WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods perform equally

  1. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinkel, Jean, E-mail: jean.rinkel@lnls.br [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Magalhães, Debora; Wagner, Franz [Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS/CNPEM), Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000, Caixa Postal 6192, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael [CERN, Route de Meyrin 385, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-11-21

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discretization error limited by the number of equalization bits.

  2. Equalization method for Medipix3RX

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkel, Jean; Wagner, Franz; Frojdh, Erik; Ballabriga Sune, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new method of threshold equalization for X-ray detectors based on the Medipix3RX ASIC, using electrical pulses to calibrate and correct for the threshold dispersion between pixels. This method involves a coarse threshold tuning, based on two 8 bits global DACs and which sets the range of variation of the threshold values; and a fine-tuning, based on two 5-bits adjustment DACs per pixel. As our fine-tuning approach is based on a state-of-the-art methodology, our coarse tuning relies on an original theoretical model. This model takes into account the noise level of the ASIC, which varies with temperature and received radiation dose. The experimental results using 300 μm Si sensor and Kα fluorescence of Zn show a global energy resolution improvement of 14% compared to previous equalization methods. We compared these results with the best achievable global energy resolution given by the resolution of individual pixels and concluded that the remaining 14% difference was due to the discreti...

  3. Particle Filtering Equalization Method for a Satellite Communication Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amblard Pierre-Olivier

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the use of particle filtering techniques and Monte Carlo methods to tackle the in-line and blind equalization of a satellite communication channel. The main difficulties encountered are the nonlinear distortions caused by the amplifier stage in the satellite. Several processing methods manage to take into account these nonlinearities but they require the knowledge of a training input sequence for updating the equalizer parameters. Blind equalization methods also exist but they require a Volterra modelization of the system which is not suited for equalization purpose for the present model. The aim of the method proposed in the paper is also to blindly restore the emitted message. To reach this goal, a Bayesian point of view is adopted. Prior knowledge of the emitted symbols and of the nonlinear amplification model, as well as the information available from the received signal, is jointly used by considering the posterior distribution of the input sequence. Such a probability distribution is very difficult to study and thus motivates the implementation of Monte Carlo simulation methods. The presentation of the equalization method is cut into two parts. The first part solves the problem for a simplified model, focusing on the nonlinearities of the model. The second part deals with the complete model, using sampling approaches previously developed. The algorithms are illustrated and their performance is evaluated using bit error rate versus signal-to-noise ratio curves.

  4. A feasible DY conjugate gradient method for linear equality constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Can

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a feasible conjugate gradient method for solving linear equality constrained optimization problem. The method is an extension of the Dai-Yuan conjugate gradient method proposed by Dai and Yuan to linear equality constrained optimization problem. It can be applied to solve large linear equality constrained problem due to lower storage requirement. An attractive property of the method is that the generated direction is always feasible and descent direction. Under mild conditions, the global convergence of the proposed method with exact line search is established. Numerical experiments are also given which show the efficiency of the method.

  5. Iterative Refinement Methods for Time-Domain Equalizer Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Brian L

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly used time domain equalizer (TEQ design methods have been recently unified as an optimization problem involving an objective function in the form of a Rayleigh quotient. The direct generalized eigenvalue solution relies on matrix decompositions. To reduce implementation complexity, we propose an iterative refinement approach in which the TEQ length starts at two taps and increases by one tap at each iteration. Each iteration involves matrix-vector multiplications and vector additions with matrices and two-element vectors. At each iteration, the optimization of the objective function either improves or the approach terminates. The iterative refinement approach provides a range of communication performance versus implementation complexity tradeoffs for any TEQ method that fits the Rayleigh quotient framework. We apply the proposed approach to three such TEQ design methods: maximum shortening signal-to-noise ratio, minimum intersymbol interference, and minimum delay spread.

  6. The Effect of Gender Equality on International Soccer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredtmann, Julia; Crede, Carsten J.; Otten, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new estimation strategy that uses the variation in success between the male and the female national soccer team within a country to identify the causal impact of gender equality on women’s soccer performance. In particular, we analyze whether within-country variations...... in labor force participation rates and life expectancies between the genders, which serve as measures for the country’s gender equality, are able to explain diff erences in the international success of male and female national soccer teams. Our results reveal that diff erences in male and female labor...... force participation rates and life expectancies are able to explain the international soccer performance of female teams, but not that of male teams, suggesting that gender equality is an important driver of female sport success....

  7. 29 CFR 1620.15 - Jobs requiring equal skill in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.15 Jobs requiring equal skill in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which the equal pay standard is applicable are jobs requiring equal skill in their performance. Where the amount... another job, the equal pay standard cannot apply even though the jobs may be equal in all other respects...

  8. Blind Channel Equalization with Colored Source Based on Constrained Optimization Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Zhou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsatsanis and Xu have applied the constrained minimum output variance (CMOV principle to directly blind equalize a linear channel—a technique that has proven effective with white inputs. It is generally assumed in the literature that their CMOV method can also effectively equalize a linear channel with a colored source. In this paper, we prove that colored inputs will cause the equalizer to incorrectly converge due to inadequate constraints. We also introduce a new blind channel equalizer algorithm that is based on the CMOV principle, but with a different constraint that will correctly handle colored sources. Our proposed algorithm works for channels with either white or colored inputs and performs equivalently to the trained minimum mean-square error (MMSE equalizer under high SNR. Thus, our proposed algorithm may be regarded as an extension of the CMOV algorithm proposed by Tsatsanis and Xu. We also introduce several methods to improve the performance of our introduced algorithm in the low SNR condition. Simulation results show the superior performance of our proposed methods.

  9. The gender gap in sport performance: equity influences equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capranica, Laura; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Halson, Shona; Myburgh, Kathryn H; Ogasawara, Etsuko; Millard-Stafford, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Sport is recognized as playing a relevant societal role to promote education, health, intercultural dialogue, and the individual development, regardless of an individual's gender, race, age, ability, religion, political affiliation, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic background. Yet, it was not until the 2012 Summer Olympic Games in London that every country's delegation included a female competitor. The gender gap in sport, although closing, remains, due to biological differences affecting performance, but it is also influenced by reduced opportunity and sociopolitical factors that influence full female participation across a range of sports around the world. Until the cultural environment is equitable, scientific discussion related to physiological differences using methods that examine progression in male and female world-record performances is limited. This commentary is intended to provide a forum to discuss issues underlying gender differences in sport performance from a global perspective and acknowledge the influence of cultural and sociopolitical factors that continue to ultimately affect female performance.

  10. 29 CFR 1620.16 - Jobs requiring equal effort in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., however, that men and women are working side by side on a line assembling parts. Suppose further that one... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. 1620.16 Section... EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.16 Jobs requiring equal effort in performance. (a) In general. The jobs to which...

  11. Investigating Diversity and Equality: Methods, Challenges and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out the background and key findings from a number of research projects about diversity and equality at a UK university. The works were commissioned as a result of changes in legislation as well as a genuine concern to investigate the issues of inequity and institutional racism within the university. The paper explores the…

  12. Statistical tests for equal predictive ability across multiple forecasting methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Daniel; Thyrsgaard, Martin

    We develop a multivariate generalization of the Giacomini-White tests for equal conditional predictive ability. The tests are applicable to a mixture of nested and non-nested models, incorporate estimation uncertainty explicitly, and allow for misspecification of the forecasting model as well as ...

  13. An Importance Sampling Simulation Method for Bayesian Decision Feedback Equalizers

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Hanzo, L.

    2000-01-01

    An importance sampling (IS) simulation technique is presented for evaluating the lower-bound bit error rate (BER) of the Bayesian decision feedback equalizer (DFE) under the assumption of correct decisions being fed back. A design procedure is developed, which chooses appropriate bias vectors for the simulation density to ensure asymptotic efficiency of the IS simulation.

  14. Performance Evaluation Criterion at Equal Pumping Power for Enhanced Performance Heat Transfer Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Karwa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing equations for the thermal performance evaluation, at equal pumping power for the artificially roughened and smooth surfaced multitube and rectangular duct heat exchangers, have been critically reviewed because the literature survey indicates that a large number of researchers have not interpreted these equations correctly. Three of the most widely used equations have been restated with clearly defined constraints and conditions for their application. Two new equations have been developed for the design constraints not covered earlier.

  15. Performance analysis of a pre-FFT equalizer design for DVB-T

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Nix, AR; Bull, David

    1999-01-01

    Conventional OFDM employs a guard interval to combat delay spread distortion of transmitted data. This reduces the efficiency of the OFDM transmission. The combined OFDM-Equalization strategy described here employs an Adaptive Equalizer to combat delay spread distortion and thereby facilitates the use of very short guard intervals and thus a more efficient OFDM modulation scheme. The OFDM receiver and the equalizer are described and performance is simulated for transmission in a multipath rad...

  16. Volume Equalization Method for Land Grading Design: Uniform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    muğla üniversitesi

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... *Corresponding author. E-mail: ... Land grading has been in practice for a long time, but land-grading ... method was based on least-squares theory and he showed its ... Srinisava (1996) developed a nonlinear optimization.

  17. Securing Gender Equality through a Nexus of Energy Policy Performance and Relative Political Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins-Ozuagiemhe, Andrea Christen

    This dissertation presents what is believed to be the first empirical study that measures the effect of increasing access to modern household energy sources upon advancing gender equality within developing countries. As a powerful and fundamental public infrastructural socio-economic building block, improved access to modern energy in developing countries delivers the necessary economic ingredient of time as a major component of household production and consumption and captures the interdependence between market and household economies. Thus, because it has been empirically proven that men and women differ in their utilization of household energy with women spending more time engaged in non-market household labor than men, improving access to modern household energy in developing countries, especially in rural areas, theoretically would disproportionately affect women's lives. Essentially, the element of "time" not only extends the day for women to use towards more economically and educationally productive activities, but also lessens the burden of domestic chores from women with technological advancements in more time-efficient household appliances and cleaner modern energy sources. This dissertation introduces gender differentiation in a model in the form of a gender relative status composite measure comparing socio-economic achievements in secondary education, life expectancy, and labor force participation rates by varying degree of demographic transition, thereby, measuring the effect of improved access to modern household energy upon overall gender equality. Fixed effects panel regressions employing a Driscoll-Kraay non-parametric covariance matrix, and estimated and interpreted adjusted predictions and marginal effects of the two-way interaction between a country's available access to residential electric power (kWh per capita) and the level of relative political performance against predicted values of gender relative status are employed. The models confirm

  18. A novel active equalization method for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Chenbin; Chen, Zonghai; Xie, Jing; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Build an active equalization method for lithium-ion batteries. • A bidirectional transformer topology is introduced for active equalization. • The PF method is used for cell SOC estimation to eliminate drift noise of current. • The SOC based equalization algorithm is analyzed with different SOC bounds. - Abstract: Cell inconsistency is inevitable due to manufacturing constraint. Therefore, cell equalization is essentially required. In this paper, we propose a novel active equalization method based on the remaining capacity of cells which is feasible for lithium-ion battery packs in electric vehicles (EVs). The cell models are established based on a combined electrochemical model of lithium-ion batteries. The remaining capacity and state-of-charge (SOC) of cells are observed at the beginning of equalization. The particle filter (PF) method is employed to estimate the cell SOCs during equalization in order to eliminate the drift noise of the current sensor. The first high-SOC cell discharge (FHCD) and first low-SOC cell charge (FLCC) equalization algorithms are proposed and compared with 1% and 3% SOC bounds, respectively. The validation experiment results have shown that the proposed algorithm is suitable for equalization of lithium-ion batteries in EVs

  19. Experimental method research on neutron equal dose-equivalent detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1995-10-01

    The design principles of neutron dose-equivalent meter for neutron biological equi-effect detection are studied. Two traditional principles 'absorption net principle' and 'multi-detector principle' are discussed, and on the basis of which a new theoretical principle for neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' has been put forward to place high hope on both increasing neutron sensitivity of this type of meters and overcoming the shortages of the two traditional methods. In accordance with this new principle a brand-new model of neutron dose-equivalent meter BH3105 has been developed. Its neutron sensitivity reaches 10 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), 18∼40 times higher than that of all the same kinds of meters 0.23∼0.56 cps/(μSv·h -1 ), available today at home and abroad and the specifications of the newly developed meter reach or surpass the levels of the same kind of meters. Therefore the new theoretical principle of neutron biological equi-effect detection--'absorption stick principle' is proved to be scientific, advanced and useful by experiments. (3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  20. Dispersive traveling wave solutions of the Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations via mathematical methods and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    The Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations are used as a model in partial differential equations for the simulation of one-dimensional wave transmission in nonlinear media with dispersion processes. In this article we have employed extend simple equation method and the exp(-varphi(ξ)) expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions of equal width and modified equal width equations. The obtained results are novel and have numerous applications in current areas of research in mathematical physics. It is exposed that our method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving different kind nonlinear wave problems.

  1. High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Nanou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.

  2. A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, U.L.

    1989-09-01

    We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs

  3. Finding-equal regression method and its application in predication of U resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Huimo

    1995-03-01

    The commonly adopted deposit model method in mineral resources predication has two main part: one is model data that show up geological mineralization law for deposit, the other is statistics predication method that accords with characters of the data namely pretty regression method. This kind of regression method may be called finding-equal regression, which is made of the linear regression and distribution finding-equal method. Because distribution finding-equal method is a data pretreatment which accords with advanced mathematical precondition for the linear regression namely equal distribution theory, and this kind of data pretreatment is possible of realization. Therefore finding-equal regression not only can overcome nonlinear limitations, that are commonly occurred in traditional linear regression or other regression and always have no solution, but also can distinguish outliers and eliminate its weak influence, which would usually appeared when Robust regression possesses outlier in independent variables. Thus this newly finding-equal regression stands the best status in all kind of regression methods. Finally, two good examples of U resource quantitative predication are provided

  4. Performative Schizoid Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2016-01-01

    is presented and an example is provided of a first exploratory engagement with it. The method is used in a specific project Becoming Iris, making inquiry into arts-based knowledge creation during a three month visiting scholarship at a small, independent visual art academy. Using the performative schizoid......A performative schizoid method is developed as a method contribution to performance as research. The method is inspired by contemporary research in the human and social sciences urging experimentation and researcher engagement with creative and artistic practice. In the article, the method...... method in Becoming Iris results in four audio-visual and performance-based productions, centered on an emergent theme of the scholartist as a bird in borrowed feathers. Interestingly, the moral lesson of the fable about the vain jackdaw, who dresses in borrowed peacock feathers and becomes a castout...

  5. How Equalization Techniques Affect the TCP Performance of MC-CDMA Systems in Correlated Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Leonardi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of several equalization techniques for multicarrier code division multiple access systems on the performance at both lower and upper layers (i.e., physical and TCP layers. Classical techniques such as maximal ratio combining, equal gain combining, orthogonality restoring combining, minimum mean square error, as well as a partial equalization (PE are investigated in time- and frequency-correlated fading channels with various numbers of interferers. Their impact on the performance at upper level is then studied. The results are obtained through an integrated simulation platform carefully reproducing all main aspects affecting the quality of service perceived by the final user, allowing an investigation of the real gain produced by signal processing techniques at TCP level.

  6. Application of the Exp-function method to the equal-width wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biazar, J; Ayati, Z

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the Exp-function method is used to find an exact solution of the equal-width wave (EW) equation. The method is straightforward and concise, and its applications are promising. It is shown that the Exp-function method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a very effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving the EW equation.

  7. Effects of equal channel angular extrusion on microstructure, strength and ballistic performance of AA5754 plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Hong, Chuanshi; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure, hardness, tensile properties and ballistic performance have been investigated in thick plates of the AA5754 alloy both in a coarse-grained as-received condition and after 4 passes of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) conducted at elevated temperatures. It is found that ECAE...

  8. Predicting Eight Grade Students' Equation Solving Performances via Concepts of Variable and Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Erhan

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on how two algebraic concepts- equality and variable- predicted 8th grade students' equation solving performance. In this study, predictive design as a correlational research design was used. Randomly selected 407 eight-grade students who were from the central districts of a city in the central region of Turkey participated in…

  9. Indefinitely preconditioned inexact Newton method for large sparse equality constrained non-linear programming problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukšan, Ladislav; Vlček, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (1998), s. 219-247 ISSN 1070-5325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/96/0918 Keywords : nonlinear programming * sparse problems * equality constraints * truncated Newton method * augmented Lagrangian function * indefinite systems * indefinite preconditioners * conjugate gradient method * residual smoothing Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.741, year: 1998

  10. A NOISE ADAPTIVE FUZZY EQUALIZATION METHOD FOR PROCESSING SOLAR EXTREME ULTRAVIOLET IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druckmueller, M., E-mail: druckmuller@fme.vutbr.cz [Institute of Mathematics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-15

    A new image enhancement tool ideally suited for the visualization of fine structures in extreme ultraviolet images of the corona is presented in this paper. The Noise Adaptive Fuzzy Equalization method is particularly suited for the exceptionally high dynamic range images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. This method produces artifact-free images and gives significantly better results than methods based on convolution or Fourier transform which are often used for that purpose.

  11. Performance evaluation of nuclear grade filters for the Trupact-I pressure equalization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, R.P.; Joseph, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    The performance of high-efficiency-particulate-air and ultra-low- penetration-air filters subjected to extreme environments of temperature, shock, pressure, and particulate loading was evaluated in a test program at the Sandia National Laboratories. The test program was initiated to evaluate the feasibility of using commercially available nuclear-grade filters in the filtered pressure equalization system of a contact-handled transuranic waste transport system, called TRUPACT-I. The filtered pressure equalization system of TRUPACT-I assures containment of the activity within the limits permitted by federal regulations and simultaneously equalizes the pressure between the cavity of the packaging and the environment, and minimizes the buildup of radiolytically generated gases. The filters were exposed to temperatures, pressures and stresses that exceed expected environments in normal and accident conditions of transport. The performance of the test filters was determined by measuring and quantifying filter efficiency and the Darcy constant. In addition, the integrity of the filter housing was evaluated using non-destructive helium leak testing. The details of the test program and results obtained from the tests are presented in this paper

  12. Adaptive lattice decision-feedback equalizers - Their performance and application to time-variant multipath channnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, F.; Proakis, J. G.

    1985-04-01

    This paper presents two types of adaptive lattice decision-feedback equalizers (DFE), the least squares (LS) lattice DFE and the gradient lattice DFE. Their performance has been investigated on both time-invariant and time-variant channels through computer simulations and compared to other kinds of equalizers. An analysis of the self-noise and tracking characteristics of the LS DFE and the DFE employing the Widrow-Hoff least mean square adaptive algorithm (LMS DFE) are also given. The analysis and simulation results show that the LS lattice DFE has the faster initial convergence rate, while the gradient lattice DFE is computationally more efficient. The main advantages of the lattice DFE's are their numerical stability, their computational efficiency, the flexibility to change their length, and their excellent capabilities for tracking rapidly time-variant channels.

  13. Comparison of tissue equalization, and premium view post-processing methods in full field digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Baoying, E-mail: chenby128@yahoo.co [Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xinsi Road 1, 710038 Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Wang Wei; Huang Jin; Zhao Ming; Cui Guangbin [Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xinsi Road 1, 710038 Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Xu Jing [Cell Engineering Research Centre and Department of Cell Biology, State Key Laboratory of Cancer Biology, Fourth Military Medical University, Changle West Road 169, 710032 Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Guo Wei; Du Pang; Li Pei [Department of Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xinsi Road 1, 710038 Xi' an, Shaanxi (China); Yu Jun, E-mail: pclamper@163.co [Department of Preclinical Experiment Center, Fourth Military Medical University, Changle West Road 169, 710032 Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2010-10-15

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic abilities of 2 post-processing methods provided by GE Senographe DS system, tissue equalization (TE) and premium view (PV) in full field digital mammography (FFDM). Materials and methods: In accordance with the ethical standards of the World Medical Association, this study was approved by regional ethics committee and signed informed patient consents were obtained. We retrospectively reviewed digital mammograms from 101 women (mean age, 47 years; range, 23-81 years) in the modes of TE and PV, respectively. Three radiologists, fully blinded to the post-processing methods, all patient clinical information and histologic results, read images by using objective image interpretation criteria for diagnostic information end points such as lesion border delineation, definition of disease extent, visualization of internal and surrounding morphologic features of the lesions. Also, overall diagnostic impression in terms of lesion conspicuity, detectability and diagnostic confidence was assessed. Between-group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Readers 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated significant overall better impression of PV in 29, 27, and 24 patients, compared with that for TE in 12, 13, and 11 patients, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) better impression of PV was also demonstrated for diagnostic information end points. Importantly, PV proved to be more sensitive than TE while detecting malignant lesions in dense breast rather than benign lesions and malignancy in non-dense breast (p < 0.01). Conclusion: PV compared with TE provides marked better diagnostic information in FFDM, particularly for patients with malignancy in dense breast.

  14. Comparison of tissue equalization, and premium view post-processing methods in full field digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Baoying; Wang Wei; Huang Jin; Zhao Ming; Cui Guangbin; Xu Jing; Guo Wei; Du Pang; Li Pei; Yu Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To retrospectively evaluate the diagnostic abilities of 2 post-processing methods provided by GE Senographe DS system, tissue equalization (TE) and premium view (PV) in full field digital mammography (FFDM). Materials and methods: In accordance with the ethical standards of the World Medical Association, this study was approved by regional ethics committee and signed informed patient consents were obtained. We retrospectively reviewed digital mammograms from 101 women (mean age, 47 years; range, 23-81 years) in the modes of TE and PV, respectively. Three radiologists, fully blinded to the post-processing methods, all patient clinical information and histologic results, read images by using objective image interpretation criteria for diagnostic information end points such as lesion border delineation, definition of disease extent, visualization of internal and surrounding morphologic features of the lesions. Also, overall diagnostic impression in terms of lesion conspicuity, detectability and diagnostic confidence was assessed. Between-group comparisons were performed with Wilcoxon signed rank test. Results: Readers 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated significant overall better impression of PV in 29, 27, and 24 patients, compared with that for TE in 12, 13, and 11 patients, respectively (p < 0.05). Significant (p < 0.05) better impression of PV was also demonstrated for diagnostic information end points. Importantly, PV proved to be more sensitive than TE while detecting malignant lesions in dense breast rather than benign lesions and malignancy in non-dense breast (p < 0.01). Conclusion: PV compared with TE provides marked better diagnostic information in FFDM, particularly for patients with malignancy in dense breast.

  15. Equality = Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khaled, Rilla

    2011-01-01

    A number of design and development methods, including participatory design and agile software development, are premised on an underlying assumption of equality amongst relevant stakeholders such as designers, developers, product owners, and end users. Equality, however, is not a straightforwardly...... an ethnography conducted during the workshop, including location, cultural and classroom hierarchies, gender, “girl games”, stakeholders and boundaries, and risk mitigation....

  16. Device and Method for Continuously Equalizing the Charge State of Lithium Ion Battery Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Paul D. (Inventor); Martin, Mark N. (Inventor); Roufberg, Lewis M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method of equalizing charge states of individual cells in a battery includes measuring a previous cell voltage for each cell, measuring a previous shunt current for each cell, calculating, based on the previous cell voltage and the previous shunt current, an adjusted cell voltage for each cell, determining a lowest adjusted cell voltage from among the calculated adjusted cell voltages, and calculating a new shunt current for each cell.

  17. Runge-Kutta Integration of the Equal Width Wave Equation Using the Method of Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Banaja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The equal width (EW equation governs nonlinear wave phenomena like waves in shallow water. Numerical solution of the (EW equation is obtained by using the method of lines (MOL based on Runge-Kutta integration. Using von Neumann stability analysis, the scheme is found to be unconditionally stable. Solitary wave motion and interaction of two solitary waves are studied using the proposed method. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the generated scheme. Accuracy of the proposed method is discussed by computing the L2 and L∞ error norms. The results are found in good agreement with exact solution.

  18. Experimental implementation of a low-frequency global sound equalization method based on free field propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Lydolf, Morten

    2007-01-01

    An experimental implementation of a global sound equalization method in a rectangular room using active control is described in this paper. The main purpose of the work has been to provide experimental evidence that sound can be equalized in a continuous three-dimensional region, the listening zone......, which occupies a considerable part of the complete volume of the room. The equalization method, based on the simulation of a progressive plane wave, was implemented in a room with inner dimensions of 2.70 m x 2.74 m x 2.40 m. With this method,the sound was reproduced by a matrix of 4 x 5 loudspeakers...... in one of the walls. After traveling through the room, the sound wave was absorbed on the opposite wall, which had a similar arrangement of loudspeakers, by means of active control. A set of 40 digital FIR filters was used to modify the original input signal before it was fed to the loudspeakers, one...

  19. An Equal-Order DG Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cockburn, Bernardo

    2008-12-20

    We introduce and analyze a discontinuous Galerkin method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is based on finite element spaces of the same polynomial order for the approximation of the velocity and the pressure. Stability of this equal-order approach is ensured by a pressure stabilization term. A simple element-by-element post-processing procedure is used to provide globally divergence-free velocity approximations. For small data, we prove the existence and uniqueness of discrete solutions and carry out an error analysis of the method. A series of numerical results are presented that validate our theoretical findings. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  20. Experimental investigation on the performance of an improved equal channel angular pressing die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surendarnath, S; Sankaranarayanasamy, K; Ravisankar, B

    2014-01-01

    A major problem in Equal Channel Angular Pressing is die design. Friction plays an important role in the extrusion process. In the present work, Aluminium 6082 alloy was processed through a modified ECAP die originally proposed by Mathieu et al. in 2004 [1] and the performance of the die was analyzed. The channel angle was φ=90° and corner angle ψ=20°. Mechanical properties, micro hardness measurement and crystalline size (D) were measured from the extruded specimen for both the conventional and new die designs. It has been found that the new die samples displayed better results than the conventional ones. The newly designed die reduced the effect of friction on the work piece, it increased the tensile strength, the hardness of the material and achieved better grain refinement

  1. Performance of equal gain combining with quantized phases in rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rizvi, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the error probability of equal gain combining with quantized channel phase compensation for binary phase shift keying signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. The probability density and characteristic functions of the combined signal amplitude are derived and used to compute the analytic expressions for the bit error probability in dependance of the number of quantization levels L, the number of diversity branches N-R and the average received signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis is utilized to outline the trade-off between N-R and L and to compare the performance with non-coherent binary frequency shift keying and differential binary phase shift keying schemes under diversity reception. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. From metamorphosis to maturity in complex life cycles: equal performance of different juvenile life history pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benedikt R; Hödl, Walter; Schaub, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Performance in one stage of a complex life cycle may affect performance in the subsequent stage. Animals that start a new stage at a smaller size than conspecifics may either always remain smaller or they may be able to "catch up" through plasticity, usually elevated growth rates. We study how size at and date of metamorphosis affected subsequent performance in the terrestrial juvenile stage and lifetime fitness of spadefoot toads (Pelobates fuscus). We analyzed capture-recapture data of > 3000 individuals sampled during nine years with mark-recapture models to estimate first-year juvenile survival probabilities and age-specific first-time breeding probabilities of toads, followed by model selection to assess whether these probabilities were correlated with size at and date of metamorphosis. Males attained maturity after two years, whereas females reached maturity 2-4 years after metamorphosis. Age at maturity was weakly correlated with metamorphic traits. In both sexes, first-year juvenile survival depended positively on date of metamorphosis and, in males, also negatively on size at metamorphosis. In males, toads that metamorphosed early at a small size had the highest probability to reach maturity. However, because very few toadlets metamorphosed early, the vast majority of male metamorphs had a very similar probability to reach maturity. A matrix projection model constructed for females showed that different juvenile life history pathways resulted in similar lifetime fitness. We found that the effects of date of and size at metamorphosis on different juvenile traits cancelled each other out such that toads that were small or large at metamorphosis had equal performance. Because the costs and benefits of juvenile life history pathways may also depend on population fluctuations, ample phenotypic variation in life history traits may be maintained.

  3. A new method of equalizing the optical power by a liquid crystal-based tunable encoder/decoder in SAC-OCDMA PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, He; Qiao, Yang; Zhao, Yanbin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Meilin; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Bilei

    2015-11-01

    A new method of equalizing the optical power is proposed to enhance the performance in the SAC OCDMA PON. The method is to use a tunable liquid crystal-based tunable encoder for further development by voltage controlling individually, so it is achieved in one device for encoding and power equalization, the experimental results show that the system BER and eye diagram are greatly improved. Since the method does not use additional devices in the condition, the system are lower complexity and cost-effective.

  4. Performance analysis of a pre-FFT equalizer design for DVB-T

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Nix, AR; Bull, David

    1999-01-01

    Conventional OFDM systems employ a guard interval to combat delay spread distortion of the transmitted data. This reduces the efficiency of the OFDM transmission. A combined OFDM-equalization reception strategy is presented in this paper. This strategy employs an adaptive equalizer to combat delay spread distortion instead of a guard interval. This facilitates the use of very short guard intervals and thus the transmission efficiency of the OFDM modulation scheme is improved. This paper prese...

  5. The impact of FFT size on the performance of a combined OFDM-equalization radio modem

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, SMD; Nix, AR; Bull, DR

    1999-01-01

    Conventional OFDM systems employ a guard interval to combat delay spread distortion of transmitted data. This reduces the efficiency of the OFDM transmission. A combined OFDM-equalization transmission strategy is presented in this paper. This strategy employs an adaptive equalizer to combat delay spread distortion instead of a guard interval. This facilitates the use of very short guard intervals and thus the efficiency of the OFDM transmission is improved. This paper presents the combined OF...

  6. From equality to 'equality'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panov Slobodan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pursuant to lucid statement of a Serbian academician that the ideals of mankind have always been justice, freedom, virtues and that life was less noble, the work analyses whether there is both 'equality', as morosofo exist (stupid wise men, profitable altruists and evil humanists and admirers of freedom of monistic thinking. Is there a dialectics: from equality to 'equality'? At the time of profitable altruists, evil humanists and excellent actors of virtues, it is worthwhile to remember Nietzsche's attitude about the pose of morality: subordination to morality may be slavish, proud, sordid, and resigned. In theological literature it is said that both patriarchate and matriarchate are the same denial of thankful supplemental gifts to a man and a woman. There is no love and sacrifice in government. There is no fortune in slavery, but there is no happiness in mastery either. Can a 'hymn' of individualism, with empty concepts and legal formulations that encourage and sharpen the conflict of family members be an introductory tact of the dictatorship ballade? Is the projection of conflicts into a family and micro-environment a project against emotional solidarity, strength, independence, courage and will for freedom? If we cannot rely upon family are we strong enough to confront totalitarian in democratic?.

  7. Chip-scale pattern modification method for equalizing residual layer thickness in nanoimprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Sung-Won; Suzuki, Kenta; Hiroshima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    A software program for modifying a mold design to obtain a uniform residual layer thickness (RLT) distribution has been developed and its validity was verified by UV-nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) simulation. First, the effects of granularity (G) on both residual layer uniformity and filling characteristics were characterized. For a constant complementary pattern depth and a granularity that was sufficiently larger than the minimum pattern width, filling time decreased with the decrease in granularity. For a pattern design with a wide density range and an irregular distribution, the choice of a small granularity was not always a good strategy since the etching depth required for a complementary pattern occasionally exceptionally increased with the decrease in granularity. On basis of the results obtained, the automated method was applied to a chip-scale pattern modification. Simulation results showed a marked improvement in residual layer thickness uniformity for a capacity-equalized (CE) mold. For the given conditions, the standard deviation of RLT decreased in the range from 1/3 to 1/5 in accordance with pattern designs.

  8. A PCA and ELM Based Adaptive Method for Channel Equalization in MFL Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenning Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic flux leakage (MFL as an efficient method for pipeline flaw detection plays important role in pipeline safety. This nondestructive test technique assesses the health of the buried pipeline. The signal is gathered by an array of hall-effect sensors disposed at the magnetic neutral plane of a pair of permanent magnet in the pipeline inspection gauge (PIG clinging to the inner surface of the pipe wall. The magnetic flux measured by the sensors reflects the health condition of the pipe. The signal is influenced by not only the condition of the pipe, but also by the lift-off value of the sensors and various properties of electronic component. The consistency of the position of the sensors is almost never satisfied and each sensor measures differently. In this paper, a new scheme of channel equalization is proposed for MFL signal in order to correct sensor misalignments, which eventually improves accuracy of defect characterization. The algorithm proposed in this paper is adaptive to the effects of error on the disposition of the sensor due to manufacturing imperfections and movements of the sensors. The algorithm is tested by data acquired from an experimental pipeline. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. 29 CFR 1620.17 - Jobs requiring equal responsibility in performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the higher rate to both men and women who are called upon from time to time to assume such supervisory... rates to be paid to an employee of the opposite sex in the group who does not have an equal... either a man or a woman) is authorized and required to determine whether to accept payment for purchases...

  10. Work-Life Balance Practices, Performance-Related Pay, and Gender Equality in the Workplace: Evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KATO Takao; KODAMA Naomi

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses unique firm-level panel data from Japan and provides new evidence on the possible impact on gender equality in the workplace of human resources management (HRM) practices. Specifically we consider a number of work-life balance (WLB) practices that are developed in part to enhance gender equality as well as performance-related pay (PRP) that is one of the most often discussed changes in the Japanese HRM system in recent years. Our fixed effect estimates indicate that daycare se...

