Kallio, Hanna; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Johnson, Martin; Kangasniemi, Mari
To produce a framework for the development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous data collection procedures fundamentally influence the results of studies. The semi-structured interview is a common data collection method, but methodological research on the development of a semi-structured interview guide is sparse. Systematic methodological review. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and Web of Science for methodological papers on semi-structured interview guides from October 2004-September 2014. Having examined 2,703 titles and abstracts and 21 full texts, we finally selected 10 papers. We analysed the data using the qualitative content analysis method. Our analysis resulted in new synthesized knowledge on the development of a semi-structured interview guide, including five phases: (1) identifying the prerequisites for using semi-structured interviews; (2) retrieving and using previous knowledge; (3) formulating the preliminary semi-structured interview guide; (4) pilot testing the guide; and (5) presenting the complete semi-structured interview guide. Rigorous development of a qualitative semi-structured interview guide contributes to the objectivity and trustworthiness of studies and makes the results more plausible. Researchers should consider using this five-step process to develop a semi-structured interview guide and justify the decisions made during it. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Michele J. McIntosh
Full Text Available Although semi-structured interviews (SSIs are used extensively in research, scant attention is given to their diversity, underlying assumptions, construction, and broad applications to qualitative and mixed-method research. In this three-part article, we discuss the following: (a how the SSI is situated historically including its evolution and diversification, (b the principles of constructing SSIs, and (c how SSIs are utilized as a stand-alone research method, and as strategy within a mixed-method design.
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozović, Nicholas; Sinha, Rajiv
For the development of sustainable and realistic water security, generating information on the behaviours, characteristics, and drivers of users, as well as on the resource itself, is essential. In this paper we present a methodology for collecting qualitative and quantitative data on water use practices through semi-structured interviews. This approach facilitates the collection of detailed information on actors' decisions in a convenient and cost-effective manner. Semi-structured interviews are organised around a topic guide, which helps lead the conversation in a standardised way while allowing sufficient opportunity for relevant issues to emerge. In addition, they can be used to obtain certain types of quantitative data. While not as accurate as direct measurements, they can provide useful information on local practices and users' insights. We present an application of the methodology on farmer water use in two districts in the state of Uttar Pradesh in northern India. By means of 100 farmer interviews, information was collected on various aspects of irrigation practices, including irrigation water volumes, irrigation cost, water source, and their spatial variability. Statistical analyses of the information, along with data visualisation, are also presented, indicating a significant variation in irrigation practices both within and between districts. Our application shows that semi-structured interviews are an effective and efficient method of collecting both qualitative and quantitative information for the assessment of drivers, behaviours, and their outcomes in a data-scarce region. The collection of this type of data could significantly improve insights on water resources, leading to more realistic management options and increased water security in the future.
Seyyed Salman Alavi
Full Text Available Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture.Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR was performed for all the cases, and another specialist re-evaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient and test-retest via SPSS18 software.Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM –IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa and test –retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (p<0. 01 respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that semi- structured diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR are valid and reliable for diagnosing mobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
Objective: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under “impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified”. This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Method: Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. Results: The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM–IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including “SMS pathological use” and “High monthly cost of using the mobile phone” were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test–retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pmobile phone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder. PMID:27437008
Alavi, Seyyed Salman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannatifard, Fereshteh; Mohammadi Kalhori, Soroush; Sepahbodi, Ghazal; BabaReisi, Mohammad; Sajedi, Sahar; Farshchi, Mojtaba; KhodaKarami, Rasul; Hatami Kasvaee, Vahid
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) classified mobile phone addiction disorder under "impulse control disorder not elsewhere classified". This study surveyed the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV-TR for the diagnosis of mobile phone addiction in correspondence with Iranian society and culture. Two hundred fifty students of Tehran universities were entered into this descriptive-analytical and cross-sectional study. Quota sampling method was used. At first, semi- structured clinical interview (based on DSM-IV-TR) was performed for all the cases, and another specialist reevaluated the interviews. Data were analyzed using content validity, inter-scorer reliability (Kappa coefficient) and test-retest via SPSS18 software. The content validity of the semi- structured clinical interview matched the DSM-IV-TR criteria for behavioral addiction. Moreover, their content was appropriate, and two items, including "SMS pathological use" and "High monthly cost of using the mobile phone" were added to promote its validity. Internal reliability (Kappa) and test-retest reliability were 0.55 and r = 0.4 (pphone addiction, and this instrument is an effective tool to diagnose this disorder.
Levis, Brooke; Benedetti, Andrea; Riehm, Kira E; Saadat, Nazanin; Levis, Alexander W; Azar, Marleine; Rice, Danielle B; Chiovitti, Matthew J; Sanchez, Tatiana A; Cuijpers, Pim; Gilbody, Simon; Ioannidis, John P A; Kloda, Lorie A; McMillan, Dean; Patten, Scott B; Shrier, Ian; Steele, Russell J; Ziegelstein, Roy C; Akena, Dickens H; Arroll, Bruce; Ayalon, Liat; Baradaran, Hamid R; Baron, Murray; Beraldi, Anna; Bombardier, Charles H; Butterworth, Peter; Carter, Gregory; Chagas, Marcos H; Chan, Juliana C N; Cholera, Rushina; Chowdhary, Neerja; Clover, Kerrie; Conwell, Yeates; de Man-van Ginkel, Janneke M; Delgadillo, Jaime; Fann, Jesse R; Fischer, Felix H; Fischler, Benjamin; Fung, Daniel; Gelaye, Bizu; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Greeno, Catherine G; Hall, Brian J; Hambridge, John; Harrison, Patricia A; Hegerl, Ulrich; Hides, Leanne; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Hudson, Marie; Hyphantis, Thomas; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Ismail, Khalida; Jetté, Nathalie; Khamseh, Mohammad E; Kiely, Kim M; Lamers, Femke; Liu, Shen-Ing; Lotrakul, Manote; Loureiro, Sonia R; Löwe, Bernd; Marsh, Laura; McGuire, Anthony; Mohd Sidik, Sherina; Munhoz, Tiago N; Muramatsu, Kumiko; Osório, Flávia L; Patel, Vikram; Pence, Brian W; Persoons, Philippe; Picardi, Angelo; Rooney, Alasdair G; Santos, Iná S; Shaaban, Juwita; Sidebottom, Abbey; Simning, Adam; Stafford, Lesley; Sung, Sharon; Tan, Pei Lin Lynnette; Turner, Alyna; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; van Weert, Henk C; Vöhringer, Paul A; White, Jennifer; Whooley, Mary A; Winkley, Kirsty; Yamada, Mitsuhiko; Zhang, Yuying; Thombs, Brett D
Different diagnostic interviews are used as reference standards for major depression classification in research. Semi-structured interviews involve clinical judgement, whereas fully structured interviews are completely scripted. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), a brief fully structured interview, is also sometimes used. It is not known whether interview method is associated with probability of major depression classification.AimsTo evaluate the association between interview method and odds of major depression classification, controlling for depressive symptom scores and participant characteristics. Data collected for an individual participant data meta-analysis of Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) diagnostic accuracy were analysed and binomial generalised linear mixed models were fit. A total of 17 158 participants (2287 with major depression) from 57 primary studies were analysed. Among fully structured interviews, odds of major depression were higher for the MINI compared with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) (odds ratio (OR) = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.15-3.87). Compared with semi-structured interviews, fully structured interviews (MINI excluded) were non-significantly more likely to classify participants with low-level depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≤6) as having major depression (OR = 3.13; 95% CI = 0.98-10.00), similarly likely for moderate-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores 7-15) (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.56-1.66) and significantly less likely for high-level symptoms (PHQ-9 scores ≥16) (OR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.26-0.97). The MINI may identify more people as depressed than the CIDI, and semi-structured and fully structured interviews may not be interchangeable methods, but these results should be replicated.Declaration of interestDrs Jetté and Patten declare that they received a grant, outside the submitted work, from the Hotchkiss Brain Institute, which was jointly funded by the Institute and Pfizer. Pfizer was the
Ilyushin, Leonid S.
Full Text Available This research is based on the ideas of Humanistic-Existential Psychology, a positive approach to personal growth, and modern educational concepts concerning the dynamics of professional and social identity in the stratum of secondary and primary school teachers. The goal of the study is to get an objective picture of the professional and personal changes among Russian teachers under the conditions of school modernization. We offer a detailed model of the semi-structured interview with modern teachers, in combination with observation. The interview consists of 63 questions divided into 9 topics, and deals with issues related to what their professional activities mean to the teachers; the teachers’ evaluation of professional dynamics; their attitude toward various aspects of professional life; and their general world outlook and values. We also briefly describe a pre-interview “warm-up” strategy. This stage of the research resulted in the successful pilot use of the research methodology, and data sufficient to evaluate the initial trends of the analysis of all the data. The study’s main conclusions concern the observation technique, which offers a significant increase in the potential of the interview method, mainly through providing the ability to interpret non-verbal reactions, the level of openness, and the teacher’s trust in the dialogue. Moreover, we must note that, when we asked teachers to answer complicated written questions, their answers, judgments, and arguments varied greatly, regardless of their professional and personal characteristics (employment history, qualification category, the subject they teach, type of school, etc.
Rollman, A.; Gorter, R.C.; Visscher, C.M.; Naeije, M.
AIMS: To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. METHODS: A Aims: To assess possible differences between care seekers and non-care seekers with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain complaints, by using semi-structured
The interview is the tool for data collection the most used in the context of research conducted in health sciences, human sciences and social sciences. After completing some generalities about the different types of interviews, the focus is on semi-structured interview during its various stages including the processing and data analysis, this from the return of a lived experience of research in work on the border of the field of public health and that of anthropology. If this approach and contextualized the semistructured interview may a priori appear specific, the reader interested in the development of qualitative research in a humanistic perspective and the implementation of multidisciplinary strategies to ascertain its universal character.
Wood, Lisa; Burke, Eilish; Byrne, Rory; Enache, Gabriela; Morrison, Anthony P
Stigma is a significant difficulty for people who experience psychosis. To date, there have been no outcome measures developed to examine stigma exclusively in people with psychosis. The aim of this study was develop and validate a semi-structured interview measure of stigma (SIMS) in psychosis. The SIMS is an eleven item measure of stigma developed in consultation with service users who have experienced psychosis. 79 participants with experience of psychosis were recruited for the purposes of this study. They were administered the SIMS alongside a battery of other relevant outcome measures to examine reliability and validity. A one-factor solution was identified for the SIMS which encompassed all ten rateable items. The measure met all reliability and validity criteria and illustrated good internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, test retest reliability, criterion validity, construct validity, sensitivity to change and had no floor or ceiling effects. The SIMS is a reliable and valid measure of stigma in psychosis. It may be more engaging and acceptable than other stigma measures due to its semi-structured interview format. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Isaksen, Jesper; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications...... with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility....
Dapeng, Liang; Weiwei, Wu
From March to July of 2008, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 31 experts from the Chinese government, scientific institutes and industrial sectors. This paper summarizes the experts' opinions and draws conclusions about four crucial aspects that influence CO 2 capture and storage (CCS) deployment in China: technology research and experience accumulation, finance support, market development and policy and system. According to interviews result, technological improvement is necessary to cut down on CO 2 capture cost and decrease technological uncertainty. Then, to make some rational policies and systems, with elements such as a carbon tax and clean electricity pricing, to drive power plants to adopt CO 2 capture technology. Furthermore, financial incentive in both the long term and the short term, such as subsidies and CDM, will be important for CCS incentives, encouraging enterprises' enthusiasm for CCS and their capacity to enact it. Lastly, CCS deployment should be conducted under a market-oriented framework in the long term, so a business model and niche market deployment should be considered in advance. Among these aspects, policy and system is more complex than other three aspects, to resolve this obstacle, the innovation on electricity market and government decision model for climate change is crucial. (author)
Isaksen, Jesper Hesselbjerg; Hertel, Niels Thomas; Kjær, Niels Kristian
In order to optimise the selection process for admission to specialist training in family medicine, we developed a new design for structured applications and selection interviews. The design contains semi-structured interviews, which combine individualised elements from the applications with standardised behaviour-based questions. This paper describes the design of the tool, and offers reflections concerning its acceptability, reliability and feasibility. We used a combined quantitative and qualitative evaluation method. Ratings obtained by the applicants in two selection rounds were analysed for reliability and generalisability using the GENOVA programme. Applicants and assessors were randomly selected for individual semi-structured in-depth interviews. The qualitative data were analysed in accordance with the grounded theory method. Quantitative analysis yielded a high Cronbach's alpha of 0.97 for the first round and 0.90 for the second round, and a G coefficient of the first round of 0.74 and of the second round of 0.40. Qualitative analysis demonstrated high acceptability and fairness and it improved the assessors' judgment. Applicants reported concerns about loss of personality and some anxiety. The applicants' ability to reflect on their competences was important. The developed selection tool demonstrated an acceptable level of reliability, but only moderate generalisability. The users found that the tool provided a high degree of acceptability; it is a feasible and useful tool for -selection of doctors for specialist training if combined with work-based assessment. Studies on the benefits and drawbacks of this tool compared with other selection models are relevant. not relevant. not relevant.
Mazaheri, Monir; Eriksson, Lars E; Heikkilä, Kristiina; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht; Ekman, Sirkka-Liisa; Sunvisson, Helena
To describe people's experiences of living with dementia in Iran. A knowledge gap exists regarding the experiences of living with dementia in nonWestern contexts. This gap may be especially apparent within the Iranian context, where dementia research is relatively new. Deeper understanding about context-related experiences of dementia is a prerequisite for nurses' ability to provide adequate and meaningful care. Qualitative, cross-sectional design. Qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with people living with dementia in urban Iran (six women and nine men; 60-87 years old). The participants experienced their condition as a state of forgetfulness that was accompanied by losses and dependency on others. They wanted to feel good about themselves and feel important, but they continually struggled with matters such as a loss of accountability, feelings of futility and the frustration of others. Economic dependency and a lack of economic resources were sources of feelings of futility. Experiences of living with dementia in Iran included a substantial struggle to stay connected to the social world and to deal with dramatic life changes, aspects of living with dementia that seem to be universal. However, the feelings of financial burden and the experience of being nagged for their shortfalls by family members have seldom been described in other studies and seem to represent a cultural aspect of their experience. The results of the study call for further nursing efforts in supporting people living with dementia in their struggle with their altered lives and in retaining their connections to everyday life. Furthermore, their family members might benefit from specific nursing interventions including information about dementia and advice on how to help the family members with dementia to interact with others while exercising their individual strengths. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Feemster Kristen A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite national recommendations, as of 2009 human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination rates were low with Methods Between March and June, 2010, we conducted qualitative interviews with 20 adolescent-mother-clinician triads (60 individual interviews directly after a preventive visit with the initial HPV vaccine due. Interviews followed a guide based on published HPV literature, involved 9 practices, and continued until saturation of the primary themes was achieved. Purposive sampling balanced adolescent ages and practice type (urban resident teaching versus non-teaching. Using a modified grounded theory approach, we analyzed data with NVivo8 software both within and across triads to generate primary themes. Results The study population was comprised of 20 mothers (12 Black, 9 Conclusions Programs to improve HPV vaccine delivery in primary care should focus on promoting effective parent-clinician communication. Research is needed to evaluate strategies to help clinicians engage reluctant parents and passive teens in discussion and measure the impact of distinct clinician decision making approaches on HPV vaccine delivery.
Campbell, Denise J; Craig, Jonathan C; Mudge, David W; Brown, Fiona G; Wong, Germaine; Tong, Allison
♦ BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is recommended for adults with residual kidney function and without significant comorbidities. However, peritonitis is a serious and common complication that is associated with hospitalization, pain, catheter loss, and death. This study aims to describe the beliefs, needs, and experiences of PD patients about peritonitis, to inform the training, support, and care of these patients. ♦ METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 29 patients from 3 renal units in Australia who had previous or current experience of PD. The interviews were conducted between November 2014 and November 2015. Transcripts were analyzed thematically. ♦ RESULTS: We identified 4 themes: constant vigilance for prevention (conscious of vulnerability, sharing responsibility with family, demanding attention to detail, ambiguity of detecting infection, ineradicable inhabitation, jeopardizing PD success); invading harm (life-threatening, wreaking internal damage, debilitating pain, losing control and dignity); incapacitating lifestyle interference (financial strain, isolation and separation, exacerbating burden on family); and exasperation with hospitalization (dread of hospital admission, exposure to infection, gruelling follow-up schedule, exposure to harm). ♦ CONCLUSIONS: Patients perceived that peritonitis could threaten their health, treatment modality, and lifestyle, which motivated vigilance and attention to hygiene. They felt a loss of control due to debilitating symptoms including pain and having to be hospitalized, and they were uncertain about how to monitor for signs of peritonitis. Providing patients with education about the causes and signs of peritonitis and addressing their concerns about lifestyle impact, financial impact, hospitalization, and peritonitis-related anxieties may improve treatment satisfaction and outcomes for patients requiring PD. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Le Provost, A-S; Loddé, B; Pietri, J; De Parscau, L; Pougnet, L; Dewitte, J-D; Pougnet, R
Suffering at work among health professionals is a hot topic. Medical students, doctors of tomorrow, are far from being spared. Prevalence of anxiety and mood disorders range from 20.3 to 69 % for the former and from 12 to 30 % for the latter. The purpose of this article is to determine these factors by qualitative research, according to medical students' points of view. It is a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. The analysis is done according to the Grounded Theory. 12 medical students are interviewed. They expressed difficulties at work and positive factors. Three major themes are identified in selective coding: occupational factors, " study " factors and individual factors. All themes are both a source of well-being and ill-being according to the situations specified in the results. Studying medicine includes positive and negative aspects. Abandonment issues, lack of recognition and insufficient coaching emerge from our study. Screening of suffering at work should be systematic for medical students.
Pawa, Jasmine; Robson, John; Hull, Sally
Primary care practices are increasingly working in larger groups. In 2009, all 36 primary care practices in the London borough of Tower Hamlets were grouped geographically into eight managed practice networks to improve the quality of care they delivered. Quantitative evaluation has shown improved clinical outcomes. To provide insight into the process of network implementation, including the aims, facilitating factors, and barriers, from both the clinical and managerial perspectives. A qualitative study of network implementation in the London borough of Tower Hamlets, which serves a socially disadvantaged and ethnically diverse population. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were carried out with doctors, nurses, and managers, and were informed by existing literature on integrated care and GP networks. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and thematic analysis used to analyse emerging themes. Interviewees agreed that networks improved clinical care and reduced variation in practice performance. Network implementation was facilitated by the balance struck between 'a given structure' and network autonomy to adopt local solutions. Improved use of data, including patient recall and peer performance indicators, were viewed as critical key factors. Targeted investment provided the necessary resources to achieve this. Barriers to implementing networks included differences in practice culture, a reluctance to share data, and increased workload. Commissioners and providers were positive about the implementation of GP networks as a way to improve the quality of clinical care in Tower Hamlets. The issues that arose may be of relevance to other areas implementing similar quality improvement programmes at scale. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Ramirez-Rubio, Oriana; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan Jose; Kaufman, James S; Weiner, Daniel E; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen
Northwestern Nicaragua has a high prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause among young adult men. In addition, frequent occurrence of urinary tract infections (UTI) among men and a dysuria syndrome described by sugarcane workers as "chistata" are both reported. This study examines health professionals´ perceptions regarding etiology of these conditions and their treatment approaches, including use of potentially nephrotoxic medications. Nineteen in-person semi-structured interviews were conducted in November 2010 among ten physicians and nine pharmacists practicing in the region. Health professionals perceived CKD as a serious and increasing problem in the region, primarily affecting young men working as manual laborers. All interviewees regarded occupational and environmental exposure to sun and heat, and dehydration as critical factors associated with the occurrence of CKD. These factors were also considered to play a role in the occurrence of chistata in the region. Health professionals indicated that reluctance among workers to hydrate might be influenced by perceptions of water contamination. Symptoms often were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diuretics and antibiotics. Physicians acknowledged that the diagnosis of UTI usually was not based on microbial culture and opined that the use of potentially nephrotoxic medications may be contributing to CKD. Interviews provided evidence suggesting that medications such as diuretics, antibiotics and NSAIDs are widely used and sold over the counter for symptoms that may be related to dehydration and volume depletion. These factors, alone or in combination, may be possible contributors to kidney damage. Acute kidney damage coupled with volume depletion and exposures including medications and infectious agents should be further evaluated as causal factors for CKD in this region.
O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Mijic, Ana; Brozovic, Nicholas
To build an accurate, robust understanding of the environment, it is important to not only collect information describing its physical characteristics, but also the drivers which influence it. As environmental change, from increasing CO2 levels to decreasing water levels, is often heavily influenced by human activity, gathering information on anthropogenic as well as environmental variables is extremely important. This can mean collecting qualitative, as well as quantitative information. In reality studies are often bound by financial and time constraints, limiting the depth and detail of the research. It is up to the researcher to determine what the best methodology to answer the research questions is likely to be. Here we present a methodology of collecting qualitative and quantitative information in tandem for hydrological studies through the use of semi-structured interviews. This is applied to a case study in two districts of Uttar Pradesh, North India, one of the most intensely irrigated areas of the world. Here, decreasing water levels exacerbated by unchecked water abstraction, an expanding population and government subsidies, have put the long term resilience of the farming population in doubt. Through random selection of study locations, combined with convenience sampling of the participants therein, we show how the data collected can provide valuable insight into the drivers which have led to the current water scenario. We also show how reliable quantitative information can, using the same methodology, be effectively and efficiently extracted for modelling purposes, which along with developing an understanding of the characteristics of the environment is vital in coming up with realistic and sustainable solutions for water resource management in the future.
Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann; Johannessen, Helle
as rehabilitation after colorectal cancer, a sub-sample of 31 participants completed the MYCaW questionnaire and the priority list and were interviewed before, during and after the treatment period. Setting Treatments were provided in healers’ clinics in Denmark. Main outcome measures For each participant......Objectives To compare the capacity of the MYCaW questionnaire, a priority list of concerns covered by validated questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews to identify patients’ personalized concerns and related changes. Design In a pragmatic trial on the effectiveness of energy healing...... experience with the treatment, while concerns stated in interviews and the priority list remained stable throughout the study; (2) emotional concerns were reported more often in interviews than in MYCaW, physical concerns were predominant in MYCaW, and quality of life was marked as a primary concern most...
Hendrie, H. C.; Lane, K. A.; Ogunniyi, A.; Baiyewu, O.; Gureje, O.; Evans, R.; Smith-Gamble, V.; Pettaway, M.; Unverzagt, F. W.; Gao, S.; Hall, K. S.
Background Assessing function is a crucial element in the diagnosis of dementia. This information is usually obtained from key informants. However, reliable informants are not always available. Methods A 10-item semi-structured home interview (the CHIF, or Clinician Home-based Interview to assess Function) to assess function primarily by measuring instrumental activities of daily living directly was developed and tested for inter-rater reliability and validity as part of the Indianapolis–Ibadan dementia project. The primary validity measurements were correlations between scores on the CHIF and independently gathered scores on the Blessed Dementia Scale (from informants) and the Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Sensitivities and specificities of scores on the CHIF and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed with dementia as the dependent variable. Results Inter-rater reliability for the CHIF was high (Pearson’s correlation coefficient 0.99 in Indianapolis and 0.87 in Ibadan). Internal consistency, in both samples, was good (Cronbach’s α 0.95 in Indianapolis and 0.83 in Ibadan). Scores on the CHIF correlated well with the Blessed Dementia scores at both sites (−0.71, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and −0.56, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan) and with the MMSE (0.75, p < 0.0001 for Indianapolis and 0.44, p < 0.0001 for Ibadan). For all items at both sites, the subjects without dementia performed significantly better than those with dementia. The area under the ROC curve for dementia diagnosis was 0.965 for Indianapolis and 0.925 for Ibadan. Conclusion The CHIF is a useful instrument to assess function directly in elderly participants in international studies, particularly in the absence of reliable informants. PMID:16640794
Thylstrup, Birgitte; Simonsen, Sebastian; Nemery, Caroline
was to test the Clinical Assessment of the Level of Personality Functioning Scale [CALF], a semi-structured clinical interview, designed to assess the Level of Personality Functioning Scale of the DSM-5 (Section III) by applying strategies similar to what characterizes assessments in clinical practice....... Methods: The inter-rater reliability of the assessment of the four domains and the total impairment in the Level of Personality Functioning Scale were measured in a patient sample that varied in terms of severity and type of pathology. Ratings were done independently by the interviewer and two experts who...... watched a videotaped interview. Results: Inter-rater reliability coefficients varied between domains and were not sufficient for clinical practice, but may support the use of the interview to assess the dimensions of personality functioning for research purposes. Conclusions: While designed to measure...
Peterson, Kendra; Hahn, Howard; Lee, Amber J; Madison, Catherine A; Atri, Alireza
Most patients with dementia or cognitive impairment receive care from family members, often untrained for this challenging role. Caregivers may not access publicly available caregiving information, and caregiver education programs are not widely implemented clinically. Prior large surveys yielded broad quantitative understanding of caregiver information needs, but do not illuminate the in-depth, rich, and nuanced caregiver perspectives that can be gleaned using qualitative methodology. We aimed to understand perspectives about information sources, barriers and preferences, through semi-structured interviews with 27 caregivers. Content analysis identified important themes. We interviewed 19 women, 8 men; mean age 58.5 years; most adult children (15) or spouses (8) of the care recipient. Dementia symptoms often developed insidiously, with delayed disease acknowledgement and caregiver self-identification. While memory loss was common, behavioral symptoms were most troublesome, often initially unrecognized as disease indicators. Emerging themes: 1.) Barriers to seeking information often result from knowledge gaps, rather than reluctance to assume the caregiver role; 2.) Most caregivers currently receive insufficient information. Caregivers are open to many information sources, settings, and technologies, including referrals to other healthcare professionals, print material, and community and internet resources, but expect the primary care provider (PCP) to recommend, endorse, and guide them to specific sources. These findings replicated and expanded on results from previous quantitative surveys and, importantly, revealed a previously unrecognized essential factor: despite receiving insufficient information, caregivers place critical value on their relationship with care recipient PCPs to receive recommendations, guidance and endorsement to sources of caregiving information. Implications include: 1.) Greater public education is needed to help caregivers identify and
Kim, Hyojin; Park, Sun-Young; Bozeman, Ingrid
While the Internet is a popular source of health information, health seekers' inadequate skills to locate and discern quality information pose a potential threat to their healthcare decision-making. We aimed to examine health information search and appraisal behaviours among young, heavy users of the Internet. In study 1, we observed and interviewed 11 college students about their search strategies and evaluation of websites. In study 2, three health experts evaluated two websites selected as the best information sources in study 1. Familiarity with health websites and confidence in search strategies were major factors affecting search and evaluation behaviours. Website quality was mostly judged by aesthetics and peripheral cues of source credibility and message credibility. In contrast to users' favourable website evaluation, the experts judged the websites to be inappropriate and untrustworthy. Our results highlight a critical need to provide young health seekers with resources and training that are specifically geared toward health information search and appraisal. The role of health seekers' knowledge and involvement with the health issue in search effort and success warrants future research. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.
Much of the work of user-centered design practitioners involves some type of interviewing. While interviewing is an important skill, many colleagues have little or no formal training in interviewing methods and often learn on the job with limited feedback on the quality of their interviews. This book teaches readers about the three basic interview methods: structured interviews, semi-structured interviews, and unstructured interviews. The author discusses the various strengths, weaknesses, issues with each type of interview, and includes best practices and procedures for conducing effective
"Only your blood can tell the story"--a qualitative research study using semi-structured interviews to explore the hepatitis B related knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous Australians and their health care providers in northern Australia.
Davies, Jane; Bukulatjpi, Sarah; Sharma, Suresh; Davis, Joshua; Johnston, Vanessa
Hepatitis B is endemic in the Indigenous communities of the Northern Territory of Australia and significantly contributes to liver-related morbidity and mortality. It is recognised that low health literacy levels, different worldviews and English as a second language all contribute to the difficulties health workers often have in explaining biomedical health concepts, relevant to hepatitis B infection, to patients. The aim of this research project was to explore the knowledge, perceptions and experiences of remote dwelling Indigenous adults and their health care providers relating to hepatitis B infection with a view to using this as the evidence base to develop a culturally appropriate educational tool. The impetus for this project came from health clinic staff at a remote community in Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory, in partnership with a visiting specialist liver clinic from the Royal Darwin Hospital. Participants were clinic patients with hepatitis B (n = 12), community members (n = 9) and key informants (n = 13); 25 were Indigenous individuals.A participatory action research project design was used with purposive sampling to identify participants. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore: current understanding of hepatitis B, desire for knowledge, and perspectives on how people could acquire the information needed. All individuals were offered the use of an interpreter. The data were examined using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Low levels of biomedical knowledge about Hepatitis B, negative perceptions of Hepatitis B, communication (particularly language) and culture were the major themes that emerged from the data. Accurate concepts grounded in Indigenous culture such as "only your blood can tell the story" were present but accompanied by a feeling of disempowerment due to perceived lack of "medical" understanding, and informed partnerships between caregiver and patient. Culturally appropriate discussions in a
Östlund, Ann-Sofi; Wadensten, Barbro; Kristofferzon, Marja-Leena; Häggström, Elisabeth
Motivational interviewing is a person-centered counseling style used to promote behavioral change regarding a wide variety of lifestyle problems. Use of motivational interview is growing worldwide and among many different healthcare professions, including primary care nursing. The study aim was to describe motivational interview trained nurses' experiences of motivational interviewing in primary care settings. The study had a qualitative descriptive design. It was carried out in Swedish primary care settings in two county council districts, with 20 primary care nurses trained in motivational interviewing. Half of them used the method in their work, half did not. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were used. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The nurses experienced that openness to the approach and an encouraging working climate are required to overcome internal resistance and to increase use of motivational interviewing. They also experienced mutual benefit: motivational interviewing elicits and develops abilities in both nurses and patients. For the nurses using it, motivational interviewing is perceived to facilitate work with patients in need of lifestyle change. Lack of training/education, support, interest and appropriate work tasks/patients are reasons for not using motivational interviewing.
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Hansen, Helle Puggård
healthcare professionals. Sample(size?): Eleven healthcare professionals. Methods: A qualitative descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional’s experiences were recorded during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed verbatim and analysed......Aim: To explore how healthcare professionals experience motivational interviewing as a useful? technique when working with pregnant women with obesity. Design: A qualitative, descriptive study based on interviews with eleven healthcare professionals. Setting: Face to face interviews with obstetric...
Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.
Redman-MacLaren, Michelle L; Api, Unia K; Darius, Matupit; Tommbe, Rachael; Mafile'o, Tracie A; MacLaren, David J
The social and cultural positions of both researchers and research participants influence qualitative methods and study findings. In Papua New Guinea (PNG), as in other contexts, gender is a key organising characteristic and needs to be central to the design and conduct of research. The colonial history between researcher and participant is also critical to understanding potential power differences. This is particularly relevant to public health research, much of which has emerged from a positivist paradigm. This paper describes our critical reflection of flexible researcher responses enacted during qualitative research in PNG. Led by a senior male HIV researcher from PNG, a male from a PNG university and a female from an Australian university conducted qualitative interviews about faith-based responses to HIV in PNG. The two researchers planned to conduct one-on-one interviews matching gender of participants and interviewer. However, while conducting the study, four participants explicitly requested to be interviewed by both researchers. This experience led us to critically consider socially and culturally situated ways of understanding semi-structured interviewing for public health research in Melanesia. New understandings about public health research include: (i) a challenge to the convention that the researcher holds more power than the research participant, (ii) the importance of audience in Melanesia, (iii) cultural safety can be provided when two people co-interview and (iv) the effect an esteemed leader heading the research may have on people's willingness to participate. Researchers who occupy insider-outsider roles in PNG may provide participants new possibilities to communicate key ideas. Our recent experience has taught us public health research methods that are gender sensitive and culturally situated are pivotal to successful research in Melanesia. Qualitative research requires adaptability and reflexivity. Public health research methods must continue
Full Text Available The recording and verbatim transcription of interviews is often considered to be one of the more tedious but necessary aspects of the in-depth qualitative research process. While transcription is undoubtedly a necessary methodological tool for researchers focusing specifically on discourse and language, it has also been widely adopted by researchers across the social sciences, and is sometimes advocated as a means of inherently improving the rigour of qualitative research. Based on recent experience from fieldwork in rural China, where I had initially expected to utilise the verbatim transcription method, in this article I critically assess the role of transcription in the design, implementation, and outcome of cross-cultural multilingual qualitative research. I argue that, in certain cases, verbatim transcription can limit the kind of information that may be considered valuable as data, and delay the processes of data reduction and analysis, thus separating the researcher from the fieldwork event. In response to these critiques, I propose an alternative approach to collecting, categorising, coding, and analysing qualitative data: the systematic and reflexive interviewing and reporting (SRIR method. The SRIR method utilises semi-structured and unstructured interviews conducted by two or more researchers. After completing an interview, researchers engage in reflexive dialogue, and jointly write interview and analysis reports. In this way, the SRIR method begins the process of coding and analysis in situ, thus facilitating critical engagement with emergent themes during fieldwork rather than afterwards. The method is, therefore, ideally suited to research projects that are designed to be open ended and flexible, in order to follow up on new information and potentially even change focus. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1702152
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.M.J.; Groenewegen, P.P.
Background: To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods: Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees
Association du personnel
New column in ECHO The editorial team would like to give the âﾜpeople at CERNâ the chance to have their say. Through regular interviews, it wishes to highlight the particularities of those who help CERN remain a centre of excellence.
Kvale, Steinar; Brinkmann, Svend
Interviewet spiller en afgørende rolle i en stor del kvalitativ forskning. Men det er samtidig en kompleks disciplin, der rummer mange faldgruber og kræver fintfølende analytiske kompetencer. I denne bog giver Steinar Kvale og Svend Brinkmann en introduktion til de teoretiske og praktiske aspekte...... disciplin gennem en præsentation af dets syv stadier, hvor forfatterne klæder læseren fagligt på til at planlægge og foretage interviews....
The interview is a widely-used method for collecting research data, notably in qualitative and mixed protocols. However, it is an umbrella term which groups together numerous types of interviews adapted to the methodological diversity which characterises nursing science. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
CERN. Geneva; Posada, Jorge; Quartulli, Marco
Background Vicomtech is visiting CERN to expose their activities and explore possible lines of collaboration. As part of the programme they will be offering a presentation, staged in three parts: Presentation of Vicomtech – Seán Gaines Descriptions of technologies and specialities – Dr. Jorge Posada Details on projects related to the development of visually-based algorithms for intelligent storage, processing, visualization and interaction with Big Data, for massive sources of information. – Dr. Marco Quartulli. The full programme to the visit is here Abstract Mining semi-structured data is fundamental for archive monitoring, understanding and exploitation. Typical analysis systems are based on a three-tiered architecture, in which efficient databases feed highly parallelised application servers that in turn feed client user interfaces. Yet the sharing of analysis, content identification and semantic level summarization tasks among the two bot...
Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Can, Doğan; Yi, Michael; Marin, Rebeca; Dunn, Christopher W; Imel, Zac E; Georgiou, Panayiotis; Narayanan, Shrikanth; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C
The current paper presents novel methods for collecting MISC data and accurately assessing reliability of behavior codes at the level of the utterance. The MISC 2.1 was used to rate MI interviews from five randomized trials targeting alcohol and drug use. Sessions were coded at the utterance-level. Utterance-based coding reliability was estimated using three methods and compared to traditional reliability estimates of session tallies. Session-level reliability was generally higher compared to reliability using utterance-based codes, suggesting that typical methods for MISC reliability may be biased. These novel methods in MI fidelity data collection and reliability assessment provided rich data for therapist feedback and further analyses. Beyond implications for fidelity coding, utterance-level coding schemes may elucidate important elements in the counselor-client interaction that could inform theories of change and the practice of MI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jönsson, Lise Høgh
, and people with learning disabilities worked together to develop five new visual and digital methods for interviewing in special education. Thereby not only enhancing the students’ competences, knowledge and proficiency in innovation and research, but also proposing a new teaching paradigm for university...
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. DESIGN: Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. SETTING: Fertility clinics and agenc...
Armon, Rony; Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet
The public communication of science and technology largely depends on their framing in the news media, but scientists' role in this process has only been explored indirectly. This study focuses on storied accounts told by scientists when asked to present their research or provide expert advice in the course of a news interview. A total of 150 items from a current affairs talk show broadcast in the Israeli media were explored through a methodology combining narrative and conversation analysis. Using the concept of framing as originally proposed by Erving Goffman, we show that researchers use personal accounts as a way of reframing news stories introduced by the program hosts. Elements of method and rationale, which are usually considered technical and are shunned in journalistic reports, emerged as a crucial element in the accounts that experts themselves provided. The implications for framing research and science communication training are discussed.
Canel, Azize Nilgün
In this study, the Adlerian Interview Form has been used as a semi-structured, in-depth interview method to identify the experiences of six participants regarding Adler's concepts of early recollections and life style. Subsequent to transcribing the obtained information, recollections to be included in the analysis were subjected to the criterion…
Hendricks, W. Michael
College admission professionals use the interview process as a tool for evaluating prospective students. Academic credentials and standardized test scores may attest to a student's academic ability, but they do not provide reliable insight into a student's motivation, character, intellect or basic values. To assist in this evaluation process,…
Ong, Kian Win; Papakonstantinou, Yannis; Vernoux, Romain
NoSQL databases support semi-structured data, typically modeled as JSON. They also provide limited (but expanding) query languages. Their idiomatic, non-SQL language constructs, the many variations, and the lack of formal semantics inhibit deep understanding of the query languages, and also impede progress towards clean, powerful, declarative query languages. This paper specifies the syntax and semantics of SQL++, which is applicable to both JSON native stores and SQL databases. The SQL++ sem...
To discuss the use of Skype as a medium for undertaking semi-structured interviews. Internet-based research is becoming increasingly popular, as communication using the internet takes a bigger role in our working and personal lives. Technology such as Skype allows research encounters with people across geographical divides. The semi-structured interview is a social encounter with a set of norms and expectations for both parties ( Doody and Noonan 2012 ). Proceedings must take account of the social context of both semi-structured interviews per se, and that of internet mediated communication. The findings of the qualitative phase of a mixed-methods study are compared with other reports comparing the use of Skype with face-to-face and telephone interviews. This paper is a methodological discussion of the use of Skype as an online research methodology. Choosing Skype as a means of interviewing may affect the characteristics of participants and decisions about consent. Rapport, sensitivity and collaboration may be addressed differently in Skype interviews compared with face-to-face interviews. Skype offers researchers the opportunity to reach a geographical spread of participants more safely, cheaply and quickly than face-to-face meetings. Rapport, sensitivity and degrees of collaboration can be achieved using this medium. The use of Skype as a medium for semi-structured interview research is better understood. This paper contributes to the growing body of literature on the use of the internet as a medium for research by nurses.
Ejem, Deborah; Nicholas Dionne-Odom, J; Turkman, Yasemin; Knight, Sara; Willis, Dan; Kaufman, Peter; Bakitas, Marie
Women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) face numerous, complex treatment and advance care planning (ACP) decisions. Our aim was to develop a better understanding of women with MBC's decision-making preferences overtime and relative to specific types of decisions. Convergent, parallel mixed-methods study. Participants completed the Control Preferences Scale (CPS) and a semi-structured interview of decision-making experiences at enrollment (T1; n=22) and when facing a decision or 3 months later (T2; n=19). We categorized women's decision-making experience descriptions into one of the CPS decisional styles and compared them to their CPS response. We constructed an analytic grid that aligned the interview-determined treatment and ACP decisional preferences with the CPS categories at T1 and T2 and calculated Cohen's kappa coefficient and congruence percentages. Participants (n=22) were White (100%), averaged 62 years, married (54%), retired (45%), and had a bachelor's degree (45%). Congruence between CPS response and interview-determined treatment preferences at T1 was 32% (kappa=0.083) and 33% (kappa=0.120) at T2. Congruence between CPS survey response and interview-determined ACP preferences at T1 was 22.7% (kappa =0.092) at T1 and 11% (kappa = 0.011) at T2. Although women selected a "shared" treatment decision-making style using the CPS validated tool, when interviewed their descriptions generally reflected a passive process in which they followed the oncologists' treatment suggestions. Future research should explore whether the incongruence between stated and actual decision-making style is a function of misinterpreting the CPS choices or a true inconsistency that could lead to adverse consequences such as decisional regret. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
van Scheppingen, Corinne; Lettinga, Ant T.; Duipmans, Jose C.; Maathuis, Care G. B.; Jonkman, Marcel F.
The objective of this study was to identify and specify the problems of children with epidermolysis bullosa. The questions explored were: (i) What do children with epidermolysis bullosa experience as the most difficult problems; (it) What is the impact of these problems on their daily life; and
Full Text Available Current article includes an analysis of interviewing in sport psychology, an observing of modern scientific interview protocols, a description of interview cases in private practice and research; also there is a discussion about efficiency and limitations of interview method in the article. Approaches to interviewing as the main and auxiliary method are discussed in details. The objective of the article is to show how an interview can reveal interesting biographical facts, personality traits, the installation of an athlete, to reflect his inner world, and to form working in the field of sport psychology professionals and students view on the advantages and opportunities an interview in the work of sports psychologist (research and practice. This method can be regarded as a tool of knowledge, but is also used as a preliminary interview before long-term or short-term therapeutic work. Clinical conversation as one of the options the interview are invited to the discussion; the article provides a common protocol for clinical interviews in the sport.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...
In a study exploring the practice knowledge of nursing on adolescent mental health units, I chose hermeneutic philosophy to guide the conduct of the research. Immediately, I encountered the problem that hermeneutics is essentially unconcerned with its use as research method. The need for congruence between the study's hermeneutic foundations and the methodological processes of the research, led me to develop a style of hermeneutic interviewing for the purpose of information gathering. I did this using Gadamer's (1979) fundamental principles of: (1) tradition, (2) dialectics of interpretation, and (3) dialectic of question and answer. These principles are examined and discussed. The actualization of hermeneutic interviewing, as a means of information gathering, proved challenging. Using interview excerpts, I demonstrate my use of hermeneutic interviewing as research method, and critique my interviewing skills in relation to the fundamental principles from which this style of interviewing was developed.
Lindhardt, Christina Louise; Rubak, Sune; Mogensen, Ole; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Goldstein, Henri; Lamont, Ronald F; Joergensen, Jan Stener
to explore and describe how healthcare professionals in the Southern Region of Denmark experienced motivational interviewing as a communication method when working with pregnant women with obesity. a qualitative, descriptive study based on face-to-face interviews with 11 obstetric healthcare professionals working in a perinatal setting. a thematic descriptive method was applied to semi-structured interviews. The healthcare professional's experiences were recorded verbatim during individual semi-structured qualitative interviews, transcribed, and analysed using a descriptive analysis methodology. motivational interviewing was found to be a useful method when communicating with obese pregnant women. The method made the healthcare professionals more aware of their own communication style both when encountering pregnant women and in their interaction with colleagues. However, most of the healthcare professionals emphasised that time was crucial and they had to be dedicated to the motivational interviewing method. The healthcare professionals further stated that it enabled them to become more professional in their daily work and made some of them feel less 'burned out', 'powerless' and 'stressed' as they felt they had a communication method in handling difficult workloads. healthcare professionals experienced motivational interviewing to be a useful method when working perinatally. The motivational interviewing method permitted heightened awareness of the healthcare professionals communication method with the patients and increased their ability to handle a difficult workload. Overall, lack of time restricted the use of the motivational interviewing method on a daily basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geldsetzer, Pascal; Fink, Günther; Vaikath, Maria; Bärnighausen, Till
(1) To evaluate the operational efficiency of various sampling methods for patient exit interviews; (2) to discuss under what circumstances each method yields an unbiased sample; and (3) to propose a new, operationally efficient, and unbiased sampling method. Literature review, mathematical derivation, and Monte Carlo simulations. Our simulations show that in patient exit interviews it is most operationally efficient if the interviewer, after completing an interview, selects the next patient exiting the clinical consultation. We demonstrate mathematically that this method yields a biased sample: patients who spend a longer time with the clinician are overrepresented. This bias can be removed by selecting the next patient who enters, rather than exits, the consultation room. We show that this sampling method is operationally more efficient than alternative methods (systematic and simple random sampling) in most primary health care settings. Under the assumption that the order in which patients enter the consultation room is unrelated to the length of time spent with the clinician and the interviewer, selecting the next patient entering the consultation room tends to be the operationally most efficient unbiased sampling method for patient exit interviews. © 2016 The Authors. Health Services Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Health Research and Educational Trust.
