NV. The magnitude of the crowding effect is also 2× as large in individuals with CN as in individuals with NV. Finally, children with CVI experience a magnitude of the crowding effect that is 3× the size of that experienced by adults with NV. Conclusions The methodological heterogeneity, the diversity in paradigms used to measure crowding, made it impossible to conduct a meta-analysis. This is the first systematic review to

  12. Mild angle early onset idiopathic scoliosis children avoid progression under FITS method (Functional Individual Therapy of Scoliosis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Marianna

    2015-05-01

    Physiotherapy for stabilization of idiopathic scoliosis angle in growing children remains controversial. Notably, little data on effectiveness of physiotherapy in children with Early Onset Idiopathic Scoliosis (EOIS) has been published.The aim of this study was to check results of FITS physiotherapy in a group of children with EOIS.The charts of the patients archived in a prospectively collected database were retrospectively reviewed. The inclusion criteria were:diagnosis of EOIS based on spine radiography, age below 10 years, both girls and boys, Cobb angle between 118 and 308, Risser zero, FITS therapy, no other treatment (bracing), and a follow-up at least 2 years from the initiation of the treatment. The criterion for curve progression were as follows: the Cobb angle increase of 68 or more, for curve stabilization; the Cobb angle was 58 comparing to the initial radiograph,for curve correction; and the Cobb angle decrease of 68 or more at the final follow-up radiograph.There were 41 children with EOIS, 36 girls and 5 boys, mean age 7.71.3 years (range 4 to 9 years) who started FITS therapy. The curve pattern was single thoracic (5 children), single thoracolumbar (22 children) or double thoracic/thoracolumbar (14 children), totally 55 structural curvatures. The minimum follow-up was 2 years after initiation of the FITS treatment, maximum was 16 years, mean 4.8 years). At follow-up the mean age was 12.53.4 years. Out of 41 children, 10 passed pubertal growth spurt at the final follow-up and 31 were still immature and continued FITS therapy. Out of 41 children, 27 improved, 13 were stable, and one progressed. Out of 55 structural curves, 32 improved, 22 were stable and one progressed. For the 55 structural curves, the Cobb angle significantly decreased from 18.085.48 at first assessment to 12.586.38 at last evaluation,pphysiotherapy was effective in preventing curve progression in children with EOIS. Final postpubertal follow-up data is needed.

  13. Communication with children about a parent's advanced cancer and measures of parental anxiety and depression: a cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Claire E; Yopp, Justin M; Deal, Allison M; Mayer, Deborah K; Hanson, Laura C; Grunfeld, Gili; Rosenstein, Donald L; Park, Eliza M

    2018-01-01

    Parents with advanced cancer are faced with difficult decision-making about communication about their illness with their children. The objectives of this study were to describe how parents communicated with their children about advanced cancer and to explore associations between communication and parental depression and anxiety. This was a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study of 42 patients with stage IV solid tumor malignancies who had at least one child less than 18 years of age. Participants completed a semi-structured interview and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). We used multiple linear regression to evaluate the association between extent of communication and HADS Anxiety and Depression scores. Interview data were analyzed using standard qualitative content and thematic techniques and triangulated with survey data. Higher HADS Anxiety scores, but not HADS Depression scores, were cross-sectionally associated with greater extent of parental communication (p = 0.003), even when controlling for performance status and children's ages. In qualitative analyses, parents who acknowledged the terminal nature of their illness or experienced higher symptom burden were more likely to report that they also communicated more extensively with children. A third of parents (n = 14, 33%) described difficulty with illness-related communication with their children. In this pilot study, parents with advanced cancer who reported more illness-related communication with their children also reported more symptoms of general anxiety. Future interventions should address psychological distress relevant to parenting and further assess how parental communication may be linked to parental mood symptoms.

  14. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  15. Validation of the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate method to predict premorbid Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ among children with brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Lange, Rael T; Saklofske, Donald H; Suarez, Mariann; Brickell, Tracey A

    2008-12-01

    Determination of neuropsychological impairment involves contrasting obtained performances with a comparison standard, which is often an estimate of premorbid IQ. M. R. Schoenberg, R. T. Lange, T. A. Brickell, and D. H. Saklofske (2007) proposed the Child Premorbid Intelligence Estimate (CPIE) to predict premorbid Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th Edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003). The CPIE includes 12 algorithms to predict FSIQ, 1 using demographic variables and 11 algorithms combining WISC-IV subtest raw scores with demographic variables. The CPIE was applied to a sample of children with acquired traumatic brain injury (TBI sample; n = 40) and a healthy demographically matched sample (n = 40). Paired-samples t tests found estimated premorbid FSIQ differed from obtained FSIQ when applied to the TBI sample (ps .02). The demographic only algorithm performed well at a group level, but estimates were restricted in range. Algorithms combining single subtest scores with demographics performed adequately. Results support the clinical application of the CPIE algorithms. However, limitations to estimating individual premorbid ability, including statistical and developmental factors, must be considered. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. A mixed methods study of individual and organizational factors that affect implementation of interventions for children with autism in public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Jill; Beidas, Rinad S; Marcus, Steven; Stahmer, Aubyn; Aarons, Gregory A; Lyon, Aaron R; Cannuscio, Carolyn; Barg, Frances; Dorsey, Shannon; Mandell, David S

    2016-10-10

    The significant lifelong impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), combined with the growing number of children diagnosed with ASD, have created urgency in improving school-based quality of care. Although many interventions have shown efficacy in university-based research, few have been effectively implemented and sustained in schools, the primary setting in which children with ASD receive services. Individual- and organizational-level factors have been shown to predict the implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) for the prevention and treatment of other mental disorders in schools, and may be potential targets for implementation strategies in the successful use of autism EBIs in schools. The purpose of this study is to examine the individual- and organizational-level factors associated with the implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. We will apply the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework that examines the influence of contextual factors (i.e., individual- and organizational-level factors) on intervention implementation in schools. We utilize mixed methods to quantitatively test whether the factors identified in the Domitrovich and colleagues (2008) framework are associated with the implementation of autism EBIs, and use qualitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the factors associated with successful implementation and sustainment of these interventions with the goal of tailoring implementation strategies. The results of this study will provide an in-depth understanding of individual- and organizational-level factors that influence the successful implementation of EBIs for children with ASD in public schools. These data will inform potential implementation targets and tailoring of strategies that will help schools overcome barriers to implementation and ultimately improve the services and outcomes for children with ASD.

  17. Magpie Trial in the UK: methods and additional data for women and children at 2 years following pregnancy complicated by pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong Nina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Magpie Trial, a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for women with pre-eclampsia. This paper describes methods used for follow up in the UK, and presents additional data collected. Methods In the UK 774 women and their 827 children were included; excluded were women discharged without a surviving child and families who opted out. General practitioners were sent a questionnaire when the child was around 18 months old. When the child was two years, or older, questionnaires asking about the health of the women and children were posted to families. A sample of families was offered a home visit, during which the child was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Results Of the women, 12 were lost to follow up and three died. Of the children, 12 were lost to follow up, 5 were excluded and 19 died. General practitioners returned 688/759 (91% questionnaires, as did 619/759 (82% women. Responses were largely comparable. 32 women had serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia. 30% of children were reported to have been admitted to hospital. There were no clear differences between the randomised groups in the child's behaviour, women's fertility or use of health service resources. Conclusion Data presented here provide further reassurance about the longer term safety of magnesium sulphate when used for women with pre-eclampsia. Postal questionnaires in the UK to assess the longer term health and wellbeing of women and children recruited to trials are feasible, and can achieve a high response rate. Responses from families and general practitioners were comparable Trial registration Trial registration number of the Magpie Trial [ISRCTN86938761

  18. Development of the pediatric quality of life inventory neurofibromatosis type 1 module items for children, adolescents and young adults: qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutakki, Kavitha; Varni, James W; Steinbrenner, Sheila; Draucker, Claire B; Swigonski, Nancy L

    2017-03-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is arguably one of the most important measures in evaluating effectiveness of clinical treatments. At present, there is no disease-specific outcome measure to assess the HRQOL of children, adolescents and young adults with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1). This study aimed to develop the items and support the content validity for the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL™) NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The iterative process included multiphase qualitative methods including a literature review, survey of expert opinions, semi-structured interviews, cognitive interviews and pilot testing. Fifteen domains were derived from the qualitative methods, with content saturation achieved, resulting in 115 items. The domains include skin, pain, pain impact, pain management, cognitive functioning, speech, fine motor, balance, vision, perceived physical appearance, communication, worry, treatment, medicines and gastrointestinal symptoms. This study is limited because all participants are recruited from a single-site. Qualitative methods support the content validity for the PedsQL™ NF1 Module for children, adolescents and young adults. The PedsQL™ NF1 Module is now undergoing national multisite field testing for the psychometric validation of the instrument development.

  19. Lexical and semantic representations in the acquisition of L2 cognate and non-cognate words: evidence from two learning methods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-08-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyse the effect of two learning methods (picture- vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and non-cognates) in early stages of children's L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age = 10.87 years; SD= 0.85), participated in the study. None of them had prior knowledge of Basque (the L2 in this study). After a learning phase in which L2 words were learned either by a picture- or a word-based method, children were tested in a backward-word translation recognition task at two times (immediately vs. one week later). Results showed that the participants made more errors when rejecting semantically related than semantically unrelated words as correct translations (semantic interference effect). The magnitude of this effect was higher in the delayed test condition regardless of the learning method. Moreover, the overall performance of participants from the word-based method was better than the performance of participants from the picture-word method. Results were discussed concerning the most significant bilingual lexical processing models. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Retrospective comparison of gradient recalled echo R2* and spin-echo R2 magnetic resonance analysis methods for estimating liver iron content in children and adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serai, Suraj D.; Fleck, Robert J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, MLC 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Quinn, Charles T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Hematology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Podberesky, Daniel J. [Nemours Children' s Health System Nemours Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Serial surveillance of liver iron concentration (LIC) provides guidance for chelation therapy in patients with iron overload. The diagnosis of iron overload traditionally relies on core liver biopsy, which is limited by invasiveness, sampling error, cost and general poor acceptance by pediatric patients and parents. Thus noninvasive diagnostic methods such as MRI are highly attractive for quantification of liver iron concentration. To compare two MRI-based methods for liver iron quantification in children. 64 studies on 48 children and young adults (age range 4-21 years) were examined by gradient recalled echo (GRE) R2* and spin-echo R2 MRI at 1.5T to evaluate liver iron concentration. Scatter plots and Bland-Altman difference plots were generated to display and assess the relationship between the methods. With the protocols used in this investigation, Bland-Altman agreement between the methods is best when LIC is <20 mg/g dry tissue. Scatter plots show that all values with LIC <20 mg/g dry tissue fall within the 95% prediction limits. Liver iron concentration as determined by the R2* and R2 MR methods is statistically comparable, with no statistical difference between these methods for LIC <20 mg/g. (orig.)

  1. Delays in seeking and receiving health care services for pneumonia in children under five in the Peruvian Amazon: a mixed-methods study on caregivers' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajuelo, Mónica J; Anticona Huaynate, Cynthia; Correa, Malena; Mayta Malpartida, Holger; Ramal Asayag, Cesar; Seminario, Juan R; Gilman, Robert H; Murphy, Laura; Oberhelman, Richard A; Paz-Soldan, Valerie A

    2018-03-01

    Delays in receiving adequate care for children suffering from pneumonia can be life threatening and have been described associated with parents' limited education and their difficulties in recognizing the severity of the illness. The "three delays" was a model originally proposed to describe the most common determinants of maternal mortality, but has been adapted to describe delays in the health seeking process for caregivers of children under five. This study aims to explore the caregivers' perceived barriers for seeking and receiving health care services in children under five years old admitted to a referral hospital for community-acquired pneumonia in the Peruvian Amazon Region using the three-delays model framework. There were two parts to this mixed-method, cross-sectional, hospital-based study. First, medical charts of 61 children (1 to 60 months old) admitted for pneumonia were reviewed, and clinical characteristics were noted. Second, to examine health care-seeking decisions and actions, as well as associated delays in the process of obtaining health care services, we interviewed 10 of the children's caregivers. Half of the children in our study were 9 months old or less. Main reasons for seeking care at the hospital were cough (93%) and fever (92%). Difficulty breathing and fast breathing were also reported in more than 60% of cases. In the interviews, caregivers reported delays of 1 to 14 days to go to the closest health facility. Factors perceived as causes for delays in deciding to seek care were apparent lack of skills to recognize signs and symptoms and of confidence in the health system, and practicing self-medication. No delays in reaching a health facility were reported. Once the caregivers reached a health facility, they perceived lack of competence of medical staff and inadequate treatment provided by the primary care physicians. According to caregivers, the main delays to get health care services for pneumonia among young children were

  2. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to evaluate "Animal Fun" - a program designed to enhance physical and mental health in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaren Sue

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with poor motor ability have been found to engage less in physical activities than other children, and a lack of physical activity has been linked to problems such as obesity, lowered bone mineral density and cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, if children are confident with their fine and gross motor skills, they are more likely to engage in physical activities such as sports, crafts, dancing and other physical activity programs outside of the school curriculum which are important activities for psychosocial development. The primary objective of this project is to comprehensively evaluate a whole of class physical activity program called Animal Fun designed for Pre-Primary children. This program was designed to improve the child's movement skills, both fine and gross, and their perceptions of their movement ability, promote appropriate social skills and improve social-emotional development. Methods The proposed randomized and controlled trial uses a multivariate nested cohort design to examine the physical (motor coordination and psychosocial (self perceptions, anxiety, social competence outcomes of the program. The Animal Fun program is a teacher delivered universal program incorporating animal actions to facilitate motor skill and social skill acquisition and practice. Pre-intervention scores on motor and psychosocial variables for six control schools and six intervention schools will be compared with post-intervention scores (end of Pre-Primary year and scores taken 12 months later after the children's transition to primary school Year 1. 520 children aged 4.5 to 6 years will be recruited and it is anticipated that 360 children will be retained to the 1 year follow-up. There will be equal numbers of boys and girls. Discussion If this program is found to improve the child's motor and psychosocial skills, this will assist in the child's transition into the first year of school. As a result of these changes

  3. The relation between young children's cognitive role-taking and mothers' preference for a conflict-inducing childrearing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C; Skevington, S

    1988-06-01

    In this study, we examined children's cognitive role-taking in relation to their mothers' choices of techniques to solve domestic dilemmas involving children's misbehavior, social skills, and logical reasoning. Results showed that a mother's preference for the childrearing strategy known as distancing, which uses a Socratic or dialectical inquiry to create cognitive conflict in the child, bore a significant association to her child's advancement in cognitive role-taking skill. This finding is discussed in relation to theories of cognitive development that postulate that mental conflict or tension stimulates cognitive growth. Practical factors that might inhibit mothers from making effective use of the distancing technique are also considered.

  4. A systematic review of methods to assess intake of fruits and vegetables among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Fiona; Ryan, Kathleen; Perry, Ivan J; Schulze, Matthias B; Andersen, Lene Frost; Geelen, Anouk; Van't Veer, Pieter; Eussen, Simone; Dagnelie, Pieter; Wijckmans-Duysens, Nicole; Harrington, Janas M

    2017-02-01

    Evidence suggests that health benefits are associated with consuming recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables (F&V), yet standardised assessment methods to measure F&V intake are lacking. The current review aims to identify methods to assess F&V intake among children and adults in pan-European studies and inform the development of the DEDIPAC (DEterminants of DIet and Physical Activity) toolbox of methods suitable for use in future European studies. A literature search was conducted using three electronic databases and by hand-searching reference lists. English-language studies of any design which assessed F&V intake were included in the review. Studies involving two or more European countries were included in the review. Healthy, free-living children or adults. The review identified fifty-one pan-European studies which assessed F&V intake. The FFQ was the most commonly used (n 42), followed by 24 h recall (n 11) and diet records/diet history (n 7). Differences existed between the identified methods; for example, the number of F&V items on the FFQ and whether potatoes/legumes were classified as vegetables. In total, eight validated instruments were identified which assessed F&V intake among adults, adolescents or children. The current review indicates that an agreed classification of F&V is needed in order to standardise intake data more effectively between European countries. Validated methods used in pan-European populations encompassing a range of European regions were identified. These methods should be considered for use by future studies focused on evaluating intake of F&V.

  5. Methods to Assess Adverse Childhood Experiences of Children and Families: Toward Approaches to Promote Child Well-being in Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Christina D; Carle, Adam; Hudziak, James; Gombojav, Narangerel; Powers, Kathleen; Wade, Roy; Braveman, Paula

    Advances in human development sciences point to tremendous possibilities to promote healthy child development and well-being across life by proactively supporting safe, stable and nurturing family relationships (SSNRs), teaching resilience, and intervening early to promote healing the trauma and stress associated with disruptions in SSNRs. Assessing potential disruptions in SSNRs, such as adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), can contribute to assessing risk for trauma and chronic and toxic stress. Asking about ACEs can help with efforts to prevent and attenuate negative impacts on child development and both child and family well-being. Many methods to assess ACEs exist but have not been compared. The National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) now measures ACEs for children, but requires further assessment and validation. We identified and compared methods to assess ACEs among children and families, evaluated the acceptability and validity of the new NSCH-ACEs measure, and identified implications for assessing ACEs in research and practice. Of 14 ACEs assessment methods identified, 5 have been used in clinical settings (vs public health assessment or research) and all but 1 require self or parent report (3 allow child report). Across methods, 6 to 20 constructs are assessed, 4 of which are common to all: parental incarceration, domestic violence, household mental illness/suicide, household alcohol or substance abuse. Common additional content includes assessing exposure to neighborhood violence, bullying, discrimination, or parental death. All methods use a numeric, cumulative risk scoring methodology. The NSCH-ACEs measure was acceptable to respondents as evidenced by few missing values and no reduction in response rate attributable to asking about children's ACEs. The 9 ACEs assessed in the NSCH co-occur, with most children with 1 ACE having additional ACEs. This measure showed efficiency and confirmatory factor analysis as well as latent class analysis

  6. Why Children Misbehave

    OpenAIRE

    Telep, Valya Goodwin, 1955-

    2009-01-01

    This series of lessons was prepared for parents like you - parents who want to do a better job of disciplining their children. The lessons were especially written for parents of preschool children, ages two to six, but some of the discipline methods are appropriate for older children, too. This lesson focuses on why children misbehavior.