  11. A critical assessment of the equal environment assumption of the twin method for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roar eFosse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical twin method (CTM is central to the view that schizophrenia is ~80% heritable. The CTM rests on the equal environments assumption (EEA that identical and fraternal twin pairs experience equivalent trait relevant environmental exposures. The EEA has not been directly tested for schizophrenia with measures of child social adversity, which is particularly etiologically relevant to the disorder. However, if child social adversity is more similar in identical than fraternal pairs in the general twin population, the EEA is unlikely to be valid for schizophrenia, a question which we tested in this study. Using results from prior twin studies, we tested if intraclass correlations for the following five categories of child social adversity are larger in identical than fraternal twins: bullying, sexual abuse, physical maltreatment, emotional neglect and abuse, and general trauma. Eleven relevant studies that encompassed 9119 twin pairs provided 24 comparisons of intraclass correlations, which we grouped into the five social exposure categories. Fisher’s z-test revealed significantly higher correlations in identical than fraternal pairs for each exposure category (z ≥ 3.53, p <.001. The difference remained consistent across gender, study site (country, sample size, whether psychometric instruments were used, whether interviewing was proximate or distant to the exposures, and whether informants were twins or third persons. Combined with other evidence that the differential intraclass correlation for child social adversity cannot be explained by evocative gene-environment covariation, our results indicate that the CTM does not provide any valid indication of genomic effects in schizophrenia.

  12. Extension of Modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Method to Linear Equality Constraints Minimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the Rosen gradient projection method with the two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient method, we propose a two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient projection method for solving linear equality constraints optimization problems. The proposed method possesses some attractive properties: (1 search direction generated by the proposed method is a feasible descent direction; consequently the generated iterates are feasible points; (2 the sequences of function are decreasing. Under some mild conditions, we show that it is globally convergent with Armijio-type line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.

  13. Resampling-based methods in single and multiple testing for equality of covariance/correlation matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; DeGruttola, Victor

    2012-06-22

    Traditional resampling-based tests for homogeneity in covariance matrices across multiple groups resample residuals, that is, data centered by group means. These residuals do not share the same second moments when the null hypothesis is false, which makes them difficult to use in the setting of multiple testing. An alternative approach is to resample standardized residuals, data centered by group sample means and standardized by group sample covariance matrices. This approach, however, has been observed to inflate type I error when sample size is small or data are generated from heavy-tailed distributions. We propose to improve this approach by using robust estimation for the first and second moments. We discuss two statistics: the Bartlett statistic and a statistic based on eigen-decomposition of sample covariance matrices. Both statistics can be expressed in terms of standardized errors under the null hypothesis. These methods are extended to test homogeneity in correlation matrices. Using simulation studies, we demonstrate that the robust resampling approach provides comparable or superior performance, relative to traditional approaches, for single testing and reasonable performance for multiple testing. The proposed methods are applied to data collected in an HIV vaccine trial to investigate possible determinants, including vaccine status, vaccine-induced immune response level and viral genotype, of unusual correlation pattern between HIV viral load and CD4 count in newly infected patients.

  14. Performance of an optical equalizer in a 10 G wavelength converting optical access network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendinueta, José Manuel D; Cao, Bowen; Thomsen, Benn C; Mitchell, John E

    2011-12-12

    A centralized optical processing unit (COPU) that functions both as a wavelength converter (WC) and optical burst equaliser in a 10 Gb/s wavelength-converting optical access network is proposed and experimentally characterized. This COPU is designed to consolidate drifting wavelengths generated with an uncooled laser in the upstream direction into a stable wavelength channel for WDM backhaul transmission and to equalize the optical loud/soft burst power in order to relax the burst-mode receiver dynamic range requirement. The COPU consists of an optical power equaliser composed of two cascaded SOAs followed by a WC. Using an optical packet generator and a DC-coupled PIN-based digital burst-mode receiver, the COPU is characterized in terms of payload-BER for back-to-back and backhaul transmission distances of 22, 40, and 62 km. We show that there is a compromise between the receiver sensitivity and overload points that can be optimized tuning the WC operating point for a particular backhaul fiber transmission distance. Using the optimized settings, sensitivities of -30.94, -30.17, and -27.26 dBm with overloads of -9.3, -5, and >-5 dBm were demonstrated for backhaul transmission distances of 22, 40 and 62 km, respectively. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  15. Improving SC-FDMA performance by Turbo Equalization in UTRA LTE Uplink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berardinelli, Gilberto; Priyanto, Basuki Endah; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2008-01-01

    of UTRA Long Term Evolution (LTE) Uplink. The performance is evaluated for 1x2 Single Input Multiple Output (SIMO) antenna configuration in a 6 paths Typical Urban (TU-06) channel profile. For assessment purpose, the results are compared with SC-FDMA MMSE and OFDMA schemes. Simulation results show...

  16. An analysis on equal width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding-based discretization and its performance resemblances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Meng-Hui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biometric discretization extracts a binary string from a set of real-valued features per user. This representative string can be used as a cryptographic key in many security applications upon error correction. Discretization performance should not degrade from the actual continuous features-based classification performance significantly. However, numerous discretization approaches based on ineffective encoding schemes have been put forward. Therefore, the correlation between such discretization and classification has never been made clear. In this article, we aim to bridge the gap between continuous and Hamming domains, and provide a revelation upon how discretization based on equal-width quantization and linearly separable subcode encoding could affect the classification performance in the Hamming domain. We further illustrate how such discretization can be applied in order to obtain a highly resembled classification performance under the general Lp distance and the inner product metrics. Finally, empirical studies conducted on two benchmark face datasets vindicate our analysis results.

  17. DOES GENDER EQUALITY LEAD TO BETTER-PERFORMING ECONOMIES? A BAYESIAN CAUSAL MAP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda YÜCEL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the existence of relationships between gender inequalities –represented by the components of the World Economic Forum (WEF Global Gender Gap Index– and the major macroeconomic indicators. The relationships within gender inequalities in education, the labour market, health and the political arena, and between gender inequalities and gross macroeconomic aggregates were modelled with the Bayesian Causal Map, an effective tool that is used to analyze cause-effect relations and conditional dependencies between variables. A data set of 128 countries during the period 2007–2011 is used. Findings reveal that some inequalities have high levels of interaction with each other. In addition, eradicating gender inequalities is found to be associated with better economic performance, mainly in the form of higher gross domestic product growth, investment, and competitiveness.

  18. The Constitution, waste facility performance standards, and radioactive waste classification: Is equal protection possible?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eye, R.V. [Kansas Dept. of Health and Environment, Topeka, KS (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The process for disposal of so-called low-level radioactive waste is deadlocked at present. Supporters of the proposed near-surface facilities assert that their designs will meet minimum legal and regulatory standards currently in effect. Among opponents there is an overarching concern that the proposed waste management facilities will not isolate radiation from the biosphere for an adequate length of time. This clash between legal acceptability and a perceived need to protect the environment and public health by requiring more than the law demand sis one of the underlying reasons why the process is deadlocked. Perhaps the most exhaustive public hearing yet conducted on low-level radioactive waste management has recently concluded in Illinois. The Illinois Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility Sitting Commission conducted 71 days of fact-finding hearings on the safety and suitability of a site near Martinsville, Illinois, to serve as a location for disposition of low-level radioactive waste. Ultimately, the siting commission rejected the proposed facility site for several reasons. However, almost all the reasons were related, to the prospect that, as currently conceived, the concrete barrier/shallow-land burial method will not isolate radioactive waste from the biosphere. This paper reviews the relevant legal framework of the radioactive waste classification system and will argue that it is inadequate for long-lived radionuclides. Next, the paper will present a case for altering the classification system based on high-level waste regulatory considerations.

  19. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S; Antoniou, I; Dahlberg, J A [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  20. Are All Oscillators Created Equal? In vitro Performance Characteristics of Eight High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingay, David G; John, Jubal; Harcourt, Edward R; Black, Don; Dargaville, Peter A; Mills, John F; Davis, Peter G

    2015-01-01

    The mode of waveform generation and circuit characteristics differ between high-frequency oscillators. It is unknown if this influences performance. To describe the relationships between set and delivered pressure amplitude (x0394;P), and the interaction with frequency and endotracheal tube (ETT) diameter, in eight high-frequency oscillators. Oscillators were evaluated using a 70-ml test lung at 1.0 and 2.0 ml/cm H2O compliance, with mean airway pressures (PAW) of 10 and 20 cm H2O, frequencies of 5, 10 and 15 Hz, and an ETT diameter of 2.5 and 3.5 mm. At each permutation of PAW, frequency and ETT, the set x0394;P was sequentially increased from 15 to 50 cm H2O, or from 20 to 100% maximum amplitude (10% increments) depending on the oscillator design. The x0394;P at the ventilator (x0394;PVENT), airway opening (x0394;PAO) and within the test lung (x0394;PTRACH), and tidal volume (V(T)) at the airway opening were determined at each set x0394;P. In two oscillators the relationships between set and delivered x0394;P were non-linear, with a plateau in x0394;P thresholds noted at all frequencies (Dräger Babylog 8000) or ≥10 Hz (Dräger VN500). In all other devices there was a linear relationship between x0394;PVENT, x0394;PAO and x0394;PTRACH (all r2 >0.93), with differing attenuation of the pressure wave. Delivered V(T) at the different settings tested varied between devices, with some unable to deliver V(T) >3 ml at 15 Hz, and others generating V(T)>20 ml at 5 Hz and a 1:1 inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio. Clinicians should be aware that modern high-frequency oscillators exhibit important differences in the delivered x0394;P and V(T). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. An Equal-Order DG Method for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cockburn, Bernardo; Kanschat, Guido; Schö tzau, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a discontinuous Galerkin method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations that is based on finite element spaces of the same polynomial order for the approximation of the velocity and the pressure. Stability

  2. Web-based versus traditional lecture: are they equally effective as a flexible bronchoscopy teaching method?

    OpenAIRE

    Sterse Mata, Caio Augusto [UNIFESP; Ota, Luiz Hirotoshi [UNIFESP; Suzuki, Iunis [UNIFESP; Telles, Adriana [UNIFESP; Miotto, Andre [UNIFESP; Leao, Luiz Eduardo Villaca [UNIFESP

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the traditional live lecture to a web-based approach in the teaching of bronchoscopy and evaluates the positive and negative aspects of both methods. We developed a web-based bronchoscopy curriculum, which integrates texts, images and animations. It was applied to first-year interns, who were later administered a multiple-choice test. Another group of eight first-year interns received the traditional teaching method and the same test. the two groups were compared using the...

  3. A filtering method for signal equalization in region-of-interest fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, Normand; Komljenovic, Philip T; Rowlands, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    A method to significantly reduce the exposure area product in fluoroscopy using a pre-patient region-of-interest (ROI) attenuator is presented. The attenuator has a thin central region and a gradually increasing thickness away from the center. It is shown that the unwanted brightening artifact caused by the attenuator can be eliminated by attenuating the low spatial frequencies in the detected image using digital image processing techniques. An investigation of the best image processing method to correct for the presence of the attenuator is undertaken. The correction procedure selected is suitable for use with real-time image processors and the ROI attenuator can be permitted to move during image acquisition. Images of an anthropomorphic chest phantom acquired in the presence of the ROI attenuator using an x-ray image intensifier/video chain are corrected to illustrate the clinical feasibility of our approach

  4. Mathematical programming models for solving in equal-sized facilities layout problems. A genetic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper present unequal-sized facilities layout solutions generated by a genetic search program. named Layout Design using a Genetic Algorithm) 9. The generalized quadratic assignment problem requiring pre-determined distance and material flow matrices as the input data and the continuous plane model employing a dynamic distance measure and a material flow matrix are discussed. Computational results on test problems are reported as compared with layout solutions generated by the branch - and bound algorithm a hybrid method merging simulated annealing and local search techniques, and an optimization process of an enveloped block

  5. Web-based versus traditional lecture: are they equally effective as a flexible bronchoscopy teaching method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Caio Augusto Sterse; Ota, Luiz Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Iunis; Telles, Adriana; Miotto, Andre; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Vilaça

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the traditional live lecture to a web-based approach in the teaching of bronchoscopy and evaluates the positive and negative aspects of both methods. We developed a web-based bronchoscopy curriculum, which integrates texts, images and animations. It was applied to first-year interns, who were later administered a multiple-choice test. Another group of eight first-year interns received the traditional teaching method and the same test. The two groups were compared using the Student's t-test. The mean scores (± SD) of students who used the website were 14.63 ± 1.41 (range 13-17). The test scores of the other group had the same range, with a mean score of 14.75 ± 1. The Student's t-test showed no difference between the test results. The common positive point noted was the presence of multimedia content. The web group cited as positive the ability to review the pages, and the other one the role of the teacher. Web-based bronchoscopy education showed results similar to the traditional live lecture in effectiveness.

  6. Grain Refinement and High-Performance of Equal-Channel Angular Pressed Cu-Mg Alloy for Electrical Contact Wire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aibin Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Multi-pass equal-channel angular pressing (EACP was applied to produce ultrafine-grained (UFG Cu-0.2wt%Mg alloy contact wire with high mechanical/electric performance, aim to overcome the catenary barrier of high-speed trains by maximizing the tension and improving the power delivery. Microstructure evolution and overall properties of the Cu-Mg alloy after different severe-plastic-deformation (SPD routes were investigated by microscopic observation, tensile and electric tests. The results show that the Cu-Mg alloy after multi-pass ECAP at 473 K obtains ultrafine grains, higher strength and desired conductivity. More passes of ECAP leads to finer grains and higher strength, but increasing ECAP temperature significantly lower the strength increment of the UFG alloy. Grain refinement via continuous SPD processing can endow the Cu-Mg alloy superior strength and good conductivity characteristics, which are advantageous to high-speed electrification railway systems.

  7. A time and frequency synchronization method for CO-OFDM based on CMA equalizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kaixuan; Li, Xiang; Huang, Tianye; Cheng, Zhuo; Chen, Bingwei; Wu, Xu; Fu, Songnian; Ping, Perry Shum

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, an efficient time and frequency synchronization method based on a new training symbol structure is proposed for polarization division multiplexing (PDM) coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems. The coarse timing synchronization is achieved by exploiting the correlation property of the first training symbol, and the fine timing synchronization is accomplished by using the time-domain symmetric conjugate of the second training symbol. Furthermore, based on these training symbols, a constant modulus algorithm (CMA) is proposed for carrier frequency offset (CFO) estimation. Theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the algorithm has the advantages of robustness to poor optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and chromatic dispersion (CD). The frequency offset estimation range can achieve [ -Nsc/2 ΔfN , + Nsc/2 ΔfN ] GHz with the mean normalized estimation error below 12 × 10-3 even under the condition of OSNR as low as 10 dB.

  8. Equal Pay for Equal Work: Medicare Procedure Volume and Reimbursement for Male and Female Surgeons Performing Total Knee and Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Emma B; Brady, Christina; Pipkin, William C; Somerson, Jeremy S

    2018-02-21

    The observed sex gap in physician salary has been the topic of much recent debate in the United States, but it has not been well-described among orthopaedic surgeons. The objective of this study was to evaluate for sex differences in Medicare claim volume and reimbursement among orthopaedic surgeons. The Medicare Provider Utilization and Payment Public Use File was used to compare claim volume and reimbursement between female and male orthopaedic surgeons in 2013. Data were extracted for each billing code per orthopaedic surgeon in the year 2013 for total claims, surgical claims, total knee arthroplasty (TKA) claims, and total hip arthroplasty (THA) claims. A total of 20,546 orthopaedic surgeons who treated traditional Medicare patients were included in the initial analysis. Claim volume and reimbursement received were approximately twofold higher for all claims and more than threefold higher for surgical claims for male surgeons when compared with female surgeons (p 10 TKAs and THAs, respectively, in 2013 for Medicare patients and were included in the subset analyses. Although male surgeons performed a higher mean number of TKAs than female surgeons (mean and standard deviation, 37 ± 33 compared with 26 ± 17, respectively, p men and women for TKA or THA ($1,135 ± $228 compared with $1,137 ± $184 for TKA, respectively, p = 0.380; $1,049 ± $226 compared with $1,043 ± $266 for THA, respectively, p = 0.310). Female surgeons had a lower number of total claims and reimbursements compared with male surgeons. However, among surgeons who performed >10 THAs and TKAs, there were no sex differences in the mean reimbursement payment per surgeon. The number of women in orthopaedics is rising, and there is much interest in how their productivity and compensation compare with their male counterparts.

  9. Prediction of spontaneous ureteral stone passage: Automated 3D-measurements perform equal to radiologists, and linear measurements equal to volumetric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jendeberg, Johan; Geijer, Håkan; Alshamari, Muhammed; Lidén, Mats

    2018-01-24

    To compare the ability of different size estimates to predict spontaneous passage of ureteral stones using a 3D-segmentation and to investigate the impact of manual measurement variability on the prediction of stone passage. We retrospectively included 391 consecutive patients with ureteral stones on non-contrast-enhanced CT (NECT). Three-dimensional segmentation size estimates were compared to the mean of three radiologists' measurements. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed for the prediction of spontaneous passage for each estimate. The difference in predicted passage probability between the manual estimates in upper and lower stones was compared. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for the measurements ranged from 0.88 to 0.90. Between the automated 3D algorithm and the manual measurements the 95% limits of agreement were 0.2 ± 1.4 mm for the width. The manual bone window measurements resulted in a > 20 percentage point (ppt) difference between the readers in the predicted passage probability in 44% of the upper and 6% of the lower ureteral stones. All automated 3D algorithm size estimates independently predicted the spontaneous stone passage with similar high accuracy as the mean of three readers' manual linear measurements. Manual size estimation of upper stones showed large inter-reader variations for spontaneous passage prediction. • An automated 3D technique predicts spontaneous stone passage with high accuracy. • Linear, areal and volumetric measurements performed similarly in predicting stone passage. • Reader variability has a large impact on the predicted prognosis for stone passage.

  10. Bi-Histogram Equalization with Brightnes Preservation Using Contras Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    A. Anitha Rani; Gowthami Rajagopal; A. Jagadeswaran

    2014-01-01

    Contrast enhancement is an important factor in the image preprocesing step. One of the widely acepted contrast enhancement method is the histogram equalization. Although histogram equalization achieves comparatively beter performance on almost al types of image, global histogram equalization sometimes produces excesive visual deterioration. A new extension of bi- histogram equalization caled Bi-Histogram Equalization with Neighborhod Metric (BHENM). First, large histogram bins that cause w...

  11. Do "Virtual" and "Outpatient" Public Health Tuberculosis Clinics Perform Equally Well? A Program-Wide Evaluation in Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Long

    Full Text Available Meeting the challenge of tuberculosis (TB elimination will require adopting new models of delivering patient-centered care customized to diverse settings and contexts. In areas of low incidence with cases spread out across jurisdictions and large geographic areas, a "virtual" model is attractive. However, whether "virtual" clinics and telemedicine deliver the same outcomes as face-to-face encounters in general and within the sphere of public health in particular, is unknown. This evidence is generated here by analyzing outcomes between the "virtual" and "outpatient" public health TB clinics in Alberta, a province of Western Canada with a large geographic area and relatively small population.In response to the challenge of delivering equitable TB services over long distances and to hard to reach communities, Alberta established three public health clinics for the delivery of its program: two outpatient serving major metropolitan areas, and one virtual serving mainly rural areas. The virtual clinic receives paper-based or electronic referrals and generates directives which are acted upon by local providers. Clinics are staffed by dedicated public health nurses and university-based TB physicians. Performance of the two types of clinics is compared between the years 2008 and 2012 using 16 case management and treatment outcome indicators and 12 contact management indicators.In the outpatient and virtual clinics, respectively, 691 and 150 cases and their contacts were managed. Individually and together both types of clinics met most performance targets. Compared to outpatient clinics, virtual clinic performance was comparable, superior and inferior in 22, 3, and 3 indicators, respectively.Outpatient and virtual public health TB clinics perform equally well. In low incidence settings a combination of the two clinic types has the potential to address issues around equitable service delivery and declining expertise.

  12. Incomplete equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2013-01-01

    improve access to lower-tier higher education for low-SES students. These findings point to an interesting paradox in that tracking has adverse effects at the micro-level but equalizes educational opportunities at the macro-level. We also discuss whether similar mechanisms might exist in other educational...

  13. Comprehensive MR Urography Protocol: Equally Good Diagnostic Performance and Enhanced Visibility of the Upper Urinary Tract Compared to Triple-Phase CT Urography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazen Sudah

    Full Text Available To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance and the visualization of the upper urinary tract (UUT using a comprehensive 3.0T- magnetic resonance urography (MRU protocol versus triple-phase computed tomography urography (CTU.During the study period (January-2014 through December-2015, all consecutive patients in our tertiary university hospital scheduled by a urologist for CTU to exclude UUT malignancy were invited to participate. Diagnostic performance and visualization scores of 3.0T-MRU were compared to CTU using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test.Twenty patients (39 UUT excreting units were evaluated. 3.0T-MRU and CTU achieved equal diagnostic performances. The benign etiology of seven UUT obstructions was clarified equally with both methods. Another two urinary tract malignant tumors and one benign extraurinary tumor were detected and confirmed. Diagnostic visualization was slightly better in the intrarenal cavity areas with CTU but worsened towards distal ureter. MRU showed consistently slightly better visualization of the ureter. In the comparison, full 100% visualizations were detected in all areas in 93.6% (with 3.0T-MRU and 87.2% (with CTU and >75% visualization in 100% (3.0T-MRU and 93.6% (CTU. Mean CTU effective radiation dose was 9.2 mSv.Comprehensive 3.0T-MRU is an accurate imaging modality achieving comparable performance with CTU; since it does not entail exposure to radiation, it has the potential to become the primary investigation technique in selected patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02606513.

  14. Method to perform radioimmunological analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedel, R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a method for the radioimmunoligcal detection of antigens. According to the invention, antibodies are adsorbed on water-insoluble high-polymeric compounds on the inner surfaces of a capillary device, a labelled antigen is then added and, following incubation, suching off of the test mixture and washing of the coated surfaces, the latter is measured for radioactivity. (VJ) [de

  15. Blood Density Is Nearly Equal to Water Density: A Validation Study of the Gravimetric Method of Measuring Intraoperative Blood Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitello, Dominic J; Ripper, Richard M; Fettiplace, Michael R; Weinberg, Guy L; Vitello, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The gravimetric method of weighing surgical sponges is used to quantify intraoperative blood loss. The dry mass minus the wet mass of the gauze equals the volume of blood lost. This method assumes that the density of blood is equivalent to water (1 gm/mL). This study's purpose was to validate the assumption that the density of blood is equivalent to water and to correlate density with hematocrit. Methods. 50 µL of whole blood was weighed from eighteen rats. A distilled water control was weighed for each blood sample. The averages of the blood and water were compared utilizing a Student's unpaired, one-tailed t-test. The masses of the blood samples and the hematocrits were compared using a linear regression. Results. The average mass of the eighteen blood samples was 0.0489 g and that of the distilled water controls was 0.0492 g. The t-test showed P = 0.2269 and R (2) = 0.03154. The hematocrit values ranged from 24% to 48%. The linear regression R (2) value was 0.1767. Conclusions. The R (2) value comparing the blood and distilled water masses suggests high correlation between the two populations. Linear regression showed the hematocrit was not proportional to the mass of the blood. The study confirmed that the measured density of blood is similar to water.

  16. Early Understanding of Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Aisling; Hourigan, Mairéad; McMahon, Áine

    2013-01-01

    Quite a bit of the arithmetic in elementary school contains elements of algebraic reasoning. After researching and testing a number of instructional strategies with Irish third graders, these authors found effective methods for cultivating a relational concept of equality in third-grade students. Understanding equality is fundamental to algebraic…

  17. Unjust Equalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Andreas; Midtgaard, Søren Flinch

    2014-01-01

    In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck egalitar......In the luck egalitarian literature, one influential formulation of luck egalitarianism does not specify whether equalities that do not reflect people’s equivalent exercises of responsibility are bad with regard to inequality. This equivocation gives rise to two competing versions of luck....... The symmetrical view, we argue, is by far the more compelling, both by internal luck egalitarian standards and in light of the external rightist emphasis on choice and responsibility to which luck egalitarianism may partly be seen as a response. Our main case for the symmetrical view is that when some people...

  18. Health care access for rural youth on equal terms? A mixed methods study protocol in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goicolea, Isabel; Carson, Dean; San Sebastian, Miguel; Christianson, Monica; Wiklund, Maria; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2018-01-11

    The purpose of this paper is to propose a protocol for researching the impact of rural youth health service strategies on health care access. There has been no published comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of youth health strategies in rural areas, and there is no clearly articulated model of how such assessments might be conducted. The protocol described here aims to gather information to; i) Assess rural youth access to health care according to their needs, ii) Identify and understand the strategies developed in rural areas to promote youth access to health care, and iii) Propose actions for further improvement. The protocol is described with particular reference to research being undertaken in the four northernmost counties of Sweden, which contain a widely dispersed and diverse youth population. The protocol proposes qualitative and quantitative methodologies sequentially in four phases. First, to map youth access to health care according to their health care needs, including assessing horizontal equity (equal use of health care for equivalent health needs,) and vertical equity (people with greater health needs should receive more health care than those with lesser needs). Second, a multiple case study design investigates strategies developed across the region (youth clinics, internet applications, public health programs) to improve youth access to health care. Third, qualitative comparative analysis of the 24 rural municipalities in the region identifies the best combination of conditions leading to high youth access to health care. Fourth, a concept mapping study involving rural stakeholders, care providers and youth provides recommended actions to improve rural youth access to health care. The implementation of this research protocol will contribute to 1) generating knowledge that could contribute to strengthening rural youth access to health care, as well as to 2) advancing the application of mixed methods to explore access to health care.

  19. Not all coping strategies are created equal: a mixed methods study exploring physicians' self reported coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Jean E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physicians experience workplace stress and draw on different coping strategies. The primary goal of this paper is to use interview data to explore physicians' self reported coping strategies. In addition, questionnaire data is utilized to explore the degree to which the coping strategies are used and are associated with feelings of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout. Methods This mixed methods study explores factors related to physician wellness within a large health region in Western Canada. This paper focuses on the coping strategies that physicians use in response to work-related stress. The qualitative component explores physicians' self reported coping strategies through open ended interviews of 42 physicians representing diverse medical specialties and settings (91% response rate. The major themes extracted from the qualitative interviews were used to construct 12 survey items that were included in the comprehensive quantitative questionnaire. Questionnaires were sent to all eligible physicians in the health region with 1178 completed surveys (40% response rate. Questionnaire items were used to measure how often physicians draw on the various coping strategies. Feelings of burnout were also measured in the survey by 5 items from the Emotional Exhaustion subscale of the revised Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results Major themes identified from the interviews include coping strategies used at work (e.g., working through stress, talking with co-workers, taking a time out, using humor and after work (e.g., exercise, quiet time, spending time with family. Analysis of the questionnaire data showed three often used workplace coping strategies were positively correlated with feeling emotionally exhausted (i.e., keeping stress to oneself (r = .23, concentrating on what to do next (r = .16, and going on as if nothing happened (r = .07. Some less often used workplace coping strategies (e.g., taking a time out and all

  20. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  1. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Foehringer Ring 6, 80805 Munich (Germany)]. E-mail: zimmerm@mppmu.mpg.de

    2006-04-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms.

  2. Statistical learning methods: Basics, control and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.

    2006-01-01

    The basics of statistical learning are reviewed with a special emphasis on general principles and problems for all different types of learning methods. Different aspects of controlling these methods in a physically adequate way will be discussed. All principles and guidelines will be exercised on examples for statistical learning methods in high energy and astrophysics. These examples prove in addition that statistical learning methods very often lead to a remarkable performance gain compared to the competing classical algorithms

  3. Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a gradient high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of phenylephrine (PHE) and ibuprofen (IBU) in solid ..... nimesulide, phenylephrine. Hydrochloride, chlorpheniramine maleate and caffeine anhydrous in pharmaceutical dosage form. Acta Pol.

  4. Method Evaluations for Adsorption Free Energy Calculations at the Solid/Water Interface through Metadynamics, Umbrella Sampling, and Jarzynski's Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qichao; Zhao, Weilong; Yang, Yang; Cui, Beiliang; Xu, Zhijun; Yang, Xiaoning

    2018-03-19

    Considerable interest in characterizing protein/peptide-surface interactions has prompted extensive computational studies on calculations of adsorption free energy. However, in many cases, each individual study has focused on the application of free energy calculations to a specific system; therefore, it is difficult to combine the results into a general picture for choosing an appropriate strategy for the system of interest. Herein, three well-established computational algorithms are systemically compared and evaluated to compute the adsorption free energy of small molecules on two representative surfaces. The results clearly demonstrate that the characteristics of studied interfacial systems have crucial effects on the accuracy and efficiency of the adsorption free energy calculations. For the hydrophobic surface, steered molecular dynamics exhibits the highest efficiency, which appears to be a favorable method of choice for enhanced sampling simulations. However, for the charged surface, only the umbrella sampling method has the ability to accurately explore the adsorption free energy surface. The affinity of the water layer to the surface significantly affects the performance of free energy calculation methods, especially at the region close to the surface. Therefore, a general principle of how to discriminate between methodological and sampling issues based on the interfacial characteristics of the system under investigation is proposed. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the determination of cefadroxil monohydrate in human plasma. Methods: Schimadzu HPLC with LC solution software was used with Waters Spherisorb, C18 (5 μm, 150mm × 4.5mm) column. The mobile phase ...

  6. An efficient method for minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function subject to a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of minimizing a convex separable logarithmic function over a region defined by a convex inequality constraint or linear equality constraint, and two-sided bounds on the variables (box constraints. Such problems are interesting from both theoretical and practical point of view because they arise in some mathematical programming problems as well as in various practical problems such as problems of production planning and scheduling, allocation of resources, decision making, facility location problems, and so forth. Polynomial algorithms are proposed for solving problems of this form and their convergence is proved. Some examples and results of numerical experiments are also presented.

  7. Are all certified EHRs created equal? Assessing the relationship between EHR vendor and hospital meaningful use performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmgren, A Jay; Adler-Milstein, Julia; McCullough, Jeffrey

    2017-11-24

    The federal electronic health record (EHR) certification process was intended to ensure a baseline level of system quality and the ability to support meaningful use criteria. We sought to assess whether there was variation across EHR vendors in the degree to which hospitals using products from those vendors were able to achieve high levels of performance on meaningful use criteria. We created a cross-sectional national hospital sample from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology EHR Products Used for Meaningful Use Attestation public use file and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare EHR Incentive Program Eligible Hospitals public use file. We used regression models to assess the relationship between vendor and hospital performance on 6 Stage 2 Meaningful Use criteria, controlling for hospital characteristics. We also calculated how much variation in performance is explained by vendor choice. We found significant associations between specific vendor and level of hospital performance for all 6 meaningful use criteria. Epic was associated with significantly higher performance on 5 of the 6 criteria; relationships for other vendors were mixed, with some associated with significantly worse performance on multiple criteria. EHR vendor choice accounted for between 7% and 34% of performance variation across the 6 criteria. A nontrivial proportion of variation in hospital meaningful use performance is explained by vendor choice, and certain vendors are more often associated with better meaningful use performance than others. Our results suggest that policy-makers should improve the certification process by including more "real-world" scenario testing and provider feedback or ratings to reduce this variation. Hospitals can use these results to guide interactions with vendors. Vendor choice accounts for a meaningful proportion of variation in hospital meaningful use performance, and specific vendors are consistently associated

  8. Investigation of the equality constraint effect on the reduction of the rotational ambiguity in three-component system using a novel grid search method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyramysoltan, Samira; Rajkó, Róbert; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2013-08-12

    The obtained results by soft modeling multivariate curve resolution methods often are not unique and are questionable because of rotational ambiguity. It means a range of feasible solutions equally fit experimental data and fulfill the constraints. Regarding to chemometric literature, a survey of useful constraints for the reduction of the rotational ambiguity is a big challenge for chemometrician. It is worth to study the effects of applying constraints on the reduction of rotational ambiguity, since it can help us to choose the useful constraints in order to impose in multivariate curve resolution methods for analyzing data sets. In this work, we have investigated the effect of equality constraint on decreasing of the rotational ambiguity. For calculation of all feasible solutions corresponding with known spectrum, a novel systematic grid search method based on Species-based Particle Swarm Optimization is proposed in a three-component system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing the performance of biomedical clustering methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiwie, Christian; Baumbach, Jan; Röttger, Richard

    2015-01-01

    expression to protein domains. Performance was judged on the basis of 13 common cluster validity indices. We developed a clustering analysis platform, ClustEval (http://clusteval.mpi-inf.mpg.de), to promote streamlined evaluation, comparison and reproducibility of clustering results in the future......Identifying groups of similar objects is a popular first step in biomedical data analysis, but it is error-prone and impossible to perform manually. Many computational methods have been developed to tackle this problem. Here we assessed 13 well-known methods using 24 data sets ranging from gene....... This allowed us to objectively evaluate the performance of all tools on all data sets with up to 1,000 different parameter sets each, resulting in a total of more than 4 million calculated cluster validity indices. We observed that there was no universal best performer, but on the basis of this wide...