Hazut, Koren; Romem, Pnina; Malkin, Smadar; Livshiz-Riven, Ilana
The purpose of this study was to compare the predictive validity, economic efficiency, and faculty staff satisfaction of a computerized test versus a personal interview as admission methods for graduate nursing studies. A mixed method study was designed, including cross-sectional and retrospective cohorts, interviews, and cost analysis. One hundred and thirty-four students in the Master of Nursing program participated. The success of students in required core courses was similar in both admission method groups. The personal interview method was found to be a significant predictor of success, with cognitive variables the only significant contributors to the model. Higher satisfaction levels were reported with the computerized test compared with the personal interview method. The cost of the personal interview method, in annual hourly work, was 2.28 times higher than the computerized test. These findings may promote discussion regarding the cost benefit of the personal interview as an admission method for advanced academic studies in healthcare professions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D
We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.
Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.
We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003
Wood, Marjorie L.
Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.
Xu, Yan; Wang, Yining; Sun, Jian-Tao; Zhang, Jianwen; Tsujii, Junichi; Chang, Eric
To build large collections of medical terms from semi-structured information sources (e.g. tables, lists, etc.) and encyclopedia sites on the web. The terms are classified into the three semantic categories, Medical Problems, Medications, and Medical Tests, which were used in i2b2 challenge tasks. We developed two systems, one for Chinese and another for English terms. The two systems share the same methodology and use the same software with minimum language dependent parts. We produced large collections of terms by exploiting billions of semi-structured information sources and encyclopedia sites on the Web. The standard performance metric of recall (R) is extended to three different types of Recall to take the surface variability of terms into consideration. They are Surface Recall (R(S)), Object Recall (R(O)), and Surface Head recall (R(H)). We use two test sets for Chinese. For English, we use a collection of terms in the 2010 i2b2 text. Two collections of terms, one for English and the other for Chinese, have been created. The terms in these collections are classified as either of Medical Problems, Medications, or Medical Tests in the i2b2 challenge tasks. The English collection contains 49,249 (Problems), 89,591 (Medications) and 25,107 (Tests) terms, while the Chinese one contains 66,780 (Problems), 101,025 (Medications), and 15,032 (Tests) terms. The proposed method of constructing a large collection of medical terms is both efficient and effective, and, most of all, independent of language. The collections will be made publicly available.
Lang, Frieder R; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G
We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI-S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey and a related probability telephone study were used in order to test method effects on self-report measures of personality characteristics across early, middle, and late adulthood. Exploratory structural equation modeling was used in order to test for measurement invariance of the five-factor model of personality trait domains across different assessment methods. For the short inventory, findings suggest strong robustness of self-report measures of personality dimensions among young and middle-aged adults. In old age, telephone interviewing was associated with greater distortions in reliable personality assessment. It is concluded that the greater mental workload of telephone interviewing limits the reliability of self-report personality assessment. Face-to-face surveys and self-administrated questionnaire completion are clearly better suited than phone surveys when personality traits in age-heterogeneous samples are assessed.
Kanagasabai, Parimala S; Mirfin-Veitch, Brigit; Hale, Leigh A; Mulligan, Hilda
Children are increasingly included in qualitative research and new methods for interviewing children are emerging. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss the strategies of a child-centered method of data collection for interviewing children with movement impairments to explore their leisure participation experiences. A study was conducted using an Interpretative Phenomenological Approach (IPA) to explore leisure participation experiences of children with movement impairments aged 6 to 12 years. Various strategies, guided by children, were used to facilitate children's active involvement in the interview process. Twenty-two children (mean age 8.7 years) participated in the interview study, most of them in the presence of their parents or guardian (18 children) and some of them (9 children) with their siblings present. Children enjoyed and were actively engaged in the interview process. Along with talking, 19 children did drawings, 5 children used stickers, 4 children played quiet games, six children shared pictures of their leisure activities, and 16 children physically demonstrated some of their leisure activities, environment, and equipment. A wide range of data collection strategies facilitated children to communicate their leisure participation experiences and to represent children's views without being overly influenced by parental views.
Huntink, E.; Lieshout, J. van; Aakhus, E.; Baker, R.; Flottorp, S.; Godycki-Cwirko, M.; Jager, C.; Kowalczyk, A.; Szecsenyi, J.; Wensing, M.
BackgroundTailored strategies to implement evidence-based practice can be generated in several ways. In this study, we explored the usefulness of group interviews for generating these strategies, focused on improving healthcare for patients with chronic diseases.MethodsParticipants included at least
Damman, O.C.; Hendriks, M.; Rademakers, J.; Delnoij, D.; Groenewegen, P.
Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20) were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes fr...
Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A
Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
The aim of this paper is to explain and discuss timeline interviews as a method for doing life history research. It is a ‘how to’ article explaining the strengths and weaknesses of using a timeline when conducting qualitative interviews. The method allows the interviewee to participate...... for life story research, it can also be used for ther types of studies where interviews are made....... in the reporting of the interview which may give raise to ownership and sharing of the analytical power in the interview situation. Exactly for this reason, it may not be the most appropriate method for interviewing elites or for conducting insider interviews where positionality can be at play. The use...
Alime Selcuk Tosun
Full Text Available Precautions taken in early stages of diabetes mellitus are more beneficial in terms of quality of life. The risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been shown to be reduced at rates up to 58% or its emergence may be delayed with healthy lifestyle changes in different studies. Transtheoretical model and motivational interview method are especially used to increase the adaptation of individuals to disease management and to change behaviours about diabetes mellitus for decreasing or preventing the harmful effects of diabetes mellitus in studies conducted with individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Interventions using motivational interview method based on transtheoretical model demonstrated that a general improvement in glycaemic control and in physical activity level can be achieved and significant progress has been made during the stage of change. Motivational interview method based on transtheoretical model is an easy and efficient counselling method to reach behavioural change. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2016; 8(1: 32-41
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Manniën, J.; de Jonge, J.; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
Objective: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. Design: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. Participants: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
What do midwives need to know about approaches of women towards labour pain management? A qualitative interview study into expectations of management of labour pain for pregnant women receiving midwife-led care in the Netherlands
Klomp, T.; Mannien, J.; Jonge, A. de; Hutton, E.K.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.
OBJECTIVE: to investigate factors important to women receiving midwife-led care with regard to their expectations for management of labour pain. DESIGN: semi-structured ante partum interviews and analyses using constant comparison method. PARTICIPANTS: fifteen pregnant women between 36 and 40 weeks
Masterson Creber, Ruth; Patey, Megan; Dickson, Victoria Vaughan; DeCesaris, Marissa; Riegel, Barbara
Lack of engagement in self-care is common among patients needing to follow a complex treatment regimen, especially patients with heart failure who are affected by comorbidity, disability and side effects of poly-pharmacy. The purpose of Motivational Interviewing Tailored Interventions for Heart Failure (MITI-HF) is to test the feasibility and comparative efficacy of an MI intervention on self-care, acute heart failure physical symptoms and quality of life. We are conducting a brief, nurse-led motivational interviewing randomized controlled trial to address behavioral and motivational issues related to heart failure self-care. Participants in the intervention group receive home and phone-based motivational interviewing sessions over 90-days and those in the control group receive care as usual. Participants in both groups receive patient education materials. The primary study outcome is change in self-care maintenance from baseline to 90-days. This article presents the study design, methods, plans for statistical analysis and descriptive characteristics of the study sample for MITI-HF. Study findings will contribute to the literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing to promote heart failure self-care. We anticipate that using an MI approach can help patients with heart failure focus on their internal motivation to change in a non-confrontational, patient-centered and collaborative way. It also affirms their ability to practice competent self-care relevant to their personal health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Donohue, B; Dickens, Y; Lancer, K; Covassin, T; Hash, A; Miller, A; Genet, J
Although investigations have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of sport psychology interventions, these methods have been underutilized by athletes. In this study, 124 athletes completed the athletes' Attitudes Toward Seeking Sport Psychology Consultation Questionnaire (ATSSPCQ) and were subsequently randomly assigned to receive one of the two semistructured interview formats. One interview focused on discussing the athlete's experiences in sports, and the other focused on delineating sport psychology and its potential benefits to the athlete. Upon being interviewed, athletes were readministered the ATSSPCQ. Discussing sport psychology and its personal benefits was more effective in enhancing athletes' perception of need for sport psychology than discussing sport experiences. However, neither interview format enhanced athletes' perceptions of openness to discuss personal issues with a sport psychology consultant and tolerance of stigma associated with sport psychology consultation. Indeed, participants who received the discussion of sports intervention reported a significant decrease in personal openness to discuss personal issues relevant to sports psychology from pre- to postintervention. Intervention effects were similar for male and female athletes. Study implications and future directions are discussed in light of these results.
Full Text Available Background: Lifestyle management for dyslipidemic adolescents often occurs in the context of family-centered care, which necessitates adaptation of counseling strategies. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for lifestyle behavior change for dyslipidemic adolescents in a dyad with a parent versus alone. Methods: A total number of 32 adolescents were randomized 1:1 to receive a series of motivational interviewing sessions either together with a parent or alone for a 6-month intervention, with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of outcomes. Results: Both groups were similar at baseline. Following the intervention, there were no significant differences between groups in physical, laboratory, lifestyle or psychosocial measures, except for a reduction in dietary fats/sugars (p = 0.02 and in screen time (p = 0.02 in the alone group. When both groups were combined, significant reductions at 6 months were noted for body mass index (p < 0.001, waist circumference (p < 0.001, total cholesterol (p < 0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001, triglycerides (p = 0.01, non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001, fasting insulin (p = 0.01, and homeostatic model (p = 0.02. Reduced screen time and increased fruit and vegetable intake were also noted for both groups combined. These changes were also reflected in self-efficacy (p = 0.004, self-esteem (p = 0.03, and improvement in quality of life measures. Interview data provided insights into the utility and acceptability of the motivational interviewing intervention. Conclusion: Motivational interviewing was an efficient strategy for inspiring healthy lifestyle and physiological changes among adolescents in both groups. Family centered pediatric approaches should consider the autonomy and individual preferences of the adolescent prior to counseling.
Blane, David N.; Macdonald, Sara; Morrison, David; O’Donnell, Catherine A.
Background Primary care has a key role to play in the prevention and management of obesity, but there remain barriers to engagement in weight management by primary care practitioners. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders in adult weight management services on the role of primary care in adult weight management. Methods Qualitative study involving semi-structured interviews with nine senior dietitians involved in NHS weight management from seven Scottish health bo...
Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta; Tydén, Tanja
Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three wom...
Stievenart, M.; Casonato, M.; Muntean, A.; Van de Schoot, R.
The Friends and Family Interview (FFI; Steele & Steele, 2005 Steele, H. and Steele, M. 2005. The construct of coherence as an indicator of attachment security in middle childhood: The Friends and Family Interview, New York, NY: Guilford Press. ), a semi-structured interview assessing attachment
Spanjer, Jerry; Mei, van der Sijrike; Cornelius, Bert; Brouwer, Sandra; Klink, van der Jac
PURPOSE: The Disability Assessment Structured Interview (DASI) is a semi-structured interview for assessing functional limitations of claimants in a work disability evaluation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a 3-day DASI training course on the quality of assessment interviews of
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Wombacher, Andreas; Iacob, Maria Eugenia
Semi-structured processes are business workflows, where the execution of the workflow is not completely controlled by a workflow engine, i.e., an implementation of a formal workflow model. Examples are workflows where actors potentially have interaction with customers reporting the result of the
Weinmann, Tobias; Thomas, Silke; Brilmayer, Susanne; Heinrich, Sabine; Radon, Katja
Despite its popularity, Skype has not been tested as a tool for epidemiologic research. We examined its feasibility in Germany. A population-based sample of young adults was randomly invited to a Skype (n = 150) or a phone interview (n = 150). Response and duration of interviews were analysed to evaluate the feasibility of Skype interviews. Response was low and, with 10 % (95 % CI 5-15 %), even worse among Skype candidates, compared to 22 % (15-28 %) in the phone group. A third of the Skype group asked for being interviewed by phone. Median duration was 34.0 minutes for Skype interviews and 37.0 minutes for phone interviews. Skype is not yet a feasible tool for data collection in Germany.
Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie; Rosenberg, Jacob
Young researchers may experience difficulties when writing scientific articles for publication in biomedical journals. Various methods may facilitate the writing process including outlining the paper before the actual writing and using dictation instead of writing the first draft. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences and difficulties for young, experienced researchers when writing articles using a detailed outline and dictation of the first draft. We used qualitative focus group interviews and the study was reported according to the COnsolidated criteria for REporting Qualitative research guideline. Participants were sampled from a group of researchers participating in a writing retreat/course. The interviews were recorded on a digital recorder and transcribed. The text was analyzed according to content analysis and coded and condensed into themes and subthemes. Groups of participants were added until data saturation was reached. A total of 14 researchers participated (9 women and 5 men). Their clinical experience was median (range) of 6 (1-11) years since graduation from medical school. Two themes arose during the analyses of the data: "Process guidance with the outline as the map" and "arrival at dictation." The outline was used in the preparation phase leading up to the day of dictation and was used in collaboration with co-authors and supervisors. The participants found it to be a useful tool for preparing the manuscript and dictating their initial first full draft. Experienced young researchers found beneficial effects of using a structured outline to prepare for dictation of scientific articles. The outline was a tool that would develop in close collaboration with co-authors and mentors. With dictation, a full first draft of a manuscript can be produced in a few hours. Participants positively evaluated this structured and reproducible way of producing scientific articles.
DiLillo, Vicki; Ingle, Krista; Harvey, Jean Ruth; West, Delia Smith
Background While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. Objective This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. Methods The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). Results The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. Conclusions This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699 PMID:27095604
Rensen, Yvonne C M; Kessels, Roy P C; Migo, Ellen M; Wester, Arie J; Eling, Paul A T M; Kopelman, Michael D
The temporal gradient in patients with Korsakoff's syndrome has been of particular interest in the literature, as many studies have found evidence for a steep temporal gradient, but others have observed more uniform remote memory impairment across all past time periods. Inconsistencies might be the result of the nature of remote memory impairment under study (i.e., nonpersonal or autobiographical memory) and of methodological differences in the examination of remote memory loss. The aim of this study was to examine whether differences between autobiographical memory interview (AMI) and autobiographical interview (AI) procedures influence the presence of a temporal gradient in semantic and episodic autobiographical memory in Korsakoff patients. The procedure used in the present study combined the AMI and AI into one study session. We compared the performance of 20 patients with Korsakoff's syndrome and 27 healthy controls. First, participants were asked to recall knowledge from different life periods. Second, participants were asked to recall memories from five life periods. Thirdly, participants were asked to rate their subjective experience of each event recalled on a 5-point scale. Finally, we analyzed the findings in terms of all the memories recalled versus the first memory from each life-period only. Both the AMI and the AI showed a temporally graded retrograde amnesia in the Korsakoff patients for personal semantic and episodic autobiographical memories. The pattern of amnesia in Korsakoff patients was not affected by examining only one event per life-period. Subjective ratings of recalled memories were largely comparable between the groups. The findings were generally consistent across the AMI and AI. Varying the number of events did not affect the pattern of the gradient. Hence, the temporal gradient in Korsakoff patients is not an artefact of either the AMI or the AI method.
Lang, Frieder R.; John, Dennis; Lüdtke, Oliver; Schupp, Jürgen; Wagner, Gert G.
We examined measurement invariance and age-related robustness of a short 15-item Big Five Inventory (BFI–S) of personality dimensions, which is well suited for applications in large-scale multidisciplinary surveys. The BFI–S was assessed in three different interviewing conditions: computer-assisted or paper-assisted face-to-face interviewing, computer-assisted telephone interviewing, and a self-administered questionnaire. Randomized probability samples from a large-scale German panel survey a...
Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Piotrowski, Mark; Tran, Duong; Kookal, Krishna K; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; White, Joel M; Vaderhobli, Ram; Ramoni, Rachel; Stark, Paul C; Kimmes, Nicole S; Lagerweij, Maxim; Patel, Vimla L
To comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of three different methods involving end-users for detecting usability problems in an EHR: user testing, semi-structured interviews and surveys. Data were collected at two major urban dental schools from faculty, residents and dental students to assess the usability of a dental EHR for developing a treatment plan. These included user testing (N=32), semi-structured interviews (N=36), and surveys (N=35). The three methods together identified a total of 187 usability violations: 54% via user testing, 28% via the semi-structured interview and 18% from the survey method, with modest overlap. These usability problems were classified into 24 problem themes in 3 broad categories. User testing covered the broadest range of themes (83%), followed by the interview (63%) and survey (29%) methods. Multiple evaluation methods provide a comprehensive approach to identifying EHR usability challenges and specific problems. The three methods were found to be complementary, and thus each can provide unique insights for software enhancement. Interview and survey methods were found not to be sufficient by themselves, but when used in conjunction with the user testing method, they provided a comprehensive evaluation of the EHR. We recommend using a multi-method approach when testing the usability of health information technology because it provides a more comprehensive picture of usability challenges. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
While studio-based instrumental and vocal learning is widely regarded as both important and effective in higher education music, research to date has offered little concrete information about studio practices that students have regarded as ineffective. Two recent case studies investigated what appear to be exceptional instances in which students…
Maluf, David A.; Tran, Peter B.
Object-Relational database management system is an integrated hybrid cooperative approach to combine the best practices of both the relational model utilizing SQL queries and the object-oriented, semantic paradigm for supporting complex data creation. In this paper, a highly scalable, information on demand database framework, called NETMARK, is introduced. NETMARK takes advantages of the Oracle 8i object-relational database using physical addresses data types for very efficient keyword search of records spanning across both context and content. NETMARK was originally developed in early 2000 as a research and development prototype to solve the vast amounts of unstructured and semi-structured documents existing within NASA enterprises. Today, NETMARK is a flexible, high-throughput open database framework for managing, storing, and searching unstructured or semi-structured arbitrary hierarchal models, such as XML and HTML.
André Minella; Nelson F. Souza-Sobrinho
We develop and estimate a medium-size, semi-structural model for Brazil's economy during the inflation targeting period. The model captures key features of the economy, and allows us to investigate the transmission mechanisms of monetary policy. We decompose the monetary channels into household interest rate, firm interest rate, and exchange rate channels. We find that the household interest rate channel plays the most important role in explaining output dynamics after a monetary policy shock...
Diviani, N.; van den Putte, B.; Meppelink, C.S.; van Weert, J.C.M.
Objective To gain new insights into the relationship between health literacy and evaluation of online health information. Methods Using a mixed-methods approach, forty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted followed by a short questionnaire on health literacy and eHealth literacy.
Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David
This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…
Huot, Suzanne; Rudman, Debbie Laliberte
The study of human occupation requires a variety of methods to fully elucidate its complex, multifaceted nature. Although qualitative approaches have commonly been used within occupational therapy and occupational science, we contend that such qualitative research must extend beyond the sole use of interviews. Drawing on qualitative methodological literature, we discuss the limits of interview methods and outline other methods, particularly visual methods, as productive means to enhance qualitative research. We then provide an overview of our critical ethnographic study that used narrative, visual, and observational methods to explore the occupational transitions experienced by immigrants to Canada. We describe our use of occupational mapping and participatory occupation methods and the contributions of these combined methods. We conclude that adopting a variety of methods can enable a deeper understanding of the tacit nature of everyday occupation, and is key to advancing knowledge regarding occupation and to informing occupational therapy practice.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report is to describe the main characteristics of the design, including response rates, of the Cornella Health Interview Survey Follow-up Study. Methods The original cohort consisted of 2,500 subjects (1,263 women and 1,237 men interviewed as part of the 1994 Cornella Health Interview Study. A record linkage to update the address and vital status of the cohort members was carried out using, first a deterministic method, and secondly a probabilistic one, based on each subject's first name and surnames. Subsequently, we attempted to locate the cohort members to conduct the phone follow-up interviews. A pilot study was carried out to test the overall feasibility and to modify some procedures before the field work began. Results After record linkage, 2,468 (98.7% subjects were successfully traced. Of these, 91 (3.6% were deceased, 259 (10.3% had moved to other towns, and 50 (2.0% had neither renewed their last municipal census documents nor declared having moved. After using different strategies to track and to retain cohort members, we traced 92% of the CHIS participants. From them, 1,605 subjects answered the follow-up questionnaire. Conclusion The computerized record linkage maximized the success of the follow-up that was carried out 7 years after the baseline interview. The pilot study was useful to increase the efficiency in tracing and interviewing the respondents.
Full Text Available This paper aims to discuss the trust relationship in virtual teams in Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC status companies. The study used qualitative method that is phenomenology approach through focus group interviews. In-depth interview were also used with semi-structured and openended questions. The interviews involved six staffs at different position in virtual team (two team leaders, and four team members. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed according to the thematic analysis. Results showed that dimensions on virtual team trust relationship including interpersonal communication, personality, team members size, face-to-face meeting needs, safety information when discussing face-to-face in public places, and difficulty to recall interaction via video conferencing with other team members.
Chahal, Nita; Rush, Janet; Manlhiot, Cedric; Boydell, Katherine M; Jelen, Ahlexxi; McCrindle, Brian W
Lifestyle management for dyslipidemic adolescents often occurs in the context of family-centered care, which necessitates adaptation of counseling strategies. To determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for lifestyle behavior change for dyslipidemic adolescents in a dyad with a parent versus alone. A total number of 32 adolescents were randomized 1:1 to receive a series of motivational interviewing sessions either together with a parent or alone for a 6-month intervention, with both quantitative and qualitative assessment of outcomes. Both groups were similar at baseline. Following the intervention, there were no significant differences between groups in physical, laboratory, lifestyle or psychosocial measures, except for a reduction in dietary fats/sugars (p = 0.02) and in screen time (p = 0.02) in the alone group. When both groups were combined, significant reductions at 6 months were noted for body mass index (p < 0.001), waist circumference (p < 0.001), total cholesterol (p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.01), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001), fasting insulin (p = 0.01), and homeostatic model (p = 0.02). Reduced screen time and increased fruit and vegetable intake were also noted for both groups combined. These changes were also reflected in self-efficacy (p = 0.004), self-esteem (p = 0.03), and improvement in quality of life measures. Interview data provided insights into the utility and acceptability of the motivational interviewing intervention. Motivational interviewing was an efficient strategy for inspiring healthy lifestyle and physiological changes among adolescents in both groups. Family centered pediatric approaches should consider the autonomy and individual preferences of the adolescent prior to counseling.
Beggrow, Elizabeth P.; Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.; Pearl, Dennis; Boone, William J.
The landscape of science education is being transformed by the new Framework for Science Education (National Research Council, A framework for K-12 science education: practices, crosscutting concepts, and core ideas. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC, 2012), which emphasizes the centrality of scientific practices—such as explanation, argumentation, and communication—in science teaching, learning, and assessment. A major challenge facing the field of science education is developing assessment tools that are capable of validly and efficiently evaluating these practices. Our study examined the efficacy of a free, open-source machine-learning tool for evaluating the quality of students' written explanations of the causes of evolutionary change relative to three other approaches: (1) human-scored written explanations, (2) a multiple-choice test, and (3) clinical oral interviews. A large sample of undergraduates (n = 104) exposed to varying amounts of evolution content completed all three assessments: a clinical oral interview, a written open-response assessment, and a multiple-choice test. Rasch analysis was used to compute linear person measures and linear item measures on a single logit scale. We found that the multiple-choice test displayed poor person and item fit (mean square outfit >1.3), while both oral interview measures and computer-generated written response measures exhibited acceptable fit (average mean square outfit for interview: person 0.97, item 0.97; computer: person 1.03, item 1.06). Multiple-choice test measures were more weakly associated with interview measures (r = 0.35) than the computer-scored explanation measures (r = 0.63). Overall, Rasch analysis indicated that computer-scored written explanation measures (1) have the strongest correspondence to oral interview measures; (2) are capable of capturing students' normative scientific and naive ideas as accurately as human-scored explanations, and (3) more validly detect understanding
Pattison, Natalie; O'Gara, Geraldine; Rattray, Janice
To explore experiences and needs over time, of patients discharged from ICU using the Intensive Care Experience (ICE-q) questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and EuroQoL (EQ-5D), associated clinical predictors (APACHE II, TISS, Length of stay, RIKER scores) and in-depth email interviewing. A mixed-method, longitudinal study of patients with >48hour ICU stays at 2 weeks, 6 months, 12 months using the ICE-q, HADS, EQ-5D triangulated with clinical predictors, including age, gender, length of stay (ICU and hospital), APACHE II and TISS. In-depth qualitative email interviews were completed at 1 month and 6 months. Grounded Theory analysis was applied to interview data and data were triangulated with questionnaire and clinical data. Data was collected from January 2010 to March 2012 from 77 participants. Both mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale, utility scores and HADS scores improved from 2 weeks to 6 months, (p=Email interviews offer a convenient method of gaining in-depth interview data and could be used as part of ICU follow-up. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The purpose of this study is to determine the views of the pre-service teachers who received training on pedagogical formation certificate program about micro-teaching method. The study was carried out with a case study method. Semi-structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection tool to gather pre-service teachers' views about…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-interviews, where the respondent rather than the interviewer enters answers to questions, have been proposed as a way to reduce social desirability bias associated with interviewer-led interviews. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI are commonly proposed since the computer programme can guide respondents; however they require both language and computer literacy. We evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of using electronic methods to administer quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in the Somkhele demographic surveillance area (DSA in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods We conducted a four-arm randomized trial of paper-and-pen-interview, computer-assisted personal-interview (CAPI, CASI and audio-CASI with an age-sex-urbanicity stratified sample of 504 adults resident in the DSA in 2015. We compared respondents’ answers to their responses to the same questions in previous surveillance rounds. We also conducted 48 cognitive interviews, dual-coding responses using the Framework approach. Results Three hundred forty (67% individuals were interviewed and covariates and participation rates were balanced across arms. CASI and audio-CASI were significantly slower than interviewer-led interviews. Item non-response rates were higher in self-interview arms. In single-paper meta-analysis, self-interviewed individuals reported more socially undesirable sexual behaviours. Cognitive interviews found high acceptance of both self-interviews and the use of electronic methods, with some concerns that self-interview methods required more participant effort and literacy. Conclusions Electronic data collection methods, including self-interview methods, proved feasible and acceptable for completing quantitative sexual behaviour questionnaires in a poor, rural South African setting. However, each method had both benefits and costs, and the choice of method should be based on context-specific criteria.
Kelly, Maureen E.; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P.; Murphy, Andrew W.
Background International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. Methods This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 we...
The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…
This study focused on building a profile of characteristics of community college (CC) athletics coaches in Iowa and on exploring the possible relationships among these characteristics. Using a mixed-method research design that incorporates SPSS quantitative analysis of a survey and seven semi-structured interviews, the research data draws a…
Østergaard, Elisabeth Bomholt; Sritharan, Sophia Sajitha; Thomsen, Pernille Maja
Title Barriers and motivational factors towards physical activity in COPD - an interview based pilot study Authors Elisabeth Bomholt Østergaard, Sophia Sajitha Sritharan, Pernille Maja Thomsen, Anne Dal Kristiansen, Anders Løkke Background: Surprisingly few people in Denmark with Chronic...... Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) engage in physical activity even though it is evident that pulmonary rehabilitation has positive effects on activity level, dyspnea, anxiety, fatigue and quality of life. Aims: To explore why people with COPD do not engage in physical activity and their motivational...... factors for being physically active. Methods: Fieldwork among five people with COPD in Jutland, Denmark 2013-2016 using qualitative semi-structured interviews. Supplementary short semistructured interviews with three general practitioners, and participation in a closed Facebook-group for people with COPD...
This paper discusses approaches for framing social research methods within postgraduate design curricula, details the responses of postgraduate design students to the possibilities presented by social research methods, and concludes with a case study of the adoption experiences of PhD students in design when engaging with social research methods. Analysis of semi-structured interviews is employed to draw out perceptions and experiences of design postgraduates when engaging with social researc...
Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol
A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032
Tilley, Sara; Neale, Chris; Patuano, Agnès; Cinderby, Steve
There are concerns about mental wellbeing in later life in older people as the global population becomes older and more urbanised. Mobility in the built environment has a role to play in improving quality of life and wellbeing, as it facilitates independence and social interaction. Recent studies using neuroimaging methods in environmental psychology research have shown that different types of urban environments may be associated with distinctive patterns of brain activity, suggesting that we interact differently with varying environments. This paper reports on research that explores older people's responses to urban places and their mobility in and around the built environment. The project aim was to understand how older people experience different urban environments using a mixed methods approach including electroencephalography (EEG), self-reported measures, and interview results. We found that older participants experience changing levels of "excitement", "engagement" and "frustration" (as interpreted by proprietary EEG software) whilst walking between a busy built urban environment and an urban green space environment. These changes were further reflected in the qualitative themes that emerged from transcribed interviews undertaken one week post-walk. There has been no research to date that has directly assessed neural responses to an urban environment combined with qualitative interview analysis. A synergy of methods offers a deeper understanding of the changing moods of older people across time whilst walking in city settings.
Ekholm, O; Strandberg-Larsen, K; Christensen, K
To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking.......To select a simple method for assessing alcohol consumption and to compare how different reference periods and response categories influence the self-reported frequency of binge drinking....
van Heelsum, A.; Koomen, M.
Objectives In addition to our target Muslim populations, we aim also to gather information on their community leaders, as well as the policy makers whose policies confront them. We aim through a series of semi-structured interviews to gain information on the position of a variety of community
Ang, Dennis C; Kaleth, Anthony S; Bigatti, Silvia; Mazzuca, Steve; Saha, Chandan; Hilligoss, Janna; Lengerich, Mimi; Bandy, Robert
Fibromyalgia (FM), defined as the presence of both chronic widespread pain and the finding of 11/18 tender points on examination, is an illness associated with major personal and societal burden. Supervised aerobic exercise is an important treatment modality to improve patient symptoms. Unfortunately, adherence to an exercise regimen after a structured supervised program is disappointingly low. Since FM is a chronic illness, studies are needed to test strategies that would enhance exercise adherence in these individuals. Individuals who are able to adhere to exercise almost always maintain the symptomatic benefits of exercise. The objective of this paper was to describe the protocol of the Research to Encourage Exercise for Fibromyalgia (REEF). REEF is a randomized attention-controlled trial that seeks to test the efficacy of 6 sessions of telephone delivered motivational interviewing (MI) that targets exercise adherence to improve FM-relevant clinical outcomes (i.e., physical function and pain severity). The trial has recently completed enrolling 216 subjects, and randomization has resulted in well-balanced groups. Details on the study design, MI program, and treatment fidelity are provided in the paper. Outcome assessments at week 12, week 24 and week 36 will test the immediate, intermediate and long-term effects of exercise-based MI on adherence (as measured by the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors/CHAMPS and accelerometer) and clinical outcomes. When completed, REEF will determine whether exercise-based MI could be utilized as a management strategy to sustain the clinical benefits of exercise for FM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Benzo, Roberto P
There is no conclusive evidence about the way to a promote behavior change in self-management programs for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter is a significant knowledge gap as there is a need to promote a sustained effect in interventions like Pulmonary Rehabilitation or Supporting Programs. Embracing patient's values seems to be a key ingredient to ignite genuine motivation for behavior change. This manuscript describes two pilot qualitative studies carried out in patients with severe COPD aimed to engage the patient inner experience and promote self-management: a trial testing motivational interviewing (MI) as one style of helping patients with severe COPD make changes in their behavior and second a trial testing a mindfulness-based intervention. The MI study consisted of a 3-month program of weekly coaching phone calls after one face-to-face visit. The following themes were outstanding: patients value the supportive communication with coach and believe the MI-based coaching created increased level of awareness and accountability. They perceived an increase in physical activity and reported "feeling better" or other benefits not directly related to exercise. The Mindfulness for Health Program was a mandatory 8-week program that consisted on 2-hour classes aimed to cultivate nonjudgmental attention in the moment (through different meditative practices and sharing) plus monthly face-to-face encounters aimed to sustain practice and sharing of life experiences for 1 year. The following themes (at 1 year) were outstanding: appreciating life by seeing hardships as opportunities, valuing the self through compassion and awareness, cultivating connectedness with others, acquiring joy, and adopting healthy behaviors. In the search for the "holy grail" for self-management programs that can promote a behavior change, mindfulness and MI seem promising for cultivating a way to live a life in which people are fully present and consciously
Ж В Пузанова
Full Text Available The quality of sociological data is the problem that cannot lose relevance in the works of methodologists and practicing sociologists for decades. Procedures and techniques for the improvement of the quality of information for all type of survey methods are developing. The purpose of the article is to inform the interviewers conducting semi-structured or unstructured interviews of the recommendations developed on the basis of the theory of psychotypes (by V.V. Ponomarenko. This technology will allow to improve the quality of sociological data. Identification of the psychotype of the respondent and his emotional reactions to different sensitive topics during the interview are the basis of this technology. Emotional reactions can be traced by nonverbal cues (facial expressions, gestures and poses and interpreted by the technology of the analysis of nonverbal reactions developed and approved earlier. During the multi-stage experiment, the reactions significant in the course of interview were traced and analyzed - irritation, surprise, sadness, contempt, joy, fear, disgust, stress/discomfort, doubt/indecision, manifestations of mental processes. At the first phase, representatives of ‘ideal types’ of each psychotype were selected by an abridged psychological test and external diagnostics based on sensitive topics. As a result, the recommendations for a semi-structured interview were formulated. To use this technique, it is necessary to test an interviewee before the interview by the abridged psychological technique (in case there are doubts after the visual diagnostics. According to the psychotype the interviewer pays attention to the sensitive topics of the in-terview, and during the interview can reformulate the open-ended questions to reduce the sensitivity of significant topics for each respondent.
Peet, Melissa R.; Walsh, Katherine; Sober, Robin; Rawak, Christine S.
Experts and leaders within most fields possess knowledge that is largely tacit and unconscious in nature. The leaders of most organizations do not "know what they know" and cannot share their knowledge with others. The loss of this essential knowledge is of major concern to organizations. This study tested an innovative method of tacit…
Rojon, C; Saunders, M.N.K.; McDowall, Almuth
In this chapter, we consider a specific example of applying mixed methods designs combining both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches, giving particular attention to issues including reliability and validity. Human resource management (HRM) researchers, like others setting out to examine a novel or insufficiently defined research topic, frequently favour qualitative approaches to gather data during initial stages, to facilitate an in-depth exploration of indivi...
Taipale, Heidi; Tanskanen, Antti; Koponen, Marjaana; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa
Background PRE2DUP is a modeling method that generates drug use periods (ie, when drug use started and ended) from drug purchases recorded in dispensing-based register data. It is based on the evaluation of personal drug purchasing patterns and considers hospital stays, possible stockpiling of drugs, and package information. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate person-level agreement between self-reported drug use in the interview and drug use modeled from dispensing data with PRE2DUP method for various drug classes used by older persons. Methods Self-reported drug use was assessed from the GeMS Study including a random sample of persons aged ≥75 years from the city of Kuopio, Finland, in 2006. Drug purchases recorded in the Prescription register data of these persons were modeled to determine drug use periods with PRE2DUP modeling method. Agreement between self-reported drug use on the interview date and drug use calculated from register-based data was compared in order to find the frequently used drugs and drug classes, which was evaluated by Cohen’s kappa. Kappa values 0.61–0.80 were considered to represent good and 0.81–1.00 as very good agreement. Results Among 569 participants with mean age of 82 years, the agreement between interview and register data was very good for 75% and very good or good for 93% of the studied drugs or drug classes. Good or very good agreement was observed for drugs that are typically used on regular bases, whereas “as needed” drugs represented poorer results. Conclusion PRE2DUP modeling method validly describes regular drug use among older persons. For most of drug classes investigated, PRE2DUP-modeled register data described drug use as well as interview-based data which are more time-consuming to collect. Further studies should be conducted by comparing it with other methods and in different drug user populations. PMID:27785101
Dahl, Marie; Lindholt, Jes; Søgaard, Rikke
and mortality. Whether non-attendees need targeted information to participate in screening is unknown. Thus, it is important to explore the reasons for non-attendance, particularly as non-attendees' perspectives have not been fully explored. DESIGN: AN INTERVIEW STUDY: METHODS: The data were obtained through...... semi-structured interviews with 10 women sampled from a population who declined to participate in a women's screening program for CVD and DM. Additionally, reflective notes on the interview context were documented. The data were collected in 2013. Kvale and Brinkmann's method for data analysis......, whether non-attendance is determined by an informed decision is questionable. Negative experiences with the healthcare system led to hesitation toward screening in general. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: This study is relevant to healthcare workers as well as decision makers from a screening...
Levinsen, Karin; Meyer, Bente
At the kick-off meeting in Vienna October 2005 it was agreed that partners would conduct a limited number of interviews to make an initial survey of issues that would be relevant for the production of the manual & guide. It was therefore the objective of the interviews to produce knowledge about...... technological skills specifically required for live online language teaching define need for qualification of the live online language teacher The Danish team conducted 4 semi-structured interviews with teachers. The interviews were made on the basis of an interview guide discussed by all partners in December...
North, Carol S; Wohlford, Sarah E; Dean, Denis J; Black, Melissa; Balfour, Margaret E; Petrovich, James C; Downs, Dana L; Pollio, David E
Tracking the movements of homeless populations presents methodological difficulties, but understanding their movements in space and time is needed to inform optimal placement of services. This pilot study developed, tested, and refined methods to apply global positioning systems (GPS) technology paired with individual narratives to chronicle the movements of homeless populations. Detail of methods development and difficulties encountered and addressed, and geospatial findings are provided. A pilot sample of 29 adults was recruited from a low-demand homeless shelter in the downtown area of Fort Worth, Texas. Pre- and post-deployment interviews provided participant characteristics and planned and retrospectively-reported travels. Only one of the first eight deployments returned with sufficient usable data. Ultimately 19 participants returned the GPS device with >20 h of usable data. Protocol adjustments addressing methodological difficulties achieved 81 % of subsequent participants returning with sufficient usable data. This study established methods and demonstrated feasibility for tracking homeless population travels.
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Carol A. Puhl
Full Text Available South Africa has eleven official languages, but English is by far the most commonly used medium of instruction in schools. It is therefore essential that the English proficiency of preservice teachers be accurately assessed by means of a valid, reliable and feasible assessment instrument. As there are so many tertiary institutions responsible for teacher certification in the country, standards of oral assessment vary widely. This paper describes a semi-structured oral proficiency test, designed to meet these needs. Possibilities for further development of the test are explored Suid-Afrika erken elf amptelike tale, maar Engels is die medium wat verreweg die meeste in skole gebruik word Dit is dus noodsaaklik dat onderwysstudente se taalvaardigheid in Engels akkuraat gemeet moet kan word dm. v. 'n geldige, betroubare en toepaslike meetinstrument. Die feit dat so baie tersiere inrigtings in Suid-Afrika betrokke is by die sertifisering van onderwysers, lei onvermydelik tot groot skommelinge in standaarde. Hierdie artikel beskryf 'n semigestruktureerde mondelinge taalvaardigheidstoets wat ontwikkel is om in die behoeftes te voorsien. Moontlikhede vir die verdere ontwikkeling van die toets word ondersoek.
Goodsell, Thomas G.; Snorrason, Magnus; Stevens, Mark R.
Situational Awareness (SA) is a critical component of effective autonomous vehicles, reducing operator workload and allowing an operator to command multiple vehicles or simultaneously perform other tasks. Our Scene Estimation & Situational Awareness Mapping Engine (SESAME) provides SA for mobile robots in semi-structured scenes, such as parking lots and city streets. SESAME autonomously builds volumetric models for scene analysis. For example, a SES-AME equipped robot can build a low-resolution 3-D model of a row of cars, then approach a specific car and build a high-resolution model from a few stereo snapshots. The model can be used onboard to determine the type of car and locate its license plate, or the model can be segmented out and sent back to an operator who can view it from different viewpoints. As new views of the scene are obtained, the model is updated and changes are tracked (such as cars arriving or departing). Since the robot's position must be accurately known, SESAME also has automated techniques for deter-mining the position and orientation of the camera (and hence, robot) with respect to existing maps. This paper presents an overview of the SESAME architecture and algorithms, including our model generation algorithm.
Thiam, Mouhamadou; Bennacer, Nacéra; Pernelle, Nathalie; Lô, Moussa
SHIRIis an ontology-based system for integration of semi-structured documents related to a specific domain. The system’s purpose is to allow users to access to relevant parts of documents as answers to their queries. SHIRI uses RDF/OWL for representation of resources and SPARQL for their querying. It relies on an automatic, unsupervised and ontology-driven approach for extraction, alignment and semantic annotation of tagged elements of documents. In this paper, we focus on the Extract-Align algorithm which exploits a set of named entity and term patterns to extract term candidates to be aligned with the ontology. It proceeds in an incremental manner in order to populate the ontology with terms describing instances of the domain and to reduce the access to extern resources such as Web. We experiment it on a HTML corpus related to call for papers in computer science and the results that we obtain are very promising. These results show how the incremental behaviour of Extract-Align algorithm enriches the ontology and the number of terms (or named entities) aligned directly with the ontology increases.
Full Text Available Three-Step Test-Interview (TSTI is a method for pretesting a self-completion questionnaire by first observing actual instances of interaction between the instrument and respondents (the response process before exploring the reasons for this behavior. The TSTI consists of the following three steps: 1. (Respondent-driven observation of response behavior. 2. (Interviewer-driven follow-up probing aimed at remedying gaps in observational data. 3. (Interviewer-driven debriefing aimed at eliciting experiences and opinions. We describe the aims and the techniques of these three steps, and then discuss pilot studies in which we tested the feasibility and the productivity of the TSTI by applying it in testing three rather different types of questionnaires. In the first study, the quality of a set of questions about alcohol consumption was assessed. The TSTI proved to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from a mismatch between the ‘theory’ underlying the questions on the one hand, and features of a respondent’s actual behavior and biography on the other hand. In the second pilot study, Dutch and Norwegian versions of an attitude scale, the 20-item Illegal Aliens Scale, were tested. The TSTI appeared to be productive in identifying problems that resulted from different ‘response strategies’. In the third pilot, a two-year longitudinal study, the TSTI appeared to be an effective method for documenting processes of ‘response shift’ in repeated measurements of health-related Quality of Life (QoL.
Full Text Available To identify and understand, through data from multiple sources, some of the factors that affect authors' and editors' decisions to use reporting guidelines in the publication of health research.Mixed methods study comprising an online survey and semi-structured interviews with a sample of authors (online survey: n = 56; response rate = 32%; semi-structured interviews: n = 5 and journal editors (online survey: n = 43; response rate = 27%; semi-structured interviews: n = 6 involved in publishing health and medical research. Participants were recruited from an earlier study examining the effectiveness of the TREND reporting guideline.Four types of factors interacted to affect authors' and editors' likelihood of reporting guideline use; individual (e.g., having multiple reasons for use of reporting guidelines; the professional culture in which people work; environmental (e.g., policies of journals; and, practical (e.g., having time to use reporting guidelines. Having multiple reasons for using reporting guidelines was a particularly salient factor in facilitating reporting guidelines use for both groups of participants.Improving the completeness and consistency of reporting of research studies is critical to the integrity and synthesis of health research. The use of reporting guidelines offers one potentially efficient and effective means for achieving this, but decisions to use (or not use reporting guidelines take many factors into account. These findings could be used to inform future studies that might, for example, test the factors that we have identified within a wider theoretical framework for understanding changes in professional practices. The use of reporting guidelines by senior professionals appears to shape the expectations of what constitutes best practice and can be assimilated into the culture of a field or discipline. Without evidence of effectiveness of reporting guidelines, and sustained, multifaceted efforts to improve reporting
Vos, Martina S.; Putter, Hein; Leurs, Amber; Rooijmans, Harry G. M.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; van Houwelingen, Hans C.
Based on Weissman and Hackett's comprehensive definition of denial, a semi-structured interview was developed to measure denial in cancer patients. The denial in cancer interview (DCI) covers both the patients' recount of their illness experience and the expert's impression of the level of denial in
Mesman, R.; Faber, M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Berden, H.
Objective: To contribute to a better understanding of volume-outcome relationships in surgery by exploring Dutch surgeons' views on the underlying mechanism. Design: A qualitative study based on face-to-face semi structured interviews and an inductive content analysis approach. Setting: Interviews
He, Jun; Guo, Yi Maggie
It is important for MIS educators to have a good understanding of what IT knowledge and skills are required in business. In this study, 103 open job positions in the Midwestern United States were investigated via semi-structured interviews with hiring companies. The interviews with key business recruiters suggest that IT knowledge and skills are…
Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Björnsdóttir, Ingunn
There has been an upsurge of academic interest in using focus groups (FGs) as a main or stand-alone qualitative method. In this article, the authors introduce a recently developed ancillary method to FGs called interviewing the moderator. The method is employed immediately after an FG and consists...... of a one-on-one interview with the FG moderator by another member of the research team. The authors argue, with reference to a specific study, that interviewing the moderator adds a new and valuable dimension to group interviews used in research. They describe how this method came about and provide...