  7. Garden Counseling Groups and Self-Esteem: A Mixed Methods Study with Children with Emotional and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Jacqueline M.; Shin, Sang Min

    2015-01-01

    This research study focused on the use of a garden group counseling intervention to address the self-esteem of children with emotional and behavioral problems. The researchers found higher self-esteem among participants (N = 31) following the gardening group. Additionally, participants discussed feeling calm and happy and learning to working…

  8. Exploring young patients' perspectives on rehabilitation care: methods and challenges of organizing focus groups for children and adolescents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krol, M.; Sixma, H.; Meerdink, J.; Wiersma, H.; Rademakers, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In research on quality of care, the experiences of children and (pre)adolescents are usually assessed by asking their parents. However, these young patients may have preferences of their own, and their experiences do not necessarily concur with those of their parents. Therefore, our

  9. Teaching to Play Performing a Main Role -- Effective Method of Pretend Play Facilitation in Preschool-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmitrova, Vlasta

    2013-01-01

    We compared the efficiency of teacher's direct and indirect intervention into pretend play. Three hundred sixty-eight kindergarten children and 92 qualified kindergarten teachers were involved in the study. In the control group, a teacher indirectly initiated a play, creating a playing corner adjusted to the theme of the pretend play and during…

  10. MODERN METHODS OF PRESERVING BREAST FEEDING IN CHILDREN OF THE FIRST MONTHS OF LIFE WITH HEALTH DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Turti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of preserving and prolonging breast feeding is relevant for many countries around the world. It is especially relevant in premature infants and the children born with various perinatal pathologies. Scientific literature features the primary reasons of weaning: work activity resumption by nursing mothers, milk deficiency, breast refusal, insufficient awareness of mothers. The article presents results of two studies performed at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health. Results of a medical-psychological-pedagogical questioning of 85 mothers of premature infants demonstrate insufficient work of medical personnel in the sphere of preserving breast feeding in whole and in the children born with perinatal pathologies in particular; and the need of young women and their families in obtaining information on the benefits of breast feeding, training and assistance in the course of parental performance. The study resulted in formulation of recommendations on breast feeding support. It is important to establish the possibility to return to full breast feeding after enforced weaning and in the event of supplementary/mixed feeding. Results of the second study (n = 33 demonstrated that the use of special medical devices (pacifiers, feeding bottles developed on the basis of thorough research in the sphere of maternal breast sucking physiology in natural feeding termination risk group children helps to preserve children’s need therein and ensures efficient return of children to maternal breast feeding.

  11. Culture and Comprehension: A Mixed Methods Study of Children's Responses to a Fictional Story about Interracial Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Amy J.; Selman, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between early adolescents' understanding of social issues and their comprehension of a fictional story about interracial conflict. It combines qualitative and quantitative analyses to examine the ways in which social awareness and reading comprehension skills may be interrelated when children and adolescents…

  12. Seasonal variation of total particulate matter and children respiratory diseases at Lisbon primary schools using passive methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canha, N.; Almeida, M.; Do Carmo Freitas, M.; Almeida, S.M.; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, 14 primary schools of Lisbon city, Portugal, followed a questionnaire of the ISAAC - International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Program, in 2009/2010. The questionnaire contained questions to identify children with respiratory diseases (wheeze, asthma and rhinitis). Total

  13. Systematic Social Observation of Children's Neighborhoods Using Google Street View: A Reliable and Cost-Effective Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Bates, Christopher J.; Sampson, Robert J.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Children growing up in poor versus affluent neighborhoods are more likely to spend time in prison, develop health problems and die at an early age. The question of how neighborhood conditions influence our behavior and health has attracted the attention of public health officials and scholars for generations. Online tools are now…

  14. Which method of posttraumatic stress disorder classification best predicts psychosocial function in children with traumatic brain injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iselin, Greg; Le Brocque, Robyne; Kenardy, Justin; Anderson, Vicki; McKinlay, Lynne

    2010-10-01

    Controversy surrounds the classification of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly in children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). In these populations, it is difficult to differentiate TBI-related organic memory loss from dissociative amnesia. Several alternative PTSD classification algorithms have been proposed for use with children. This paper investigates DSM-IV-TR and alternative PTSD classification algorithms, including and excluding the dissociative amnesia item, in terms of their ability to predict psychosocial function following pediatric TBI. A sample of 184 children aged 6-14 years were recruited following emergency department presentation and/or hospital admission for TBI. PTSD was assessed via semi-structured clinical interview (CAPS-CA) with the child at 3 months post-injury. Psychosocial function was assessed using the parent report CHQ-PF50. Two alternative classification algorithms, the PTSD-AA and 2 of 3 algorithms, reached statistical significance. While the inclusion of the dissociative amnesia item increased prevalence rates across algorithms, it generally resulted in weaker associations with psychosocial function. The PTSD-AA algorithm appears to have the strongest association with psychosocial function following TBI in children and adolescents. Removing the dissociative amnesia item from the diagnostic algorithm generally results in improved validity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the use of naturalistic methods to examine safety-relevant behaviours amongst children and evaluate a cycling education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, J; Dozza, M; Patton, D A; Maharaj, P; Boufous, S; Eveston, T

    2017-11-01

    School-based cycling education programs aim to improve cycling safety and participation amongst children. Available research suggests that typical programs, which focus on bicycle manoeuvring skills, have limited effects on behaviour observed on a track or planned route. The current study uses theoretically more valid, naturalistic cycling data, to evaluate Safe Cycle, a program that incorporates hazard and self-awareness training. Soon after Safe Cycle was delivered at treatment schools, research bicycles instrumented with a rearward- and a forward-facing camera were loaned to six children from treatment schools and six children from (waitlist) control schools. In each group half the children were in Year 6, and half were in Year 7/8. Each child was instructed to ride the research bicycle instead of their own bicycle for the 1-2 weeks that they had a research bicycle. Video data were reduced using a purpose-designed coding scheme that identified whether participants performed specific safety-relevant behaviours in appropriate circumstances. While the participants controlled their bicycles well, gave way appropriately to traffic at intersections, and stopped at red lights, participants frequently removed one or both hands from the handlebars, and seldom signalled turns, conducted over-shoulder-checks when changing lanes, or looked in multiple directions at intersections (except when crossing a road). While aspects of design and small sample sizes limited evaluation findings, this research demonstrated the feasibility and potential of naturalistic data to support cycling education program evaluation. Further, the study substantially extended available naturalistic study of children's cycling behaviour to highlight behaviours which might be targeted by cycling safety initiatives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of robotic gait training and gait-focused physical therapy programs for children and youth with cerebral palsy: a mixed methods RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiart, Lesley; Rosychuk, Rhonda J; Wright, F Virginia

    2016-06-02

    Robot assisted gait training (RAGT) is considered to be a promising approach for improving gait-related gross motor function of children and youth with cerebral palsy. However, RAGT has yet to be empirically demonstrated to be effective. This knowledge gap is particularly salient given the strong interest in this intensive therapy, the high cost of the technology, and the requirement for specialized rehabilitation centre resources. This is a research protocol describing a prospective, multi-centre, concurrent mixed methods study comprised of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and an interpretive descriptive qualitative design. It is a mixed methods study designed to determine the relative effectiveness of three physical therapy treatment conditions (i.e., RAGT, a functional physical therapy program conducted over-ground (fPT), and RAGT + fPT) on gait related motor skills of ambulatory children with cerebral palsy. Children with cerebral palsy aged 5-18 years who are ambulatory (Gross Motor Function Classification System Levels II and III) will be randomly allocated to one of four treatment conditions: 1) RAGT, 2) fPT, 3) RAGT and fPT combined, or 4) a maintenance therapy only control group. The qualitative component will explicate child and parent experiences with the interventions, provide insight into the values that underlie their therapy goals, and assist with interpretation of the results of the RCT. n/a. NCT02391324 Registered March 12, 2015.

  17. 音乐治疗干预自闭症儿童的原理和方法%Music therapy intervention principles and methods of autism children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱天龙

    2012-01-01

    作为一种新兴的自闭症干预方法,音乐治疗对自闭症儿童的生理、心理、社会行为等方面有着独特的作用。在使用音乐对自闭症儿童进行干预时。应根据自闭症儿童的类型和心理、行为特征来选择不同性质的音乐,采取不同的干预方法。为保证治疗效果,在使用音乐治疗对自闭症儿童进行干预时应制定科学的流程,做到干预前进行评估,干预中进行监控,干预后进行总结。%As a new method for autism intervention, music therapy can impact on children vnth autism trom me physical, psychological, social behavior, etc.. Different types of musics and intervention methods in music therapy should be selected according to the type, the psychology and the behavior characteristic of autism children. To ensure treatment effect, scientific process should be established when using music therapy intervene autism children, and be assessed before the intervention, monitored in the intervention and sum up after the intervention.

  18. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial to investigate whether home access to electronic games decreases children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piek Jan P

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many children are reported to have insufficient physical activity (PA placing them at greater risk of poor health outcomes. Participating in sedentary activities such as playing electronic games is widely believed to contribute to less PA. However there is no experimental evidence that playing electronic games reduces PA. There is also no evidence regarding the effect of different types of electronic games (traditional sedentary electronic games versus new active input electronic games on PA. Further, there is a poor understanding about how characteristics of children may moderate the impact of electronic game access on PA and about what leisure activities are displaced when children play electronic games. Given that many children play electronic games, a better understanding of the effect of electronic game use on PA is critical to inform child health policy and intervention. Methods This randomised and controlled trial will examine whether PA is decreased by access to electronic games and whether any effect is dependent on the type of game input or the child's characteristics. Children aged 10–12 years (N = 72, 36 females will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no electronic games', 'traditional' electronic games and 'active' electronic games. Each child will participate in each condition for 8 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is PA, assessed by Actical accelerometers worn for 7 days on the wrist and hip. Energy expenditure will be assessed by the doubly labelled water technique and motor coordination, adiposity, self-confidence, attitudes to technology and PA and leisure activities will also be assessed. A sample of 72 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 15 mins difference in PA (sd = 30 mins. Discussion This is the first such trial and will provide critical information to understand whether access to electronic games affects

  19. Evaluation of the accuracy of Demirjian method for estimation of dental age among 6-12 years of children in Navi Mumbai: A radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Rahul J; Khare, Sumedh Suhas; Saraf, Tanvi A; Trivedi, Sonal; Naidu, Sonal

    2015-01-01

    Dental formation is superior to eruption as a method of dental age (DA) assessment. Eruption is only a brief occurrence, whereas formation may be related at different chronologic age levels, thereby providing a precise index for determining DA. The study was designed to determine the nature of inter-relationship between chronologic and DA. Age estimation depending upon tooth formation was done by Demirjian method and accuracy of Demirjian method was also evaluated. The sample for the study consisted of 197 children of Navi Mumbai. Significant positive correlation was found between chronologic age and DA that is, (r = 0.995), (P Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population. Demirjian method showed high accuracy when applied to Navi Mumbai (Maharashtra - India) population.

  20. Prevalência de hipovitaminose A em pré-escolares de município da Área Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil Prevalence of hypovitaminosis A in preschool children in a town of the Metropolitan Area of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Roncada

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizadas dosagens de vitamina A e caroteno plasmáticos em 362 pré-escolares de 3 a 6 anos de idade, residentes na área urbana do Município de Cotia, situado a 34 km de São Paulo, SP (Brasil, usando-se amostra representativa. O método utilizado foi o de Carr-Price e os critérios de classificação dos resultados foram propostos pelo "Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense" (ICNND. A prevalência de hipovitaminose A em nível bioquímico foi de 30,2%.Three-hundred and sixty-two preschool children between the ages of three and six years were examined for plasma levels of vitamin A and carotene. All were residents of the urban area of the city of Cotia, thirty-four km from S. Paulo, Brazil. A representative sample was taken for the purpose. The Carr-Price laboratory method was used as were the Interdepartmental Committee on Nutrition for National Defense (ICNND criteria for classifying results. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency at biochemical level was 30.2%.

  1. Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangirana Paul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement. Methods This prospective case-control study was carried out in Kampala City, Uganda between February 2008 and October 2010. Sixty-two children with a history of malaria with neurological involvement were followed up and given assessments for cognitive ability (working memory, reasoning, learning, visual spatial skills and attention, behaviour (internalizing and externalizing problems and academic achievement (arithmetic, spelling and reading three months after the illness. Sixty-one community controls recruited from the homes or neighbouring families of the cases were also given the same assessments. Tests scores of the two groups were compared using analysis of covariance with age, sex, level of education, nutritional status and quality of the home environment as covariates. This study was approved by the relevant ethical bodies and informed consent sought from the caregivers. Results Children in the malaria group had more behavioural problems than the community controls for internalizing problems (estimated mean difference = -3.71, 95% confidence interval (CI, = -6.34 to -1.08, p = 0.007. There was marginal evidence of lower attention scores (0.40, CI = -0.05 to 0.86, p = 0.09. However, excluding one child from the analyses who was unable to perform the tests affected the attention scores to borderline significance (0.32, CI, = 0.01 to 0.62, p = 0.05. No significant differences were observed in other cognitive abilities or in academic

  2. Exploring a method for evaluation of preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder through checking their understanding of the speaker's emotions with the help of prosody of the voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Mayumi; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    We attempted to evaluate the ability of 125 preschool and school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD children) to understand the intentions of those speaking to them using prosody of the voice, by comparing it with that of 119 typically developing children (TDC) and 51 development-age-matched children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD children), and to explore, based on the results, a method for objective evaluation of children with ASD in the early and later periods of childhood. Phrases routinely used by children were employed in the task administered to the children, with the prosody of the voice speaking these phrases changed to express the four emotions (acceptance, rejection, bluff and fooling). The percentage of children with ASD who could correctly identify the emotion of "fooling" was significantly lower than that of TDC, at each developmental age (corresponding to middle kindergarten class to sixth year of elementary school). On the other hand, in the children with ADHD, while the correct answer rate for identifying the emotion of "fooling" was significantly lower than that in the TDC and higher than that in the ASD children at development ages corresponding to the early years of elementary school, it did not differ significantly from that in the TDC and was higher than that ASD children at development ages corresponding to the later years of elementary school. These results indicate that children with ASD find it particularly difficult to understand the emotion of fooling by listening to speech with discrepancy between the meaning of the phrases and the emotion expressed by the voice, although the prosody of the voice may serve as a key to understanding the emotion of the speakers. This finding also suggests that the prosody of the voice expressing this emotion (fooling) may be used for objective evaluation of children with ASD. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Analysis of an automated background correction method for cardiovascular MR phase contrast imaging in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigsby, Cynthia K.; Hilpipre, Nicholas; Boylan, Emma E.; Popescu, Andrada R.; Deng, Jie [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); McNeal, Gary R. [Siemens Medical Solutions USA Inc., Customer Solutions Group, Cardiovascular MR R and D, Chicago, IL (United States); Zhang, Gang [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago Research Center, Biostatistics Research Core, Chicago, IL (United States); Choi, Grace [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Greiser, Andreas [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-03-15

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful tool for evaluating vessel blood flow. Inherent errors in acquisition, such as phase offset, eddy currents and gradient field effects, can cause significant inaccuracies in flow parameters. These errors can be rectified with the use of background correction software. To evaluate the performance of an automated phase contrast MRI background phase correction method in children and young adults undergoing cardiac MR imaging. We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing routine clinical cardiac MRI including phase contrast MRI for flow quantification in the aorta (Ao) and main pulmonary artery (MPA). When phase contrast MRI of the right and left pulmonary arteries was also performed, these data were included. We excluded patients with known shunts and metallic implants causing visible MRI artifact and those with more than mild to moderate aortic or pulmonary stenosis. Phase contrast MRI of the Ao, mid MPA, proximal right pulmonary artery (RPA) and left pulmonary artery (LPA) using 2-D gradient echo Fast Low Angle SHot (FLASH) imaging was acquired during normal respiration with retrospective cardiac gating. Standard phase image reconstruction and the automatic spatially dependent background-phase-corrected reconstruction were performed on each phase contrast MRI dataset. Non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected net flow, forward flow, regurgitant volume, regurgitant fraction, and vessel cardiac output were recorded for each vessel. We compared standard non-background-corrected and background-phase-corrected mean flow values for the Ao and MPA. The ratio of pulmonary to systemic blood flow (Qp:Qs) was calculated for the standard non-background and background-phase-corrected data and these values were compared to each other and for proximity to 1. In a subset of patients who also underwent phase contrast MRI of the MPA, RPA, and LPA a comparison was made between standard non

  4. 'Keep fit' exercise interventions to improve health, fitness and well-being of children and young people who use wheelchairs: mixed-method systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Thomas D; Noyes, Jane; Spencer, Llinos Haf; Kubis, Hans-Peter; Hastings, Richard P; Edwards, Rhiannon T; Bray, Nathan; Whitaker, Rhiannon