  10. Coaxial transmission line - Equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnerue, J.L.; Fremont, Jacques; Haubtmann, Jack; Pillon, Gerard.

    1981-09-01

    The transmission of electrical signal through a coaxial line is not perfect and signal distortions are increased as much as the frequency spectrum is extended. We have designed and achieved passive filters (named equalizers) with transfer functions which are inverse of coaxial transfer functions. Doing so our attempt is to avoid definitive loss of information in the recorded data. The main feature of our equalization method lies in the fact it could be either an electrical or a numerical correction or both of them. Some examples in the use of this technique are also proposed [fr

  11. Methods of Evaluating Performances for Marketing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ioan Cucu

    2005-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs. Actual performance must be measured in similar terms so that comparisons are possible. This paper describes sales analysis and cost analysis, two general ways of evaluating the act...

  12. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  13. Validated high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-02-22

    Feb 22, 2010 ... specific and accurate high performance liquid chromatographic method for determination of ZER in micro-volumes ... tional medicine as a cure for swelling, sores, loss of appetite and ... Receptor Activator for Nuclear Factor κ B Ligand .... The effect of ... be suitable for preclinical pharmacokinetic studies. The.

  14. Comparative Performance of Complex-Valued B-Spline and Polynomial Models Applied to Iterative Frequency-Domain Decision Feedback Equalization of Hammerstein Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Hong, Xia; Khalaf, Emad F; Alsaadi, Fuad E; Harris, Chris J

    2017-12-01

    Complex-valued (CV) B-spline neural network approach offers a highly effective means for identifying and inverting practical Hammerstein systems. Compared with its conventional CV polynomial-based counterpart, a CV B-spline neural network has superior performance in identifying and inverting CV Hammerstein systems, while imposing a similar complexity. This paper reviews the optimality of the CV B-spline neural network approach. Advantages of B-spline neural network approach as compared with the polynomial based modeling approach are extensively discussed, and the effectiveness of the CV neural network-based approach is demonstrated in a real-world application. More specifically, we evaluate the comparative performance of the CV B-spline and polynomial-based approaches for the nonlinear iterative frequency-domain decision feedback equalization (NIFDDFE) of single-carrier Hammerstein channels. Our results confirm the superior performance of the CV B-spline-based NIFDDFE over its CV polynomial-based counterpart.

  15. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  16. Local tolerance testing under REACH: Accepted non-animal methods are not on equal footing with animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ursula G; Hill, Erin H; Curren, Rodger D; Raabe, Hans A; Kolle, Susanne N; Teubner, Wera; Mehling, Annette; Landsiedel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    In general, no single non-animal method can cover the complexity of any given animal test. Therefore, fixed sets of in vitro (and in chemico) methods have been combined into testing strategies for skin and eye irritation and skin sensitisation testing, with pre-defined prediction models for substance classification. Many of these methods have been adopted as OECD test guidelines. Various testing strategies have been successfully validated in extensive in-house and inter-laboratory studies, but they have not yet received formal acceptance for substance classification. Therefore, under the European REACH Regulation, data from testing strategies can, in general, only be used in so-called weight-of-evidence approaches. While animal testing data generated under the specific REACH information requirements are per se sufficient, the sufficiency of weight-of-evidence approaches can be questioned under the REACH system, and further animal testing can be required. This constitutes an imbalance between the regulatory acceptance of data from approved non-animal methods and animal tests that is not justified on scientific grounds. To ensure that testing strategies for local tolerance testing truly serve to replace animal testing for the REACH registration 2018 deadline (when the majority of existing chemicals have to be registered), clarity on their regulatory acceptance as complete replacements is urgently required. 2016 FRAME.

  17. An exergy method for compressor performance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGovern, J A; Harte, S [Trinity Coll., Dublin (Ireland)

    1995-07-01

    An exergy method for compressor performance analysis is presented. The purpose of this is to identify and quantify defects in the use of a compressor`s shaft power. This information can be used as the basis for compressor design improvements. The defects are attributed to friction, irreversible heat transfer, fluid throttling, and irreversible fluid mixing. They are described, on a common basis, as exergy destruction rates and their locations are identified. The method can be used with any type of positive displacement compressor. It is most readily applied where a detailed computer simulation program is available for the compressor. An analysis of an open reciprocating refrigeration compressor that used R12 refrigerant is given as an example. The results that are presented consist of graphs of the instantaneous rates of exergy destruction according to the mechanisms involved, a pie chart of the breakdown of the average shaft power wastage by mechanism, and a pie chart with a breakdown by location. (author)

  18. THE EQUALITY PRINCIPLE REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ANDRIŢOI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem premises and the objectives followed: the idea of inserting the equality principle between the freedom and the justice principles is manifested in positive law in two stages, as a general idea of all judicial norms and as requirement of the owner of a subjective right of the applicants of an objective law. Equality in face of the law and of public authorities can not involve the idea of standardization, of uniformity, of enlisting of all citizens under the mark of the same judicial regime, regardless of their natural or socio-professional situation. Through the Beijing Platform and the position documents of the European Commission we have defined the integrative approach of equality as representing an active and visible integration of the gender perspective in all sectors and at all levels. The research methods used are: the conceptualist method, the logical method and the intuitive method necessary as means of reasoning in order to argue our demonstration. We have to underline the fact that the system analysis of the research methods of the judicial phenomenon doesn’t agree with “value ranking”, because one value cannot be generalized in rapport to another. At the same time, we must fight against a methodological extremism. The final purpose of this study is represented by the reaching of the perfecting/excellence stage by all individuals through the promotion of equality and freedom. This supposes the fact that the existence of a non-discrimination favourable frame (fairness represents a means and a condition of self-determination, and the state of perfection/excellency is a result of this self-determination, the condition necessary for the obtaining of this nondiscrimination frame for all of us and in conditions of freedom for all individuals, represents the same condition that promotes the state of perfection/excellency. In conclusion we may state the fact that the equality principle represents a true catalyst of the

  19. Study of Allelopathic Interaction of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Some Weed Species Using Equal - Compartment – Agar Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R Labbafi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available There are many methods for weed management one of them is putting allelopathic and cover crop in weed management programs. In order to study the effect of sowing time (delayed sowing, synchronic sowing and wheat cultivars (Shiraz, Roshan, Tabasi, Niknejad on allelopathic interaction of wheat and weed species (Secale cereale L., Avena ludoviciana L.: monocotyledon, Convolvulus arvensis L. and Vicia villosa L.: dicotyledon, an experiment was conducted with factorial arrangement in a completely randomized design and 4 replications. According to the results, the inhibitory effect of wheat on monocot weeds (oat and rye was more than in synchronic sowing and the inhibitory effect of wheat on dicot weeds (bindweed and vetch was more than in delayed sowing. Effect of wheat cultivars on rye and oat (except hypocotyls length was inhibitory and that of vetch was stimulatory. Hypocotyls length showed the most sensitivity to released allelochemicals from wheat cultivars, because root has the most contact with allelochemicals in the soil.

  20. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samin, Adib; Lahti, Erik; Zhang, Jinsuo, E-mail: zhang.3558@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19" t" h Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes.

  1. Analytical solutions of the planar cyclic voltammetry process for two soluble species with equal diffusivities and fast electron transfer using the method of eigenfunction expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Samin, Adib; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Lahti, Erik; th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" data-affiliation=" (Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 201 W 19th Avenue, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States))" >Zhang, Jinsuo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is a powerful tool that is used for characterizing electrochemical processes. Models of cyclic voltammetry take into account the mass transport of species and the kinetics at the electrode surface. Analytical solutions of these models are not well-known due to the complexity of the boundary conditions. In this study we present closed form analytical solutions of the planar voltammetry model for two soluble species with fast electron transfer and equal diffusivities using the eigenfunction expansion method. Our solution methodology does not incorporate Laplace transforms and yields good agreement with the numerical solution. This solution method can be extended to cases that are more general and may be useful for benchmarking purposes

  2. Gender equality and equal opportunity mechanisms in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mršević Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available As a country of Southern European mentality Italy may be taken as the nearest-to-the-Balkans model of the gender equality mechanisms and necessity of their existence. Italy also might be taken as a model of domain and methods of functioning of the gender equality mechanisms as well as their connections with the EU development funds. Besides the Italian Ministry for Rights and Equal opportunities and the National Committee, the attention was paid to the whole range of local mechanisms and legal regulations dealing with advancement of women’s employment and counteracting discrimination on the labor market. In the text are analyzed through the five chapters the Italian mechanisms/institutions for gender equality as located within the European institutional environment but also within the context of Italian recent history of struggle against gender based discrimination. It was stressed that the essence of the accumulated European institutional wisdom is in diversity of the gender equality bodies rather then in their uniformity. Although the Italian mechanisms for gender equality are part of the European institutional environment their aim is to meet the internal needs for advancement of gender equality. Besides, the mechanisms also meet the demands of the international standards comprised in the documents issued by the UN and the EU. In European countries these mechanisms are frequently established and function in the domains of the labor and employment regulations, but also are located within the human rights portfolios while somewhere are connected with the minority rights and equal opportunity implementation.

  3. Global pathways to men's caregiving: mixed methods findings from the International Men and Gender Equality Survey and the Men Who Care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Wallace, Jane; Barker, Gary; Eads, Marci; Levtov, Ruti

    2014-01-01

    Promoting men's participation in unpaid care work is part of the Programme of Action for the International Conference on Population and Development. However, men's involvement in care work does not mirror the advances women have made in paid work outside the home. This mixed method study explores which men are more involved in caregiving, and what childhood and adulthood factors influence their level of involvement. Quantitative research presents findings from 1169 men across six countries with children aged 0-4, and a qualitative study presents findings from in-depth interviews with 83 men engaged in atypical caregiving practices. Survey research finds that being taught to care for children, witnessing one's father take care of one's siblings, respondents' present attitudes about gender equality and having outside help (or none, in some cases) were all also associated with men's higher level of involvement. Qualitative research reveals that men's experiences of violence, the normalisation of domestic work as children and life circumstances rather than greater-than-average beliefs in gender equality all propelled them into care work. Findings suggest that engaging more men into care work implies changes to policies and structural realities in the workplace coupled with changing gender attitudes. These insights inform policy and practice aimed at promoting greater involvement in care work by men.

  4. Channel Equalization Using Multilayer Perceptron Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Baloch

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In most digital communication systems, bandwidth limited channel along with multipath propagation causes ISI (Inter Symbol Interference to occur. This phenomenon causes distortion of the given transmitted symbol due to other transmitted symbols. With the help of equalization ISI can be reduced. This paper presents a solution to the ISI problem by performing blind equalization using ANN (Artificial Neural Networks. The simulated network is a multilayer feedforward Perceptron ANN, which has been trained by utilizing the error back-propagation algorithm. The weights of the network are updated in accordance with training of the network. This paper presents a very effective method for blind channel equalization, being more efficient than the pre-existing algorithms. The obtained results show a visible reduction in the noise content.

  5. A negentropy minimization approach to adaptive equalization for digital communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sooyong; Lee, Te-Won

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate a new adaptive equalization method based on minimizing approximate negentropy of the estimation error for a finite-length equalizer. We consider an approximate negentropy using nonpolynomial expansions of the estimation error as a new performance criterion to improve performance of a linear equalizer based on minimizing minimum mean squared error (MMSE). Negentropy includes higher order statistical information and its minimization provides improved converge, performance and accuracy compared to traditional methods such as MMSE in terms of bit error rate (BER). The proposed negentropy minimization (NEGMIN) equalizer has two kinds of solutions, the MMSE solution and the other one, depending on the ratio of the normalization parameters. The NEGMIN equalizer has best BER performance when the ratio of the normalization parameters is properly adjusted to maximize the output power(variance) of the NEGMIN equalizer. Simulation experiments show that BER performance of the NEGMIN equalizer with the other solution than the MMSE one has similar characteristics to the adaptive minimum bit error rate (AMBER) equalizer. The main advantage of the proposed equalizer is that it needs significantly fewer training symbols than the AMBER equalizer. Furthermore, the proposed equalizer is more robust to nonlinear distortions than the MMSE equalizer.

  6. Comparison of 2 weekly-equalized volume resistance-training routines using different frequencies on body composition and performance in trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Fu Leon; Karsten, Bettina; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko; Seijo, Marcos; Naclerio, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    The present study compared the effects of 2 weekly-equalized volume and relative load interventions on body composition, strength, and power. Based on individual baseline maximal strength values, 18 recreationally trained men were pair-matched and consequently randomly assigned to one of the following experimental groups: a low volume per session with a high frequency (LV-HF, n = 9) group who trained for 4 days (Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays) or a high volume per session and low frequency (HV-LF, n = 9) group who trained for 2 days (Mondays and Thursdays). Both groups performed 2 different routines over 6 weeks. Participants were tested pre- and post- intervention for maximal strength, upper body power, fat-free mass, limb circumferences, and muscle thickness. Compared with baseline values, both groups increased their fat-free mass (HV-LF: +1.19 ± 1.94; LV-HF: +1.36 ± 1.06 kg, p squat (LV-HF: +0.14 ± 0.06; HV-LF: 0.17 ± 0.01 kg·body mass -1 ) exercises as well as in upper body power (LV-HF: +0.22 ± 0.25; HV-LF: +0.27 ± 0.22 W·body mass -1 ) Although both training strategies improved performance and lower body muscle mass, only the HV-LF protocol increased upper body hypertrophy and improved body composition.

  7. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  8. Performance Benchmarking of Fast Multipole Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Harthi, Noha A.

    2013-06-01

    The current trends in computer architecture are shifting towards smaller byte/flop ratios, while available parallelism is increasing at all levels of granularity – vector length, core count, and MPI process. Intel’s Xeon Phi coprocessor, NVIDIA’s Kepler GPU, and IBM’s BlueGene/Q all have a Byte/flop ratio close to 0.2, which makes it very difficult for most algorithms to extract a high percentage of the theoretical peak flop/s from these architectures. Popular algorithms in scientific computing such as FFT are continuously evolving to keep up with this trend in hardware. In the meantime it is also necessary to invest in novel algorithms that are more suitable for computer architectures of the future. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed as a fast algorithm for ap- proximating the N-body interactions that appear in astrophysics, molecular dynamics, and vortex based fluid dynamics simulations. The FMM possesses have a unique combination of being an efficient O(N) algorithm, while having an operational intensity that is higher than a matrix-matrix multiplication. In fact, the FMM can reduce the requirement of Byte/flop to around 0.01, which means that it will remain compute bound until 2020 even if the cur- rent trend in microprocessors continues. Despite these advantages, there have not been any benchmarks of FMM codes on modern architectures such as Xeon Phi, Kepler, and Blue- Gene/Q. This study aims to provide a comprehensive benchmark of a state of the art FMM code “exaFMM” on the latest architectures, in hopes of providing a useful reference for deciding when the FMM will become useful as the computational engine in a given application code. It may also serve as a warning to certain problem size domains areas where the FMM will exhibit insignificant performance improvements. Such issues depend strongly on the asymptotic constants rather than the asymptotics themselves, and therefore are strongly implementation and hardware

  9. ECONOMIC EQUALITY OR JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Tufan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available From the beginning of economic life, equality has been a matter for human. Intrinsically human has two legs: Selfish and Groupish. Our selfish side does not care equality while Groupish side cares. What about the justice? Does human wants justice more than equalities in economic life? In this research, we have applied a questionnaire to find these two questions answer. As a result we can report that respondents prefer equality rather than justice in negative outcomes. On the other hand, they tend to prefer justice if there is possibility for positive outcomes. We cannot give evidence about gender, education and age differences effect on equality and justice preference.

  10. Equal opportunities in diversity

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    Promoting equal opportunities at CERN and advising the Director-General on all related matters is the task of the Equal Opportunities Officer, Doris Chromek-Burckhart, and Tim Smith, chair of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel. Changes are being introduced: in future, the focus of their work will be broadened to cover all aspects of diversity promotion.   The term "equal opportunities" has always been broader in scope than the equal treatment of men and women but this is what it has traditionally been confined to in practice. "We wanted to change how people see our mission", explains Doris Chromek-Burckhart. The word "diversity" has much wider connotations than "equal opportunities" and makes it clearer that we are also dealing with differences in nationality, religion, age, culture and physical ability”. Getting away from the old clichés is vital to ensuring equal treatment for everyone. The diversit...

  11. Equal treatment of shareholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Equal treatment of shareholders is regulated in Art.269 of Company Act (2011 of Republic of Serbia. Equal treatment of shareholders means that all shareholders are to be treated equally under same circumstances. Obligation to treat all shareholders equally rests on all company bodies, predominantly general meeting. The standard whether an action violates the principle of equal treatment of all shareholders regarding the main rights of shareholders (such as voting right etc. is the nominal value of shares, or the equal treatment per person regarding ancillary rights (such as right to speak in shareholders' meeting etc.. Any action deviating from this standard is unlawful if the unequal treatment is not justified on the facts. If the principle of equal treatment is violated by general meeting resolution, such resolution may be annulled by the court.

  12. Some Equalities Are More Equal Than Others: Quality Equality Emerges Later Than Numerical Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheskin, Mark; Nadal, Amber; Croom, Adam; Mayer, Tanya; Nissel, Jenny; Bloom, Paul

    2016-09-01

    By age 6, children typically share an equal number of resources between themselves and others. However, fairness involves not merely that each person receive an equal number of resources ("numerical equality") but also that each person receive equal quality resources ("quality equality"). In Study 1, children (N = 87, 3-10 years) typically split four resources "two each" by age 6, but typically monopolized the better two resources until age 10. In Study 2, a new group of 6- to 8-year-olds (N = 32) allocated resources to third parties according to quality equality, indicating that children in this age group understand that fairness requires both types of equality. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  13. Performance Evaluation Methods for Assistive Robotic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Katherine M.; Feil-Seifer, David J.; Matarić, Maja J.; Yanco, Holly A.

    Robots have been developed for several assistive technology domains, including intervention for Autism Spectrum Disorders, eldercare, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Assistive robots have also been used to promote independent living through the use of devices such as intelligent wheelchairs, assistive robotic arms, and external limb prostheses. Work in the broad field of assistive robotic technology can be divided into two major research phases: technology development, in which new devices, software, and interfaces are created; and clinical, in which assistive technology is applied to a given end-user population. Moving from technology development towards clinical applications is a significant challenge. Developing performance metrics for assistive robots poses a related set of challenges. In this paper, we survey several areas of assistive robotic technology in order to derive and demonstrate domain-specific means for evaluating the performance of such systems. We also present two case studies of applied performance measures and a discussion regarding the ubiquity of functional performance measures across the sampled domains. Finally, we present guidelines for incorporating human performance metrics into end-user evaluations of assistive robotic technologies.

  14. Equality of Opportunity and Equality of Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodelja, Zdenko

    2016-01-01

    The report on the findings of extensive empirical research on equality of educational opportunities carried out in the United States on a very large sample of public schools by Coleman and his colleagues has had a major impact on education policy and has given rise to a large amount of research and various interpretations. However, as some…

  15. Validated High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop a simple, rapid and sensitive high performance liquid ... response, tailing factor and resolution of six replicate injections was < 3 %. ... Cefadroxil monohydrate, Human plasma, Pharmacokinetics Bioequivalence ... Drug-free plasma was obtained from the local .... Influence of probenicid on the renal.

  16. Spectral method and its high performance implementation

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Zedong

    2014-01-01

    We have presented a new method that can be dispersion free and unconditionally stable. Thus the computational cost and memory requirement will be reduced a lot. Based on this feature, we have implemented this algorithm on GPU based CUDA for the anisotropic Reverse time migration. There is almost no communication between CPU and GPU. For the prestack wavefield extrapolation, it can combine all the shots together to migration. However, it requires to solve a bigger dimensional problem and more meory which can\\'t fit into one GPU cards. In this situation, we implement it based on domain decomposition method and MPI for distributed memory system.

  17. Personality, Study Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, N. J.; Wilson, J. D.

    1970-01-01

    A questionnaire measuring four student personality types--stable introvert, unstable introvert, stable extrovert and unstable extrovert--along with the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Form A) were give to 72 graduate students at Aberdeen University and the results showed recognizable interaction between study methods, motivation and personality…

  18. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous ... Purpose: To develop and validate a new low-cost high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for ..... Several papers have reported the use of ...

  19. THE MANAGEMENT METHODS IN PERFORMANCE SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sports are a widespread phenomenon, capable of raising human energies and mobilize financial and material resources that can be difficult compared with those in other areas of social life. Management of sports organizations is influenced and determined by the compliance and requirements arising from the documents issued by international organizations with authority in the field. Organizational development is considered essentially as a strategy to increase organizational effectiveness by determining changes that consider both human resources and organizations. On the whole society, it is accelerated by an industry evolving sport with distinctive features. Its development is conditional on macroeconomics and technology. The complexity of the activities of sports organizations performance, the main laboratory performance national and international sports, requiring a more thorough investigation to enable knowledge of the complex mechanisms of their management and simultaneously identify some optimization solutions throughout the economic-financial and human resources.

  20. A hybrid method of incorporating extended priority list into equal incremental principle for energy-saving generation dispatch of thermal power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Chuntian; Li, Shushan; Li, Gang

    2014-01-01

    The energy-saving generation dispatch (ESGD) policy released by Chinese Government in 2007 is a new code for optimally dispatching electric power generation portfolio in the country with the dual objectives of improving energy efficiency and reducing environmental pollution. The ESGD is substantially different from the competitive market in the developed economies, the traditional economic dispatching or the rational dispatching principle implemented in China prior to the new policy. This paper develops a hybrid method that integrates the extended priority list (EPL), the equal incremental principle (EIP) and a heuristic method to optimize daily generation schedules under ESGD. The EPL is presented to search desirable units set that satisfies the complicated duration period requirements based on thermal unit generation priority list. The EIP is developed to allocate load among the committed units within the combined set. A heuristic method is proposed to deal with inequality constraints, which usually result in difficulty for power allocation, and used to improve these results. The algorithm has been embedded into a newly developed decision support system that is currently being used by operators of the Guizhou Province Power Grid to make day-ahead quarter-hourly generation schedules. - Highlights: • Electric power industry is one of key and important fields for energy conservation and emission reduction in China. • The energy-saving generation dispatch policy was released by Chinese government in 2007. • A Hybrid algorithm for energy-saving generation dispatch scheduling of thermal power system is presented. • The algorithm has been embedded into a newly developed decision support system

  1. Gender equality and meritocracy

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines how gender equality measures and discourses are reconciled with notions of merit in academia. Gender equality is often defined as equal rights for women and men and has become a widely accepted political goal and vision. Meritocratic principles build on the assumption that everyone, regardless of gender, class, race and sexuality, has the same opportunities to advance provided they are sufficiently hardworking and intelligent. Meritocratic principles thus build on the ass...

  2. Loudspeaker Equalization with Post-Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ser Wee

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Loudspeaker equalization is an essential technique in audio system design. A well-known equalization scheme is based on the deconvolution of the desired equalized response with the measured impulse response of the loudspeaker. In this paper, a post-processing scheme is combined with the deconvolution-based algorithm to provide a better equalization effect. Computer simulation results are given to demonstrate the significant improvement that can be achieved using this method.

  3. Contrast Enhancement Method Based on Gray and Its Distance Double-Weighting Histogram Equalization for 3D CT Images of PCBs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a new detection method for 3D nondestructive testing of printed circuit boards (PCBs. However, the obtained 3D image of PCBs exhibits low contrast because of several factors, such as the occurrence of metal artifacts and beam hardening, during the process of CBCT imaging. Histogram equalization (HE algorithms cannot effectively extend the gray difference between a substrate and a metal in 3D CT images of PCBs, and the reinforcing effects are insignificant. To address this shortcoming, this study proposes an image enhancement algorithm based on gray and its distance double-weighting HE. Considering the characteristics of 3D CT images of PCBs, the proposed algorithm uses gray and its distance double-weighting strategy to change the form of the original image histogram distribution, suppresses the grayscale of a nonmetallic substrate, and expands the grayscale of wires and other metals. The proposed algorithm also enhances the gray difference between a substrate and a metal and highlights metallic materials. The proposed algorithm can enhance the gray value of wires and other metals in 3D CT images of PCBs. It applies enhancement strategies of changing gray and its distance double-weighting mechanism to adapt to this particular purpose. The flexibility and advantages of the proposed algorithm are confirmed by analyses and experimental results.

  4. Can Gender Differences in Educational Performance of 15-Year-Old Migrant Pupils Be Explained by Societal Gender Equality in Origin and Destination Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronkers, Jaap; Kornder, Nils

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain the differences between reading and math scores of migrants' children (8430 daughters and 8526 sons) in 17 OECD destination countries, coming from 45 origin countries or regions, using PISA 2009 data. In addition to the societal gender equality levels of the origin and destination countries (the gender…

  5. Asynchronous LMS adaptive equalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.W.M.; Lin, M.Y.; Modrie, D.; Otte, R.

    2005-01-01

    Digital data receivers often operate at a fixed sampling rate 1/Ts that is asynchronous to the baud rate 1/T. A digital equalizer that processes the incoming signal will also operate in the asynchronous clock domain. Existing adaptation techniques for this equalizer involve an error sequence ek that

  6. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996 followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equal Opportuni...

  7. Is Equality Fair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Tarasov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to answer the question whether people consider decisions that lead to equal outcomes fair. I find that this is not always the case. In an experiment where subjects are given equal opportunities to choose how to divide money between each other in a two-player game, any strategy is perceived to be fair more than half the time, including the profit-maximizing strategy. The equal divisions that lead to equal outcomes are sometimes considered unfair by both players. Moreover, players frequently punished the others, whose decisions led to equal outcomes. I hypothesize that such punishments occur because people have different conceptions of what a fair outcome and fair punishment are

  8. Chip-Level Channel Equalization in WCDMA Downlink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Hooli

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The most important third generation (3G cellular communications standard is based on wideband CDMA (WCDMA. Receivers based on TDMA style channel equalization at the chip level have been proposed for a WCDMA downlink employing long spreading sequences to ensure adequate performance even with a high number of active users. These receivers equalize the channel prior to despreading, thus restoring the orthogonality of users and resulting in multiple-access interference (MAI suppression. In this paper, an overview of chip-level channel equalizers is delivered with special attention to adaptation methods suitable for the WCDMA downlink. Numerical examples on the equalizers′ performance are given in Rayleigh fading frequency-selective channels.

  9. Algorithms and Methods for High-Performance Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frison, Gianluca

    routines employed in the numerical tests. The main focus of this thesis is on linear MPC problems. In this thesis, both the algorithms and their implementation are equally important. About the implementation, a novel implementation strategy for the dense linear algebra routines in embedded optimization...... is proposed, aiming at improving the computational performance in case of small matrices. About the algorithms, they are built on top of the proposed linear algebra, and they are tailored to exploit the high-level structure of the MPC problems, with special care on reducing the computational complexity....

  10. Equal Opportunities Questionnaire

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The initiative to promote Equal Opportunities at CERN started in 1993. The first Equal Opportunities Officer was appointed in 1996, which was followed by the creation of the Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel in 1998. Initially the concern was mainly the fair treatment of women in the work-place. Today the emphasis has evolved to ensuring that diversity is used to increase creativity and productivity in the work-place. In order to ensure that all aspects of Equal Opportunities and Diversity are covered, CERN’s Equal Opportunities team has prepared a survey to obtain your input. Your answers are confidential and will only be used for generating statistics. The questionnaire is on-line and can be accessed via: https://espace.cern.ch/EOQ. We hope that you will take a few minutes of your time to give your input and would be grateful if you could reply before 15/10/07. For further information about Equal Opportunities at CERN see: http://cern.ch/equal-opportunities The Equa...

  11. Histogram equalization with Bayesian estimation for noise robust speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Youngjoo; Kim, Hoirin

    2018-02-01

    The histogram equalization approach is an efficient feature normalization technique for noise robust automatic speech recognition. However, it suffers from performance degradation when some fundamental conditions are not satisfied in the test environment. To remedy these limitations of the original histogram equalization methods, class-based histogram equalization approach has been proposed. Although this approach showed substantial performance improvement under noise environments, it still suffers from performance degradation due to the overfitting problem when test data are insufficient. To address this issue, the proposed histogram equalization technique employs the Bayesian estimation method in the test cumulative distribution function estimation. It was reported in a previous study conducted on the Aurora-4 task that the proposed approach provided substantial performance gains in speech recognition systems based on the acoustic modeling of the Gaussian mixture model-hidden Markov model. In this work, the proposed approach was examined in speech recognition systems with deep neural network-hidden Markov model (DNN-HMM), the current mainstream speech recognition approach where it also showed meaningful performance improvement over the conventional maximum likelihood estimation-based method. The fusion of the proposed features with the mel-frequency cepstral coefficients provided additional performance gains in DNN-HMM systems, which otherwise suffer from performance degradation in the clean test condition.

  12. Performance improvement of extended boundary node method for solving elliptic boundary-value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Ayumu; Kamitani, Atsushi; Takayama, Teruou; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    The extended boundary-node method (X-BNM) with the hierarchical-matrix (H-matrix) method has been developed and its performance has been investigated numerically. The results of computations show that the solver speed of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is much faster than that of the standard X-BNM for the case where the number of boundary nodes exceeds a certain limit. Furthermore, the accuracy of the X-BNM with the H-matrix method is almost equal to that of the standard X-BNM. From these results, it is found that the H-matrix method is useful as the acceleration technique of the X-BNM. (author)

  13. Gender Equality and the Corporate Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Warth

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on how the commitment of businesses to promote gender equality within their organisations can be strengthened. A dual approach of encouraging voluntary measures and corporate social responsibility for gender equality on the one hand, and regulating and enforcing change through legislative reforms on the other hand are reviewed, focusing mainly on the European region. There are arguments for a business case for gender equality in terms of better financial performance and com...

  14. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    needed for solving the optimization problem. Furthermore, the algorithm uses so-called domain constraint functions in order to ensure that the input to the simulation software is feasible. Using this technique avoids performing time-consuming simulations for unrealistic design decisions. The algorithm......This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects......, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building...

  15. Efficient SDM-MIMO Stokes-space equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero, F. J.Vaquero; Zanaty, A.; Pittala, F.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel frequency-domain 6x6 MIMO Stokes-space equalizer and compare its performance to a 6x6 MIMO LMS architecture. This method is suited to overcome DSP complexity and laser linewidth issues in SDM transmission systems....

  16. Gender equality revisited:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; B. Eydal, G.

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic childcare policy model is often reviewed and even recommended internationally for its contribution to gender equality, high female labour force participation and, perhaps more indirectly, to a high fertility rate. Nordic childcare services and parental leave schemes have thus been...... portrayed in the literature as policies which have managed to facilitate a work–family model of dual earners and dual carers. However, the recent introduction of cash-for-care schemes seems to go against the Nordic dual earner/dual carer model and ideals of gender equality, in supporting parental (maternal...

  17. Entrepreneur for Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duncan, Russell

    Focuses on the first Republican Governor of the state of Georgia during the period of race adjustment and national reconstruction after the American Civil War. Bullock led the way to business connections in creating a New South, but he was best known for his steadfast efforts at human equality fo...

  18. Equal Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lorenzo

    1980-01-01

    Holds that the "Bakke" decision simply reaffirmed an insufficient commitment to equal opportunities for Blacks in higher education. Reviews several studies, including research conducted at the Institute for the Study of Educational Policy (ISEP) that has focused on the social and economic context of educational discrimination. (GC)

  19. Fight For Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mink, Patsy T.

    1973-01-01

    In this presentation to the annual conventions of the NAWDAC and the ACPA (Cleveland 1973) the author, a Congresswoman from Hawaii, deplores the practice of some counselors of directing women students into traditional women's courses. She urges college counselors and personnel workers to join in the struggle to achieve equal educational and…

  20. Equal Rights Monitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; Ko Oudhof

    2000-01-01

    Original title: Emancipatiemonitor 2000. How is the emancipation process of women in the Netherlands progressing? What has been achieved? Have women already achieved equality, and have men accepted the sharing of power and responsibility? Was the emancipation process mainly a phenomenon of

  1. Performance evaluation methods and instrumentation for mine ventilation fans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Man; WANG Xue-rong

    2009-01-01

    Ventilation fans are one of the most important pieces of equipment in coal mines. Their performance plays an important role in the safety of staff and production. Given the actual requirements of coal mine production, we instituted a research project on the measurement methods of key performance parameters such as wind pressure, amount of ventilation and power. At the end a virtual instrument for mine ventilation fans performance evaluation was developed using a USB interface. The practical perform-ance and analytical results of our experiments show that it is feasible, reliable and effective to use the proposed instrumentation for mine ventilation performance evaluation.

  2. Influence of discretization method on the digital control system performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futás József

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of control system can be divided into two steps. First the process or plant have to be convert into mathematical model form, so that its behavior can be analyzed. Then an appropriate controller have to be design in order to get the desired response of the controlled system. In the continuous time domain the system is represented by differential equations. Replacing a continuous system into discrete time form is always an approximation of the continuous system. The different discretization methods give different digital controller performance. The methods presented on the paper are Step Invariant or Zero Order Hold (ZOH Method, Matched Pole-Zero Method, Backward difference Method and Bilinear transformation. The above mentioned discretization methods are used in developing PI position controller of a dc motor. The motor model was converted by the ZOH method. The performances of the different methods are compared and the results are presented.