Evron, L.; Schultz-Larsen, K.; Fristrup, T.
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Evron, Lotte; Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Fristrup, Tine
Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Thos...... the findings of this study to a public health message, we have to consider moving the focus of falls prevention strategies from disease control to the domain of health promotion in order to engage older adults in preventive healthcare.......Aims: To gain new knowledge about barriers to participation in hospital-based falls assessment. Methods: Semi-structured interviews with 20 older people referred to falls assessment at a hospital-based clinic were conducted. A convenience sample of 10 refusers and 10 accepters was collected. Those...... system taking over their life. Conclusions: This study indicates that older at-risk patients acknowledge their falls problem, but refuse to participate in hospital-based assessment programmes because they expect to lose their authority and to be caught up in the healthcare system. In order to transform...
Evald, Majbritt Rostgaard; Freytag, Per Vagn; Nielsen, Suna Løwe
the transformation that neutral research methods go through, we consider an often-used method in business research, which researchers often become familiar with or have opinions about, which is the personal interview. The illustration of how the personal interview can be influenced by three different paradigms lays...
Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H
This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet...... and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions...... of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg...
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Face-to-face (FTF interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM and men who inject drugs (MWID. However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. METHODS: This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. RESULTS: MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05 and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001 than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6 and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0. MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9 and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9 in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5. CONCLUSION: The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies
Phillips Carl V
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although smokeless tobacco (ST use has played a major role in the low smoking prevalence among Swedish men, there is little information at the population level about ST as a smoking cessation aid in the U.S. Methods We used the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to derive population estimates for the number of smokers who had tried twelve methods in their most recent quit attempt, and for the numbers and proportions who were former or current smokers at the time of the survey. Results An estimated 359,000 men switched to smokeless tobacco in their most recent quit attempt. This method had the highest proportion of successes among those attempting it (73%, representing 261,000 successful quitters (switchers. In comparison, the nicotine patch was used by an estimated 2.9 million men in their most recent quit attempt, and almost one million (35% were former smokers at the time of the survey. Of the 964,000 men using nicotine gum, about 323,000 (34% became former smokers. Of the 98,000 men who used the nicotine inhaler, 27,000 quit successfully (28%. None of the estimated 14,000 men who tried the nicotine nasal spray became former smokers. Forty-two percent of switchers also reported quitting smoking all at once, which was higher than among former smokers who used medications (8–19%. Although 40% of switchers quit smoking less than 5 years before the survey, 21% quit over 20 years earlier. Forty-six percent of switchers were current ST users at the time of the survey. Conclusion Switching to ST compares very favorably with pharmaceutical nicotine as a quit-smoking aid among American men, despite the fact that few smokers know that the switch provides almost all of the health benefits of complete tobacco abstinence. The results of this study show that tobacco harm reduction is a viable cessation option for American smokers.
This investigation strives to determine the level of ecodesign awareness as well as to map the use of methods and tools for this concept in the electrical and electronics industries of Thailand. The foundation of the thesis is eight semi-structured qualitative research interviews performed with various people at Thai organisations, an electronics manufacturer in Thailand, and experts from Swedish, Danish and Thai universities. The research method has yielded the following results: The level o...
Full Text Available Objective: To identify the most effective survey interview method for measuring risk behavior among young adults in the Dominican Republic. Methods: 1200 young adults were randomized to one of four different survey interview methods: two interviewer-assisted methods [face-to-face interview (FTFI, and computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI], and two self-administered methods [self-administered interview (SAI, and audio computer-assisted, self-administered interview (ACASI]. Youth were asked about a wide range of youth-specific risk behaviors, including violence, substance use, as well as sexual and reproductive health. Quality of data collected was examined by looking at how the survey was administered, including identifying two sources of errors that typically threaten data quality11 This study assumes that bias does not change with sample size. In order to increase the sample size, the data collection period was extended, leaving everything else unchanged. It is, therefore, assumed that the decreasing effects of the learning curve are negligible.: (i errors at the individual level with regards to survey methodology performance and cognitive difficulties [measured with the Response Consistency Index (RCI]; and (ii errors at the aggregate level (how desirability bias, interviewer gender, and interview privacy settings affect responses. Results: No statistically significant differences in participant non-response rates were found at the individual level across all survey interview methods. At the individual question level, self-completion methods generated higher non-response and error rates than assisted methods. The SAI method showed the poorest performance of all four methods in terms of non-response rate (1.6%22 Percentage of data with non-response values at the question level. and RCI (83.0%.At the aggregate level, the prevalence of several key risk indicators was statistically significant between methods. Using means-adjustment for
Andersson, Kerstin; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Nordenram, Gunilla; Wårdh, Inger
The purpose of this study was to explore general medical practitioners' (GPs) perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The design was a qualitative study based on individual in-depth interviews with GPs. The criterion for inclusion in the study was that the GP was a specialist in family medicine working in a primary health care centre (PHCC:s) in the county of Stockholm. The participants took part in the study after informed consent. Eleven GPs were interviewed. The interview started with semi-structured questions about the respondents' clinical presentation of their elderly patients', e.g. medication, medical treatment and socioeconomic status. The interview concluded with questions about the respondents' experiences of and perceptions of the oral health of their patients. This process started with the first interview and proceeded with successive interviews until no new relevant information was forthcoming. The initial semi-structured part of the interview guide was analysed for content with special reference to descriptive answers. The final open questions were analysed by a method inspired by grounded theory (GT) and comprised three stages: open coding, axial coding and selective coding. In the GT influenced analysis process, three categories, health perspective, working conditions and cultural differences, each in turn containing subcategories, were identified and labelled. The most significant category, cultural differences, was identified as the core category, explaining the central meaning of the respondents' perceptions of the oral health of their elderly patients. The GPs in this study showed little or no awareness of the oral health of their elderly patients. The interviews disclosed several contributing factors. Barriers to closer integration of oral and general health in the elderly were identified. There existed a cultural gap between the disciplines of dentistry and medicine, which does not enhance and may be detrimental to the
Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew
Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context. This study evaluated differences in the reporting of HIV-related risky behaviours by MSM and MWID using ACASI and FTF interviews. Between August and September 2010, 712 MSM and 328 MWID in Nigeria were randomized to either ACASI or FTF interview for completion of a behavioural survey that included questions on sensitive sexual and injecting risk behaviours. Data were analyzed separately for MSM and MWID. Logistic regression was run for each behaviour as a dependent variable to determine differences in reporting methods. MSM interviewed via ACASI reported significantly higher risky behaviours with both women (multiple female sexual partners 51% vs. 43%, p = 0.04; had unprotected anal sex with women 72% vs. 57%, p = 0.05) and men (multiple male sex partners 70% vs. 54%, p≤0.001) than through FTF. Additionally, they were more likely to self-identify as homosexual (AOR: 3.3, 95%CI:2.4-4.6) and report drug use in the past 12 months (AOR:40.0, 95%CI: 9.6-166.0). MWID interviewed with ACASI were more likely to report needle sharing (AOR:3.3, 95%CI:1.2-8.9) and re-use (AOR:2.2, 95%CI:1.2-3.9) in the past month and prior HIV testing (AOR:1.6, 95%CI 1.02-2.5). The feasibility of using ACASI in studies and clinics targeting key populations in Nigeria must be explored to increase the likelihood of obtaining more accurate data on high risk behaviours to inform improved risk reduction strategies that reduce HIV transmission.
Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen
To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine
in qualitative interviews. I first presented the paper on a conference on life history research at Karlstad University in November 2010. My main purpose was to establish whether a paper discussing the use of time line interviews should be placed in the context of a life history research. The valuable comments......My first encounter with life history research was during my Ph.D. research. This concerned a multi-method study of nomadic mobility in Senegal. One method stood out as yielding the most interesting and in-depth data: life story interviews using a time line. I made interviews with the head...... of the nomadic households and during these I came to understand the use of mobility in a complex context of continuity and change, identity and belonging in the Fulani community. Time line interviews became one of my favourite tool in the years to follow, a tool used both for my research in various settings...
Full Text Available Although mobile methods are becoming more common within the social sciences (e.g. Ricketts Hein et al., 2008 and Wiederhold, 2015, p. 607, they mostly take place outdoors. This paper examines the potential of walking interviews conducted in small domestic spaces to explore the ICT experiences of women aged 60+ and to discuss the challenges and advantages of this method. This case study of indoor walking interview material is a part of a larger research project on the ICT experiences of women 60+ in the Austrian province of Styria. The advantages and challenges of conducting walking interviews in the homes of interviewees are identified and explored. As this case study demonstrates, walking interviews in homes give the researcher a glimpse into the private areas of everyday life, let the interviewees lead the researcher through the space, allow the participants to conduct the conversation, and thus invite a reflection on the power dynamics inherent in the interview situation. This method also compares the statements provided by participants in semi-structured interviews with the information gathered through an encounter with media and ICTs in the home. These comparisons yield a variety of insights on prior statements through the addition of emphases, “contradictions,” or minimizing the importance of previous interview statements. Moreover, interactions with the objects in the home that are encountered during the walking interview also provide important “prompts” to stimulate a detailed and multifaceted discussion of everyday life experiences with ICTs and other media.
Sposato, Niklas S; Bjerså, Kristofer
Assessment in manual therapy includes quantitative and qualitative procedures, and intervertebral motion palpation (IMP) is one of the core assessment methods in osteopathic practice. The aim of this study was to explore osteopathic practitioners' experiences of clinical decision-making and IMP as a diagnostic tool for planning and evaluation of osteopathic interventions. The study was conducted with semi-structured interviews that included eight informants. Content analysis was used as the analytical procedure. In total, three categories emerged from the analysis: strategic decision-making, diagnostic usability of IMP, and treatment applicability of IMP. The study indicated that IMP was considered relevant and was given particular importance in cases where IMP findings confirmed clinical information attained from other stages in the diagnostic process as a whole. However, IMP findings were experienced as less important if they were not correlated to other findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tenney, Nienke H.; Schotte, Chris K. W.; Denys, Damiaan A. J. P.; van Megen, Harold J. G. M.; Westenberg, Herman G. M.
In patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, personality disorders are not many times assessed according to DSM-IV criteria. The purpose of the present study is to examine the prevalence of personality disorders diagnosed according to the DSM-IV in a severely disordered OCD population (n=65) with
Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA, the process of interviewing a deceased’s family or caregiver about signs and symptoms leading up to death, employs tools that ask a series of closed questions and can include an open narrative where respondents give an unprompted account of events preceding death. The extent to which an individual interviewer, who generally does not interpret the data, affects the quality of this data, and therefore the assigned cause of death, is poorly documented. We aimed to examine inter-interviewer reliability of open narrative and closed question data gathered during VA interviews. Methods During the introduction of VA data collection, as part of a larger study in Mchinji district, Malawi, we conducted partner interviews whereby two interviewers independently recorded open narrative and closed questions during the same interview. Closed questions were collected using a smartphone application (mobile-InterVA and open narratives using pen and paper. We used mixed methods of analysis to evaluate the differences between recorded responses to open narratives and closed questions, causes of death assigned, and additional information gathered by open narrative. Results Eighteen partner interviews were conducted, with complete data for 11 pairs. Comparing closed questions between interviewers, the median number of differences was 1 (IQR: 0.5–3.5 of an average 65 answered; mean inter-interviewer concordance was 92 % (IQR: 92–99 %. Discrepancies in open narratives were summarized in five categories: demographics, history and care-seeking, diagnoses and symptoms, treatment and cultural. Most discrepancies were seen in the reporting of diagnoses and symptoms (e.g., malaria diagnosis; only one pair demonstrated no clear differences. The average number of clinical symptoms reported was 9 in open narratives and 20 in the closed questions. Open narratives contained additional information on health seeking and social issues
Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Hastings, Ranelda; Coho-Mescal, Valerie; Lorenzo, Sherilyn; Walkup, John T.
Computer-assisted interviewing techniques have increasingly been used in program and research settings to improve data collection quality and efficiency. Little is known, however, regarding the use of such techniques with American Indian (AI) adolescents in collecting sensitive information. This brief compares the consistency of AI adolescent…
Scherba de Valenzuela, J.; Kay-Raining Bird, E.; Parkington, K.; Mirenda, P.; Cain, K.; MacLeod, A.A.N.; Segers, P.C.J.
The purpose of this article is to describe the results of a thematic analysis of 79 semi-structured interviews collected at six research sites in four countries in relation to the inclusion and exclusion of students with developmental disabilities (DD) in and from special education and bilingual
Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Rytter, Søren
: Workers aged 18-70 years who contacted the two emergency departments for an acute occupational injury in 2013 were eligible and given a short questionnaire. Following written consent, a semi-structured interview concerning health and transient risk factors was conducted by telephone. The two departments...
Oleson, J. C.
As part of my Ph.D. research on criminal genius, I conducted 44 semi-structured interviews. One of the 44 subjects, in particular, stood out. This noteworthy individual claimed that he had killed 15 people. His story was particularly interesting because--unlike most social research involving serial killers--he claimed that he had never been…
Bean, Melanie K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen
To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity rem...
Lyles, Courtney R; Gupta, Reena; Tieu, Lina; Fernandez, Alicia
After-visit summary (AVS) documents presenting key information from each medical encounter have become standard in the USA due to federal health care reform. Little is known about how they are used or whether they improve patient care. First, we completed a literature review and described the totality of the literature on AVS by article type and major outcome measures. Next, we used reputational sampling from large-scale US studies on primary care to identify and interview nine stakeholders on their perceptions of AVS across high-performing primary care practices. Interviews were transcribed and coded for AVS use in practice, perceptions of the best/worst features and recommendations for improving AVS utility in routine care. The literature review resulted in 17 studies; patients reported higher perceived value of AVS compared with providers, despite poor recall of specific AVS content and varied post-visit use. In key informant interviews, key informants expressed enthusiasm for the potential of using AVS to reinforce key information with patients, especially if AVS were customizable. Despite this potential, key informants found that AVS included incorrect information and did not feel that patients or their practices were using AVS to enhance care. There is a gap between the potential of AVS and how providers and patients are using it in routine care. Suggestions for improved use of AVS include increasing customization, establishing care team responsibilities and workflows and ensuring patients with communication barriers have dedicated support to review AVS during visits.
Lavis, John N; Oxman, Andrew D; Moynihan, Ray; Paulsen, Elizabeth J
Only a small number of previous efforts to describe the experiences of organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs), undertake health technology assessments (HTAs), or directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy (i.e., government support units, or GSUs) have relied on interviews and then only with HTA agencies. Interviews offer the potential for capturing experiences in great depth, particularly the experiences of organizations that may be under-represented in surveys. We purposively sampled organizations from among those who completed a questionnaire in the first phase of our three-phase study, developed and piloted a semi-structured interview guide, and conducted the interviews by telephone, audio-taped them, and took notes simultaneously. Binary or categorical responses to more structured questions were counted when possible. Themes were identified from among responses to semi-structured questions using a constant comparative method of analysis. Illustrative quotations were identified to supplement the narrative description of the themes. We interviewed the director (or his or her nominee) in 25 organizations, of which 12 were GSUs. Using rigorous methods that are systematic and transparent (sometimes shortened to 'being evidence-based') was the most commonly cited strength among all organizations. GSUs more consistently described their close links with policymakers as a strength, whereas organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both had conflicting viewpoints about such close links. With few exceptions, all types of organizations tended to focus largely on weaknesses in implementation, rather than strengths. The advice offered to those trying to establish similar organizations include: 1) collaborate with other organizations; 2) establish strong links with policymakers and stakeholders; 3) be independent and manage conflicts of interest; 4) build capacity; 5) use good methods and be transparent; 6) start small and
Bokström, P; Fängström, K; Calam, R; Lucas, S; Sarkadi, A
In the health care services, children's rights to participate in all matters that concern them are considered important. However, in practice this can be challenging with young children. In My Shoes (IMS) is a computer-assisted interview tool developed to help children talk about their experiences. The aim of the study was to evaluate the IMS' ability to elicit pre-schoolers' subjective experiences and accurate accounts of a routine health visit as well as the children's engagement in the interview process. Interviews were conducted with 23 children aged 4-5 years, 2-4 weeks after their health visit. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using a method inspired by Content Analysis to evaluate IMS's ability to elicit accounts about subjective experiences. Accurate accounts were assessed by comparing the transcribed interviews with the filmed visits at the child health centre. The children's engagement was defined by the completion and length of the interviews, and the children's interaction with the software. All children gave accounts about their subjective experiences, such as their emotional state during the visit, available toys or rewards they received. All children related to the correct event, they all named at least one person who was present and 87% correctly named at least one examination procedure. The majority of children (91%) completed the interview, which lasted 17-39 min (M = 24), and 96% interacted with the IMS software. IMS was feasible to help children describe their health care experiences, in both detail and depth. The children interacted with the software and maintained their interest for an extended period of time. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kennedy, S H; Katz, R; Rockert, W; Mendlowitz, S; Ralevski, E; Clewes, J
Interest in assessing Personality Disorders (PDs) in association with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) has been accompanied by the development of several structured interview and self-report measures. In an attempt to see how the self-report Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) compared with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II) in the assessment of PDs, we gave both instruments to 43 inpatients with a diagnosis of AN or BN. Correlation coefficient values for both categorical and dimensional comparisons were generally less than .4. Although comparable rates of positive PDs occurred for each of the three clusters (A: 30.2% vs. 34.9%, B: 25.6% vs. 18.6%, and C: 62.8% vs. 81.4% for SCID-II vs. MCMI-II), agreement for individual diagnosis and individual subjects was poor. In conclusion, the MCMI-II did not prove to be a reliable instrument for assessing axis II PDs in patients with AN and BN when compared with the SCID-II.
Hiremath, S.; van Evert, F.K.; ter Braak, C.J.F.; Stein, A.; van der Heijden, G.
Autonomous navigation of field robots in an agricultural environment is a difficult task due to the inherent uncertainty in the environment. The drawback of existing systems is the lack of robustness to these uncertainties. In this study we propose a vision-based navigation method to address these
Mariana Cristina Lobato dos Santos Ribeiro Silva
Full Text Available The 15-minute family interview is a condensed form of the Calgary Family Assessment and Intervention Models (CFAM and CFIM that aims to contribute to the establishment of a therapeutic relationship between nurses and family and to implement interventions to promote health and suffering relief, even during brief interactions. This study investigated the experience of nurses from the Family Health Strategy (FHS who used the 15-minute interview on postpartum home. The qualitative research was conducted in three stages: participants' training program, utilization of the 15-minute family interview by participants, and interviews with nurses. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with eight nurses. The thematic analysis revealed two main themes: dealing with the challenge of a new practice and evaluating the assignment. This work shows that this tool can be used to deepen relationships between nurses and families in the Family Health Strategy.
Adebajo, Sylvia; Obianwu, Otibho; Eluwa, George; Vu, Lung; Oginni, Ayo; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Ahonsi, Babatunde; Bashorun, Adebobola; Idogho, Omokhudu; Karlyn, Andrew
INTRODUCTION: Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mi...
Matheus dos Santos
Full Text Available The submarine exploration using robots has been increasing in recent years. The automation of tasks such as monitoring, inspection, and underwater maintenance requires the understanding of the robot’s environment. The object recognition in the scene is becoming a critical issue for these systems. On this work, an underwater object classification pipeline applied in acoustic images acquired by Forward-Looking Sonar (FLS are studied. The object segmentation combines thresholding, connected pixels searching and peak of intensity analyzing techniques. The object descriptor extract intensity and geometric features of the detected objects. A comparison between the Support Vector Machine, K-Nearest Neighbors, and Random Trees classifiers are presented. An open-source tool was developed to annotate and classify the objects and evaluate their classification performance. The proposed method efficiently segments and classifies the structures in the scene using a real dataset acquired by an underwater vehicle in a harbor area. Experimental results demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of the method described in this paper.
Schildmeijer, Kristina; Nilsson, Lena; Perk, Joep; Arestedt, Kristofer; Nilsson, Gunilla
The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm. A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis. 5 Swedish hospitals in 2011. 5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses. 5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. 8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members' knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics. The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.
Rosser, B R Simon; Capistrant, Benjamin
Recently, researchers have faced the challenge of conflicting recommendations for online versus traditional methods to recruit and interview older, sexual minority men. Older populations represent the cohort least likely to be online, necessitating the use of traditional research methods, such as telephone or in-person interviews. By contrast, gay and bisexual men represent a population of early adopters of new technology, both in general and for medical research. In a study of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, we asked whether respondents preferred online versus offline methods for data collection. Given the paucity of research on how to recruit older gay and bisexual men in general, and older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer in particular, we conducted an observational study to identify participant preferences when participating in research studies. To test online versus offline recruitment demographic data collection, and interview preferences of older gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer. Email blasts were sent from a website providing support services for gay and bisexual men with prostate cancer, supplemented with an email invitation from the web-host. All invitations provided information via the study website address and a toll-free telephone number. Study tasks included respondents being screened, giving informed consent, completing a short survey collecting demographic data, and a 60-75 minute telephone or Internet chat interview. All materials stressed that enrollees could participate in each task using either online methods or by telephone, whichever they preferred. A total of 74 men were screened into the study, and 30 were interviewed. The average age of the participants was 63 years (standard deviation 6.9, range 48-75 years), with most residing in 14 American states, and one temporarily located overseas. For screening, consent, and the collection of demographic data, 97% (29/30) of the participants completed these tasks
The important role that metacognition plays as a predictor for student mathematical learning and for mathematical problem-solving, has been extensively documented. But only recently has attention turned to primary grades, and more research is needed at this level. The goals of this paper are threefold: (1) to present metacognitive framework during mathematics problem-solving, (2) to describe their multi-method interview approach developed to study student mathematical metacognition, and (3) to empirically evaluate the utility of their model and the adaptation of their approach in the context of grade 2 and grade 4 mathematics problem-solving. The results are discussed not only with regard to further development of the adapted multi-method interview approach, but also with regard to their theoretical and practical implications.
Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina
The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…
Roelofs, J.; Muris, P.; Braet, C.; Arntz, A.; Beelen, I.
The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Disorders (Kid-SCID) is a semi-structured interview for the classification of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents. This study presents a first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Kid-SCID in a Dutch sample of children
Ganatra, B; Kalyanwala, S; Elul, B; Coyaji, K; Tewari, S
We explored women's perspectives on using medical abortion, including their reasons for selecting the method, their experiences with it and their thoughts regarding demedicalisation of part or all of the process. Sixty-three women from two urban clinics in India were interviewed within four weeks of abortion completion using a semi-structured in-depth interview guide. While women appreciated the non-invasiveness of medical abortion, other factors influencing method selection were family support and distance from the facility. The degree of medicalisation that women wanted or felt was necessary also depended on the way expectations were set by their providers. Confirmation of abortion completion was a source of anxiety for many women and led to unnecessary interventions in a few cases. Ultimately, experiences depended more on women's expectations about the method, and on the level of emotional and logistic support they received rather than on inherent characteristics of the method. These findings emphasise the circumstances under which women make reproductive choices and underscore the need to tailor service delivery to meet women's needs. Women-centred counselling and care that takes into consideration individual circumstances are needed.
Wang, Ya-Ching; Griffiths, Jane; Grande, Gunn
This article presents the qualitative findings of a mixed-methods study that explored factors influencing lesbians' breast health-care behavior and intentions. A total of 37 semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted among women who self-identified as lesbians or women who partnered with the same gender who were aged 20 years or above in four areas of Taiwan (North, Central, South, and East Taiwan) between August 2012 and October 2012. Interviews were audio recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were analyzed using constant comparative analysis with Nvivo audio-coding support. Four themes were identified to be strongly associated with the lesbians' breast health-care behavior and their intentions, namely, gender identity, gender role expression, partners' support, and concerns about health-care providers' reactions. Important barriers to the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions were masculine identity ("T-identity" in Taiwan), masculine appearance, concerns about health-care providers' lack of knowledge of multiple gender diversity, and their attitudes toward lesbians. Conversely, their partners' support was a factor facilitating the women's breast health-care behavior and intentions, particularly for the T-identity lesbians. These findings suggest the significance of and need for culturally competent care and are important for improving Taiwanese lesbians' breast health.
Vincent, Christopher James; Blandford, Ann
We present findings of a UK study into how those involved in purchasing interactive medical devices go about evaluating usability, the challenges that arise, and opportunities for improvement. The study focused on procurement of infusion devices because these are used by various professionals across healthcare. A semi-structured interview study was carried out involving a range of stakeholders (20 in total) involved in or impacted by medical device procurement. Data was analysed using thematic analysis, a qualitative method designed to support the identification, analysis and reporting of patterns. In principle, health service purchasing was found to accommodate consideration of equipment usability. In practice, the evaluation process was driven primarily by engineering standards; assessment of local needs did not accommodate substantive assessment of usability; and choice was limited by the availability of equipment on the marketplace. We discuss ways in which purchasing could be improved through techniques that account for social circumstances. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote
Full Text Available Objective: Metacognition is a multi-component psychological construct, characterised by the ability to identify and describe one’s own mental states and those of others. Evidence has been found for an association between deficits in metacognitive abilities and poor social functioning, low quality of life, psychopathology, and symptoms in Personality Disorders (PDs. However, to date, there are few psychometrically validated instruments available for assessing the different components of metacognition. A semi-structured interview, the Metacognition Assessment Interview (MAI, has been developed to evaluate different domains of metacognition. In the present study, we investigated the psychometric properties of the MAI in an outpatient clinical sample. Method: The MAI was administered to a clinical population of 306 outpatients attending a private clinical centre. Exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and correlation with instruments assessing alexithymia and interpersonal problems were carried out to examine the dimensionality and validity of the MAI. Result: Explorative and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a good fit for both a two-factor model and a four-factor model of metacognition. The two-factor model yielded two main dimensions, which we named: Self domain, defined as self-reflection, and Other domain, defined as critical distancing from one’s own mental state and that of others. The four-factor solution is composed of four sub-domains: monitoring, integration, differentiation and decentration. Moreover, the MAI showed good convergent validity, with significant correlations with both alexithymia and interpersonal problems. Conclusions: These results confirm that the MAI is a reliable instrument for measuring metacognition and its different sub-domains. In particular, the MAI represents a useful and flexible instrument for the assessment of metacognition impairments in different psychopathologies and it can provide
Full Text Available Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder are often said to present a global pragmatic impairment. However, there is some observational evidence that context-based comprehension of indirect requests may be preserved in autism. In order to provide experimental confirmation to this hypothesis, indirect speech act comprehension was tested in a group of 15 children with autism between 7 and 12 years and a group of 20 typically developing children between 2:7 and 3:6 years. The aim of the study was to determine whether children with autism can display genuinely contextual understanding of indirect requests. The experiment consisted of a three-pronged semi-structured task involving Mr Potato Head. In the first phase a declarative sentence was uttered by one adult as an instruction to put a garment on a Mr Potato Head toy; in the second the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by another speaker; in the third phase the same sentence was uttered as a comment on a picture by the first speaker. Children with autism complied with the indirect request in the first phase and demonstrated the capacity to inhibit the directive interpretation in phases 2 and 3. TD children had some difficulty in understanding the indirect instruction in phase 1. These results call for a more nuanced view of pragmatic dysfunction in autism.
The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative…
Sommers, Benjamin D; Arntson, Emily; Kenney, Genevieve M; Epstein, Arnold M
Background The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands Medicaid in 2014 in participating states. Meanwhile, six states have already expanded Medicaid since 2010 to some or all of the low-income adults targeted under health reform. We undertook an in-depth exploration of these six “early-expander” states—California, Connecticut, the District of Columbia, Minnesota, New Jersey, and Washington—through interviews with high-ranking Medicaid officials. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 high-ranking Medicaid officials in six states and analyzed the interviews using qualitative methods. Interviews explored enrollment outreach, stakeholder involvement, impact on beneficiaries, utilization and costs, implementation challenges, and potential lessons for 2014. Two investigators independently analyzed interview transcripts and iteratively refined the codebook until reaching consensus. Results We identified several themes. First, these expansions built upon pre-existing state-funded insurance programs for the poor. Second, predictions about costs and enrollment were challenging, indicating the uncertainty in projections for 2014. Other themes included greater than anticipated need for behavioral health services in the expansion population, administrative challenges of expansions, and persistent barriers to enrollment and access after expanding eligibility—though officials overall felt the expansions increased access for beneficiaries. Finally, political context—support or opposition from stakeholders and voters—plays a critical role in shaping the success of Medicaid expansions. Conclusions Early Medicaid expansions under the ACA offer important lessons to federal and state policymakers as the 2014 expansions approach. While the context of each state’s expansion is unique, key shared experiences were significant implementation challenges and opportunities for expanding access to needed services. PMID:24834369
Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.
, an amount of control was required over the nature of those experiences. With these requirements, a hybrid study was designed by deconstructing the conceptualization of "the experiment" and utilizing both quantitative and qualitative methods. The resulting study involved the following: a within......-subjects experimental design served as the framework for the study, while in-depth qualitative interviews were employed alongside surveys and audio and video recording as the data collection methods. Data collection occurred while participants were engaging with the media products, via talk aloud protocols......, and afterwards when they were asked to recall and compare these situations in open-ended questionnaires and interviews structured using Dervin's Sense-Making Methodology. Having completed the study using this mixed method(ology) approach, I discuss the effectiveness of this approach, and where the approach...
Cleary, Hayley M D; Warner, Todd C
Despite empirical progress in documenting and classifying various interrogation techniques, very little is known about how police are trained in interrogation methods, how frequently they use various techniques, and whether they employ techniques differentially with adult versus juvenile suspects. This study reports the nature and extent of formal (e.g., Reid Technique, PEACE, HUMINT) and informal interrogation training as well as self-reported technique usage in a diverse national sample (N = 340) of experienced American police officers. Officers were trained in a variety of different techniques ranging from comparatively benign pre-interrogation strategies (e.g., building rapport, observing body language or speech patterns) to more psychologically coercive techniques (e.g., blaming the victim, discouraging denials). Over half the sample reported being trained to use psychologically coercive techniques with both adults and juveniles. The majority (91%) receive informal, "on the job" interrogation training. Technique usage patterns indicate a spectrum of psychological intensity where information-gathering approaches were used most frequently and high-pressure tactics less frequently. Reid-trained officers (56%) were significantly more likely than officers without Reid training to use pre-interrogation and manipulation techniques. Across all analyses and techniques, usage patterns were identical for adult and juvenile suspects, suggesting that police interrogate youth in the same manner as adults. Overall, results suggest that training in specific interrogation methods is strongly associated with usage. Findings underscore the need for more law enforcement interrogation training in general, especially with juvenile suspects, and highlight the value of training as an avenue for reducing interrogation-induced miscarriages of justice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Spillane, Ailbhe; Larkin, Celine; Corcoran, Paul; Matvienko-Sikar, Karen; Arensman, Ella
Research indicates that experiencing the suicide of a relative can have a significant impact on family members' emotional health. However, research incorporating the impact of suicide bereavement on family members' physical health is sparse. This paper details the protocol for a mixed-methods study of suicide-bereaved family members. The study will primarily examine the physical and mental health needs of those bereaved by suicide. A secondary objective of the study is to describe the support service needs of family members bereaved by suicide. A mixed-methods approach, using semistructured interviews and self-report questionnaires, will be used. Interviews will be conducted with a group of 15-20 relatives who experienced suicide bereavement. This protocol will follow the COREQ checklist criteria for the reporting of qualitative research interviews. Thematic analysis will be used to examine experiences and impact of bereavement on psychological and physical health. Self-report quantitative data on well-being will be analysed using descriptive statistics. Ethical approval to conduct this study has been granted from the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Cork Teaching Hospitals. Pseudonyms will be given to participants to protect anonymity. It will be explained to participants that participation in the study is voluntary and they have to right to withdraw at any time. The findings of this research will be disseminated to regional, national and international audiences through publication in peer-reviewed international journals and presentations at scientific conferences. This research also forms part of a PhD thesis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Øzhayat, Esben Boeskov; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Elverdam, Beth
it with a traditional history taking, in generating information to be used in decision making in oral rehabilitation. Fifty-seven participants in need of oral rehabilitation were enrolled in the study. The participants underwent a traditional history taking and were interviewed using the SEIQoL-DW method. The SEIQo......Decision making in oral rehabilitation is often based on diagnoses related to impairment of different oral functions. In making the decision when to treat, the dentist must work in cooperation with the patient. By incorporating patient-generated aspects into the decision making process, the dentist...... percentage of the participants were positive towards the use of the SEIQoL-DW method in their treatment planning. The SEIQoL-DW was considered to be a viable tool for decision making in oral rehabilitation....
Lavender, Hilary; Khondoker, Abul Hussain; Jones, Roger
Depression remains a major public health problem, but little is known about the views and understandings of depression held by many ethnic groups. Aim. To explore views and understandings of depression in three ethnic groups-Yoruba, Sylheti-speaking Bangladeshi and White British-living in South London. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews, using vignettes describing depressed individuals. General practice and the community in Southwark, South London, UK. Participants. 20 Yoruba, 20 Bangladeshi and 20 White British people, recruited from primary care. Interviews (in English for Yoruba and White British, in Sylheti for the Bangladeshi participants) were recorded and transcribed. Atlas ti software was used to organize the data. Views on the causes and cures for depression were diverse. A diagnosis of depression can have adverse social consequences in all groups. Magic had a role in both causation and cure in the Yoruba and to a lesser extent in the Bangladeshi groups. Religion was important for many people in all groups. Family factors were dominant in the Bangladeshi participants, whilst the White British often identified more 'psychological' causes of depression. Coping methods and health-seeking behaviours included religion, family, friends and neighbours, and becoming more active. Formal psychiatric interventions and taking antidepressants were not priorities. Cultural models of depression, including its causes and treatment, are diverse, and are different among cultural groups. This study raises questions about the value of Western approaches to mild and moderate depression in these groups of patients.
Ali, Habiba I; Jarrar, Amjad H; Abo-El-Enen, Mostafa; Al Shamsi, Mariam; Al Ashqar, Huda
Increasing the healthfulness of campus food environments is an important step in promoting healthful food choices among college students. This study explored university students' suggestions on promoting healthful food choices from campus vending machines. It also examined factors influencing students' food choices from vending machines. Peer-led semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with 43 undergraduate students (33 females and 10 males) recruited from students enrolled in an introductory nutrition course in a large national university in the United Arab Emirates. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded to generate themes using N-Vivo software. Accessibility, peer influence, and busy schedules were the main factors influencing students' food choices from campus vending machines. Participants expressed the need to improve the nutritional quality of the food items sold in the campus vending machines. Recommendations for students' nutrition educational activities included placing nutrition tips on or beside the vending machines and using active learning methods, such as competitions on nutrition knowledge. The results of this study have useful applications in improving the campus food environment and nutrition education opportunities at the university to assist students in making healthful food choices.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of significant chemical incidents occur in the UK each year and may require Emergency Departments (EDs to receive and manage contaminated casualties. Previously UK EDs have been found to be under-prepared for this, but since October 2005 acute hospital Trusts have had a statutory responsibility to maintain decontamination capacity. We aimed to evaluate the level of preparedness of Emergency Departments in North West England for managing chemical incidents. Methods A face-to-face semi-structured interview was carried out with the Nurse Manager or a nominated deputy in all 18 Emergency Departments in the Region. Results 16/18 departments had a written chemical incident plan but only 7 had the plan available at interview. All had a designated decontamination area but only 11 felt that they were adequately equipped. 12/18 had a current training programme for chemical incident management and 3 had no staff trained in decontamination. 13/18 could contain contaminated water from casualty decontamination and 6 could provide shelter for casualties before decontamination. Conclusion We have identified major inconsistencies in the preparedness of North West Emergency Departments for managing chemical incidents. Nationally recognized standards on incident planning, facilities, equipment and procedures need to be agreed and implemented with adequate resources. Issues of environmental safety and patient dignity and comfort should also be addressed.
Full Text Available The first part of the interview deals with the education of Herwig Wolfram in Wien and Los Angeles (one year and the relationship with the scholars who influenced him more (H. von Fichtenau, G.B. Ladner, the identification of the study of kingship and the choice of combining constantly the historical with the philological method. The interview then turns to the encounter with R. Wenskus and the theory of the ethnogenesis and the impact of this encounter on the studies of Wolfram and ultimately on the “Viennese” scholars. Another part is devoted to the book on the Goths and to the developments of the "Wien school" in relation to the study of early medieval peoples of Europe and to participation in international debate, very vibrant, on the subject. Also taken into consideration the themes of kingship, the local history, the "auxiliary disciplines" and historiographical communication and finally how research in organized and evaluated in Austria.
Nelson, Kimberly M; Ramirez, Jaime J; Carey, Michael P
Adolescent males interested in sex with males (AMSM) are an important audience for HIV prevention interventions, but they are difficult to reach due to their age and social stigma. We aim to identify efficient methods to recruit and retain AMSM in online research. Interviews with 14-to-18-year-old AMSM (N=16) were conducted at 2017 Pride events in Boston, MA and Providence, RI. Participants reported that (1) social media platforms are viable recruitment venues; (2) recruitment advertisements should describe the study using colorful/bright pictures, familiar words, and information about compensation; (3) surveys should be recruitment and retention procedures to increase the efficiency of HIV prevention research for this at-risk group. ©Kimberly M Nelson, Jaime J Ramirez, Michael P Carey. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 21.12.2017.
O'Dor, Sarah L; Grasso, Damion J; Forbes, Danielle; Bates, John E; McCarthy, Kimberly J; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J
Elucidating the complex mechanisms by which harsh parenting increases risk of child psychopathology is key to targeted prevention. This requires nuanced methods that capture the varied perceptions and experiences of diverse families. The Family Socialization Interview-Revised (FSI-R), adapted from an interview developed by Dodge et al. (Child Development, 65, 649-665, 1994), is a comprehensive, semi-structured interview for characterizing methods of parental discipline used with young children. The FSI-R coding system systematically rates parenting style, usual discipline techniques, and most intense physical and psychological discipline based on rater judgment across two eras: (1) birth to the previous year, and (2) the previous year to present. The current study examined the psychometric properties of the FSI-R in a diverse, high-risk community sample of 386 mothers and their children, ages 3 to 6 years. Interrater reliability was good to excellent for codes capturing physically and psychologically harsh parenting, and restrictive/punitive parenting styles. Findings supported the FSI-R's convergent and incremental validity. Importantly, the FSI-R demonstrated incremental utility, explaining unique variance in children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms beyond that explained by traditional surveys and observed parenting. The FSI-R appeared particularly promising for capturing risk associated with young children's depressive symptoms, as these were generally not significantly associated with other measures of harsh parenting. Overall, findings support the added value of the FSI-R within a multi-method assessment of disciplinary practices across early child development. Future implications for prevention are discussed.
Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler.......Bogen indkredser, hvad der gør et interview kritisk og udleder derfra det kritiske interviews overordnede mål og spilleregler....
The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These
Full Text Available Joseph Agassi is an Israeli scholar born in Jerusalem on May 7, 1927. He has many books and articles published contributing to the fields of logic, scientific method, foundations of sciences, epistemology and, most importantly for this Journal, in the historiography of science. He studied with Karl Popper, who was definitely his biggest influence. He taught around the world in different universities. He currently lives in Herzliya, Israel. For his important contribution to the historiography of science, we chose to open the first issue of this journal with this interview recognizing his importance for the field, as well as paying our homage to him.
Wigander, Helena; Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria; Frenckner, Björn; Wester, Tomas; Nisell, Margret
The purpose of this study was to investigate parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM. 1) Compare parenting stress among parents of children with low ARM, with parents of healthy children using questionnaires. 2) Identify subscales within the questionnaire which needed to be further explored. 3) Use semi-structured interviews with parents of children with low ARM, to explore parenting stress and to explain, expand and or support the quantitative findings. An explanatory sequential mixed methods design was used in this follow up study. The parents completed the Swedish Parenthood Stress Questionnaire (SPSQ), semi-structured interviews were conducted. Fifteen mothers and 13 fathers of children with low ARM age 8-18, returned completed questionnaires. A control group of 17 mothers and 6 fathers of healthy children age 8-18 that had visited the hospital for a minor procedure was recruited for comparison purposes. There were no significant differences found between index group and controls except in the subscale Incompetence, where parents of children with low ARM reported lower levels of stress compared to controls. Nine semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of children with low ARM. Qualitative content analysis was used and revealed three themes - Communication between parents, Expectations of parenthood, and Challenges concerning parenthood. Parents of children with low ARM did not report high levels of stress. When interviewed, they told about earlier experiences of emotional stress, feelings of guilt, and chaos at the time the child was born and during infancy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Owiti, John A; Palinski, Andrea; Ajaz, Ali; Ascoli, Micol; De Jongh, Bertine; Bhui, Kamaldeep S
Cultural variations in perceptions of mental distress are important issues for healthcare. They can affect communication between patients and professionals and may be a root cause for misdiagnosis, patient disengagement, and disparities in access, outcomes and overall experiences of treatment by patients. Taking into account patients' explanatory models (EMs) of mental distress is fundamental to patient-centred care, and improved outcomes. This paper reports on the outcomes from the Cultural Consultation Service, commissioned in an inner-city London borough. We used a narrative-based ethnographic method of assessment, in which community mental health patients referred for a cultural consultation were interviewed using Barts Explanatory Model Inventory and Checklist (BEMI) to assess the EMs of their mental distress. Patients mainly attributed the causes and consequences of their mental distress to emotional and psychological factors, which were inextricably linked to existing social concerns and interpersonal issues. Desired solutions mainly focused on treatment, social, and systemic interventions. We found that using BEMI could contribute to a comprehensive assessment in routine care and can be used by professionals within a short timeframe and with minimal training. Ethnographic assessment method captures patients' EMs and illness experiences, opening the way for patient-centred interventions and potentially better outcomes and experiences.
McCrohon, Mark; Nyland, Berenice
This paper examined domestic educator and Chinese international student (CIS) perspectives on their experience of the commoditisation of international higher education in Australia. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with academic and student participants. A Trans-disciplinary Framework derived from grounded theory and the Auditable…
Full Text Available Das Interview ist nach wie vor das beliebteste sozialwissenschaftliche Verfahren des Datengewinns. Ökonomie der Erhebung, Vergleichbarkeit und die Möglichkeit, Einsicht in Praxisbereiche und historisch-biografische Dimensionen zu erhalten, die der direkten Beobachtung kaum zugänglich sind, machen seine Attraktivität aus. Zugleich mehren sich Kritiken, die seine Leistungsfähigkeit problematisieren, indem sie auf die begrenzte Reichweite der Explikationsfähigkeiten der Befragten, die Reaktivität der Erhebung oder die Differenz zwischen Handeln und dem Bericht über Handeln verweisen. Im Beitrag wird zwischen Ansätzen, die das Interview als Text, und solchen, die es als Interaktion verstehen, unterschieden. Nach dem Text-Verständnis werden Interviews unter inhaltlichen Gesichtspunkten analysiert und als Zugang zu einer vorgängigen sozialen oder psychischen Wirklichkeit angesehen. Das Interaktions-Verständnis versteht Interviews dagegen als situierte Praxis, in welcher im Hier und Jetzt von InterviewerInnen und Befragten gemeinsam soziale Sinnstrukturen hergestellt werden. Anhand ubiquitärer Phänomene der Interviewinteraktion – Fragen, Antworten und die Selbstpositionierung von InterviewerInnen und Befragten – werden Praktiken des interaktiv-performativen Handelns im Interview dargestellt. Ihre Relevanz für die Interviewkonstitution und ihre Erkenntnispotenziale für die Interviewauswertung werden aufgezeigt. Es wird dafür plädiert, die interaktive Konstitutionsweise von Interviews empirisch zu erforschen und methodisch konsequent zu berücksichtigen. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1303131
Tunnecliff, Jacqueline; Ilic, Dragan; Morgan, Prue; Keating, Jennifer; Gaida, James E; Clearihan, Lynette; Sadasivan, Sivalal; Davies, David; Ganesh, Shankar; Mohanty, Patitapaban; Weiner, John; Reynolds, John; Maloney, Stephen
Establishing and promoting connections between health researchers and health professional clinicians may help translate research evidence to clinical practice. Social media may have the capacity to enhance these connections. The aim of this study was to explore health researchers' and clinicians' current use of social media and their beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for communicating research evidence. This study used a mixed-methods approach to obtain qualitative and quantitative data. Participation was open to health researchers and clinicians. Data regarding demographic details, current use of social media, and beliefs and attitudes towards the use of social media for professional purposes were obtained through an anonymous Web-based survey. The survey was distributed via email to research centers, educational and clinical institutions, and health professional associations in Australia, India, and Malaysia. Consenting participants were stratified by country and role and selected at random for semistructured telephone interviews to explore themes arising from the survey. A total of 856 participants completed the questionnaire with 125 participants declining to participate, resulting in a response rate of 87.3%. 69 interviews were conducted with participants from Australia, India, and Malaysia. Social media was used for recreation by 89.2% (749/840) of participants and for professional purposes by 80.0% (682/852) of participants. Significant associations were found between frequency of professional social media use and age, gender, country of residence, and graduate status. Over a quarter (26.9%, 229/852) of participants used social media for obtaining research evidence, and 15.0% (128/852) of participants used social media for disseminating research evidence. Most participants (95.9%, 810/845) felt there was a role for social media in disseminating or obtaining research evidence. Over half of the participants (449/842, 53.3%) felt they had a
Kragh, Helge Stjernholm
Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270......Interview done by Gustavo R. Rocha, in Transversal: International Journal for the Historiography of Science, ISSN 2526-2270...