    2014-12-01

    This mixed-method systematic review aims to establish the current evidence base for 'keep fit', exercise or physical activity interventions for children and young people who use wheelchairs. Nurses have a vital health promotion, motivational and monitoring role in optimizing the health and well-being of disabled children. Children with mobility impairments are prone to have low participation levels in physical activity, which reduces fitness and well-being. Effective physical activity interventions that are fun and engaging for children are required to promote habitual participation as part of a healthy lifestyle. Previous intervention programmes have been trialled, but little is known about the most effective types of exercise to improve the fitness of young wheelchair users. Mixed-method design using Cochrane systematic processes. Evidence regarding physiological and psychological effectiveness, health economics, user perspectives and service evaluations will be included and analysed under distinct streams. The project was funded from October 2012. Multiple databases will be searched using search strings combining relevant medical subheadings and intervention-specific terms. Articles will also be identified from ancestral references and by approaching authors to identify unpublished work. Only studies or reports evaluating the effectiveness, participation experiences or cost of a physical activity programme will be included. Separate analyses will be performed for each data stream, including a meta-analysis if sufficient homogeneity exists and thematic analyses. Findings across streams will be synthesized in an overarching narrative summary. Evidence from the first systematic review of this type will inform development of effective child-centred physical activity interventions and their evaluation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Short-term Clinical Course of Knee Pain in Children and Adolescents: A Feasibility Study Using Electronic Methods of Data Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Kamper, Steven J; Maher, Chris G; Latimer, Jane; Broderick, Carolyn; McKay, Damien; Henschke, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders, such as knee pain, are common in children and adolescents, but there is a lack of high quality research that evaluates the clinical course of these conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a prospective study of children and adolescents with knee pain using electronic methods of data collection. Children and adolescents with knee pain that presented to primary care physiotherapy clinics were enrolled and followed-up on a weekly basis via short messaging service (SMS) until their knee pain had recovered (i.e. two consecutive weeks of no pain). Feasibility was assessed in terms of recruitment, retention and response rates to SMS and an online questionnaire. Baseline and 6-month follow-up measures included pain, disability, physical function, physical activity and health related quality of life. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate the median time to knee pain recovery. Thirty participants (mean age 13.0 ± 2.2 years, 53% boys) were recruited over 26 months. The overall response rate to weekly SMS follow-up was 71.3% (809 received/1135 sent). One third of participants stopped responding to SMS prior to recovery, and these participants typically had a much lower response rate during the time they remained in the study. At 6-month follow-up, 80% of the cohort completed the final online questionnaire, and 29% of participants still reported current knee pain (≥1/10 VAS). The median time for knee pain recovery was 8 weeks (95%CI: 5, 10). Electronic data collection alone seems insufficient to track pain recovery in young people and may need to be supplemented with more traditional data collection methods. Researchers should consider further measures to address slow recruitment rates and high attrition when designing large prospective studies of children and adolescents in the future. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Monitoring and evaluating the adherence to a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) among young children in rural Qinghai, China: a mixed methods evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Chang, Suying; Wang, Wei; Helena van Velthoven, Michelle; Han, Huijun; Xing, Min; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2017-06-01

    Large investments are currently made in community-based complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao, YYB) programs to improve nutrition of young children in rural areas in China. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the experience and challenges of implementing YYB programs in China. We aimed to: 1) monitor distribution of YYB; 2) assess children's adherence to and acceptability of YYB; and 3) evaluate community-based strategies to improve the program. This mixed methods evaluation study combined data from surveys and focus groups that took place during a controlled interventional evaluation trial. The trial aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of community-based YYB distribution on improving children's health status in rural areas in China. We conducted five cross-sectional surveys with caregivers of children aged 6-23 months (baseline survey (N = 1804) in August 2012 and four follow-up cross-sectional surveys: 1) N = 494 in January 2013; 2) N = 2187 in August 2013; 3) N = 504 in January 2014; and 4) N = 2186 in August 2014) in one rural county in Qinghai Province. We used a two-stage cluster sampling technique to select mothers with eligible children for each survey. Information was collected from caregivers on household characteristics, YYB consumption and acceptability in the surveys. High adherence in each survey was defined as children who consumed at least four YYB sachets during the previous week. A logistic regression model was developed to obtain odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals of factors associated with high adherence. Also, we conducted 10 focus groups with73 caregivers and health workers involved in the YYB distribution. Content analysis was used to explore qualitative findings, which were used to gain deeper insight into the quantitative results. Around 90% of caregivers had ever received YYB and more than 80% of children ever took YYB. Caregivers mainly knew about YYB through their village doctors. High

  7. The Use of High Order Thinking Skill in Story Telling Method in Order to Improve Children' Critical Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Siti; Setiawan, Denny

    2009-01-01

    Children need to be equipped with the ability to navigate the world and to think independently, not just recite facts. One of the thinking ability dimensions is creating thinking associated with the ability to explore ideas, conclude possibilities, and find correct answers more than one answer. In this era of globalization and advances in technology, where changes rapidly occur in community, creative thinking ability is a need for every human being who want to succeed in a variety of competit...

  8. Parental Wellbeing, Parenting and Child Development in Ghanaian Families with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Bornheimer, Lindsay A; Dankyi, Ernestina; de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2018-03-27

    Approximately one-third of early childhood pupils in Ghana are struggling with meeting basic behavioral and developmental milestones, but little is known about mechanisms or factors that contribute to poor early childhood development. With a lack of developmental research to guide intervention or education program and policy planning, this study aimed to address these research gaps by examining a developmental mechanism for early childhood development. We tested a mediational mechanism model that examined the influence of parental wellbeing on parenting and children's development. Two hundred and sixty-two Ghanaian parents whose children attended early childhood classes (nursery to 3rd grade) were recruited. Data were gathered through parent interviews and Structural Equation Modeling was utilized to examine pathways of the model. Results support the mediational model that Ghanaian parents' depression was associated with less optimal parenting, and in turn greater child externalizing behavioral problems. This study adds new evidence of cross cultural consistency in early childhood development.

  9. A new method to monitor the contribution of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2014-01-01

    American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown. To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4-19 y by fast food restaurant type. Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003-2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010). NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR). A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4-11 y and 12-19 y) and by race/ethnicity. Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%), sandwich (1.4%), Mexican (1.3%), and chicken restaurants (1.2%). Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%), sodium (7.1%), and solid fats (9.5%) from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat). These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options.

  10. A new method to monitor the contribution of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D Rehm

    Full Text Available American adults consume 11.3% of total daily calories from foods and beverages from fast food restaurants. The contribution of different types of fast food restaurants to the diets of US children is unknown.To estimate the consumption of energy, sodium, added sugars, and solid fats among US children ages 4-19 y by fast food restaurant type.Analyses used the first 24-h recall for 12,378 children in the 2003-2010 cycles of the nationally representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003-2010. NHANES data identify foods by location of origin, including stores and fast food restaurants (FFR. A novel custom algorithm divided FFRs into 8 segments and assigned meals and snacks to each. These included burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican, Asian, fish, and coffee/snack restaurants. The contribution of each restaurant type to intakes of energy and other dietary constituents was then assessed by age group (4-11 y and 12-19 y and by race/ethnicity.Store-bought foods and beverages provided 64.8% of energy, 61.9% of sodium, 68.9% of added sugars, and 60.1% of solid fats. FFRs provided 14.1% of energy, 15.9% of sodium, 10.4% of added sugars and 17.9% of solid fats. Among FFR segments, burger restaurants provided 6.2% of total energy, 5.8% of sodium, 6.2% of added sugars, and 7.6% of solid fats. Less energy was provided by pizza (3.3%, sandwich (1.4%, Mexican (1.3%, and chicken restaurants (1.2%. Non-Hispanic black children obtained a greater proportion of their total energy (7.4%, sodium (7.1%, and solid fats (9.5% from burger restaurants as compared to non-Hispanic white children (6.0% of energy, 5.5% of sodium, and 7.3% of solid fat.These novel analyses, based on consumption data by fast food market segment, allow public health stakeholders to better monitor the effectiveness of industry efforts to promote healthier menu options.

  11. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: Using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Demant Klinker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Being outdoors has a positive influence on health among children. Evidence in this area is limited and many studies have used self-reported measures. Objective context-specific assessment of physical activity patterns and correlates, such as outdoor time, may progress this field.Aims: To employ novel objective measures to assess age and gender differences in context-specific outdoor weekday behavior patterns among school-children (outdoor time and outdoor MVPA and to investigate associations between context-specific outdoor time and MVPA.Methods: A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of nine hours combined accelerometer and GPS data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the Personal Activity and Location Measurement System and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context-specific measures for outdoor time, outdoor MVPA and overall daily MVPA. In addition, four domains (leisure, school, transport and home and 11 subdomains (e.g. urban green space, sports facilities were created and assessed. Multilevel analyses provided results on age and gender differences and the association between outdoor time and MVPA.Results: Girls compared to boys had fewer outdoors minutes (pConclusion:A new methodology to assess context-specific outdoor time and physical activity patterns has been developed and can be expanded to other populations. Different context-specific patterns were found for gender and age, suggesting different strategies may be needed to promote physical activity

  12. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  13. Piloting the use of experience sampling method to investigate the everyday social experiences of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Brown, Nicole; Chen, Yu-Wei; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Falkmer, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the nature and quality of social experiences of children with Asperger Syndrome/High Functioning Autism (AS/HFA) through experience sampling method (ESM) while participating in everyday activities. ESM was used to identify the contexts and content of daily life experiences. Six children with AS/HFA (aged 8-12) wore an iPod Touch on seven consecutive days, while being signalled to complete a short survey. Participants were in the company of others 88.3% of their waking time, spent 69.0% of their time with family and 3.8% with friends, but only conversed with others 26.8% of the time. Participants had more positive experiences and emotions when they were with friends compared with other company. Participating in leisure activities was associated with enjoyment, interest in the occasion, and having positive emotions. ESM was found to be helpful in identifying the nature and quality of social experiences of children with AS/HFA from their perspective.

  14. Children's attachment-related self-worth: a multi-method investigation of postdivorce preschoolers' relationships with their mothers and peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretherton, Inge; Gullón-Rivera, Ángel L; Page, Timothy F; Oettel, Barbara J; Corey, Janet M; Golby, Barbara J

    2013-01-01

    Three related hypotheses derived from attachment theory were examined in this multi-informant and multi-method study of 71 postdivorce mothers and their preschool children (40 boys, 31 girls): (1) mother-child interactions observed at home will be related to attachment-related representations by children (Attachment Story Completion Task or ASCT) and mothers (Parent Attachment Interview or PAI); and (2) these variables will be inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms and positively with social support (from mother's parents and the child's father); and (3) mother-child observations and representations will predict teacher-rated peer behavior. Where appropriate, child gender, maternal income, and child receptive language were statistically controlled. More harmonious observed mother-child interactions were associated with children's sense of self-worth in family relationships (ASCT) and maternal accounts of sensitive-effective guidance (PAI). Observational and representational variables were inversely correlated with maternal depressive symptoms. Mothers' satisfaction with social support from their parents was indirectly linked to the family variables while social support from the child's father had no measurable effect on the mother-child variables. Mother-child variables and teacher ratings were uncorrelated but explained independent variance in ASCT self-worth scores.

  15. A semi-automated method for non-invasive internal organ weight estimation by post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging in fetuses, newborns and children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayyil, Sudhin; Schievano, Silvia; Robertson, Nicola J.; Jones, Rodney; Chitty, Lyn S.; Sebire, Neil J.; Taylor, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging allows minimally invasive autopsy, especially when consent is declined for traditional autopsy. Estimation of individual visceral organ weights is an important component of traditional autopsy. Objective: To examine whether a semi-automated can be used for non-invasive internal organ weight measurement using post-mortem MR imaging in fetuses, newborns and children. Methods: Phase 1: In vitro scanning of 36 animal organs (heart, liver, kidneys) was performed to check the accuracy of volume reconstruction methodology. Real volumes were measured by water displacement method. Phase 2: Sixty-five whole body post-mortem MR scans were performed in fetuses (n = 30), newborns (n = 5) and children (n = 30) at 1.5 T using a 3D TSE T2-weighted sequence. These data were analysed offline using the image processing software Mimics 11.0. Results: Phase 1: Mean difference (S.D.) between estimated and actual volumes were -0.3 (1.5) ml for kidney, -0.7 (1.3) ml for heart, -1.7 (3.6) ml for liver in animal experiments. Phase 2: In fetuses, newborns and children mean differences between estimated and actual weights (S.D.) were -0.6 (4.9) g for liver, -5.1 (1.2) g for spleen, -0.3 (0.6) g for adrenals, 0.4 (1.6) g for thymus, 0.9 (2.5) g for heart, -0.7 (2.4) g for kidneys and 2.7 (14) g for lungs. Excellent co-correlation was noted for estimated and actual weights (r 2 = 0.99, p < 0.001). Accuracy was lower when fetuses were less than 20 weeks or less than 300 g. Conclusion: Rapid, accurate and reproducible estimation of solid internal organ weights is feasible using the semi-automated 3D volume reconstruction method.

  16. Sensitive multiresidue method by HS-SPME/GC-MS for 10 volatile organic compounds in urine matrix: a new tool for biomonitoring studies on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonucci, Arianna; Vitali, Matteo; Avino, Pasquale; Manigrasso, Maurizio; Protano, Carmela

    2016-08-01

    A HS-SPME method coupled with GC-MS analysis has been developed for simultaneously measuring the concentration of 10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-, m-, and p-xylene, methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, 2-methyl-2-butyl methyl ether, and diisopropyl ether) in urine matrix as a biomonitoring tool for populations at low levels of exposure to such VOCs. These compounds, potentially toxic for human health, are common contaminants of both outdoor and indoor air, as they are released by autovehicular traffic; some of them are also present in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Thus, the exposure to these pollutants cannot be neglected and should be assessed. The low limits of detection and quantification (LODs and LOQs <6.5 and 7.5 ng L(-1), respectively) and the high reproducibility (CVs <4 %) make the developed method suited for biomonitoring populations exposed at low levels such as children. Further, the method is cost-effective and low in time-consumption; therefore, it is useful for investigating large populations. It has been applied to children exposed to traffic pollution and/or ETS; the relevant results are reported, and the relevant implications are discussed.

  17. Factors associated with utilization of long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods among women who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenebe, Chernet Baye; Adefris, Mulat; Yenit, Melaku Kindie; Gelaw, Yalemzewod Assefa

    2017-09-06

    Despite the fact that long acting family planning methods reduce population growth and improve maternal health, their utilization remains poor. Therefore, this study assessed the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization and associated factors among women in reproductive age groups who have decided not to have more children in Gondar city, northwest Ethiopia. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October, 2015. Three hundred seventeen women who have decided not to have more children were selected consecutively into the study. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect data. Both bivariate and multi-variable logistic regressions analyses were used to identify factors associated with utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The multi-variable logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with the utilization of long acting and permanent family planning methods. The Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) with the corresponding 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used to show the strength of associations, and variables with a P-value of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. In this study, the overall prevalence of long acting and permanent contraceptive (LAPCM) method utilization was 34.7% (95% CI: 29.5-39.9). According to the multi-variable logistic regression analysis, utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods was significantly associated with women who had secondary school, (AOR: 2279, 95% CI: 1.17, 4.44), college, and above education (AOR: 2.91, 95% CI: 1.36, 6.24), history of previous utilization (AOR: 3.02, 95% CI: 1.69, 5.38), and information about LAPCM (AOR: 8.85, 95% CI: 2.04, 38.41). In this study the prevalence of long acting and permanent family planning method utilization among women who have decided not to have more children was high compared with previous studies conducted elsewhere. Advanced educational

  18. Pan-Britain, mixed-methods study of multidisciplinary teams teaching parents to manage children's long-term kidney conditions at home: Study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Care of children and young people (children) with long-term kidney conditions is usually managed by multidisciplinary teams. Published guidance recommends that whenever possible children with long-term conditions remain at home, meaning parents may be responsible for performing the majority of clinical care-giving. Multidisciplinary team members, therefore, spend considerable time promoting parents' learning about care-delivery and monitoring care-giving. However, this parent-educative aspect of clinicians' role is rarely articulated in the literature so little evidence exists to inform professionals' parent-teaching interventions. Methods/Design This ongoing study addresses this issue using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods involving the twelve children's kidney units in England, Scotland and Wales. Phase I involves a survey of multidisciplinary team members' parent-teaching interventions using: i) A telephone-administered questionnaire to determine: the numbers of professionals from different disciplines in each team, the information/skills individual professionals relay to parents and the teaching strategies/interventions they use. Data will be managed using SPSS to produce descriptive statistics ii) Digitally-recorded, qualitative group or individual interviews with multidisciplinary team members to explore their accounts of the parent-teaching component of their role. Interviews will be transcribed anonymously and analysed using Framework Technique. Sampling criteria will be derived from analysis to identify one/two unit(s) for subsequent in-depth study Phase II involves six prospective, ethnographic case-studies of professional-parent interactions during parent-teaching encounters. Parents of six children with a long-term kidney condition will be purposively sampled according to their child's age, diagnosis, ethnicity and the clinical care-giving required; snowball sampling will identify the professionals involved in each case

  19. A televideo exercise and nutrition program for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in maintenance therapy: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson CA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Gibson,1 Keith J August,2 Jerry L Greene,3 Stephen D Herrmann,4 Jaehoon Lee,5 Susan P Harvey,6 Kate Lambourne,3 Debra K Sullivan7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General and Geriatric Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA; 2Children's Mercy Hospital, MO, USA; 3Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 4Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, SD, USA; 5Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy, Texas Tech University, TX, USA; 6Center for Research on Learning, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 7Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA Abstract: Changes in nutrient intake and decreased exercise resulting from cancer therapies as well as their side effects may be contributing factors in the increased body weight and differences in physical fitness observed in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. This article will describe the study protocol for an intervention program designed to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of ALL survivors. Twenty-four children aged between 4 years and 12 years with ALL will be randomized to a 6-month technology-based exercise and nutrition program (TLC4ALLKids or to enhanced usual care (eUC. The participants randomized to the TLC4ALLKids will participate in weekly, 1-hour coaching sessions on nutrition and physical activity and 1-hour physical activity classes delivered by group video conferencing. Participants will be provided with iPad tablets loaded with video conferencing software and the Healthy Lifestyle Tracking calendar to track daily nutrition and physical activity goals and weight. Both groups will be provided with Fitbit™ Zip to monitor physical activity. To assess feasibility, participant recruitment (achievement of proposed sample size, attendance (per weekly online sessions/assessment sessions, and adherence (number of

  20. Use of quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to identify causes of diarrhoea in children: a reanalysis of the GEMS case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Platts-Mills, James A; Juma, Jane; Kabir, Furqan; Nkeze, Joseph; Okoi, Catherine; Operario, Darwin J; Uddin, Jashim; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Alonso, Pedro L; Antonio, Martin; Becker, Stephen M; Blackwelder, William C; Breiman, Robert F; Faruque, Abu S G; Fields, Barry; Gratz, Jean; Haque, Rashidul; Hossain, Anowar; Hossain, M Jahangir; Jarju, Sheikh; Qamar, Farah; Iqbal, Najeeha Talat; Kwambana, Brenda; Mandomando, Inacio; McMurry, Timothy L; Ochieng, Caroline; Ochieng, John B; Ochieng, Melvin; Onyango, Clayton; Panchalingam, Sandra; Kalam, Adil; Aziz, Fatima; Qureshi, Shahida; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Roberts, James H; Saha, Debasish; Sow, Samba O; Stroup, Suzanne E; Sur, Dipika; Tamboura, Boubou; Taniuchi, Mami; Tennant, Sharon M; Toema, Deanna; Wu, Yukun; Zaidi, Anita; Nataro, James P; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-09-24

    Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of mortality in children worldwide, but establishing the cause can be complicated by diverse diagnostic approaches and varying test characteristics. We used quantitative molecular diagnostic methods to reassess causes of diarrhoea in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS). GEMS was a study of moderate to severe diarrhoea in children younger than 5 years in Africa and Asia. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to test for 32 enteropathogens in stool samples from cases and matched asymptomatic controls from GEMS, and compared pathogen-specific attributable incidences with those found with the original GEMS microbiological methods, including culture, EIA, and reverse-transcriptase PCR. We calculated revised pathogen-specific burdens of disease and assessed causes in individual children. We analysed 5304 sample pairs. For most pathogens, incidence was greater with qPCR than with the original methods, particularly for adenovirus 40/41 (around five times), Shigella spp or enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Campylobactor jejuni o C coli (around two times), and heat-stable enterotoxin-producing E coli ([ST-ETEC] around 1·5 times). The six most attributable pathogens became, in descending order, Shigella spp, rotavirus, adenovirus 40/41, ST-ETEC, Cryptosporidium spp, and Campylobacter spp. Pathogen-attributable diarrhoeal burden was 89·3% (95% CI 83·2-96·0) at the population level, compared with 51·5% (48·0-55·0) in the original GEMS analysis. The top six pathogens accounted for 77·8% (74·6-80·9) of all attributable diarrhoea. With use of model-derived quantitative cutoffs to assess individual diarrhoeal cases, 2254 (42·5%) of 5304 cases had one diarrhoea-associated pathogen detected and 2063 (38·9%) had two or more, with Shigella spp and rotavirus being the pathogens most strongly associated with diarrhoea in children with mixed infections. A quantitative molecular diagnostic approach improved population

  1. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  2. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight among 5-year-old children in Saint Lucia by three methods of classification and a comparison with historical rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, K; Bird, J; Canning, P M; Frizzell, L M; Smith, L M

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed to determine if child obesity rates have risen in the Caribbean nation of Saint Lucia, as found globally, and whether under-nutrition coexists, as in other developing nations. The average adult in Saint Lucia is overweight, thus considerable child obesity might be expected, but there are no current data. Heights and weights were obtained from a sample (n= 425) of the 2001 birth cohort of Saint Lucian children measured during the nation-wide 2006/2007 Prior to School Entry Five-Year Assessment. Prevalence of overweight, obesity and underweight were estimated by Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Cole et al. and new World Health Organization (WHO) methods. Previously reported 1976 estimates, including children ≤60 months of age only, based on National Centre for Health Statistics curves, were adjusted to new WHO equivalents using an algorithm developed by Yang and de Onis, and compared with rates in our subsample of children ≤60 months of age (n= 99). Regardless of classification method, overweight and obesity rates were high: 14.4% and 9.2% (WHO); 11.3% and 12.0% (CDC); and 9.9% and 7.1% (Cole et al.), respectively. Underweight estimates also varied: 4.7% (WHO); 11.3% (CDC) and 6.6% (Cole et al.). Obesity in our young subsample (15.2%; WHO) was more than 3 times the adjusted 1976 rate (4.3%). Obesity among Saint Lucian pre-schoolers has tripled in 30 years. Our findings also suggest that this country, like many undergoing a 'nutrition transition', faces the dual challenge of over-nutrition and under-nutrition. Routine monitoring of overweight and underweight is needed in Saint Lucia, as is the implementation and evaluation of programmes to address these problems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Parental leave: comparing children's hospitals with Fortune 500 companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, A H; Gordon, E J; O'Connor, M E

    1998-07-01

    To identify parental leave policies and availability of support systems for new parents employed by children's hospitals and compare these benefits with those offered by Fortune 500 companies. Telephone or facsimile survey of all (n=118) children's hospitals and pediatric medical centers in the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions 1995 Directory of Members, and 118 geographically matched Fortune 500 companies. Policies for maternity and paternity leave, adoption benefits, and support services for new parents were compared. Ninety-four children's hospitals (80%) and 82 Fortune 500 companies (69%) responded to the survey. No difference in duration of maternity (P>.30) or paternity (P=.12) leave was found. Sixty-two companies (77%) classified maternity leave as short-term disability while 47 hospitals (50%) classified it as sick time (Pleave as short-term disability generally gives better benefits to employees with short duration of service, whereas classifying maternity leave as sick time usually favors employees with longer employment. Companies provided more financial support for adoption expenses (Ppaid or unpaid leave for adoption (P=.14). Hospitals provided more on-site day care (69% vs 42%; Pparental leave benefits than Fortune 500 companies; however, they offer better support systems for parents returning to work after the birth of a child.

  4. Music Training Program: A Method Based on Language Development and Principles of Neuroscience to Optimize Speech and Language Skills in Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Dastgheib

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years, music has been employed in many intervention and rehabilitation program to enhance cognitive abilities in patients. Numerous researches show that music therapy can help improving language skills in patients including hearing impaired. In this study, a new method of music training is introduced based on principles of neuroscience and capabilities of Persian language to optimize language development in deaf children after implantation.    Materials and Methods: The candidate children are classified in three groups according to their hearing age and language development. The music training program is established and centered on four principles, as follows: hearing and listening to music (with special attention to boost hearing, singing, rhythmic movements with music and playing musical instruments.   Results: Recently much research has demonstrated that even after cochlear implant operation, a child cannot acquire language to the same level of detail as a normal child. As a result of this study music could compensate this developmental delay .It is known that the greater the area of the brain that is activated, the more synaptic learning and plasticity changes occur in that specific area. According to the principles of neural plasticity, music could improve language skills by activating the same areas for language processing in the brain.   Conclusion:  In conclusion, the effects of music on the human brain seem to be very promising and therapeutic in various types of disorders and conditions, including cochlear implantation.

  5. Application of radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry methods for the study of nutrition-pollution interactions in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Bang Diep [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, P.O. Box 5T-160, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: tranfbangdiepj@yahoo.com; Tran Dai Nghiep [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, P.O. Box 5T-160, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: tdnghiep@vaec.gov.vn

    2005-07-01

    The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to aid in understanding and evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placenta, of low-weight and control newborns groups, were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd/Zn, Hg/Se and Pb/Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in the placenta of the low-weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. The degree of the nutrient-pollutant interaction is evaluated by quantity R, with mercury considered as the most active pollutant while calcium the most active nutrient among the involved elements in process of the interaction. (author)

  6. Application of radiochemical neutron activation and atomic absorption spectrometry methods for the study of nutrition-pollution interactions in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Bang Diep; Tran Dai Nghiep

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) is expected to aid in understanding and evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on the nutritional status of children already exposed to marginal malnutrition. Samples of placenta, of low-weight and control newborns groups, were collected for determination of nutritional elements and pollutants. The mean ratios of pollutants and nutrients such as Cd/Zn, Hg/Se and Pb/Ca were evaluated for both groups. All these ratios in the placenta of the low-weight newborns are higher than that of the healthy group. The degree of the nutrient-pollutant interaction is evaluated by quantity R, with mercury considered as the most active pollutant while calcium the most active nutrient among the involved elements in process of the interaction. (author)

  7. Forced deflation pulmonary function test: a novel method to evaluate lung function in infants and young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rakesh K; Ibrahimova, Azada; Escolar, Maria L; Szabolcs, Paul; Vander Lugt, Mark T.; Windreich, Randy M; Weiner, Daniel J

    2017-04-01

    We describe the safety and feasibility of a forced deflation pulmonary function test (dPFT) in infants and young children. Fifty-two dPFT studies were performed in 26 patients (median age, 1.4 years). Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow (FEF 75 ) were normal in all except one case, but respiratory system compliance (Crs) was reduced in 24% patients. There were no significant differences in pre-blood and marrow transplantation FVC, FEF 75 , and Crs between those patients who did and those who did not have posttransplant pulmonary complications. A larger study is needed to determine the prevalence and significance of PFT abnormalities in this age group. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Rachel R; Williams, Jane E; Wells, Jonathan C K; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-01-01

    Clinical application of body composition (BC) measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. (1) To compare fat mass (FM) and fat free mass (FFM) standard deviation scores (SDS) generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C) model; (2) To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy), BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT); and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2)/Z)) in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients). DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement) FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62); FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72)), and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2). BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  9. Use of fat mass and fat free mass standard deviation scores obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients: comparison with the reference 4-component model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel R Atherton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical application of body composition (BC measurements for individual children has been limited by lack of appropriate reference data. OBJECTIVES: (1 To compare fat mass (FM and fat free mass (FFM standard deviation scores (SDS generated using new body composition reference data and obtained using simple measurement methods in healthy children and patients with those obtained using the reference 4-component (4-C model; (2 To determine the extent to which scores from simple methods agree with those from the 4-C model in identification of abnormal body composition. DESIGN: FM SDS were calculated for 4-C model, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; GE Lunar Prodigy, BMI and skinfold thicknesses (SFT; and FFM SDS for 4CM, DXA and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA; height(2/Z in 927 subjects aged 3.8-22.0 y (211 healthy, 716 patients. RESULTS: DXA was the most accurate method for both FM and FFM SDS in healthy subjects and patients (mean bias (limits of agreement FM SDS 0.03 (± 0.62; FFM SDS -0.04 (± 0.72, and provided best agreement with the 4-C model in identifying abnormal BC (SDS ≤-2 or ≥ 2. BMI and SFTs were reasonable predictors of abnormal FM SDS, but poor in providing an absolute value. BIA was comparable to DXA for FFM SDS and in identifying abnormal subjects. CONCLUSIONS: DXA may be used both for research and clinically to determine FM and FFM SDS. BIA may be used to assess FFM SDS in place of DXA. BMI and SFTs can be used to measure adiposity for groups but not individuals. The performance of simpler techniques in monitoring longitudinal BC changes requires investigation. Ultimately, the most appropriate method should be determined by its predictive value for clinical outcome.

  10. Prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen tests in children with functional abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neha; Basu, Srikanta; Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Ruchika; Sharma, Lokesh; Kumar, Praveen

    2017-05-01

    The study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of abnormal lactose breath hydrogen test in children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain. Children with chronic abdominal pain were examined and investigated for organic causes. All children without a known organic cause underwent lactose and glucose breath hydrogen test. After a standard dose of 2 g/kg of lactose to a maximum of 50 g, hydrogen in breath was measured at 15 min intervals for 3 h. A rise of 20 ppm above baseline was considered suggestive of lactose malabsorption. Of 108 children screened, organic causes were found in 46 children. Sixty-two patients without any organic cause underwent hydrogen breath test. Lactose hydrogen breath test (HBT) was positive in 36 of 62 (58%), while 11 (17%) had positive HBT with glucose suggestive of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). Twenty out of 34 (59%) improved on lactose free diet while 8 out of 11 (72%) children of SIBO improved on antibiotics. Lactose malabsorption was seen in 58% of children with non-organic chronic abdominal pain.

  11. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-09-18

    Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). 12 UK children's hospitals. Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication and appropriate timing of deferred consent discussions

  12. How parents and practitioners experience research without prior consent (deferred consent) for emergency research involving children with life threatening conditions: a mixed method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolfall, Kerry; Frith, Lucy; Gamble, Carrol; Gilbert, Ruth; Mok, Quen; Young, Bridget

    2015-01-01

    Objective Alternatives to prospective informed consent to enable children with life-threatening conditions to be entered into trials of emergency treatments are needed. Across Europe, a process called deferred consent has been developed as an alternative. Little is known about the views and experiences of those with first-hand experience of this controversial consent process. To inform how consent is sought for future paediatric critical care trials, we explored the views and experiences of parents and practitioners involved in the CATheter infections in CHildren (CATCH) trial, which allowed for deferred consent in certain circumstances. Design Mixed method survey, interview and focus group study. Participants 275 parents completed a questionnaire; 20 families participated in an interview (18 mothers, 5 fathers). 17 CATCH practitioners participated in one of four focus groups (10 nurses, 3 doctors and 4 clinical trial unit staff). Setting 12 UK children's hospitals. Results Some parents were momentarily shocked or angered to discover that their child had or could have been entered into CATCH without their prior consent. Although these feelings resolved after the reasons why consent needed to be deferred were explained and that the CATCH interventions were already used in clinical care. Prior to seeking deferred consent for the first few times, CATCH practitioners were apprehensive, although their feelings abated with experience of talking to parents about CATCH. Parents reported that their decisions about their child's participation in the trial had been voluntary. However, mistiming the deferred consent discussion had caused distress for some. Practitioners and parents supported the use of deferred consent in CATCH and in future trials of interventions already used in clinical care. Conclusions Our study provides evidence to support the use of deferred consent in paediatric emergency medicine; it also indicates the crucial importance of practitioner communication

  13. Lexical and semantic representations of L2 cognate and noncognate words acquisition in children : evidence from two learning methods

    OpenAIRE

    Comesaña, Montserrat; Soares, Ana Paula; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa; Lima, Cátia

    2012-01-01

    How bilinguals represent words in two languages and which mechanisms are responsible for second language acquisition are important questions in the bilingual and vocabulary acquisition literature. This study aims to analyze the effect of two learning methods (picture-based vs. word-based method) and two types of words (cognates and noncognates) in early stages of children’s L2 acquisition. Forty-eight native speakers of European Portuguese, all sixth graders (mean age= 10.87 years; SD= 0....

  14. Monte Carlo Method in the calculate of conversion coefficients for dose in children's organs and tissues subjected to dentistric radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, E.C.M.; Khoury, H.; Lima, F.R.A.

    1998-01-01

    The increasing utilization of oral X-rays, specially in youngsters and children, prompts the assessment of equivalent doses in their organs and tissues. With this purpose, Monte Carlo code was adopted to simulate an X-ray source irradiating phantoms of the MIRD-5 type with different ages (10, 15 and 40 years old) to calculate the conversion coefficients which transform the exposure at skin to equivalent doses at several organs and tissues of interest. In order to check the computer program, simulations were performed for adult patients using the original code (ADAM,FOR developed by GSF Germany) and the adapted program (MCDRO,PAS). Good agreement between results obtained by both programs was observed. Applications to incisive, canine and molar teeth were simulated. The conversion factors were calculated for the following organs and tissues: thyroid, active bone marrow (head and whole body), bone (facial skeleton, cranium and whole body), skin (head and whole body) and crystalline. Based on the obtained results, it follows that the younger the patient and the langer the field area, the higher the doses in assessed organs and tissues

  15. Influence of the Method of Definition on the Prevalence of Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease: Data from the Know-Ped CKD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Heeyeon; Choi, Hyun Jin; Kang, Hee Gyung; Ha, Il-Soo; Cheong, Hae Il; Han, Kyung Hee; Kim, Seong Heon; Cho, Min Hyun; Shin, Jae Il; Lee, Joo Hoon; Park, Young Seo

    2017-01-01

    Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Left-ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) is an early marker of cardiovascular disease in pediatric CKD, and the prevalence of LVH in pediatric CKD is approximately 20-30% in pre-dialysis CKD patients. However, there is no consensus on the ideal method of defining LVH in pediatric CKD patients. Previous studies have typically used the LV mass index (LVMI), which is calculated as LV mass in grams divided by height in meters to the 2.7th power ≥ 38 g/m2.7, to diagnose LVH in children with CKD. Recently, age-specific reference values for LVMI ≥ 95th percentile and LV wall-thickness z-score > 1.64 in children were addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and contributing factors of LVH in pediatric CKD patients according to each measurement and evaluate the concordance between each measurement. We used the baseline data of the KoreaN cohort study for Outcome in patients With Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease (KNOW-Ped CKD), which is a nationwide, 10-year, prospective, observational cohort study of pediatric CKD. A total of 469 patients were enrolled, and 458 patients were included in the final analysis. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the association of the variables with LVH. Kappa statistics were used to analyze the concordance. According to an LVH diagnosis of LVMI ≥ 38 g/m2.7, 188 patients (41.0%) were diagnosed with LVH, and the prevalence of LVH was high in younger patients ( 1.64. There is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the LV wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI method. The results of this study show that there is poor concordance between the diagnosis of LVH using the wall-thickness z-score and the LVMI2.7 criteria. Further investigation is needed to estimate the correlation between LVH and cardiac dysfunction and to find a better method for defining LVH in the pediatric CKD cohort

  16. Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs) for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were −1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and −2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and −2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and −2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year-olds. Conclusions The photographic

  17. A multi-method assessment of satisfaction with services in the medical home by parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David L; McCaskill, Quimby E; Winterbauer, Nancy; Jobli, Edessa; Hou, Tao; Wludyka, Peter S; Stowers, Kristi; Livingood, William

    2009-01-01

    To assess satisfaction of parents of children with special health care needs with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making and coordination of services outside the practice. We used a mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to collect parental perceptions of the Medical Home services provided by their pediatricians. Six practices were selected to participate in the study based on geographic and patient demographic characteristics. In total, 262 (75% response rate) families completed surveys, and 28 families of these participated in focus groups. The Family Survey collected information (corroborated and enriched with focus group interviews) on parent and child demographics, severity of the child's condition and the burden on parents. We assessed parental satisfaction with treatment by office staff, communication with the pediatrician, involvement in decision-making, and connection to services outside the practice. Survey responses were analyzed using SAS with all associations considered significant at the P special health care needs. Overall, only a small percentage of families reported being dissatisfied with their treatment by office staff (13-14%), communication with the pediatrician (10%), and involvement in decision-making (15-16%). However, a majority of families (approximately 58%) were dissatisfied with the ability of the pediatrician and his/her office to connect the families with resources outside the pediatric office. Families whose children had more severe conditions, or whose conditions had more of an impact on the families, reported being less satisfied with all aspects of communication and care coordination Families of youth with special health care needs (>12 years of age) were less satisfied than families of younger children with the practice's ability to connect them to resources outside the practice. Both the focus groups and surveys demonstrated that families of children with

  18. Rational use of antibiotics by community health workers and caregivers for children with suspected pneumonia in Zambia: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Graham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antibiotic resistance is an issue of growing global concern. One key strategy to minimise further development of resistance is the rational use of antibiotics, by providers and patients alike. Through integrated community case management (iCCM, children diagnosed with suspected pneumonia are treated with antibiotics; one component of an essential package to reduce child mortality and increase access to health care for remote populations. Through the use of clinical algorithms, supportive supervision and training, iCCM also offers the opportunity to improve the rational use of antibiotics and limit the spread of resistance in resource-poor contexts. This study provides evidence on antibiotic use by community health workers (CHWs and caregivers to inform iCCM programmes, safeguarding current treatments whilst maximising access to care. Methods 1497 CHW consultations were directly observed by non-clinical researchers, with measurement of respiratory rate by CHWs recorded by video. Videos were used to conduct a retrospective reference standard assessment of respiratory rate by experts. Fifty-five caregivers whose children were prescribed a 5-day course of antibiotics for suspected pneumonia were followed up on day six to assess adherence through structured interviews and pill counts. Six focus group discussions and nine in depth interviews were conducted with CHWs and caregivers to supplement quantitative findings. Results The findings indicate that CHWs adhered to treatment guidelines for 92 % of children seen, prescribing treatment corresponding to their assessment. However, only 65 % of antibiotics prescribed were given for children with experts’ confirmed fast breathing pneumonia. Qualitative data indicates that CHWs have a good understanding of pneumonia diagnosis, and although caregivers sometimes applied pressure to receive drugs, CHWs stated that treatment decisions were not influenced. 46 % of caregivers were fully

  19. Integration of Psychodrama and Transactional Analysis Methods in psychoeducational work with school-age children in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Solomonovna Sokovnina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with a comparison of the concepts and methods of psychodrama and transactional analysis, the authors identify similarities and present their experiences of combining these approaches in order to conduct workshops for 5th grade (11-12 years students within the Russian educational system.  They provide their rationale for this work, details of the content of the training and an example of the work of the students in the form of an agreement on cooperation between students and teachers.  They provide an analysis of the reported emotions during lessons for 78 students compared to 38 within control groups, showing increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions for those in the transactional analysis/psychodrama lessons.  They conclude that the role-play method used was more effective than traditional educational methods within Russia for the development of autonomy, motivation and involvement of students.