  3. Detroit's Fight for Equal Educational Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwerdling, A. L.

    To meet the challenge of equal educational opportunity, current methods of public school finance must be revised. The present financial system, based on State equalization of local property tax valuation, is inequitable since it results in many school districts, particularly those in large cities, having inadequate resources to meet extraordinary…

  4. Performance prediction method for a multi-stage Knudsen pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugimoto, K.; Hirota, Y.; Kizaki, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Niimi, T.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the novel method to predict the performance of a multi-stage Knudsen pump is proposed. The performance prediction method is carried out in two steps numerically with the assistance of a simple experimental result. In the first step, the performance of a single-stage Knudsen pump was measured experimentally under various pressure conditions, and the relationship of the mass flow rate was obtained with respect to the average pressure between the inlet and outlet of the pump and the pressure difference between them. In the second step, the performance of a multi-stage pump was analyzed by a one-dimensional model derived from the mass conservation law. The performances predicted by the 1D-model of 1-stage, 2-stage, 3-stage, and 4-stage pumps were validated by the experimental results for the corresponding number of stages. It was concluded that the proposed prediction method works properly.

  5. 29 CFR 1620.14 - Testing equality of jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION THE EQUAL PAY ACT § 1620.14... must be met in order for the equal pay standard to apply. It should be kept in mind that “equal” does..., or responsibility required for the performance of jobs will not render the equal pay standard...

  6. Light equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, R.A.; Reinecke, D.R.; Power, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    An electro-optical, radiographic film dodging technique has been developed that can restore lost image contrast on underexposed regions of radiographs. The device consists of a low-resolution x-ray camera and a scanning, light-exposure array. Both are controlled by a microcomputer. The theory of operation has been developed, and technical requirements for implementing light-equalization radiogrpahy have been defined. Initial clinical results with a prototype have been analyzed and compared with results of conventional films

  7. Is all support equal? The moderating effects of supervisor, coworker, and organizational support on the link between emotional labor and job performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Kim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to examine the moderating roles of perceived supervisor, coworker, and organizational support in the relationship between emotional labor and job performance in the airline service context. A sample of flight attendants working for one major airline company in South Korea participated in this study. The flight attendants’ official job performance data were provided by the airline company. For data analyses, a series of hierarchical moderated regression analyses were employed. The results showed differential moderation effects of the three sources of support at work. Specifically, the positive relationship between deep acting and job performance was strengthened by perceived supervisor and coworker support. The negative relationship between surface acting and job performance was exacerbated by perceived supervisor support, indicating the reverse buffering effect. Perceived organizational support showed only main effects on employee performance with no moderation effects.

  8. Buffer-Free High Performance Liquid Chromatography Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a simple, economical and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of theophylline in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Method: Caffeine was used as the internal standard and reversed phase C-18 column was used to elute the drug and ...

  9. A new constitutive analysis of hexagonal close-packed metal in equal channel angular pressing by crystal plasticity finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hejie; Öchsner, Andreas; Yarlagadda, Prasad K. D. V.; Xiao, Yin; Furushima, Tsuyoshi; Wei, Dongbin; Jiang, Zhengyi; Manabe, Ken-ichi

    2018-01-01

    Most of hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals are lightweight metals. With the increasing application of light metal products, the production of light metal is increasingly attracting the attentions of researchers worldwide. To obtain a better understanding of the deformation mechanism of HCP metals (especially for Mg and its alloys), a new constitutive analysis was carried out based on previous research. In this study, combining the theories of strain gradient and continuum mechanics, the equal channel angular pressing process is analyzed and a HCP crystal plasticity constitutive model is developed especially for Mg and its alloys. The influence of elevated temperature on the deformation mechanism of the Mg alloy (slip and twin) is novelly introduced into a crystal plasticity constitutive model. The solution for the new developed constitutive model is established on the basis of the Lagrangian iterations and Newton Raphson simplification.

  10. Adaptive Equalizer Based on Second-Order Cone Programming in Underwater Acoustic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang CHEN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved adaptive equalizer based on the principle of minimum mean square error (MMSE is proposed. This optimization problem which is shown to be convex, is transformed to second-order cone (SOC and solved using the interior point method instead of conventional iterative methods such as least mean squares (LMS or recursive least squares (RLS. To validate its performance a single-carrier system for underwater acoustic communication with digital phase-locked loop and the adaptive fractional spaced equalizers was designed and a lake trial was carried out. According to the results, comparing with traditional equalizers based on LMS and RLS algorithms, the equalizer proposed needs no iterative process and gets rid of the contradiction between convergent rate and precision. Therefore it overcomes the difficulty of parameters setting. Furthermore, the algorithm needs much less training codes to achieve the same equalization performance and improves the communication efficiency.

  11. An advanced probabilistic structural analysis method for implicit performance functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, H. R.; Cruse, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    In probabilistic structural analysis, the performance or response functions usually are implicitly defined and must be solved by numerical analysis methods such as finite element methods. In such cases, the most commonly used probabilistic analysis tool is the mean-based, second-moment method which provides only the first two statistical moments. This paper presents a generalized advanced mean value (AMV) method which is capable of establishing the distributions to provide additional information for reliability design. The method requires slightly more computations than the second-moment method but is highly efficient relative to the other alternative methods. In particular, the examples show that the AMV method can be used to solve problems involving non-monotonic functions that result in truncated distributions.

  12. Performance analysis, quality function deployment and structured methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, M. W.

    Quality function deployment, (QFD), an approach to synthesizing several elements of system modeling and design into a single unit, is presented. Behavioral, physical, and performance modeling are usually considered as separate aspects of system design without explicit linkages. Structured methodologies have developed linkages between behavioral and physical models before, but have not considered the integration of performance models. QFD integrates performance models with traditional structured models. In this method, performance requirements such as cost, weight, and detection range are partitioned into matrices. Partitioning is done by developing a performance model, preferably quantitative, for each requirement. The parameters of the model become the engineering objectives in a QFD analysis and the models are embedded in a spreadsheet version of the traditional QFD matrices. The performance model and its parameters are used to derive part of the functional model by recognizing that a given performance model implies some structure to the functionality of the system.

  13. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng [Department of Imaging Physics, Digital Imaging Research Laboratory, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030-4009 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  14. Comparison of scatter rejection and low-contrast performance of scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR), slot-scan digital radiography, and full-field digital radiography systems for chest phantom imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinming; Shaw, Chris C.; Lai, Chao-Jen; Wang Tianpeng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate and compare the scatter rejection properties and low-contrast performance of the scan equalization digital radiography (SEDR) technique to the slot-scan and conventional full-field digital radiography techniques for chest imaging. Methods: A prototype SEDR system was designed and constructed with an a-Se flat-panel (FP) detector to improve image quality in heavily attenuating regions of an anthropomorphic chest phantom. Slot-scanning geometry was used to reject scattered radiation without attenuating primary x rays. The readout scheme of the FP was modified to erase accumulated scatter signals prior to image readout. A 24-segment beam width modulator was developed to regulate x-ray exposures regionally and compensate for the low x-ray flux in heavily attenuating regions. To measure the scatter-to-primary ratios (SPRs), a 2 mm thick lead plate with a 2-D array of aperture holes was used to measure the primary signals, which were then subtracted from those obtained without the lead plate to determine scatter components. A 2-D array of aluminum beads (3 mm in diameter) was used as the low-contrast objects to measure the contrast ratios (CRs) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) for evaluating the low-contrast performance in chest phantom images. A set of two images acquired with the same techniques were subtracted from each other to measure the noise levels. SPRs, CRs, and CNRs of the SEDR images were measured in four anatomical regions of chest phantom images and compared to those of slot-scan images and full-field images acquired with and without antiscatter grid. Results: The percentage reduction of SPR (percentage of SPRs reduced with scatter removal/rejection methods relative to that for nongrid full-field imaging) averaged over four anatomical regions was measured to be 80%, 83%, and 71% for SEDR, slot-scan, and full-field with grid, respectively. The average CR over four regions was found to improve over that for nongrid full

  15. Why the Equal Rights Amendment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Florence L.

    The Equal Rights Amendment proposes to ensure constitutional protection against all legislative sex discrimination. "Separate but Equal" standards, be they legal, social or psychological, are inevitably incompatable with equal protection under the law and act as a barrier to each individual's freedom for self determination. Equal rights,…

  16. Can gender differences in the educational performance of 15-year old migrant pupils be explained by the gender equality in the countries of origin and destination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.; Kornder, N.

    2013-01-01

    We try to explain the differences between the performance (in both reading and math) of 8430 15-year-old daughters and 8526 15-year-old sons in 17 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development destination countries across Europe and Oceania with the PISA 2009 data from 45 origin countries

  17. Can gender differences in the educational performance of 15-year old migrant pupils be explained by the gender equality in the countries of origin and destination?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dronkers, J.; Kornder, N.

    2013-01-01

    We try to explain the differences between the performance (in both reading and math) of 8430 15-year-old daughters and 8526 15-year-old sons in 17 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development destination countries across Europe and Oceania with the PISA 2009 data from 45 origin countries or

  18. MMSE-NP-RISIC-Based Channel Equalization for MIMO-SC-FDE Troposcatter Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zedong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of intersymbol interference (ISI on single-carrier frequency-domain equalization with multiple input multiple output (MIMO-SC-FDE troposcatter communication systems is severe. Most of the channel equalization methods fail to solve it completely. In this paper, given the disadvantages of the noise-predictive (NP MMSE-based and the residual intersymbol interference cancellation (RISIC equalization in the single input single output (SISO system, we focus on the combination of both equalization schemes mentioned above. After extending both of them into MIMO system for the first time, we introduce a novel MMSE-NP-RISIC equalization method for MIMO-SC-FDE troposcatter communication systems. Analysis and simulation results validate the performance of the proposed method in time-varying frequency-selective troposcatter channel at an acceptable computational complexity cost.

  19. Adaptive histogram equalization and its variations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizer, S.M.; Amburn, E.P.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Greer, Trey; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. We report algorithms designed to

  20. Comparing and Ranking tourism websites performance based on e-satisfaction, e-trust, e-quality, and e-loyalty: A combined approach of structural equation modeling, fuzzy and analytical hierarchical process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sharifi-Tehrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to rank the relative performance of tourism websites in terms of e-satisfaction, e-trust, e-quality, and e-loyalty variables. To this end, two major Iranian travel websites providing accommodation (Iran Hotel Online and tour packages (Marcopolo Corporation were chosen and their performances were evaluated based on the four above variables. This research comprises two independent surveys. The first survey administered to a sample of 155 university professors and website designers examined the relative weights of the study variables in explaining the e-performance of these websites through structural equation modeling (SEM. The results indicate that e-quality, e-loyalty, e-trust, and e-satisfaction have the strongest impact on the e-performance, respectively. The second survey examined relative weights of the e-performance based on the websites’ existing e-customers (two categories of 154 and 187 samples and also qualitative content analysis of the websites’ characteristics using fuzzy analytical hierarchical process (AHP. The findings served to inform that Marcopolo website obtained stronger weights for all four variables, compared with Iran Hotel Online, indicating its higher performance in all variables. At the end, the weight values from the SEM and AHP surveys were synthesized (0.580 and 0.418 for Marcopolo and Iran Hotel Online, respectively in order to rank the websites based on their e-performances. According to the findings, Marcopolo website outperforms its counterpart in all four variables. The current paper contributes to the literature by yielding some insights into how to benchmark websites in order to improve their e-performance based on perspectives of both customers and experts.

  1. Gender equality in primary immunisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak S Khismatrao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Immunization, a well-known and effective method of preventing childhood illnesses is basic service under primary health care. Most surveys in India measure primary immunization coverage and quality, but no "Gender Equality." Aims: Assess "Gender Equality" in primary immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional survey in a primary health center, Pune, Maharashtra using World Health Organization 30-cluster sampling method with 14 beneficiaries (7 girls and 7 boys to be selected from each cluster. Instead of 420 children, data collected for 345 children, as requisite numbers of children were not available in low population villages and also children whose mothers were not present during survey were excluded. Materials and Methods: Vaccination data collected from either records and/or history by mother. Children born on or between 13-09-2009 and 13-09-2010, were included. Statistical Analysis Used: SPSS 14.01 version with Chi-square as test of significance. Results: Of the study population, 171 (49.6% were females and 174 (50.4% males. A total of 64.1% children had immunization records with female proportion 69.0% and males 59.2%. Primary immunization coverage was 80.0%, with female proportion 82.5% and males 77.6%. One male child was completely unimmunized and remaining partially immunized, with unaware of schedule and illness of child being major reasons for partial immunization. There was no gender wise statistically significant difference observed in Primary Immunization with reference to coverage, quality, and place of immunization. Conclusions: Immunization coverage is nearing 85% benchmark with major contribution from Universal Immunization Program. Gender Equality observed in primary immunization. Preservation of immunization records by community and timely vaccinations are areas for improvement.

  2. Experience does not equal expertise in recognizing infrequent incoming gunfire: neural markers for experience and task expertise at peak behavioral performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Samuel Sherwin

    Full Text Available For a soldier, decisions to use force can happen rapidly and sometimes lead to undesired consequences. In many of these situations, there is a rapid assessment by the shooter that recognizes a threat and responds to it with return fire. But the neural processes underlying these rapid decisions are largely unknown, especially amongst those with extensive weapons experience and expertise. In this paper, we investigate differences in weapons experts and non-experts during an incoming gunfire detection task. Specifically, we analyzed the electroencephalography (EEG of eleven expert marksmen/soldiers and eleven non-experts while they listened to an audio scene consisting of a sequence of incoming and non-incoming gunfire events. Subjects were tasked with identifying each event as quickly as possible and committing their choice via a motor response. Contrary to our hypothesis, experts did not have significantly better behavioral performance or faster response time than novices. Rather, novices indicated trends of better behavioral performance than experts. These group differences were more dramatic in the EEG correlates of incoming gunfire detection. Using machine learning, we found condition-discriminating EEG activity among novices showing greater magnitude and covering longer periods than those found in experts. We also compared group-level source reconstruction on the maximum discriminating neural correlates and found that each group uses different neural structures to perform the task. From condition-discriminating EEG and source localization, we found that experts perceive more categorical overlap between incoming and non-incoming gunfire. Consequently, the experts did not perform as well behaviorally as the novices. We explain these unexpected group differences as a consequence of experience with gunfire not being equivalent to expertise in recognizing incoming gunfire.

  3. Stable Galerkin versus equal-order Galerkin least-squares elements for the stokes flow problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, L.P.; Frey, S.L.; Sampaio, R.

    1989-11-01

    Numerical experiments are performed for the stokes flow problem employing a stable Galerkin method and a Galerkin/Least-squares method with equal-order elements. Error estimates for the methods tested herein are reviewed. The numerical results presented attest the good stability properties of all methods examined herein. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  4. The performances of R GPU implementations of the GMRES method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Oancea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the performance of commodity computers has improved drastically with the introduction of multicore processors and GPU computing, the standard R distribution is still based on single-threaded model of computation, using only a small fraction of the computational power available now for most desktops and laptops. Modern statistical software packages rely on high performance implementations of the linear algebra routines there are at the core of several important leading edge statistical methods. In this paper we present a GPU implementation of the GMRES iterative method for solving linear systems. We compare the performance of this implementation with a pure single threaded version of the CPU. We also investigate the performance of our implementation using different GPU packages available now for R such as gmatrix, gputools or gpuR which are based on CUDA or OpenCL frameworks.

  5. Evaluation Method for Low-Temperature Performance of Lithium Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. W.; Ma, Q.; Fu, Y. L.; Tao, Z. Q.; Xiao, H. Q.; Bai, H.; Bai, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the evaluation method for low temperature performance of lithium battery is established. The low temperature performance level was set up to determine the best operating temperature range of the lithium battery using different cathode materials. Results are shared with the consumers for the proper use of lithium battery to make it have a longer service life and avoid the occurrence of early rejection.

  6. Resource Isolation Method for Program’S Performance on CMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ti; Liu, Chunxiu; Xu, Zheng; Li, Huicong; Ma, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    Data center and cloud computing are more popular, which make more benefits for customers and the providers. However, in data center or clusters, commonly there is more than one program running on one server, but programs may interference with each other. The interference may take a little effect, however, the interference may cause serious drop down of performance. In order to avoid the performance interference problem, the mechanism of isolate resource for different programs is a better choice. In this paper we propose a light cost resource isolation method to improve program’s performance. This method uses Cgroups to set the dedicated CPU and memory resource for a program, aiming at to guarantee the program’s performance. There are three engines to realize this method: Program Monitor Engine top program’s resource usage of CPU and memory and transfer the information to Resource Assignment Engine; Resource Assignment Engine calculates the size of CPU and memory resource should be applied for the program; Cgroups Control Engine divide resource by Linux tool Cgroups, and drag program in control group for execution. The experiment result show that making use of the resource isolation method proposed by our paper, program’s performance can be improved.

  7. The New Performance Calculation Method of Fouled Axial Flow Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fouling is the most important performance degradation factor, so it is necessary to accurately predict the effect of fouling on engine performance. In the previous research, it is very difficult to accurately model the fouled axial flow compressor. This paper develops a new performance calculation method of fouled multistage axial flow compressor based on experiment result and operating data. For multistage compressor, the whole compressor is decomposed into two sections. The first section includes the first 50% stages which reflect the fouling level, and the second section includes the last 50% stages which are viewed as the clean stage because of less deposits. In this model, the performance of the first section is obtained by combining scaling law method and linear progression model with traditional stage stacking method; simultaneously ambient conditions and engine configurations are considered. On the other hand, the performance of the second section is calculated by averaged infinitesimal stage method which is based on Reynolds’ law of similarity. Finally, the model is successfully applied to predict the 8-stage axial flow compressor and 16-stage LM2500-30 compressor. The change of thermodynamic parameters such as pressure ratio, efficiency with the operating time, and stage number is analyzed in detail.

  8. A Method To ModifyCorrect The Performance Of Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohith Krishnan R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The actual response of the amplifier may vary with the replacement of some aged or damaged components and this method is to compensate that problem. Here we use op-amp Fixator as the design tool. The tool helps us to isolate the selected circuit component from rest of the circuit adjust its operating point to correct the performance deviations and to modify the circuit without changing other parts of the circuit. A method to modifycorrect the performance of amplifiers by properly redesign the circuit is presented in this paper.

  9. Roles and methods of performance evaluation of hospital academic leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Yuan, Huikang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Xia; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    The rapidly advancing implementation of public hospital reform urgently requires the identification and classification of a pool of exceptional medical specialists, corresponding with incentives to attract and retain them, providing a nucleus of distinguished expertise to ensure public hospital preeminence. This paper examines the significance of academic leadership, from a strategic management perspective, including various tools, methods and mechanisms used in the theory and practice of performance evaluation, and employed in the selection, training and appointment of academic leaders. Objective methods of assessing leadership performance are also provided for reference.

  10. Investigation of Thermal Performance for Atria: a Method Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi Leila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of low energy design in large buildings has encouraged researchers to implement different methods for predicting a building’s thermal performance. Atria, as energy efficient features, have been implemented to improve the indoor thermal environment in large modern buildings. Though widely implemented, the thorough study of atrium performance is restricted due to its large size, complex thermodynamic behavior and the inaccuracies and limitations of available prediction tools. This study reviews the most common research tools implemented in previous researches on atria thermal performance, to explore the advantages and limitation of different methods for future studies. The methods reviewed are analytical, experimental, computer modelling and a combination of any or all of these methods. The findings showed that CFD (computational fluid dynamic models are the most popular tools of recent due to their higher accuracy, capabilities and user-friendly modification. Although the experimental methods were reliable for predicting atria thermal and ventilation performance, they have mostly been used to provide data for validation of CFD models. Furthermore, coupling CFD with other experimental models could increase the reliability and accuracy of the models and provide a more comprehensive analysis.

  11. Using hybrid method to evaluate the green performance in uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ming-Lang; Lan, Lawrence W; Wang, Ray; Chiu, Anthony; Cheng, Hui-Ping

    2011-04-01

    Green performance measure is vital for enterprises in making continuous improvements to maintain sustainable competitive advantages. Evaluation of green performance, however, is a challenging task due to the dependence complexity of the aspects, criteria, and the linguistic vagueness of some qualitative information and quantitative data together. To deal with this issue, this study proposes a novel approach to evaluate the dependence aspects and criteria of firm's green performance. The rationale of the proposed approach, namely green network balanced scorecard, is using balanced scorecard to combine fuzzy set theory with analytical network process (ANP) and importance-performance analysis (IPA) methods, wherein fuzzy set theory accounts for the linguistic vagueness of qualitative criteria and ANP converts the relations among the dependence aspects and criteria into an intelligible structural modeling used IPA. For the empirical case study, four dependence aspects and 34 green performance criteria for PCB firms in Taiwan were evaluated. The managerial implications are discussed.

  12. Operator performance evaluation using multi criteria decision making methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Ruzanita Mat; Ismail, Wan Rosmanira; Razali, Siti Fatihah

    2014-06-01

    Operator performance evaluation is a very important operation in labor-intensive manufacturing industry because the company's productivity depends on the performance of its operators. The aims of operator performance evaluation are to give feedback to operators on their performance, to increase company's productivity and to identify strengths and weaknesses of each operator. In this paper, six multi criteria decision making methods; Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy AHP (FAHP), ELECTRE, PROMETHEE II, Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR) are used to evaluate the operators' performance and to rank the operators. The performance evaluation is based on six main criteria; competency, experience and skill, teamwork and time punctuality, personal characteristics, capability and outcome. The study was conducted at one of the SME food manufacturing companies in Selangor. From the study, it is found that AHP and FAHP yielded the "outcome" criteria as the most important criteria. The results of operator performance evaluation showed that the same operator is ranked the first using all six methods.

  13. Algorithms for adaptive histogram equalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pizer, S.M.; Austin, J.D.; Cromartie, R.; Geselowitz, A.; Ter Haar Romeny, B.; Zimmerman, J.B.; Zuiderveld, K.

    1986-01-01

    Adaptive histogram equalization (ahe) is a contrast enhancement method designed to be broadly applicable and having demonstrated effectiveness [Zimmerman, 1985]. However, slow speed and the overenhancement of noise it produces in relatively homogeneous regions are two problems. The authors summarize algorithms designed to overcome these and other concerns. These algorithms include interpolated ahe, to speed up the method on general purpose computers; a version of interpolated ahe designed to run in a few seconds on feedback processors; a version of full ahe designed to run in under one second on custom VLSI hardware; and clipped ahe, designed to overcome the problem of overenhancement of noise contrast. The authors conclude that clipped ahe should become a method of choice in medical imaging and probably also in other areas of digital imaging, and that clipped ahe can be made adequately fast to be routinely applied in the normal display sequence

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  15. Observability in electric power networks: a method of ways of factorization in state estimation with equality restrictions; Observabilidade em redes de energia: um metodo de caminhos de fatoracao em estimacao de estado com restricoes de igualdade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicentino, Flavio Antonio

    1997-07-01

    A theory of network observability that mixes graph concepts and factorization of the gain matrix G has been recently developed. It uses data already available in Power System Operating Centers. That theory is easy to understand and implement and does not require subroutines other than the ones used in static state estimation. However, this new theory has been implemented only for the case of state estimation in Normal Equation Formulation (N E). However, the N E Method presents some inherent numerical difficulties. Such numerical difficulties are usually related to the disparity in the measurements weights (high values for zero-injections measurements and low values for pseudo-measurements) and the presence of short lines in the network, as well. In order to solve such numerical difficulties, new methods have come up, such as: Normal Equation Method with Equality Constraints (N E/C), where Lagrange's Multiplier Method can be applied to minimize a function while satisfying a set of constraints; Hachtel's Method, which is formulated the same way as N E/C Method, although an equation of residual vector is introduced in solution process; Hybrid Method, which is a general formulation behaving as the N E/C Method at one extreme, and as Hachtel's Method at the other. Thus, the aim of this work is to treat the adaptation of the network observability Method by using path graphs, with the state estimation in the form of a minimization problem with equality constraints. As the Hybrid Method is a generalization form of the state estimator with constraints, this formulation is used to develop the proposed theory. Extreme case (as the pure Hachtel's Method) are also considered. (author)

  16. Performance Analysis of Unsupervised Clustering Methods for Brain Tumor Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar H Jaware

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Medical image processing is the most challenging and emerging field of neuroscience. The ultimate goal of medical image analysis in brain MRI is to extract important clinical features that would improve methods of diagnosis & treatment of disease. This paper focuses on methods to detect & extract brain tumour from brain MR images. MATLAB is used to design, software tool for locating brain tumor, based on unsupervised clustering methods. K-Means clustering algorithm is implemented & tested on data base of 30 images. Performance evolution of unsupervised clusteringmethods is presented.

  17. Equality Matters: The Critical Implications of Precisely Defining Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Valerie; Walkowiak, Temple; Cain, Chris; Lee, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Equality is such an important concept for children to develop. In this article it is argued that a precise definition is needed to ensure that students are provided with a consistent "picture" of what it is that equality really means.

  18. Performance of trim coils made by a novel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs

  19. Sensitive high performance liquid chromatographic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new simple, sensitive, cost-effective and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of proguanil (PG) and its metabolites, cycloguanil (CG) and 4-chlorophenylbiguanide (4-CPB) in urine and plasma is described. The extraction procedure is a simple three-step process ...

  20. Visual art teachers and performance assessment methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the competencies of visual arts teachers in using performance assessment methods, and to ascertain the extent to which the knowledge, skills and experiences of teachers affect their competence in using assessment strategies in their classroom. The study employs a qualitative research design; ...

  1. Methods of evaluating performance in controlling marketing,activities

    OpenAIRE

    Codruţa Dura

    2002-01-01

    There are specific methods for assessing and improving the effectiveness of a marketing strategy. A marketer should state in the marketing plan what a marketing strategy is supposed to accomplish. These statements should set forth performance standards, which usually are stated in terms of profits, sales, or costs

  2. Improvement on the Performance of Canal Network and Method of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the required improvement on the performance of canal network and method of on-farm water application systems at Tunga-Kawo irrigation scheme, Wushishi, Niger state. The problems of poor delivery of water to the farmland were identified to include erosion of canal embarkment, lack of water ...

  3. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... hardware-implemented algorithm, which performs the task of combining and merging information from muon ... Figure 1 shows the comparison of efficiencies obtained with the two methods containing .... [3] The CMS Collaboration, The trigger and data acquisition project, Volume 1, The Level 1. Trigger ...

  4. Performance Poetry as a Method to Understand Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee-Ann Fenge

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Seen but Seldom Heard project was a performative social science (PSS project which used performance poetry to illuminate the experiences of young people with physical impairments. Two performance poets, a group of young people with physical impairments, and academics from social science and media/communication backgrounds worked together to explore various aspects of the lived experience of disability exploring issues associated with identity, stereotypes, stigma and representation. In this article, we will present an overview of the project and consider how PSS offers a method to engage seldom heard voices, and illustrate this through two poems which shed light on the lived experience of disability. The article will consider the impact of these poems as PSS, and how this method allows the audience to develop a deeper understanding of the "lived" experience of disability and to reflect upon their own understandings of disability and discrimination. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602118

  5. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  6. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  7. Evaluation method for the drying performance of enzyme containing formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jakob; Bach, P.; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for fast and cheap evaluation of the performance of enzyme containing formulations in terms of preserving the highest enzyme activity during spray drying. The method is based on modeling the kinetics of the thermal inactivation reaction which occurs during the drying process....... Relevant kinetic parameters are determined from differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) experiments and the model is used to simulate the severity of the inactivation reaction for temperatures and moisture levels relevant for spray drying. After conducting experiments and subsequent simulations...... for a number of different formulations it may be deduced which formulation performs best. This is illustrated by a formulation design study where 4 different enzyme containing formulations are evaluated. The method is validated by comparison to pilot scale spray dryer experiments....

  8. Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tenglerová, Hana

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 72-74 ISSN 1210-6658. [European Gender Summit 2011: Equality Research and Innovation Through Equality . Brusel, 07.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK08007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : gender equality * science * policy Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  9. 36 CFR 254.12 - Value equalization; cash equalization waiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value equalization; cash... AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.12 Value equalization; cash equalization waiver. (a..., either with or without adjustments of relative values as compensation for various costs, the parties to...

  10. Getting to Equal : Promoting Gender Equality through Human Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    To achieve gender equality and empower women, it is essential to invest in human development. The World Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development (hereafter WDR 2012) brings the best global evidence to bear on the relationship between gender equality and development. A central theme running through the report is how investments and outcomes in human development namely health...

  11. Quantitative developments in the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for the assessment of human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Librizzi, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The current 'second generation' approaches in human reliability analysis focus their attention on the contextual conditions under which a given action is performed rather than on the notion of inherent human error probabilities, as was done in the earlier 'first generation' techniques. Among the 'second generation' methods, this paper considers the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) and proposes some developments with respect to a systematic procedure for computing probabilities of action failure. The starting point for the quantification is a previously introduced fuzzy version of the CREAM paradigm which is here further extended to include uncertainty on the qualification of the conditions under which the action is performed and to account for the fact that the effects of the common performance conditions (CPCs) on performance reliability may not all be equal. By the proposed approach, the probability of action failure is estimated by rating the performance conditions in terms of their effect on the action

  12. TAXATION. FAIRNESS. EQUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morar Ioan Dan

    2014-12-01

    of the tax burden between them, depending on how the tax base, depending on the type of taxpayer and according to other criteria. Another coordinated taxation is part of contemporary consumerist polticilor new tax, taxing certain income, especially income individuals is marked by the overall objective of capitalist society, that consumption growth. Fiscal policies are policies the new contemporary consumerism. And this phenomenon influences the distribution of the tax burden among taxpayers, more or less fair. What is tax fairness and how we can quantify? Here's a question that I try to raspunt from equality before the law tax payers. Equality before the tax law is not a primary goal of modern tax policy, it losing ground to tax efficiency goals and its economic and social components. On the other hand though fiscal phenomenon can help to ensure social peace through taxation to keep Sean absolute size of the tax burden and the fact that all are equal before the law, tax law and within given social policies in broadly, social security or insurance in respect restrains can be promoted by themselves and less by fiscal policy.

  13. Equal opportunity for low-degree network nodes: a PageRank-based method for protein target identification in metabolic graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dániel Bánky

    Full Text Available Biological network data, such as metabolic-, signaling- or physical interaction graphs of proteins are increasingly available in public repositories for important species. Tools for the quantitative analysis of these networks are being developed today. Protein network-based drug target identification methods usually return protein hubs with large degrees in the networks as potentially important targets. Some known, important protein targets, however, are not hubs at all, and perturbing protein hubs in these networks may have several unwanted physiological effects, due to their interaction with numerous partners. Here, we show a novel method applicable in networks with directed edges (such as metabolic networks that compensates for the low degree (non-hub vertices in the network, and identifies important nodes, regardless of their hub properties. Our method computes the PageRank for the nodes of the network, and divides the PageRank by the in-degree (i.e., the number of incoming edges of the node. This quotient is the same in all nodes in an undirected graph (even for large- and low-degree nodes, that is, for hubs and non-hubs as well, but may differ significantly from node to node in directed graphs. We suggest to assign importance to non-hub nodes with large PageRank/in-degree quotient. Consequently, our method gives high scores to nodes with large PageRank, relative to their degrees: therefore non-hub important nodes can easily be identified in large networks. We demonstrate that these relatively high PageRank scores have biological relevance: the method correctly finds numerous already validated drug targets in distinct organisms (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus, and consequently, it may suggest new possible protein targets as well. Additionally, our scoring method was not chosen arbitrarily: its value for all nodes of all undirected graphs is constant; therefore its high value captures

  14. Equal opportunity for low-degree network nodes: a PageRank-based method for protein target identification in metabolic graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánky, Dániel; Iván, Gábor; Grolmusz, Vince

    2013-01-01

    Biological network data, such as metabolic-, signaling- or physical interaction graphs of proteins are increasingly available in public repositories for important species. Tools for the quantitative analysis of these networks are being developed today. Protein network-based drug target identification methods usually return protein hubs with large degrees in the networks as potentially important targets. Some known, important protein targets, however, are not hubs at all, and perturbing protein hubs in these networks may have several unwanted physiological effects, due to their interaction with numerous partners. Here, we show a novel method applicable in networks with directed edges (such as metabolic networks) that compensates for the low degree (non-hub) vertices in the network, and identifies important nodes, regardless of their hub properties. Our method computes the PageRank for the nodes of the network, and divides the PageRank by the in-degree (i.e., the number of incoming edges) of the node. This quotient is the same in all nodes in an undirected graph (even for large- and low-degree nodes, that is, for hubs and non-hubs as well), but may differ significantly from node to node in directed graphs. We suggest to assign importance to non-hub nodes with large PageRank/in-degree quotient. Consequently, our method gives high scores to nodes with large PageRank, relative to their degrees: therefore non-hub important nodes can easily be identified in large networks. We demonstrate that these relatively high PageRank scores have biological relevance: the method correctly finds numerous already validated drug targets in distinct organisms (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Plasmodium falciparum and MRSA Staphylococcus aureus), and consequently, it may suggest new possible protein targets as well. Additionally, our scoring method was not chosen arbitrarily: its value for all nodes of all undirected graphs is constant; therefore its high value captures importance in the

  15. Performance evaluation of sea surface simulation methods for target detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Renjie; Wu, Xin; Yang, Chen; Han, Yiping; Zhang, Jianqi

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of sea surface target detection by optoelectronic sensors, machine learning has been adopted to improve the detection performance. Many features can be learned from training images by machines automatically. However, field images of sea surface target are not sufficient as training data. 3D scene simulation is a promising method to address this problem. For ocean scene simulation, sea surface height field generation is the key point to achieve high fidelity. In this paper, two spectra-based height field generation methods are evaluated. Comparison between the linear superposition and linear filter method is made quantitatively with a statistical model. 3D ocean scene simulating results show the different features between the methods, which can give reference for synthesizing sea surface target images with different ocean conditions.