This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society......This interview was given by Professor John Milnor in connection to the Abel Prize 2011 ceremony. Originally the interview appeared in the September issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical Society...
Christiansen, Ask Vest
Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping.......Kapitlet diskuterer hvordan interview kan bruges som metode i idrætsforskningen. Interview med elitecykelryttere inddrages som eksempel, med særligt fokus på det problematiske spørgsmål om doping....
British painter Francis Bacon (1909-1992) was known for the eloquence with which he talked about his art. He was easy to talk to, and was interviewed countless times by numerous critics. However, when studying Bacon's paintings one soon comes across the published interviews with art critic and curator David Sylvester (1924-2001), who interviewed him as many as 18 times between 1962 and 1986. Art historian Sandra Kisters argues that Sylvester's interviews with Bacon are carefully constructed a...
Clausen, Aksel Skovgaard
relatively “strong” interviewees (interview persons: IPs) with diverse backgrounds; (2) thorough planning of the interview with well-focused themes; and (3) a thorough and repeated introduction to the interview. The omission of audio transcriptions is an obvious solution to the researcher who wants a breadth...... of range of statements stemming from the use of many more interviewees than is often possible. The Individually Focused Interview (TIFI) also provides more time for involvement in the field and further analysis....
Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette
When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...
Mesman, Roos; Faber, Marjan J; Westert, Gert P; Berden, Bart
Objective In many countries, the evidence for volume-outcome associations in surgery has been transferred into policy. Despite the large body of research that exists on the topic, qualitative studies aimed at surgeons' views on, and experiences with, these volume-based policies are lacking. We interviewed Dutch surgeons to gain more insight into the implications of volume-outcome policies for daily clinical practice, as input for effective surgical quality improvement. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 purposively selected surgeons from a stratified sample for hospital type and speciality. The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and underwent inductive content analysis. Results Two overarching themes were inductively derived from the data: (1) minimum volume standards and (2) implications of volume-based policies. Although surgeons acknowledged the premise 'more is better', they were critical about the validity and underlying evidence for minimum volume standards. Patients often inquire about caseload, which is met with both understanding and discomfort. Surgeons offered many examples of controversies surrounding the process of determining thresholds as well as the ways in which health insurers use volume as a purchasing criterion. Furthermore, being held accountable for caseload may trigger undesired strategic behaviour, such as unwarranted operations. Volume-based policies also have implications for the survival of low-volume providers and affect patient travel times, although the latter is not necessarily problematic in the Dutch context. Conclusions Surgeons in this study acknowledged that more volume leads to better quality. However, validity issues, undesired strategic behaviour and the ways in which minimum volume standards are established and applied have made surgeons critical of current policy practice. These findings suggest that volume remains a controversial quality measure and causes polarization that is not
Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to analyse interviews of highly regarded Finnish magicians. Social network analysis (N=120 was used to identify Finland’s most highly regarded magicians (N=16. The selected participants’ careers in professional magic and various aspects of their professional conduct were examined by relying on semi-structured interviews. The results revealed that cultivation of professional level competence in magic usually requires an extensive period of time compared with other domains of expertise. Magic is a unique performing art and it differs from other professions focusing on deceiving the audience. A distinctive feature of magical expertise is that the process takes place entirely through informal training supported by communities of magical practitioners. Three interrelated aspects of magical activity were distinguished: magic tricks, performance, and audience. Although magic tricks constitute a central aspect of magic activity, the participants did not talk about their tricks extensively; this is in accordance with the secretive nature of magic culture.The interviews revealed that a core aspect of the magicians’ activity is performance in front of an audience that repeatedly validates competence cultivated through years of practice. The interviewees reported investing a great deal of effort in planning, orchestrating, and reflecting on their performances. Close interaction with the audience plays an important role in most interviewees’ activity. Many participants put a great deal of effort in developing novel magic tricks. It is common to borrow magic effects from fellow magicians and develop novel methods of implementation. Because magic tricks or programs are not copyrighted, many interviewees considered stealing an unacceptable and unethical aspect of magical activity. The interviewees highlighted the importance of personality and charisma in the successful pursuit of magic activity.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence and impact of long term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long term conditions has been a policy priority in England for chronic disease management. However, it is not clear how care planning is currently understood, translated and implemented in primary care. This study explores experience of care planning in patients with long term conditions in three areas in England. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with 23 predominantly elderly patients with multiple long term conditions. The interviews were designed to explore variations in and emergent experiences of care planning. Qualitative analysis of interview transcripts involved reflexively coding and re-coding data into categories and themes. Results No participants reported experiencing explicit care planning discussions or receiving written documentation setting out a negotiated care plan and they were unfamiliar with the term ‘care planning’. However, most described some components of care planning which occurred over a number of contacts with health care professionals which we term”reactive” care planning. Here, key elements of care planning including goal setting and action planning were rare. Additionally, poor continuity and coordination of care, lack of time in consultations, and patient concerns about what was legitimate to discuss with the doctor were described. Conclusions Amongst this population, elements of care planning were present in their accounts, but a structured, comprehensive process and consequent written record (as outlined in English Department of Health policy was not evident. Further research needs to explore the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches to care planning for different patient groups.
Janse van Rensburg, André; Petersen, Inge; Wouters, Edwin; Engelbrecht, Michelle; Kigozi, Gladys; Fourie, Pieter; van Rensburg, Dingie; Bracke, Piet
The Life Esidimeni tragedy in South Africa showed that, despite significant global gains in recognizing the salience of integrated public mental health care during the past decade, crucial gaps remain. State and non-state mental health service collaboration is a recognized strategy to increase access to care and optimal use of community resources, but little evidence exist about how it unfolds in low- to middle-income countries. South Africa's Mental Health Policy Framework and Strategic Plan 2013-20 (MHPF) underlines the importance of collaborative public mental health care, though it is unclear how and to what extent this happens. The aim of the study was to explore the extent and nature of state and non-state mental health service collaboration in the Mangaung Metropolitan District, Free State, South Africa. The research involved an equal status, sequential mixed methods design, comprised of social network analysis (SNA) and semi-structured interviews. SNA-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating state and non-state mental health service providers. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with collaborating partners and key stake holders. Descriptive network analyses of the SNA data were performed with Gephi, and thematic analysis of the semi-structured interview data were performed in NVivo. SNA results suggested a fragmented, hospital centric network, with low average density and clustering, and high authority and influence of a specialist psychiatric hospital. Several different types of collaborative interactions emerged, of which housing and treatment adherence a key point of collaboration. Proportional interactions between state and non-state services were low. Qualitative data expanded on these findings, highlighting the range of available mental health services, and pointed to power dynamics as an important consideration in the mental health service network. The fostering of a well-integrated system of care as proposed in the MHPF requires
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
In this paper we will present and discuss an example of an interview characterized by the researcher moving back and forth between two positions. On the one hand the formal position of being an interviewer/researcher using her prepared interview guide as a tool and on the other hand bringing...... in the position of a psychologist with past experiences within supervision and consultation/coaching. The framing of the interview was build around the theme “My role in keeping students out from dropping out of the Vocational Educational Training College.” We will discuss how both the interviewer...... and the interviewee might seduce each other to develop a conversation in which intersections between supervision/coaching and interviewing merge. The example clearly demonstrates how subjectivity influences the knowledge that is being produced in an interview situation, which should be recognized and reflected upon...
Peeling Data Structures and Algorithms: * Programming puzzles for interviews * Campus Preparation * Degree/Masters Course Preparation * Instructor’s * GATE Preparation * Big job hunters: Microsoft, Google, Amazon, Yahoo, Flip Kart, Adobe, IBM Labs, Citrix, Mentor Graphics, NetApp, Oracle, Webaroo, De-Shaw, Success Factors, Face book, McAfee and many more * Reference Manual for working people
Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.
Bonde, Ane; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Title: Motivational Interviewing by School Nurses: Spirit, Techniques, and Dilemmas in the Prevention of Child Obesity Introduction : School nurses play a central role in school-based, preventive health services in Denmark (National Board of Health, 2011), and they may play an important role...... a prevention strategy targeting children with a high risk of obesity with an intervention conducted by school nurses using motivational interviewing.Motivational interviewing is a counselling method to bring about behavioural change (Miller and Rollnick 1995). Effect has been documented for a range of problem...... behaviours related to lifestyle diseases in adults (Rubak et al. 2005; Söderlund et al. 2011). The use of motivational interviewing by school nurses for the prevention of child obesity in a family intervention is still new, and evidence on the potentials and problems is scarce (Resnicow, Davis and Rollnick...
Teeuw Marieke E
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is often suggested that an effort must be made to increase awareness among consanguineous couples of their reproductive risk, and to refer them for genetic counseling if needed. Primary care professionals are considered most appropriate for addressing the subject and identifying couples at risk during consultations in their practice. This Dutch study aims to explore the experiences, attitudes and beliefs of such professionals regarding their care for consanguineous couples. Methods Sixteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with midwives and general practitioners. Results Although most primary care professionals considered it their task to inform couples about the risks of consanguinity, during consultations the topic was generally only briefly touched upon and quickly abandoned. Important reasons for this were professionals’ beliefs about religious and social values of couples, their low perception of the couples’ reproductive risk and expected limited feasibility of referral. Feelings of embarrassment regarding addressing consanguinity did not seem to play a significant role. Conclusions Primary care professional beliefs about their clients’ religious and social values, their attitudes toward the risk, and perceived limited options for referral seem to conflict with the professional norm to address the topic of consanguinity.
McCoy, Lisa K; Hermos, John A; Bokhour, Barbara G; Frayne, Susan M
Faith-based substance abuse rehabilitation programs provide residential treatment for many substance abusers. To determine key governing concepts of such programs, we conducted semi-structured interviews with sample of eleven clinical and administrative staff referred to us by program directors at six, Evangelical Christian, faith-based, residential rehabilitation programs representing two large, nationwide networks. Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods examined how spirituality is incorporated into treatment and elicited key theories of addiction and recovery. Although containing comprehensive secular components, the core activities are strongly rooted in a Christian belief system that informs their understanding of addiction and recovery and drives the treatment format. These governing conceptions, that addiction stems from attempts to fill a spiritual void through substance use and recovery through salvation and a long-term relationship with God, provide an explicit, theory-driven model upon which they base their core treatment activities. Knowledge of these core concepts and practices should be helpful to clinicians in considering referrals to faith-based recovery programs.
Delnoij Diana MJ
Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, online public healthcare reports have not been effectively used by consumers. Therefore, we qualitatively examined how healthcare consumers process and evaluate comparative healthcare information on the Internet. Methods Using semi-structured cognitive interviews, interviewees (n = 20 were asked to think aloud and answer questions, as they were prompted with three Dutch web pages providing comparative healthcare information. Results We identified twelve themes from consumers' thoughts and evaluations. These themes were categorized under four important areas of interest: (1 a response to the design; (2 a response to the information content; (3 the use of the information, and (4 the purpose of the information. Conclusion Several barriers to an effective use of comparative healthcare information were identified, such as too much information and the ambiguity of terms presented on websites. Particularly important for future research is the question of how comparative healthcare information can be integrated with alternative information, such as patient reviews on the Internet. Furthermore, the readability of quality of care concepts is an issue that needs further attention, both from websites and communication experts.
Williams, Janet B W; Kobak, Kenneth A
The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) is often used in clinical trials to select patients and to assess treatment efficacy. The scale was originally published without suggested questions for clinicians to use in gathering the information necessary to rate the items. Structured and semi-structured interview guides have been found to improve reliability with other scales. To describe the development and test-retest reliability of a structured interview guide for the MADRS (SIGMA). A total of 162 test-retest interviews were conducted by 81 rater pairs. Each patient was interviewed twice, once by each rater conducting an independent interview. The intraclass correlation for total score between raters using the SIGMA was r=0.93, Preliability. Use of the SIGMA can result in high reliability of MADRS scores in evaluating patients with depression.
Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures must provide evidence that their development followed a rigorous process for ensuring their content validity. To this end, the collection of data is performed through qualitative interviews that allow for the elicitation of in-depth spontaneous reports of the patients’ experiences with their condition and/or its treatment. This paper provides a review of qualitative research applied to PRO measure development. A clear definition of what is a qualitative research interview is given as well as information about the form and content of qualitative interviews required for developing PRO measures. Particular attention is paid to the description of interviewing approaches (e.g., semi-structured and in-depth interviews, individual vs. focus group interviews). Information about how to get prepared for a qualitative interview is provided with the description of how to develop discussion guides for exploratory or cognitive interviews. Interviewing patients to obtain knowledge regarding their illness experience requires interpersonal and communication skills to facilitate patients’ expression. Those skills are described in details, as well as the skills needed to facilitate focus groups and to interview children, adolescents and the elderly. Special attention is also given to quality assurance and interview training. The paper ends on ethical considerations since interviewing for the development of PROs is performed in a context of illness and vulnerability. Therefore, it is all the more important that, in addition to soliciting informed consent, respectful interactions be ensured throughout the interview process. PMID:24499454
Logan, Patricia A; Gallimore, David; Jordan, Sue
The aim of this study was to explore and compare the experiences of nurses in Australia and the UK as they moved from clinical practice into higher education institutions. When nurse education moved from hospitals into higher education institutions, the roles and career pathways of nurse educators changed. The design method used in this study was qualitative interview study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 14 nurse educators, seven in Australia and seven in the UK, in 2011-2012. Thematic analysis of the transcripts was undertaken and triangulated with automated content and thematic analysis by Leximancer© software. Nurse academics in Australia and the UK voiced similar enthusiasms and concerns. These coalesced around four emergent themes: adapting to change, external pressures, teaching and progress up the academic ladder. The Leximancer© analysis for both sites ranked 'research' as the primary theme, linked with 'time', 'University' and 'nursing' on both sites. Respondents were aware of the importance of research to career progression in universities, but most prioritized their teaching and clinical commitments for the sake of their organizations. Most respondents were supported in their doctoral studies, but the absence of postdoctoral research teams, mentors and role models was striking. Additional support is needed to ensure that nurse academics are able to pursue research beyond doctoral level. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization. This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector.
Wisell, Kristin; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Community pharmacies are balancing between business (selling medicines and other products) and healthcare (using the pharmacists’ knowledge in order to improve drug utilization). This balance could be affected by regulations decided upon by politicians, but also influenced by others. The aim of this study was to explore important stakeholders’ views on community pharmacy and community pharmacists in Sweden. The method used was that of semi-structured qualitative interviews. Political, professional, and patient organization representatives were interviewed. The results show that informants who are pharmacists or representatives of a professional pharmacist organization generally have a healthcare-centered view on community pharmacy/pharmacists. However, different views on how this orientation should be performed were revealed, ranging from being specialists to dealing with uncomplicated tasks. Political organization representatives generally had a more business-oriented view, where competition in the market was believed to be the main driving force for development. A third dimension in which competition was not stressed also emerged; that community pharmacies should primarily distribute medicines. This dimension was most prevalent among the political and patient organization representatives. One conclusion to be drawn is that no stakeholder seemed to have a clear vision or was willing to take the lead for the development of the community pharmacy sector. PMID:28970376
Bogen begynder med en teoretisk funderet introduktion til det kvalitative interview gennem en skildring af de mange forskellige måder, hvorpå samtaler er blevet brugt til produktion af viden. Opmærksomheden henledes specielt på de komplementære positioner, der kendetegner det oplevelsesfokuserede...... interview (fænomenologiske positioner) og det sprogfokuserede interview (diskursorienterede positioner), som henholdsvis fokuserer på interviewsamtalen som rapporter (om interviewpersonens oplevelser) og redegørelser (foranlediget af interviewsituationen). De følgende kapitler omhandler forskellige måder...... forskningsresultater baseret på kvalitative interview....
An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW), and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Ullman, Sarah E
This article describes the author's personal experiences of conducting a qualitative semistructured interview study, after having done predominantly quantitative survey research in the social sciences. The author describes the process of learning how to approach conducting semistructured interviews with female advocates and clinicians who provide services to sexual assault survivors in the community. The author describes making the transition from a logical positivist deductive approach to thinking about and conducting research to a more social constructionist stance in which one learns from participants about their experiences and perspectives in narrative form to discover knowledge and develop theory inductively.
White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean
Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people’s food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants’ practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants’ practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances
Mills, Susanna; White, Martin; Wrieden, Wendy; Brown, Heather; Stead, Martine; Adams, Jean
Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women), aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity), the task (process of cooking), and the context (situational drivers). Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and circumstances change
Full Text Available Food-related choices have an important impact on health. Food preparation methods may be linked to diet and health benefits. However, the factors influencing people's food choices, and how they are shaped by food preparation experiences, are still not fully understood. We aimed to study home food preparation practices, experiences and perceptions amongst adults in North East England. A matrix was used to purposively sample participants with diverse socio-demographic characteristics. Participants developed photographic food diaries that were used as prompts during semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using the Framework Method. Interviews were conducted with 18 adults (five men and 13 women, aged approximately 20 to 80 years, to reach data saturation. Participants' practices varied widely, from reliance on pre-prepared foods, to preparing complex meals entirely from basic ingredients. Key themes emerged regarding the cook (identity, the task (process of cooking, and the context (situational drivers. Resources, in terms of time, money and facilities, were also underpinning influences on food preparation. Participants' practices were determined by both personal motivations to cook, and the influence of others, and generally reflected compromises between varied competing demands and challenges in life. Most people appeared to be overall content with their food preparation behaviour, though ideally aspired to cook more frequently, using basic ingredients. This often seemed to be driven by social desirability. Home food preparation is complex, with heterogeneous practices, experiences and perceptions both between individuals and within the same individual over time, according to shifting priorities and circumstances. Generalisability of these findings may be limited by the regional participant sample; however the results support and build upon previous research. Focussing interventions on life transition points at which priorities and
Hill Robert L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Most questionnaires used for physical activity (PA surveillance have been developed for adults aged ≤65 years. Given the health benefits of PA for older adults and the aging of the population, it is important to include adults aged 65+ years in PA surveillance. However, few studies have examined how well older adults understand PA surveillance questionnaires. This study aimed to document older adults' understanding of questions from the International PA Questionnaire (IPAQ, which is used worldwide for PA surveillance. Methods Participants were 41 community-dwelling adults aged 65-89 years. They each completed IPAQ in a face-to-face semi-structured interview, using the "think-aloud" method, in which they expressed their thoughts out loud as they answered IPAQ questions. Interviews were transcribed and coded according to a three-stage model: understanding the intent of the question; performing the primary task (conducting the mental operations required to formulate a response; and response formatting (mapping the response into pre-specified response options. Results Most difficulties occurred during the understanding and performing the primary task stages. Errors included recalling PA in an "average" week, not in the previous 7 days; including PA lasting Conclusions These findings indicate a need for caution in administering IPAQ to adults aged ≥65 years. Most errors resulted in over-reporting, although errors resulting in under-reporting were also noted. Given the nature of the errors made by participants, it is possible that similar errors occur when IPAQ is used in younger populations and that the errors identified could be minimized with small modifications to IPAQ.
Kangasniemi, Mari; Blomberg, Katja; Korhonen, Anne
to describe mothers' perceptions of their health choices, related duties and responsibilities. descriptive exploratory study with qualitative research method. interviews conducted after the clients' regular health visits to one publicly provided maternity clinic in a southern city in Finland. 13 mothers aged between 21 and 40-years-old, who were pregnant or had given birth in the past four weeks. Six of participants were pregnant or had delivered for first time and it was the second to fourth pregnancy for the remainder. one-to-one semi-structured interviews using the inductive content analysis method. women reported increased responsibility for their health choices for themselves and their baby during pregnancy. However, their duties and responsibilities were seldom discussed at maternity clinics. The duty to reconsider their health choices was described as a predictor of commitment to their pregnancy and motherhood, but they recognised that it required sufficient knowledge to realise this. In addition, the mothers said their health choices changed from private to one of public interest during this period. health choices are connected to maternal duties and responsibilities, but they can sometimes lack clarity during this new phase of life. In future, more research should be conducted to study maternal duties and responsibilities in different contexts. findings highlight the skills of nurses and midwives at maternity clinics to discuss and support mothers' moral pondering during pregnancy. Although health choices in general are well recognised as a part of maternal counselling, these findings suggest a moral perspective should be incorporated into the advice that is provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kelly, Maureen E; Dowell, Jon; Husbands, Adrian; Newell, John; O'Flynn, Siun; Kropmans, Thomas; Dunne, Fidelma P; Murphy, Andrew W
International medical students, those attending medical school outside of their country of citizenship, account for a growing proportion of medical undergraduates worldwide. This study aimed to establish the fairness, predictive validity and acceptability of Multiple Mini Interview (MMI) in an internationally diverse student population. This was an explanatory sequential, mixed methods study. All students in First Year Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway 2012 were eligible to sit a previously validated 10 station MMI. Quantitative data comprised: demographics, selection tool scores and First Year Assessment scores. Qualitative data comprised separate focus groups with MMI Assessors, EU and Non-EU students. 109 students participated (45% of class). Of this 41.3% (n = 45) were Non-EU and 35.8% (n = 39) did not have English as first language. Age, gender and socioeconomic class did not impact on MMI scores. Non-EU students and those for whom English was not a first language achieved significantly lower scores on MMI than their EU and English speaking counterparts (difference in mean 11.9% and 12.2% respectively, PIELTS) (r = 0.5, PIELTS (r = 0.44; p = 0.006; n = 38) and EU school exit exam (r = 0.52; p<0.001; n = 56). MMI predicted EU student OSCE performance (r = 0.27; p = 0.03; n = 64). In the analysis of focus group data two overarching themes emerged: Authenticity and Cultural Awareness. MMI was considered a highly authentic assessment that offered a deeper understanding of the applicant than traditional tools, with an immediate relevance to clinical practice. Cultural specificity of some stations and English language proficiency were seen to disadvantage international students. Recommendations included cultural awareness training for MMI assessors, designing and piloting culturally neutral stations, lengthening station duration and providing high quality advance information to candidates. MMI is a welcome addition to assessment armamentarium for
Byrd, Marquita L.; Robinson, Andrea
The interview is a special case of interpersonal communication. It is a communication event with a serious and predetermined purpose with the basic mode of communication being the asking and answering of questions. People are engaged in interviews throughout their lives from the employment setting to the counseling setting. This annotated…
Hass, Michael R.
Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration.......Mikhail Gromov is the recipient of the 2009 Abel Prize. The interview was made on May 18th, 2009, prior to the Abel Prize Celebration....
Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron
Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…
Rossman, Allan; Kaplan, Danny
Danny Kaplan is DeWitt Wallace Professor of Mathematics and Computer Science at Macalester College. He received Macalester's Excellence in teaching Award in 2006 and the CAUSE/USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2017. This interview took place via email on March 4-June 17, 2017. Topics covered in the interview include: (1) the current state of…
Presents an interview with Peggy Papp, a faculty member at the Ackerman Institute for the Family, where she is director of the Depression in Context Project. The Interview focuses on Papp's journey to becoming a marriage and family therapist and her role as a leader in field of feminist therapy. (GCP)
Conn, P Jeffrey
Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
A. Dalebout; J. van Hillegersberg (Jos); B. Wierenga (Berend)
textabstractObject-oriented (00) frameworks are considered an important step forward in developing software applications efficiently. Success of frameworks has however predominantly been limited to structured domains.This paper describes a method for developing 00 domainframeworks for
Scheel-Sailer, Anke; Post, Marcel W; Michel, Franz; Weidmann-Hügle, Tatjana; Baumann Hölzle, Ruth
Involving patients in decision making is a legal requirement in many countries, associated with better rehabilitation outcomes, but not easily accomplished during initial inpatient rehabilitation after severe trauma. Providing medical treatment according to the principles of shared decision making is challenging as a point in case for persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). The aim of this study was to retrospectively explore the patients' views on their participation in decision making during their first inpatient rehabilitation after onset of SCI, in order to optimize treatment concepts. A total of 22 participants with SCI were interviewed in-depth using a semi-structured interview scheme between 6 months and 35 years post-onset. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed with the Mayring method for qualitative content analysis. Participants experienced a substantially reduced ability to participate in decision making during the early phase after SCI. They perceived physical, psychological and environmental factors to have impacted upon this ability. Patients mentioned regaining their ability to make decisions was an important goal during their first rehabilitation. Receiving adequate information in an understandable and personalized way was a prerequisite to achieve this goal. Other important factors included medical and psychological condition, personal engagement, time and dialogue with peers. During the initial rehabilitation of patients with SCI, professionals need to deal with the discrepancy between the obligation to respect a patient's autonomy and their diminished ability for decision making. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services (MIDAS) project represents an integration of research methodology into a community-based outpatient practice affiliated with an academic medical centre. The MIDAS project is the largest clinical epidemiological study using semi-structured interviews to assess a wide range of psychiatric disorders in a general clinical outpatient practice. In an early report from the MIDAS project, we found that across diagnostic categories clinicians using unstandardized, unstructured clinical interviews underrecognized diagnostic comorbidity, compared with the results of semi-structured interviews. Moreover, we found that the patients often wanted treatment for symptoms of disorders that were diagnosed as comorbid, rather than principal, conditions. This highlighted the importance, from the patient's perspective, of conducting thorough diagnostic interviews to diagnose disorders that are not related to the patient's chief complaint because patients often desire treatment for these additional diagnoses. While several of the initial papers from the MIDAS project identified problems with the detection of comorbid disorders in clinical practice, regarding the diagnosis of bipolar disorder we observed the emergence of an opposite phenomenon-clinician overdiagnosis. The results from the MIDAS project, along with other studies of diagnosis in routine clinical practice, have brought to the forefront the problem with diagnosis in routine clinical practice. An important question is what do these findings suggest about the community standard of care in making psychiatric diagnoses, and whether and how the standard of care should be changed? The implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Frisby, Genevieve; Bessell, Tracey L; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N
Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support-including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials-can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity-and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources.
Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…
Petersen, Kit Stender
In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it become...... the children’s ways of responding to my questions and re-negotiated the positions of interviewer and interviewee.......In this article I will illustrate how our understanding of the interview situation changes when we rethink it with some of the concepts from Karen Barad’s notion of agential realism. With concepts such as ‘apparatuses’, ‘phenomena‘, ‘intra-action’ and ‘material-discursive’ (Barad, 2007) it becomes...... possible to focus more extensively on how matter matters in the interview situation. Re-thinking the interview as an intraview1, I argue that Barad’s concepts will enhance our awareness not only of how the researcher affects the interview but also of how certain kinds of materiality in interview situations...
Roxanne K. Vandermause PhD, RN
Full Text Available This article describes, exemplifies and discusses the use of the philosophical hermeneutic interview and its distinguishing characteristics. Excerpts of interviews from a philosophical hermeneutic study are used to show how this particular phenomenological tradition is applied to research inquiry. The purpose of the article is to lay out the foundational background for philosophical hermeneutics in a way that clarifies its unique approach to interviewing and its usefulness for advancing health care knowledge. Implications for health care research and practice are addressed.
Lavelle, Fiona; McGowan, Laura; Spence, Michelle; Caraher, Martin; Raats, Monique M; Hollywood, Lynsey; McDowell, Dawn; McCloat, Amanda; Mooney, Elaine; Dean, Moira
Previous research has highlighted an ambiguity in understanding cooking related terminology and a number of barriers and facilitators to home meal preparation. However, meals prepared in the home still include convenience products (typically high in sugars, fats and sodium) which can have negative effects on health. Therefore, this study aimed to qualitatively explore: (1) how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and (2) their barriers and facilitators to cooking with basic ingredients. 27 semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants (aged 18-58 years) living on the island of Ireland, eliciting definitions of 'cooking from scratch' and exploring the reasons participants cook in a particular way. The interviews were professionally transcribed verbatim and Nvivo 10 was used for an inductive thematic analysis. Our results highlighted that although cooking from 'scratch' lacks a single definition, participants viewed it as optimal cooking. Barriers to cooking with raw ingredients included: 1) time pressures; (2) desire to save money; (3) desire for effortless meals; (4) family food preferences; and (5) effect of kitchen disasters. Facilitators included: 1) desire to eat for health and well-being; (2) creative inspiration; (3) ability to plan and prepare meals ahead of time; and (4) greater self-efficacy in one's cooking ability. Our findings contribute to understanding how individuals define cooking from 'scratch', and barriers and facilitators to cooking with raw ingredients. Interventions should focus on practical sessions to increase cooking self-efficacy; highlight the importance of planning ahead and teach methods such as batch cooking and freezing to facilitate cooking from scratch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stenberg, Jenny; Henriksson, Catrin; Lindberg, Magnus; Furuland, Hans
Inadequate volume control may be a main contributor to poor survival and high mortality in hemodialysis patients. Bioimpedance measurement has the potential to improve fluid management, but several dialysis centers lack an agreed fluid management policy, and the method has not yet been implemented. Our aim was to identify renal care professionals' perceived barriers and facilitators for use of bioimpedance in clinical practice. Qualitative data were collected through four focus group interviews with 24 renal care professionals: dieticians, nephrologists and nurses, recruited voluntarily from a nation-wide selection of hemodialysis centers, having access to a bioimpedance-device. The participants were connected to each other and a moderator via equipment for telemedicine and the sessions were recorded. The interviews were semi-structured, focusing on the participants' perceptions of use of bioimpedance in clinical practice. Thematic content analysis was performed in consecutive steps, and data were extracted by employing an inductive, interactive, comparative process. Several barriers and facilitators to the use of bioimpedance in clinical practice were identified, and a multilevel approach to examining barriers and incentives for change was found to be applicable to the ideas and categories that arose from the data. The determinants were categorized on five levels, and the different themes of the levels illustrated with quotations from the focus groups participants. Determinants for use of bioimpedance were identified on five levels: 1) the innovation itself, 2) the individual professional, 3) the patient, 4) the social context and 5) the organizational context. Barriers were identified in the areas of credibility, awareness, knowledge, self-efficacy, care processes, organizational structures and regulations. Facilitators were identified in the areas of the innovation's attractiveness, advantages in practice, and collaboration. Motivation, team processes and
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) is the principal source of information on the health of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States...
Full Text Available An interview with Henry Jenkins focussing on Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC, the Organization for Transformative Works (OTW, and Jenkins' academic research into fan and participatory cultures.
Full Text Available This issue of Designs for Learning features an interview with professor Staffan Selander, who has contributed in important ways to the shaping of the field we talk about as “designs for learning”. In the interview that follows we hope to give some further insights regarding interests, influences and experiences that have formed a background to the development of his theoretical approach to issues concerning education and learning.
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
S. R. S. Varadhan is the recipient of the 2007 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. On May 21, 2007, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Varadhan was interviewed by Martin Raussen of Aalborg University and Christian Skau of the Norwegian University of Science...... and Technology. This interview originally appeared in the September 2007 issue of the European Mathematical Society Newsletter....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care
Schopper, Heather; Rosenbaum, Marcy; Axelson, Rick
Experts suggest observation and feedback is a useful tool for teaching and evaluating medical student communication skills during the clinical years. Failing to do this effectively risks contributing to deterioration of students' communication skills during the very educational period in which they are most important. While educators have been queried about their thoughts on this issue, little is known about what this process is like for learners and if they feel they get educational value from being observed. This study explored student perspectives regarding their experiences with clinical observation and feedback on communication skills. A total of 125 senior medical students at a U.S. medical school were interviewed about their experiences with observation and feedback. Thematic analysis of interview data identified common themes among student responses. The majority of students reported rarely being observed interviewing, and they reported receiving feedback even less frequently. Students valued having communication skills observed and became more comfortable with observation the more it occurred. Student-identified challenges included supervisor time constraints and grading based on observation. Most feedback focused on information gathering and was commonly delayed until well after the observed encounter. Eliciting students' perspectives on the effect of observation and feedback on the development of their communication skills is a unique way to look at this topic, and brings to light many student-identified obstacles and opportunities to maximize the educational value of observation and feedback for teaching communication, including increasing the number of observations, disassociating observation from numerically scored evaluation, training faculty to give meaningful feedback, and timing the observation/feedback earlier in clerkships.
Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard; Sass, Louis A; Parnas, Josef
interview. We address the ontological status of pathological experience, the notions of symptom, sign, prototype and Gestalt, and the necessary second-person processes which are involved in converting the patient's experience (originally lived in the first-person perspective) into an "objective" (third......There is a glaring gap in the psychiatric literature concerning the nature of psychiatric symptoms and signs, and a corresponding lack of epistemological discussion of psycho-diagnostic interviewing. Contemporary clinical neuroscience heavily relies on the use of fully structured interviews...... person), actionable format, used for classification, treatment, and research. Our central thesis is that psychiatry targets the phenomena of consciousness, which, unlike somatic symptoms and signs, cannot be grasped on the analogy with material thing-like objects. We claim that in order to perform...
Full Text Available The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.
Janghorban, Roksana; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Taghipour, Ali
The most commonly used method for data collection in qualitative research is interviewing. With technology changes over the last few decades, the online interview has overcome time and financial constraints, geographical dispersion, and physical mobility boundaries, which have adversely affected onsite interviews. Skype as a synchronous online service offers researchers the possibility of conducting individual interviews as well as small focus groups, comparable to onsite types. This commentary presents the characteristics of the Skype interview as an alternative or supplemental choice to investigators who want to change their conventional approach of interviewing.
The use of immersive virtual reality (VR) to predict the occurrence 6 months later of paranoid thinking and posttraumatic stress symptoms assessed by self-report and interviewer methods: a study of individuals who have been physically assaulted.
Freeman, Daniel; Antley, Angus; Ehlers, Anke; Dunn, Graham; Thompson, Claire; Vorontsova, Natasha; Garety, Philippa; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Glucksman, Edward; Slater, Mel
Presentation of social situations via immersive virtual reality (VR) has the potential to be an ecologically valid way of assessing psychiatric symptoms. In this study we assess the occurrence of paranoid thinking and of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in response to a single neutral VR social environment as predictors of later psychiatric symptoms assessed by standard methods. One hundred six people entered an immersive VR social environment (a train ride), presented via a head-mounted display, 4 weeks after having attended hospital because of a physical assault. Paranoid thinking about the neutral computer-generated characters and the occurrence of PTSD symptoms in VR were assessed. Reactions in VR were then used to predict the occurrence 6 months later of symptoms of paranoia and PTSD, as assessed by standard interviewer and self-report methods. Responses to VR predicted the severity of paranoia and PTSD symptoms as assessed by standard measures 6 months later. The VR assessments also added predictive value to the baseline interviewer methods, especially for paranoia. Brief exposure to environments presented via virtual reality provides a symptom assessment with predictive ability over many months. VR assessment may be of particular benefit for difficult to assess problems, such as paranoia, that have no gold standard assessment method. In the future, VR environments may be used in the clinic to complement standard self-report and clinical interview methods. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The Waste Policy Institute (WPI), through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Technology (OST), conducted telephone interviews with people who requested OST publications to better understand why they wanted information from OST, how they used the information, and whether the information met their needs. Researchers selected 160 people who requested one of the two OST publications-either the Technology Summary Series (Rainbow Books) or the Initiatives newsletter. Of the 160 selected, interviewers spoke with 79 people nationwide representing six stakeholder audience categories
Hasse Jørgensen, Stina; Alexandra Sofie, Jönsson
We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory.......We have interviewed Gavin Butt about his research interest in the cross-field between performance and performativity in the visual arts: queer theory, queer cultures and their histories, post-second world war U.S. art, contemporary art and critical theory....
Powell, Martine B.; Fisher, Ronald P.; Hughes-Scholes, Carolyn H.
Objective: This study compared the effectiveness of two types of instructor feedback (relative to no feedback) on investigative interviewers' ability to adhere to open-ended questions in simulated practice interviews about child abuse. Method: In one condition, feedback was provided at the end of each practice interview. In the other, the…
Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence
Full Text Available Abstract Background Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. Methods We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11 and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11 recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Results Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women’s attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals’ attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Conclusions Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the
Wright, Stuart; Daker-White, Gavin; Newman, William; Payne, Katherine
Background: While precision medicines targeting genetic mutations and alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been available since 2010, their adoption into clinical practice has been slow. Evidence suggests that a number of barriers, such as insufficient clinician knowledge, a need for training of test providers, or a lack of specific clinical guidelines, may slow the implementation of precision in general. However, little attention has been given to the barriers to providing precision medicines in NSCLC. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design for a qualitative interview study to identify the barriers and facilitators to the provision of precision medicines for NSCLC. Methods: This study will use semi-structured interviews with clinicians (n=10), test providers (n=10), and service commissioners (n=10) to identify the perceived barriers and facilitators to providing historical, current, and future precision medicines in NSCLC. Participants will be identified through mailing list advertisements and snowball sampling. Recruitment will continue until data saturation, indicated by no new themes arising from the data. Interviews will be conducted by telephone to facilitate geographical diversity. The qualitative data will be analysed using a framework analysis with themes anticipated to relate to; relevant barriers to providing precision medicines, the impact of different barriers on medicine provision, changes in the ability to provide precision medicines over time, and strategies to facilitate the provision of precision medicines. Ethics: This study has been approved by the University of Manchester Proportionate Review Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 2017-1885-3619). Written consent will be obtained from all participants. Conclusion: This study is the first to explore the barriers and facilitators to providing precision medicines for NSCLC in the English NHS. The findings will inform strategies to improve the implementation
Full Text Available Linn Karlsson,1 Björn Gerdle,1 Esa-Pekka Takala,2 Gerhard Andersson,3,4 Britt Larsson1 1Pain and Rehabilitation Centre, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 2Work-related Diseases, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; 4Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe how patients with chronic pain experience physical activity and exercise (PA&E.Method: This qualitative interview study included 16 women and two men suffering from chronic pain and referred to a multimodal pain rehabilitation program. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the interviews.Results: One main theme emerged: “To overcome obstacles and to seize opportunities to be physically active despite chronic pain.” This main theme was abstracted from five themes: “Valuing a life with physical activity,” “Physical activity and exercise – before and after pain,” “A struggle – difficulties and challenges,” “The enabling of physical activity,” and “In need of continuous and active support.” Conclusion: Although these participants valued PA&E, they seldom achieved desirable levels, and performance of PA&E was undermined by difficulties and failure. The discrepancy between the intention to perform physical activity and the physical activity accomplished could be related to motivation, self-efficacy, and action control. The participants desired high-quality interaction with healthcare providers. The findings can be applied to chronic pain rehabilitation that uses PA&E as treatment. Keywords: chronic pain, experiences, physical activity, rehabilitation, qualitative content analysis
Full Text Available Motivational interviewing (MI is a method for building motivation for behaviour change that has potential for use in respiratory contexts. There is a paucity of published research exploring the feasibility of this intervention from the clinicians' perspective. This study aimed to explore respiratory clinicians' views of MI: Is it perceived as useful? Could it be integrated into practice? What training would be required to make it part of routine care? Nine respiratory clinicians attended a one-day MI workshop and a semi-structured face-to-face interview two weeks later. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed with thematic analysis. Four main themes are presented-1 MI's suitability for use in respiratory contexts: participants saw potential in using MI to motivate their patients to engage with prescribed respiratory interventions, such as increased physical activity. Those who experimented with new skills post-workshop were encouraged by patient responsiveness and outcomes. 2 MI's relationship with routine clinical practice: some believed they already used elements of MI, but most participants felt MI was fundamentally 'different' to their normal style of working. 3 Implementation issues: additional time would need to be made available to enable an appropriate depth of conversation. 4 Training issues: Participants sensed the complexity of MI could make it difficult to learn and that it would take them time to become competent. On-going supervision was perceived as necessary. One key challenge identified was how to suppress behaviours that are antithetical to MI. These findings lend support to the feasibility of using MI in respiratory contexts such as pulmonary rehabilitation programmes, but highlight implementation and training issues that would need to be overcome. The insights have informed the development of another study, testing the effect of a tailored training package on MI skill, specifically for
Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust
The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the use of Niklas Luhmann’s systems theoretical approach in order to analyse interviews conducted with media workers concerning their experiences of ethnic diversity in newsrooms. Applying systems theory means constructing the interview as a social system and seeing the “data” as observations produced by the observer and not as representations of a reality. The first part of the article describes the interview methodology and the second part provides examples, from the current study, of how systems theory can be applied in order to analyse interviews. Using a difference-theoretical approach means looking at the distinctions the informants make when talking about their experiences. These main guiding distinctions can be summarised as immigrant background/competence as well as advantage/competence. Using the guiding distinction of inclusion/exclusion when interpreting the interviewees’ statements, the interdependencies of mechanisms of inclusion and exclusion in newsrooms related to ethnic background can be examined.
Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica
This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…
Rossman, Allan; Pearl, Dennis
Dennis Pearl is Professor of Statistics at Pennsylvania State University and Director of the Consortium for the Advancement of Undergraduate Statistics Education (CAUSE). He is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association. This interview took place via email on November 18-29, 2016, and provides Dennis Pearl's background story, which describes…
Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine
Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…
von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey
This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Pierre Deligne is the recipient of the 2013 Abel Prize of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. This interview was conducted in May 2013 in conjunction with the Abel Prize celebration. The article originally appeared in the September 2013 issue of the Newsletter of the European Mathematical...
Jennifer Hitchcock interviews community activist and director of Syracuse University's Composition and Cultural Rhetoric doctoral program, Steve Parks. They discuss Parks's working-class background, career path, influences, and activism. Parks also considers the direction of the field of composition and rhetoric and expresses optimism for the…
This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…
van der Tuin, I.; Dolphijn, R.
This book is the first monograph on the theme of “new materialism,” an emerging trend in 21st century thought that has already left its mark in such fields as philosophy, cultural theory, feminism, science studies, and the arts. The first part of the book contains elaborate interviews with some of
This interview with Milton Friedman addresses his economic policies and how they might improve American public education. Highlights include teachers' unions and their negative impact on education, private schools and tax relief, the Edison Project, privatization of educational services, special needs students, California's Educational Freedom…
Hutsebaut, J.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Feenstra, D.J.; Weekers, L.C.; De Saeger, H.
The alternative model for personality disorders (AMPD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) features a Level of Personality Functioning Scale, measuring intrinsic personality processes that include identity, self-direction, empathy, and intimacy. This study describes
Eriksson, Carola; Larsson, Margareta
Background There is a trend to delay birth of the first child until the age at which female reproductive capacity has started to decrease. The aim of the present study was to explore how highly educated women and men reflected on future parenthood. Methods Twenty-two women and 18 men, who had started their professional career, were subjected to individual qualitative semi-structured interviews with qualitative content analysis guiding the analysis. Results All informants, except for three women, planned to have children when some important prerequisites were fulfilled. Women and men reflected in much the same way, and prerequisites for parenthood were being of reasonable age and having a partner in the same phase of life. A reasonable age was considered in relation to reproductive capacity, and both women and men expressed awareness of the natural decline in fertility at higher ages. Good living conditions with stable finances were also important. Parenthood was perceived as a challenge and a sacrifice but also as enriching life. Reasons for having children included being part of the future and settling down to build their own family. Many concluded that there would never be a perfect time for having children. Conclusion Highly educated women and men reflect on various factors when considering family planning. Being of reasonable age and having good living conditions, in particular a sound personal economy, were important. Given their goals, it is not surprising that many postpone parenthood until ages when female reproductive capacity is decreased. PMID:22300332
Full Text Available Abstract Background Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Results Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Conclusion Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.
Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus
making drew on ideologies, norms and values central to the field and thereby the strategies employed by the informants as well as by the researcher could be seen as wayfaring strategies; creating the paths in the field as they go along. Such an approach to interviews opens up the creative character...... of knowledge production and points out the role of the researcher as an active participant in the creative process....
Human Resources Division
The calendar for the 2002/2003 annual interview programme is confirmed as normally from 15 November 2002 to 15 February 2002 as foreseen in Administrative Circular N° 26 (rev. 2). However, where it is preferred to be as close as possible to 12 months since the last interview, supervisors and staff concerned may agree to the interview taking place up to 15 March 2003. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of divisional re-restructurings and detachments this year. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage leads directly to the page with the form. In collaboration with AS Division, the MAPS form including the personal data for the first page can be generated via the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) application. For this exercise each staff member can now generate his/her own MAPS form. Information about how to do this is available here. Human Resources Division Tel. ...