  20. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup...... for the two projects was identical, they unfolded in very different ways. We present and discuss this study, which leads us to conclude that PD can be a useful approach in both settings, but that there is a distinct difference as to which methods bring about fruitful results. The most prominent difference...... is the ways in which abstract and manifest participatory methods led to different outcomes in the two settings....

  1. Socio- cultural effects on children's initiation of joint attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana eGavrilov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Exchanging gazes with a social partner in response to an event in the environment is considered an effective means to direct attention, share affective experiences and highlight a target in the environment. This behavior appears during infancy and plays an important role in children's learning and in shaping their socio-emotional development. It has been suggested that cultural values of the community affect socio-emotional development through attentional dynamics of social reference (Rogoff et al., 1993. Maturational processes of brain-circuits have been found to mediate socio-cultural learning and the behavioral manifestation of cultural norms starting at preschool age (Nelson and Guyer, 2011. The aim of the current study was to investigate the relations between cultural ecology levels and children's joint attention (JA. Initiation of JA bids was studied empirically as a function of the level of social load of the target toy (3 levels, the community level of adherence to traditional values (3 levels parental education (2 levels and gender. Sixty-two kindergarten aged children were enrolled in a structured toy-exploration task, during which they were presented with toys of various social loads, with social agents (i.e., mother and experimenter present nearby, and non-social distracters presented intermittently. Analysis of variance indicated that the child's initiation of JA towards the social partner was affected by all levels of cultural ecology (i.e., toy's social load, adherence to tradition values, parental education, gender, thus supporting the study's hypotheses. The effects were such that overall, children, particularly girls' JA initiation was augmented in social toys and moderated by the socio-cultural variables. Cultural ecology seems to be related to children's JA, thereby scaffolding initiation of social sharing cues between children and adults. JA plays a role in adjusting children's internal representations of their ecological

  2. Attachment and children's biased attentional processing: evidence for the exclusion of attachment-related information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vandevivere

    Full Text Available Research in both infants and adults demonstrated that attachment expectations are associated with the attentional processing of attachment-related information. However, this research suffered from methodological issues and has not been validated across ages. Employing a more ecologically valid paradigm to measure attentional processes by virtue of eye tracking, the current study tested the defensive exclusion hypothesis in late childhood. According to this hypothesis, insecurely attached children are assumed to defensively exclude attachment-related information. We hypothesized that securely attached children process attachment- related neutral and emotional information in a more open manner compared to insecurely attached children. Sixty-two children (59.7% girls, 8-12 years completed two different tasks, while eye movements were recorded: task one presented an array of neutral faces including mother and unfamiliar women and task two presented the same with happy and angry faces. Results indicated that more securely attached children looked longer at mother's face regardless of the emotional expression. Also, they tend to have more maintained attention to mother's neutral face. Furthermore, more attachment avoidance was related to a reduced total viewing time of mother's neutral, happy, and angry face. Attachment anxiety was not consistently related to the processing of mother's face. Findings support the theoretical assumption that securely attached children have an open manner of processing all attachment-related information.

  3. Methods That Examine the Extent to Which the Quality of Children's Experiences in Elementary School Moderate the Long-Term Impacts of Head Start

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashburn, Andrew J.; Downer, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the Head Start Impact Study (HSIS) are to: (1) determine the impacts of Head Start on children's school readiness and parental practices that support children's development; and (2) to determine under what circumstances Head Start achieves its greatest impacts and for which children (US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010).…

  4. The Acquisition of Scientific Knowledge: The Influence of Methods of Questioning and Analysis on the Interpretation of Children's Conceptions of the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frede, Valerie; Nobes, Gavin; Frappart, Soren; Panagiotaki, Georgia; Troadec, Bertrand; Martin, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Studies of children's knowledge of the Earth have led to very different conclusions: some appear to show that children construct their own, non-scientific "theories" (mental models) of the flat, hollow or dual Earth. Others indicate that many young children have some understanding of the spherical (scientific) Earth, and that their…

  5. A Novel Method of Notification to Profile Childhood Visual Impairment in Scotland to Meet the Needs of Children with Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenscroft, John; Blaikie, Andrew; Macewen, Caroline; O'Hare, Anne; Creswell, Lyn; Dutton, Gordon N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to pilot a new notification system for children with visual impairment (VI) and describe the initial summary findings. A system of notification of children in Scotland with VI was established. Information concerning this system was distributed to professionals working with visually impaired children to forward to…

  6. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetric Method to Identify and Measure the Palatal Surface Area in Children With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Menezes, Marcio; Cerón-Zapata, Ana Maria; López-Palacio, Ana Maria; Mapelli, Andrea; Pisoni, Luca; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    To assess a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetric method for area delimitation and evaluation of the dental arches of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Obtained data were also used to assess the 3D changes occurring in the maxillary arch with the use of orthopedic therapy prior to rhinocheiloplasty and before the first year of life. Within the collaboration between the Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy) and the University CES of Medellin (Colombia), 96 palatal cast models obtained from neonatal patients with UCLP were analyzed using a 3D stereophotogrammetric imaging system. The area of the minor and greater cleft segments on the digital dental cast surface were delineated by the visualization tool of the stereophotogrammetric software and then examined. "Trueness" of the measurements, as well as systematic and random errors between operators' tracings ("precision") were calculated. The method gave area measurements close to true values (errors lower than 2%), without systematic measurement errors for tracings by both interoperators and intraoperators (P > .05). Statistically significant differences (P digital dental casts and area measurements by the 3D stereophotogrammetric system revealed an accurate (true and precise) method for evaluating the stone casts of newborn patients with UCLP.

  7. Use of qualitative methods and user-centered design to develop customized health information technology tools within federally qualified health centers to keep children insured.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, Jennifer; Angier, Heather; Likumahuwa, Sonja; Hall, Jennifer; Nelson, Christine; Dickerson, Kay; Keller, Sara; Burdick, Tim; Cohen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Lack of health insurance negatively impacts children's health. Despite federal initiatives to expand children's coverage and accelerate state outreach efforts, millions of US children remain uninsured or experience frequent gaps in coverage. Most current efforts to enroll and retain eligible children in public insurance programs take place outside of the health care system. This study is a partnership between patients' families, medical informaticists, federally qualified health center (FQHC) staff, and researchers to build and test information technology tools to help FQHCs reach uninsured children and those at risk for losing coverage.

  8. Contribution to diagnostics/prognostics of tuberculosis in children. I. New methods of assaying zinc and simultaneously copper and zinc in diluted sera by flame atomic-absorption spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luterotti Svjetlana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to provide a reliable status of metal ions in children, new methods of analysis of children’s sera are proposed. New flame atomic-absorption spectrometric (FAAS methods are simple, cost- and time-effective and, above all, labor-, reagent- and sample-saving. Two methods were suggested: method A for simultaneous determination of Cu and Zn from 5-fold diluted sera, and method B, for assaying zinc alone in 10-fold diluted samples. Both methods are based on a single-step sample pretreatment (deproteinization with 3 mol dm–3 HCl. Method A uses a single-step calibration with a mixed standard. The main advantage of method B is an additional reduction in sample consumption. Both methods were fully validated against reference methods. Accuracy, sensitivity and precision have proven them to be comparable to the reference methods in terms of analytical performance, and applicable to analyses of children’s sera.

  9. [Analysis of the results of bone healing in femurs lengthened by the gradual distraction method in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochymek, J; Skvaril, J; Ondrus, S

    2009-10-01

    Treatment of leg length inequality via lengthening of the shorter extremity is an infrequent orthopedic procedure due to the requirement of special distraction devices and possible serious complications. Essential qualitative changes in operative technique development are associated with the name of G. A. Ilizarov, who paved the way for the autoregenerate gradual distraction method in the 1950s. In the years 1990 through 2007 a total of 67 patients underwent femur lengthening via gradual distraction using various types of external fixators at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Faculty Hospital in Brno. The quality of bone healing was monitored and a number of parameters followed and statistically evaluated using regularly scheduled X-ray examinations. In 13 cases we had to remove the external fixator following the distraction phase, perform an osteosynthesis via a splint and fill the distraction gap via spongioplasty. The bone healing was satisfactory in the remaining 54 patients and the lengthened bone required no other fixation method. The analysis showed statistically significant deceleration in bone healing following distraction in female patients over 12 years of age, and in boys over 14 years of age. Lack of periosteal callus five weeks after surgery always signified serious problems in further healing. Severe complications were recorded in 11 cases during the distraction phase, and in 12 cases after the removal of the distraction apparatus. Our results fully correspond with the data and experience of others cited authors. In addition our study showed deceleration in bone healing in girls over 12 years and in boys over 14 years of age and serious problem in healing when is lack of periostal callus five weeks after surgery. The aim of this report was to present the results of our study of distraction gap bone healing using the gradual lengthening approach. Key words: leg lengthening, gradual distraction, external fixation, leg

  10. Effectiveness of a family-centered method for the early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems in children: a quasi experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijneveld Sijmen A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social-emotional and behavioral problems are common in childhood. Early identification of these is important as it can lead to interventions which may improve the child's prognosis. In Dutch Preventive Child Healthcare (PCH, a new family-centered method has been implemented to identify these problems in early childhood. Its main features are consideration of the child's developmental context and empowerment of parents to enhance the developmental context. Methods/design In a quasi-experimental study, embedded in routine PCH in the Netherlands, regions in which the family-centered method has been implemented (intervention condition will be compared to "care as usual" regions (control condition. These regions are comparable in regard to socio-demographic characteristics. From more than 3,500 newborn babies, 18-month follow-up data on social-emotional and behavioral development will be obtained. PCH professionals will assess development during each routine well-child visit; participating parents will fill in standardized questionnaires. Primary outcomes in the study are the proportion of social-emotional and behavioral problems identified by PCH professionals in children aged 2-14 and 18 months in both conditions, and the proportion of agreement between the assessment of PCH professionals and parents. In addition, the added value of the family-centered approach will be assessed by comparing PCH findings with standardized questionnaires. The secondary outcomes are the degree to which the needs of parents are met and the degree to which they are willing to disclose concerns. Discussion The family-centered method seems promising for early identification of social-emotional and behavioral problems. The results of this study will contribute to evidence-based public health. Trial registration NTR2681

  11. Prevalence of mobile phones and factors influencing usage by caregivers of young children in daily life and for health care in rural China: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions.

  12. "No one says 'No' to money" - a mixed methods approach for evaluating conditional cash transfer schemes to improve girl children's status in Haryana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Anand; Amarchand, Ritvik; Byass, Peter; Pandav, Chandrakant; Ng, Nawi

    2014-01-31

    Haryana was the first state in India to launch a conditional cash transfer (CCT) scheme in 1994. Initially it targeted all disadvantaged girls but was revised in 2005 to restrict it to second girl children of all groups. The benefit which accrued at girl attaining 18 years and subject to conditionalities of being fully immunized, studying till class 10 and remaining unmarried, was increased from about US$ 500 to US$ 2000. Using a mixed methods approach, we evaluated the implementation and possible impact of these two schemes. A survey was conducted among 200 randomly selected respondents of Ballabgarh Block in Haryana to assess their perceptions of girl children and related schemes. A cohort of births during this period was assembled from population database of 28 villages in this block and changes in sex ratio at birth and in immunization coverage at one year of age among boys and girls was measured. Education levels and mean age at marriage of daughters were compared with daughters-in-law from outside Haryana. In-depth interviews were conducted among district level implementers of these schemes to assess their perceptions of programs' implementation and impact. These were analyzed using a thematic approach. The perceptions of girls as a liability and poor (9% to 15%) awareness of the schemes was noted. The cohort analysis showed that while there has been an improvement in the indicators studied, these were similar to those seen among the control groups. Qualitative analysis identified a "conspiracy of silence" - an underplaying of the pervasiveness of the problem coupled with a passive implementation of the program and a clash between political culture of giving subsidies and a bureaucratic approach that imposed many conditionalities and documentary needs for availing of benefits. The apparent lack of impact on the societal mindset calls for a revision in the current approach of addressing a social issue by a purely conditional cash transfer program.

  13. Methodical approaches to managing risks for endocrine diseases evolvement in children related to impacts of environmental factors occuring on areas aimed for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Luzhetskiy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is vital to develop systems of preventing risk-associated pathology due to constantly high levels of endocrine diseases in children exposed to chemicals with trophic effects on endocrine system (lead, cadmium, manganese, chromium, nickel, benzene, phenol, formaldehyde, benzpyrene, chlorine-organic compounds, and nitrates. Applying risk management techniques is one of the most promising trends in prevention of diseases related to environmental impacts. We offer methodical approaches based on system combination of activities at various management levels aimed at improving risk-oriented model of surveillance and control. These approaches enable allowing for detected thropic risk factors in regional social-hygienic monitoring programs, implementing algorithms of case monitoring over exposed children population, and applying contemporary prevention technologies. Social-hygienic monitoring improvement at territorial level implies stricter control and more comprehensive lists of monitored components. This can be achieved by studying compounds which form risks for endocrine system, by working out scientific-methodological grounds for accounting chemical compounds which are trophic for endocrine system, as well as by refining volumes and contents of scheduled inspections performed at high risks objects together with laboratory examination of chemical compounds including those thropic for endocrine system. Local level includes algorithms and schemes of prevention activities aimed at early detection of endocrine disorders related to chemicals impacts. When we give grounds for personified technologies of endocrine diseases prevention (alimentary disorders, physical retardation and obesity related to impacts exerted by chemicals which are trophic for endocrine system we should remember that individual programs choice is based not only on their capacity to eliminate priority compounds determining total chemical load on a person faster but also on

  14. Clinical case review: A method to improve identification of true clinical and radiographic pneumonia in children meeting the World Health Organization definition for pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruutu Petri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization's (WHO case definition for childhood pneumonia, composed of simple clinical signs of cough, difficult breathing and fast breathing, is widely used in resource poor settings to guide management of acute respiratory infections. The definition is also commonly used as an entry criteria or endpoint in different intervention and disease burden studies. Methods A group of paediatricians conducted a retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data including C-reactive protein concentration and chest radiograph findings among Filipino children hospitalised in the Bohol Regional Hospital who were enrolled in a pneumococcal vaccine efficacy study and had an episode of respiratory disease fulfilling the WHO case definition for clinical pneumonia. Our aim was to evaluate which disease entities the WHO definition actually captures and what is the probable aetiology of respiratory infections among these episodes diagnosed in this population. Results Among the 12,194 children enrolled to the vaccine study we recorded 1,195 disease episodes leading to hospitalisation which fulfilled the WHO criteria for pneumonia. In total, 34% of these episodes showed radiographic evidence of pneumonia and 11% were classified as definitive or probable bacterial pneumonia. Over 95% of episodes of WHO-defined severe pneumonia (with chest indrawing had an acute lower respiratory infection as final diagnosis whereas 34% of those with non-severe clinical pneumonia had gastroenteritis or other non-respiratory infection as main cause of hospitalisation. Conclusion The WHO definition for severe pneumonia shows high specificity for acute lower respiratory infection and provides a tool to compare the total burden of lower respiratory infections in different settings. Trial registration ISRCTN62323832

  15. Long-term health-related quality of life and psychological adjustment in children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Helene; Buder, Kathrin; Landolt, Markus A; Neuhaus, Thomas J; Laube, Guido F; Spartà, Giuseppina

    2017-05-01

    In children after haemolytic-uraemic syndrome (HUS), little is known about long-term health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological adjustment as defined by behavioural problems, depressive symptoms and post-traumatic stress symptoms. Sixty-two paediatric patients with a history of HUS were included in this study. Medical data of the acute HUS episode were retrieved retrospectively from hospital records. Data on the clinical course at study investigation were assessed by clinical examination and laboratory evaluation. HRQoL and psychological adjustment data were measured by standardised, parent- and self-reported questionnaires. Haemolytic-uraemic syndrome was diagnosed at a mean of 6.5 years before the initiation of the study (standard deviation 2.9, range 0.1-15.7) years. Among the preschool children, parents reported that their child was less lively and energetic (HRQoL emotional dimension), while no increased behavioural problems were reported. In the school-age children, self- and proxy-reported HRQoL was well within or even above the norms, while increased total behavioural problems were found. The school-age children reported no increased depression scores. Also none of the children met the criteria for full or partial HUS-associated posttraumatic stress disorder. Healthcare providers should be particularly alert to behavioural problems in school-age children with a history of HUS and to lower HRQoL in preschool children.