  16. Modeling the Performance of Fast Mulipole Method on HPC platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2012-04-06

    The current trend in high performance computing is pushing towards exascale computing. To achieve this exascale performance, future systems will have between 100 million and 1 billion cores assuming gigahertz cores. Currently, there are many efforts studying the hardware and software bottlenecks for building an exascale system. It is important to understand and meet these bottlenecks in order to attain 10 PFLOPS performance. On applications side, there is an urgent need to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure continued scalability at this scale. Fast multipole methods (FMM) were originally developed for accelerating N-body problems for particle based methods. Nowadays, FMM is more than an N-body solver, recent trends in HPC have been to use FMMs in unconventional application areas. FMM is likely to be a main player in exascale due to its hierarchical nature and the techniques used to access the data via a tree structure which allow many operations to happen simultaneously at each level of the hierarchy. In this thesis , we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exasclae architecture. Furthermore, we develop a novel performance model for FMM. Our ultimate aim of this thesis is to ensure the scalability of FMM on the future exascale machines.

  17. Internationalisation and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ackers

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the “tension” in the debate around human resources in science between the promotion of internationalisation and mobility, on the one hand, and the promotion of equality and work-life balance, on the other. In an attempt to move away from the current polarity of mobility-immobility and understand the importance of viewing mobility as a continuum, the paper emphasises the contribution of new forms of mobility and particularly of short stays to the internationalisation process that has become so critical to career progression. It illustrates the specific opportunities that certain forms of short-stay mobility present both in terms of optimizing knowledge exchange processes and “internationalisation” but also to “potentially mobile” women and men with personal and caring obligations. Attention to the “far end” of the continuum draws attention to the role that “business visits” and on-going “travel” play in career enhancement. Migration research has rather neglected these forms of movement. Recent research on business travel would suggest that these forms of movement are highly gendered and present unique challenges to people with personal and caring responsibilities.

  18. System and Method for Monitoring Piezoelectric Material Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Robert W. (Inventor); Fox, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, Melanie L. (Inventor); Chattin, Richard L. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A system and method are provided for monitoring performance capacity of a piezoelectric material that may form part of an actuator or sensor device. A switch is used to selectively electrically couple an inductor to the piezoelectric material to form an inductor-capacitor circuit. Resonance is induced in the inductor-capacitor circuit when the switch is operated to create the circuit. The resonance of the inductor-capacitor circuit is monitored with the frequency of the resonance being indicative of performance capacity of the device's piezoelectric material.

  19. Implementation of the Midway Image Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Guillemot

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present the detailed algorithm of the Midway Image Equalization giving to a pair of images the same histogram while maintaining as much as possible their previous gray dynamics. The midway equalization is primarily designed for gray level images, but can be applied channel-wise to color images. This method is easy to implement, fast to compute, fully automatic and requires no parameter.

  20. Evaluating firms' R&D performance using best worst method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Negin; Rezaei, Jafar

    2018-02-01

    Since research and development (R&D) is the most critical determinant of the productivity, growth and competitive advantage of firms, measuring R&D performance has become the core of attention of R&D managers, and an extensive body of literature has examined and identified different R&D measurements and determinants of R&D performance. However, measuring R&D performance and assigning the same level of importance to different R&D measures, which is the common approach in existing studies, can oversimplify the R&D measuring process, which may result in misinterpretation of the performance and consequently fallacy R&D strategies. The aim of this study is to measure R&D performance taking into account the different levels of importance of R&D measures, using a multi-criteria decision-making method called Best Worst Method (BWM) to identify the weights (importance) of R&D measures and measure the R&D performance of 50 high-tech SMEs in the Netherlands using the data gathered in a survey among SMEs and from R&D experts. The results show how assigning different weights to different R&D measures (in contrast to simple mean) results in a different ranking of the firms and allow R&D managers to formulate more effective strategies to improve their firm's R&D performance by applying knowledge regarding the importance of different R&D measures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. An efficient method for evaluating RRAM crossbar array performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Lin; Zhang, Jinyu; Chen, An; Wu, Huaqiang; Qian, He; Yu, Zhiping

    2016-06-01

    An efficient method is proposed in this paper to mitigate computational burden in resistive random access memory (RRAM) array simulation. In the worst case scenario, a 4 Mb RRAM array with line resistance is greatly reduced using this method. For 1S1R-RRAM array structures, static and statistical parameters in both reading and writing processes are simulated. Error analysis is performed to prove the reliability of the algorithm when line resistance is extremely small compared with the junction resistance. Results show that high precision is maintained even if the size of RRAM array is reduced by one thousand times, which indicates significant improvements in both computational efficiency and memory requirements.

  2. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from...... the kernel matrix, called similarity index, which is introduced by the authors for the first time. The operation of the turbine and consequently the computation of the similarity indexes is classified into five power bins offering better resolution and thus more consistent root cause analysis. The accurate...

  3. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process parameters on cooling tower effectiveness and to identity optimal factor settings. Finally confirmation tests verified this reliability of Taguchi method for optimization of counter flow cooling tower performance with sufficient accuracy.

  4. The application of advanced rotor (performance) methods for design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussel, G.J.W. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, Inst. for Wind Energy, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    The calculation of loads and performance of wind turbine rotors has been a topic for research over the last century. The principles for the calculation of loads on rotor blades with a given specific geometry, as well as the development of optimal shaped rotor blades have been published in the decades that significant aircraft development took place. Nowadays advanced computer codes are used for specific problems regarding modern aircraft, and application to wind turbine rotors has also been performed occasionally. The engineers designing rotor blades for wind turbines still use methods based upon global principles developed in the beginning of the century. The question what to expect in terms of the type of methods to be applied in a design environment for the near future is addressed here. (EG) 14 refs.

  5. Optimization of cooling tower performance analysis using Taguchi method

    OpenAIRE

    Ramkumar Ramakrishnan; Ragupathy Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    This study discuss the application of Taguchi method in assessing maximum cooling tower effectiveness for the counter flow cooling tower using expanded wire mesh packing. The experiments were planned based on Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array .The trail was performed under different inlet conditions of flow rate of water, air and water temperature. Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and regression were carried out in order to determine the effects of process...

  6. Method discussion of the performance evaluation on nuclear plant cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yongfang; Zhong Weixia; Sun Jiansheng; Liu Jingping

    2014-01-01

    A stock cable, which is same as the nuclear plant cable in service, was treated by thermal aging. After that, the mechanical property, the flame retardant property, the anti-oxidation were measured, and relationships between them due to the thermal aging were established. By those analysis, evaluating the in-service cable performance in nuclear plant and calculating its remaining life. Furthermore, the feasibility of this method was disscussed. (authors)

  7. A method for optimizing the performance of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Frank

    2006-07-01

    This thesis describes a method for optimizing the performance of buildings. Design decisions made in early stages of the building design process have a significant impact on the performance of buildings, for instance, the performance with respect to the energy consumption, economical aspects, and the indoor environment. The method is intended for supporting design decisions for buildings, by combining methods for calculating the performance of buildings with numerical optimization methods. The method is able to find optimum values of decision variables representing different features of the building, such as its shape, the amount and type of windows used, and the amount of insulation used in the building envelope. The parties who influence design decisions for buildings, such as building owners, building users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etc., often have different and to some extent conflicting requirements to buildings. For instance, the building owner may be more concerned about the cost of constructing the building, rather than the quality of the indoor climate, which is more likely to be a concern of the building user. In order to support the different types of requirements made by decision-makers for buildings, an optimization problem is formulated, intended for representing a wide range of design decision problems for buildings. The problem formulation involves so-called performance measures, which can be calculated with simulation software for buildings. For instance, the annual amount of energy required by the building, the cost of constructing the building, and the annual number of hours where overheating occurs, can be used as performance measures. The optimization problem enables the decision-makers to specify many different requirements to the decision variables, as well as to the performance of the building. Performance measures can for instance be required to assume their minimum or maximum value, they can be subjected to upper or

  8. Total error components - isolation of laboratory variation from method performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrell, D.; Bleyler, R.; Fisk, J.; Hiatt, M.

    1992-01-01

    The consideration of total error across sampling and analytical components of environmental measurements is relatively recent. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), through the Contract Laboratory Program (CLP), provides complete analyses and documented reports on approximately 70,000 samples per year. The quality assurance (QA) functions of the CLP procedures provide an ideal data base-CLP Automated Results Data Base (CARD)-to evaluate program performance relative to quality control (QC) criteria and to evaluate the analysis of blind samples. Repetitive analyses of blind samples within each participating laboratory provide a mechanism to separate laboratory and method performance. Isolation of error sources is necessary to identify effective options to establish performance expectations, and to improve procedures. In addition, optimized method performance is necessary to identify significant effects that result from the selection among alternative procedures in the data collection process (e.g., sampling device, storage container, mode of sample transit, etc.). This information is necessary to evaluate data quality; to understand overall quality; and to provide appropriate, cost-effective information required to support a specific decision

  9. Advanced non-destructive methods for an efficient service performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschenbach, H.; Clossen-von Lanken Schulz, M.; Oberlin, R.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the power generation industry's desire to decrease outage time and extend inspection intervals for highly stressed turbine parts, advanced and reliable Non-destructive methods were developed by Siemens Non-destructive laboratory. Effective outage performance requires the optimized planning of all outage activities as well as modern Non-destructive examination methods, in order to examine the highly stressed components (turbine rotor, casings, valves, generator rotor) reliably and in short periods of access. This paper describes the experience of Siemens Energy with an ultrasonic Phased Array inspection technique for the inspection of radial entry pinned turbine blade roots. The developed inspection technique allows the ultrasonic inspection of steam turbine blades without blade removal. Furthermore advanced Non-destructive examination methods for joint bolts will be described, which offer a significant reduction of outage duration in comparison to conventional inspection techniques. (authors)

  10. Performance prediction of electrohydrodynamic thrusters by the perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, H.; Watanabe, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel method for analyzing electrohydrodynamic (EHD) thrusters. The method is based on a perturbation technique applied to a set of drift-diffusion equations, similar to the one introduced in our previous study on estimating breakdown voltage. The thrust-to-current ratio is generalized to represent the performance of EHD thrusters. We have compared the thrust-to-current ratio obtained theoretically with that obtained from the proposed method under atmospheric air conditions, and we have obtained good quantitative agreement. Also, we have conducted a numerical simulation in more complex thruster geometries, such as the dual-stage thruster developed by Masuyama and Barrett [Proc. R. Soc. A 469, 20120623 (2013)]. We quantitatively clarify the fact that if the magnitude of a third electrode voltage is low, the effective gap distance shortens, whereas if the magnitude of the third electrode voltage is sufficiently high, the effective gap distance lengthens.

  11. The Equity-Equality Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2013-01-01

    -for-performance systems) perceived as fair and when are they not? When can differences in contribution (equity) overrule the social norm of equality? Which contingent reward structure should be applied for teamwork members, if any? Which structure to motivate employees to a continuous search for smarter working......This article investigatesthe factors that determine workplace actors’ appeal to social norms of fairness in some situations and what ‘fairness’ is perceived as consisting of. When is a pay level considered as relativity fair, and when is it not? When are contingent pay systems (i.e. pay...... procedures and solutions? These are central concerns of motivation theory, where rational choice decisions are counterbalanced by endowment effectsor other fairness concerns. Management is placed in a dilemma between what is, e.g., an economically rational structure of incentives, on the one hand, and what...

  12. Multipolar Ewald methods, 1: theory, accuracy, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Timothy J; Panteva, Maria T; Chen, Haoyuan; York, Darrin M

    2015-02-10

    The Ewald, Particle Mesh Ewald (PME), and Fast Fourier–Poisson (FFP) methods are developed for systems composed of spherical multipole moment expansions. A unified set of equations is derived that takes advantage of a spherical tensor gradient operator formalism in both real space and reciprocal space to allow extension to arbitrary multipole order. The implementation of these methods into a novel linear-scaling modified “divide-and-conquer” (mDC) quantum mechanical force field is discussed. The evaluation times and relative force errors are compared between the three methods, as a function of multipole expansion order. Timings and errors are also compared within the context of the quantum mechanical force field, which encounters primary errors related to the quality of reproducing electrostatic forces for a given density matrix and secondary errors resulting from the propagation of the approximate electrostatics into the self-consistent field procedure, which yields a converged, variational, but nonetheless approximate density matrix. Condensed-phase simulations of an mDC water model are performed with the multipolar PME method and compared to an electrostatic cutoff method, which is shown to artificially increase the density of water and heat of vaporization relative to full electrostatic treatment.

  13. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun

    2014-04-21

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine\\'s upgrade, the results may not be accurate because many other environmental factors in addition to wind speed, such as temperature, air pressure, turbulence intensity, wind shear and humidity, all potentially affect the turbine\\'s power output. Wind industry practitioners are aware of the need to filter out effects from environmental conditions. Toward that objective, we developed a kernel plus method that allows incorporation of multivariate environmental factors in a power curve model, thereby controlling the effects from environmental factors while comparing power outputs. We demonstrate that the kernel plus method can serve as a useful tool for quantifying a turbine\\'s upgrade because it is sensitive to small and moderate changes caused by certain turbine upgrades. Although we demonstrate the utility of the kernel plus method in this specific application, the resulting method is a general, multivariate model that can connect other physical factors, as long as their measurements are available, with a turbine\\'s power output, which may allow us to explore new physical properties associated with wind turbine performance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Performance assessment plans and methods for the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This document presents the preliminary plans and anticipated methods of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) for assessing the postclosure and radiological aspects of preclosure performance of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan is intended to be revised on an annual basis. The emphasis in this preliminary effort is on the method of conceptually dividing the system into three subsystems (the very near field, the near field, and the far field) and applying models to analyze the behavior of each subsystem and its individual components. The next revision will contain more detailed plans being developed as part of Site Characterization Plan (SCP) activities. After a brief system description, this plan presents the performance targets which have been established for nuclear waste repositories by regulatory agencies (Chapter 3). The SRP approach to modeling, including sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is then presented (Chapter 4). This is followed by a discussion of scenario analysis (Chapter 5), a presentation of preliminary data needs as anticipated by the SRP (Chapter 6), and a presentation of the SRP approach to postclosure assessment of the very near field, the near field, and the far field (Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively). Preclosure radiological assessment is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 presents the SRP approach to code verification and validation. Finally, the Appendix lists all computer codes anticipated for use in performance assessments. The list of codes will be updated as plans are revised

  15. A new method to evaluate human-robot system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G.; Weisbin, C. R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the key issues in space exploration is that of deciding what space tasks are best done with humans, with robots, or a suitable combination of each. In general, human and robot skills are complementary. Humans provide as yet unmatched capabilities to perceive, think, and act when faced with anomalies and unforeseen events, but there can be huge potential risks to human safety in getting these benefits. Robots provide complementary skills in being able to work in extremely risky environments, but their ability to perceive, think, and act by themselves is currently not error-free, although these capabilities are continually improving with the emergence of new technologies. Substantial past experience validates these generally qualitative notions. However, there is a need for more rigorously systematic evaluation of human and robot roles, in order to optimize the design and performance of human-robot system architectures using well-defined performance evaluation metrics. This article summarizes a new analytical method to conduct such quantitative evaluations. While the article focuses on evaluating human-robot systems, the method is generally applicable to a much broader class of systems whose performance needs to be evaluated.

  16. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  17. Neural Network Blind Equalization Algorithm Applied in Medical CT Image Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunshan Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new algorithm for iterative blind image restoration is presented in this paper. The method extends blind equalization found in the signal case to the image. A neural network blind equalization algorithm is derived and used in conjunction with Zigzag coding to restore the original image. As a result, the effect of PSF can be removed by using the proposed algorithm, which contributes to eliminate intersymbol interference (ISI. In order to obtain the estimation of the original image, what is proposed in this method is to optimize constant modulus blind equalization cost function applied to grayscale CT image by using conjugate gradient method. Analysis of convergence performance of the algorithm verifies the feasibility of this method theoretically; meanwhile, simulation results and performance evaluations of recent image quality metrics are provided to assess the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. A Control Variate Method for Probabilistic Performance Assessment. Improved Estimates for Mean Performance Quantities of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2016-05-01

    We present a method of control variates for calculating improved estimates for mean performance quantities of interest, E(PQI) , computed from Monte Carlo probabilistic simulations. An example of a PQI is the concentration of a contaminant at a particular location in a problem domain computed from simulations of transport in porous media. To simplify the presentation, the method is described in the setting of a one- dimensional elliptical model problem involving a single uncertain parameter represented by a probability distribution. The approach can be easily implemented for more complex problems involving multiple uncertain parameters and in particular for application to probabilistic performance assessment of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. Numerical results indicate the method can produce estimates of E(PQI)having superior accuracy on coarser meshes and reduce the required number of simulations needed to achieve an acceptable estimate.

  19. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  20. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  1. Exploration of submarine wake and powering performance using CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizhi, Y.; Hongcui, S.; Nan, Z.; Renyou, Y.; Liangmei, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In response to the needs of better design and less time, Computational Fluid Dynamic(CFD) methods have become an impartible part in the ship design, especially in the earlier design phases. In this paper FLUENT software was used to predict the wake character and powering performance of submarine at model scale. By an effective combination of the block topology, grid, turbulence model and validation, the simulation scheme was developed and applied to the predictions of multiple designs and optimizations of the earlier submarine design iterations. The incompressible RANS equations with different turbulence models were solved. To handle the block interface between the propeller and submarine stern, sliding girds in multiple blocks were employed, unstructural grids were used in the block around the propeller. Submarine with/without stator and/or propeller were studied. The flow feature, forces and powering performance at various conditions were calculated. The results were compared with experimental data, and a good agreement was obtained. (author)

  2. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  3. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for guanylhydrazone compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerami, C; Zhang, X; Ulrich, P; Bianchi, M; Tracey, K J; Berger, B J

    1996-01-12

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for a series of aromatic guanylhydrazones that have demonstrated therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory agents. The compounds were separated using octadecyl or diisopropyloctyl reversed-phase columns, with an acetonitrile gradient in water containing heptane sulfonate, tetramethylammonium chloride, and phosphoric acid. The method was used to reliably quantify levels of analyte as low as 785 ng/ml, and the detector response was linear to at least 50 micrograms/ml using a 100 microliters injection volume. The assay system was used to determine the basic pharmacokinetics of a lead compound, CNI-1493, from serum concentrations following a single intravenous injection in rats.

  4. Reframing Inclusive Education: Educational Equality as Capability Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that rethinking questions of inclusive education in the light of the value of educational equality--specifically conceived as capability equality, or genuine opportunities to achieve educational functionings--adds some important insights to the current debate on inclusive education. First, it provides a cohesive value…

  5. Americans misperceive racial economic equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael W; Rucker, Julian M; Richeson, Jennifer A

    2017-09-26

    The present research documents the widespread misperception of race-based economic equality in the United States. Across four studies ( n = 1,377) sampling White and Black Americans from the top and bottom of the national income distribution, participants overestimated progress toward Black-White economic equality, largely driven by estimates of greater current equality than actually exists according to national statistics. Overestimates of current levels of racial economic equality, on average, outstripped reality by roughly 25% and were predicted by greater belief in a just world and social network racial diversity (among Black participants). Whereas high-income White respondents tended to overestimate racial economic equality in the past, Black respondents, on average, underestimated the degree of past racial economic equality. Two follow-up experiments further revealed that making societal racial discrimination salient increased the accuracy of Whites' estimates of Black-White economic equality, whereas encouraging Whites to anchor their estimates on their own circumstances increased their tendency to overestimate current racial economic equality. Overall, these findings suggest a profound misperception of and unfounded optimism regarding societal race-based economic equality-a misperception that is likely to have any number of important policy implications.

  6. Medical Need, Equality, and Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, L Chad

    2016-10-01

    Many hold that distributing healthcare according to medical need is a requirement of equality. Most egalitarians believe, however, that people ought to be equal on the whole, by some overall measure of well-being or life-prospects; it would be a massive coincidence if distributing healthcare according to medical need turned out to be an effective way of promoting equality overall. I argue that distributing healthcare according to medical need is important for reducing individuals' uncertainty surrounding their future medical needs. In other words, distributing healthcare according to medical need is a natural feature of healthcare insurance; it is about indemnity, not equality. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Regionally adaptive histogram equalization of the chest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherrier, R.H.; Johnson, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    Advances in digital chest radiography have resulted in the acquisition of high-quality digital images of the human chest. With these advances, there arises a genuine need for image processing algorithms, specific to chest images. The author has implemented the technique of histogram equalization, noting the problems encountered when it is adapted to chest images. These problems have been successfully solved with a regionally adaptive histogram equalization method. Histograms are calculated locally and then modified according to both the mean pixel value of a given region and certain characteristics of the cumulative distribution function. The method allows certain regions of the chest radiograph to be enhanced differentially

  8. Quantifying Neonatal Sucking Performance: Promise of New Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capilouto, Gilson J; Cunningham, Tommy J; Mullineaux, David R; Tamilia, Eleonora; Papadelis, Christos; Giannone, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    Neonatal feeding has been traditionally understudied so guidelines and evidence-based support for common feeding practices are limited. A major contributing factor to the paucity of evidence-based practice in this area has been the lack of simple-to-use, low-cost tools for monitoring sucking performance. We describe new methods for quantifying neonatal sucking performance that hold significant clinical and research promise. We present early results from an ongoing study investigating neonatal sucking as a marker of risk for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. We include quantitative measures of sucking performance to better understand how movement variability evolves during skill acquisition. Results showed the coefficient of variation of suck duration was significantly different between preterm neonates at high risk for developmental concerns (HRPT) and preterm neonates at low risk for developmental concerns (LRPT). For HRPT, results indicated the coefficient of variation of suck smoothness increased from initial feeding to discharge and remained significantly greater than healthy full-term newborns (FT) at discharge. There was no significant difference in our measures between FT and LRPT at discharge. Our findings highlight the need to include neonatal sucking assessment as part of routine clinical care in order to capture the relative risk of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at discharge. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Equal task, equal exposure? Are men and women with the same tasks equally exposed to awkward working postures?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, W.E.; Beek, A.J. van der; Wal, B.G. van de; Knol, D.L.; Bongers, P.M.; Burdorf, A.; Mechelen, M. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether men and woman with equal tasks perform these tasks in the same way. Video recordings of 37 male and 43 female workers in six task groups were observed, from which data regarding frequency and duration of exposure to awkward postures were derived. These

  10. Disability, sameness, and equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers...... and employees talk about their co-workers with cerebral palsy and examines the narratives of diversity among able-bodied managers and employees when they discuss the work situation of their colleagues with cerebral palsy. The empirical point of departure is six weeks of participant observations in two work...... organizations along with interviews conducted in 13 work organizations with 19 managers and 43 colleagues who work with an employee with cerebral palsy on a daily basis. The article finds two dominating narratives regarding diversity that have to do with being either ‘different but the same’ or ‘just different...

  11. ''In situ'' electronic testing method of a neutron detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.M.; Levai, F.

    1987-01-01

    The method allows detection of any important change in the electrical characteristics of a neutron sensor channel. It checks the response signal produced by an electronic detector circuit when a pulse generator is connected as input signal in the high voltage supply. The electronic circuit compares the detector capacitance value, previously measured, against a reference value, which is adjusted in a window type comparator electronic circuit to detect any important degrading condition of the capacitance value in a detector-cable system. The ''in-situ'' electronic testing method of neutron detector performance has been verified in a laboratory atmosphere to be a potential method to detect any significant change in the capacitance value of a nuclear sensor and its connecting cable, also checking: detector disconnections, cable disconnections, length changes of the connecting cable, electric short-opened circuits in the sensor channel, and any electrical trouble in the detector-connector-cable system. The experimental practices were carried out by simulation of several electric changes in a nuclear sensor-cable system from a linear D.C. channel which measures reactor power during nuclear reactor operation. It was made at the Training Reactor Electronic Laboratory. The results and conclusions obtained at the Laboratory were proved, satisfactorily, in the Electronic Instrumentation of Budapest Technical University Training Reactor, Hungary

  12. Performance of analytical methods for tomographic gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Mercer, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The use of gamma-ray computerized tomography for nondestructive assay of radioactive materials has led to the development of specialized analytical methods. Over the past few years, Los Alamos has developed and implemented a computer code, called ARC-TGS, for the analysis of data obtained by tomographic gamma scanning (TGS). ARC-TGS reduces TGS transmission and emission tomographic data, providing the user with images of the sample contents, the activity or mass of selected radionuclides, and an estimate of the uncertainty in the measured quantities. The results provided by ARC-TGS can be corrected for self-attenuation when the isotope of interest emits more than one gamma-ray. In addition, ARC-TGS provides information needed to estimate TGS quantification limits and to estimate the scan time needed to screen for small amounts of radioactivity. In this report, an overview of the analytical methods used by ARC-TGS is presented along with an assessment of the performance of these methods for TGS

  13. Objective Method for Selecting Outdoor Reporting Conditions for Photovoltaic Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maish, A.

    1999-01-01

    Outdoor performance of photovoltaic modules and systems depends on prevailing conditions at the time of measurement. Outdoor test conditions must be relevant to device performance and readily attainable. Flat-plate, nonconcentrator PV device performance is reported with respect to fixed conditions referred to as Standard Reporting Conditions (SRC) of 1 kW/m plane of array total irradiance, 25 C device temperature, and a reference spectral distribution at air mass 1.5 under certain atmospheric conditions. We report a method of analyzing historical meteorological and irradiance data to determine the range of outdoor environmental parameters and solar irradiance components that affect solar collector performance when the SRC 1 kW/m total irradiance value occurs outdoors. We used data from the 30 year U.S. National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) , restricting irradiance conditions to within +/- 25 W/m of 1 kW/m on a solar tracking flat-plate collector. The distributions of environmental parameter values under these conditions are non-Gaussian and site dependent. Therefore the median, as opposed to the mean, of the observed distributions is chosen to represent appropriate outdoor reporting conditions. We found the average medians for the direct beam component (834 W/m), ambient temperature (24.4 C), total column water vapor (1.4 cm), and air mass (1.43) are near commonly used SRC values. Average median wind speed (4.4 m/s) and broadband aerosol optical depth (0.08) were significantly different from commonly used values

  14. Local Contrast Enhancement Utilizing Bidirectional Switching Equalization of Separated and Clipped Subhistograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haidi Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image contrast enhancement methods that are based on histogram equalization technique are still useful for the use in consumer electronic products due to their simple implementation. However, almost all the suggested enhancement methods are using global processing technique, which does not emphasize local contents. Therefore, this paper proposes a new local image contrast enhancement method, based on histogram equalization technique, which not only enhances the contrast, but also increases the sharpness of the image. Besides, this method is also able to preserve the mean brightness of the image. In order to limit the noise amplification, this newly proposed method utilizes local mean-separation, and clipped histogram bins methodologies. Based on nine test color images and the benchmark with other three histogram equalization based methods, the proposed technique shows the best overall performance.

  15. Equality in Sport for Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geadelmann, Patricia L.; And Others

    The subject of equal rights and opportunities for women in the field of physical education is discussed in nine articles. The major emphasis is on the legal aspects of sex discrimination. Defining equality, knowing the laws regarding enforcement, understanding the court procedures, and realizing the avenues for change are the essential tools…

  16. Governing Equality: Mathematics for All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Jennifer D.

    2013-01-01

    With the notion of governmentality, this article considers how the equal sign (=) in the U.S. math curriculum organizes knowledge of equality and inscribes cultural rules for thinking, acting, and seeing in the world. Situating the discussion within contemporary math reforms aimed at teaching mathematics for all, I draw attention to how the…

  17. Luck, Choice, and Educational Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2015-01-01

    Harry Brighouse discusses two conceptions of educational equality. The first is a type of equality of opportunity, heavily influenced by the work of John Rawls, which he calls the meritocratic conception. According to this conception, an individual's educational prospects should not be influenced by factors such as their social class background.…

  18. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis.

  19. Performance of various mathematical methods for calculation of radioimmunoassay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandel, P.; Vogt, W.

    1977-01-01

    Interpolation and regression methods are available for computer aided determination of radioimmunological end results. We compared the performance of eight algorithms (weighted and unweighted linear logit-log regression, quadratic logit-log regression, Rodbards logistic model in the weighted and unweighted form, smoothing spline interpolation with a large and small smoothing factor and polygonal interpolation) on the basis of three radioimmunoassays with different reference curve characteristics (digoxin, estriol, human chorionic somatomammotropin = HCS). Great store was set by the accuracy of the approximation at the intermediate points on the curve, ie. those points that lie midway between two standard concentrations. These concentrations were obtained by weighing and inserted as unknown samples. In the case of digoxin and estriol the polygonal interpolation provided the best results while the weighted logit-log regression proved superior in the case of HCS. (orig.) [de

  20. Equalization in Aeronautical Telemetry Using Multiple Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    such an interval is assumed, although we won’t complicate the notation to make this explicit. 3In the traditional TR-STBC system, ρ = 1/2 is included...linear, with or without noise whitening ) with the usual performance-complexity tradeoffs. Here, we apply the approximate MMSE equalizer introduced in

  1. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  2. A rapid method of evaluating fluoroscopic system performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprawls, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to develop a method for the rapid evaluation and documentation of fluoroscopic image quality. All objects contained within a conventional contrast-detail test phantom (Leeds TO-10) are displayed in an array format according to their contrast and size. A copy of the display is used as the data collection form and a permanent record of system performance. A fluoroscope is evaluated by viewing the test phantom and marking the visible objects on the display. A line drawn through the objects with minimum visibility in each size group forms a contrast-detail curve for the system. This is compared with a standard or reference line, which is in the display.Deviations in curve position are useful indicators of specific image quality problems, such as excessive noise or blurring. The use of a special object-visibility array format display makes it possible to collect data, analyze the results, and create a record of fluoroscopic performance in less than 2 minutes for each viewing mode

  3. Mechanical/structural performance test method of a spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Kyung Ho

    2000-06-01

    The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in the fuel assembly, which supports the fuel rods, guides cooling water, and protects the system from an external impact load, such as earthquakes. In order to develop the spacer grid with the high mechanical performance, the mechanical and structural properties of the spacer grids must be extensively examined while designing it. In this report, the mechanical/structural test methods, i.e. the characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple, static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid and dynamic impact test of them are described. The characteristic test of a spacer grid spring or dimple is accomplished with universal tensile test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied compressive load. The characteristic test data is saved at loading and unloading event. The static buckling test of a partial or full size spacer grid is executed with the same universal tensile testing machine, a specimen is fixed between cross-heads and then applied the compressive load. The buckling strength is decided the maximum strength at load vs. displacement curve. The dynamic impact test of a partial or full size spacer grid is performed with pendulum type impact machine and free fall shock test machine, a specimen is fixed with test fixture and then applied the impact load by impact hammer. Specially, the pendulum type impact test machine is also possible under the operating temperature because a furnace is separately attached with test machine

  4. Uncertainty evaluation methods for waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.T.; Nair, P.K.; Journel, A.G.; Abramson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report identifies and investigates methodologies to deal with uncertainties in assessing high-level nuclear waste package performance. Four uncertainty evaluation methods (probability-distribution approach, bounding approach, expert judgment, and sensitivity analysis) are suggested as the elements of a methodology that, without either diminishing or enhancing the input uncertainties, can evaluate performance uncertainty. Such a methodology can also help identify critical inputs as a guide to reducing uncertainty so as to provide reasonable assurance that the risk objectives are met. This report examines the current qualitative waste containment regulation and shows how, in conjunction with the identified uncertainty evaluation methodology, a framework for a quantitative probability-based rule can be developed that takes account of the uncertainties. Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation requires that the waste packages provide ''substantially complete containment'' (SCC) during the containment period. The term ''SCC'' is ambiguous and subject to interpretation. This report, together with an accompanying report that describes the technical considerations that must be addressed to satisfy high-level waste containment requirements, provides a basis for a third report to develop recommendations for regulatory uncertainty reduction in the ''containment''requirement of 10 CFR Part 60. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Performance of mixed formulations for the particle finite element method in soil mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Lluís; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Marcos; Gens, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for the numerical analysis of fluid-saturated porous media at large strains. The proposal relies, on one hand, on the particle finite element method (PFEM), known for its capability to tackle large deformations and rapid changing boundaries, and, on the other hand, on constitutive descriptions well established in current geotechnical analyses (Darcy's law; Modified Cam Clay; Houlsby hyperelasticity). An important feature of this kind of problem is that incompressibility may arise either from undrained conditions or as a consequence of material behaviour; incompressibility may lead to volumetric locking of the low-order elements that are typically used in PFEM. In this work, two different three-field mixed formulations for the coupled hydromechanical problem are presented, in which either the effective pressure or the Jacobian are considered as nodal variables, in addition to the solid skeleton displacement and water pressure. Additionally, several mixed formulations are described for the simplified single-phase problem due to its formal similitude to the poromechanical case and its relevance in geotechnics, since it may approximate the saturated soil behaviour under undrained conditions. In order to use equal-order interpolants in displacements and scalar fields, stabilization techniques are used in the mass conservation equation of the biphasic medium and in the rest of scalar equations. Finally, all mixed formulations are assessed in some benchmark problems and their performances are compared. It is found that mixed formulations that have the Jacobian as a nodal variable perform better.