Saito, Moemi; Nodate, Yoshitada; Maruyama, Keiji; Tsuchiya, Masao; Watanabe, Machiko; Niwa, Sin-ichi
We established a practical training program to nurture pharmacists who can give smoking cessation instructions. The program was provided to 85 interns (45 males and 40 females) in Teikyo University Hospital. The one-day practical training was provided to groups comprised of five members each. The training consisted of studies on the adverse effects of smoking, general outlines of the outpatient smoking cessation service, experiencing Smokerlyzer, studies about smoking-cessation drugs, studies about a smoking cessation therapy using cognitive-behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing, and case studies applying role-playing. Before and after the practical training, we conducted a questionnaire survey consisting of The Kano Test for Social Nicotine Dependence (KTSND) and the assessment of the smoking status, changes in attitudes to smoking, and willingness and confidence to give smoking cessation instructions. The overall KTSND score significantly dropped from 14.1±4.8 before the training to 8.9±4.8 after the training. The confidence to give smoking cessation instructions significantly increased from 3.4±1.9 to 6.2±1.3. Regarding the correlation between the smoking status and willingness and confidence to give smoking cessation instructions, the willingness and confidence were lower among the group of interns who either smoked or had smoked previously, suggesting that smoking had an adverse effect. A total of 88.2% of the interns answered that their attitudes to smoking had "changed slightly" or "changed" as a result of the training, indicating changes in their attitudes to smoking. Given the above, we believe that our newly-established smoking cessation instruction training is a useful educational tool.
Kathryn Roulston PhD
Full Text Available Recent methodological work that draws on a ‘constructionist’ approach to interviewing - conceptualizes the interview as a socially-situated encounter in which both interviewer and interviewee play active roles. This approach takes the construction of interview data as a topic of examination. This article adopts the view that close examination of how particular interactions are accomplished provides additional insights into not only the topics discussed, but also how research design and methods might be modified to meet the needs of projects. Focus is specifically given to investigation of sequences observed as puzzling or challenging during interviews, or via interview data that emerged as problematic in the analysis process. How might close analyses of these sorts of sequences be used to inform research design and interview methods? The article explores (1 how problematic interactions identified in the analysis of focus group data can lead to modifications in research design, (2 an approach to dealing with reported data in representations of findings, and (3 how data analysis can inform question formulation in successive rounds of data generation. Findings from these types of examinations of interview data generation and analysis are valuable for informing both interview practice as well as research design in further research.
Doll, Jessica L.
Structured interviews are widely used in the employment process; however, students often have little experience asking and responding to structured interview questions. In a format similar to "speed dating," this exercise actively engages students in the interview process. Students pair off to gain experience as an interviewer by asking…
Mittereder, Felicitas; Durow, Jen; West, Brady T.; Kreuter, Frauke; Conrad, Frederick G.
Standardized interviewing (SI) and conversational interviewing are two approaches to collect survey data that differ in how interviewers address respondent confusion. This article examines interviewer-respondent interactions that occur during these two techniques, focusing on requests for and provisions of clarification. The data derive from an…
Benítez, Isabel; Padilla, José-Luis
Differential item functioning (DIF) can undermine the validity of cross-lingual comparisons. While a lot of efficient statistics for detecting DIF are available, few general findings have been found to explain DIF results. The objective of the article was to study DIF sources by using a mixed method design. The design involves a quantitative phase…
In an interview, the manager of the IEA market and energy security Directorate comments the results of the Rio+20 summit, the possible evolutions of oil price in a context of world energy demand under tension and of geopolitical risks, the trends on the world gas market as they have been published by the IEA, how to solve the gas competition issue in Europe, the future of the oil refining activity in Europe as it looses competitiveness, and the indexing of gas price on oil price
Faz Chowdhury is the Chief Executive Officer of Nemaura Pharma (Loughborough, UK), a pharmaceutical drug-delivery company developing patented formulation technologies alongside transdermal systems. Having originally trained as a pharmaceutical scientist, Dr Chowdhury received his PhD in Nanomedicine from the University of Oxford (Oxford, UK). With recognized expertise in the pharmaceutical industry and the holder of more than 15 patents on drug-delivery systems, Dr Chowdhury discussed the challenges faced in microneedle-based drug delivery, an area widely expected to revolutionize the transdermal field over the coming years. Interview conducted by James Potticary, Commissioning Editor.
Kelly, Maria; Sahm, Laura J; Shiely, Frances; O'Sullivan, Ronan; McGillicuddy, Aoife; McCarthy, Suzanne
Fever is one of the most common childhood symptoms. It causes significant worry and concern for parents. Every year there are numerous cases of over- and under-dosing with antipyretics. Caregivers seek reassurance from a variety of sources including healthcare practitioners. The aim of this study was to describe parental knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding management of childhood fever in children aged 5 years and under. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 parents at six ante-natal clinics in the south west of Ireland during March and April 2015. The Francis method was used to detect data saturation and thereby identify sample size. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Twenty-three parents participated in the study. Five themes emerged from the data: assessing and managing the fever; parental knowledge and beliefs regarding fever; knowledge source; pharmaceutical products; initiatives. Parents illustrated a good knowledge of fever as a symptom. However, management practices varied between participants. Parents revealed a reluctance to use medication in the form of suppositories. There was a desire for more accessible, consistent information to be made available for use by parents when their child had a fever or febrile illness. Parents indicated that further initiatives are required to provide trustworthy information on the management of fever and febrile illness in children. Healthcare professionals should play a significant role in educating parents in how to manage fever and febrile illnesses in their children. The accessible nature and location of pharmacies could provide useful support for both parents and General Practitioners.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-seeking behaviour in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM has been investigated to a limited extent, and not in developing countries. Switches between different health sectors may interrupt glycaemic control, affecting health. The aim of the study was to explore healthcare-seeking behaviour, including use of complementary alternative medicine (CAM and traditional healers, in Ugandans diagnosed with DM. Further, to study whether gender influenced healthcare-seeking behaviour. Methods This is a descriptive study with a snowball sample from a community in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews were held with 16 women and 8 men, aged 25-70. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Results Healthcare was mainly sought among doctors and nurses in the professional sector because of severe symptoms related to DM and/or glycaemic control. Females more often focused on follow-up of DM and chronic pain in joints, while males described fewer problems. Among those who felt that healthcare had failed, most had turned to traditional healers in the folk sector for prescription of herbs or food supplements, more so in women than men. Males more often turned to private for-profit clinics while females more often used free governmental institutions. Conclusions Healthcare was mainly sought from nurses and physicians in the professional sector and females used more free-of-charge governmental institutions. Perceived failure in health care to manage DM or related complications led many, particularly women, to seek alternative treatment from CAM practitioners in the folk sector. Living conditions, including healthcare organisation and gender, seemed to influence healthcare seeking, but further studies are needed.
J. K. Poussin
Full Text Available Flood risk throughout Europe has increased in the last few decades, and is projected to increase further owing to continued development in flood-prone areas and climate change. In recent years, studies have shown that adequate undertaking of semi-structural and non-structural measures can considerably decrease the costs of floods for households. However, there is little insight into how such measures can decrease the risk beyond the local level, now and in the future. To gain such insights, a modelling framework using the Damagescanner model with land-use and inundation maps for 2000 and 2030 was developed and applied to the Meuse river basin, in the region of Limburg, in the southeast of the Netherlands. The research suggests that annual flood risk may increase by up to 185% by 2030 compared with 2000, as a result of combined land-use and climate changes. The independent contributions of climate change and land-use change to the simulated increase are 108% and 37%, respectively. The risk-reduction capacity of the implementation of spatial zoning measures, which are meant to limit and regulate developments in flood-prone areas, is between 25% and 45%. Mitigation factors applied to assess the potential impact of three mitigation strategies (dry-proofing, wet-proofing, and the combination of dry- and wet-proofing in residential areas show that these strategies have a risk-reduction capacity of between 21% and 40%, depending on their rate of implementation. Combining spatial zoning and mitigation measures could reduce the total increase in risk by up to 60%. Policy implications of these results are discussed. They focus on the undertaking of effective mitigation measures, and possible ways to increase their implementation by households.
McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Walker, Daniel; Moss, Alexandra DeNardis; Bickell, Nina A.
Background Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a methodology created to address causal complexity in social sciences research by preserving the objectivity of quantitative data analysis without losing detail inherent in qualitative research. However, its use in health services research (HSR) is limited, and questions remain about its application in this context. Objective To explore the strengths and weaknesses of using QCA for HSR. Research Design Using data from semi-structured interviews conducted as part of a multiple case study about adjuvant treatment underuse among underserved breast cancer patients, findings were compared using qualitative approaches with and without QCA to identify strengths, challenges, and opportunities presented by QCA. Subjects Ninety administrative and clinical key informants interviewed across ten NYC area safety net hospitals. Measures Transcribed interviews were coded by three investigators using an iterative and interactive approach. Codes were calibrated for QCA, as well as examined using qualitative analysis without QCA. Results Relative to traditional qualitative analysis, QCA strengths include: (1) addressing causal complexity, (2) results presentation as pathways as opposed to a list, (3) identification of necessary conditions, (4) the option of fuzzy-set calibrations, and (5) QCA-specific parameters of fit that allow researchers to compare outcome pathways. Weaknesses include: (1) few guidelines and examples exist for calibrating interview data, (2) not designed to create predictive models, and (3) unidirectionality. Conclusions Through its presentation of results as pathways, QCA can highlight factors most important for production of an outcome. This strength can yield unique benefits for HSR not available through other methods. PMID:26908085
Sysko, Robyn; Glasofer, Deborah R.; Hildebrandt, Tom; Klimek, Patrycja; Mitchell, James E.; Berg, Kelly C.; Peterson, Carol B.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Walsh, B. Timothy
Objective Existing measures for DSM-IV eating disorder diagnoses have notable limitations, and there are important differences between DSM-IV and DSM-5 feeding and eating disorders. This study developed and validated a new semi-structured interview, the Eating Disorders Assessment for DSM-5 (EDA-5). Method Two studies evaluated the utility of the EDA-5. Study 1 compared the diagnostic validity of the EDA-5 to the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) and evaluated the test-retest reliability of the new measure. Study 2 compared the diagnostic validity of an EDA-5 electronic application (“app”) to clinician interview and self-report assessments. Results In Study 1, the kappa for EDE and EDA-5 eating disorder diagnoses was 0.74 across all diagnoses (n= 64), with a range of κ=0.65 for Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder (OSFED)/Unspecified Feeding or Eating Disorder (USFED) to κ=0.90 for Binge Eating Disorder (BED). The EDA-5 test-retest kappa coefficient was 0.87 across diagnoses. For Study 2, clinical interview versus “app” conditions revealed a kappa of 0.83 for all eating disorder diagnoses (n=71). Across individual diagnostic categories, kappas ranged from 0.56 for OSFED/USFED to 0.94 for BN. Discussion High rates of agreement were found between diagnoses by EDA-5 and the EDE, and EDA-5 and clinical interviews. As this study supports the validity of the EDA-5 to generate DSM-5 eating disorders and the reliability of these diagnoses, the EDA-5 may be an option for the assessment of Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and BED. Additional research is needed to evaluate the utility of the EDA-5 in assessing DSM-5 feeding disorders. PMID:25639562
Full Text Available The first section of this interview addresses the political and cultural milieu that shaped Karol Modzelewski’s education (in Poland and Italy, too, the relations with both his mentor Aleksander Gieysztor and the historians of the previous generation, the condition of education in Poland especially in the ’60s, his political involvement, the selection of his research interests and the development the latter underwent. Then the interview examines Modzelewski’s relations with scholars belonging to other historiographical schools, with particular attention to the issue of ethnogenesis, the methodology concerning the structure of sources to reconstruct the history of the Barbarian world in the first millennium, the matter of the “Barbaric collectivism”, the reception of his study L’Europa dei barbari (‘The Europe of the Barbarians’, 2004, and finally how research is organized and evaluated in Poland. Quotable as Intervista a Karol Modzelewski, a cura di Paola Guglielmotti e Gian Maria Varanini, "Reti Medievali - Rivista", 11, 1 (2010, p. 509-579, url: .
Laplanche, Jean; Danon, Gisèle; Lauru, Didier
The starting point for this interview with Jean Laplanche is a question regarding the place of infantile sexuality within psychoanalysis today. Laplanche begins by underscoring the audaciousness of Freud's characterization of infantile sexuality and the significance of the expansion of the field of "the sexual" that this characterization entails. He goes on to outline his celebrated "general theory of seduction." In doing so he explains key terms associated with it, such as the "enigmatic message" and the "fundamental anthropological situation," and clarifies how the theory seeks to account for sexuality in the expanded sense. In particular, Laplanche stresses the intersubjective origins of "drive" sexuality in infancy, its chaotic evolution, its unique economic mode of functioning, and its subsequent conflict with innate "instinctual" sexual impulses that surge forth at puberty. He also positions the general theory of seduction in relation to the important advances made by attachment theory in the field of the adult-child relationship. Throughout the interview, the discussion touches on social contexts, and at points Laplanche outlines positions on topical concerns connected to education, media, and the law, and the importance of rethinking certain psychoanalytic paradigms in an age of new family structures that do not correspond to the nuclear unit.
For the performance appraisal of reference year 2003, the interview calendar has been fixed between 1 January and 31 March 2004. This new calendar gives a better time schedule to the supervisors to conduct the interviews. This may also be necessary due to the roles of different supervisors resulting from the particular situations of the new CERN structure as from 2004. With this later time limit, the new departments are invited to strictly respect the target date of 31 March. The report form template is as last year available on the HR Division Website. A banner on the internal homepage: http://cern.ch/hr-div will lead directly to the page with the form. The personal data for the first page of the form can be generated by each divisional hierarchy, by the Divisional Administrative Officer (DAO) or by the staff member himself via HRT. Following discussions about the first two years of MAPS, and in order to improve the performance appraisal process, some modifications have been brought to section 2 (Assessme...
Smyth, Rebecca M D; Jacoby, Ann; Altman, Douglas G; Gamble, Carrol; Williamson, Paula R
To investigate the nature of the research process as a whole, factors that might influence the way in which research is carried out, and how researchers ultimately report their findings. Semi-structured qualitative telephone interviews with authors of trials, identified from two sources: trials published since 2002 included in Cochrane systematic reviews selected for the ORBIT project; and trial reports randomly sampled from 14,758 indexed on PubMed over the 12-month period from August 2007 to July 2008. A total of 268 trials were identified for inclusion, 183 published since 2002 and included in the Cochrane systematic reviews selected for the ORBIT project and 85 randomly selected published trials indexed on PubMed. The response rate from researchers in the former group was 21% (38/183) and in the latter group was 25% (21/85). Overall, 59 trialists were interviewed from the two different sources. A number of major but related themes emerged regarding the conduct and reporting of trials: establishment of the research question; identification of outcome variables; use of and adherence to the study protocol; conduct of the research; reporting and publishing of findings. Our results reveal that, although a substantial proportion of trialists identify outcome variables based on their clinical experience and knowing experts in the field, there can be insufficient reference to previous research in the planning of a new trial. We have revealed problems with trial recruitment: not reaching the target sample size, over-estimation of recruitment potential and recruiting clinicians not being in equipoise. We found a wide variation in the completeness of protocols, in terms of detailing study rationale, outlining the proposed methods, trial organisation and ethical considerations. Our results confirm that the conduct and reporting of some trials can be inadequate. Interviews with researchers identified aspects of clinical research that can be especially challenging
Hawamdeh, Sana; Raigangar, Veena
To explore some of the main methodological challenges faced by interviewers in Arab settings, particularly during interviews with psychiatric nurses. Interviews are a tool used commonly in qualitative research. However, the cultural norms and practices of interviewees must be considered to ensure that an appropriate interviewing style is used, a good interviewee-interviewer relationship formed and consent for participation obtained sensitively. A study to explore the nature of psychiatric nurses' practices that used unstructured interviews. This is a methodology paper that discusses a personal experience of addressing many challenges that are specific to qualitative interviewing in Arab settings, supported by literature on the topic. Suggestions for improving the interview process to make it more culturally sensitive are provided and recommendations for future research are made. Openness, flexibility and a reflexive approach by the researcher can help manage challenges in Arab settings. Researchers should allow themselves to understand the cultural elements of a population to adapt interviewing methods with the aim of generating high quality qualitative research.
Serres, Michelle L.; Gundrum, Todd E.
Objective. To improve the reliability and discrimination of a pharmacy resident interview evaluation form, and thereby improve the reliability of the interview process. Methods. In phase 1 of the study, authors used a Many-Facet Rasch Measurement model to optimize an existing evaluation form for reliability and discrimination. In phase 2, interviewer pairs used the modified evaluation form within 4 separate interview stations. In phase 3, 8 interviewers individually-evaluated each candidate in one-on-one interviews. Results. In phase 1, the evaluation form had a reliability of 0.98 with person separation of 6.56; reproducibly, the form separated applicants into 6 distinct groups. Using that form in phase 2 and 3, our largest variation source was candidates, while content specificity was the next largest variation source. The phase 2 g-coefficient was 0.787, while confirmatory phase 3 was 0.922. Process reliability improved with more stations despite fewer interviewers per station—impact of content specificity was greatly reduced with more interview stations. Conclusion. A more reliable, discriminating evaluation form was developed to evaluate candidates during resident interviews, and a process was designed that reduced the impact from content specificity. PMID:24159209
Jespersen, Lone; Wallace, Carol A
The research evaluates maturity of food safety culture in five multi-national food companies using method triangulation, specifically self-assessment scale, performance documents, and semi-structured interviews. Weaknesses associated with each individual method are known but there are few studies in food safety where a method triangulation approach is used for both data collection and data analysis. Significantly, this research shows that individual results taken in isolation can lead to wrong conclusions, resulting in potentially failing tactics and wasted investments. However, by applying method triangulation and reviewing results from a range of culture measurement tools it is possible to better direct investments and interventions. The findings add to the food safety culture paradigm beyond a single evaluation of food safety culture using generic culture surveys. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Voigt, Jane Rohde; Hansen, Ulla M.; Glindorf, Mette
with researchers developed and implemented a participatory, group-based diabetes education program in a diabetes clinic in the Danish health care system. The research process included a variety of qualitative methods: workshops, classroom observations, video recordings and semi-structured interviews. These methods......Action research is potentially a useful method for changing clinical practice by involving practitioners in the process of change. The aim of this study was to explore the utility of action research in bridging the gap between research and practice. Diabetes educators in collaboration...... aimed at obtaining contextual sensitivity, allowing dynamic interactions with educators and people with diabetes. Despite challenges, the study demonstrates how action research methods contribute to development and change of diabetes education practice while simultaneously adding knowledge to the action...
Research indicates that experiencing the suicide of a relative can have a significant impact on family members\\' emotional health. However, research incorporating the impact of suicide bereavement on family members\\' physical health is sparse. This paper details the protocol for a mixed-methods study of suicide-bereaved family members. The study will primarily examine the physical and mental health needs of those bereaved by suicide. A secondary objective of the study is to describe the support service needs of family members bereaved by suicide.
Forsberg, Lars; Ernst, Denise; Farbring, Carl Åke
Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, directive counselling style for helping people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change and shown to decrease drug and alcohol use. A five-session semi-structured MI intervention [Beteende, Samtal, Förändring (BSF; Behaviour, Counselling, Change)] was implemented in Swedish prisons. To examine whether, in a real-life implementation of semi-structured MI, staff receiving ongoing MI training, based on audio-recorded feedback in peer groups (BSF+), possess greater MI skill compared with staff receiving workshop-only MI training (BSF), and staff conducting usual prison planning interviews (UPI). Prisoners were randomised to one of the three interventions. The fi rst sessions between staff and prisoner with complete data were assessed with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code 3.0. Content analysis of 45 staff: prisoner sessions revealed that counsellors in the BSF+ group were significantly more competent in MI than those in the UPI group, but there was no difference in MI competency between the BSF and UPI groups. Overall, staff were rated as not having achieved beginning proficiency. Our findings suggest that staff delivering motivational interviewing programmes for substance-misusing prisoners in Sweden are not being given sufficient training for the task. Previous literature has suggested that staff need more than a basic 3- to 5-day workshop training, but our findings suggest that they may need longer-term continuing supervision and support than previously recognised.
Tanderup, Malene; Reddy, Sunita; Patel, Tulsi; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun
To investigate ethical issues in informed consent for decisions regarding embryo transfer and fetal reduction in commercial gestational surrogacy. Mixed methods study employing observations, an interview-guide and semi-structured interviews. Fertility clinics and agencies in Delhi, India, between December 2011 and December 2012. Doctors providing conceptive technologies to commissioning couples and carrying out surrogacy procedures; surrogate mothers; agents functioning as links for surrogacy. Interviews using semi-structured interview guides were carried out among 20 doctors in 18 fertility clinics, five agents from four agencies and 14 surrogate mothers. Surrogate mothers were interviewed both individually and in the presence of doctors and agents. Data on socio-economic context and experiences among and between various actors in the surrogacy process were coded to identify categories of ethical concern. Numerical and grounded theory-oriented analyses were used. Informed consent, number of embryos transferred, fetal reduction, conflict of interest among the involved parties. None of the 14 surrogate mothers were able to explain the risks involved in embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The majority of the doctors took unilateral decisions about embryo transfer and fetal reduction. The commissioning parents were usually only indirectly involved. In the qualitative analysis, difficulties in explaining procedures, autonomy, self-payment of fertility treatment and conflicts of interest were the main themes. Clinical procedural decisions were primarily made by the doctors. Surrogate mothers were not adequately informed. There is a need for regulation on decision-making procedures to safeguard the interests of surrogate mothers. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of health outcomes rely on data collected by interviewers administering highly-structured (quantitative questionnaires to participants. Little appears to be known about the experiences of such interviewers. This paper explores interviewer experiences of working on a longitudinal study in New Zealand (the Prospective Outcomes of injury Study - POIS. Interviewers administer highly-structured questionnaires to participants, usually by telephone, and enter data into a secure computer program. The research team had expectations of interviewers including: consistent questionnaire administration, timeliness, proportions of potential participants recruited and an empathetic communication style. This paper presents results of a focus group to qualitatively explore with the team of interviewers their experiences, problems encountered, strategies, support systems used and training. Methods A focus group with interviewers involved in the POIS interviews was held; it was audio-recorded and transcribed. The analytical method was thematic, with output intended to be descriptive and interpretive. Results Nine interviewers participated in the focus group (average time in interviewer role was 31 months. Key themes were: 1 the positive aspects of the quantitative interviewer role (i.e. relationships and resilience, insights gained, and participants' feedback, 2 difficulties interviewers encountered and solutions identified (i.e. stories lost or incomplete, forgotten appointments, telling the stories, acknowledging distress, stories reflected and debriefing and support, and 3 meeting POIS researcher expectations (i.e. performance standards, time-keeping, dealing exclusively with the participant and maintaining privacy. Conclusions Interviewers demonstrated great skill in the way they negotiated research team expectations whilst managing the relationships with participants. Interviewers found it helpful to have a research protocol in
Full Text Available The phenomenon of market globalization and also the periods of economic instability worldwide led to increased competition and hence to growing concerns of companies to continuously improve their products and services, the quality of which could be a real competitive advantage in attracting and retaining bigger segments of consumers. But to succeed in the market, the companies need to focus their efforts also to finding, knowing, understanding and meeting the needs, requirements and expectations of current and future consumers. Thus, it becomes essential that the flow of information be carried out in two ways: organization – customer, customer – organization, a particular importance being given to the frequency with which they get feedback from customers, this feedback determining the accuracy of the measures taken to improve those aspects appreciated by consumers as being nonconforming. Therefore, knowing the customer perception on the quality of offer has become vital, this being an important determinant of the degree of satisfaction which in turn can decisively influence the profitability of companies, regardless their field of activity. In this context, this paper, which is based on a qualitative marketing research, highlights the main categories of banking products and services used by Romanian consumers and their perceptions on banks and their offers. A particular attention was paid on the methods, techniques and tools used by banks to assess the satisfaction of their customers in order to improve their experience.
Hershberger, Patricia E; Kavanaugh, Karen
Despite an increasing use of qualitative email interviews by nurse researchers, there is little understanding about the appropriateness and equivalence of email interviews to other qualitative data collection methods, especially on sensitive topics research. The purpose is to describe our procedures for completing asynchronous, email interviews and to evaluate the appropriateness and equivalency of email interviews to phone interviews in two qualitative research studies that examined reproductive decisions. Content analysis guided the methodological appraisal of appropriateness and equivalency of in-depth, asynchronous email interviews to single phone interviews. Appropriateness was determined by: (a) participants' willingness to engage in email or phone interviews, (b) completing data collection in a timely period, and (c) participants' satisfaction with the interview. Equivalency was evaluated by: (a) completeness of the interview data, and (b) insight obtained from the data. Of the combined sample in the two studies (N=71), 31% of participants chose to participate via an email interview over a phone interview. The time needed to complete the email interviews averaged 27 to 28days and the number of investigator probe-participant response interchanges was 4 to 5cycles on average. In contrast, the phone interviews averaged 59 to 61min in duration. Most participants in both the email and phone interviews reported they were satisfied or very satisfied with their ability to express their true feelings throughout the interview. Regarding equivalence, 100% of the email and phone interviews provided insight into decision processes. Although insightful, two of the email and one phone interview had short answers or, at times, underdeveloped responses. Participants' quotes and behaviors cited within four published articles, a novel evaluation of equivalency, revealed that 20% to 37.5% of the citations about decision processes were from email participants, which is
Patel, Neesha R; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bundy, Christine; Kennedy, Anne; Blickem, Christian; Reeves, David
British South Asians have a higher incidence of diabetes and poorer health outcomes compared to the general UK population. Beliefs about diabetes are known to play an important role in self-management, yet little is known about the sociocultural context in shaping beliefs. This study aimed to explore the influence of sociocultural context on illness beliefs and diabetes self-management in British South Asians. A mixed methods approach was used. 67 participants recruited using random and purposive sampling, completed a questionnaire measuring illness beliefs, fatalism, health outcomes and demographics; 37 participants completed a social network survey interview and semi-structured interviews. Results were analysed using SPSS and thematic analysis. Quantitative data found certain social network characteristics (emotional and illness work) were related to perceived concern, emotional distress and health outcomes (p work remained a significant predictor of perceived concern and emotional distress related to diabetes (p culturally appropriate interventions to modify beliefs and support self-management in this population.
Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin
The purpose of this study was twofold: to investigate the conscious and unconscious psychological motivations of online game addicts, and to further discuss the relationship between surface and source motivations. Ten Taiwanese adolescents with online game addiction were selected for in-depth interviews. Through sentence completion test and semi-structured interviews, data were collected and analyzed from the following four realms: (1) surface motivations, (2) source motivations, (3) self-conception, and (4) interpersonal relationships in real life. After content analysis, five categories with distinct themes were formed: (1) addicts' psychological needs and motivations; (2) online games as the everyday focus of the addicts; (3) the interplay of real self and virtual self; (4) online games as the compensatory or extensive satisfaction for addicts' needs; and (5) addicts' self-reflections. The implications of the present study are discussed.
Buckley, Kelsey; Karr, Samantha; Nisly, Sarah A; Kelley, Kristi
To evaluate the impact of student pharmacist participation in a mock interview session on confidence level and preparation regarding residency interview skills. The study setting was a mock interview session, held in conjunction with student programming at the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) Annual Meeting. Prior to the mock interview session, final year student pharmacists seeking residency program placement were asked to complete a pre-session survey assessing confidence level for residency interviews. Each student pharmacist participated in up to three mock interviews. A post-session survey evaluating confidence level was then administered to consenting participants. Following the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) Pharmacy Resident Matching Program (RMP), a post-match electronic survey was sent to study participants to determine their perception of the influence of the mock interview session on achieving successful interactions during residency interviews. A total of 59 student pharmacists participated in the mock interview session and completed the pre-session survey. Participants completing the post-session survey (88%, n = 52) unanimously reported an enhanced confidence in interviewing skills following the session. Thirty responders reported a program match rate of 83%. Approximately 97% (n = 29) of the respondents agreed or strongly agreed that the questions asked during the mock interview session were reflective of questions asked during residency interviews. Lessons learned from this mock interview session can be applied to PGY1 residency mock interview sessions held locally, regionally, and nationally. Students participating in the ACCP Mock Interview Session recognized the importance of the interview component in obtaining a postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) pharmacy residency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dempsey, Laura; Dowling, Maura; Larkin, Philip; Murphy, Kathy
In this paper we focus on important considerations when planning and conducting qualitative interviews on sensitive topics. Drawing on experiences of conducting interviews with dementia caregivers, a framework of essential elements in qualitative interviewing was developed to emphasize study participants' needs while also providing guidance for researchers. Starting with a definition of sensitive research, the framework includes preparing for interviews, interacting with gatekeepers of vulnerable groups, planning for interview timing, and location, building relationships and conducting therapeutic interactions, protecting ethically vulnerable participants, and planning for disengagement. This framework has the potential to improve the effectiveness of sensitive interviewing with vulnerable groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
David, Daniel; Bizo, Aurelian; Cimpean, Alina Ioana; Oltean, Horea; Cardos, Roxana; Soflau, Radu; Negut, Alexandra
Stereotype Content Model (SCM) emphasizes the content rather than the underlying processes of the stereotypes and the content might be influenced by several cultural dimensions (e.g., individualism vs. collectivism). The main dimensions of SCM-namely warmth and competence-underlying various contents are assumed to be universal. However, from a cognitive science paradigm, we argue that different research methods (i.e., data collections and data analysis) might also yield different stereotype contents that might impact the universality versus specificity problem in the SCM. Indeed, using a sample from a collectivistic country (i.e., Romania), we found that using different methods in data collection (i.e., unstructured vs. semi-structured vs. structured interview) and different methods of data analysis (i.e., availability vs. accessibility scores) might be an important research strategy to counter artefacts and confusions in the universality versus specificity problem related to the SCM. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Jessica Faye Heal
Full Text Available This article outlines four research methods we’ve employed to enhance how students from low-income backgrounds engage in research exploring effective teaching. It firstly outlines the need to be innovative, drawing Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, and then moves on to explain two methods that scaffold a semi-structured interview, one child-led classroom tour and finally a creative ‘draw and tell’ approach. It argues that these methods are successful because they disrupt the researcher-participant power imbalance using the following techniques: Familiarity to the student, empowering the student to be an expert, and giving the student choice.
Peter Jenni, former spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration, discusses the challenges and satisfactions from his long-standing career in high-energy physics in this month’s PH Newsletter. Peter Jenni. Following a long career at CERN that dates back to 1970 (ranging from Summer Student to Fellow and to Staff), Peter Jenni recently retired after about 40 years marked by exciting discoveries (from the first two-photon production of eta-prime at SPEAR to the Higgs boson at the LHC). Peter was involved in the LHC from its very beginnings and was spokesperson of the ATLAS Collaboration until February 2009. Peter Jenni will continue working with ATLAS as a guest scientist with the Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg, and when he's not travelling he still spends most of his time in his office in Building 40, where he met with interviewer Panos Charitos. Panos Charitos: When did you first arrive to CERN? Peter Jenni: I first came to CERN as a Summer Student in ...
Full Text Available Lenny Kaye has been Patti Smith’s long term guitarist, friend and collaborator, ever since they first began together in the early 1970s. He grew up between New York and New Jersey, graduating in American History from Rutgers University, where he later taught a course in the Department of American Studies on the History of American Rock, which became famous because of the large number of students who wanted to enroll in it. A very prolific writer and musician, he has produced an important number of records, as well as collaborated with numerous music magazines. He is the author of two books, Waylon Jennings: An Autobiography (1996 and You Call it Madness, The Sensuous Song of the Croon (2004. Nuggets (1972, his anthology of 60s garage music, is famous for defining the genre. This interview took place when he was visiting Spain in November 2012 with the Patti Smith Group. In it, we discussed the New York scene of the 70s, music, literature, drugs, politics, and many other things.
Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) tools including semi-structured questionnaires were administrated to 90 randomly selected farmers who had received extension services from the project. In addition, twelve project extension workers were interviewed. Data were analysed using SPSS computer package and descriptive ...
Full Text Available In the early 1980s, Ray Pahl, a sociologist at the University of Kent, and PhD student Claire Wallace conducted interviews examining young people’s experiences of growing up, work, and unemployment on the Isle of Sheppey; these interviews are now deposited at the University of Essex, and this article examines how historians and others might reuse them to interrogate other subjects. The article examines one working-class young woman’s ideas about gender and sexuality in the early 1980s, using the Listening Guide method developed by psychologist Carol Gilligan to probe the individual subjectivity and emotion, as well as the cultural discourses at play in this interview. The interviewee was a young woman who was involved in a culture of casual sex with men “on the ships,” and the article focuses on how she saw the exchanges of money, drink, and gifts between them and herself, and how she avoided seeing her actions as “prostitution.” The analysis shows how in a particular locality in the early 1980s, a particular subculture could allow some young women to sidestep the dominant codes governing young, working-class women’s sexuality and go “on the ships” without seeing this as marking them as “prostitutes”’ or any related category. Thus, the article troubles the ontology of “prostitution” as a category. It also suggests how we can use a single individual’s narrative to offer a broader account of cultures or subcultures, by starting with the individual and examining how one subjectivity navigated and interacted with broader cultural discourses. Finally, this article also offers suggestions about some of the methodological and ethical issues with reusing archived sociological data but argues that it holds rich possibilities.
Williams, Marion L.
Interviewers: Keethler, Greg; Sheldon, Robert S.. Interview location(s): Headquarters Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirkland Air Force Base, New Mexico and United States Air Force Academy, Colorado Springs, Colorado
Interviewed on 12 April 1983 by Jack Goody and Alan Macfarlane and filmed and edited by Sarah Harrison. Made on old and low quality equipment. An interview of the historian and naturalist David Elliston Allen
Nielsen, Charlotte; Louise Rasmussen, Line
Implementation of Motivational Interviewing in practice Background In 2012 at Department of Nephrology an investigation among patients showed, that the patient’s did not experience acknowledgement during admission, though the nurses was educated in 'Motivational Interviewing'. Objectives To improve...... patient satisfaction during admission To maintain and improve the nurses competencies in patient-centred communication. Methods Literature study Breakthrough series method and Plan Do Study Act circles. Training by Mooney and Brinkerhoff (development of nurses competences) Pre - focus group interviews...... with the nurses. Implementation process in 3 phases - Preparation - Implementation (4 selected keypersons) - Follow-up Result The four selected keypersons aroused curiosity and motivation for a patient-centred admission interview. The nurses experienced the interaction with the patient became more dynamic. Data...
Dunning, Kari; LeMasters, Grace K
While survey studies have examined bias much is unknown regarding specific subpopulations, especially women workers. A population based phone, Internet, and mail survey of workplace falls during pregnancy was undertaken. Participation by industry and occupation and survey approach and bias, reliability, and incomplete data were examined. Of the 3,997 women surveyed, 71% were employed during their pregnancy. Internet responders were most likely to be employed while pregnant and to report a workplace fall at 8.8% compared to 5.8% and 6.1% for mail and phone respondents. Internet responders had the most missing employment data with company name missing for 17.9% compared to 1.3% for phone responders. Mail surveys were best for recruiting those employed in eight of nine industries, and this was especially true for service occupations. To decrease bias and increase participation, mixed approaches may be useful with particular attention for collecting occupational data. Am. J. Ind. Med. 52:105-112, 2009. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse
Comparison of self-report and interview administration methods based on the Brazilian versions of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in patients with rotator cuff disorders
Andréa Diniz Lopes
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare self-report and interview administration methods using the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index (WORC and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire (DASH in patients with rotator cuff disorders. METHODS: Thirty male and female patients over 18 years of age with rotator cuff disorders (tendinopathy or rotator cuff tear and Brazilian Portuguese as their primary language were recruited for assessment via administration of the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire. A randomization method was used to determine whether the questionnaires would be self-reported (n=15 or administered by an interviewer (n=15. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the correlation between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire in each group. The t-test was used to determine whether the difference in mean questionnaire scores and administration time was statistically significant. For statistical analysis, the level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: The mean subject age was 55.07 years, ranging from 27 to 74 years. Most patients had a diagnosis of tendinopathy (n=21. With regard to level of schooling, the majority (n=26 of subjects had completed a college degree or higher. The mean questionnaire scores and administration times did not significantly differ between the two groups (p>0.05. There were statistically significant correlations (p<0.05 between Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire, and strong correlations were found between the questionnaires in both groups. CONCLUSION: There are no differences between the Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Questionnaire administration methods with regard to administration time or correlations between the
Full Text Available Background: While precision medicines targeting genetic mutations and alterations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC have been available since 2010, their adoption into clinical practice has been slow. Evidence suggests that a number of barriers, such as insufficient clinician knowledge, a need for training of test providers, or a lack of specific clinical guidelines, may slow the implementation of precision in general. However, little attention has been given to the barriers to providing precision medicines in NSCLC. The purpose of this protocol is to outline the design for a qualitative interview study to identify the barriers and facilitators to the provision of precision medicines for NSCLC. Methods: This study will use semi-structured interviews with clinicians (n=10, test providers (n=10, and service commissioners (n=10 to identify the perceived barriers and facilitators to providing historical, current, and future precision medicines in NSCLC. Participants will be identified through mailing list advertisements and snowball sampling. Recruitment will continue until data saturation, indicated by no new themes arising from the data. Interviews will be conducted by telephone to facilitate geographical diversity. The qualitative data will be analysed using a framework analysis with themes anticipated to relate to; relevant barriers to providing precision medicines, the impact of different barriers on medicine provision, changes in the ability to provide precision medicines over time, and strategies to facilitate the provision of precision medicines. Ethics: This study has been approved by the University of Manchester Proportionate Review Research Ethics Committee (Reference number: 2017-1885-3619. Written consent will be obtained from all participants. Conclusion: This study is the first to explore the barriers and facilitators to providing precision medicines for NSCLC in the English NHS. The findings will inform strategies to
Ghanouni, A.; Smith, S.G.; Halligan, S.; Taylor, S.A.; Plumb, A.; Boone, D.; Wagner, C. von
Aim: To compare patients' experiences of either non- or full-laxative bowel preparation with additional faecal tagging and subsequent computed tomographic (CT) colonography using in-depth interviews to elicit detailed responses. Materials and methods: Patients who received CT colonography after non- (n = 9) or full-laxative (n = 9) preparation participated in a semi-structured telephone interview at least 2 days after the investigation. Full-laxative preparation consisted of magnesium citrate and sodium picosulphate administered at home (or polyethylene glycol, if contraindicated), followed by hospital-based faecal tagging with iohexol. Non-laxative preparation was home-based barium sulphate for faecal tagging. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed to identify recurrent themes on patients' perceptions and experiences. Results: Experiences of full-laxative preparation were usually negative and characterized by pre-test diarrhoea that caused significant interference with daily routine. Post-test flatus was common. Non-laxative preparation was well-tolerated; patients reported no or minimal changes to bowel habit and rapid return to daily routine. Patients reported worry and uncertainty about the purpose of faecal tagging. For iohexol, this also added burden from waiting before testing. Conclusion: Patients' responses supported previous findings that non-laxative preparation is more acceptable than full-laxative preparation but both can be improved. Faecal tagging used in combination with laxative preparation is poorly understood, adding burden and worry. Home-based non-laxative preparation is also poorly understood and patients require better information on the purpose and mechanism in order to give fully informed consent. This may also optimize adherence to instructions. Allowing home-based self-administration of all types of preparation would prevent waiting before testing
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaysia is a multicultural society, predominantly composed of a Muslim majority population, where Islam is influential. Malaysia has a concentrated HIV epidemic amongst high risk groups, such as, Intravenous Drug Users (IVDU, sex workers, transgender women and Men who have sex with Men (MSM. The objective of this study is to understand how Islam shapes HIV prevention strategies in Malaysia by interviewing the three key stakeholder groups identified as being influential, namely the Ministry of Health, Religious leaders and People living with HIV. Methods Thirty-Five in depth semi structured interviews were undertaken with religious leaders, Ministry of Health and People living with HIV in the last half of 2013 using purposive sampling. Interviews adhered to a topic guide, were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim and analyzed using a framework analysis. Results Themes including the importance of Islam to health, stakeholder relationships and opinions on HIV prevention emerged. Islam was seen to play a pivotal role in shaping strategies relating to HIV prevention in Malaysia both directly and indirectly. Stakeholders often held different approaches to HIV prevention, which had to be sensitively considered, with some favouring promotion of Islamic principles, whilst others steering towards a more public health centred approach. Conclusions The study suggests that Islam indeed plays an important role in shaping health policies and strategies related to HIV prevention in Malaysia. Certainly, stakeholders do hold differing viewpoints, such as stances of what constitutes the right approach to HIV prevention. However there are also areas of broad consensus, such as the importance in Islamic tradition to prevent harm and disease, which can be crafted into existing and future HIV prevention strategies in Malaysia, as well as the wider Muslim world.
Effects of Low- Versus High-Fidelity Simulations on the Cognitive Burden and Performance of Entry-Level Paramedicine Students: A Mixed-Methods Comparison Trial Using Eye-Tracking, Continuous Heart Rate, Difficulty Rating Scales, Video Observation and Interviews.
Mills, Brennen W; Carter, Owen B-J; Rudd, Cobie J; Claxton, Louise A; Ross, Nathan P; Strobel, Natalie A
High-fidelity simulation-based training is often avoided for early-stage students because of the assumption that while practicing newly learned skills, they are ill suited to processing multiple demands, which can lead to "cognitive overload" and poorer learning outcomes. We tested this assumption using a mixed-methods experimental design manipulating psychological immersion. Thirty-nine randomly assigned first-year paramedicine students completed low- or high-environmental fidelity simulations [low-environmental fidelity simulations (LF(en)S) vs. high-environmental fidelity simulation (HF(en)S)] involving a manikin with obstructed airway (SimMan3G). Psychological immersion and cognitive burden were determined via continuous heart rate, eye tracking, self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), independent observation, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was assessed by successful location of obstruction and time-to-termination. Eye tracking confirmed that students attended to multiple, concurrent stimuli in HF(en)S and interviews consistently suggested that they experienced greater psychological immersion and cognitive burden than their LF(en)S counterparts. This was confirmed by significantly higher mean heart rate (P cognitive burden but this has considerable educational merit.
Yeganeh, N; Dillavou, C; Simon, M; Gorbach, P; Santos, B; Fonseca, R; Saraiva, J; Melo, M; Nielsen-Saines, K
Audio computer-assisted survey instrument (ACASI) has been shown to decrease under-reporting of socially undesirable behaviours, but has not been evaluated in pregnant women at risk of HIV acquisition in Brazil. We assigned HIV-negative pregnant women receiving routine antenatal care at in Porto Alegre, Brazil and their partners to receive a survey regarding high-risk sexual behaviours and drug use via ACASI (n = 372) or face-to-face (FTF) (n = 283) interviews. Logistic regression showed that compared with FTF, pregnant women interviewed via ACASI were significantly more likely to self-report themselves as single (14% versus 6%), having >5 sexual partners (35% versus 29%), having oral sex (42% versus 35%), using intravenous drugs (5% versus 0), smoking cigarettes (23% versus 16%), drinking alcohol (13% versus 8%) and using condoms during pregnancy (32% versus 17%). Therefore, ACASI may be a useful method in assessing risk behaviours in pregnant women, especially in relation to drug and alcohol use.
Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due
Bradley, Dominique Kim Frances; Griffin, Murray
The Productive Series is a collection of change programmes designed by the English National Health Service (NHS) Institute for Innovation and Improvement to help frontline healthcare staff improve quality and reduce wasted time, so that this time can be reinvested into time spent with patients. The programmes have been implemented in at least 14 countries around the world. This study examines an implementation of the Productive Community Services programme that took place in a Community healthcare organisation in England from July 2010 to March 2012. To explore staff members' perceptions of a Productive Community Services implementation. Cross-sectional interview. Community Healthcare Organisation in East Anglia, England. 45 participants were recruited using purposive, snowballing and opportunistic sampling methods to represent five main types of staff group in the organisation; clinical team members, administrative team members, service managers/team leaders, senior managers and software support staff. Team members were recruited on the basis that they had submitted data for at least one Productive Community Services module. Semi-structured individual and group interviews were carried out after the programme concluded and analysed using thematic analysis. This report focuses on six of the themes identified. The analysis found that communication was not always effective, and there was a lack of awareness, knowledge and understanding of the programme. Many staff did not find the Productive Community Services work relevant, and although certain improvements were sustained, suboptimal practices crept back. Although negative outcomes were reported, such as the programme taking time away from patients initially, many benefits were described including improved stock control and work environments, and better use of the Electronic Patient Record system. One of the themes identified highlighted the positive perceptions of the programme, however a focus on five other themes
Wynn, Julia; Lewis, Katie; Amendola, Laura M; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biswas, Sawona; Joshi, Manasi; McMullen, Carmit; Scollon, Sarah
Current medical practice includes the application of genomic sequencing (GS) in clinical and research settings. Despite expanded use of this technology, the process of disclosure of genomic results to patients and research participants has not been thoroughly examined and there are no established best practices. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 genetic and non-genetic clinicians returning results of GS as part of the NIH funded Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) Consortium projects. Interviews focused on the logistics of sessions, participant/patient reactions and factors influencing them, how the sessions changed with experience, and resources and training recommended to return genomic results. The length of preparation and disclosure sessions varied depending on the type and number of results and their implications. Internal and external databases, online resources and result review meetings were used to prepare. Respondents reported that participants' reactions were variable and ranged from enthusiasm and relief to confusion and disappointment. Factors influencing reactions were types of results, expectations and health status. A recurrent challenge was managing inflated expectations about GS. Other challenges included returning multiple, unanticipated and/or uncertain results and navigating a rare diagnosis. Methods to address these challenges included traditional genetic counseling techniques and modifying practice over time in order to provide anticipatory guidance and modulate expectations. Respondents made recommendations to improve access to genomic resources and genetic referrals to prepare future providers as the uptake of GS increases in both genetic and non-genetic settings. These findings indicate that returning genomic results is similar to return of results in traditional genetic testing but is magnified by the additional complexity and potential uncertainty of the results. Managing patient expectations, initially
Chiumento, Anna; Rahman, Atif; Frith, Lucy
ABSTRACT Purpose: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. Method: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented. Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country. Although only a small proportion of interviews were conducted online (six out of 35), it remains important to critically consider the impact upon data produced in this way. Results: A range of practical and methodological considerations are discussed, illustrated with examples. Results suggest that whilst online interviewing has methodological and ethical potential and versatility, there are inherent practical challenges in settings with poor internet and electricity infrastructure. Notable methodological limitations include barriers to building rapport due to partial visual and non-visual cues, and difficulties interpreting pauses or silences. Conclusions: Drawing upon experiences in this case study, strategies for managing the practical and methodological limitations of online interviewing are suggested, alongside recommendations for supporting future research practice. These are intended to act as a springboard for further reflection, and operate alongside other conceptual frameworks for online interviewing. PMID:29532739
Helth, Theresa Dall; Jarden, Mary
-depth, semi-structured interviews with five fathers of premature infants in the NICU, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre Hospital, Denmark. Findings: Three themes emerged: 1) “The competent parenthood”. 2) The paternal role and the division of roles between the parents. 3) Balance between working life......Abstract Aim: To explore how fathers of premature infants experience and potentially benefit from using the skin-to-skin (STS) method during their infants’ admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods, participants and setting: Hermeneutic phenomenological qualitative study. In...... and time spent with the infant. Conclusion: STS enhances the fathers’ ability to play a caring role in their infant’s life. Fathers consider themselves less important, as compared to the mother in relation to their infant. STS enhances an understanding of their own role as a father. Health professionals...
Background : This study investigated patients' understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods : A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results : The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions : A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method.
Background: This study investigated patients’ understanding of the role of music in coping and in influencing their well-being. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with 17 cancer patients. Participants were chosen from a group of patients who had listened to or played music as a means of coping with their illness. Results: The study shows the importance of considering the roles that different kinds of music play in coping with cancer. The music of nature, healing music, religious music and cheerful music each have different benefits for patients. Conclusions: A patient's situation and his or her individual characteristics determine the types of music that can act as a useful or harmful coping strategy. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the types of individual characteristics that can make listening to different kinds of music a helpful or harmful coping method. PMID:23805166
Wen, Dong; Zhang, Xingting; Wan, Jie; Fu, Jing; Lei, Jianbo
To explore the current situation, existing problems and possible causes of said problems with regards to physician-nurse communication under an environment of increasingly widespread usage of Hospital Information Systems and to seek out new potential strategies in information technology to improve physician-nurse communication. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 physicians and nurses in five leading tertiary grade A hospitals in Beijing, China (two physicians and two nurses in each hospital). The interviews primarily included three aspects comprising the current situation and problems of clinical physician-nurse communication, the application and problems of Hospital Information Systems, and assessments on the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. The inductive conventional content analysis approach was employed. (1) Physicians and nurses are generally quite satisfied with the current situation of communication. However, the information needs of nurses are prone to being overlooked, and the communication methods are primarily synchronous communication such as face-to-face and phone communication. (2) Hospital Information Systems are gradually being used for physician-nurse communication; in the meantime, physicians and nurses face challenges with regards to the improvement of physician-nurse communication through the usage of information technology. Challenges differ based on the different stages of using the system and the different levels of understanding of physicians and nurses towards information technology. Their dissatisfaction mainly deals with system errors and the level of convenience in using the system. (3) In-depth interviews found that in general, physicians and nurses have a strong interest and trust in improving physician-nurse communication through appropriate information technology, e.g., communication methods such as information reminders for physicians and nurses through mobile
Bonin, Therese M.; Birckbichler, Diane W.
A method for use in foreign language teaching which involves the use of conversation cards and interview cards is described. The method is intended to improve the ability of the student to communicate in the language and allow for greater individualization of instruction. (RM)
Bramley, Stephanie; Dibben, Nicola; Rowe, Richard
Music is ubiquitous in retail and commercial environments, with some managers believing that music can enhance the customer experience, increase footfall and sales and improve consumer satisfaction. Casino gambling is popular in the United Kingdom and anecdotal evidence suggests that music is often present. However, little is known about the rationale for music use from the perspective of casino managers. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with five casino managers to establish their motivations for utilising music, the factors informing their choice of music and the extent to which music is used with the intention of influencing gambling behaviour. Results showed that casino managers utilised two types of music-recorded background music, often sourced via external music supply companies and live music. Live music was often situated away from the gaming floor and used primarily to accompany participation in non-gambling activities. Recorded background music was not used with the direct aim of influencing customers' gambling behaviour, but to create the right atmosphere for gambling and to promote certain moods within the casinos. To achieve these aims casino managers manipulated the tempo, volume and genre of the recorded background music. Casino managers also reported that some gamblers listen to music via portable music players, possibly with the intention of customising their gambling experience. This study is unique as it has provided a first-hand account of casino managers' implicit theories with regards to why they utilise music and the roles which music is considered to fulfil in casinos.
Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Perry, Juliana; Guggenheim, Merlin; Manser, Tanja
Effective teamwork has been recognised as a major contributor to safe patient care in surgery. Previous research has highlighted the importance of adaptive coordination for effective performance in acute care settings. Expanding this line of research this study explores the coordination behaviours and adaptive coordination strategies employed by surgical teams and identifies relevant situational characteristics influencing those coordination processes. We conducted a qualitative content analysis of semi-structured interviews with 33 surgical team members (nurses and physicians) from different specialties and hospitals. We identified coordination behaviours (i.e. task management, information management, teaching and leadership) and adaptive coordination strategies triggered by varying requirements due to non-routine events, intraoperative complications and differing level of experience among operating room staff. Interviewees highlighted the importance of effectively managing challenging moments and the supporting effect of positive climate on teamwork. This study complements previous research on the non-technical skills underpinning safe performance in surgical teams. It highlights the central role of coordination and points out the ways in which situational variability requires the team to behave adaptively.
that these are constructed in adherence with the IR’s formal neutrality as provided by the turn-taking system for the news interview. The paper suggests that debate interview cannot be adequately understood as organised according to one turn-taking system, but rather as organised by the turn-taking system for news......In recent years some British broadcast panel interviews take a particularly confrontational form. In these debate interviews, news seems to be generated as arguments provided by the interviewees who participate as protagonists of opposite positions. This paper will briefly attempt to show...
Lindhardt, Christina L; Rubak, Sune Leisgaard Mørck; Mogensen, Ole
-adherent interventions). Furthermore, the participants asked fewer closed and more open questions before training in motivational interview. In the assessment of proficiency and competency, most of the participants scored higher after the training in motivational interviewing. CONCLUSIONS: Training in motivational......OBJECTIVE: To examine whether a three day training course in motivational interviewing which is an approach to helping people to change could improve the communication skills of obstetric healthcare professionals in their interaction with obese pregnant women. DESIGN: Intervention study. SETTING......: The Region of Southern Denmark. METHODS: Eleven obstetric healthcare professionals working with obese pregnant women underwent a three day course in motivational interviewing techniques and were assessed before- and after training to measure the impact on their overall performance as well as the effect...
Merriweather, Judith; Smith, Pam; Walsh, Timothy
To compare and contrast current nutritional rehabilitation practices against recommendations from National Institute for Health and Excellence guideline Rehabilitation after critical illness (NICE) (2009, http://www.nice.org.uk/cg83). Recovery from critical illness has gained increasing prominence over the last decade but there is remarkably little research relating to nutritional rehabilitation. The study is a qualitative study based on patient interviews and observations of ward practice. Seventeen patients were recruited into the study at discharge from the intensive care unit (ICU) of a large teaching hospital in central Scotland in 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on transfer to the ward and weekly thereafter. Fourteen of these patients were followed up at three months post-ICU discharge, and a semi-structured interview was carried out. Observations of ward practice were carried out twice weekly for the duration of the ward stay. Current nutritional practice for post-intensive care patients did not reflect the recommendations from the NICE guideline. A number of organisational issues were identified as influencing nutritional care. These issues were categorised as ward culture, service-centred delivery of care and disjointed discharge planning. Their influence on nutritional care was compounded by the complex problems associated with critical illness. The NICE guideline provides few nutrition-specific recommendations for rehabilitation; however, current practice does not reflect the nutritional recommendations that are detailed in the rehabilitation care pathway. Nutritional care of post-ICU patients is problematic and strategies to overcome these issues need to be addressed in order to improve nutritional intake. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Eborall, Helen C; Dallosso, Helen M; McNicol, Sarah; Speight, Jane; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Heller, Simon R
The Diabetes Education and Self-Management for Ongoing and Newly Diagnosed (DESMOND) Self-monitoring Trial reported that people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes attending community-based structured education and randomized to self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) or urine monitoring had comparable improvements in biomedical outcomes, but differences in satisfaction with, and continued use of monitoring method, well-being and perceived threat from diabetes. To explore experiences of SMBG and urine monitoring following structured education. We specifically addressed the perceived usefulness of each monitoring method and the associated well-being. Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 18 adults with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes participating in the DESMOND Self-monitoring Trial (SMBG, N=10; urine monitoring, N=8)~12 months into the trial. Analysis was informed by the constant comparative approach. Interviewees reported SMBG as accurate, convenient and useful. Declining use was explained by having established a pattern of managing blood glucose with less frequent monitoring or lack of feedback or encouragement from health care professionals. Many initially positive views of urine monitoring progressively changed due to perceived inaccuracy, leading some to switch to SMBG. Perceiving diabetes as less serious was attributable to lack of symptoms, treatment with diet alone and-in the urine-monitoring group-consistently negative readings. Urine monitoring also provided less visible evidence of diabetes and of the effect of behaviour on glucose. The findings highlight the importance for professionals of considering patients' preferences when using self-monitoring technologies, including how these change over time, when supporting the self-care behaviours of people with type 2 diabetes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pearson, Jennifer; Richardson, Jane; Calnan, Michael; Salisbury, Chris; Foster, Nadine E
In response to long waiting lists and problems with access to primary care physiotherapy, several Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) (now Clinical Commissioning Groups CCGs) developed physiotherapy-led telephone assessment and treatment services. The Medical Research Council (MRC) funded PhysioDirect trial was a randomised control trial (RCT) in four PCTs, with a total of 2252 patients that compared this approach with usual physiotherapy care. This nested qualitative study aimed to explore the acceptability of the PhysioDirect telephone assessment and advice service to patients with musculoskeletal conditions. We conducted 57 semi-structured interviews with adults from 4 PCTs who were referred from general practice to physiotherapy with musculoskeletal conditions and were participating in the PhysioDirect trial. The Framework method was used to analyse the qualitative data. The PhysioDirect service was largely viewed as acceptable although some saw it as a first step to subsequent face-to-face physiotherapy. Most participants found accessing the PhysioDirect service straightforward and smooth, and they valued the faster access to physiotherapy advice offered by the telephone service. Participants generally viewed both the PhysioDirect service and the physiotherapists providing the service as helpful. Participants' preferences and priorities for treatment defined the acceptable features of PhysioDirect but the acceptable features were traded off against less acceptable features. Some participants felt that the PhysioDirect service was impersonal and impaired the development of a good relationship with their physiotherapist, which made the service feel remote and less valuable. The PhysioDirect service was broadly acceptable to participants since it provided faster access to physiotherapy advice for their musculoskeletal conditions. Participants felt that it is best placed as one method of accessing physiotherapy services, in addition to, rather than as a replacement for
Full Text Available Azucena Vieites is an artist involved in editing, activism and feminist practices. Since the early nineties she develops a work in which the notion Do It Yourself and queer politics throb behind each creation. Vieites has found her own way to move inside art institutions, performing alone or togeth- er with Erreakzioa-Reacción, through work- shops and seminars like `Sólo para: el factor feminista en relación a las artes visuales´ (1997 or `Mutaciones del feminismo: gene- alogías y prácticas artísticas´ (2005. Both inside and outside the university, our inter- viewed proposes new ways of looking at the reality around us, new perspectives for visual culture and music, and suggests us hidden realities for the hegemonic gaze. In this inter- view she reveals her concerns, her references and her working methods.
Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Terry, Daniel
This study investigates (i) maternity care access issues in rural Tasmania, (ii) rural women's challenges in accessing maternity services and (iii) rural women's access needs in maternity services. A mixed-method approach using a survey and semi-structured interviews was conducted. The survey explored women's views of rural maternity services from antenatal to postnatal care, while interviews reinforced the survey results and provided insights into the access issues and needs of women in maternity care. The survey was completed by n=210 women, with a response rate of 35%, with n=22 follow-up interviews being conducted. The survey indicated the majority of rural women believed antenatal education and check-ups and postnatal check-ups should be provided locally. The majority of women surveyed also believed in the importance of having a maternity unit in the local hospital, which was further iterated and clarified within the interviews. Three main themes emerged from the interview data, namely (i) lack of access to maternity services, (ii) difficulties in accessing maternity services, and (iii) rural women's access needs. The study suggested that women's access needs are not fully met in some rural areas of Tasmania. Rural women face many challenges when accessing maternity services, including financial burden and risk of labouring en route. The study supports the claim that the closure of rural maternity units shifts cost and risk from the health care system to rural women and their families. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381
Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke
Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…
Hanson, Mark D; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan Mahan; Woods, Nicole N; Fechtig, Lindsey; Anderson, Geoff
Traditional admissions personal interviews provide flexible faculty-student interactions but are plagued by low inter-interview reliability. Axelson and Kreiter (2009) retrospectively showed that multiple independent sampling (MIS) may improve reliability of personal interviews; thus, the authors incorporated MIS into the admissions process for medical students applying to the University of Toronto's Leadership Education and Development Program (LEAD). They examined the reliability and resource demands of this modified personal interview (MPI) format. In 2010-2011, LEAD candidates submitted written applications, which were used to screen for participation in the MPI process. Selected candidates completed four brief (10-12 minutes) independent MPIs each with a different interviewer. The authors blueprinted MPI questions to (i.e., aligned them with) leadership attributes, and interviewers assessed candidates' eligibility on a five-point Likert-type scale. The authors analyzed inter-interview reliability using the generalizability theory. Sixteen candidates submitted applications; 10 proceeded to the MPI stage. Reliability of the written application components was 0.75. The MPI process had overall inter-interview reliability of 0.79. Correlation between the written application and MPI scores was 0.49. A decision study showed acceptable reliability of 0.74 with only three MPIs scored using one global rating. Furthermore, a traditional admissions interview format would take 66% more time than the MPI format. The MPI format, used during the LEAD admissions process, achieved high reliability with minimal faculty resources. The MPI format's reliability and effective resource use were possible through MIS and employment of expert interviewers. MPIs may be useful for other admissions tasks.
Petrosoniak, Andrew; McCarthy, Anne; Varpio, Lara
The purpose of this study was to explore the complexities (including harms and benefits) of international health electives (IHEs) involving medical trainees. This exploration contributes to the ongoing debate about the goals and implications of IHEs for medical trainees. This qualitative study used anonymous, one-to-one, semi-structured interviews. All participants had previous international health experiences. Between September 2007 and March 2008, we interviewed a convenience sample of health care professionals (n=10) and medical trainees (n=10). Using a modified grounded theory methodology, we carried out cycles of data analysis in conjunction with data collection in an iterative and constant comparison process. The study's thematic structure was finalised when theme saturation was achieved. Participants described IHEs in both negative and positive terms. IHEs were described as unsustained short-term contributions that lacked clear educational objectives and failed to address local community needs. Ethical dilemmas were described as IHE challenges. Participants reflected that many IHEs included aspects of medical tourism and the majority of participants described the IHE in negative terms. However, a few participants acknowledged the benefits of the IHE. Specifically, it was seen as an introduction to a career in global health and as a potential foundation for more sustainable projects with positive host community impacts. Finally, despite similar understandings among participants, self-awareness of medical tourism was low. International health electives may include potential harms and benefits for both the trainee and the host community. Educational institutions should encourage and support structured IHEs for trainee participation. We recommend that faculties of medicine and global health educators establish pre-departure training courses for trainees and that IHE opportunities have sufficient structures in place to mitigate the negative effects of medical
Chew, Phyllis Ghim Lian
Analyzes how less powerful subjects in an unequal encounter, an admission interview in an educational institution, were able to counter the power directed at them by the more powerful subject through "aikido" strategies. In the context of the interview, harmonizing with the ideological discursive formation of the institution in question…
This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…
Farley, Roy C.; Rubin, Stanford E.
Part of a five-part package (see note) of training materials to teach interviewing skills to human services personnel, this typescript manual is intended for use as a visual reference to aid in understanding the taped dialogues of the packages tape/slide demonstrations of interview interaction, and for referral in class discussions. The typescript…
Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig.......Det foto-eliciterede interview fremkalder informationer og fortællinger ud af fotografier, og støtter børn i at ytre sig....
Interviews Robert Torres, a Nuyorican who excelled at school and escaped the ghetto while his family remained, then made a documentary about the situation. This interview examines how poverty affects children; how teachers can help impoverished Hispanic students; how teachers helped him; how educators should be compensated; what making the…
Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…
Bonner, Carissa; Jansen, Jesse; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Doust, Jenny; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines encourage assessment of absolute CVD risk - the probability of a CVD event within a fixed time period, based on the most predictive risk factors. However, few General Practitioners (GPs) use absolute CVD risk consistently, and communication difficulties have been identified as a barrier to changing practice. This study aimed to explore GPs' descriptions of their CVD risk communication strategies, including the role of absolute risk. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 25 GPs in New South Wales, Australia. Transcribed audio-recordings were thematically coded, using the Framework Analysis method to ensure rigour. GPs used absolute CVD risk within three different communication strategies: 'positive', 'scare tactic', and 'indirect'. A 'positive' strategy, which aimed to reassure and motivate, was used for patients with low risk, determination to change lifestyle, and some concern about CVD risk. Absolute risk was used to show how they could reduce risk. A 'scare tactic' strategy was used for patients with high risk, lack of motivation, and a dismissive attitude. Absolute risk was used to 'scare' them into taking action. An 'indirect' strategy, where CVD risk was not the main focus, was used for patients with low risk but some lifestyle risk factors, high anxiety, high resistance to change, or difficulty understanding probabilities. Non-quantitative absolute risk formats were found to be helpful in these situations. This study demonstrated how GPs use three different communication strategies to address the issue of CVD risk, depending on their perception of patient risk, motivation and anxiety. Absolute risk played a different role within each strategy. Providing GPs with alternative ways of explaining absolute risk, in order to achieve different communication aims, may improve their use of absolute CVD risk assessment in practice.
Oxenbøll-Collet, Marie; Egerod, Ingrid; Christensen, Vibeke
of this study was to identify nurses' and physicians' perceived professional barriers to using the CAM-ICU in Danish ICUs. Methods: This study uses a qualitative explorative multicentre design using focus groups and a semi-structured interview guide. Five focus groups with nurses (n=20) and four with physicians......-ICU screening affected nursing care, clinical judgment and professional integrity; (2) Instrument reliability: nurses and physicians expressed concerns about CAM-ICU assessment in non-sedated patients, patients with multi-organ failure or patients influenced by residual sedatives/opioids; and (3) Clinical...... consequence: after CAM-ICU assessment, physicians lacked evidence-based treatment options, and nurses lacked physician acknowledgment and guidelines for disclosing CAM-ICU results to patients. Conclusion: In this study, ICU nurses and physicians raised a number of concerns regarding the use of the CAM...
Finderup, Jeanette; Bjerre, Tina; Soendergaard, Aase
to develop and test a full-scale GSD for this patient group (GSD-HD). Objectives: To study how a full-scale GSD-HD influenced the quality of relatedness between the patient and the GSD-HD nurse and the patients' ability to live well with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Methods: GSD-HD was developed through...... participatory research and evaluated qualitatively at five dialysis units in Denmark involving 31 patients and 16 nurses. The intervention lasted four months and comprised six sessions. Data consisting of semi-structured interviews with 13 patients were analysed using a mix of inductive and deductive thematic...... and their self-management of ESRD: Deeper and more meaningful relationships, self-exploration of self-selected challenges, self-understanding as a condition for meaningful knowledge, ability to act in a self-determined way, feedback from action that accords with daily life skills and decision-making from...
Antes, Alison L; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they use to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described using in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science.
Understanding user needs for geographic information and the factors which influence the usability of such information in diverse user contexts is an essential part of user centred development of information products. There is relatively little existing research focused on the design and usability of information products in general. This paper presents a research approach based on semi structured interviews with people working with geographic information on a day to day basis, to establish a reference base of qualitative data on user needs for geographic information with respect to context of use. From this reference data nine key categories of geographic information usability are identified and discussed in the context of limited existing research concerned with geographic information usability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Antes, Alison L.; Mart, Adelina; DuBois, James M.
Principal investigators are responsible for a myriad of leadership and management activities in their work. The practices they employ to navigate these responsibilities ultimately influence the quality and integrity of research. However, leadership and management roles in research have received scant empirical examination. Semi-structured interviews with 32 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded genetic researchers revealed that they considered leadership and management essential for effective research, but their scientific training inadequately prepared them. We also report management practices that the researchers described employing in their labs, as well as their perceptions of a proposed intervention to enhance laboratory leadership. These findings suggest best practices for the research community, future directions for scientific training, and implications for research on leadership and management in science. PMID:27646401
Kasper, Gabriele; Prior, Matthew T.
Autobiographic research interviews have become an accepted and valued method of qualitative inquiry in TESOL and applied linguistics more broadly. In recent discussions surrounding the epistemological treatment of autobiographic stories, TESOL researchers have increasingly called for more attention to the ways in which stories are embedded in…
Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Huniche, Lotte
Abstract This article sheds light on the potential and the limitations of photo-interviewing for the study of human occupation and in so doing, reflects the rapid growth in the use of participatory visual methods in a number of other disciplines. Using a study that explored first person perspecti...
Programmed for this year, the debate for the Act concerning energy transition comes at a crucial moment in Francois Hollande's five year term of office. What is in store for the programme of renewable energy development? How will France reduce its nuclear energy share? Consultant Stephane Rozes invites elected representatives and State authorities to avoid being dogmatic. (author)
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hessel, Niklas
Laura Louise Sarauw har netop forsvaret sin ph.d.-afhandling i Pædagogik ved Københavns Universitet. Hun har undersøgt, hvordan det har påvirket ti humanistiske uddannelser, at deres studieordninger med universitetsreformen i 2003 blev skrevet om, så de fokuserede på de erhvervsmæssige kompetence...
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Hollesen, Laika
Det såkaldte humboldtske universitetsideal står i frit fald. Så det burde ikke komme som nogen overraskelse, at det demokratiske fundament slår revner. Det kommer i hvert fald ikke bag på Laura Louise Sarauw fra Københavns Universitet, der i sin ph.d.-afhandling har sat stort spørgsmålstegn ved d...
Sigstad, Hanne Marie Høybråten
Conducting qualitative research interviews among individuals with intellectual disabilities, including cognitive limitations and difficulties in communication, presents particular research challenges. One question is whether the difficulties that informants encounter affect interviews to such an extent that the validity of the results is weakened. This article focuses on voluntary informed consent and the specific challenges with the greatest effects on such interviews. The discussion shows that complementary and meaningful descriptions from informants imply the need to employ alternative strategies and methods that may, in other contexts, challenge the traditional understanding of what is acceptable in research. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ramaswamy, Megha; Kelly, Patricia J
Despite the high rates of reported sterilization use among women who have spent time in correctional facilities, little is known about the context in which women in this population choose this option. The objective of our study was to use both quantitative and qualitative methods to understand factors associated with sterilization use among women leaving a U.S. jail. We administered a cross-sectional survey with 102 jailed women who were participating in a study about contraceptive use after release from jail, and then conducted semi-structured interviews with 29 of those women after their release from jail. We used logistic regression and analytic induction to assess factors associated with self-reported sterilization use. In our cross-sectional survey, one-third of our sample reported a history of sterilization use. Controlling for age and past pregnancies, the only factor associated with sterilization use was physical abuse history before age 16. In semi-structured interviews, we found that women's primary motivation for sterilization was the desire to limit childbearing permanently, in some cases where other contraceptive methods had failed them. The decision for sterilization was generally supported by family, partners, and providers. Many women who opted for sterilization expressed financial concern about supporting children and/or reported family histories of sterilization. The decision to use the permanent method of sterilization as a contraceptive method is a complex one. Results from this study suggest that while explicit coercion may not be a factor in women's choice for sterilization, interpersonal relationship histories, negative experiences with contraceptives, and structural constraints, such as financial concerns and ongoing criminal justice involvement, seem to influence sterilization use among the vulnerable group of women with criminal justice histories. Public health programs that connect women to reproductive health services should acknowledge
Muthasamy, Paramasivam; Farashaiyan, Atieh
This study examined the teaching approaches and techniques that Iranian instructors utilize for teaching L2 pragmatics in their classroom practices. 238 Iranian instructors participated in this study. The data for this study were accumulated through questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. In terms of the instructional approaches, both the…
Ahern, Tracey; Gardner, Anne; Gardner, Glenn; Middleton, Sandy; Della, Phillip
The final phase of a three phase study analysing the implementation and impact of the nurse practitioner role in Australia (the Australian Nurse Practitioner Project or AUSPRAC) was undertaken in 2009, requiring nurse telephone interviewers to gather information about health outcomes directly from patients and their treating nurse practitioners. A team of several registered nurses was recruited and trained as telephone interviewers. The aim of this paper is to report on development and evaluation of the training process for telephone interviewers. The training process involved planning the content and methods to be used in the training session; delivering the session; testing skills and understanding of interviewers post-training; collecting and analysing data to determine the degree to which the training process was successful in meeting objectives and post-training follow-up. All aspects of the training process were informed by established educational principles. Interrater reliability between interviewers was high for well-validated sections of the survey instrument resulting in 100% agreement between interviewers. Other sections with unvalidated questions showed lower agreement (between 75% and 90%). Overall the agreement between interviewers was 92%. Each interviewer was also measured against a specifically developed master script or gold standard and for this each interviewer achieved a percentage of correct answers of 94.7% or better. This equated to a Kappa value of 0.92 or better. The telephone interviewer training process was very effective and achieved high interrater reliability. We argue that the high reliability was due to the use of well validated instruments and the carefully planned programme based on established educational principles. There is limited published literature on how to successfully operationalise educational principles and tailor them for specific research studies; this report addresses this knowledge gap. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier
Motivational factors for initiating, implementing, and maintaining physical activity behavior following a rehabilitation program for patients with type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal, qualitative, interview study
Full Text Available Karen Christina Walker,1 Laura Staun Valentiner,1,2 Henning Langberg1 1CopenRehab, Section of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health, 2Center for Physical Activity Research, Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Aim: To explore motivational factors for initiating, implementing, and maintaining physical activity following a rehabilitation program for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: Semi-structured, individual, qualitative interviews with five informants from the InterWalk trial were conducted at three separate occasions; at initiation of the rehabilitation program, at completion of the 12-week program, and 52 weeks after enrolment. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed according to Systematic Text Condensation. The framework of Self-Determination Theory was applied to guide analysis after identification of preliminary themes.Results: Commitment and obligation were emphasized as being motivational in initiating physical activity. Toward the termination of the program, this was challenged by an expressed need for autonomy. Successful behavioral change was characterized by transfer of commitment to a new structure in everyday life, which also honored the request for autonomy. Feeling capable of participating in physical activity was facilitated through knowledge, practical experience, and progress and considered motivational, whereas lack of progress extinguished motivation. Finally, enjoyment of the activity was determining for long-term maintenance of physical activity behavior.Conclusion: Satisfaction of innate psychological needs leads to more autonomous regulation of behavior and, through this study, we investigated determining factors for extrinsically motivated behavior and factors of importance to the internalization process. Keywords: self-determination theory, type 2 diabetes mellitus, adherence, behavioral change
The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.
Mather, John C.
John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.
Details the life of Stella Adler, an actor, director, and teacher who studied with Stanislavsky. Includes an interview (conducted in 1974) which touches on her influences, teachers, theatre groups, and styles of acting. (PM)
Pócs, Dávid; Hamvai, Csaba; Kelemen, Oguz
Public health data show that early mortality in Hungary could be prevented by smoking cessation, reduced alcohol consumption, regular exercise, healthy diet and increased adherence. Doctor-patient encounters often highlight these aspects of health behavior. There is evidence that health behavior change is driven by internal motivation rather than external influence. This finding has led to the concept of motivational interview, which is a person-centered, goal-oriented approach to counselling. The doctor asks targeted questions to elicit the patient's motivations, strengths, internal resources, and to focus the interview around these. The quality and quantity of the patient's change talk is related to better outcomes. In addition, the interview allows the patient to express ambivalent feelings and doubts about the change. The doctor should use various communication strategies to resolve this ambivalence. Furthermore, establishing a good doctor-patient relationship is the cornerstone of the motivational interview. An optimal relationship can evoke change talk and reduce the patient's resistance, which can also result in a better outcome. The goal of the motivational interview is to focus on the 'why' to change health behavior rather than the 'how', and to utilize internal motivation instead of persuasion. This is the reason why motivational interview has become a widely-accepted evidence based approach. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(34): 1331-1337.
Full Text Available Stephania T Miller,1 Sylvie A Akohoue2 1Department of Surgery, 2Department of Family and Community Medicine, Meharry Medical College, Nashville, TN, USA Objectives: To assess the 2-year efficacy of a combined medical nutrition therapy and motivational interviewing (MI pilot study intervention and factors that influenced long-term dietary self-care.Research design and methods: Pilot study participants, African American women with type 2 diabetes, completed a 2-year follow-up study visit, including clinical assessments and completion of a dietary self-care questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to evaluate differences between baseline and 2-year follow-up clinical and dietary self-care outcomes. Hierarchical coding was used to analyze semi-structured interviews and categorize facilitator and barrier themes into subthemes. Subthemes were quantified based on the number of subtheme-related comments. Results: Among the 12 participants (mean age 57.1±5.7 years, improvements were observed for HbA1c (baseline: 10.25%; interquartile range [IQR]: 8.10, 11.72 and follow-up: 8.8%; IQR: 7.48,10.22, systolic blood pressure (baseline: 142 mm Hg; IQR: 134.25, 157.25 and follow-up: 127 mm Hg; IQR: 113.5, 143.25, frequency of eating high-fat foods (baseline: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.25 and follow-up: 3 days; IQR: 2.5, 4.5, and of spacing carbohydrates throughout the day (baseline: 3 days; IQR: 3.0, 4.0 and follow-up: 4 days; IQR: 1.5, 4.5. There was a statistically significant decrease (p=0.04 in the frequency of fruit and vegetable intake (baseline: 4 days; IQR: 3.75, 7.0 and follow-up: 3.5 days; IQR: 2.75, 4.0. Dietary self-care barriers and facilitators included internal (eg, motivation and external factors (eg, social support. Motivation (70 comments and lack of motivation (67 comments were the most pervasive facilitator and barrier subthemes, respectively. Conclusion: Overall, diabetes-related clinical and dietary
Paradiso de Sayu, Rebecca; Chanmugam, Amy
Although the concept of empowerment is a key principle of community-based participatory research (CBPR), little is known about how academic and community partners perceive empowerment during a CBPR process. CBPR partners' perceptions of the process were explored using semi-structured interviews with both partners in 10 CBPR partnerships that had completed projects addressing social determinants of health. Dyadic interview analysis was employed to understand dynamics within and across partnerships. Five partnerships showed no differences in perceptions of empowerment. Four had minor discrepancies. Only one partnership varied considerably between partners, where the community partner perceived less empowerment regarding determining the study topic and overall control, influence, and respect throughout the process. This article discusses implications of findings for CBPR. Evaluating partners' perceived empowerment throughout a CBPR project might reveal areas to adjust, as not all projects with quantifiably successful outcomes involve processes that are successful in terms of empowerment. © The Author(s) 2015.
Gustavsson, Catharina; Nordqvist, Maria; Bröms, Kristina; Jerdén, Lars; Kallings, Lena V; Wallin, Lars
The method, Swedish Physical Activity on Prescription (SPAP), has been launched in Swedish healthcare to promote physical activity for prevention and treatment of lifestyle related health disorders. Despite scientific support for the method, and education campaigns, it is used to a limited extent by health professionals. The aim of the study was to describe the views of health professionals on perceived facilitators, barriers and requirements for successful implementation of SPAP in primary healthcare. Eighteen semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in SPAP, i.e. ten people working in local or central management and eight primary healthcare professionals in two regional healthcare organisations, were analysed using qualitative content analysis. We identified an overarching theme regarding requirements for successful implementation of SPAP: Need for knowledge and organisational support, comprising four main categories: Need for increased knowledge and affirmative attitude among health professionals; Need for clear and supportive management; Need for central supporting structures; Need for local supporting structures. Knowledge of the SPAP method content and core components was limited. Confidence in the method varied among health professionals. There was a discrepancy between the central organisation policy documents declaring that disease preventive methods were prioritised and a mandatory assignment, while the health professionals asked for increased interest, support and resources from management, primarily time and supporting structures. There were somewhat conflicting views between primary healthcare professionals and managers concerning perceived barriers and requirements. In contrast to some of the management's beliefs, all primary healthcare professionals undisputedly acknowledged the importance of promoting physical activity, but they lacked time, written routines and in some cases competence for SPAP counselling. The study provides knowledge
Interviewee Perceptions of Employment Screening Interviews: Relationships among Perceptions of Communication Satisfaction, Interviewer Credibility and Trust, Interviewing Experience, and Interview Outcomes.
Jablin, Fredric M.; And Others
A study examined employment screening interviews to determine the relationships between an interviewee's perceptions of interview communication satisfaction, interviewer credibility and trust, previous interviewing experiences, and a number of interview outcomes, including expectation of a second interview. Data were collected from 69 students…
Laranjo, Liliana; Lau, Annie Y S; Martin, Paige; Tong, Huong Ly; Coiera, Enrico
Obesity and physical inactivity are major societal challenges and significant contributors to the global burden of disease and healthcare costs. Information and communication technologies are increasingly being used in interventions to promote behaviour change in diet and physical activity. In particular, social networking platforms seem promising for the delivery of weight control interventions.We intend to pilot test an intervention involving the use of a social networking mobile application and tracking devices ( Fitbit Flex 2 and Fitbit Aria scale) to promote the social comparison of weight and physical activity, in order to evaluate whether mechanisms of social influence lead to changes in those outcomes over the course of the study. Mixed-methods study involving semi-structured interviews and a pre-post quasi-experimental pilot with one arm, where healthy participants in different body mass index (BMI) categories, aged between 19 and 35 years old, will be subjected to a social networking intervention over a 6-month period. The primary outcome is the average difference in weight before and after the intervention. Secondary outcomes include BMI, number of steps per day, engagement with the intervention, social support and system usability. Semi-structured interviews will assess participants' expectations and perceptions regarding the intervention. Ethics approval was granted by Macquarie University's Human Research Ethics Committee for Medical Sciences on 3 November 2016 (ethics reference number 5201600716).The social network will be moderated by a researcher with clinical expertise, who will monitor and respond to concerns raised by participants. Monitoring will involve daily observation of measures collected by the fitness tracker and the wireless scale, as well as continuous supervision of forum interactions and posts. Additionally, a protocol is in place to monitor for participant misbehaviour and direct participants-in-need to appropriate sources of help
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group,
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of him taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows. Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human...
Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group
As part of the efforts to rationalise administrative procedures, the IT and HR Departments have developed a new EDH form for induction interviews, which can be accessed using the link below. In accordance with Administrative Circular No. 2 ('Recruitment, Appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of Staff Members', Rev. 3), the work and training objectives to be achieved during the probation period shall be specified in writing to all new staff members during an induction interview. The interview shall take place between the new staff member and his supervisor within six weeks of his taking up his duties at the latest. https://edh.cern.ch/Document/MAPS/Induction1) (or from the EDH desktop, by clicking on 'Other Tasks' and going to the 'HR & Training' heading) Please note that this form is to be used exclusively for new staff members. A separate EDH form will be developed for fellows.Information technology Department, AIS (Administrative Information Services) Group Human Re...
Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard
GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline
In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums' own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups' perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians' role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor-patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians' professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.
Dawes, Jo; Deaton, Stuart; Greenwood, Nan
The purpose of this study was to appraise referrals of homeless patients to physiotherapy services and explore perceptions of barriers to access. This exploratory mixed-method study used a follow-up qualitative extension to core quantitative research design. Over 9 months, quantitative data were gathered from the healthcare records of homeless patients referred to physiotherapy by a general practitioner (GP) practice, including the number of referrals and demographic data of all homeless patients referred. Corresponding physiotherapy records of those people referred to physiotherapy were searched for the outcome of their care. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews, based on the quantitative findings, were carried out with staff involved with patient care from the referring GP practice and were used to expand insight into the quantitative findings. Two primary care sites provided data for this study: a GP practice dedicated exclusively to homeless people and the physiotherapy department receiving their referrals. Quantitative data from the healthcare records of 34 homeless patient referrals to physiotherapy were collected and analysed. In addition, five staff involved in patient care were interviewed. 34 referrals of homeless people were made to physiotherapy in a 9-month period. It was possible to match 25 of these to records from the physiotherapy department. Nine (36%) patients did not attend their first appointment; seven (28%) attended an initial appointment, but did not attend a subsequent appointment and were discharged from the service; five (20%) completed treatment and four patients (16%) had ongoing treatment. Semi-structured interviews revealed potential barriers preventing homeless people from accessing physiotherapy services, the complex factors being faced by those making referrals and possible ways to improve physiotherapy access. Homeless people with musculoskeletal problems may fail to access physiotherapy treatment, but opportunities
Mazanderani, Fadhila; Paparini, Sara
Since the earliest days of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, talking about the virus has been a key way affected communities have challenged the fear and discrimination directed against them and pressed for urgent medical and political attention. Today, HIV/AIDS is one of the most prolifically and intimately documented of all health conditions, with entrenched infrastructures, practices and technologies--what Vinh-Kim Nguyen has dubbed 'confessional technologies'--aimed at encouraging those affected to share their experiences. Among these technologies, we argue, is the semi-structured interview: the principal methodology used in qualitative social science research focused on patient experiences. Taking the performative nature of the research interview as a talking technology seriously has epistemological implications not merely for how we interpret interview data, but also for how we understand the role of research interviews in the enactment of 'life with HIV'. This paper focuses on one crucial aspect of this enactment: the contemporary 'normalisation' of HIV as 'just another' chronic condition--a process taking place at the level of individual subjectivities, social identities, clinical practices and global health policy, and of which social science research is a vital part. Through an analysis of 76 interviews conducted in London (2009-10), we examine tensions in the experiential narratives of individuals living with HIV in which life with the virus is framed as 'normal', yet where this 'normality' is beset with contradictions and ambiguities. Rather than viewing these as a reflection of resistances to or failures of the enactment of HIV as 'normal', we argue that, insofar as these contradictions are generated by the research interview as a distinct 'talking technology', they emerge as crucial to the normative (re)production of what counts as 'living with HIV' (in the UK) and are an inherent part of the broader performative 'normalisation' of the virus. Copyright © 2015
Christian, Trudy; Guell, Cornelia
The purpose of this study was to explore Barbadian women's attitudes toward and knowledge of routine cervical cancer screening (Pap tests). We conducted semi-structured individual interviews with fourteen female patients between the ages of 20 and 60 years who attended a selected public clinic in Barbados in May and June 2013. Interviews were audio-recorded with participants' consent. The interviews were then transcribed verbatim and, using thematic content analysis, indexed and coded inductively for emerging similar themes. We identified four themes: (1) women had poor knowledge of the purpose of Pap tests. The most frequently occurring misconception was that the test was for the detection of sexually transmitted infections. (2) The women displayed limited cervical cancer awareness. (3) Health professionals were identified by the women as the main driving force behind women taking up screening. (4) The screening procedure was perceived as painful, but women's overriding attitude was that screening was necessary. These findings suggest that Barbadian women would benefit from focused health education efforts surrounding cervical cancer screening to eradicate the misconception that the purpose of the Pap test is the detection of sexually transmitted diseases.
Chen, H Carrie; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; Teherani, Arianne; Ten Cate, Olle; O'Sullivan, Patricia
One clinical teaching challenge is the engagement of learners at different levels. Faculty development offerings mostly address general strategies applicable to all learners. This study examined how clinical faculty members develop the skills to work with different level learners. We conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty members identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. They discussed how they developed their approach to teaching different level learners and how their teaching evolved over time. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 faculty members and identified three themes related to development of teaching practices: teacher agency and work-based learning of teaching strategies, developmental trajectory of clinical teachers, and interplay between clinical confidence and teaching skills. Faculty members were proactive in using on-the-job experiences to develop their teaching practices. Their teaching practices followed a developmental trajectory towards learner centeredness, and this evolution was associated with the development of clinical skills and confidence. Learning skills to teach multi-level learners requires workplace learning. Faculty development should include workplace learning opportunities and use a developmental approach that accounts for the trajectory of teaching as well as clinical skills attainment.
Lugg, Fiona V; Butler, Christopher C; Evans, Meirion R; Wood, Fiona; Francis, Nick A
Gastroenteritis (GE) causes significant morbidity, especially in young children. A vaccine against rotavirus, a common cause of viral GE (vGE), was added to the childhood immunization schedule in the UK in July 2013 and further related vaccines are under development. To explore parents' beliefs about vGE and their attitudes towards vaccinating. Qualitative interview study with parents of children who had recently experienced an episode of GE. Twenty-eight semi-structured interviews were conducted over the phone with parents. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using standard thematic approaches. Parents varied in their perception of the threat posed by GE, and parents who did not perceive GE as serious were less enthusiastic about vaccines. Other parents were supportive of vaccines in general and considered benefits to their child, their family and the wider community. Many parents said that they lacked knowledge about efficacy and effectiveness of GE vaccines but their underlying belief about the seriousness of illness motivated their attitudes. Acceptability of GE vaccines to parents could be improved by providing more information on both the burden of illness and the impact of rotavirus vaccine in other comparable countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Le, Jette V; Hansen, Helle P; Riisgaard, Helle; Lykkegaard, Jesper; Nexøe, Jørgen; Bro, Flemming; Søndergaard, Jens
Clinical guidelines are considered to be essential for improving quality and safety of health care. However, interventions to promote implementation of guidelines have demonstrated only partial effectiveness and the reasons for this apparent failure are not yet fully understood. To investigate how GPs implement clinical guidelines in everyday clinical practice and how implementation approaches differ between practices. Individual semi-structured open-ended interviews with seven GPs who were purposefully sampled with regard to gender, age and practice form. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then analysed using systematic text condensation. Analysis of the interviews revealed three different approaches to the implementation of guidelines in clinical practice. In some practices the GPs prioritized time and resources on collective implementation activities and organized their everyday practice to support these activities. In other practices GPs discussed guidelines collectively but left the application up to the individual GP whilst others again saw no need for discussion or collective activities depending entirely on the individual GP's decision on whether and how to manage implementation. Approaches to implementation of clinical guidelines vary substantially between practices. Supporting activities should take this into account. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George
Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies.
Nilsson, U; Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Grönlund, Å; Hagberg, L; Eriksson, M
Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery.The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A-C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. NCT02492191; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use
Sørensen, Randi Skovbjerg
questions with quantitative, qualitative, and C A inspired analyses: How do two interviewers behave in the sociolinguistic interviews which they themselves classify as good or bad interviews? And how does this relate to their own ideals for the sociolinguistic interview? How is it possible to approach...... interviews. For instance, the interviewers tend to take more of the initiatives to change the topic and ask more questions in their bad interviews than in their good interviews. Further studies of the female interviewer's best and worst interview show that rapport is achieved in her best but spoiled in her...... to questions. The studies make it clear that success and failure is not just one thing. The studies reveal great complexity and confirm that there are differences between the interviewers' best and worst interviews as well as between the two interviewers. Studying four interviews of each of the two...