  16. Prevalence of Mobile Phones and Factors Influencing Usage by Caregivers of Young Children in Daily Life and for Health Care in Rural China: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li; Du, Xiaozhen; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Yanfeng; Rudan, Igor; Car, Josip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To capitalise on mHealth, we need to understand the use of mobile phones both in daily life and for health care. Objective To assess the prevalence and factors that influence usage of mobile phones by caregivers of young children. Materials and Methods A mixed methods approach was used, whereby a survey (N=1854) and semi-structured interviews (N=17) were conducted concurrently. The quantitative and qualitative data obtained were compared and integrated. Participants were caregivers of young children in Zhao County, Hebei Province, China. Results Four main themes were found: (i) trends in mobile phone ownership; (ii) usage of mobile phone functions; (iii) factors influencing replying to text messages; and (iv) uses of mobile phones for health care. The majority of 1,854 survey participants (1,620; 87.4%) used mobile phones, but usage was much higher among mothers (1,433; 92.6%) and fathers (41; 100.0%) compared to grandparents (142; 54.6%). Parents were able to send text messages, grandparents often not. Factors influencing the decision to reply to text messages in daily life were checking the mobile phone, trusting the sender, emotion or feeling when receiving a text message, the importance of replying and ease of use of text messages. Of 1,620 survey participants who used a mobile phone, about one in four (432; 26.7%) had used it for health care in the past three months and most (1,110; 93.5%) of 1,187 who had not wished to use their phone to receive health information. Conclusion We found that usage of mobile phones is high, several factors influencing usage and an interest of caregivers to use phones for health care in Zhao County, rural China, which can be used to inform studies in settings with similar characteristics. Future work needs to assess factors influencing mobile phone usage in-depth to optimize experiences of users for specific mHealth-based interventions. PMID:25789477

  17. Traumatic extradural haematomas in children: Experience with 62 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazza, C.; Pasqualin, A.; Feriotti, G.; Da Pian, R.

    1982-01-01

    Sixty-two children with traumatic extradural haematomas are considered. According to the clinical history presented - often atypical - and to the grade of neurological impairment, patients have divided into different clinical groups. Nearly 50% of patients sustained a minor injury, and 26% did not lose consciousness after trauma. Twenty-four per cent of patients did not show fractures on skull X-rays. Atypical location of haematoma was noted in 22 cases, mainly in the anterior fossa (19 cases). Sixty patients were operated on, while two patients were conservatively treated, owing to the limited size of the haematoamas and to the absence of neurological deficits. Associated brain lesions were discovered at surgery in 40% of cases. The overall mortality rate has been 17%, the operative mortality rate 14%. The morbidity rate has been 6%, with 3% of patients presenting severe disability. Morbidity and mortality have been shown to be affected by age - with better prognosis in patients under 10 years of age, by the clinical history presented, by the preoperative conditions, and, mainly, by the presence of a associated brain lesions. As regards location, frontal haematomas have shown a better prognosis and a slower course than convexity haematomas. Finally, prognosis of extradural haematomas in children has improved to some extent in the last years with the advent of the CT scan, possibly due to speed and accuracy of diagnosis. (Author)

  18. Using Quality Improvement Methods to Implement an Electronic Medical Record (EMR) Supported Individualized Home Pain Management Plan for Children with Sickle Cell Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Lori E; Simmons, Kenya; Kaiser, Peggy; Davis, Blair; Boyd, Patricia; Eichhorn, Tiffany; Mahaney, Tracy; Joffe, Naomi; Morgan, Darice; Schibler, Kathy; Anderson, Viia; Quinn, Charles T; Kalinyak, Karen A

    2014-05-01

    Using quality improvement methodology, our goal was to develop and implement individualized home pain management plans (HPMP) that included pharmacologic as well as non-pharmacologic strategies for children with sickle cell disease (SCD). We hypothesized that successfully implemented HPMPs would have an impact on Emergency Department (ED) use, decreasing ED visits for uncomplicated SCD pain episodes. A multidisciplinary quality improvement team developed a questionnaire to assess the frequency, location and severity of a patient's pain during a routine, comprehensive visit in order to help the patient and family develop an effective pain management strategy using both pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic actions. Using plan do study act cycles (PDSAs), this team was able to build this process into the daily workflow for all SCD patients age 5 years to 21 years of age. Patients with comprehensive visits scheduled from January 2012 to May 2013 were included (N=188) in the intervention. By May of 2013, 88% of eligible patients had an individualized HPMP in place. There was a concomitant reduction in the percentage of SCD patients seen in the ED for uncomplicated SCD pain (6.9% vs. 1.1%). Using quality improvement methods, an individualized HPMP intervention was incorporated successfully into the daily workflow of a busy outpatient SCD clinic. This intervention has the potential to improve patient outcomes by decreasing avoidable ED visits as well as reducing overall healthcare costs.

  19. Definition of means and methods for physical training of 3–6 years old children taking into account their individual development and physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tеtіana Dorofieieva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: definition and justification features of the physical development 3–6 years old children and the features of physical preparedness of this age period. Material & Methods: the sample size for each age group was 100 persons. For an objective assessment of the characteristics considered, the concepts of biological age and passport age are introduced as indispensable indicators for determining individual characteristics of the organism development. Results: based on the administration of the two criteria for age estimation takes into account features of construction of motor activity. For the orderly presentation of the obtained individual features of the organization of motor activity characteristics used indicative of semantic space. This allowed us to establish the regularities of the processes under consideration and their approximation by mathematical equations. Presence of analytical descriptions allows to provide forecasting of development and to carry out professional selection of persons possessing a certain motor talent. Results and their presentation are published for the first time. Conclusion: to build a system for monitoring physical fitness and physical preparedness, systematic monitoring is necessary, in which the assessment of the biological age and the individual structure of the somatotype. Based on the representation of the observations obtained in the semantic spaces, regularities of the morphological and functional forms of the child somatotype.

  20. Conventional and molecular methods in the diagnosis of community-acquired diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age from the north-eastern region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Fiedoruk

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The high prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni suggests that the number of campylobacteriosis cases in Poland may be underestimated; this pathogen should be investigated routinely in children with diarrhoea. Moreover, C. difficile might be considered a causative or contributing agent of diarrhoea in 14.8% of children aged >1 year.

  1. School Based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Targeting Anxiety in Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Randomised Controlled Trail Incorporating a Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Chris; Hill, Vivian; Charman, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Children with a diagnosis of autism are more likely to experience anxiety than their typically developing peers. Research suggests that Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) could offer a way to help children with autism manage their anxiety but most evidence is based on clinical trials. This study investigated a school-based CBT programme using a…

  2. Use of a task-oriented self-instruction method to support children in primary school with poor handwriting quality and speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, M.J.; Linthorst-Bakker, E.; Westenberg, Y.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effect of a task-specific self-instruction intervention to improve handwriting ability of children with poor handwriting quality in schools for regular education (Study 1) and children with poor handwriting quality in schools for special education (Study

  3. Feasibility and Use of the Mobile Food Record for Capturing Eating Occasions among Children Ages 3–10 Years in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha F. Aflague

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s readiness to use technology supports the idea of children using mobile applications for dietary assessment. Our goal was to determine if children 3–10 years could successfully use the mobile food record (mFR to capture a usable image pair or pairs. Children in Sample 1 were tasked to use the mFR to capture an image pair of one eating occasion while attending summer camp. For Sample 2, children were tasked to record all eating occasions for two consecutive days at two time periods that were two to four weeks apart. Trained analysts evaluated images. In Sample 1, 90% (57/63 captured one usable image pair. All children (63/63 returned the mFR undamaged. Sixty-two children reported: The mFR was easy to use (89%; willingness to use the mFR again (87%; and the fiducial marker easy to manage (94%. Children in Sample 2 used the mFR at least one day at Time 1 (59/63, 94%; Time 2 (49/63, 78%; and at both times (47/63, 75%. This latter group captured 6.21 ± 4.65 and 5.65 ± 3.26 mean (±SD image pairs for Time 1 and Time 2, respectively. Results support the potential for children to independently record dietary intakes using the mFR.

  4. Process evaluation of two home-based bimanual training programs in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (the COAD-study): protocol for a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Laura; van der Burg, Jan; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne; Rameckers, Eugène; Aarts, Pauline; Smeets, Rob

    2018-04-24

    As part of the COAD-study two home-based bimanual training programs for young children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy (uCP) have been developed, both consisting of a preparation phase and a home-based training phase. Parents are coached to use either an explicit or implicit motor learning approach while teaching bimanual activities to their child. A process evaluation of these complex interventions is crucial in order to draw accurate conclusions and provide recommendations for implementation in clinical practice and further research. The aim of the process evaluation is to systematically assess fidelity of the home-based training programs, to examine the mechanisms that contribute to their effects on child-related and parent-related outcomes, and to explore the influence of contextual factors. A mixed methods embedded design is used that emerges from a pragmatism paradigm. The qualitative strand involves a generic qualitative approach. The process evaluation components fidelity (quality), dose delivered (completeness), dose received (exposure and satisfaction), recruitment and context will be investigated. Data collection includes registration of attendance of therapists and remedial educationalists to a course regarding the home-based training programs; a questionnaire to evaluate this course by the instructor; a report form concerning the preparation phase to be completed by the therapist; registration and video analyses of the home-based training; interviews with parents and questionnaires to be filled out by the therapist and remedial educationalist regarding the process of training; and focus groups with therapists and remedial educationalists as well as registration of drop-out rates and reasons, to evaluate the overall home-based training programs. Inductive thematic analysis will be used to analyse qualitative data. Qualitative and quantitative findings are merged through meta-inference. So far, effects of home-based training programs in paediatric

  5. Parents' acceptance and their children's choice of pet for animal-assisted therapy (A.A.T.) in 3- to 12-year-old children in the dental operatory -A questionnaire-based pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Yadav, Tushar

    2018-04-16

    To evaluate the parents' acceptance to therapy pets, child's most favoured pet, child's choice of soft toy as compared to live pet, and child's preference of his own pet versus therapy pet. Sixty-two children of age groups 3-6 year, 6-9 year, and 9-12 year were selected. The data from completed questionnaires were statistically analysed and subjected to z test, Chi-squared test with P valueAnimal-Assisted Therapy (AAT) can prove to be a good behaviour management technique if more parents are made aware and informed about AAT; dog is one of the highly recommended pets for AAT, and therapy pet should be preferred over home pet. © 2018 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Discipline methods

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Kikila; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2012-01-01

    Child discipline is one of the most important elements of successful parenting. As discipline is defined the process that help children to learn appropriate behaviors and make good choices. Aim: The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the discipline methods. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research literature, mainly in the pubmed data base which referred to the discipline methods. Results: In the literature it is ci...

  7. The management of vocal fold nodules in children: a national survey of speech-language pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Monique E; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the management options and voice therapy techniques currently being used by practicing speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to treat vocal fold nodules (VFNs) in children. The sources used by SLPs to inform and guide their clinical decisions when managing VFNs in children were also explored. Sixty-two SLPs completed a 23-item web-based survey. Data was analysed using frequency counts, content analyses, and supplementary analyses. SLPs reported using a range of management options and voice therapy techniques to treat VFNs in children. Voice therapy was reportedly the most frequently used management option across all respondents, with the majority of SLPs using a combination of indirect and direct voice therapy techniques. When selecting voice therapy techniques, the majority of SLPs reported that they did not use the limited external evidence available to guide their clinical decisions. Additionally, the majority of SLPs reported that they frequently relied on lower levels of evidence or non-evidence-based sources to guide clinical practice both in the presence and absence of higher quality evidence. Further research needs to investigate strategies to remove the barriers that impede SLPs use of external evidence when managing VFNs in children.

  8. Unraveling the nature of hyperactivity in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Kyoko; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Teicher, Martin H

    2010-04-01

    Seated hyperactivity is a defining feature of the combined and predominantly hyperactive-impulsive subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but its underlying nature is unknown. To determine whether hyperactivity is a consequence of an impaired ability to inhibit activity to low levels or to maintain positional stability. Case-control study. Academic research center and school. Sixty-two boys 9 to 12 years of age (of 73 screened), recruited from the community by advertisement, who met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD combined subtype on structured interview. Sixty-two controls were selected by matching for age and sex from a community sample of 1168 subjects in 3 participating school districts. Pupils with Conners' Teacher Rating Scores Revised within +/-1 SD of the mean for age were eligible for randomized matching. Intervention Infrared motion analysis of head-marker movements (50 Hz) during performance of a 15-minute cognitive control task. Subjects with ADHD were tested at least 18 hours following their last dose of methylphenidate and again 120 minutes after a 0.4-mg/kg probe dose. Inhibitory control (spike and basal amplitude) and head-marker stability (approximate entropy, Lyapunov, and spectral exponents). Inhibitory control measures were 2-fold higher in subjects with ADHD (d' = 0.63-0.95). Group differences in head-marker stability were even greater (d' = 2.20-4.71; receiver operating characteristic area = 0.956-1.0). Methylphenidate restored inhibitory ability to control levels but only partially corrected stability deficits, which still distinguished subjects with ADHD from controls (receiver operating characteristic area = 0.722-0.995). Children with ADHD have a deficient ability to inhibit activity to low levels and unstable control of head-marker position characterized by deterministic chaos (sensitivity to initial conditions). These deficits differed in degree of correctability by methylphenidate, suggesting that they may be mediated by

  9. Socioeconomic inequality in oral health behavior in Iranian children and adolescents by the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method: the CASPIAN- IV study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safiri, Saeid; Kelishadi, Roya; Heshmat, Ramin; Rahimi, Ali; Djalalinia, Shirin; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Sheidaei, Ali; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Ardalan, Gelayol; Mansourian, Morteza; Asayesh, Hamid; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Qorbani, Mostafa

    2016-09-14

    The present study set to describe the socioeconomic inequality associated with oral hygiene behavior among Iranian pediatric population. A representative sample of 13486 school students aged 6-18 years was selected through multistage random cluster sampling method from urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Principle Component Analyses (PCA) correlated variables summarized as socioeconomic status (SES). Association of independent variables with tooth brushing was assessed through logistic regression analysis. Decomposition of the gap in tooth brushing between the first and fifth SES quintiles was assessed using the counterfactual decomposition technique. To assess the relation between tooth brushing and each socioeconomic category, Concentration Index (C) and the slope index of inequality (SII) were used, representing the linear regression coefficient. The participation rate was 90.6 % (50.7 % boys and 75.6 % urban inhabitants). The mean age of participants was 12.47 ± 3.36 years. The frequency of tooth brushing increased across SES quintiles, prevalence of tooth brushing between the first and fifth quintile, under 20 % difference, increased from 58.22 (95 % CI: 56.24,60.20) to 78.61 (95 % CI: 77.00,80.24). Only 3 % of the difference is explained by the factors considered in the study, and 17 % remained unknown. Residence area, family size, and smoking status made a significant contribution to the gap between the first and last SE groups. Residence area [ -2.01 (95 % CI: -3.46, -0.55)] was along the maximum levels of gaps between SE categories. The findings revealed a socio-economic inequality in oral health behavior in Iranian children and adolescents. Also, factors influencing oral health are addressed to develop and implement complementary public health actions.

  10. The INTERGROWTH-21st Project Neurodevelopment Package: a novel method for the multi-dimensional assessment of neurodevelopment in pre-school age children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Fernandes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st Project is a population-based, longitudinal study describing early growth and development in an optimally healthy cohort of 4607 mothers and newborns. At 24 months, children are assessed for neurodevelopmental outcomes with the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package. This paper describes neurodevelopment tools for preschoolers and the systematic approach leading to the development of the Package. METHODS: An advisory panel shortlisted project-specific criteria (such as multi-dimensional assessments and suitability for international populations to be fulfilled by a neurodevelopment instrument. A literature review of well-established tools for preschoolers revealed 47 candidates, none of which fulfilled all the project's criteria. A multi-dimensional assessment was, therefore, compiled using a package-based approach by: (i categorizing desired outcomes into domains, (ii devising domain-specific criteria for tool selection, and (iii selecting the most appropriate measure for each domain. RESULTS: The Package measures vision (Cardiff tests; cortical auditory processing (auditory evoked potentials to a novelty oddball paradigm; and cognition, language skills, behavior, motor skills and attention (the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment in 35-45 minutes. Sleep-wake patterns (actigraphy are also assessed. Tablet-based applications with integrated quality checks and automated, wireless electroencephalography make the Package easy to administer in the field by non-specialist staff. The Package is in use in Brazil, India, Italy, Kenya and the United Kingdom. CONCLUSIONS: The INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Package is a multi-dimensional instrument measuring early child development (ECD. Its developmental approach may be useful to those involved in large-scale ECD research and surveillance efforts.