  6. Physics methods for calculating light water reactor increased performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenberg, C.; Charlier, A.

    1988-01-01

    The intensive use of light water reactors (LWRs) has induced modification of their characteristics and performances in order to improve fissile material utilization and to increase their availability and flexibility under operation. From the conceptual point of view, adequate methods must be used to calculate core characteristics, taking into account present design requirements, e.g., use of burnable poison, plutonium recycling, etc. From the operational point of view, nuclear plants that have been producing a large percentage of electricity in some countries must adapt their planning to the need of the electrical network and operate on a load-follow basis. Consequently, plant behavior must be predicted and accurately followed in order to improve the plant's capability within safety limits. The Belgonucleaire code system has been developed and extensively validated. It is an accurate, flexible, easily usable, fast-running tool for solving the problems related to LWR technology development. The methods and validation of the two computer codes LWR-WIMS and MICROLUX, which are the main components of the physics calculation system, are explained

  7. Equal opportunities group. His mission : accelerating equal opportunities at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    L. to r.: Michel Mayoud, Christine Petit-Jean-Genaz, the Equal Opportunities Officer Sudeshna Datta-Cockerill, Elena Wildner, Anne-Sylvie Cerne, Karl-Heinz Kissler, the Chairman John Ellis and Eva-Maria Groniger-Voss

  8. A new ART iterative method and a comparison of performance among various ART methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yufeng; Sato, Shunsuke

    1993-01-01

    Many algebraic reconstruction techniques (ART) image reconstruction algorithms, for instance, simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT), the relaxation method and multiplicative ART (MART), have been proposed and their convergent properties have been studied. SIRT and the underrelaxed relaxation method converge to the least-squares solution, but the convergent speeds are very slow. The Kaczmarz method converges very quickly, but the reconstructed images contain a lot of noise. The comparative studies between these algorithms have been done by Gilbert and others, but are not adequate. In this paper, we (1) propose a new method which is a modified Kaczmarz method and prove its convergence property, (2) study performance of 7 algorithms including the one proposed here by computer simulation for 3 kinds of typical phantoms. The method proposed here does not give the least-square solution, but the root mean square errors of its reconstructed images decrease very quickly after few interations. The result shows that the method proposed here gives a better reconstructed image. (author)

  9. Nonlinear Equalization of Microwave Photonic Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-31

    1][2] [3] (2) 123 is a combinatorial factor describing the number of unique permutations of frequency indicies...nonlinear equalizer works on the entire Nyquist band and is synthesized directly from mathematical requirements instead of using best- fit methods

  10. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Academic Obstetrics and Gynecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Kacey Y

    2018-02-01

    The most compelling data suggest women in academic obstetrics and gynecology earn approximately $36,000 less than male colleagues per year in regression models correcting for commonly cited explanatory variables. Although residual confounding may exist, academic departments in the United States should consider rigorous examination of their own internal metrics around salary to ensure gender-neutral compensation, commonly referred to as equal pay for equal work.

  11. Dis-Equality: Exploring the Juxtaposition of Disability and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronagh Byrne

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The (inequality issues facing disabled people are extensive and long-enduring. The way(s in which equality is conceptualised has important consequences for understandings of disability. The ambiguity of what I call dis-equality theory is two-fold; the apparent failure of mainstream equality theorising in, firstly, embracing disability concepts at all, and secondly, in fully incorporating the logistics of disability, particularly in relation to the social construction of such. Practices of institutional and more complex forms of discrimination are part of those deeper structures of domination and oppression which maintain disabled people in positions of disadvantage. Everyday practices, in the ‘ordinary order of things’ (Bourdieu, 2000, continue to be misrecognised as natural and taken for granted. This article critically explores the complexity of dis-equality theorising utilising a Bourdieusian lens which explicitly incorporates complex and subtle forms of discrimination, and by examining the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities’ approach to equality. I argue that the way forward for dis-equality theorising in today’s rights based era must be one that considers the nuances of the ‘rules of the game’ (Young, 1990 if it is to be effective in challenging the inequalities to which disabled people have long been subject.

  12. PROMOTING GENDER EQUALITY TROUGH EQUAL LIFE STANDARD IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Dashtevski

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available After the World War II, especially in the early fifties there is an expansion of gender rights. Women are massively employed all over the world in all sectors of social life, contributing to an increase in both their own standard of living and the standard in their own countries. As the importance and role of women grows, this is achieved with increasing respect for its rights. Gender means elimination of inequality and promote equality between women and men in all areas of social life. If we want to achieve gender equality as a whole, it is inevitable to achieve an economic consolidation of the two sexes. Economic strengthening is possible trough equal pay. Experience shows that payments are not equal when it comes to wages for men and women. Therefore, the EU is constantly working to regulate this area, with special regulations, which are mandatory for the member states, but should also be respected by countries that would like to join the union. This led to the promotion of gender equality through an equal life.

  13. Staff Performance Analysis: A Method for Identifying Brigade Staff Tasks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ford, Laura

    1997-01-01

    ... members of conventional mounted brigade staff. Initial analysis of performance requirements in existing documentation revealed that the performance specifications were not sufficiently detailed for brigade battle staffs...

  14. Certifying Equality With Limited Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brody, Joshua Eric; Chakrabarti, Amit; McGregor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    The \\textsc{equality} problem is usually one's first encounter with communication complexity and is one of the most fundamental problems in the field. Although its deterministic and randomized communication complexity were settled decades ago, we find several new things to say about the problem...... cost bounds, we obtain new bounded-round randomized lower bounds for the \\textsc{or-equality} problem that have a direct-sum flavor. Such lower bounds were previously known only for deterministic protocols or one-round randomized protocols. The \\textsc{or-equality} problem is in turn closely related...

  15. Histogram Equalization to Model Adaptation for Robust Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Youngjoo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new model adaptation method based on the histogram equalization technique for providing robustness in noisy environments. The trained acoustic mean models of a speech recognizer are adapted into environmentally matched conditions by using the histogram equalization algorithm on a single utterance basis. For more robust speech recognition in the heavily noisy conditions, trained acoustic covariance models are efficiently adapted by the signal-to-noise ratio-dependent linear interpolation between trained covariance models and utterance-level sample covariance models. Speech recognition experiments on both the digit-based Aurora2 task and the large vocabulary-based task showed that the proposed model adaptation approach provides significant performance improvements compared to the baseline speech recognizer trained on the clean speech data.

  16. Ethics, equality and evidence in health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: The Danish National Board of Health has expressed its commitment to social equality in health, evidence-informed health promotion and public health ethics, and has issued guidelines for municipalities on health promotion, in Danish named prevention packages.The aim of this article...... is to analyse whether the Board of Health adheres to ideals of equality, evidence and ethics in these guidelines. Methods: An analysis to detect statements about equity, evidence and ethics in 10 health promotion packages directed at municipalities with the aim of guiding the municipalities towards evidence......-informed disease prevention and health promotion. Results: Despite declared intentions of prioritizing social equality in health, these intentions are largely absent from most of the packages.When health inequalities are mentioned, focus is on the disadvantaged or the marginalized. Several interventions...

  17. Domestic gender equality and childbearing in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Goldscheider

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sweden, which is among the most gender-equal societies in the world, combines 'modern' family patterns such as unmarried cohabitation, delayed parenthood, high maternal labor force participation, and high break-up rates - all usually linked with low birth rates - with relatively high fertility. Sweden also has a high level of shared parental responsibility for home and children. Objective: After decades of late 20th century research showing that increasing gender equality in the workplace was linked with lower fertility, might gender equality in the home increase fertility? Methods: Using data from the Swedish Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS, we use Cox regression to examine the effects on first, second, and third births of 1 holding attitudes about sharing equally in the care of the home and children, and 2 actual sharing in these domestic tasks. Results: Our analysis shows that, measuring attitudes before the transition to parenthood and actual practice four years later, it is inconsistency between sharing attitudes and the actual division of housework that reduces the likelihood of continued childbearing, especially on second births among women. Conclusions: As women are most likely to confront an inconsistent situation, with egalitarian ideals in a household without equal sharing, it is clear that having a partner who does not share housework is depressing Swedish fertility.

  18. Non-equal-time Poisson brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolic, H.

    1998-01-01

    The standard definition of the Poisson brackets is generalized to the non-equal-time Poisson brackets. Their relationship to the equal-time Poisson brackets, as well as to the equal- and non-equal-time commutators, is discussed.

  19. The Nordic Gender Equality Model

    OpenAIRE

    Teigen, Mari; Skjeie, Hege

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate the descriptive premises involved in portrayals of a Nordic model of gender equality. Mainly, we focus on the equality dimensions that form the baseline in comparative welfare state research and research on political participation. We outline these dimensions as norms for economic equity and democratic parity. First, we examine whether and how descriptive statistics that assess these two dimensions currently rank Nordic countries compared with other European co...

  20. The Paradox of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sardoč

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic assumption of the idea of equal opportunities is based on the assertion that all individuals competing for an advantaged social position should have equal opportunities, i.e., that each and every one of them should have fair opportunities to achieve a particular goal. Despite the fact that equal opportunities is one of the basic mechanisms for a just distribution of advantageous social positions, the idea of fair equality of opportunity remains divided between different competing political projects, e.g., egalitarian liberalism, libertarian political theory, multiculturalism, etc. This paper examines two basic dimensions of equal opportunities to which existing conceptions fail to offer a unanimous answer, i.e., a the issue of fairness and b the issue of the currency of fairness. The concluding part of this paper presents two basic paradoxes that determine both the direction of the discussion as well as the possible solutions to the achievement of fair equal opportunities as part of any process for competing for advantageous social positions.

  1. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  2. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE, which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE. Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image.

  3. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE), which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE). Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image. PMID:29403529

  4. Image Enhancement via Subimage Histogram Equalization Based on Mean and Variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Liyun; Guan, Yepeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper puts forward a novel image enhancement method via Mean and Variance based Subimage Histogram Equalization (MVSIHE), which effectively increases the contrast of the input image with brightness and details well preserved compared with some other methods based on histogram equalization (HE). Firstly, the histogram of input image is divided into four segments based on the mean and variance of luminance component, and the histogram bins of each segment are modified and equalized, respectively. Secondly, the result is obtained via the concatenation of the processed subhistograms. Lastly, the normalization method is deployed on intensity levels, and the integration of the processed image with the input image is performed. 100 benchmark images from a public image database named CVG-UGR-Database are used for comparison with other state-of-the-art methods. The experiment results show that the algorithm can not only enhance image information effectively but also well preserve brightness and details of the original image.

  5. Stability over Time of Different Methods of Estimating School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumay, Xavier; Coe, Rob; Anumendem, Dickson Nkafu

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate how stability varies with the approach used in estimating school performance in a large sample of English primary schools. The results show that (a) raw performance is considerably more stable than adjusted performance, which in turn is slightly more stable than growth model estimates; (b) schools' performance…

  6. Battery Charge Equalizer with Transformer Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2013-01-01

    High-power batteries generally consist of a series connection of many cells or cell banks. In order to maintain high performance over battery life, it is desirable to keep the state of charge of all the cell banks equal. A method provides individual charging for battery cells in a large, high-voltage battery array with a minimum number of transformers while maintaining reasonable efficiency. This is designed to augment a simple highcurrent charger that supplies the main charge energy. The innovation will form part of a larger battery charge system. It consists of a transformer array connected to the battery array through rectification and filtering circuits. The transformer array is connected to a drive circuit and a timing and control circuit that allow individual battery cells or cell banks to be charged. The timing circuit and control circuit connect to a charge controller that uses battery instrumentation to determine which battery bank to charge. It is important to note that the innovation can charge an individual cell bank at the same time that the main battery charger is charging the high-voltage battery. The fact that the battery cell banks are at a non-zero voltage, and that they are all at similar voltages, can be used to allow charging of individual cell banks. A set of transformers can be connected with secondary windings in series to make weighted sums of the voltages on the primaries.

  7. Performance Analysis of Cyber Security Awareness Delivery Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    In order to decrease information security threats caused by human-related vulnerabilities, an increased concentration on information security awareness and training is necessary. There are numerous information security awareness training delivery methods. The purpose of this study was to determine what delivery method is most successful in providing security awareness training. We conducted security awareness training using various delivery methods such as text based, game based and a short video presentation with the aim of determining user preference delivery methods. Our study suggests that a combined delvery methods are better than individual secrity awareness delivery method.

  8. Simulating elastic light scattering using high performance computing methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Verbraeck, A.; Kerckhoffs, E.J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Coupled Dipole method, as originally formulated byPurcell and Pennypacker, is a very powerful method tosimulate the Elastic Light Scattering from arbitraryparticles. This method, which is a particle simulationmodel for Computational Electromagnetics, has one majordrawback: if the size of the

  9. Prediction of polymer flooding performance using an analytical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Czek Hoong; Mariyamni Awang; Foo Kok Wai

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the applicability of an analytical method developed by El-Khatib in polymer flooding. Results from a simulator UTCHEM and experiments were compared with the El-Khatib prediction method. In general, by assuming a constant viscosity polymer injection, the method gave much higher recovery values than the simulation runs and the experiments. A modification of the method gave better correlation, albeit only oil production. Investigation is continuing on modifying the method so that a better overall fit can be obtained for polymer flooding. (Author)

  10. Analysis of ECT Synchronization Performance Based on Different Interpolation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhixin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two synchronization methods of electronic transformer in IEC60044-8 standard: impulsive synchronization and interpolation. When the impulsive synchronization method is inapplicability, the data synchronization of electronic transformer can be realized by using the interpolation method. The typical interpolation methods are piecewise linear interpolation, quadratic interpolation, cubic spline interpolation and so on. In this paper, the influences of piecewise linear interpolation, quadratic interpolation and cubic spline interpolation for the data synchronization of electronic transformer are computed, then the computational complexity, the synchronization precision, the reliability, the application range of different interpolation methods are analyzed and compared, which can serve as guide studies for practical applications.

  11. Determination of Settling Tanks Performance Using an Eulerian- Lagrangian Method

    OpenAIRE

    A Tamayol; B Firoozabadi; G Ahmadi

    2008-01-01

    Circulation regions always exist in settling tanks. These regions reduce the tank’s performance and decrease its effective volume. The recirculation zones would result in short-circuiting and high flow mixing problems. The inlet position would also affect the size and location of the recirculation region. Using a proper baffle configuration could substantially increase the performance of the settling tanks. A common procedure for the comparison of the performances of diffe...

  12. A performance model for the communication in fast multipole methods on high-performance computing platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2016-03-04

    Exascale systems are predicted to have approximately 1 billion cores, assuming gigahertz cores. Limitations on affordable network topologies for distributed memory systems of such massive scale bring new challenges to the currently dominant parallel programing model. Currently, there are many efforts to evaluate the hardware and software bottlenecks of exascale designs. It is therefore of interest to model application performance and to understand what changes need to be made to ensure extrapolated scalability. The fast multipole method (FMM) was originally developed for accelerating N-body problems in astrophysics and molecular dynamics but has recently been extended to a wider range of problems. Its high arithmetic intensity combined with its linear complexity and asynchronous communication patterns make it a promising algorithm for exascale systems. In this paper, we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exascale architectures, with a focus on internode communication. We focus on the communication part only; the efficiency of the computational kernels are beyond the scope of the present study. We develop a performance model that considers the communication patterns of the FMM and observe a good match between our model and the actual communication time on four high-performance computing (HPC) systems, when latency, bandwidth, network topology, and multicore penalties are all taken into account. To our knowledge, this is the first formal characterization of internode communication in FMM that validates the model against actual measurements of communication time. The ultimate communication model is predictive in an absolute sense; however, on complex systems, this objective is often out of reach or of a difficulty out of proportion to its benefit when there exists a simpler model that is inexpensive and sufficient to guide coding decisions leading to improved scaling. The current model provides such guidance.

  13. Perceptions of gender equality and attitudes toward equal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to explain consciousness of gender inequality in school sport and predict pro-equality attitudes among 1580 respondents (934 girls and 646 boys) from 45 Botswana secondary schools. Results of separate multiple regression models indicate that girls' sport participation is negatively correlated with ...

  14. Distributive Equality, Relational Equality and Preferences about Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Are scenarios in which disadvantaged students prefer not to attend (certain) universities a concern from the perspective of an egalitarian theory of justice? I consider this question from the respective perspectives of two prominent approaches to equality: distributive theories, which focus on the fairness of inequalities in outcomes, and…

  15. Method of performing a layer operation in a communications network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Narlikar, G.J.

    2006-01-01

    In an embodiment of the present invention, a scheduling operation is performed at a lower layer based on upper layer information. In another embodiment of the present invention, an action is performed at an upper layer based on received lower layer information. Also, a scheduling operation may be

  16. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  17. The Europeanisation of gender equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the extent to which member states control the impact of European Union (EU) policies. It does so through an historical study of what is considered to be the ‘least likely case’ – the Europeanization of Danish gender equality. The analytical findings identify various and diverse...... effects of European integration over time on national policy, politics and law. Historically, the EU has had a major role in furthering and putting into effect equality rights – even in the ‘least likely’ case of Denmark. From a theoretical perspective, the paper argues that the study of Europeanization...

  18. Women, gender equality, and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    Discussion of women, gender equality, and diabetes should be placed in the context of United Nations mandates on women's health which highlight the need for equal access to information, prevention activities, services, and care across the life cycle. Gender differences and inequalities have been identified in relation to causes and consequences of diabetes and access to services and support between women and men, and among different groups of women. Appropriate gender-sensitive policy responses, including research and data collection, need to be developed. The recent United Nations resolution on diabetes provides an opportunity to strengthen the focus on women and diabetes.

  19. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  20. Blind equalization with criterion with memory nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanjie; Nikias, Chrysostomos L.; Proakis, John G.

    1992-06-01

    Blind equalization methods usually combat the linear distortion caused by a nonideal channel via a transversal filter, without resorting to the a priori known training sequences. We introduce a new criterion with memory nonlinearity (CRIMNO) for the blind equalization problem. The basic idea of this criterion is to augment the Godard [or constant modulus algorithm (CMA)] cost function with additional terms that penalize the autocorrelations of the equalizer outputs. Several variations of the CRIMNO algorithms are derived, with the variations dependent on (1) whether the empirical averages or the single point estimates are used to approximate the expectations, (2) whether the recent or the delayed equalizer coefficients are used, and (3) whether the weights applied to the autocorrelation terms are fixed or are allowed to adapt. Simulation experiments show that the CRIMNO algorithm, and especially its adaptive weight version, exhibits faster convergence speed than the Godard (or CMA) algorithm. Extensions of the CRIMNO criterion to accommodate the case of correlated inputs to the channel are also presented.

  1. Comparing performance of standard and iterative linear unmixing methods for hyperspectral signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, Travis R.; Jansen, Melissa E.; DeCoster, Mallory E.; Jansing, E. David; Rodriguez, Benjamin M.

    2016-05-01

    Linear unmixing is a method of decomposing a mixed signature to determine the component materials that are present in sensor's field of view, along with the abundances at which they occur. Linear unmixing assumes that energy from the materials in the field of view is mixed in a linear fashion across the spectrum of interest. Traditional unmixing methods can take advantage of adjacent pixels in the decomposition algorithm, but is not the case for point sensors. This paper explores several iterative and non-iterative methods for linear unmixing, and examines their effectiveness at identifying the individual signatures that make up simulated single pixel mixed signatures, along with their corresponding abundances. The major hurdle addressed in the proposed method is that no neighboring pixel information is available for the spectral signature of interest. Testing is performed using two collections of spectral signatures from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory's Signatures Database software (SigDB): a hand-selected small dataset of 25 distinct signatures from a larger dataset of approximately 1600 pure visible/near-infrared/short-wave-infrared (VIS/NIR/SWIR) spectra. Simulated spectra are created with three and four material mixtures randomly drawn from a dataset originating from SigDB, where the abundance of one material is swept in 10% increments from 10% to 90%with the abundances of the other materials equally divided amongst the remainder. For the smaller dataset of 25 signatures, all combinations of three or four materials are used to create simulated spectra, from which the accuracy of materials returned, as well as the correctness of the abundances, is compared to the inputs. The experiment is expanded to include the signatures from the larger dataset of almost 1600 signatures evaluated using a Monte Carlo scheme with 5000 draws of three or four materials to create the simulated mixed signatures. The spectral similarity of the inputs to the

  2. Multicore Performance of Block Algebraic Iterative Reconstruction Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Hans Henrik B.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    Algebraic iterative methods are routinely used for solving the ill-posed sparse linear systems arising in tomographic image reconstruction. Here we consider the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (SIRT), both of which rely on semiconv......Algebraic iterative methods are routinely used for solving the ill-posed sparse linear systems arising in tomographic image reconstruction. Here we consider the algebraic reconstruction technique (ART) and the simultaneous iterative reconstruction techniques (SIRT), both of which rely...... on semiconvergence. Block versions of these methods, based on a partitioning of the linear system, are able to combine the fast semiconvergence of ART with the better multicore properties of SIRT. These block methods separate into two classes: those that, in each iteration, access the blocks in a sequential manner...... a fixed relaxation parameter in each method, namely, the one that leads to the fastest semiconvergence. Computational results show that for multicore computers, the sequential approach is preferable....

  3. Preliminary Axial Flow Turbine Design and Off-Design Performance Analysis Methods for Rotary Wing Aircraft Engines. Part 1; Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-cheng, S.

    2009-01-01

    For the preliminary design and the off-design performance analysis of axial flow turbines, a pair of intermediate level-of-fidelity computer codes, TD2-2 (design; reference 1) and AXOD (off-design; reference 2), are being evaluated for use in turbine design and performance prediction of the modern high performance aircraft engines. TD2-2 employs a streamline curvature method for design, while AXOD approaches the flow analysis with an equal radius-height domain decomposition strategy. Both methods resolve only the flows in the annulus region while modeling the impact introduced by the blade rows. The mathematical formulations and derivations involved in both methods are documented in references 3, 4 for TD2-2) and in reference 5 (for AXOD). The focus of this paper is to discuss the fundamental issues of applicability and compatibility of the two codes as a pair of companion pieces, to perform preliminary design and off-design analysis for modern aircraft engine turbines. Two validation cases for the design and the off-design prediction using TD2-2 and AXOD conducted on two existing high efficiency turbines, developed and tested in the NASA/GE Energy Efficient Engine (GE-E3) Program, the High Pressure Turbine (HPT; two stages, air cooled) and the Low Pressure Turbine (LPT; five stages, un-cooled), are provided in support of the analysis and discussion presented in this paper.

  4. Performance Measures for Public Participation Methods : Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Public engagement is an important part of transportation project development, but measuring its effectiveness is typically piecemealed. Performance measurementdescribed by the Urban Institute as the measurement on a regular basis of the results (o...

  5. Modeling the Performance of Fast Mulipole Method on HPC platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis , we discuss the challenges for FMM on current parallel computers and future exasclae architecture. Furthermore, we develop a novel performance model for FMM. Our ultimate aim of this thesis

  6. Instrumental performance of an etude after three methods of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden Ark, S

    1997-12-01

    For 80 fifth-grade students three practice conditions (mental, mental with physical simulation, and physical with singing) produced significant mean differences in instrumental performance of an etude. No significant differences were found for traditional, physical practice.

  7. EVALUATION OF SERVICE SUPPLY CHAIN PERFORMANCE CRITERIA WITH DANP METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZVERİ, Onur; GÜÇLÜ, Pembe; AYCİN, Ejder

    2018-01-01

    Despite the service industry composes large part of the world economy, the academic studies and applications on supply chain are mainly about production industry. Because of the different structure of services, the service supply chain and also performance criteria-metrics differ from the product supply chain. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the supply chain performance metrics for restaurant sector. For this purpose in the first and second part of the paper the service supply chain conc...

  8. A novel method for quantification of beam's-eye-view tumor tracking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue-Houng; Myronakis, Marios; Rottmann, Joerg; Wang, Adam; Morf, Daniel; Shedlock, Daniel; Baturin, Paul; Star-Lack, Josh; Berbeco, Ross

    2017-11-01

    scintillator thickness and MLI architecture on tumor tracking performance. Quantification of MV images of lung tissue as an inverse power-law with respect to frequency yields exponent values of β = 3.11 and 3.29 for benign and malignant tissues, respectively. Tracking performance with and without fiducials was found to be generally limited by quantum noise, a factor dominated by quantum detective efficiency (QDE). For generic SLI construction, increasing the scintillator thickness (gadolinium oxysulfide - GOS) from a standard 290 μm to 1720 μm reduces noise to about 10%. However, 81% of this reduction is appreciated between 290 and 1000 μm. In comparing MLI and SLI detectors of equivalent individual GOS layer thickness, the improvement in noise is equal to the number of layers in the detector (i.e., 4) with almost no difference in MTF. Further, improvement in tracking performance was slightly less than the square-root of the reduction in noise, approximately 84-90%. In comparing an MLI detector with an SLI with a GOS scintillator of equivalent total thickness, improvement in object detectability is approximately 34-39%. We have presented a novel method for quantification of tumor tracking quality and have applied this model to evaluate the performance of SLI and MLI EPID designs. We showed that improved tracking quality is primarily limited by improvements in NPS. When compared to very thick scintillator SLI, employing MLI architecture exhibits the same gains in QDE, but by mitigating the effect of optical Swank noise, results in more dramatic improvements in tracking performance. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. STEM Equality and Diversity Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jill

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Centre for Science Education at Sheffield Hallam University teamed up with VT Enterprise (now Babcock International) in their submission of a successful bid to deliver the national STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths) Subject Choice and Careers Project. An integral part of the bid was the promotion of equality and…

  10. Equal Potential: A Collective Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Linda S.

    2000-01-01

    Critiques the College Board's report, "Reaching the Top," asserting that it illustrates collective fraud in the social sciences, which sustains an egalitarian fiction that intelligence is clustered equally across all human populations. Suggests that while the report omits certain popular falsehoods, it also omits crucial truths about…

  11. Equalizing Teachers' Pay in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimere, Raphael Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Suggests that the struggle for teacher salary equalization in Louisiana ended in success, but it was one chapter in a long struggle to gain the full citizenship that black teachers and their pupils dreamed would one day be theirs. (Author/AM)

  12. Equalization equations in reactant resolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    given partitioning of the system in physical or functional space. The most frequently ... Then, the inter-reactant equilibrium is considered. The ... Global equilibrium. Even though the chemical potential in the case of global equilibrium is equalized by definition (see (1)), we repeat here the proof, for the current needs, using.

  13. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courchene, T.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). School of Policy Studies

    2005-10-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  14. Energy prices, equalization and federalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courchene, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    A rise in oil prices over the last 30 years has shaped the debate on the equalization formula as well as the nature of fiscal federalism. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 contributed to the creation of the National Energy Program (NEP) in 1980 and the Energy Pricing and Taxation Agreement (EPTA) between Ottawa and Alberta in 1981. The current surge in oil prices, to recent highs of $70 a barrel has resulted in a new debate on energy pricing, equalization and fiscal frameworks. This article presented a review of the history of oil and federalism, and proposed a remedy to the horizontal fiscal imbalance by allocating the fixed equalization pool in accordance with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. An interprovincial revenue-sharing pool was suggested for resource revenues, agreed to and operated by the provinces. It was suggested that after the price spike in 1973 in which the price of oil tripled, a key part of the rationale for imposing export taxes on oil equal to the difference between domestic and world prices was that the federal government could subsidize oil imports into eastern Canada and maintain a uniform domestic price across the country. By continuing to subsidize imports and maintaining a domestic price below the world price, the government has been diverting potential energy revenues from energy-rich provinces and transferring them directly to Canadians in terms of subsidized energy prices. It was noted that energy price surges cannot send equalization payments soaring as they did before because of the 2004 Framework Agreement, in which the overall equalization will be increased to $10.9 billion. A 2-tier approach to equalization was presented, in which it was suggested that the $10.9 billion pool should be allocated with fiscal capacity disparities relating to non-resource revenues. The creation of a revenue sharing pool for resource revenues was recommended. It was suggested that the 2 approaches will result in a strategic

  15. A kernel plus method for quantifying wind turbine performance upgrades

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Giwhyun; Ding, Yu; Xie, Le; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Power curves are commonly estimated using the binning method recommended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, which primarily incorporates wind speed information. When such power curves are used to quantify a turbine's upgrade

  16. Performance of spectral fitting methods for vegetation fluorescence quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meroni, M.; Busetto, D.; Colombo, R.; Guanter, L.; Moreno, J.; Verhoef, W.

    2010-01-01

    The Fraunhofer Line Discriminator (FLD) principle has long been considered as the reference method to quantify solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (F) from passive remote sensing measurements. Recently, alternative retrieval algorithms based on the spectral fitting of hyperspectral radiance

  17. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical compounds present different types of isomer- ism. When two isomers differ by ... of DFT methods to describe intramolecular hydrogen shifts. Three small ..... qualitative descriptions of intramolecular hydrogen shifts when large basis ...

  18. MIMO Terminal Performance Evaluation with a Novel Wireless Cable Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    chamber, which might be impractical and expensive. In this paper, a novel wireless cable method is proposed and experimentally validated. By recording the average power (i.e. reference signal received power (RSRP) in the LTE) per DUT antenna port and selecting optimal complex weights at the channel...... emulator output ports, a wireless cable connection can be achieved. The proposed method can be executed in a small RF shielded anechoic box, and offers low system cost, high measurement reliability and repeatability....

  19. Pathways of equality through education: impact of gender (in)equality and maternal education on exclusive breastfeeding among natives and migrants in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karen; Van de Putte, Bart

    2017-04-01

    Even though breastfeeding is typically considered the preferred feeding method for infants worldwide, in Belgium, breastfeeding rates remain low across native and migrant groups while the underlying determinants are unclear. Furthermore, research examining contextual effects, especially regarding gender (in)equality and ideology, has not been conducted. We hypothesized that greater gender equality scores in the country of origin will result in higher breastfeeding chances. Because gender equality does not operate only at the contextual level but can be mediated through individual level resources, we hypothesized the following for maternal education: higher maternal education will be an important positive predictor for exclusive breastfeeding chances in Belgium, but its effects will differ over subsequent origin countries. Based on IKAROS data (GeÏntegreerd Kind Activiteiten en Regio Ondersteunings Systeem), we perform multilevel analyses on 27 936 newborns. Feeding method is indicated by exclusive breastfeeding 3 months after childbirth. We measure gender (in)equality using Global Gender Gap scores from the mother's origin country. Maternal education is a metric variable based on International Standard Classification of Education indicators. Results show that 3.6% of the variation in breastfeeding can be explained by differences between the migrant mother's country of origin. However, the effect of gender (in)equality appears to be non-significant. After adding maternal education, the effect for origin countries scoring low on gender equality turns significant. Maternal education on its own shows strong positive association with exclusive breastfeeding and, furthermore, has different effects for different origin countries. Possible explanations are discussed in-depth setting direction for further research regarding the different pathways gender (in)equality and maternal education affect breastfeeding. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons

  20. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing methods used in a hand gesture recognition system. The pre-processing methods are based on the combinations of several image processing operations, namely edge detection, low pass filtering, histogram equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possible classes. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  1. Supplier Selection based on the Performance by using PROMETHEE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, T. S.; Siregar, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generally, companies faced problem to identify vendors that can provide excellent service in availability raw material and on time delivery. The performance of suppliers in a company have to be monitored to ensure the availability to fulfill the company needs. This research is intended to explain how to assess suppliers to improve manufacturing performance. The criteria that considered in evaluating suppliers is criteria of Dickson. There are four main criteria which further split into seven sub-criteria, namely compliance with accuracy, consistency, on-time delivery, right quantity order, flexibility and negotiation, timely of order confirmation, and responsiveness. This research uses PROMETHEE methodology in assessing the supplier performances and obtaining a selected supplier as the best one that shown from the degree of alternative comparison preference between suppliers.

  2. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  3. New test methods for BIPV. Results from IP performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jol, J.C.; Van Kampen, B.J.M.; De Boer, B.J.; Reil, F.; Geyer, D.

    2009-11-01

    Within the Performance project new test procedures for PV building products and the building performance as a whole when PV is applied in buildings have been drafted. It has resulted in a first draft of new test procedures for PV building products and proposals for tests for novel BIPV technology like thin film. The test proposed are a module breakage test for BIPV products, a fire safety test for BIPV products and a dynamic load test for BIPV products. Furthermore first proposals of how flexible PV modules could be tested in an appropriate way to ensure long time quality and safety of these new products are presented.