Rønning, Solrun Brenk; Bjørkly, Stål
One of the prioritizations in the World Health Organization's (WHO) Mental Health Action Plan 2013-2020 is the provision of community mental health and social care services, such as supported housing. The ongoing process of such deinstitutionalization has raised issues concerning the impact on users' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore how residents in supported housing experience receiving professional help and how they perceived their relationships with nurses. The second aim was to investigate the relevance of Giorgi's method of analysis and self psychology in analyzing these experiences. Four residents were interviewed individually. The interviews were based on a semi-structured interview guide and analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis. Relations were interpreted within self psychology. The residents reported that they not only felt safe in the community but also felt a greater awareness of wanting to appear normal. They seemed to have an easier daily life and felt that the personnel met their selfobject needs when routines allowed for it. Professional awareness of empathic attunement and selfobject roles might enhance residents' self-cohesiveness. The interviews were analyzed by Giorgi's method of analysis, and the use of clinical concepts from self psychology was chosen to achieve a more dynamic understanding of the participants' relational experiences and needs in supported housing.
Kastenbaum, Robert J.
Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…
Meyer, E R
The interview between METALL and the president of Aluswuisse refers mainly to aspects of energy and deals more closely with the questions whether western Europe in view of relatively high prices for electricity is still competitive and which part can be played by aluminium in overcoming the energy crisis.
Kommentar til et interview med Schnitzler, som dagbladet Politiken publicerede i 1923 og som E.U.Pinkert oversatte til tysk. Oversættelsen udkom den 28.11.2015 i Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung med titlen "Eine Gefahr für die Jugend?"...
Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David
The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…
This unique collection contains extensive and in-depth interviews with mathematicians who have shaped the field of mathematics in the twentieth century. Collected by two mathematicians respected in the community for their skill in communicating mathematical topics to a broader audience, the book is also rich with photographs and includes an introduction by Philip J. Davis.
Full Text Available With over twenty books to his name, as editor or author, Lance Olsen is a cultural force unto himself. His latest book with Trevor Dodge, Architectures of Possibility (Raw Dog Screaming Press, is a writer's guide against transparent language, and predictable patterned literary convention. In this interview Olsen discusses radical pedagogy and experimental narrative theory and its practice.
Thomas J. T. Williams
Full Text Available Mike Parker Pearson is the Institute of Archaeology’s newly appointed Professor of British Later Prehistory. In this interview he reflects on his experience at the birth of post-processualism, current problems and opportunities in modern archaeology, and the subject for which he is best known: Stonehenge.
In this "Primary Science" interview, Lynne Bianchi talks with Emma Vanstone about "Science Sparks," which is a website full of creative, fun, and exciting science activity ideas for children of primary-school age. "Science Sparks" started with the aim of inspiring more parents to do science at home with their…
Background Global labour markets continue to undergo significant transformations resulting from socio-political instability combined with rises in structural inequality, employment insecurity, and poor working conditions. Confronted by these challenges, global institutions are providing policy guidance to protect and promote the health and well-being of workers. This article provides an account of how the International Labour Organization’s Decent Work Agenda contributes to the work policy agendas of the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Methods This qualitative study involved semi-structured interviews with representatives from three global institutions – the International Labour Organization (ILO), the World Health Organization and the World Bank. Of the 25 key informants invited to participate, 16 took part in the study. Analysis for key themes was followed by interpretation using selected agenda setting theories. Results Interviews indicated that through the Decent Work Agenda, the International Labour Organization is shaping the global policy narrative about work among UN agencies, and that the pursuit of decent work and the Agenda were perceived as important goals with the potential to promote just policies. The Agenda was closely linked to the World Health Organization’s conception of health as a human right. However, decent work was consistently identified by World Bank informants as ILO terminology in contrast to terms such as job creation and job access. The limited evidence base and its conceptual nature were offered as partial explanations for why the Agenda has yet to fully influence other global institutions. Catalytic events such as the economic crisis were identified as creating the enabling conditions to influence global work policy agendas. Conclusions Our evidence aids our understanding of how an issue like decent work enters and stays on the policy agendas of global institutions, using the Decent Work Agenda as an illustrative
Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; Eisele, Marion
Dementia is an irreversible chronic disease with wide-ranging effects on patients', caregivers' and families' lives. Hospitalizations are significant events for people with dementia. They tend to have poorer outcomes compared to those without dementia. Most of the previous studies focused on diagnoses leading to hospitalizations using claims data. Further factors (e.g. context factors) for hospitalizations are not reproduced in this data. Therefore, we investigated the factors leading to hospitalization with an explorative, qualitative study design. We interviewed informal caregivers (N = 12), general practitioners (GPs, N = 12) and formal caregivers (N = 5) of 12 persons with dementia using a semi-structured interview guideline. The persons with dementia were sampled using criteria regarding their living situation (home care vs. nursing home care) and gender. The transcripts were analyzed using the method of structuring content analysis. Almost none of the hospitalizations, discussed with the (in-)formal caregivers and GPs, seemed to have been preventable or seemed unjustifiable from the interviewees' points of view. We identified several dementia-specific factors promoting hospitalizations (e.g. the neglect of constricted mobility, the declining ability to communicate about symptoms/accidents and the shift of responsibility from person with dementia to informal or formal caregivers) and context-specific factors promoting hospitalizations (e.g. qualification of nursing home personal, the non-availability of the GP and hospitalizations for examinations/treatments also available in ambulatory settings). Hospitalizations were always the result of the interrelation of two factors: illnesses/accidents and context factors. The impact of both seems to be stronger in presence of dementia. Points for action in terms of reducing hospitalization rates were: better qualified nurses, a 24-h-GP-emergency service and better compensation for ambulatory monitoring
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rates of non-completion of treatments for personality disorder are high and there are indications that those who do not complete treatment have worse outcomes than those who do. Improving both cost-efficiency and client welfare require attention to engaging people with personality disorder in treatment. A motivational interview, based on the Personal Concerns Inventory, may have the ability to enhance engagement and retention in therapy. Here, we report the protocol for a feasibility study for a randomised controlled trial (RCT. Methods All referrals accepted to the psychological service of Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust's outpatient service for people with personality disorder are eligible for inclusion. Consenting participants are randomised to receive the Personal Concerns Inventory interview plus treatment as usual or treatment as usual only. We aim to recruit 100 participants over 11/2 years. A randomised controlled trial will be considered feasible if 1 the recruitment rate to the project is 54% of all referrals (95% CI 54-64, 2 80% of clients find the intervention acceptable in terms of its practicability and usefulness (95% CI 80-91, and 3 80% of therapists report finding the intervention helpful (95% CI 80-100. In a full-scale randomised controlled trial, the primary outcome measure will be completion of treatment i.e., entry into and completion of ≥ 75% of sessions offered. Therefore, information will be collected on recruitment rates, attendance at therapy sessions, and completion of treatment. The feasibility of examining the processes of engagement will be tested by assessing the value, coherence, and attainability of goals pre-treatment, and engagement in treatment. The costs associated with the intervention will be calculated, and the feasibility of calculating the cost-benefits of the intervention will be tested. The views of clients and therapists on the intervention, collected using semi-structured
Halcomb, Elizabeth J; Davidson, Patricia M
Verbatim transcription of interview data has become a common data management strategy in nursing research and is widely considered to be integral to the analysis and interpretation of verbal data. As the benefits of verbal data are becoming more widely embraced in health care research, interviews are being increasingly used to collect information for a wide range of purposes. In addition to purely qualitative investigations, there has been a significant increase in the conduct of mixed-method inquiries. This article examines the issues surrounding the conduct of interviews in mixed-method research, with particular emphasis on the transcription and data analysis phases of data management. It also debates on the necessity to transcribe all audiorecorded interview data verbatim, particularly in relation to mixed-method investigations. Finally, it provides an alternative method to verbatim transcription of managing audiorecorded interview data.
Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.
Kelly-Blake, Karen; Clark, Stacie; Dontje, Katherine; Olomu, Adesuwa; Henry, Rebecca C; Rovner, David R; Rothert, Marilyn L; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret
Background We describe the results of cognitive interviews to refine the “Making Choices©” Decision Aid (DA) for shared decision-making (SDM) about stress testing in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods We conducted a systematic development process to design a DA consistent with International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) focused on Alpha testing criteria. Cognitive interviews were conducted with ten stable CAD patients using the “think aloud” interview techniq...
Cooley, Sam J.; Holland, Mark J.; Cumming, Jennifer; Novakovic, Emily G.; Burns, Victoria E.
Outdoor adventure education courses are used in higher education to develop transferable skills such as groupwork and problem-solving skills. There is a need for exploratory investigation into students' perceptions of this experience. This study aimed to develop an innovative qualitative data collection method, and to use it to explore…
Salloch, Sabine; Otte, Ina C; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Vollmann, Jochen
The impact of patient preferences in evidence-based medicine is a complex issue which touches on theoretical questions as well as medical practice in the clinical context. The interaction between evidence-based recommendations and value-related patient preferences in clinical practice is, however, highly complex and requires not only medical knowledge but social, psychological and communicative competencies on the side of the physician. The multi-layered process of oncology physicians' clinical decision-making was explored in 14 semi-structured interviews with respect to a first diagnosis of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A case vignette was used and the Q method ("card sorting") was applied to analyze the influence of different factors (such as evidence, patient preferences and the role of relatives) on physicians' deliberations. Content analysis (Mayring) was performed. The results show that the participating oncologists consider patient preferences as an important guidance which, however, is limited on certain occasions where the physicians assume a leadership role in decision-making. From the interviewees' perspectives, the preferences of the patients' relatives are likewise of high importance because debilitating oncologic treatments can only be carried out if patients have both social and psychological support. There is a need for an ongoing reflection of the physicians' own values and due consideration of the patients' social role within the context of shared decision-making. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Nikpay, Fatemeh; Ahmad, Rodina; Yin Kia, Chiam
Enterprise Architecture (EA) implementation evaluation provides a set of methods and practices for evaluating the EA implementation artefacts within an EA implementation project. There are insufficient practices in existing EA evaluation models in terms of considering all EA functions and processes, using structured methods in developing EA implementation, employing matured practices, and using appropriate metrics to achieve proper evaluation. The aim of this research is to develop a hybrid evaluation method that supports achieving the objectives of EA implementation. To attain this aim, the first step is to identify EA implementation evaluation practices. To this end, a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) was conducted. Second, the proposed hybrid method was developed based on the foundation and information extracted from the SLR, semi-structured interviews with EA practitioners, program theory evaluation and Information Systems (ISs) evaluation. Finally, the proposed method was validated by means of a case study and expert reviews. This research provides a suitable foundation for researchers who wish to extend and continue this research topic with further analysis and exploration, and for practitioners who would like to employ an effective and lightweight evaluation method for EA projects. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Milne, Heather; Huby, Guro; Buckingham, Susan; Hayward, James; Sheikh, Aziz; Cresswell, Kathrin; Pinnock, Hilary
Sharing the electronic health-care record (EHR) during consultations has the potential to facilitate patient involvement in their health care, but research about this practice is limited. We used multichannel video recordings to identify examples and examine the practice of screen-sharing within 114 primary care consultations. A subset of 16 consultations was viewed by the general practitioner and/or patient in 26 reflexive interviews. Screen-sharing emerged as a significant theme and was explored further in seven additional patient interviews. Final analysis involved refining themes from interviews and observation of videos to understand how screen-sharing occurred, and its significance to patients and professionals. Eighteen (16%) of 114 videoed consultations involved instances of screen-sharing. Screen-sharing occurred in six of the subset of 16 consultations with interviews and was a significant theme in 19 of 26 interviews. The screen was shared in three ways: 'convincing' the patient of a diagnosis or treatment; 'translating' between medical and lay understandings of disease/medication; and by patients 'verifying' the accuracy of the EHR. However, patients and most GPs perceived the screen as the doctor's domain, not to be routinely viewed by the patient. Screen-sharing can facilitate patient involvement in the consultation, depending on the way in which sharing comes about, but the perception that the record belongs to the doctor is a barrier. To exploit the potential of sharing the screen to promote patient involvement, there is a need to reconceptualise and redesign the EHR. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
, occupancy, and mobility) and forms of communal organisation that have developed within these communities. These are set against processes of archiving and documentation in terms of historical and legal practices. The book collates the transcribed interviews and provides an introductory essay setting them...... in context.This artist's book follows the exhibition, Fields, Factories and Workshops at the Centre for Contemporary Arts, Glasgow, 7 August – 18 September 2010.English language text with Gaelic, Polish, Russian, Latvian and Lithuanian sections....
O'Sullivan, Julie Lorraine; Gellert, Paul; Hesse, Britta; Jordan, Laura-Maria; Möller, Sebastian; Voigt-Antons, Jan-Niklas; Nordheim, Johanna
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) could be useful for delivering non-pharmacological therapies (NPTs) for dementia in nursing home settings. To identify technology-related expectations and inhibitions of healthcare professionals associated with the intention to use ICT-based NPTs. Cross-sectional multi-method survey. N = 205 healthcare professionals completed a quantitative survey on usage and attitudes towards ICTs. Additionally, N = 11 semi-structured interviews were conducted. Participants were classified as intenders to use ICTs (53%), non-intenders (14%) or ambivalent (32%). A MANCOVA revealed higher perceived usefulness for intenders compared to non-intenders and ambivalent healthcare professionals (V =.28, F(12, 292)= 3.94, p ICTs in the workplace. Furthermore, benefits for residents emerged as a key requirement. Staff trainings should stress specific benefits for residents and healthcare professionals to facilitate successful implementation and acceptance of ICTs in nursing home settings.
Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Chang, C W David; Puscas, Liana
Objectives To identify how applicants to otolaryngology residency determine how to apply to, interview with, and rank programs on the interview trail and to determine the extent of the financial burden of the otolaryngology interview trail. Study Design Web-based survey distributed in March and April 2016. Setting Otolaryngology residency applicants throughout the United States. Subjects and Methods Applicants to otolaryngology residency during the 2016 match cycle and current otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Results Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked was not different during the 2016 match and the previous 5 match years. The most important factor affecting the number of applications was the need to apply widely to ensure sufficient interview offers. The most common reason for declining an interview offer was scheduling conflict. Applicants during the 2016 match spent a median of $5400 applying and interviewing for otolaryngology residency. Conclusions Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked has not changed. The most cited reason for applying to many programs was to increase the chances of matching, but this is not statistically likely to increase match success. We advocate for continued attempts to make the otolaryngology match process more transparent for both applicants and resident selection committees, but recognize that applicants are likely to continue to overapply for otolaryngology residency positions.
Knight, Peter; Saunders, Murray
Describes a research method used in a British project studying the professional culture of teachers, that of "dialogic interviews." The focus was on cultural constructs teachers used spontaneously, and the interviews were formed around elements of concept, discourse, general accounts of teaching, and site-specific accounts of teaching.…
Lea, Victoria M; Corlett, Sarah A; Rodgers, Ruth M
This study aims to describe how pharmacists utilise and perceive delegation in the community setting. Non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews with a convenience sample of community pharmacists working in Kent between July and October 2011. Content analysis was undertaken to determine key themes and the point of theme saturation informed sample size. Findings from observations were also compared against those from interviews. Observations and interviews were undertaken with 11 pharmacists. Observations showed that delegation occurred in four different forms: assumed, active, partial and reverse. It was also employed to varying extents within the different pharmacies. Interviews revealed mixed views on delegation. Some pharmacists presented positive attitudes towards delegation while others were concerned about maintaining accountability for delegated tasks, particularly in terms of accuracy checking of dispensed medication. Other pharmacists noted the ability to delegate was not a skill they found inherently easy. Comparison of observation and interview data highlighted discrepancies between tasks pharmacists perceived they delegated and what they actually delegated. Effective delegation can potentially promote better management of workload to provide pharmacists with additional time to spend on cognitive pharmaceutical services. To do this, pharmacists' reluctance to delegate must be addressed. Lack of insight into own practice might be helped by self-reflection and feedback from staff. Also, a greater understanding of legal accountability in the context of delegation needs to be achieved. Finally, delegation is not just dependent on pharmacists, but also on support staff; ensuring staff are empowered and equipped to take on delegated roles is essential. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Palinkas, Lawrence A.
Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This paper reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the papers included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a “thick description” or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods, but often differ with respect to study design, data collection and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semi-structured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research. PMID:25350675
Full Text Available Etienne Février : I would like to begin this interview with a question about architecture. Images of architecture appear frequently in your fiction, from Martin Dressler to more recent collections like Dangerous Laughter. In that collection’s “thirteen stories,” we find a tower reaching all the way to heaven, a life-size replica of a town so precise that even the “levels of salt in the saltshakers” match those of the original town, and a series of outwardly expanding domes—covering a house, f...
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Lucinea Marcelino Villela
Full Text Available In this interview, which took place in June 2016, Dr Anna Matamala described some details about her long professional experience in Audiovisual Translation, especially in dubbing from English into Catalan, and we talked about many other things like her interest in lexicography, her point of view on some contemporary topics in Audiovisual Translation Studies: the use of technology, the relation between AVT and Accessibility Studies, AVT and Filmmaking fields, the importance of keeping in touch with other countries and even continents outside Europe, and she also gave some advice to the new generation of Translation students.
Background Alcohol policy priorities in Australia have been set by the National Preventative Health Task Force, yet significant reform has not occurred. News media coverage of these priorities has not reported public health experts as in agreement and Government has not acted upon the legislative recommendations made. We investigate policy experts’ views on alcohol policy priorities with a view to establishing levels of accord and providing suggestions for future advocates. Methods We conducted semi-structured in depth interviews with alcohol policy experts and advocates around Australia. Open-ended questions examined participants’ thoughts on existing policy recommendations, obvious policy priorities and specifically, the future of national reforms to price and promotions policies. All transcripts were analysed for major themes and points of agreement or disagreement. Results Twenty one alcohol policy experts agreed that pricing policies are a top national priority and most agreed that “something should be done” about alcohol advertising. Volumetric taxation and minimum pricing were regarded as the most important price policies, yet differences emerged in defining the exact form of a proposed volumetric tax. Important differences in perspective emerged regarding alcohol promotions, with lack of agreement about the preferred form regulations should take, where to start and who the policy should be directed at. Very few discussed online advertising and social networks. Conclusions Despite existing policy collaborations, a clear ‘cut through’ message is yet to be endorsed by all alcohol control advocates. There is a need to articulate and promote in greater detail the specifics of policy reforms to minimum pricing, volumetric taxation and restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly regarding sporting sponsorships and new media. PMID:23800324
Krops, Leonie A; Folkertsma, Nienke; Hols, Doortje H J; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Dekker, Rienk
To explore ideas of the target population about a community-based intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 21 physically disabled people, and analyzed using thematic analyses. Findings were interpreted using the integrated Physical Activity for People with a Disability and Intervention Mapping model. The intervention should aim to stimulate intrinsic motivation and raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity. It should provide diverse activities, increase visibility of these activities, and improve image of physical activity for physically disabled people. Participants suggested to provide individual coaching sessions, increase marketing, present role models, and assign buddies. Potential users should be approached personally through intermediate organizations, or via social media and word of mouth promotion. Participants suggested that users, government, sponsors, and health insurers should finance the intervention. Self-responsibility for being physically active was strongly emphasized by participants. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in hard-to-reach physically disabled people should be individualized, include personal support, and should include marketing to improve image of physical activity of physically disabled people. The intervention that fulfills these requirements should be developed and tested for effects in future research. Implications for rehabilitation An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to raise awareness for the health effects of physical activity, stimulate intrinsic motivation, offer diverse activities, increase the visibility of the possible activities, and improve the image of physical activity for physically disabled people. An intervention should include both individual- and environmental-level intervention methods. Physically disabled people most emphasized
Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof
With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Neumann, W. Patrick; Broberg, Ole
participants were interviewed. METHODS: Data were collected applying semi-structured interviews, observations, and documentary studies. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and categorized into themes. RESULTS: From the analysis five overall themes emerged as major constituents of resource constraints: 1...
To explore young women's decision-making about having an abortion, in particular, how they reached the decision and with whom they discussed it. Qualitative study comprising semi-structured one-to-one interviews with 24 women aged between 16 and 20 who were waiting for, or had recently had, a surgical abortion. Interviews were recorded with the consent of the interviewees, fully transcribed, and analysed using a grounded theory approach. All but one of the women had been offered counselling; one could not remember. Only two had accepted the offer of counselling, most feeling that it was unnecessary. The majority of these young women had decided that they wanted an abortion before accessing health services to request one. They had discussed their decision with someone close to them and did not feel the need to have further discussions with counsellors. Most young women have already made the decision to have an abortion before they approach their GP or a family planning clinic to request one. At present, counselling is voluntary in the UK. Requiring women to undergo couanselling would delay the process and for most women would be an unnecessary burden, whilst also diverting resources from those women who require counselling.
Middleton, Aves; Gunn, Jane; Bassilios, Bridget; Pirkis, Jane
To understand why some users call crisis helplines frequently. Nineteen semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with callers to Lifeline Australia who reported calling 20 times or more in the past month and provided informed consent. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Inductive thematic analysis was used to generate common themes. Approval was granted by The University of Melbourne Human Research Ethics Committee. Three overarching themes emerged from the data and included reasons for calling, service response and calling behaviours. Respondents called seeking someone to talk to, help with their mental health issues and assistance with negative life events. When they called, they found short-term benefits in the unrestricted support offered by the helpline. Over time they called about similar issues and described reactive, support-seeking and dependent calling behaviours. Frequent users of crisis helplines call about ongoing issues. They have developed distinctive calling behaviours which appear to occur through an interaction between their reasons for calling and the response they receive from the helpline. The ongoing nature of the issues prompting frequent users to call suggests that a service model that includes a continuity of care component may be more efficient in meeting their needs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Online gambling, encompassing a wide variety of activities and around-the-clock access, can be a potential risk factor for gamblers who tend to gamble excessively. Yet, the advent of online gambling has enabled responsible gambling (RG features that may help individuals to limit their gambling behaviour. One of these features is RG tools that track gamblers' behaviour, performs risk assessments and provides advice to gamblers. This study investigated users' views and experiences of the RG tool Playscan from a qualitative perspective using a semi-structured interview. The tool performs a risk assessment on a three-step scale (low, medium and high risk. Users from every risk category were included. Twenty interviews were carried out and analysed using thematic analysis. Two main themes with associated sub-themes were identified: “Usage of Playscan and the gambling site” and “Experiences of Playscan”. Important experiences in the sub-themes were lack of feedback from the tool and confusion when signing up to use Playscan. These experiences counteracted positive attitudes that should have promoted usage of the tool. Providing more feedback directly to users is a suggested solution to increase usage of the RG tool.
Bowden, Fran Martin; Lordly, Daphne; Thirsk, Jayne; Corby, Lynda
Dietitians of Canada has collaborated with experts in knowledge translation and transfer, technology, and dietetic practice to develop and implement an innovative online decision-support system called Practice-based Evidence in Nutrition (PEN). A study was conducted to evaluate the perceived facilitators and barriers that enable dietitians to use or prevent them from using PEN. As part of the overall evaluation framework of PEN, a qualitative descriptive research design was used to address the research purpose. Individual, semi-structured telephone interviews with 17 key informants were completed, and the interview transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis. Respondents identified several facilitators of and barriers to PEN use. Facilitators included specificity to dietetics, rigorous/expert review, easy accessibility, current content, credible/secure material, well-organized/easy-to-use material, material that is valuable to practice, and good value for money. Barriers included perceived high cost, fee structuring/cost to students, certain organizational aspects, and a perceived lack of training for pathway contributors. This formative evaluation has indicated areas in which PEN could be improved and strategies to make PEN the standard for dietetic education and practice. Ensuring that PEN is meeting users' knowledge needs is of the utmost importance if dietitians are to remain on the cutting edge of scientific inquiry.
Callwood, Alison; Bolger, Sarah; Allan, Helen T
To explore how adult, child and mental health nursing and midwifery students, selected using multiple mini interviews, describe their 'values journey' following exposure to the clinical practice environment. Values based recruitment (VBR) incorporates assessment of healthcare students' personal values using approaches like multiple mini interviews. Students' experience of adjustment to their values during their programme is conceptualized as a 'values journey'. The impact of VBR in alleviating erosion of personal values remains unclear. A cross-professional longitudinal cohort study was commenced at one university in England in 2016 with data collection points at the end of years one, two and three. Non-probability consecutive sampling resulted in 42 healthcare students (8 adult, 8 child and 9 mental health nursing and 17 midwifery students) taking part. Six semi-structured focus groups were conducted at the end of participants' Year One (DC1). Data analysis incorporated inductive and deductive approaches in a hybrid synthesis. Participants described a 'values journey' where their values, particularly communication, courage and wanting to make a difference, were both challenged and retained. Participants personal journeys also acknowledged the: 'courage it takes to use values'; 'reality of values in practice' and 'need for self-reflection on values'. A 'values journey' may begin early in a healthcare student's education programme. This is important to recognize so that appropriate interventions designed to support students in higher education and clinical practice can be implemented. The values incorporated in VBR should be continually evaluated for fitness for purpose. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana
Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hermansen, Anna; Peolsson, Anneli; Kammerlind, Ann-Sofi; Hjelm, Katarina
To explore and describe women's experiences of daily life after anterior cervical decompression and fusion surgery. Qualitative explorative design. Fourteen women aged 39-62 years (median 52 years) were included 1.5-3 years after anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical disc disease. Individual semi-structured interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis with an inductive approach. The women described their experiences of daily life in 5 different ways: being recovered to various extents; impact of remaining symptoms on thoughts and feelings; making daily life work; receiving support from social and occupational networks; and physical and behavioural changes due to interventions and encounters with healthcare professionals. This interview study provides insight into women's daily life after anterior cervical decompression and fusion. Whilst the subjects improved after surgery, they also experienced remaining symptoms and limitations in daily life. A variety of mostly active coping strategies were used to manage daily life. Social support from family, friends, occupational networks and healthcare professionals positively influenced daily life. These findings provide knowledge about aspects of daily life that should be considered in individualized postoperative care and rehabilitation in an attempt to provide better outcomes in women after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.
Lindgren, Helena; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Rådestad, Ingela
to describe home-birth risk assessment by parents. interviews using a semi-structured interview guide. Data were analysed using a phenomenological approach. independent midwifery practices in Sweden. five couples who had had planned home births. the parents had a fundamental trust that the birth would take place without complications, and they experienced meaningfulness in the event itself. Risks were considered to be part of a complex phenomenon that was not limited to births at home. This attitude seems to be part of a lifestyle that has a bearing on how risks experienced during the birth were handled. Five categories were identified as counterbalancing the risk of possible complications: (1) trust in the woman's ability to give birth; (2) trust in intuition; (3) confidence in the midwife; (4) confidence in the relationship; and (5) physical and intellectual preparation. although the parents were conscious of the risk of complications during childbirth, a fundamental trust in the woman's independent ability to give birth was central to the decision to choose a home birth. Importance was attached to the expected positive effects of having the birth at home. knowledge of parents' assessment can promote an increased understanding of how parents-to-be experience the risks associated with home birth.
Zaccagnino, Maria; Cussino, Martina; Preziosa, Alessandra; Veglia, Fabio; Carassa, Antonella
The experience of being removed from one's home and the transition to a residential care system pose enormous challenges for a child. Substantial evidence has been found regarding severe developmental effects due to early exposition to extreme psychosocial and affective deprivation. The research on Bowlby's theoretical proposals has highlighted the link between insecure, disorganized and atypical attachment patterns and children both living in foster care facilities and adopted out of those institutions. The goal of this pilot study is to investigate the attachment representation in an Italian sample of children in middle childhood (9-13 years old) who have been removed from their homes. Two compared groups of children participated in this study. The first group was composed of 24 Italian children who had been removed from their homes. The second group, considered as the control group, was composed of 35 Italian children who had never been in foster care placement. The quality of children's attachment to their primary caregivers was assessed by the Child Attachment Interview, an innovative semi-structured interview that seeks to bridge the measurement gap identified in middle childhood The children in foster care placement show a higher percentage of insecure and disorganized attachment representations and lower scores on the Child Reflective Functioning Scale. The clinical implications and enhancements to effective intervention for foster children's caretaking are discussed. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Background Medical students report high stress levels and in particular, the clinical phase is a demanding one. The field of medicine is still described as having a patriarchal culture which favors aspects like a physicians’ perceived certainty and rationalism. Also, the Effort-Recovery Model explains stress as coming from a discrepancy between job demands, job control, and perceived work potential. Gendered differences in stress are reported, but not much is known about medical interns’ perceptions of how gender plays in relation to stress. The aim of this study is to explore how medical interns experience and cope with stress, as well as how they reflect on the gendered aspects of stress. Methods In order to do this, we have performed a qualitative study. In 2010–2011, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with seventeen medical interns across all three years of the Masters programme (6 male, 11 female) at a Dutch medical school. The interview guide is based on gender theory, the Effort-Recovery Model, and empirical literature. Transcribed interviews have been analyzed thematically. Results First, stress mainly evolves from having to prove one’s self and show off competencies and motivation (“Show What You Know…”). Second, interns seek own solutions for handling stress because it is not open for discussion (… “And Deal With Stress Yourself”). Patient encounters are a source of pride and satisfaction rather than a source of stress. But interns report having to present themselves as ‘professional and self-confident’, remaining silent about experiencing stress. Female students are perceived to have more stress and to study harder in order to live up to expectations. Conclusions The implicit message interns hear is to remain silent about insecurities and stress, and, in particular, female students might face disadvantages. Students who feel less able to manifest the ‘masculine protest’ may benefit from a culture that
Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations of industrialised countries are ageing; as this occurs, those who continue to use alcohol and illicit drugs age also. While alcohol use among older people is well documented, use of illicit drugs continues to be perceived as behaviour of young people and is a neglected area of research. This is the first published qualitative research on the experiences of older drug users in the United Kingdom. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Merseyside, in 2008, with drug users aged 50 and over recruited through drug treatment services. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and analysed thematically. Only health status and health service contact are reported here. Results Nine men and one woman were interviewed (age range: 54 to 61 years; all but one had been using drugs continuously or intermittently for at least 30 years. Interviewees exhibited high levels of physical and mental morbidity; hepatitis C was particularly prevalent. Injecting-related damage to arm veins resulted in interviewees switching to riskier injecting practices. Poor mental health was evident and interviewees described their lives as depressing. The death of drug-using friends was a common theme and social isolation was apparent. Interviewees also described a deterioration of memory. Generic healthcare was not always perceived as optimal, while issues relating to drug specific services were similar to those arising among younger cohorts of drug users, for example, complaints about inadequate doses of prescribed medication. Conclusion The concurrent effects of drug use and ageing are not well understood but are thought to exacerbate, or accelerate the onset of, medical conditions which are more prevalent in older age. Here, interviewees had poor physical and mental health but low expectations of health services. Older drug users who are not in contact with services are likely to have greater unmet needs. The number of drug users
Dudley, Louise; Gamble, Carrol; Allam, Alison; Bell, Philip; Buck, Deborah; Goodare, Heather; Hanley, Bec; Preston, Jennifer; Walker, Alison; Williamson, Paula; Young, Bridget
Training in patient and public involvement (PPI) is recommended, yet little is known about what training is needed. We explored researchers' and PPI contributors' accounts of PPI activity and training to inform the design of PPI training for both parties. We used semi-structured qualitative interviews with researchers (chief investigators and trial managers) and PPI contributors, accessed through a cohort of clinical trials, which had been funded between 2006 and 2010. An analysis of transcripts of audio-recorded interviews drew on the constant comparative method. We interviewed 31 researchers and 17 PPI contributors from 28 trials. Most researchers could see some value in PPI training for researchers, although just under half had received such training themselves, and some had concerns about the purpose and evidence base for PPI training. PPI contributors were evenly split in their perceptions of whether researchers needed training in PPI. Few PPI contributors had themselves received training for their roles. Many informants across all groups felt that training PPI contributors was unnecessary because they already possessed the skills needed. Informants were also concerned that training would professionalise PPI contributors, limiting their ability to provide an authentic patient perspective. However, informants welcomed informal induction 'conversations' to help contributors understand their roles and support them in voicing their opinions. Informants believed that PPI contributors should be confident, motivated, intelligent, focussed on helping others and have relevant experience. Researchers looked for these qualities when selecting contributors, and spoke of how finding 'the right' contributor was more important than accessing 'the right' training. While informants were broadly receptive to PPI training for researchers, they expressed considerable reluctance to training PPI contributors. Providers of training will need to address these reservations. Our
Raunsbæk Knudsen, Line; Thurah, Annette De; Lomborg, Kirsten
the patients' different needs, wishes and abilities to take part in tele-health follow-up. Our findings reveal a need for more insight into how tele-health follow-up could be integrated in routine clinical practice, paying special attention to how reluctant patients may be supported.......: Adopting a strategy of interpretive description, we conducted individual, semi-structured interviews with 15 RA patients participating in a tele-health follow-up. Participants were selected purposively and consecutive from both genders and with various ages, disease durations and disease severity....... The analysis was inductive with a constant comparative approach. First, we identified the main themes conveying the participants' experiences. Then, we constructed patient typologies to explain different perspectives on the tele-health follow-up. RESULTS: Five themes covered the participants' experiences: 'A...
Abraham, Traci H; Koenig, Christopher J; Zamora, Kara; Hill, Coleen; Uddo, Madeline; Kelly, Adam P; Hamilton, Michelle F; Curran, Geoffrey M; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Seal, Karen H
Most chronic illness management occurs outside clinics and hospitals, in the everyday lives of individuals. We use data from semi-structured interviews with 37 veterans from Southeastern Louisiana and Northern California to illustrate how "health work" for mental health concerns are shaped by place. Using health work as an orienting concept for analysis, we discerned variation between the two study sites in how Veterans used interacting with the natural environment, cultivating time alone, and religious practice to manage their mental health and well-being. Through these findings, we advocate for a situated notion of health work that is mindful of how health-related behaviors are shaped by place and the attributes that constitute place. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of a study which explored advanced learners of English engagement with their mobile devices to develop learning experiences that meet their needs and goals as foreign language learners. The data were collected from 20 students by means of a semi-structured interview. The gathered data were subjected to qualitative and quantitative analysis. The results of the study demonstrated that, on the one hand, some subjects manifested heightened awareness relating to the advantageous role of mobile devices in their learning endeavors, their ability to reach for suitable tools and retrieve necessary information so as to achieve their goals, meet their needs and adjust their learning of English to their personal learning styles, and on the other, a rather intuitive and/or ad hoc use of their mobile devices in the classroom.
Lass, Marie; Tatari, Camilla Rahr; Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann
OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, parents with small children have the highest contact frequency to out-of-hours (OOH) service, but reasons for OOH care use are sparsely investigated. The aim was to explore parental contact pattern to OOH services and to explore parents' experiences with managing their chil......OBJECTIVE: In Denmark, parents with small children have the highest contact frequency to out-of-hours (OOH) service, but reasons for OOH care use are sparsely investigated. The aim was to explore parental contact pattern to OOH services and to explore parents' experiences with managing...... their children's acute health problems. DESIGN: A qualitative study was undertaken drawing on a phenomenological approach. We used semi-structured interviews, followed by an inductive content analysis. Nine parents with children below four years of age were recruited from a child day care centre in Aarhus...
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Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.
Bronwen McDonald; Patricia Rogers
Interviews are easy to do badly and hard to do well - good planning, adequate time and appropriate skills are required. The type of interview should be carefully chosen to suit the situation rather than choosing a type of interview (such as focus groups) simply because it is commonly used. Interviews with children raise particular ethical issues that need to be carefully considered and fully addressed. This brief outlines key issues to consider in planning interviews for impact evaluation, ta...
Hedin, Katarina; Strandberg, Eva Lena; Gröndal, Hedvig; Brorsson, Annika; Thulesius, Hans; André, Malin
To explore how a group of Swedish general practitioners (GPs) manage patients with a sore throat in relation to current guidelines as expressed in interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse semi-structured interviews. Swedish primary care. A strategic sample of 25 GPs. Perceived management of sore throat patients. It was found that nine of the interviewed GPs were adherent to current guidelines for sore throat and 16 were non-adherent. The two groups differed in terms of guideline knowledge, which was shared within the team for adherent GPs while idiosyncratic knowledge dominated for the non-adherent GPs. Adherent GPs had no or low concerns for bacterial infections and differential diagnosis whilst non-adherent GPs believed that in patients with a sore throat any bacterial infection should be identified and treated with antibiotics. Patient history and examination was mainly targeted by adherent GPs whilst for non-adherent GPs it was often redundant. Non-adherent GPs reported problems getting patients to abstain from antibiotics, whilst no such problems were reported in adherent GPs. This interview study of sore throat management in a strategically sampled group of Swedish GPs showed that while two-thirds were non-adherent and had a liberal attitude to antibiotics one-third were guideline adherent with a restricted view on antibiotics. Non-adherent GPs revealed significant knowledge gaps. Adherent GPs had discussed guidelines within the primary care team while non-adherent GPs had not. Guideline implementation thus seemed to be promoted by knowledge shared in team discussions.
A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.
Lippke, Lena; Tanggaard, Lene
Over the last few decades, qualitative research has been acknowledged as a peopled practice in which subjectivities come into play. The main argument presented in this article is that qualitative research involves “muddy,” troublesome, interactional passages, because of a complex interplay between...... situated identities among the participants cross each other. We emphasize the value of daring to lean in to the muddiness of peopled research, use it as an analytical tool and present it in its imperfect form. This approach contributes to transparency in qualitative research, opens up the data in a new way...... subjectivities, situated identities, emotions, and conversational genres. Based on ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish Vocational Educational Training College, we introduce the concept of “leaning in” to provide an analytical grasp of the “muddy” interactional tension field in an interview situation, in which...
Full Text Available Fictions Inc., and this interview, offers detailed readings of a diverse body of texts that, in one way or another, push readers to think about the role of the corporation in 20th and 21st century America. Using a complex set of critical tools—historicizing the rise in the pharmaceutical industry in the 1980s to read White Noise; drawing on Slavoj Žižek and Louis Althusser to explain the model of resistance that appears in Crying of Lot 49; looking at 1980s gentrification policies and government outsourcing while discussing Ghostbusters—Clare generates a series of insights about the fears and the desires embodied in the corporation. What he finds is that older avenues of resistance to consumer capitalism have closed, but the desire to imagine new ones, and maybe create them, remains open.
Gardner, Aimee K; D'Onofrio, Brenna C; Dunkin, Brian J
Guidance on how to train faculty to conduct structured interviews and implement them into current screening processes is lacking. The goal of this study is to describe a structured interview training program designed specifically for surgeons and examine its effectiveness. Faculty involved in advanced surgical fellowship interviews completed a 20-item knowledge assessment and video-based applicant interview ratings before taking a half-day course on conducting structured interviews. The course consisted of evidence-based strategies and methods for conducting structured interviews, asking questions, and rating applicants in a highly interactive format. After the course, faculty again completed the knowledge assessment and provided ratings for 3 video-based applicant interviews. All faculty members (N = 5) responsible for selecting fellows in minimally invasive and bariatric surgery completed the training. Faculty had an average of 15.8 ± 9.12 years in practice. Average performance on the precourse knowledge assessment was 35% ± 6.12% and the group was unable to achieve acceptable agreement for applicant interview scores for any of the competencies assessed. After the course, faculty demonstrated significant improvements (p interview ratings within 2 points of each other. Implementation of a half-day course designed to teach principles and skills around structured interviewing and assessment demonstrated significant improvements in both interviewing knowledge and interrater agreement. These findings support the time and resources required to develop and implement a structured interview training program for surgeons for the postgraduate admissions process. Copyright © 2018 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Why do patients decline surgical trials? Findings from a qualitative interview study embedded in the Cancer Research UK BOLERO trial (Bladder cancer: Open versus Lapararoscopic or RObotic cystectomy).
Harrop, Emily; Kelly, John; Griffiths, Gareth; Casbard, Angela; Nelson, Annmarie
Surgical trials have typically experienced recruitment difficulties when compared with other types of oncology trials. Qualitative studies have an important role to play in exploring reasons for low recruitment, although to date few such studies have been carried out that are embedded in surgical trials. The BOLERO trial (Bladder cancer: Open versus Lapararoscopic or RObotic cystectomy) is a study to determine the feasibility of randomisation to open versus laparoscopic access/robotic cystectomy in patients with bladder cancer. We describe the results of a qualitative study embedded within the clinical trial that explored why patients decline randomisation. Ten semi-structured interviews with patients who declined randomisation to the clinical trial, and two interviews with recruiting research nurses were conducted. Data were analysed for key themes. The majority of patients declined the trial because they had preferences for a particular treatment arm, and in usual practice could choose which surgical method they would be given. In most cases the robotic option was preferred. Patients described an intuitive 'sense' that favoured the new technology and had carried out their own inquiries, including Internet research and talking with previous patients and friends and family with medical backgrounds. Medical histories and lifestyle considerations also shaped these personalised choices. Of importance too, however, were the messages patients perceived from their clinical encounters. Whilst some patients felt their surgeon favoured the robotic option, others interpreted 'indirect' cues such as the 'established' reputation of the surgeon and surgical method and comments made during clinical assessments. Many patients expressed a wish for greater direction from their surgeon when making these decisions. For trials where the 'new technology' is available to patients, there will likely be difficulties with recruitment. Greater attention could be paid to how messages about
Full Text Available Purpose: Healthcare staff educate nursing students during their clerkships at community health nursing programs. Their teaching methods play an important role in nursing students’ acquisition of competencies; however, these methods have not been studied thoroughly. Thus, this study aims to describe, interpret, and understand the experiences of healthcare staff’s teaching methods in clerkships at a community health nursing program. Methods: This study was conducted using purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews with 13 members of the staff of three urban healthcare centers in Iran. The data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Results: Multiplicity of teaching was identified as the main category of teaching method, and the five subcategories were teaching through lecture, demonstration, doing, visits and field trips, and readiness. The most common method used by the healthcare staff was lecturing. Conclusion: The healthcare staff used multiple methods to teach students in the nursing clerkship of the community health program, which was the strength of the course. However, they should be familiar with, and utilize additional methods, such as discussion rather than lecture.
Full Text Available This article discusses the photo interview method used in a participatory inter- and transdisciplinary research setting. The photo interview has proven particularly useful for sustainability and environmental studies in which eliciting community points of view is crucial to the research effort. Based on experiences in several countries, the author describes and analyses the photo interview process and its three phases—involving, sharing and analysing—and explores potential influences on data quality. In the first phase, researchers use the photo interview method to involve community residents from different levels of society in the research process. In the second phase, the photo interview method encourages community residents and scientists to share insights and perspectives and to partner in developing a common understanding of local structures, processes, and possible solutions. In the third phase, the photo interview method allows researchers to analyse visual and textual data as a representation of a local societal context. In decoding images, researchers ground the analysis in subjective perspectives, use residents' visual codes along with other methods to further analyse community data, and explore the wider societal context in which the study is embedded. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803127
Gotts, Zoe M; Newton, Julia L; Ellis, Jason G; Deary, Vincent
Sleep disturbances are common in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. The aim was to explore the specific role of sleep in patients' experience of their illness. A qualitative semi-structured interview format facilitated a detailed and open exploration of sleep, and the extent to which its management and problems were linked to the lived experience of CFS. Eleven semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals with CFS. Data were transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically, to explore and describe patients' experience of their sleep, and its impact on their condition. Sleep emerged as a key aspect of the illness experience, and its management and effect on daytime functioning was a central pre-occupation for all 11 participants; all of them saw sleep as playing a critical role in their illness through either maintaining or exacerbating existing symptoms. Exploration of individual experiences presented three overarching themes: (1) sleep pattern variability over illness course and from day to day; (2) effect of sleep on daytime functioning; and (3) attempts at coping and sleep management. Each patient with CFS has a unique experience of sleep. Despite the differing narratives regarding the role of sleep in CFS, all participants held the belief that sleep is a vital process for health and well-being which has had a direct bearing on the course and progression of their CFS. Also, every participant regarded their sleep as in some way 'broken' and in need of management/repair. Patients' insights demonstrate sleep-specific influences on their CFS, and the impact of disturbed sleep should be a consideration for clinical and research work. What is already known on this subject? Sleep disturbances are common in CFS, and one of the key symptom complaints, yet it has been neglected by previous qualitative research. Ontology of CFS is a matter of dispute, with models
Full Text Available This research of qualitative nature has as objective to analyze how a group of elementary school’s teachers formulates its teaching method, under the perspective of located historical cognition. The theoretical and methodological presuppositions of the Historical Education are present in the teaching and learning conception of the State Syllabus Guidelines of History, referring to a located historical cognition. The syllabus affirms that the teachers’ pedagogic work has as purpose the formation of the students’ historical thought, through the historical conscience. In order to do that, it suggests the use of the historical investigation method in classroom, articulated by the historical narratives of the subjects. Based in the theoretical and methodological referential of the “methodological structuralism”, the investigation used standardized questionnaire and semi-structured interview applied to four teachers. The results indicate that the teachers use in their teaching method elements of the historical investigation, which is a practice that potentiates in the student the development of a cognition located in the science of history.