  11. Method Development for Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation of Pediatric Drugs Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis: Application to Inhaled Corticosteroids for Children with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuncui; Jia, Lulu; Meng, Yao; Hu, Lihua; Liu, Yiwei; Nie, Xiaolu; Zhang, Meng; Zhang, Xuan; Han, Sheng; Peng, Xiaoxia; Wang, Xiaoling

    2018-04-01

    Establishing a comprehensive clinical evaluation system is critical in enacting national drug policy and promoting rational drug use. In China, the 'Clinical Comprehensive Evaluation System for Pediatric Drugs' (CCES-P) project, which aims to compare drugs based on clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness to help decision makers, was recently proposed; therefore, a systematic and objective method is required to guide the process. An evidence-based multi-criteria decision analysis model that involved an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was developed, consisting of nine steps: (1) select the drugs to be reviewed; (2) establish the evaluation criterion system; (3) determine the criterion weight based on the AHP; (4) construct the evidence body for each drug under evaluation; (5) select comparative measures and calculate the original utility score; (6) place a common utility scale and calculate the standardized utility score; (7) calculate the comprehensive utility score; (8) rank the drugs; and (9) perform a sensitivity analysis. The model was applied to the evaluation of three different inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) used for asthma management in children (a total of 16 drugs with different dosage forms and strengths or different manufacturers). By applying the drug analysis model, the 16 ICSs under review were successfully scored and evaluated. Budesonide suspension for inhalation (drug ID number: 7) ranked the highest, with comprehensive utility score of 80.23, followed by fluticasone propionate inhaled aerosol (drug ID number: 16), with a score of 79.59, and budesonide inhalation powder (drug ID number: 6), with a score of 78.98. In the sensitivity analysis, the ranking of the top five and lowest five drugs remains unchanged, suggesting this model is generally robust. An evidence-based drug evaluation model based on AHP was successfully developed. The model incorporates sufficient utility and flexibility for aiding the decision-making process, and can be a useful

  12. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  13. Poliomyelitis in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Koloskova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of poliomyelitis in children. The history of this disease and the current state of morbidity in Ukraine are considered. The features of the clinical pattern in children are described. Diagnostic criteria and treatment methods are presented.

  14. [DNA extraction from decomposed tissue by double-digest and magnetic beads methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dian; Liu, Chao; Liu, Hong

    2011-12-01

    To study the effect of the double-digest and magnetic beads method for DNA extraction from 3 types of decomposed tissues. DNA of cartilages, nails and joint capsule in 91 highly decomposed corpses which had not been extracted by common magnetic beads method, were prepared with the double-digest and magnetic beads methods, and quantified with Quantifiler kit, followed by amplification with Sinofiler kit or Minifiler kit. DNA concentration extracted from the 91 highly decomposed cartilages, nails and joint capsule samples was 0-0.225 ng/microL. Sixty-two samples whose DNA concentration were more than 0.020 ng/microL had obtained 9 or more STR loci successfully. The detection rate was 68.13%. The successful rate of STR genotyping for the 3 types of decomposed tissues can be significantly improved by the double-digest and magnetic beads methods.

  15. An ongoing struggle: a mixed-method systematic review of interventions, barriers and facilitators to achieving optimal self-care by children and young people with type 1 diabetes in educational settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Deborah; Noyes, Jane; Lowes, Lesley; Haf Spencer, Llinos; Gregory, John W

    2014-09-12

    Type 1 diabetes occurs more frequently in younger children who are often pre-school age and enter the education system with diabetes-related support needs that evolve over time. It is important that children are supported to optimally manage their diet, exercise, blood glucose monitoring and insulin regime at school. Young people self-manage at college/university. Theory-informed mixed-method systematic review to determine intervention effectiveness and synthesise child/parent/professional views of barriers and facilitators to achieving optimal diabetes self-care and management for children and young people age 3-25 years in educational settings. Eleven intervention and 55 views studies were included. Meta-analysis was not possible. Study foci broadly matched school diabetes guidance. Intervention studies were limited to specific contexts with mostly high risk of bias. Views studies were mostly moderate quality with common transferrable findings.Health plans, and school nurse support (various types) were effective. Telemedicine in school was effective for individual case management. Most educational interventions to increase knowledge and confidence of children or school staff had significant short-term effects but longer follow-up is required. Children, parents and staff said they struggled with many common structural, organisational, educational and attitudinal school barriers. Aspects of school guidance had not been generally implemented (e.g. individual health plans). Children recognized and appreciated school staff who were trained and confident in supporting diabetes management.Research with college/university students was lacking. Campus-based college/university student support significantly improved knowledge, attitudes and diabetes self-care. Self-management was easier for students who juggled diabetes-management with student lifestyle, such as adopting strategies to manage alcohol consumption. This novel mixed-method systematic review is the first to

  16. Connecting Children's Stories to Children's Literature: Meeting Diversity Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Amour, Melissa J.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses a method for increasing elementary school children's multicultural awareness by sharing their own written stories in the context of multicultural children's literature. Describes how classroom activities can promote multicultural awareness through by allowing children to practice democracy, analyze the circumstances of one's life;…

  17. The indicators of physical development of children with Cerebral Palsy as the basis of differential approach to implementation of the physical rehabilitation program of using Bobath-therapy method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Kashuba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existence of traditional and diverse ranges of author approaches for physical rehabilitation, there is still a problem of choosing and applying the most effective methods. The physical development as a complex characteristic is one of the leading assessments of the morpho-functional state of children in it`s development and in the process of growth. An important component of the child's development is the structure of the body, which is characterized by a number of anthropometric parameters that determine the features of sizes proportionality, indicating the physiology of the musculoskeletal, muscular, nervous and other systems of the body, as well as signaling the development of the child's pathology. Results of the study. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the physical therapy using the Bobat-therapy on the parameters of physical development in preschool children with Cerebral Palsy. The main indicators of physical development in children with Cerebral Palsy include body weight (BW, kg, body length standing (BL, cm and sitting (BLS, cm, head coverage (HC, cm, chest coverage (CC, cm and its excursion (CE, cm. Other indicators of physical evolution have not been widely used in practice. All indicators of physical development have been investigated using traditional methods. For the determination of children’s with Cerebral Palsy physical development with lesions we examined influence of the physical rehabilitation using the Bobat-therapy, 35 children aged 4.1 ± 1.1 years (at the beginning of the course. That was the main group (MG. We conducted all of 72 procedures. There was also a control group (CG, wher the results of physical development were studied and analyzed in 34 children aged 3.8 ± 0.9 years who were undergoing rehabilitation using standard methods. The course of Bobat-therapy included: the provision of treatment using specialized child's body position, the reduction of the influence of

  18. Qualitative data collection with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratling, Regena; Coke, Sallie; Minick, Ptlene

    2012-02-01

    Qualitative researchers have clear methods to guide them in data collection with adult participants, but little is known about effective interview techniques with children. The findings from this methodological study on qualitative interviews with children indicate that children are able to articulate their experiences in interviews. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  20. in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jabłońska-Jesionowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic rhinitis in children may have different causes, both local – with changes being present only in the nasalcavity – or systemic, with nasal congestion as one of the symptoms of a bigger clinical picture.Aim. the aim of this study was to draw attention to a very rare congenital cause of chronic rhinitis in children – which is hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.Material and methods. A 6-month-old boy was admitted to the department of pediatric otolaryngology of Warsaw medicalUniversity due to chronic nasal obstruction present from birth. Clinical investigation included anterior and posterior rhinoscopy and fiberoscopy of nasopharynx. the mri was also performed before admission. Complete blood count, serum iron level,serum thyroid hormones and level of igG, igA, igm were examined to exclude anaemia, ozaena and hypothyroidism. Antinuclear antibodies (AnA and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (AnCA tests were also ordered to exclude granulomatosiswith polyangiitis. next, a mucosal biopsy of the nasal cavity was performed to exclude primary ciliary dyskinesia. Allergic pricktests were also performed.Results. After genetic tests, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia was diagnosed.Conclusions. 1. every case of chronic nasal congestion in children requires not only adequate treatment, but also thoroughclinical investigation. 2. nasal obstruction may be due to local causes, systemic diseases and genetic disorders. 3. hypohidroticectodermal dysplasia is a very rare genetic disorder that causes severe, even life threatening symptoms, one of which is chronicrhinitis.

  1. Predictive Power of the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-CH) on Various Methods of Reading Comprehension Assessment among Low-Income Fourth Grade Children of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavassoeur, Lether Christine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the extent to which the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch) in isolation and in combination with parent ratings of inattention predicted performance on reading comprehension assessments presented in various formats (question and answer, cloze, and recall) among a non-clinical sample…

  2. Camp NERF: methods of a theory-based nutrition education recreation and fitness program aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in underserved elementary children during summer months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Laura C; Fristad, Mary; Goodway, Jacqueline D; Eneli, Ihuoma; Holloman, Chris; Kennel, Julie A; Melnyk, Bernadette; Gunther, Carolyn

    2016-10-26

    The number of obese children in the US remains high, which is problematic due to the mental, physical, and academic effects of obesity on child health. Data indicate that school-age children, particularly underserved children, experience unhealthy gains in BMI at a rate nearly twice as fast during the summer months. Few efforts have been directed at implementing evidence-based programming to prevent excess weight gain during the summer recess. Camp NERF is an 8-week, multi-component (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health), theory-based program for underserved school-age children in grades Kindergarten - 5th coupled with the USDA Summer Food Service Program. Twelve eligible elementary school sites will be randomized to one of the three programming groups: 1) Active Control (non-nutrition, physical activity, or mental health); 2) Standard Care (nutrition and physical activity); or 3) Enhanced Care (nutrition, physical activity, and mental health) programming. Anthropometric, behavioral, and psychosocial data will be collected from child-caregiver dyads pre- and post-intervention. Site-specific characteristics and process evaluation measures will also be collected. This is the first, evidence-based intervention to address the issue of weight gain during the summer months among underserved, school-aged children. Results from this study will provide researchers, practitioners, and public health professionals with insight on evidence-based programming to aid in childhood obesity prevention during this particular window of risk. NCT02908230/09-19-2016.

  3. Talipes equinovarus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timaev M.Kh.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The research goal of the review is to present data on etiology, prevalence, classification of different types TEN/ in children. Mechanisms of pathological foot type, indications for conservative and surgical methods of treatment have been analyzed.

  4. Non-Uptake of HIV Testing in Children at Risk in Two Urban and Rural Settings in Zambia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Merten

    Full Text Available This article investigates reasons why children who were considered at risk of HIV were not taken for HIV testing by their caregivers. Qualitative and quantitative data collected in Zambia from 2010-11 revealed that twelve percent of caregivers who stated that they had been suspecting an HIV infection in a child in their custody had not had the child tested. Fears of negative reactions from the family were the most often stated reason for not testing a child. Experience of pre-existing conflicts between the couple or within the family (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.82 and observed stigmatisation of seropositive children in one's own neighbourhood (aOR 1.69, 95% CI1.20-2.39 showed significant associations for not testing a child perceived at risk of HIV. Although services for HIV testing and treatment of children have been made available through national policies and programmes, some women and children were denied access leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment-not on the side of the health system, but on the household level. Social norms, such as assigning the male household head the power to decide over the use of healthcare services by his wife and children, jeopardize women's bargaining power to claim their rights to healthcare, especially in a conflict-affected relationship. Social norms and customary and statutory regulations that disadvantage women and their children must be addressed at every level-including the community and household-in order to effectively decrease barriers to HIV related care.

  5. Non-Uptake of HIV Testing in Children at Risk in Two Urban and Rural Settings in Zambia: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Sonja; Ntalasha, Harriet; Musheke, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates reasons why children who were considered at risk of HIV were not taken for HIV testing by their caregivers. Qualitative and quantitative data collected in Zambia from 2010-11 revealed that twelve percent of caregivers who stated that they had been suspecting an HIV infection in a child in their custody had not had the child tested. Fears of negative reactions from the family were the most often stated reason for not testing a child. Experience of pre-existing conflicts between the couple or within the family (aOR 1.35, 95% CI 1.00-1.82) and observed stigmatisation of seropositive children in one's own neighbourhood (aOR 1.69, 95% CI1.20-2.39) showed significant associations for not testing a child perceived at risk of HIV. Although services for HIV testing and treatment of children have been made available through national policies and programmes, some women and children were denied access leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment-not on the side of the health system, but on the household level. Social norms, such as assigning the male household head the power to decide over the use of healthcare services by his wife and children, jeopardize women's bargaining power to claim their rights to healthcare, especially in a conflict-affected relationship. Social norms and customary and statutory regulations that disadvantage women and their children must be addressed at every level-including the community and household-in order to effectively decrease barriers to HIV related care.

  6. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Results Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %, never married (83.5 %, unemployed (94.2 %, and without a bank account (66.0 %. Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure, and depression (57.3 %. Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48

  7. Interparental conflict, children's security with parents, and long-term risk of internalizing problems: A longitudinal study from ages 2 to 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Rebecca L; Kochanska, Grazyna

    2016-02-01

    Although the negative impact of marital conflict on children has been amply documented, few studies have examined the process of risk in a long-term, longitudinal design. We examined parent-child attachment security as a mechanism that may account for the impact of interparental conflict on children's long-term risk of internalizing problems. Sixty-two community mothers, fathers, and children were followed from ages 2 to 10. Parents reported on their conflicts when their children were 2. Trained observers produced parent-child attachment security scores (Attachment Q-Set, Waters, 1987), based on lengthy naturalistic observations of the child with each parent. Parents rated children's internalizing problems at age 10. A conditional process model and bootstrap approach were implemented to examine conditional indirect effects of conflict on child internalizing problems through attachment security for girls versus boys. Maladaptive marital conflict (destructive strategies, severity of arguments) increased internalizing problems 8 years later due to the undermined security for girls, whereas negative emotional aftermath of conflict (unresolved, lingering tension) increased internalizing problems for both boys and girls. The emotional aftermath of conflict is often overlooked, yet it appears to be a key dimension influencing emotional security in the family system, with significant consequences for children's development.

  8. Competitive active video games: Physiological and psychological responses in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisón, Juan F; Cebolla, Ausias; Guixeres, Jaime; Álvarez-Pitti, Julio; Escobar, Patricia; Bruñó, Alejandro; Lurbe, Empar; Alcañiz, Mariano; Baños, Rosa

    2015-10-01

    Recent strategies to reduce sedentary behaviour in children include replacing sedentary screen time for active video games. Active video game studies have focused principally on the metabolic consumption of a single player, with physiological and psychological responses of opponent-based multiplayer games to be further evaluated. To determine whether adding a competitive component to playing active video games impacts physiological and psychological responses in players. Sixty-two healthy Caucasian children and adolescents, nine to 14 years years of age, completed three conditions (8 min each) in random order: treadmill walking, and single and opponent-based Kinect active video games. Affect, arousal, rate of perceived exertion, heart rate and percentage of heart rate reserve were measured for each participant and condition. Kinect conditions revealed significantly higher heart rate, percentage of heart rate reserve, rate of perceived exertion and arousal when compared with treadmill walking (Pvideo games improved children's psychological responses (affect and rate of perceived exertion) compared with single play, providing a solution that may contribute toward improved adherence to physical activity.

  9. Use of a simplified spectrophotometric method for quantitative determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in normal children from two day-care centers of the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Muller

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the applicability of a simplified method forquantitative determination of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenaseactivity in normal children; to determine the mean, standarddeviation and threshold value under which the enzyme activity isconsidered deficient. Methods: Blood samples were collected from201 children from two day-care centers in the city of São Paulo.The subjects were considered normal based on physicalexamination and laboratory tests. The enzyme activity wasdetermined in red blood cells of normal children using the “TestCombination G-6-PDH®” kit. The following statistical analyses werecarried out: the results were submitted to Student’s t test,Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, lower confidence interval (one-tailedtest and Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Results: The meanhemoglobin value for girls was slightly higher than the mean valuefor boys, but this difference was not statistically significant. Therewas no statistical difference in mean enzyme activities for Caucasianand non-Caucasian children. There was no significant correlation amongenzyme activity levels, red blood cells, hemoglobin levels,hematocrit, reticulocytes, white blood cells and age of patients.The mean enzyme activity for boys was 4.448 U/g Hb, standarddeviation = 1.380 U/g Hb. For girls, the mean enzyme activity was4.531 U/g Hb, standard deviation = 1.386 U/g Hb, and the differencewas not statistically significant. Therefore, the two populationgroups were considered as one single population, presenting amean enzyme activity of 4.490 U/g Hb, standard deviation = 1.380 U/g Hb.Since the distribution curve of enzyme activity values was normal,a lower confidence interval was determined (one-tailed test, witha cutoff point of 2.227 U/g Hb. Conclusion: The method used bySolem proved to be simple, fast, very accurate and useful to detectglucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and to identifychildren with enzyme deficiency.

  10. A controlled clinical comparison of attention performance in children with ADHD in a virtual reality classroom compared to standard neuropsychological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Bowerly, Todd; Buckwalter, J Galen; Rizzo, Albert A

    2007-07-01

    In this initial pilot study, a controlled clinical comparison was made of attention perforance in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a virtual reality (VR) classroom. Ten boys diagnosed with ADHD and ten normal control boys participated in the study. Groups did not significantly differ in mean age, grade level, ethnicity, or handedness. No participants reported simulator sickness following VR exposure. Children with ADHD exhibited more omission errors, commission errors, and overall body movement than normal control children in the VR classroom. Children with ADHD were more impacted by distraction in the VR classroom. VR classroom measures were correlated with traditional ADHD assessment tools and the flatscreen CPT. Of note, the small sample size incorporated in each group and higher WISC-III scores of normal controls might have some bearing on the overall interpretation of results. These data suggested that the Virtual Classroom had good potential for controlled performance assessment within an ecologically valid environment and appeared to parse out significant effects due to the presence of distraction stimuli.

  11. Digital Stories as a Method for Evidence-Based Practice and Knowledge Co-Creation in Technology-Enhanced Learning for Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Sarah; Guldberg, Karen; Porayska-Pomsta, Kaska; Lee, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Storytelling is a powerful means of expression especially for voices that may be difficult to hear or represent in typical ways. This paper reports and reflects on our experiences of co-creating digital stories with school practitioners in a project focusing on embedding innovative technologies for children on the autism spectrum in classroom…

  12. Examining the Attitudes and Concerns of the Kenyan Teachers toward the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odongo, George; Davidson, Roseanna

    2016-01-01

    The philosophy of inclusive education aims at enabling all children to learn in the regular education classrooms. It is widely believed that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largely influenced by teachers being positive about the expectations. Grounded in Positioning Theory, this study was conducted to examine the attitude,…

  13. A Mixed Methods Study of Early Childhood Preservice Teachers: Beliefs about Poverty, Perceived Learning from Specific Instructional Strategies, and Preparedness to Serve Children and Families in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schagen Johnson, Amy

    2016-01-01

    A large number of young children experiencing poverty are receiving some type of formal early care and education. Effective early childhood teachers are an important component to providing high quality early childhood education. Yet, limited research has examined from the preservice teacher perspective how early childhood teacher preparation…

  14. Context-specific outdoor time and physical activity among school-children across gender and age: using accelerometers and GPS to advance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    : A total of 170 children had at least one weekday of 9 h combined accelerometer and global positioning system data and were included in the analyses. The data were processed using the personal activity and location measurement system (PALMS) and a purpose-built PostgreSQL database resulting in context...