  4. Foreign Models of Financial Equalization, Prospects for Implementation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piontko Nataliia B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed to identify the models of financial equalization applied in foreign countries, and to substantiate the possibilities for use of foreign experience in terms of financial equalization or individual elements of such models on the territory of Ukraine, for taking into consideration the foreign tools of financial equalization in the context of the State regional policy reforms is a priority and urgent task of the present day. During the generalization and systematization of scientific works by numerous domestic and foreign scientists, models of financial equalization, depending on the form of state structure in the country, have been identified. Determinants of the necessity of financial equalization were analyzed, such as: the imbalance between the own financial security and the level of assigned tasks; the level of fiscal decentralization. Methods of income and expenditures equalization, applied in vertical or horizontal levels for balancing regional development, have been substantiated. Features of expansion of financial security of budgets by using innovative tools for equalization have been determined. A comparison of the models of financial equalization in foreign countries was made and the major tasks for improving the mechanism and organization of financial equalization of budgets in Ukraine were defined. Prospects for further research in this area are diversification of tools for financial equalization, defining the investment component in the structure of budgets' incomes and studying the activities of sub-central authorities in the financial market

  5. Effects of Pretreatment Methods on Electrodes and SOFC Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Bin Jung

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available tapes (anode, electrolyte and paste (cathode were choosen to prepare anode-supported cells for solid oxide fuel cell applications. For both anode-supported cells or electrolyte-supported cells, the anode needs pretreatment to reduce NiO/YSZ to Ni/YSZ to increase its conductivity as well as its catalytic characteristics. In this study, the effects of different pretreatments (open-circuit, closed-circuit on cathode and anodes as well as SOFC performance are investigated. To investigate the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode alone, a Pt cathode is utilized as reference for comparison with the LSM cathode. The characterization of the electrical resistance, AC impedance, and SOFC performance of the resulting electrodes and/or anode-supported cell were carried out. It’s found that the influence of open-circuit pretreatment on the LSM cathode is limited. However, the influence of closed-circuit pretreatment on both the LSM cathode and NiO/YSZ anode and the resulting SOFC performance is profound. The effect of closed-circuit pretreatment on the NiO/YSZ anode is attributed to its change of electronic/pore structure as well as catalytic characteristics. With closed-circuit pretreatment, the SOFC performance improved greatly from the change of LSM cathode (and Pt reference compared to the Ni/YSZ anode.

  6. Visual Narrative Research Methods as Performance in Industrial Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurel H.; McDonagh, Deana

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses teaching empathic research methodology as performance. The authors describe their collaboration in an activity to help undergraduate industrial design students learn empathy for others when designing products for use by diverse or underrepresented people. The authors propose that an industrial design curriculum would benefit…

  7. Performance Analysis of Methods for Estimating Weibull Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance analysis revealed that the MLM was the most accurate model followed by the EPF and the GM. Furthermore, the comparison between the wind speed standard deviation predicted by the proposed models and the measured data showed that the MLM has a smaller relative error of -3.33% on average ...

  8. Performance of regional flood frequency analysis methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za. ISSN 1816-7950 ... Estimates of design floods are required for the design of hydraulic structures and to quantify the risk of failure of the ... performance when compared to design floods estimated from the annual maximum series extracted from the observed data.

  9. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  10. Evaluating firms’ R&D performance using best worst method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salimi, Negin; Rezaei, J.

    2018-01-01

    Since research and development (R&D) is the most critical determinant of the productivity, growth and competitive advantage of firms, measuring R&D performance has become the core of attention of R&D managers, and an extensive body of literature has examined and identified different

  11. Numerical methods for optimizing the performance of buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The many different parties that influence design and control decisions for buildings, such as building owners, users, architects, consulting engineers, contractors, etx. may have different and to some extent conradicting requirements to buildings. Furthermore, national building regulations specify requirements to (among others) the energy performance and quality of the indoor climate.

  12. New methods for mobility performance measurement in wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Slikke, R.M.A.; Berger, MAM; Bregman, DJJ; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased professionalism in wheelchair sports demand a more precise and quantitative measure of individual wheelchair mobility performance, to allow it to be an evaluation measure of wheelchair setting or training optimization. This research describes the application of an inertial sensor based

  13. New methods for moisture control of high-performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovler, Konstantin; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Falikman, Vyacheslav

    2005-01-01

    Curing of concrete by both external (conventional) and internal methods is reviewed and analyzed. The focus is given on the mitigation of autogenous shrinkage of low water-to-cementitious materials ratio concrete by means of internal curing. The concepts of internal curing are based on using pre......-soaked lightweight aggregate, super-absorbent polymers or water-soluble chemicals, which reduce water evaporation (so called "internal sealing"). These concepts have been suggested in the 90s, but still are not popular among users, engineers, contractors, concrete suppliers, researchers, and the rest...... of professionals who work for them. The differences between conventional methods of external curing and novel methods of internal curing are described. It is concluded that proper curing is a key factor to achieve durable concrete....

  14. Influence function method for fast estimation of BWR core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahnema, F.; Martin, C.L.; Parkos, G.R.; Williams, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The model, which is based on the influence function method, provides rapid estimate of important quantities such as margins to fuel operating limits, the effective multiplication factor, nodal power and void and bundle flow distributions as well as the traversing in-core probe (TIP) and local power range monitor (LPRM) readings. The fast model has been incorporated into GE's three-dimensional core monitoring system (3D Monicore). In addition to its predicative capability, the model adapts to LPRM readings in the monitoring mode. Comparisons have shown that the agreement between the results of the fast method and those of the standard 3D Monicore is within a few percent. (orig.)

  15. CAPN1, CAST, and DGAT1 genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in a beef cattle population selected for haplotype and allele equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker effects and type of inheritance are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. A stable composite population (MARC III) was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to equalize specific marker frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  16. An alternative method for performing pressurized thermal shock analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, B.A.; Meyer, T.A.; Carter, R.G.; Gamble, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes how Probability of Crack Initiation and acceptable Pressurized Thermal Shock frequency were correlated with a c and summarizes several example applications, including evaluation of potential plant modifications. Plans for an industry supported pilot-plant application of the alternative Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics method for RG 1.154 are also discussed. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  17. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    CERN Document Server

    Clavensjoe, B

    2002-01-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m sup 3 in 54 (54) sin...

  18. 40 CFR 63.827 - Performance test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... compounds as carbon, ppmv. 12.0 = Molecular weight of carbon. 0.0416 = Conversion factor for molar volume... monitors for determining total organic volatile matter concentration and the volumetric gas flow rate, and... 2D of 40 CFR part 60, appendix A is used to determine gas volumetric flow rate. (iii) Method 3 of 40...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1161 - Performance testing and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., “Determination of Hydrogen Halide and Halogen Emissions from Stationary Sources—Isokinetic Method,” to determine... shall be 60 minutes and the minimum sample volume 0.85 dry standard cubic meters (30 dry standard cubic...(mg/dscm) is concentration in milligrams per dry standard cubic meter as calculated by the procedure...

  20. Comparison of the performances and validation of three methods for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-02-28

    Feb 28, 2014 ... bacteria in Norwegian slaughter pigs. Int J. Food Microbiol 1, 301–309. [NCFA] Nordic Committee of Food Analysis (1996). Yersinia enterocolitica Detection in foods 117,. 3rd,edn,1-12. Nowak, B., Mueffling, T.V., Caspari, K. and Hartung, J. 2006 Validation of a method for the detection of virulent Yersinia ...

  1. Performance of sampling methods to estimate log characteristics for wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa J. Bate; Torolf R. Torgersen; Michael J. Wisdom; Edward O. Garton

    2004-01-01

    Accurate estimation of the characteristics of log resources, or coarse woody debris (CWD), is critical to effective management of wildlife and other forest resources. Despite the importance of logs as wildlife habitat, methods for sampling logs have traditionally focused on silvicultural and fire applications. These applications have emphasized estimates of log volume...

  2. Data-driven performance evaluation method for CMS RPC trigger ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    level triggers, to handle the large stream of data produced in collision. The information transmitted from the three muon subsystems (DT, CSC and RPC) are collected by the Global Muon Trigger (GMT) Board and merged. A method for evaluating ...

  3. An alternative method for performing pressurized thermal shock analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, B A; Meyer, T A [Westinghouse Energy Systems, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Carter, R G [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States); Gamble, R M [Sartrex Corp., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes how Probability of Crack Initiation and acceptable Pressurized Thermal Shock frequency were correlated with a{sub c} and summarizes several example applications, including evaluation of potential plant modifications. Plans for an industry supported pilot-plant application of the alternative Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics method for RG 1.154 are also discussed. 9 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab.

  4. Means, methods and performances of the AREVA's HTR compact controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchet, J.; Guillermier, P.; Tisseur, D.; Vitali, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    In the AREVA's HTR development program, the reactor plant is composed of a prismatic core containing graphite cylindrical fuel elements, called compacts, where TRISO particles are dispersed. Starting from its past compacting process, the latter being revamped through the use of state of the art equipments, CERCA, 100% AREVA NP's subsidiary, was able to recover the quality of past compacts production. The recovered compacting process is composed of the following manufacturing steps: graphite matrix granulation, mix between the obtained granulates and particles, compacting and calcining at low pressure and temperature. To adapt this past process to new manufacturing equipments, non destructive examination tests were carried out to assess the compact quality, the latter being assessed via in house developed equipments and methods at each step of the design of experiments. As for the manufacturing process, past quality control methods were revamped to measure compact dimensional features (diameter, perpendicularity and cone effect), visual aspect, SiC layer failure fraction (via anodic disintegration and burn leach test) and homogeneity via 2D radiography coupled to ceramography. Although meeting quality requirements, 2D radiography method could not provide a quantified specification for compact homogeneity characterization. This limitation yielded the replacement of this past technique by a method based on X-Ray tomography. Development was conducted on this new technique to enable the definition of a criterion to quantify compact homogeneity, as well as to provide information about the distances in between particles. This study also included a comparison between simulated and real compacts to evaluate the accuracy of the technique as well as the influence of particle packing fraction on compact homogeneity. The developed quality control methods and equipments guided the choices of manufacturing parameters adjustments at the development stage and are now applied for

  5. Assessing performance of flaw characterization methods through uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorelli, R.; Le Bourdais, F.; Artusi, X.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we assess the inversion performance in terms of crack characterization and localization based on synthetic signals associated to ultrasonic and eddy current physics. More precisely, two different standard iterative inversion algorithms are used to minimize the discrepancy between measurements (i.e., the tested data) and simulations. Furthermore, in order to speed up the computational time and get rid of the computational burden often associated to iterative inversion algorithms, we replace the standard forward solver by a suitable metamodel fit on a database built offline. In a second step, we assess the inversion performance by adding uncertainties on a subset of the database parameters and then, through the metamodel, we propagate these uncertainties within the inversion procedure. The fast propagation of uncertainties enables efficiently evaluating the impact due to the lack of knowledge on some parameters employed to describe the inspection scenarios, which is a situation commonly encountered in the industrial NDE context.

  6. A novel method for assessing position-sensitive detector performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Shao, L.; Hero, A.O. III; Koral, K.F.

    1989-01-01

    A marked point process model of a position-sensitive detector is developed which includes the effects of detector efficiency, spatial response, energy response, and source statistics. The average mutual information between the incident distribution of γ rays and the detector response is derived and used as a performance index for detector optimization. A brief example is presented which uses this figure-of-merit for optimization of light guide dimensions for a modular scintillation camera

  7. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chaharsooghi, S. K.; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain...

  8. Power-output regularization in global sound equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Sarris, J.; Cambourakis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of equalization in room acoustics is to compensate for the undesired modification that an enclosure introduces to signals such as audio or speech. In this work, equalization in a large part of the volume of a room is addressed. The multiple point method is employed with an acoustic...

  9. Performance of Commercial Laying Hen Submitted to Different Debeaking Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Oka

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Among the several factors required in breeding laying hens, debeaking is a factor that interferes with batch performance and affects animal welfare. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate three different debeaking procedures and to verify the best technique to be used. For this, the performance of the birds, the incidence of cannibalism, and in rearing phase, the quality of the eggs were evaluated. Dekalb White birds were distributed in a completely randomized design with three treatments, T1 (infrared radiation debeaking T2 (hot blade debeaking and T3 (V debeaking.The data was submitted to Analysis of Variance and compared by Tukey’s test (95%, using statistical software R. The frequencies of mortality and cannibalism were submitted to the Chi-Square test (Software R. It was observed that mortality was lower with IR debeaking in the breeding phase. Already in the rearing phase, the mortality was similar between the debeaking techniques and the cannibalism was null. The final mean weight (g, mean weight gain (g and average daily weight gain in the rearing and egg quality variables were higher for V debeaking when compared to other techniques. It is concluded that V-debeaking provides better bird performance, resistance and shell thickness when compared to the infrared radiations and hot blade debeaking, in addition to subjecting the birds to less stress.

  10. Measuring recent research performance for Chinese universities using bibliometric methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2014-07-29

    This paper focuses on measuring the academic research performance of Chinese universities by using Scopus database from 2007 to 2010. We have provided meaningful indicators to measure the research performance of Chinese universities as compared to world class universities of the US and the European region. Using these indicators, we first measure the quantity and quality of the research outcomes of the universities and then examine the internationalization of research by using international collaborations, international citations and international impact metrics. Using all of this data, we finally present an overall score called research performance point to measure the comprehensive research strength of the universities for the selected subject categories. The comparison identifies the gap between Chinese universities and top-tier universities from selected regions across various subject areas. We find that Chinese universities are doing well in terms of publication volume but receive less citations from their published work. We also find that the Chinese universities have relative low percentage of publications at high impact venues, which may be the reason that they are not receiving more citations. Therefore, a careful selection of publication venues may help the Chinese universities to compete with world class universities and increase their research internationalization. © 2014 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  11. COLOUR IMAGE ENHANCEMENT BASED ON HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kanika Kapoor and Shaveta Arora

    2015-01-01

    Histogram equalization is a nonlinear technique for adjusting the contrast of an image using its histogram. It increases the brightness of a gray scale image which is different from the mean brightness of the original image. There are various types of Histogram equalization techniques like Histogram Equalization, Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization, Brightness Preserving Bi Histogram Equalization, Dualistic Sub Image Histogram Equalization, Minimum Mean Brightness Error Bi Histog...

  12. Minimum Probability of Error-Based Equalization Algorithms for Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janos Levendovszky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Novel channel equalizer algorithms are introduced for wireless communication systems to combat channel distortions resulting from multipath propagation. The novel algorithms are based on newly derived bounds on the probability of error (PE and guarantee better performance than the traditional zero forcing (ZF or minimum mean square error (MMSE algorithms. The new equalization methods require channel state information which is obtained by a fast adaptive channel identification algorithm. As a result, the combined convergence time needed for channel identification and PE minimization still remains smaller than the convergence time of traditional adaptive algorithms, yielding real-time equalization. The performance of the new algorithms is tested by extensive simulations on standard mobile channels.

  13. Nearly equal β* at CESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, P.; Billing, M.; Krishnagopal, S.; Rubin, D.; Siemann, R.; Welch, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulations suggest that in e + e - storage rings collisions of round beams (equal emittances and equal β * ) can produce tune shifts of 0.1 and very large luminosities. Further simulations show the same large vertical tune shifts even with very different horizontal and vertical emittances. Using a special CESR lattice with β h * = 32 cm, β v * = 20 cm, and zero horizontal and vertical dispersion at the interaction point, the author authors collided beams with horizontal emittance of 136 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad and vertical emittance of about 9 nm · rad. There were experimental complications involving the damping partition numbers, a near miss at a parasitic crossing point, and small orbit offsets at the main collision point. They have done a detailed analysis of these complications and discuss their effects on the observed saturated tune shift of 0.045 ± 0.010

  14. Method of performing sugar dehydration and catalyst treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Holladay, Johnathan E [Kennewick, WA; Zhang, Xinjie [Burlington, MA; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2010-06-01

    The invention includes a method of treating a solid acid catalyst. After exposing the catalyst to a mixture containing a sugar alcohol, the catalyst is washed with an organic solvent and is then exposed to a second reaction mixture. The invention includes a process for production of anhydrosugar alcohol. A solid acid catalyst is provided to convert sugar alcohol in a first sample to an anhydrosugar alcohol. The catalyst is then washed with an organic solvent and is subsequently utilized to expose a second sample. The invention includes a method for selective production of an anhydrosugar. A solid acid catalyst is provided within a reactor and anhydrosugar alcohol is formed by flowing a starting sugar alcohol into the reactor. The acid catalyst is then exposed to an organic solvent which allows a greater amount of additional anhydrosugar to be produced than would occur without exposing the acid catalyst to the organic solvent.

  15. Performance of Firth-and logF-type penalized methods in risk prediction for small or sparse binary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Shafiqur; Sultana, Mahbuba

    2017-02-23

    When developing risk models for binary data with small or sparse data sets, the standard maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) based logistic regression faces several problems including biased or infinite estimate of the regression coefficient and frequent convergence failure of the likelihood due to separation. The problem of separation occurs commonly even if sample size is large but there is sufficient number of strong predictors. In the presence of separation, even if one develops the model, it produces overfitted model with poor predictive performance. Firth-and logF-type penalized regression methods are popular alternative to MLE, particularly for solving separation-problem. Despite the attractive advantages, their use in risk prediction is very limited. This paper evaluated these methods in risk prediction in comparison with MLE and other commonly used penalized methods such as ridge. The predictive performance of the methods was evaluated through assessing calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance using an extensive simulation study. Further an illustration of the methods were provided using a real data example with low prevalence of outcome. The MLE showed poor performance in risk prediction in small or sparse data sets. All penalized methods offered some improvements in calibration, discrimination and overall predictive performance. Although the Firth-and logF-type methods showed almost equal amount of improvement, Firth-type penalization produces some bias in the average predicted probability, and the amount of bias is even larger than that produced by MLE. Of the logF(1,1) and logF(2,2) penalization, logF(2,2) provides slight bias in the estimate of regression coefficient of binary predictor and logF(1,1) performed better in all aspects. Similarly, ridge performed well in discrimination and overall predictive performance but it often produces underfitted model and has high rate of convergence failure (even the rate is higher than that

  16. Performing Allen's test in immobile hand: The Esmarch bandage method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebil Yesiloglu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an alternative method of assessing hand vascular flow using a modification of Allen's test is presented. This technique may be helpful for patients who have immobile hands due to severe trauma, patients scheduled for free tissue transfer reconstruction, patients under general anesthesia in intensive care units that require serial arterial blood gas analyses, and emergency coronary by-pass candidates who decided to receive radial arterial grafts. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(3.000: 83-85

  17. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  18. Discrimination and Equality of Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    J. Ignacio García-Pérez; Antonio Villar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a measure of social discrimination based on the principle of equality of opportunity. According to this principle we only have to care about the inequality derived from people’s differential circumstances (and not about outcome differences due to people’s diverse degree of effort). We propose approaching the measurement of group discrimination as the “welfare loss” attributed to the inequality between social groups of similar characteristics. We also provide an empirical a...

  19. Office of Equal Opportunity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jennifer L.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Office of Equal Opportunity Programs works to provide quality service for all programs and/or to assist the Center in becoming a model workplace. During the summer of 2004, I worked with Deborah Cotleur along with other staff members to create and modify customer satisfaction surveys. This office aims to assist in developing a model workplace by providing functions as a change agent to the center by serving as an advisor to management to ensure equity throughout the Center. In addition, the office serves as a mediator for the Center in addressing issues and concerns. Lastly, the office provides assistance to employees to enable attainment of personal and organizational goals. The Office of Equal Opportunities is a staff office which reports and provides advice to the Center Director and Executive Leadership, implements laws, regulations, and presidential executive orders, and provides center wide leadership and assistance to NASA GRC employees. Some of the major responsibilities of the office include working with the discrimination complaints program, special emphasis programs (advisory groups), management support, monitoring and evaluation, contract compliance, and community outreach. During my internship in this office, my main objective was to create four customer satisfaction surveys based on EO retreats, EO observances, EO advisory boards, and EO mediation/counseling. I created these surveys after conducting research on past events and surveys as well as similar survey research created and conducted by other NASA centers, program for EO Advisory group members, leadership training sessions for supervisors, preventing sexual harassment training sessions, and observance events. I also conducted research on the style and format from feedback surveys from the Marshall Equal Opportunity website, the Goddard website, and the main NASA website. Using the material from the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs at Glenn Research Center along with my

  20. Long term performance of different radon remedial methods in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavensjoe, Bertil

    2002-06-01

    The object of this project was to investigate the long time effectiveness of different radon remedial methods. The ten years project started 1991. From start the investigation comprised of 105 dwellings (91 single-family houses and 14 flats in multi-family buildings). In all of the dwellings remedial measures were carried out in the eighties. Before and immediately after the reduction the local authorities measured the radon concentrations. New measurements of the radon concentrations have been made every third year; in 1991, 1994, 1997 and in 2000. Twelve different radon remedial methods and method combinations were used. The radon sources were building materials as well as sub-soils. In all of the dwellings the radon concentrations were measured by nuclear track films during 3 months (January-March) measurements and in half of them the air change rates by passive tracer gas methods. The results of the 2000 and the 1991 (within brackets) studies showed that the radon concentration was up to 200 Bq/m 3 in 54 (54) single-family houses and 7 (7) flats, between 210 Bq/m 3 and 400 Bq/m 3 in 23 (18) single-family houses and 5 (6) flats, and higher than 400 Bq/m 3 in 12 (18) single-family houses and 2 (1) flats. The study 1991 showed also that in about 40 % of the cases the radon concentration had increased by more than 30 % only a few years after reduction actions had been taken. In 19 dwellings the radon concentration was at least doubled. In no fewer than 38 dwellings the radon level has been over 400 Bq/m 3 in at least one of the four measuring occasions. The change in radon concentrations was not specific to any given method but seemed to be evenly distributed over all of them. The investigation results showed the necessity for repeated measuring where counter measures have been taken. The causes for increasing radon levels have been made clear in all except 2-3 cases

  1. Application of Numerical Optimization Methods to Perform Molecular Docking on Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Farkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of numerical optimization methods for solving a problem of molecular docking has been performed. Some additional requirements for optimization methods according to GPU architecture features were specified. A promising method for implementation on GPU was selected. Its implementation was described and performance and accuracy tests were performed.

  2. Determining the performance of a Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine using a combined CFD/BEM method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesby Joss E.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the optimisation of a Diffuser Augmented Wind Turbine has focused on maximising power output. However, due to the often less than ideal location of small-scale turbines, cut-in speed and starting time are of equal importance in maximising Annual Energy Production, which is the ultimate goal of any wind turbine design. This paper proposes a method of determining power output, cut-in speed and starting time using a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics and Blade Element Momentum theory. The proposed method has been validated against published experimental data.

  3. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  4. Non-uniformity Correction of Infrared Images by Midway Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The non-uniformity is a time-dependent noise caused by the lack of sensor equalization. We present here the detailed algorithm and on line demo of the non-uniformity correction method by midway infrared equalization. This method was designed to suit infrared images. Nevertheless, it can be applied to images produced for example by scanners, or by push-broom satellites. The obtained single image method works on static images, is fully automatic, having no user parameter, and requires no registration. It needs no camera motion compensation, no closed aperture sensor equalization and is able to correct for a fully non-linear non-uniformity.

  5. Analog Group Delay Equalizers Design Based on Evolutionary Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Laipert

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a design method of the analog all-pass filter designated for equalization of the group delay frequency response of the analog filter. This method is based on usage of evolutionary algorithm, the Differential Evolution algorithm in particular. We are able to design such equalizers to be obtained equal-ripple group delay frequency response in the pass-band of the low-pass filter. The procedure works automatically without an input estimation. The method is presented on solving practical examples.

  6. COMPUTER-IMPLEMENTED METHOD OF PERFORMING A SEARCH USING SIGNATURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A computer-implemented method of processing a query vector and a data vector), comprising: generating a set of masks and a first set of multiple signatures and a second set of multiple signatures by applying the set of masks to the query vector and the data vector, respectively, and generating...... candidate pairs, of a first signature and a second signature, by identifying matches of a first signature and a second signature. The set of masks comprises a configuration of the elements that is a Hadamard code; a permutation of a Hadamard code; or a code that deviates from a Hadamard code...

  7. Improved Performance of Unsupervised Method by Renovated K-Means

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok, P.; Nawaz, G. M Kadhar; Elayaraja, E.; Vadivel, V.

    2013-01-01

    Clustering is a separation of data into groups of similar objects. Every group called cluster consists of objects that are similar to one another and dissimilar to objects of other groups. In this paper, the K-Means algorithm is implemented by three distance functions and to identify the optimal distance function for clustering methods. The proposed K-Means algorithm is compared with K-Means, Static Weighted K-Means (SWK-Means) and Dynamic Weighted K-Means (DWK-Means) algorithm by using Davis...

  8. Performance of the lot quality assurance sampling method compared to surveillance for identifying inadequately-performing areas in Matlab, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S M A; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P Kim

    2007-03-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers in ICDDR,B-served areas in Matlab during July-September 2002. The performance of the LQAS method in identifying work-areas with adequate and inadequate coverage of various health services was compared with those of the HDSS. The health service-coverage indicators included coverage of DPT, measles, BCG vaccination, and contraceptive use. It was observed that the difference in the proportion of work-areas identified to be inadequately performing using the LQAS method with less than 30 respondents, and the HDSS was not statistically significant. The consistency between the LQAS method and the HDSS in identifying work-areas was greater for adequately-performing areas than inadequately-performing areas. It was also observed that the field managers could be trained to apply the LQAS method in monitoring their performance in reaching the target population.

  9. Equal is as equal does: challenging Vatican views on women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The authors of this piece are women from the Roman Catholic tradition who are critical of the Vatican position on women's rights. The Report of the Holy See in Preparation for the Fourth World Conference on Women reveals a religious fundamentalism that misuses tradition and anthropology to limit women's roles and rights. The Vatican is itself a self-proclaimed state that offers women neither opportunities nor protections within its own organization, and there is no evidence of women's participation in the preparation of its report. The Vatican document constructs a vision of women and men in which men are normative persons, whose dignity is conferred by their humanity, and women are the variant other, defined by and granted dignity by their reproductive and mothering functions. The Vatican document is anti-feminist. It criticizes the "radical feminists" of the 1960s for trying to deny sexual differences, and accuses today's Western feminists of ignoring the needs of women in developing countries while pursuing selfish and hedonistic goals. It makes no recognition of the work of feminists to improve the lives of women worldwide. The Vatican document claims to support women's equality, but it qualifies each statement of equality with a presumption of difference. The document defines women as vulnerable without naming men as responsible for the oppression and violence to which women are vulnerable. It ridicules as feminist cant the well-documented fact that the home is the setting of most violence against women. The Vatican decries the suffering families undergo as a result of cumpulsory birth control and abortion policies, while it would deny families sex education, contraceptives, and safe abortion, thereby making pregnancy cumpulsory. A new vision of social justice is needed, one that: 1) rests on a radical equality, in which both women and men are expected to contribute to work, education, culture, morality, and reproduction; 2) accepts a "discipleship of equals

  10. Practical applications and methods in performing cardiac digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, D.M.; Withrow, S.; Moodie, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    One of the purposes of this book is to outline the utility of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in common clinical practice. No text has dealt with the actual physical setup of the room or the patient prior and during a digital subtraction angiographic study at rest and with exercise. This chapter outlines the steps commonly used when cardiac DSA is performed on patients in the authors' laboratory. The authors have learned over the last few years the best way to prepare the patient and the equipment and it is hoped that utilizing this experience, other centers may avoid the mistakes the authors have made in the past and develop new techniques for the future

  11. A Novel Method for Performance Analysis of Compartmentalized Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahamat Mohammad Sadeq

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple analytical model for performance analysis of compartmentalized reservoirs producing under Constant Terminal Rate (CTR and Constant Terminal Pressure (CTP. The model is based on the well-known material balance and boundary dominated flow equations and is written in terms of capacitance and resistance of a production and a support compartment. These capacitance and resistance terms account for a combination of reservoir parameters which enable the developed model to be used for characterizing such systems. In addition to considering the properties contrast between the two reservoir compartments, the model takes into account existence of transmissibility barriers with the use of resistance terms. The model is used to analyze production performance of unconventional reservoirs, where the multistage fracturing of horizontal wells effectively creates a Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV with an enhanced permeability surrounded by a non-stimulated region. It can also be used for analysis of compartmentalized conventional reservoirs. The analytical solutions provide type curves through which the controlling reservoirs parameters of a compartmentalized system can be estimated. The contribution of the supporting compartment is modeled based on a boundary dominated flow assumption. The transient behaviour of the support compartment is captured by application of “distance of investigation” concept. The model shows that depletion of the production and support compartments exhibit two unit slopes on a log-log plot of pressure versus time for CTR. For CTP, however, the depletions display two exponential declines. The depletion signatures are separated by transition periods, which depend on the contribution of the support compartment (i.e. transient or boundary dominated flow. The developed equations can be implemented easily in a spreadsheet application, and are corroborated with the use of a numerical simulation. The study

  12. Nonparametric tests for equality of psychometric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Miguel A; Núñez-Antón, Vicente

    2017-12-07

    Many empirical studies measure psychometric functions (curves describing how observers' performance varies with stimulus magnitude) because these functions capture the effects of experimental conditions. To assess these effects, parametric curves are often fitted to the data and comparisons are carried out by testing for equality of mean parameter estimates across conditions. This approach is parametric and, thus, vulnerable to violations of the implied assumptions. Furthermore, testing for equality of means of parameters may be misleading: Psychometric functions may vary meaningfully across conditions on an observer-by-observer basis with no effect on the mean values of the estimated parameters. Alternative approaches to assess equality of psychometric functions per se are thus needed. This paper compares three nonparametric tests that are applicable in all situations of interest: The existing generalized Mantel-Haenszel test, a generalization of the Berry-Mielke test that was developed here, and a split variant of the generalized Mantel-Haenszel test also developed here. Their statistical properties (accuracy and power) are studied via simulation and the results show that all tests are indistinguishable as to accuracy but they differ non-uniformly as to power. Empirical use of the tests is illustrated via analyses of published data sets and practical recommendations are given. The computer code in MATLAB and R to conduct these tests is available as Electronic Supplemental Material.

  13. Equal pay for work of equal value in terms of the Employment Equity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lastly, this article seeks to ascertain whether the EEA (including the Employment Equity Regulations) provides an adequate legal framework for determining an equal pay for work of equal value claim. Keywords: Equal pay; Employment Equity Act; Equality Act; International Labour Organisation; Equal Pay Guide; Equal ...

  14. A performance model for the communication in fast multipole methods on high-performance computing platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Ibeid, Huda; Yokota, Rio; Keyes, David E.

    2016-01-01

    model and the actual communication time on four high-performance computing (HPC) systems, when latency, bandwidth, network topology, and multicore penalties are all taken into account. To our knowledge, this is the first formal characterization

  15. Methods of making high performance compacts and products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fey, M.G.; Iyer, N.C.; Male, A.T.; Lovic, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a method of forming a pressed, dense compact. It comprises: providing a compactable particulate combination of: Class 1 metals selected from the group consisting of Ag, Cu, Al, and mixtures thereof, with material selected from the class consisting of CdO, SnO, SnO 2 , C, Co, Ni, Fe, Cr, Cr 3 C 2 , Cr 7 C 3 , W, WC, W 2 C, WB, Mo, Mo 2 C, MoB, Mo 2 B, TiC, TiN, TiB 2 , Si, SiC, Si 3 N 4 , and mixtures thereof; uniaxially pressing the particulate combination to provide a compact; placing at least one compact in an open pan; evacuating air from the pan; sealing the open top portion of the pan; stacking the pans next to each other, with plates having a high electrical resistance disposed between each pan so that the pans and plates alternate with each other, where a layer of thermally conductive, granular, pressure transmitting material is disposed between each pan and plate, which granular material acts to provide heat transfer and uniform mechanical loading to the compacts in the pans upon subsequent pressing; placing the stack in a press, passing an electrical current through the pans and high electrical resistance plates to cause a heating effect on the compacts in the pans, and uniaxial pressing the alternating pans and plates; cooling and releasing pressure on the alternating pans and plates; and separating the pans from the plates and the compacts from the pans

  16. Midwives, gender equality and feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Denis

    2016-03-01

    Gender inequality and the harmful effects of patriarchy are sustaining the wide spread oppression of women across the world and this is also having an impact on maternity services with unacceptable rates of maternal mortality, the continued under investment in the midwifery profession and the limiting of women's place of birth options. However alongside these effects, the current zeitgeist is affirming an alignment of feminism and gender equality such that both have a high profile in public discourse. This presents a once in a generation opportunity for midwives to self-declare as feminists and commit to righting the wrongs of this most pernicious form of discrimination.

  17. Educational Equality: Luck Egalitarian, Pluralist and Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, John

    2014-01-01

    The basic principle of educational equality is that each child should receive an equally good education. This sounds appealing, but is rather vague and needs substantial working out. Also, educational equality faces all the objections to equality per se, plus others specific to its subject matter. Together these have eroded confidence in the…

  18. Density equalizing map projections (cartograms) in public health applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, D.W.