Bradner, James E
James E Bradner is an Assistant Professor in Medicine at Harvard Medical School (MA, USA) as well as a Staff Physician in the Division of Hematologic Malignancies at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (MA, USA). The present research focus of the Bradner laboratory concerns the discovery and optimization of prototype drugs targeting cancer gene regulation. The clinical objective of the Bradner group is to deliver novel therapeutics for human clinical investigation in hematologic diseases. Bradner's awards and honors include the Damon Runyon-Rachleff Innovation Award, the Smith Family Award for Excellence in Biomedical Research, the Dunkin' Donuts Rising Star Award and the HMS Distinguished Excellence in Teaching Award. He is a member of the American Society of Clinical Investigation, the American Society of Hematology, the American Chemical Society and the American Association of Cancer Research. His recent research has been published in Nature, Cell, Nature Chemical Biology and the Journal of the American Chemical Society. He has authored more than 20 US Patent applications, licensed to five pharmaceutical companies, and is a scientific founder of Acetylon Pharmaceuticals, SHAPE Pharmaceuticals, Tensha Therapeutics and Syros Pharmaceuticals. Bradner received his AB from Harvard University, his MD from the University of Chicago (IL, USA) and a MMS from Harvard Medical School. He completed his postgraduate training in Internal Medicine at Brigham & Women's Hospital (MA, USA), followed by a fellowship in Medical Oncology and Hematology at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. Following additional post-doctoral training in Chemistry at Harvard University and the Broad Institute (MA, USA) with Professor Stuart Schreiber, Bradner joined the research faculty of Dana-Farber in 2008. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.
Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; Ubhi, Harveen Kaur; West, Robert; Michie, Susan
Public health organisations such as the National Health Service in the United Kingdom and the National Institutes of Health in the United States provide access to online libraries of publicly endorsed smartphone applications (apps); however, there is little evidence that users rely on this guidance. Rather, one of the most common methods of finding new apps is to search an online store. As hundreds of smoking cessation and alcohol-related apps are currently available on the market, smokers and drinkers must actively choose which app to download prior to engaging with it. The influences on this choice are yet to be identified. This study aimed to investigate 1) design features that shape users' choice of smoking cessation or alcohol reduction apps, and 2) design features judged to be important for engagement. Adult smokers (n = 10) and drinkers (n = 10) interested in using an app to quit/cut down were asked to search an online store to identify and explore a smoking cessation or alcohol reduction app of their choice whilst thinking aloud. Semi-structured interview techniques were used to allow participants to elaborate on their statements. An interpretivist theoretical framework informed the analysis. Verbal reports were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Participants chose apps based on their immediate look and feel, quality as judged by others' ratings and brand recognition ('social proof'), and titles judged to be realistic and relevant. Monitoring and feedback, goal setting, rewards and prompts were identified as important for engagement, fostering motivation and autonomy. Tailoring of content, a non-judgmental communication style, privacy and accuracy were viewed as important for engagement, fostering a sense of personal relevance and trust. Sharing progress on social media and the use of craving management techniques in social settings were judged not to be engaging because of concerns about others
Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M
Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second
Gance-Cleveland, Bonnie; Ford, Loretta C; Aldrich, Heather; Oetzel, Keri Bolton; Cook, Paul; Schmiege, Sarah; Wold, Mary
This paper reports the findings of motivational interviewing (MI) training with and without technology support on school-based health center (SBHC) providers' satisfaction with MI training, providers' self-report of behavioral counseling related to childhood overweight/obesity, and parents' perception of care after training. The effects of training and technology on MI is part of a larger comparative effectiveness, cluster randomized trial. Twenty-four SBHCs in six states received virtual training on MI. Half the sites received HeartSmartKids™, a bilingual (English/Spanish), decision-support technology. The technology generated tailored patient education materials. Standard growth charts were plotted and health risks were highlighted to support MI counseling. The results of the MI training included provider satisfaction with MI training and parent assessment of the components of MI in their child's care. Providers and parents were surveyed at baseline, after training, and six months after training. Providers were satisfied with training and reported improvements in counseling proficiency (ptechnology group reported significant improvement in provider support for healthy eating (p=0.04). Virtual training has the potential of preparing providers to use MI to address childhood obesity. Technology improved parent support for healthy eating. Future research should evaluate the impact of technology to support MI on patient outcomes. Childhood obesity guidelines emphasize that MI should be used to promote healthy weight in children. Training providers on MI may help more providers incorporate obesity guidelines in their practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Michael Dell, founder and presently Chairman of the Board of Directors and Chief Executive Office of the DELL computer company visited CERN on Tuesday 26th January 2010. The Bulletin and the Video productions team had the opportunity to meet him. The video interview is transcribed for your convenience. Michael S. Dell with CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer. What motivated you to come and visit CERN? I obviously heard about the great science and research has going on here, and DELL is very pleased to be a partner and providing a lot of the computers to analyse the data and I really wanted to see for myself in person, some of the great science that is going on here. What is your view on fundamental research in IT, and in general? I think if you look at the field of science in the last hundred years, we have been able to solve a lot of problems, but there are still lots of unsolved problems and unsolved mysteries. And it is only through basic fundamental research that we will address these probl...
Lawrence A. Nnyanzi
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4–5 and in year 6 (aged 10–11, with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents’ understanding and feelings about their child’s weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. Methods One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16 were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child’s weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. Results The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to ‘othering’. Conclusions Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and
Full Text Available Introduction:Health services managers are responsible for improving the efficiency and quality in delivering healthcare services. In this regard, Health Services Management (HSM programs have been widely established to provide health providers with skilled, professional managers to address those needs. It is therefore important to ascertain the quality of these programs. The purpose of this study was to synthesize and develop a framework to evaluate the quality of the Health Services Management (HSM program at Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This study followed a mixed-method sequential explanatory approach in which data were collected through a CIPP survey and semi-structured interviews. In phase 1, participants included 10 faculty members, 64 students and 90 alumni. In phase 2, in-depth semi-structured interviews and purposeful sampling were conducted with 27 participants to better understand their perceptions of the HSM program. All interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. NVivo N8 was used to analyze the qualitative data and extract the themes. Results: The data analysis revealed both positive and negative attitudes toward the HSM program. According to the CIPP survey, program objectives (74%, curriculum content (59.5% and graduate skills (79% were the major sources of dissatisfaction. However, most respondents (n=48 reported that the classes are well equipped and learning resources are well prepared (n=41. Most respondents (n=41 reported that the students are actively involved in classroom activities. The majority of respondents (n=43 pointed out that the instructors implemented appropriate teaching strategies. Qualitative analysis of interviews revealed that a regular community needs assessment, content revision and directing attention to graduate skills and expertise are the key solutions to improve the program’s quality.Conclusion: This study revealed to what extent the HSM program objectives is being
Raussen, Martin; Skau, Christian
Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television.......Lennart Carleson was the recipient of the 2006 Abel Prize. On May 22, 2006, prior to the Abel Prize celebration in Oslo, Carleson was interviewed. The interview was later shown on Norwegian television....
In this work we focus on the dynamics of the conflict that often arises in a police interview between suspects and police officers. Police interviews are a special type of social encounter, primarily because of the authority role of the police interviewer and the often uncooperative stance that the
Montalvo, Frank F.
Describes the critical-incident interview, a cross-cultural training technique that helps social work students assess clients' ethnic- and racial-identity development. Uses examples from student interviews to present the steps involved in teaching the technique. Includes guidelines for selecting and interviewing informants, and gives three scales…
... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURES Administrative Collection of Claims § 15.25 Personal interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Personal interviews. 540.63 Section 540... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may... or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at an...
Le, Linh Cu; Vu, Lan T H
Globally, population surveys on HIV/AIDS and other sensitive topics have been using audio computer-assisted self interview for many years. This interview technique, however, is still new to Vietnam and little is known about its application and impact in general population surveys. One plausible hypothesis is that residents of Vietnam interviewed using this technique may provide a higher response rate and be more willing to reveal their true behaviors than if interviewed with traditional methods. This study aims to compare audio computer-assisted self interview with traditional face-to-face personal interview and self-administered interview with regard to rates of refusal and affirmative responses to questions on sensitive topics related to HIV/AIDS. In June 2010, a randomized study was conducted in three cities (Ha Noi, Da Nan and Can Tho), using a sample of 4049 residents aged 15 to 49 years. Respondents were randomly assigned to one of three interviewing methods: audio computer-assisted self interview, personal face-to-face interview, and self-administered paper interview. Instead of providing answers directly to interviewer questions as with traditional methods, audio computer-assisted self-interview respondents read the questions displayed on a laptop screen, while listening to the questions through audio headphones, then entered responses using a laptop keyboard. A MySQL database was used for data management and SPSS statistical package version 18 used for data analysis with bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Rates of high risk behaviors and mean values of continuous variables were compared for the three data collection methods. Audio computer-assisted self interview showed advantages over comparison techniques, achieving lower refusal rates and reporting higher prevalence of some sensitive and risk behaviors (perhaps indication of more truthful answers). Premarital sex was reported by 20.4% in the audio computer-assisted self-interview survey
Say, Rebecca; Thomson, Richard; Robson, Stephen; Exley, Catherine
Women who have a breech presentation at term have to decide whether to attempt external cephalic version (ECV) and how they want to give birth if the baby remains breech, either by planned caesarean section (CS) or vaginal breech birth. The aim of this study was to explore the attitudes of women with a breech presentation and health professionals who manage breech presentation to ECV. We carried out semi-structured interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation (n=11) and health professionals who manage breech presentation (n=11) recruited from two hospitals in North East England. We used purposive sampling to include women who chose ECV and women who chose planned CS. We analysed data using thematic analysis, comparing between individuals and seeking out disconfirming cases. Four main themes emerged from the data collected during interviews with pregnant women with a breech presentation: ECV as a means of enabling natural birth; concerns about ECV; lay and professional accounts of ECV; and breech presentation as a means of choosing planned CS. Some women's attitudes to ECV were affected by their preferences for how to give birth. Other women chose CS because ECV was not acceptable to them. Two main themes emerged from the interview data about health professionals' attitudes towards ECV: directive counselling and attitudes towards lay beliefs about ECV and breech presentation. Women had a range of attitudes to ECV informed by their preferences for how to give birth; the acceptability of ECV to them; and lay accounts of ECV, which were frequently negative. Most professionals described having a preference for ECV and reported directively counselling women to choose it. Some professionals were dismissive of lay beliefs about ECV. Some key challenges for shared decision making about breech presentation were identified: health professionals counselling women directively about ECV and the differences between evidence-based information about ECV and lay beliefs
McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A
Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of
Full Text Available Obesity in Sweden has doubled to 14% over the last 20 years. New strategies for treatment and prevention are needed. Excessive gestational weight gain has been found to contribute substantially to obesity, and there is a consistent association between postpartum weight retention and obesity later in life. We aimed to explore what factors women perceive as reasons for having substantial postpartum weight retention, to identify areas for new and improved interventions.Qualitative interview study (semi-structured using an emergent design. Fifteen women, with a postpartum weight retention ≥ 10 kg, were interviewed by a trained cognitive therapist. Eight women had pre-pregnancy BMI below 30 kg/m2. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data analysed using inductive manifest content analysis. Salient text passages were extracted, shortened, coded and clustered into categories.Participants reported no knowledge of current gestational weight gain recommendations or of risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes with excessive weight gain or postpartum weight retention. Excessive eating emerged as a common strategy to provide relief of psychological, emotional and physical discomfort, such as depression and morning sickness. Women perceived medical staff as being unconcerned about weight, and postpartum weight loss support was scarce or absent. Some women reported eating more due to a belief that breastfeeding would automatically lead to weight loss.There is a need to raise awareness about risks with unhealthy gestational weight development and postpartum weight retention in women of childbearing age. The common strategy to cope with psychological, emotional or physical discomfort by eating is an important factor to target with intervention. The postpartum year is a neglected period where additional follow-up on weight and weight loss support is strongly indicated.
Oral histories and interviews provide an objective and bias-free method for teaching about nuclear warfare. An annotated listing of oral histories and interviews that can be used with secondary and colleges level students is provided. (RM)
Frielink, N.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
Background Motivational interviewing is a promising method to increase treatment motivation for people with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. The purpose of the present study was to identify how professionals could adapt motivational interviewing techniques for use with
Full Text Available Introduction: Residency coordinators may be overwhelmed when scheduling residency interviews. Applicants often have to coordinate interviews with multiple programs at once, and relying on verbal or email confirmation may delay the process. Our objective was to determine applicant mean time to schedule and satisfaction using online scheduling. Methods: This pilot study is a retrospective analysis performed on a sample of applicants offered interviews at an urban county emergency medicine residency. Applicants were asked their estimated time to schedule with the online system compared to their average time using other methods. In addition, they were asked on a five-point anchored scale to rate their satisfaction. Results: Of 171 applicants, 121 completed the survey (70.8%. Applicants were scheduling an average of 13.3 interviews. Applicants reported scheduling interviews using the online system in mean of 46.2 minutes (median 10, range 1-1800 from the interview offer as compared with a mean of 320.2 minutes (median 60, range 3-2880 for other programs not using this system. This difference was statistically significant. In addition, applicants were more likely to rate their satisfaction using the online system as “satisfied” (83.5% vs 16.5%. Applicants were also more likely to state that they preferred scheduling their interviews using the online system rather than the way other programs scheduled interviews (74.2% vs 4.1% and that the online system aided them coordinating travel arrangements (52.1% vs 4.1%. Conclusion: An online interview scheduling system is associated with higher satisfaction among applicants both in coordinating travel arrangements and in overall satisfaction. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:352-354.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Care pathways can be complex, often involving multiple care providers and as such are recognised as containing multiple opportunities for error. Prospective hazard analysis methods may be useful for evaluating care provided across primary and secondary care pathway boundaries. These methods take into account the views of users (staff and patients when determining where potential hazards may lie. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of prospective hazard analysis methods when assessing quality and safety in care pathways that lie across primary and secondary care boundaries. Methods Development of a process map of the care pathway for patients entering into a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD supported discharge programme. Triangulation of information from: care process mapping, semi-structured interviews with COPD patients, semi-structured interviews with COPD staff, two round modified Delphi study and review of prioritised quality and safety challenges by health care staff. Results Interview themes emerged under the headings of quality of care and patient safety. Quality and safety concerns were mostly raised in relation to communication, for example, communication with other hospital teams. The three highest ranked safety concerns from the modified Delphi review were: difficulties in accessing hospital records, information transfer to primary care and failure to communicate medication changes to primary care. Conclusion This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using mixed methods to review the quality and safety of care in a care pathway. By using multiple research methods it was possible to get a clear picture of service quality variations and also to demonstrate which points in the care pathway had real potential for patient safety incidents or system failures to occur. By using these methods to analyse one condition specific care pathway it was possible to uncover a number of hospital
Full Text Available The main aim of the study was to determine knowledge and use of modem contractive methods among reproductive age group rural women in Zambia. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study of 105 randomly selected rural women. Data was collected using semi-structured interview schedule and analyzed using EPI Info version 6 statistical packages. The findings revealed that 63% of the respondents were within the age group 21-35 years, 65% were married and 64% were peasant farmers. 90% of the respondents had heard about modem contraceptives and their main source of information was the Health worker (62%. 76% of the respondents stated that modem contraceptive methods could be obtained from public health facilities. 56% of the respondents were currently using modem contraceptive methods and 46% were not using modem contraceptive methods. Reasons for non use of contraceptive methods were religious beliefs (50%, partner disapproval (30% and side effects (20%. The results showed a relationship between educational level and use of contraceptives (Chi-square 7.83, df = 3, P < 0.05 and spouse approval or support of contractive methods and use of contraceptive (Chisquare 5.9, df = 2, P < 0.05. Therefore, efforts to promote modem contraceptive use among the rural women should be intensified to overcome barriers to contraceptive use and should involve men.
Niimi, Yukari; Ota, Katsumasa
To provide adequate care, medical professionals have to collect not only medical information but also information that may be related to private aspects of the patient's life. With patients' increasing awareness of information privacy, healthcare providers have to pay attention to the patients' right of privacy. This study aimed to clarify the requirements of the display method of electronic patient record (EPR) screens in consideration of both patients' information privacy concerns and health professionals' information needs. For this purpose, semi-structured group interviews were conducted of 78 medical professionals. They pointed out that partial concealment of information to meet patients' requests for privacy could result in challenges in (1) safety in healthcare, (2) information sharing, (3) collaboration, (4) hospital management, and (5) communication. They believed that EPRs should (1) meet the requirements of the therapeutic process, (2) have restricted access, (3) provide convenient access to necessary information, and (4) facilitate interprofessional collaboration. This study provides direction for the development of display methods that balance the sharing of vital information and protection of patient privacy.
Chen, H Carrie; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Teherani, Arianne; Fogh, Shannon; Kobashi, Brent; ten Cate, Olle
Learning in the clinical workplace can appear to rely on opportunistic teaching. The cognitive apprenticeship model describes assigning tasks based on learner rather than just workplace needs. This study aimed to determine how excellent clinical teachers select clinical learning experiences to support the workplace participation and development of different level learners. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with medical school faculty identified as excellent clinical teachers teaching multiple levels of learners. We explored their approach to teach different level learners and their perceived role in promoting learner development. We performed thematic analysis of the interview transcripts using open and axial coding. We interviewed 19 clinical teachers and identified three themes related to their teaching approach: sequencing of learning experiences, selection of learning activities and teacher responsibilities. All teachers used sequencing as a teaching strategy by varying content, complexity and expectations by learner level. The teachers initially selected learning activities based on learner level and adjusted for individual competencies over time. They identified teacher responsibilities for learner education and patient safety, and used sequencing to promote both. Excellent clinical teachers described strategies for matching available learning opportunities to learners' developmental levels to safely engage learners and improve learning in the clinical workplace.
Jamison, James; Graffy, Jonathan; Mullis, Ricky; Mant, Jonathan; Sutton, Stephen
Medications are highly effective at reducing risk of recurrent stroke, but success is influenced by adherence to treatment. Among survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attack (TIA), adherence to medication is known to be suboptimal. To identify and report barriers to medication adherence for the secondary prevention of stroke/TIA. A qualitative interview study was conducted within general practice surgeries in the East of England, UK. Patients were approached by letter and invited to take part in a qualitative research study. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with survivors of stroke, caregivers, and GPs to explore their perspectives and views around secondary prevention and perceived barriers to medication adherence. Key themes were identified using a grounded theory approach. Verbatim quotes describing the themes are presented here. In total, 28 survivors of stroke, including 14 accompanying caregivers and five GPs, were interviewed. Two key themes were identified. Patient level barriers included ability to self-care, the importance people attach to a stroke event, and knowledge of stroke and medication. Medication level barriers included beliefs about medication and beliefs about how pills work, medication routines, changing medications, and regimen complexity and burden of treatment. Patients who have had a stroke are faced with multiple barriers to taking secondary prevention medications in UK general practice. This research suggests that a collaborative approach between caregivers, survivors, and healthcare professionals is needed to address these barriers and facilitate medication-taking behaviour. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Karlsson, Linn; Gerdle, Björn; Takala, Esa-Pekka; Andersson, Gerhard; Larsson, Britt
The purpose of this study was to describe how patients with chronic pain experience physical activity and exercise (PA&E). This qualitative interview study included 16 women and two men suffering from chronic pain and referred to a multimodal pain rehabilitation program. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. One main theme emerged: "To overcome obstacles and to seize opportunities to be physically active despite chronic pain." This main theme was abstracted from five themes: "Valuing a life with physical activity," "Physical activity and exercise - before and after pain," "A struggle - difficulties and challenges," "The enabling of physical activity," and "In need of continuous and active support." Although these participants valued PA&E, they seldom achieved desirable levels, and performance of PA&E was undermined by difficulties and failure. The discrepancy between the intention to perform physical activity and the physical activity accomplished could be related to motivation, self-efficacy, and action control. The participants desired high-quality interaction with healthcare providers. The findings can be applied to chronic pain rehabilitation that uses PA&E as treatment.
Fitzgerald, Niamh; Molloy, Heather; MacDonald, Fiona; McCambridge, Jim
Few studies of the implementation of alcohol brief interventions (ABI) have been conducted in community settings such as mental health, social work and criminal justice teams. This qualitative interview study sought to explore the impact of training on ABI delivery by staff from a variety of such teams. Fifteen semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with trained practitioners and with managers to explore the use of, perceived need for and approaches to ABI delivery and recording with clients, and compatibility of ABIs with current practice. Interviews were analysed thematically using an inductive approach. Very few practitioners reported delivery of any ABIs following training primarily because they felt ABIs to be inappropriate for their clients. According to practitioners, this was either because they drank too much or too little to benefit. Practitioners reported a range of current activities relating to alcohol, and some felt that their knowledge and confidence were improved following training. One practitioner reported ABI delivery and was considered a training success, while expectations of ABIs did not fit with current practice including assessment procedures for the remainder. Identified barriers to ABI delivery included issues relating to individual practitioners, their teams, current practice and the ABI model. They are likely to be best addressed by strategic team- and setting-specific approaches to implementation, of which training is only one part. © 2014 The Authors. Drug and Alcohol Review published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
Tanner, L A; Silverman, G
Success in teaching a course in medical interviewing requires competence on the part of instructors, who also need training, and have to provide a structured approach. Problems encountered by course coordinators at the Department of Family Medicine, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida have been: (1) a shortage of skilled teachers; (2) inadequate motivation of instructors for teaching the course; (3) differences in content, teacher's style, and outcomes from small groups; and (4) ambiguities in structure or guidelines provided for teachers. The development of a teacher's guide, giving specific objectives and step-by-step methods for teaching significantly improved teacher satisfaction and commitment to the course, as well as student learning.
Nnyanzi, Lawrence A; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Ells, Louisa; Shucksmith, Janet
Rising rates of childhood obesity have become a pressing issue in public health, threatening both the mental and physical well-being of children. Attempts to address this problem are multifaceted, and in England include the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) which assesses weight status in English primary school children in reception class (aged 4-5) and in year 6 (aged 10-11), with results being sent out to parents. However the effectiveness and impact of this routine parental feedback has yet to be fully understood. This paper reports one component of a mixed methods study undertaken in North East England, examining the impact of the feedback letters on parents' understanding and feelings about their child's weight status and whether or not this seemed likely to lead to behaviour change. One-to-one semi-structured interviews (n = 16) were conducted with a sample of parents/guardians after they had received their child's weight results letter. Eight parents/guardians were sub-sampled from the group whose child had been indicated to be overweight or obese and eight were from the group whose child had been indicated to be of ideal weight status. Interviews were conducted until data saturation was reached for both groups. The reactions of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being overweight followed a sequence of behaviours ranging from shock, disgust with the programme, through denial and self-blame to acceptance, worry and intention to seek help. On the other hand, the reaction of parents/guardians whose children were identified as being ideal weight ranged from relief, pleasure and happiness through affirmation and self-congratulation to 'othering'. Whilst overweight and obesity is often portrayed as a medical condition, parents/guardians see it as deeply rooted in their social lives and not in health terms. Parents believe that the causes of overeating and lack of exercise relate closely to the obesogenic environment, particularly the
Background Although there is extensive information about why people participate in clinical trials, studies are largely based on quantitative evidence and typically focus on single conditions. Over the last decade investigations into why people volunteer for health research have become increasingly prominent across diverse research settings, offering variable based explanations of participation patterns driven primarily by recruitment concerns. Therapeutic misconception and altruism have emerged as predominant themes in this literature on motivations to participate in health research. This paper contributes to more recent qualitative approaches to understanding how and why people come to participate in various types of health research. We focus on the experience of participating and the meanings research participation has for people within the context of their lives and their health and illness biographies. Methods This is a qualitative exploratory study informed by grounded theory strategies. Thirty-nine participants recruited in British Columbia and Manitoba, Canada, who had taken part in a diverse range of health research studies participated in semi-structured interviews. Participants described their experiences of health research participation including motivations for volunteering. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparisons. Coding and data management was supported by Nvivo-7. Results A predominant theme to emerge was 'participation in health research to access health services.’ Participants described research as ways of accessing: (1) Medications that offered (hope of) relief; (2) better care; (3) technologies for monitoring health or illness. Participants perceived standard medical care to be a “trial and error” process akin to research, which further blurred the boundaries between research and treatment. Conclusions Our findings have implications for recruitment, informed consent, and the dichotomizing of medical
Mohlman, Jan; Sirota, Karen Gainer; Papp, Laszlo A.; Staples, Alison M.; King, Arlene; Gorenstein, Ethan E.
Over the next few decades the older adult population will increase dramatically, and prevalence rates of psychiatric disorders are also expected to increase in the elderly cohort. These demographic projections highlight the need for diagnostic instruments and methods that are specifically tailored to older adults. The current paper discusses the…
ages. But to concoct a scientific version of Genesis, and build instruments to hunt for the very member who could uncover a mistake in method or interpretation. When his offer failed to turn up an error from something or you didn't, right? I got letters from religious people. About half said, "That's
Memon, A; Wark, L; Holley, A; Bull, R; Koehnken, G
This paper addresses two methodological and theoretical questions relating to the Cognitive Interview (CI), which previous research has found to increase witness recall in interviews. (1) What are the effects of the CI mnemonic techniques when communication techniques are held constant? (2) How do trained interviewers compare with untrained interviewers? In this study, witnesses (college students) viewed a short film clip of a shooting and were questioned by interviewers (research assistants) trained in conducting the CI or a Structured Interview (SI)--similar to the CI except for the "cognitive" components--or by untrained interviewers (UI). The CI and SI groups recalled significantly more correct information compared to the UI group. However they also reported more errors and confabulated details. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed in terms of precisely identifying the CI facilitatory effects and consequent good practice in the forensic setting.
Matthew R. Hunt BSc (PT, PhD
Full Text Available In this paper one aspect of the transition that must be made by experienced clinicians who become involved in conducting qualitative health research is examined, specifically, the differences between clinical and research interviewing. A clinician who is skillful and comfortable carrying out a clinical interview may not initially apprehend the important differences between these categories and contexts of interviewing. This situation can lead to difficulties and diminished quality of data collection because the purpose, techniques and orientation of a qualitative research interview are distinct from those of the clinical interview. Appreciation of these differences between interview contexts and genres, and strategies for addressing challenges associated with these differences, can help clinician researchers to become successful qualitative interviewers.
Hopson, Laura R; Burkhardt, John C; Stansfield, R Brent; Vohra, Taher; Turner-Lawrence, Danielle; Losman, Eve D
The Multiple Mini-Interview (MMI) uses multiple, short-structured contacts to evaluate communication and professionalism. It predicts medical school success better than the traditional interview and application. Its acceptability and utility in emergency medicine (EM) residency selection are unknown. We theorized that participants would judge the MMI equal to a traditional unstructured interview and it would provide new information for candidate assessment. Seventy-one interns from 3 programs in the first month of training completed an eight-station MMI focused on EM topics. Pre- and post-surveys assessed reactions. MMI scores were compared with application data. EM grades correlated with MMI performance (F[1, 66] = 4.18; p interview (mean difference = 1.36; p interview and MMI) was preferred over a MMI alone (mean difference = 1.1; p interview, participants were receptive to a mixed-methods interview. The MMI does correlate with performance on the EM clerkship and therefore can measure important abilities for EM success. Future work will determine whether MMI performance predicts residency performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
I H, Monrad Aas
Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) is an assessment instrument that is known worldwide. It is widely used for rating the severity of illness. Results from evaluations in psychiatry should characterize the patients. Rating of GAF is based on collected information. The aim of the study is to identify the factors involved in collecting information that is relevant for rating GAF, and gaps in knowledge where it is likely that further development would play a role for improved scoring. A literature search was conducted with a combination of thorough hand search and search in the bibliographic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, and Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews. Collection of information for rating GAF depends on two fundamental factors: the sources of information and the methods for information collection. Sources of information are patients, informants, health personnel, medical records, letters of referral and police records about violence and substance abuse. Methods for information collection include the many different types of interview - unstructured, semi-structured, structured, interviews for Axis I and II disorders, semistructured interviews for rating GAF, and interviews of informants - as well as instruments for rating symptoms and functioning, and observation. The different sources of information, and methods for collection, frequently result in inconsistencies in the information collected. The variation in collected information, and lack of a generally accepted algorithm for combining collected information, is likely to be important for rated GAF values, but there is a fundamental lack of knowledge about the degree of importance. Research to improve GAF has not reached a high level. Rated GAF values are likely to be influenced by both the sources of information used and the methods employed for information collection, but the lack of research-based information about these influences is fundamental. Further development of
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between participation in youth sport and adolescent–parent attachment. A mixed-method explanatory sequential study design was applied. In the first phase, 648 adolescent athletes and non-athletes completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment–Revised (IPPA–R. In the second phase, 15 adolescent athletes took part in semi-structured interviews. In the first, quantitative phase, three factors were predictors of adolescents’ attachment to parents and peers: trust, communication, and alienation. In the qualitative follow-up, three themes emerged: adolescents’ attachment to the sport; adolescent–parent attachment; adolescents’ thoughts about parents. The analysis of the adolescent–parent interpersonal relationship revealed that athlete adolescents’ relations and attachment to parents compared to non-athlete adolescents are more intensively expressed in all scales: trust, communication and alienation. Interviews with adolescent athletes revealed that parent–adolescent interpersonal relationship and attachment to parents is more important at the early period of sporting life, and becomes less appreciable or unwelcome when children gain sporting experience. The study indicated that the form and degree of parental involvement in children’s sporting activities impacts the effectiveness of parent–athlete interpersonal relationships. The degree and the form of parental involvement in children’s sports chosen by the parents are not always appropriate and encouraging, and they are not always supportive of adolescents’ opinions.
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
Wood, Fiona; Martin, Sean Michael; Carson-Stevens, Andrew; Elwyn, Glyn; Precious, Elizabeth; Kinnersley, Paul
The need to involve patients more in decisions about their care, the ethical imperative and concerns about ligation and complaints has highlighted the issue of informed consent and how it is obtained. In order for a patient to make an informed decision about their treatment, they need appropriate discussion of the risks and benefits of the treatment. To explore doctors' perspectives of gaining informed consent for routine surgical procedures. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews selected by purposive sampling. Data were analysed thematically. Twenty doctors in two teaching hospitals in the UK. Doctors described that while consent could be taken over a series of consultations, it was common for consent to be taken immediately prior to surgery. Juniors were often taking consent when they were unfamiliar with the procedure. Doctors used a range of communication techniques to inform patients about the procedure and its risks including quantifying risks, personalizing risk, simplification of language and use of drawings. Barriers to effective consent taking were reported to be shortage of time, clinician inexperience and patients' reluctance to be involved. Current consent processes do not appear to be ideal for many doctors. In particular, junior doctors are often not confident taking consent for surgical procedures and require more support to undertake this task. This might include written information for junior staff, observation by senior colleagues when undertaking the task and ward-based communication skills teaching on consent taking. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Igarashi, Toshiko; Wakita, Mariko; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Nakayama, Takeo
midwifery homes (similar to birth centres) are rich in midwifery wisdom and skills that differ from those in hospital obstetrical departments, and a certain percentage of pregnant women prefer birth in these settings. This study aimed to understand the organisation of the perinatal environment considered important by independent midwives in non-hospital settings and to clarify the processes involved. semi-structured qualitative interview study and constant comparative analysis. 14 independent midwives assisting at births in midwifery homes in Japan, and six independent midwives assisting at home births. Osaka, Kyoto, Nara, and Shiga, Japan. midwives assisting at non-hospital births organised the birth environment based on the following four categories: 'an environment where the mother and family are autonomous'; 'a physical environment that facilitates birth'; 'an environment that facilitates the movement of the mother for birth'; and 'scrupulous safety preparation'. These, along with their sub-categories, are presented in this paper. independent midwives considered it important to create a candid relationship between the midwife and the woman/family from the period of pregnancy to facilitate birth in which the woman and her family were autonomous. They also organised a distinctive environment for non-hospital birth, with preparations to guarantee safety. Experiential knowledge and skills played a major part in creating an environment to facilitate birth, and the effectiveness of this needs to be investigated objectively in future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Boström, Maria; Holmgren, Kristina; Sluiter, Judith K; Hagberg, Mats; Grimby-Ekman, Anna
The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of and influences on work ability in young workers related to their work and life situation. In a qualitative study of a strategic sample of 12 young female and 12 young male workers, aged 25-30 years, in work or recently left work, recruited from the 5-year follow-up of a Swedish cohort, semi-structured interviews were performed to explore the experiences of work ability in these young workers. Systematic text condensation inspired by phenomenology was used in the analysis. Work ability was experienced as complex, consisting of four themes, each with three subthemes. To be alert and have energy, to possess sufficient education, skills and working life experience and experience meaningfulness and engagement in work, were perceived to be fundamental for work ability and were seen as the worker's own responsibility. Moreover, work ability can be improved or reduced by the psychosocial work climate, the work organization and the private life. Optimal work ability was experienced when all themes integrated in a positive way. Work ability was experienced as the worker's own responsibility that could be influenced by work circumstances and private life. To promote good work ability among young workers, work ability has to be understood in its specific context. Whether the understanding of work ability found in this study is explicit for the group of young adults needs to be explored in a more general population in further research.
Skogheim, Gry; Hanssen, Tove A
In some economically developed countries, women's choice of birth care and birth place is encouraged. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives who started working in alongside/free-standing midwifery units (AMU/FMU) and their experiences with labour care in this setting. A qualitative explorative design using a phenomenographic approach was used. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten strategically sampled midwives working in midwifery units. The analysis revealed the following five categories of experiences noted by the midwives: mixed emotions and de-learning obstetric unit habits, revitalising midwifery philosophy, alertness and preparedness, presence and patience, and coping with time. Starting to work in an AMU/FMU can be a distressing period for a midwife. First, it may require de-learning the medical approach to birth, and, second, it may entail a revitalisation (and re-learning) of birth care that promotes physiological birth. Midwifery, particularly in FMUs, requires an especially careful assessment of the labouring process, the ability to be foresighted, and capability in emergencies. The autonomy of midwives may be constrained also in AMUs/FMUs. However, working in these settings is also viewed as experiencing "the art of midwifery" and enables revitalisation of the midwifery philosophy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sumiya, Motofumi; Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Ward, Deborah J
To investigate the barriers to and motivators for learning infection prevention and control as identified by midwifery students. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 15 undergraduate midwifery students within one large university. Data were analysed using Framework Analysis. Barriers to good clinical practice were identified by students which were concordant with previous literature related to reasons for non-compliance with infection control precautions. Issues such as competing demands specific to midwifery were also identified. Factors which act as barriers to learning good practice in placements included conflicting information and practices from different staff and placement areas and staff attitudes towards students who tried to comply with precautions. Motivators to good practice included the perceived vulnerability of infants to infection, the role modelling of good practice to new mothers and the monitoring of practice. This study demonstrated that midwifery students perceive barriers and motivators to learning infection prevention and control in their clinical placements. Many of the barriers identified are related to the attitudes and practices of qualified staff. Some of the motivators are related specifically to midwifery practice. Midwives need to be aware of the effects of what is observed in practice on midwifery students and how their practices and attitudes can influence learning both positively and negatively. As healthcare-associated infection and poor compliance with precautions are a global problem, this research should be of benefit to midwives and midwifery educators worldwide in terms of addressing barriers and ensuring better clinical education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cederwall, Carl-Johan; Olausson, Sepideh; Rose, Louise; Naredi, Silvana; Ringdal, Mona
To determine: 1) if the three elements of person-centred care (initiating, working and safeguarding the partnership) were present, and 2) to identify evidence of barriers to person-centred care during prolonged weaning from mechanical ventilation. Secondary analysis of semi structured interviews with 19 critical care nurses using theoretical thematic analysis. This study was conducted in three Swedish intensive care units, one in a regional hospital and two in a university hospital. Three themes and nine subthemes related to person-centred care were identified. The three themes included: 1) 'finding a person behind the patient' related to the 'initiating the partnership' phase, 2) 'striving to restore patient́s sense of control' related to 'working the partnership' phase and 3) 'impact of patient involvement' related to 'safeguarding the partnership' phase of person-centred care'. Additionally a further theme 'barriers to person-centred care' was identified. We found evidence of all three person-centred care routines. Barriers to person-centred care comprised of lack team collaboration and resources. Facilitating patients to actively participate in decision-making during the weaning process may optimise weaning outcomes and warrants further research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Igarashi, Kazue; Miyahara, Motohide
Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one’s own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture. PMID:29408894
Full Text Available Emotions are embedded in culture and play a pivotal role in making friends and interacting with peers. To support the social participation of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD it is essential to understand their emotional life in the context of ethnic and school cultures. We are particularly interested in how anxiety and loneliness are experienced in developing and maintaining friendships in the daily encounters of adolescents with ASD in the specific context of Japanese schools, because these emotions could serve either as facilitators or barriers to social interaction, depending on how individuals manage them. The present qualitative study investigated perceptions of emotions related to friendship in the everyday school life of 11 adolescents with ASD in Japan. Data were collected by means of semi-structured individual interviews, which revealed a wide range of motivations for socialization, limited future prospects to deepen friendships, robust self-awareness of one's own social challenges, and conscious efforts to cope with these challenges. An inductive approach to data analysis resulted in four themes: social motivation, loneliness, anxiety, and distress. To our knowledge this is the first study to uncover the rich emotional life of adolescents with ASD in the context of their friendships in an Asian culture.
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper compares the panel interview (PI performance with the multiple mini interview (MMI performance and indication of behavioural concerns of a sample of medical school applicants. The acceptability of the MMI was also assessed. Materials and methods: All applicants shortlisted for a PI were invited to an MMI. Applicants attended a 30-min PI with two faculty interviewers followed by an MMI consisting of ten 8-min stations. Applicants were assessed on their performance at each MMI station by one faculty. The interviewer also indicated if they perceived the applicant to be a concern. Finally, applicants completed an acceptability questionnaire. Results: From the analysis of 133 (75.1% completed MMI scoresheets, the MMI scores correlated statistically significantly with the PI scores (r=0.438, p=0.001. Both were not statistically associated with sex, age, race, or pre-university academic ability to any significance. Applicants assessed as a concern at two or more stations performed statistically significantly less well at the MMI when compared with those who were assessed as a concern at one station or none at all. However, there was no association with PI performance. Acceptability scores were generally high, and comparison of mean scores for each of the acceptability questionnaire items did not show statistically significant differences between sex and race categories. Conclusions: Although PI and MMI performances are correlated, the MMI may have the added advantage of more objectively generating multiple impressions of the applicant's interpersonal skill, thoughtfulness, and general demeanour. Results of the present study indicated that the MMI is acceptable in a multicultural context.
Glazzard, Jonathan; Overall, Katy
The focus of the study was to explore parental experiences of raising a child with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD). A mixed-method approach consisting of questionnaires and semi-structured interviews was used in order to elicit parental perspectives of raising a child with ASD. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents of…
Scelzo, Anna; Di Somma, Salvatore; Antonini, Paola; Montross, Lori P; Schork, Nicholas; Brenner, David; Jeste, Dilip V
This was a study of positive psychological traits in a group of rural Italians aged 90 to 101 years, and their children or other family members. Mixed-methods quantitative (standardized rating scales) and qualitative (semi-structured interviews) study. Study participants' homes in nine villages in the Cilento region of southern Italy. Twenty-nine nonagenarians and centenarians and 51 family members aged 51-75 years, selected by their general practitioners as a part of a larger study called CIAO (Cilento Initiative on Aging Outcomes). We used published rating scales of mental and physical well-being, resilience, optimism, anxiety, depression, and perceived stress. Qualitative interviews gathered personal narratives of the oldest-old individuals, including migrations, traumatic events, and beliefs. Family members described their impressions about the personality traits of their older relative. Participants age ≥90 years had worse physical health but better mental well-being than their younger family members. Mental well-being correlated negatively with levels of depression and anxiety in both the groups. The main themes that emerged from qualitative interviews included positivity (resilience and optimism), working hard, and bond with family and religion, as described in previously published studies of the oldest old, but also a need for control and love of the land, which appeared to be unique features of this rural population. Exceptional longevity was characterized by a balance between acceptance of and grit to overcome adversities along with a positive attitude and close ties to family, religion, and land, providing purpose in life.
Brobeck, Elisabeth; Bergh, Håkan; Odencrants, Sigrid; Hildingh, Cathrine
The aim of the study was to describe primary healthcare nurses' experiences with motivational interviewing as a method for health promotion practice. A person's lifestyle has a major effect on his or her health. Motivational interviewing is one way of working with lifestyle changes in health promotion practice. The basic plan of motivational interviewing is to help people understand their lifestyle problems and make positive lifestyle changes. Motivational interviewing has been proven to be more effective than conventional methods in increasing patient motivation. This study has a descriptive design and uses a qualitative method. Twenty nurses who worked in primary health care and actively used motivational interviewing in their work were interviewed. Qualitative content analysis was used to process the data. The primary healthcare nurses' experiences with motivational interviewing as a method of health promotion practice demonstrate that motivational interviewing is a demanding, enriching and useful method that promotes awareness and guidance in the care relationship. The results also show that motivational interviewing is a valuable tool for primary healthcare nurses' health promotion practice. This study shows that motivational interviewing places several different demands on nurses who use this method. Those who work with motivational interviewing must make an effort to incorporate this new method to avoid falling back into the former practice of simply giving advice. Maintaining an open mind while implementing motivational interviewing in real healthcare settings is crucial for nurses to increase this method's effectiveness. The nurses in the study had a positive experience with motivational interviewing, which can contribute to the increased use, adaption and development of motivational interviewing among primary healthcare professionals. Increased motivational interviewing knowledge and skills would also contribute to promotion of health lifestyle practices
Lumb, Andrew B; Homer, Matthew; Miller, Amy
Research indicates that some social groups are disadvantaged by medical school selection systems. The stage(s) of a selection process at which this occurs is unknown, but at interview, when applicant and interviewer are face-to-face, there is potential for social bias to occur. We performed a detailed audit of the interview process for a single-entry year to a large UK medical school. Our audit included investigating the personal characteristics of both interviewees and interviewers to find out whether any of these factors, including the degree of social matching between individual pairs of interviewees and interviewers, influenced the interview scores awarded. A total of 320 interviewers interviewed 734 applicants, providing complete data for 2007 interviewer-interviewee interactions. The reliability of the interview process was estimated using generalisability theory at 0.82-0.87. For both interviewers and interviewees, gender, ethnic background, socio-economic group and type of school attended had no influence on the interview scores awarded or achieved. Staff and student interviewer marks did not differ significantly. Although numbers in each group of staff interviewers were too small for formal statistical analysis, there were no obvious differences in marks awarded between different medical specialties or between interviewers with varying amounts of interviewing experience. Our data provide reassurance that the interview does not seem to be the stage of selection at which some social groups are disadvantaged. These results support the continued involvement of senior medical students in the interview process. Despite the lack of evidence that an interview is useful for predicting future academic or clinical success, most medical schools continue to use interviews as a fundamental component of their selection process. Our study has shown that at least this arguably misplaced reliance upon interviewing is not introducing further social bias into the selection
Ellen F. Goldman
Full Text Available Interviewing corporate elites has received limited attention in the methodological literature. Such elites are considered highly difficult to gain access to and, if involved, are believed to use their power asymmetry to dominate the interview. Understanding the context is considered essential to elite access, interview conduct, and interpretation of findings. The healthcare sector provides interesting challenges for in-depth elite interviewing, including historical norms regarding interview access, types, and duration. In this article, the authors report on the strategies used to gain access to and engage healthcare elites who participated in multiple personal interviews using the Seidman in-depth phenomenological interviewing method. Techniques for identifying and recruiting potential participants, scheduling and preparing for the interview, and establishing rapport are described. Concept mapping is presented as a way of fully engaging the elites in the tripartite interview process and facilitating trustworthiness. The lessons learned offer important strategies for those undertaking phenomenological research with elites.
This interview is part of a series of interviews on open science and digital scholarship conducted in 2013 with researchers from various backgrounds. For an analysis of the interviews see: Scheliga, Kaja and Sascha Friesike. 2014. “Putting open science into practice: A social dilemma?” First Monday. Volume 19, Number 9. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v19i9.5381