  15. Explaining the Impact of Disabled Children's Engagement with Physical Activity on Their Parents' Smartphone Addiction Levels: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gündogdu, Cemal; Aygün, Yalin; Ilkim, Mehmet; Tüfekçi, Sakir

    2018-01-01

    In this research, quantitative findings and qualitative follow-up themes were used to quantify, conceptualize and finally try to explain the impact of disabled children's engagement with physical activity on their parents' smartphone addiction levels. An initial phase of quantitative investigation was conducted with 116 parents. Analyses of…

  16. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  17. Human papillomavirus (HPV) perinatal transmission and risk of HPV persistence among children: Design, methods and preliminary results of the HERITAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, Helen; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Coutlée, François; Monnier, Patricia; Laporte, Louise; Niyibizi, Joseph; Carceller, Ana-Maria; Fraser, William D; Brassard, Paul; Lacroix, Jacques; Francoeur, Diane; Bédard, Marie-Josée; Girard, Isabelle; Audibert, François

    2016-12-01

    Perinatal route of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been demonstrated in several small studies. We designed a large prospective cohort study (HERITAGE) to better understand perinatal HPV. The objective of this article is to present the study design and preliminary data. In the first phase of the study, we recruited 167 women in Montreal, Canada, during the first trimester of pregnancy. An additional 850 are currently being recruited in the ongoing phase. Cervicovaginal samples were obtained from mothers in the first trimester and tested for HPV DNA from 36 mucosal genotypes (and repeated in the third trimester for HPV-positive mothers). Placental samples were also taken for HPV DNA testing. Conjunctival, oral, pharyngeal and genital samples were collected for HPV DNA testing in children of HPV-positive mothers at every 3-6 months from birth until 2 years of age. Blood samples were collected in mother and children for HPV serology testing. We found a high prevalence of HPV in pregnant women (45%[95%CI:37-53%]) and in placentas (14%[8-21%]). The proportion of HPV positivity (any site) among children at birth/3-months was 11%[5-22%]. HPV was detected in children in multiple sites including the conjunctiva (5%[10-14%]). The ongoing HERITAGE cohort will help provide a better understanding of perinatal HPV. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Children's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of children's learning is emerging. This new field differs from the old in recognizing that children's learning includes active as well as passive mechanisms and qualitative as well as quantitative changes. Children's learning involves substantial variability of representations and strategies within individual children as well as…

  19. Children's Places

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Using a cross-cultural approach the book investigates children's places in different societies. "Children's Places" examines the ways in which children and adults, from their different vantage-points in society, negotiate proper places of children in both social and spatial terms. It looks at some...

  20. Protocol: a 'One health' two year follow-up, mixed methods study on antibiotic resistance, focusing children under 5 and their environment in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålsby Lundborg, Cecilia; Diwan, Vishal; Pathak, Ashish; Purohit, Manju R; Shah, Harshada; Sharma, Megha; Mahadik, Vijay K; Tamhankar, Ashok J

    2015-12-30

    Antibiotic resistance has been referred to as 'the greatest malice of the 21st century' and a global action plan was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 2015. There is a wealth of independent studies regarding antibiotics and resistant bacteria in humans, animals and their environment, however, integrated studies are lacking, particularly ones that simultaneously also take into consideration the health related behaviour of participants and healthcare providers. Such, 'One health' studies are difficult to implement, because of the complex teamwork that they entail. This paper describes the protocol of a study that investigates 'One health' issues regarding antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance in children and their environment in Indian villages. Both quantitative and qualitative studies are planned for a cohort of children, from 6 villages, and their surrounding environment. Repeated or continues data collection is planned over 2 years for quantitative studies. Qualitative studies will be conducted once. Studies include parents' health seeking behavior for their children (1-3 years of age at the onset), prescribing pattern of formal and informal healthcare providers, analysis of phenotypic antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli from samples of stool from children and village animals, household drinking water, village source water and waste water, and investigation on molecular mechanisms governing resistance. Analysis of interrelationship of these with each other will also be done as basis for future interventions. Ethics approval has been obtained from the Institutional Ethics Committee R.D. Gardi Medical College, Ujjain, India (No: 2013/07/17-311). The findings of the study presented in this protocol will add to our knowledge about the multi-factorial nature of causes governing antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance from a 'One health' perspective. Our study will be the first of its kind addressing antibiotic use and resistance issues related to

  1. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA in children; Padronizacao do metodo para calculo da captacao renal absoluta do {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: crachelo@usp.br; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos [Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-15

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  2. Quality of life among children with spina bifida in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Williams, Helen J; Sims-Williams, Hugh P; Mbabazi Kabachelor, Edith; Warf, Benjamin C

    2017-11-01

    Children surviving after spina bifida repair often have significant disability, the consequences of which may be more profound in low-income countries. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure quality of life (QOL) reported by children with spina bifida in Uganda, and to define factors associated with QOL. QOL was measured using both the Health Utilities Index (HUI3) Tool and a visual analogue scale (VAS) marked from 0 to 10. In keeping with the WHO definition of QOL, further analysis was conducted using subjective QOL scores (using the VAS). Multivariate regression was used to investigate the association between VAS scores and prespecified variables: age, sex, hydrocephalus, mobility, urinary continence, school attendance and family size. Sixty two of 68 surviving children aged 10-14 were able to complete all aspects of the assessment. There was poor correlation between the VAS and HUI3 Tool (Pearson correlation 0.488). On multivariate regression, the following variables were associated with a significant change in the 10-point VAS (change in score; 95% CI): male sex (-1.45; -2.436 to -0.465), urinary continence (1.681; 0.190 to 3.172), large family size (-1.775; -2.773 to -0.777) and hydrocephalus (-1.382; -2.374 to -0.465). Urinary continence and family size are potentially modifiable, the former by simple and inexpensive medical management. Enhanced investment in community-based rehabilitation and support is urgently needed. Delivery of family planning services is a national priority in Uganda, and should be discussed with families as part of holistic care. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Comparison of dual mobility cup and other surgical construts used for three hundred and sixty two first time hip revisions due to recurrent dislocations: five year results from Lithuanian arthroplasty register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucinskas, Justinas; Kalvaitis, Tomas; Smailys, Alfredas; Robertsson, Otto; Tarasevicius, Sarunas

    2018-05-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of dual mobility systems in the treatment of hip instability. The aim of this study was to investigate the re-revision rate of dual mobility cup compared to different surgical concepts when used for first-time hip revisions due to recurrent dislocations. The data were derived from the Lithuanian Arthroplasty Register. For survival analysis, we used both re-revision for all reasons and for dislocations as an end-point. Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze the influence of various covariates (age, gender, and implant concept). A total of 1388 revisions were recorded from 2011 to 2015, of which 362 were performed due to recurrent dislocation. Of the revisions, 247 were performed using dual mobility cups, while 115 were performed using a variety of other surgical constructs including constrained acetabular cups, conventional cups, femoral head exchanges, stem exchanges or anti-luxation rings. There were 27 re-revisions of which 15 were for additional dislocations. There were only 2% re-revisions due to dislocation with dual mobility vs 9% when using other surgical constructs. Cox regression adjusting for age and gender showed that in the short-term, dual mobility cup had a lower risk of revision due to dislocation as well as for all reasons compared to the other surgical constructs. In revision of total hip arthroplasties for dislocation, significantly lower short-term re-revision rate was observed for patients revised with dual mobility cup.

  4. Rationale, design and methods for a randomised and controlled trial of the impact of virtual reality games on motor competence, physical activity, and mental health in children with developmental coordination disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Straker Leon M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A healthy start to life requires adequate motor development and physical activity participation. Currently 5-15% of children have impaired motor development without any obvious disorder. These children are at greater risk of obesity, musculoskeletal disorders, low social confidence and poor mental health. Traditional electronic game use may impact on motor development and physical activity creating a vicious cycle. However new virtual reality (VR game interfaces may provide motor experiences that enhance motor development and lead to an increase in motor coordination and better physical activity and mental health outcomes. VR games are beginning to be used for rehabilitation, however there is no reported trial of the impact of these games on motor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Methods This cross-over randomised and controlled trial will examine whether motor coordination is enhanced by access to active electronic games and whether daily activity, attitudes to physical activity and mental health are also enhanced. Thirty children aged 10-12 years with poor motor coordination (≤ 15th percentile will be recruited and randomised to a balanced ordering of 'no active electronic games' and 'active electronic games'. Each child will participate in both conditions for 16 weeks, and be assessed prior to participation and at the end of each condition. The primary outcome is motor coordination, assessed by kinematic and kinetic motion analysis laboratory measures. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour will be assessed by accelerometry, coordination in daily life by parent report questionnaire and attitudes to physical activity, self-confidence, anxiety and depressed mood will be assessed by self report questionnaire. A sample of 30 will provide a power of > 0.9 for detecting a 5 point difference in motor coordination on the MABC-2 TIS scale (mean 17, sd = 5. Discussion This is the first trial to

  5. Children as donors: a national study to assess procurement of organs and tissues in pediatric intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebelink, Marion J; Albers, Marcel J I J; Roodbol, Petrie F; Van de Wiel, Harry B M

    2012-12-01

    A shortage of size-matched organs and tissues is the key factor limiting transplantation in children. Empirical data on procurement from pediatric donors is sparse. This study investigated donor identification, parental consent, and effectuation rates, as well as adherence to the national protocol. A national retrospective cohort study was conducted in all eight Dutch pediatric intensive care units. Records of deceased children were analyzed by an independent donation officer. Seventy-four (11%) of 683 deceased children were found to be suitable for organ donation and 132 (19%) for tissue donation. Sixty-two (84%) potential organ donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 42%. Sixty-three (48%) potential tissue donors had been correctly identified; the parental consent and effectuation rate was 27%. Correct identification increased with age (logistic regression, organs: P = .024; tissues: P = .011). Although an overall identification rate of 84% of potential organ donors may seem acceptable, the variation observed suggests room for improvement, as does the overall low rate of identification of pediatric tissue donors. Efforts to address the shortage of organs and tissues for transplantation in children should focus on identifying potential donors and on the reasons why parents do not consent. © 2012 The Authors. Transplant International © 2012 European Society for Organ Transplantation.

  6. Long-term follow-up of children with high-risk neuroblastoma: the ENSG5 trial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Lucas; Vaidya, Sucheta J; Pinkerton, C Ross; Lewis, Ian J; Imeson, John; Machin, David; Pearson, Andrew D J

    2013-07-01

    Therapy for high-risk neuroblastoma is intensive and multimodal, and significant long-term adverse effects have been described. The aim of this study was to identify the nature and severity of late complications of metastatic neuroblastoma survivors included in the ENSG5 clinical trial. The trial protocol included induction chemotherapy (randomized "Standard" OPEC/OJEC vs. "Rapid" COJEC), surgery of primary tumor and high-dose melphalan with stem cell rescue. Two hundred and sixty-two children were randomized, 69 survived >5 years, and 57 were analyzed. Data were obtained from the ENSG5 trial database and verified with questionnaires sent to participating centers. Median follow-up was 12.9 (6.9-16.5) years. No differences were found in late toxicities between treatment arms. Twenty-eight children (49.1%) developed hearing loss. Nine patients (15.8%) developed glomerular filtration rate <80 ml/min/1.73 m(2), but no cases of chronic renal failure were documented. Endocrine complications (28.1% of children) included mainly hypogonadism and delayed growth. Four children developed second malignancies, three of them 5 years after diagnosis: one osteosarcoma, one carcinoma of the parotid gland and one ependymoma. There were no hematological malignancies or deaths in remission. This study analyzed a wide cohort of high-risk neuroblastoma survivors from a multi-institutional randomized trial and established the profile of long-term toxicity within the setting of an international clinical trial. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Assessment of vitamin D levels in newly diagnosed children with type 1 diabetes mellitus comparing two methods of measurement: a facility's experience in the Middle Eastern country of Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Haddad FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatima Ahmed Al-Haddad,1 Mansoor H Rajab,2 S Mahmood Al-Qallaf,3 Abdulrahman O Musaiger,4 Kathryn H Hart5 1Dietetic Unit for Hospitals, 2Pediatric Endocrine and Diabetes Team, Pediatric Department, Salmaniya Medical Complex, 3Pharmacy Program, College of Health Sciences, University of Bahrain, Manama, 4Nutrition and Health Studies Unit Deanship of Scientific Research, University of Bahrain, Sakheer, Kingdom of Bahrain; 5School of Biosciences and Medicine, Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Background: The number of children being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM is on the rise and has more than doubled in the past 10 years in Bahrain. Some studies have linked low vitamin D levels with an increased risk of diabetes. There are concerns regarding the variations in circulating 25(OHD levels measured by different laboratories and by using different analytical techniques. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vitamin D levels of newly diagnosed children with T1DM using the “gold standard method” with high-pressure liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry methods compared to the chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoassay (CMIA used in a hospital laboratory. Subjects: Eighteen children, aged 6–12 years, who received a confirmed diagnosis of T1DM in 2014 were chosen as subjects. Methods: Serum vitamin D levels were assessed in a hospital, while an extra aliquot of blood collected during routine blood collection after acquiring informed written consents from the subjects, and sent to Princess Al-Jawhara Center for Molecular Medicine and Inherited Disorders to be analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. Results: The mean age of the study group was 9±2 years. The mean total of 25(OHD levels (D3 and D2 assessed by UPLC-MS/MS was 49.7±18.8, whereas the mean total of 25(OHD levels obtained from the CMIA assay was 44.60±13

  8. Motor performance of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Słonka; Manuela Dyas; Tadeusz Słonka; Tomasz Szurmik

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Pre‑school age is a period of intensive development when children shape their posture, habits and motor memory. Movement is child's physiological need.  Motive activity supports not only physical development, but also psychical, intellectual and social.   Aim: The aim of the study is to assess motor ability in preschool children from the city of Opole and District Dobrzeń Wielki. Materials and methods: The research involved 228 children, aged 5 and 6. The method used in...

  9. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L.; Chilton, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support inte...

  10. A comparison of the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5-15 year-old Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Sapna; Patodia, Akash; Dixit, Uma

    2017-08-01

    Demirjian's method has been the most popular and extensively tested radiographic method of age estimation. More recently, Willems' method has been reported to be a better predictor of age. Nolla's and Häävikko's methods have been used to a lesser extent. Very few studies have compared all four methods in non-Indian and Indian populations. Most Indian research is limited by inadequate sample sizes, age structures and grouping and different approaches to statistical analysis. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the validity of the Demirjian, Willems, Nolla and Häävikko methods in determination of chronological age of 5 to 15 year-old Indian children. In this cross-sectional observational study, four methods were compared for validity in estimating the age of 1200 Indian children aged 5-15 years. Demirjian's method overestimated age by +0.24 ± 0.80, +0.11 ± 0.81 and +0.19 ± 0.80 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. With Willems' method, overestimations of +0.09 ± 0.80, +0.08 ± 0.80 and +0.09 ± 0.80 years were obtained in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Nolla's method underestimated age by -0.13 ± 0.80, -0.30 ± 0.82 and -0.20 ± 0.81 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Häävikko's method underestimated age by -0.17 ± 0.80, -0.29 ± 0.83 and -0.22 ± 0.82 years in boys, girls and the total sample, respectively. Statistically significant differences were observed between dental and chronological ages with all methods (p age, followed by Demirjian's, Nolla's and Häävikko's methods. All four methods could be applicable for estimating age in the present population, mean prediction errors being lower than 0.30 years (3.6 months). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Children with Usher syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2012-01-01

    Background: Mental and behavioral disorders among adults with Usher syndrome have been discussed and reported in some case studies but no research has been reported on children with Usher syndrome. Methods: This article investigates the prevalence and characteristics of mental and behavioral...... disorders among 26 children, 3-17 years of age, with Usher syndrome. Results: Six of the 26 children were diagnosed with a mental or behavioral disorder (1 with schizophrenia and mild mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and severe mental retardation, 1 with atypical autism and mild mental retardation......, 1 with mild mental retardation, and 2 with conduct disorder). Another 3 children had had a mental or behavioral disorder previously in their childhood. Conclusion: Even though vision impairment first manifests in late childhood, some children with Usher syndrome seem to develop mental and behavioral...

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Hanen's "More than Words" in Toddlers with Early Autism Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Alice S.; Messinger, Daniel S.; Stone, Wendy L.; Celimli, Seniz; Nahmias, Allison S.; Yoder, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: This randomized controlled trial compared Hanen's "More than Words" (HMTW), a parent-implemented intervention, to a "business as usual" control group. Methods: Sixty-two children (51 boys and 11 girls; M age = 20 months; SD = 2.6) who met criteria for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their parents participated in the study. The HMTW…

  13. Mapping staff perspectives towards the delivery of hospital care for children and young people with and without learning disabilities in England: a mixed methods national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulton, Kate; Gibson, Faith; Carr, Lucinda; Hassiotis, Angela; Jewitt, Carey; Kenten, Charlotte; Russell, Jessica; Whiting, Mark; Tuffrey-Wijne, Irene; Wray, Jo

    2018-03-23

    Children and young people (CYP) with learning disabilities (LD) are a vulnerable population with increased risk of abuse and accidental injury and whose parents have reported concerns about the quality, safety and accessibility of their hospital care. The Care Quality Commission's (CQC) view of best practice for this group of patients includes: access to senior LD nurse provision; a clearly visible flagging system for identifying them; the use of hospital passports; and defined communication strategies (Glasper, Comp Child Adolesc Nurs 40:63-67, 2017). What remains unclear is whether these recommendations are being applied and if so, what difference they are making. Furthermore, what we do not know is whether parental concerns of CYP with LD differ from parents of other children with long-term conditions. The aims of this study were to 1) describe the organisational context for healthcare delivery to CYP with LD and their families and 2) compare staff perceptions of their ability to identify the needs of CYP with and without LD and their families and provide high quality care to effectively meet these needs. Individual interviews (n = 65) and anonymised online survey (n = 2261) were conducted with hospital staff working with CYP in 15 children's and 9 non-children's hospitals in England. The majority of interviews were conducted over the tel