    1998-05-01

    In studying geographic disease distributions, one normally compares rates among arbitrarily defined geographic subareas (e.g. census tracts), thereby sacrificing some of the geographic detail of the original data. The sparser the data, the larger the subareas must be in order to calculate stable rates. This dilemma is avoided with the technique of Density Equalizing Map Projections (DEMP){copyright}. Boundaries of geographic subregions are adjusted to equalize population density over the entire study area. Case locations plotted on the transformed map should have a uniform distribution if the underlying disease risk is constant. On the transformed map, the statistical analysis of the observed distribution is greatly simplified. Even for sparse distributions, the statistical significance of a supposed disease cluster can be calculated with validity. The DEMP algorithm was applied to a data set previously analyzed with conventional techniques; namely, 401 childhood cancer cases in four counties of California. The distribution of cases on the transformed map was analyzed visually and statistically. To check the validity of the method, the identical analysis was performed on 401 artificial cases randomly generated under the assumption of uniform risk. No statistically significant evidence for geographic non-uniformity of rates was found, in agreement with the original analysis performed by the California Department of Health Services.

  19. Differential phase-shift keying and channel equalization in free space optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dai; Hao, Shiqi; Zhao, Qingsong; Wan, Xiongfeng; Xu, Chenlu

    2018-01-01

    We present the performance benefits of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) modulation in eliminating influence from atmospheric turbulence, especially for coherent free space optical (FSO) communication with a high communication rate. Analytic expression of detected signal is derived, based on which, homodyne detection efficiency is calculated to indicate the performance of wavefront compensation. Considered laser pulses always suffer from atmospheric scattering effect by clouds, intersymbol interference (ISI) in high-speed FSO communication link is analyzed. Correspondingly, the channel equalization method of a binormalized modified constant modulus algorithm based on set-membership filtering (SM-BNMCMA) is proposed to solve the ISI problem. Finally, through the comparison with existing channel equalization methods, its performance benefits of both ISI elimination and convergence speed are verified. The research findings have theoretical significance in a high-speed FSO communication system.

  20. Gender equality and women empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargan, R

    1996-01-01

    This article lists 11 suggestions for empowering women that the government of India should take, if it has a sincere commitment to gender equality and women's empowerment grounded in social change and not just rhetoric: 1) education should be made compulsory for all female children and places held on a 50/50 basis in all technical institutions; 2) a uniform civil code should be adopted for all citizens regardless of cast, creed, and religion; 3) women should have an equal right to own property and receive inheritance; 4) the National Women's Commission should be enlarged, representative of diversity, and effective in making policy decisions related to welfare, education, recruitment, and promotion; 5) a State Women's Commission should be established with affiliates at the block, district, and division levels; 6) the National and State Women's Commission should be established as a Statutory Body with binding decisions mandating government action; 7) the National and State Women's Commissions should have transparent functions, be regulatory, and offer workshops and seminars for women; 8) state governments should not interfere in the functions of National and State Women's Commissions; 9) women should fill 50% of all Center and State government service posts and concessions should be made on minimum academic qualifications and completed years of service, until all positions are filled; 10) 50% of the seats of Parliament should be reserved for women in both the State Legislature, Council of Ministry Boards, Corporations, Committees, and Commissions; and 11) the Constitution should provide for women judges in courts of law.

  1. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  2. Transparent dispersion compensator with built-in gain equalizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Doerr, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated.......In this work we describe a method to obtain a transparent or even an amplifying dispersion compensating module with built-in gain equalization functionality. The principle of operation and experimental results are illustrated....

  3. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  4. What Math Matters? Types of Mathematics Knowledge and Relationships to Methods Course Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Ann; Holm, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a departmental focus on enhanced mathematics knowledge for teaching on overall performance in upper elementary mathematics methods courses. The study examined the effect of performance on a new course in mathematics for teaching on performance at the methods course level. In addition, the effect of performance…

  5. Performance of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling Method Compared to Surveillance for Identifying Inadequately-performing Areas in Matlab, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Hanifi, S.M.A.; Roy, Nikhil; Streatfield, P. Kim

    2007-01-01

    This paper compared the performance of the lot quality assurance sampling (LQAS) method in identifying inadequately-performing health work-areas with that of using health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) data and examined the feasibility of applying the method by field-level programme supervisors. The study was carried out in Matlab, the field site of ICDDR,B, where a HDSS has been in place for over 30 years. The LQAS method was applied in 57 work-areas of community health workers i...

  6. Investigation on multi-objective performance optimization algorithm application of fan based on response surface method and entropy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Kexin; Liu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    A multi-objective performance optimization method is proposed, and the problem that single structural parameters of small fan balance the optimization between the static characteristics and the aerodynamic noise is solved. In this method, three structural parameters are selected as the optimization variables. Besides, the static pressure efficiency and the aerodynamic noise of the fan are regarded as the multi-objective performance. Furthermore, the response surface method and the entropy method are used to establish the optimization function between the optimization variables and the multi-objective performances. Finally, the optimized model is found when the optimization function reaches its maximum value. Experimental data shows that the optimized model not only enhances the static characteristics of the fan but also obviously reduces the noise. The results of the study will provide some reference for the optimization of multi-objective performance of other types of rotating machinery.

  7. PV Performance Modeling Methods and Practices: Results from the 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In 2014, the IEA PVPS Task 13 added the PVPMC as a formal activity to its technical work plan for 2014-2017. The goal of this activity is to expand the reach of the PVPMC to a broader international audience and help to reduce PV performance modeling uncertainties worldwide. One of the main deliverables of this activity is to host one or more PVPMC workshops outside the US to foster more international participation within this collaborative group. This report reviews the results of the first in a series of these joint IEA PVPS Task 13/PVPMC workshops. The 4th PV Performance Modeling Collaborative Workshop was held in Cologne, Germany at the headquarters of TÜV Rheinland on October 22-23, 2015.

  8. Klystron equalization for RF feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corredoura, P.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of colliding beam storage rings support higher luminosities by significantly increasing the number of bunches and decreasing the spacing between respective bunches. The heavy beam loading requires large RF cavity detuning which drives several lower coupled bunch modes very strongly. One technique which has proven to be very successful in reducing the coupled bunch mode driving impedance is RF feedback around the klystron-cavity combination. The gain and bandwidth of the feedback loop is limited by the group delay around the feedback loop. Existing klystrons on the world market have not been optimized for this application and contribute a large portion of the total loop group delay. This paper describes a technique to reduce klystron group delay by adding an equalizing filter to the klystron RF drive. Such a filter was built and tested on a 500 kill klystron as part of the on going PEP-II R ampersand D effort here at SLAC

  9. Ethical Perspectives of Equal Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traian PALADE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of the fair equality of the concept of opportunity from the perspective of the moral and reasonable justifications brought to support positive discrimination. Although contemporary democratic societies guarantee the absence of discrimination by securing the formal equality of opportunity, this seems to be insufficient to balance opportunities. The Rawlsian model has gained ground, by advancing a redistribution of the resources to support the disadvantaged ones, which is implemented through special measures. The compulsory quotas for admission to higher education or public institutions, addressed to some disadvantaged groups, are one of the effective means of implementing fairness. As this system has shattered the principle of reward judging by one‟s merits, and ending up as a form of inverse discrimination of the majority groups, it is necessary that we analyse the arguments and the boomerang effects of the special measures. The undertaking proposed by the present paper is structured around highlighting the ethical aspects, as well as the consequences resulting from the arguments in favour of positive discrimination. Do we have the moral obligation to make up for the past inequalities suffered by some groups? Does preferential treatment really ensure the genuine integration of such groups? Do special measures contribute in creating social justice? Without the claim of having responded definitively and exhaustively to these questions, this paper attempts to emphasise the ethical dilemma that raises when special measures favour one group or another, when a group is protected judging by only one criterion, or when only an implementation area is selected.

  10. Gender equality in couples and self-rated health - A survey study evaluating measurements of gender equality and its impact on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörlin, Ann; Lindholm, Lars; Ng, Nawi; Ohman, Ann

    2011-08-26

    Men and women have different patterns of health. These differences between the sexes present a challenge to the field of public health. The question why women experience more health problems than men despite their longevity has been discussed extensively, with both social and biological theories being offered as plausible explanations. In this article, we focus on how gender equality in a partnership might be associated with the respondents' perceptions of health. This study was a cross-sectional survey with 1400 respondents. We measured gender equality using two different measures: 1) a self-reported gender equality index, and 2) a self-perceived gender equality question. The aim of comparison of the self-reported gender equality index with the self-perceived gender equality question was to reveal possible disagreements between the normative discourse on gender equality and daily practice in couple relationships. We then evaluated the association with health, measured as self-rated health (SRH). With SRH dichotomized into 'good' and 'poor', logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with the outcome. For the comparison between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality, kappa statistics were used. Associations between gender equality and health found in this study vary with the type of gender equality measurement. Overall, we found little agreement between the self-reported gender equality index and self-perceived gender equality. Further, the patterns of agreement between self-perceived and self-reported gender equality were quite different for men and women: men perceived greater gender equality than they reported in the index, while women perceived less gender equality than they reported. The associations to health were depending on gender equality measurement used. Men and women perceive and report gender equality differently. This means that it is necessary not only to be conscious of the methods and measurements

  11. Can We Use Polya’s Method to Improve Students’ Performance in the Statistics Classes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Wickramasinghe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Polya’s problem-solving method is introduced in a statistics class in an effort to enhance students’ performance. Teaching the method was applied to one of the two introductory-level statistics classes taught by the same instructor, and a comparison was made between the performances in the two classes. The results indicate there was a significant improvement of the students’ performance in the class in which Polya’s method was introduced.

  12. Comparison of two methods to determine fan performance curves using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onma, Patinya; Chantrasmi, Tonkid

    2018-01-01

    This work investigates a systematic numerical approach that employs Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to obtain performance curves of a backward-curved centrifugal fan. Generating the performance curves requires a number of three-dimensional simulations with varying system loads at a fixed rotational speed. Two methods were used and their results compared to experimental data. The first method incrementally changes the mass flow late through the inlet boundary condition while the second method utilizes a series of meshes representing the physical damper blade at various angles. The generated performance curves from both methods are compared with an experiment setup in accordance with the AMCA fan performance testing standard.

  13. Equalization and detection for digital communication over nonlinear bandlimited satellite communication channels. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Alberto, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates receiver-based methods for mitigating the effects due to nonlinear bandlimited signal distortion present in high data rate satellite channels. The effects of the nonlinear bandlimited distortion is illustrated for digitally modulated signals. A lucid development of the low-pass Volterra discrete time model for a nonlinear communication channel is presented. In addition, finite-state machine models are explicitly developed for a nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. A nonlinear fixed equalizer based on Volterra series has previously been studied for compensation of noiseless signal distortion due to a nonlinear satellite channel. This dissertation studies adaptive Volterra equalizers on a downlink-limited nonlinear bandlimited satellite channel. We employ as figure of merits performance in the mean-square error and probability of error senses. In addition, a receiver consisting of a fractionally-spaced equalizer (FSE) followed by a Volterra equalizer (FSE-Volterra) is found to give improvement beyond that gained by the Volterra equalizer. Significant probability of error performance improvement is found for multilevel modulation schemes. Also, it is found that probability of error improvement is more significant for modulation schemes, constant amplitude and multilevel, which require higher signal to noise ratios (i.e., higher modulation orders) for reliable operation. The maximum likelihood sequence detection (MLSD) receiver for a nonlinear satellite channel, a bank of matched filters followed by a Viterbi detector, serves as a probability of error lower bound for the Volterra and FSE-Volterra equalizers. However, this receiver has not been evaluated for a specific satellite channel. In this work, an MLSD receiver is evaluated for a specific downlink-limited satellite channel. Because of the bank of matched filters, the MLSD receiver may be high in complexity. Consequently, the probability of error performance of a more practical

  14. GENDER EQUALITY AS A MODERN PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the work. Forming the axiological system of Western society, with the intentions to establish gender equality as a guarantee of a just society being taken into account, on the one hand, and preserving the traditional gender stereotypes inherent to patriarchal gender roles in a considerable part of the world, on the other hand, is actualizing the study of the factors that have contributed to realizing the problem of gender inequality and discrimination. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to highlight the factors that stipulated the awareness of gender equality in European social and cultural space, while leaving alive the traditional gender values in a number of other cultural environments. Methodology of the study is determined by interdisciplinary approach involving the use of general scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis, generalization, etc. The leading role belonged to the principle of the historical and logical unity. At the same time the study applies the basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics and the contextual analysis method. Originality lies in putting forward the new theoretical statements aimed to show that in the ancient and pre-modern society, gender inequality and discrimination did not exist, because at that time gender relations were considered either as a result of the biological characteristics of a human body, or were explained by worldview ideas about the origin and structural features of the world, prevailing in a specific historical dimension. Consequently, gender roles were taken for granted and were not subject to any doubt. Conclusions. Despite all the worldview shifts that had been taking place in the pre-modern era social outlook, nevertheless, as history has shown, they failed to generate sufficient philosophical foundations either for recognizing the equality of women, or changing their social, legal and political status. This led to accumulating the unconscious internal resistance to

  15. High Speed PAM -8 Optical Interconnects with Digital Equalization based on Neural Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiarin, Simone; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission.......We experimentally evaluate a high-speed optical interconnection link with neural network equalization. Enhanced equalization performances are shown comparing to standard linear FFE for an EML-based 32 GBd PAM-8 signal after 4-km SMF transmission....

  16. Low complexity adaptive equalizers for underwater acoustic communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soflaei, Masoumeh; Azmi, Paeiz

    2014-08-01

    Interference signals due to scattering from surface and reflecting from bottom is one of the most important problems of reliable communications in shallow water channels. To solve this problem, one of the best suggested ways is to use adaptive equalizers. Convergence rate and misadjustment error in adaptive algorithms play important roles in adaptive equalizer performance. In this paper, affine projection algorithm (APA), selective regressor APA(SR-APA), family of selective partial update (SPU) algorithms, family of set-membership (SM) algorithms and selective partial update selective regressor APA (SPU-SR-APA) are compared with conventional algorithms such as the least mean square (LMS) in underwater acoustic communications. We apply experimental data from the Strait of Hormuz for demonstrating the efficiency of the proposed methods over shallow water channel. We observe that the values of the steady-state mean square error (MSE) of SR-APA, SPU-APA, SPU-normalized least mean square (SPU-NLMS), SPU-SR-APA, SM-APA and SM-NLMS algorithms decrease in comparison with the LMS algorithm. Also these algorithms have better convergence rates than LMS type algorithm.

  17. Color and Contrast Enhancement by Controlled Piecewise Affine Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose-Luis Lisani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple contrast enhancement algorithm based on histogram equalization (HE. The proposed algorithm performs a piecewise affine transform of the intensity levels of a digital image such that the new cumulative distribution function will be approximately uniform (as with HE, but where the stretching of the range is locally controlled to avoid brutal noise enhancement. We call this algorithm Piecewise Affine Equalization (PAE. Several experiments show that, in general, the new algorithm improves HE results.

  18. A high-performance liquid chromatography method for the serotonin release assay is equivalent to the radioactive method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sono-Koree, N K; Crist, R A; Frank, E L; Rodgers, G M; Smock, K J

    2016-02-01

    The serotonin release assay (SRA) is considered the gold standard laboratory test for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The historic SRA method uses platelets loaded with radiolabeled serotonin to evaluate platelet activation by HIT immune complexes. However, a nonradioactive method is desirable. We report the performance characteristics of a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) SRA method. We validated the performance characteristics of an HPLC-SRA method, including correlation with a reference laboratory using the radioactive method. Serotonin released from reagent platelets was quantified by HPLC using fluorescent detection. Results were expressed as % release and classified as positive, negative, or indeterminate based on previously published cutoffs. Serum samples from 250 subjects with suspected HIT were tested in the HPLC-SRA and with the radioactive method. Concordant classifications were observed in 230 samples (92%). Sera from 41 healthy individuals tested negative. Between-run imprecision studies showed standard deviation of performance characteristics, equivalent to the historic radioactive method, but avoids the complexities of working with radioactivity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Synchronization of conference presentation sequence using delay equalization approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godavari, Rakesh K.; Celenk, Mehmet

    2001-11-01

    provided with a shared workspace among the web servers acting as administrators in the network. The arrival times and the presentation durations of the data packets at the recipient workstations are recorded in this shared workspace. For a case study, a Poisson distribution type delay density is selected to be the input for the delay equalizer with the desired output to be uniformly distributed. The transfer function input and output distributions are derived and depicted in a parametric form for different values of mean in the simulation results to illustrate the effectiveness of the equalization process. We have demonstrated that this method is appropriate for equalizing the lumped communication channel delays. Further work is in progress for developing the distributed channel delay equalization.

  20. 49 CFR 236.792 - Reservoir, equalizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Reservoir, equalizing. An air reservoir connected with and adding volume to the top portion of the equalizing piston chamber of the automatic brake valve, to provide uniform service reductions in brake pipe...

  1. Analysis 1: SDG5, gender equal fisheries

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Meryl J.

    2017-01-01

    What are the challenges in the path of achieving gender equality in fisheries and what should our priorities be? This article tries to identify these in the context of SDG 5, the Sustainable Development Goal on gender equality.

  2. 76 FR 53807 - Women's Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... States to celebrate the achievements of women and recommit ourselves to the goal of gender equality in... Vol. 76 Monday, No. 167 August 29, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8699--Women's Equality...

  3. 77 FR 52583 - Women's Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... celebrate the achievements of women and recommit to realizing gender equality in this country. [[Page 52586... Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 168...

  4. The neural bases for valuing social equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Ryuta; Yomogida, Yukihito; Matsumoto, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of how humans value and pursue social equality has become a major topic in social neuroscience research. Although recent studies have identified a set of brain regions and possible mechanisms that are involved in the neural processing of equality of outcome between individuals, how the human brain processes equality of opportunity remains unknown. In this review article, first we describe the importance of the distinction between equality of outcome and equality of opportunity, which has been emphasized in philosophy and economics. Next, we discuss possible approaches for empirical characterization of human valuation of equality of opportunity vs. equality of outcome. Understanding how these two concepts are distinct and interact with each other may provide a better explanation of complex human behaviors concerning fairness and social equality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Promoting Racial Equality in the Nursing Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolchand, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Equality in nursing education and the profession can be promoted in the following ways: a working policy on racism and equal opportunities; curriculum content that explores stereotypes, values, attitudes, and prejudices; and multicultural health research, education, and promotion. (SK)

  6. Performance of the Different Methods of Study Financing: A Measurement through the Data Envelopment Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Vierstraete; Eric Yergeau

    2010-01-01

    Financial hardship can significantly undermine post-secondary students’ ability to attain their academic goals: completing their training and obtaining degrees with good grades. This study considers which method of financing studies—loans and bursaries from the Government, student aid granted directly by universities, scholarships or on-campus jobs, off-campus jobs or parental financial contribution—will best help students attain academic success. For these purposes, we use a non-parametric d...

  7. Equality in the Framework of Justice

    OpenAIRE

    Aşik, Kübra

    2015-01-01

    This thesis assesses the relation between equality and justice by exploring and identifying the relation between equality and justice in Rawls's theory of justice, Sandel's communitarian account of Justice and Sen's capability approach. And these accounts of justice are evaluated from an egalitarian point of view. The main argument defended in the thesis is that justice requires equality. Accordingly, these three accounts of justice are evaluated by taking their understanding of equality into...

  8. 46 CFR 57.06-3 - Method of performing production testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Method of performing production testing. 57.06-3 Section 57.06-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING WELDING AND BRAZING Production Tests § 57.06-3 Method of performing production testing. (a) Except as...

  9. 40 CFR 63.344 - Performance test requirements and test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... electroplating tanks or chromium anodizing tanks. The sampling time and sample volume for each run of Methods 306... Chromium Anodizing Tanks § 63.344 Performance test requirements and test methods. (a) Performance test... Emissions From Decorative and Hard Chromium Electroplating and Anodizing Operations,” appendix A of this...

  10. Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunity Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Home About ODMEO Leadership Documents News Skip to main content (Press Enter). Toggle navigation Office of Diversity Management and Equal Opportunity Search Search ODMEO: Search Search ODMEO: Search Office of Diversity Management and Equal

  11. Transforming equality logic to propositional logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zantema, H.; Groote, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Abstract We investigate and compare various ways of transforming equality formulas to propositional formulas, in order to be able to solve satisfiability in equality logic by means of satisfiability in propositional logic. We propose equality substitution as a new approach combining desirable

  12. Sex, Money and the Equal Pay Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Edwin B.

    1973-01-01

    Institutions who justify a wage differential between male and female custodians on the basis that women typically do the lighter work, and men the heavier, can find themselves in trouble. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 requires that men and women get the same pay for equal work -- and all custodial work is substantially equal to the Labor Department.…

  13. Does 0.999... Really Equal 1?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Anderson; Baldwin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article confronts the issue of why secondary and post-secondary students resist accepting the equality of 0.999... and 1, even after they have seen and understood logical arguments for the equality. In some sense, we might say that the equality holds by definition of 0.999..., but this definition depends upon accepting properties of the real…

  14. Individualized Sex Equality in Transforming Finnish Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lätti, Johanna

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the equality agenda in the context of Finnish university reform in the 21st century. In Finland, the academic regime went through an organizational transformation after the Universities Act in 2009. However, little attention has been paid to the questions of sex or equality. Since the policy influences on equality in…

  15. All Plasma Products Are Not Created Equal: Characterizing Differences Between Plasma Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Research and the US Department of Defense. The pooling and solvent detergent treatment processes performed to manufacture the Octaplas and Kedrion products ...All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products Philip C. Spinella, MD, Elfaridah Frazier, PhD, Heather... products that may affect efficacy and safety. METHODS: Four different plasma products were analyzed to include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), liquid plasma

  16. Applying a new unequally weighted feature fusion method to improve CAD performance of classifying breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari Khuzani, Abolfazl; Danala, Gopichandh; Heidari, Morteza; Du, Yue; Mashhadi, Najmeh; Qiu, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Higher recall rates are a major challenge in mammography screening. Thus, developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast lesions can play an important role to improve efficacy of mammography screening. Objective of this study is to develop and test a unique image feature fusion framework to improve performance in classifying suspicious mass-like breast lesions depicting on mammograms. The image dataset consists of 302 suspicious masses detected on both craniocaudal and mediolateral-oblique view images. Amongst them, 151 were malignant and 151 were benign. The study consists of following 3 image processing and feature analysis steps. First, an adaptive region growing segmentation algorithm was used to automatically segment mass regions. Second, a set of 70 image features related to spatial and frequency characteristics of mass regions were initially computed. Third, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based machine learning classifier combined with a bat optimization algorithm was used to optimally fuse the selected image features based on predefined assessment performance index. An area under ROC curve (AUC) with was used as a performance assessment index. Applying CAD scheme to the testing dataset, AUC was 0.75+/-0.04, which was significantly higher than using a single best feature (AUC=0.69+/-0.05) or the classifier with equally weighted features (AUC=0.73+/-0.05). This study demonstrated that comparing to the conventional equal-weighted approach, using an unequal-weighted feature fusion approach had potential to significantly improve accuracy in classifying between malignant and benign breast masses.

  17. Equality marker in the language of bali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, Majid; Subiyanto, Paulus

    2018-01-01

    The language of Bali could be grouped into one of the most elaborate languages of the world since the existence of its speech levels, low and high speech levels, as the language of Java has. Low and high speech levels of the language of Bali are language codes that could be used to show and express social relationship between or among its speakers. This paper focuses on describing, analyzing, and interpreting the use of the low code of the language of Bali in daily communication in the speech community of Pegayaman, Bali. Observational and documentation methods were applied to provide the data for the research. Recoding and field note techniques were executed to provide the data. Recorded in spoken language and the study of novel of Balinese were transcribed into written form to ease the process of analysis. Symmetric use of low code expresses social equality between or among the participants involves in the communication. It also implies social intimacy between or among the speakers of the language of Bali. Regular and patterned use of the low code of the language of Bali is not merely communication strategy, but it is a kind of communication agreement or communication contract between the participants. By using low code during their social and communication activities, the participants shared and express their social equality and intimacy between or among the participants involve in social and communication activities.

  18. A method to evaluate process performance by integrating time and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wei, Qingjie; Jin, Shuang

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of process mining is to improve the existing process of the enterprise, so how to measure the performance of the process is particularly important. However, the current research on the performance evaluation method is still insufficient. The main methods of evaluation are mainly using time or resource. These basic statistics cannot evaluate process performance very well. In this paper, a method of evaluating the performance of the process based on time dimension and resource dimension is proposed. This method can be used to measure the utilization and redundancy of resources in the process. This paper will introduce the design principle and formula of the evaluation algorithm. Then, the design and the implementation of the evaluation method will be introduced. Finally, we will use the evaluating method to analyse the event log from a telephone maintenance process and propose an optimization plan.

  19. Financial Performance of Pension Companies Operating in Turkey with Topsis Analysis Method

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsun Isseveroglu; Ozan Sezer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, financial performances of the companies were analyzed by TOPSIS method via using financial tables of the sixteen pension and life-pension companies. Firstly, financial ratios which are one of the important indicators for the financial power of companies were determined and calculated for each company separately. Calculated ratios converted to demonstrate of company performance unique point by using TOPSIS method. Companies have sorted according to their calculated performance s...

  20. The policy on gender equality in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    The briefing paper describes current Danish policies, practices and legislation within the area of gender equality. It addresses economic independence, reconciliation policies, participation in decision-making, gender-based violence and trafficking, gender stereotypes, and gender equality...... in development policies. The former liberal-conservative government (2001-2011) has focused on equal opportunities, gender equality as a means to economic growth, voluntary measures and freedom of choice. Increased attention has been paid in recent years to ethnic minorities and to men’s role in gender equality....

  1. Trust, Welfare States and Income Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Andreas; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The cross-country correlation between social trust and income equality is well documented, but few studies examine the direction of causality. We show theoretically that by facilitating cooperation, trust may lead to more equal outcomes, while the feedback from inequality to trust is ambiguous....... Using a structural equation model estimated on a large country sample, we find that trust has a positive effect on both market and net income equality. Larger welfare states lead to higher net equality but neither net income equality nor welfare state size seems to have a causal effect on trust. We...

  2. Equal, global, local: discourses in Taiwan's international medical graduate debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ming-Jung; Shaw, Kevin; Liu, Tzu-Hung; Norris, Jessie; Chiu, Yu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    With the globalisation of medicine, the role of international medical graduates (IMGs) has expanded. Nonetheless, the experiences of native-born IMGs remain under-researched. In Taiwan, public controversy has unfolded around IMGs educated in Poland, calling into question the meaning(s) of equality in policy and medicine. In focusing on the return of IMGs to their countries of origin, this study adds to the growing literature concerning equality and globalisation in medical education. The primary research aim was to analyse how stakeholders in the IMG debate use equality in their arguments. The authors set out to frame the dispute within the recent history of Taiwanese medical governance. An overarching objective was to contribute a critical, historical view of how discourses of globalisation and equality construct different policy approaches to international medical education. The authors performed a critical discourse analysis of a public policy dispute in Taiwan, assembling an archive from online interactions, government reports and news articles. Coding focused on stakeholders' uses of equality to generate broader discourses. International and domestic Taiwanese students conceived of equality differently, referencing both 'equality of opportunity' and 'equality of outcome' within localisation and globalisation frameworks, respectively. The dominance of localisation discourse is reflected in hostile online rhetoric towards Poland-educated IMGs. Rhetorical disagreements over equality in medical education trace shifting state policies, from earlier attempts to remove barriers for IMGs to the present-day push to regulate IMGs for acculturation and quality assurance. The global Internet had a double-sided influence, facilitating both democratic political mobilization and the spread of hate speech. The policy debate in Taiwan mirrors discourses in Canada, where IMGs are likewise conceived either as globally competent physicians or as lacking in merit and technical

  3. Interpolation in Time Series : An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepot, M.J.; Aubin, Jean Baptiste; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2017-01-01

    A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are

  4. Analysis and performance estimation of the Conjugate Gradient method on multiple GPUs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, M.; Jalba, A.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Conjugate Gradient (CG) method is a widely-used iterative method for solving linear systems described by a (sparse) matrix. The method requires a large amount of Sparse-Matrix Vector (SpMV) multiplications, vector reductions and other vector operations to be performed. We present a number of

  5. Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)

    1994-12-31

    The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.

  6. CMOS continuous-time adaptive equalizers for high-speed serial links

    CERN Document Server

    Gimeno Gasca, Cecilia; Aldea Chagoyen, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the design of adaptive equalization solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology for high-speed serial links. Since continuous-time equalizers offer various advantages as an alternative to discrete-time equalizers at multi-gigabit rates, this book provides a detailed description of continuous-time adaptive equalizers design - both at transistor and system levels-, their main characteristics and performances. The authors begin with a complete review and analysis of the state of the art of equalizers for wireline applications, describing why they are necessary, their types, and their main applications. Next, theoretical fundamentals of continuous-time adaptive equalizers are explored. Then, new structures are proposed to implement the different building blocks of the adaptive equalizer: line equalizer, loop-filters, power comparator, etc.  The authors demonstrate the design of a complete low-power, low-voltage, high-speed, continuous-time adaptive equalizer. Finally, a cost-...

  7. Theoretical comparison of performance using transfer functions for reactivity meters based on inverse kinetic method and simple feedback method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Yoichiro; Tashiro, Shoichi; Tojo, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    The performance of two digital reactivity meters, one based on the conventional inverse kinetic method and the other one based on simple feedback theory, are compared analytically using their respective transfer functions. The latter one is proposed by one of the authors. It has been shown that the performance of the two reactivity meters become almost identical when proper system parameters are selected for each reactivity meter. A new correlation between the system parameters of the two reactivity meters is found. With this correlation, filter designers can easily determine the system parameters for the respective reactivity meters to obtain identical performance. (author)

  8. Interpolation in Time Series: An Introductive Overview of Existing Methods, Their Performance Criteria and Uncertainty Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lepot

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A thorough review has been performed on interpolation methods to fill gaps in time-series, efficiency criteria, and uncertainty quantifications. On one hand, there are numerous available methods: interpolation, regression, autoregressive, machine learning methods, etc. On the other hand, there are many methods and criteria to estimate efficiencies of these methods, but uncertainties on the interpolated values are rarely calculated. Furthermore, while they are estimated according to standard methods, the prediction uncertainty is not taken into account: a discussion is thus presented on the uncertainty estimation of interpolated/extrapolated data. Finally, some suggestions for further research and a new method are proposed.

  9. Performance comparison of a new hybrid conjugate gradient method under exact and inexact line searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, N. H. A.; Mohamed, N. S.; Zull, N.; Shoid, S.; Rivaie, M.; Mamat, M.

    2017-09-01

    Conjugate gradient (CG) method is one of iterative techniques prominently used in solving unconstrained optimization problems due to its simplicity, low memory storage, and good convergence analysis. This paper presents a new hybrid conjugate gradient method, named NRM1 method. The method is analyzed under the exact and inexact line searches in given conditions. Theoretically, proofs show that the NRM1 method satisfies the sufficient descent condition with both line searches. The computational result indicates that NRM1 method is capable in solving the standard unconstrained optimization problems used. On the other hand, the NRM1 method performs better under inexact line search compared with exact line search.

  10. Acoustical numerology and lucky equal temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Donald E.

    1988-04-01

    Equally tempered musical scales with N steps per octave are known to work especially well in approximating justly tuned intervals for such values as N=12, 19, 31, and 53. A quantitative measure of the closeness of such fits is suggested, in terms of the probabilities of coming as close to randomly chosen intervals as to the justly tuned targets. When two or more harmonic intervals are considered simultaneously, this involves a Monte Carlo evaluation of the probabilities. The results can be used to gauge how much advantage the special values of N mentioned above have over others. This article presents the rationale and method of computation, together with illustrative results in a few of the most interesting cases. References are provided to help relate these results to earlier works by music theorists.

  11. 48 CFR 11.104 - Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of brand name or equal....104 Use of brand name or equal purchase descriptions. (a) While the use of performance specifications is preferred to encourage offerors to propose innovative solutions, the use of brand name or equal...

  12. A comparative performance study of sound zoning methods in a reflective environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olik, Marek; Francombe, Jon; Coleman, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Whilst sound zoning methods have typically been studied under anechoic conditions, it is desirable to evaluate the performance of various methods in a real room. Three control methods were implemented (delay and sum, DS; acoustic contrast control, ACC; and pressure matching, PM) on two regular 24...... monophonic auralisations from measured system responses to collect ratings of perceived distraction due to the alternate audio programme. Distraction ratings were a ected by control method and programme material....

  13. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TURKISH TYPE A MUTUAL FUNDS AND PENSION STOCK FUNDS BY USING TOPSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesrin ALPTEKIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is evaluated performance of Turkish Type A mutual funds and pension stock funds by using TOPSIS method which is a multicriteria decision making approach. Both of these funds compose of stocks in their portfolios, so it can be enabled to compare each other. Generally, mutual or pension funds are evaluated according to their risk and return. At this point, it is used traditional performance measurement techniques of funds like Sharpe ratio, Sortino ratio, Treynor index and Jensen’s alpha. TOPSIS method takes into consideration all of these fund performance measurement techniques and provides more reasonable performance measurement.

  14. Validation of a simple method for predicting the disinfection performance in a flow-through contactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Valentin; Barbeau, Benoit

    2014-02-01

    Despite its shortcomings, the T10 method introduced by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989 is currently the method most frequently used in North America to calculate disinfection performance. Other methods (e.g., the Integrated Disinfection Design Framework, IDDF) have been advanced as replacements, and more recently, the USEPA suggested the Extended T10 and Extended CSTR (Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor) methods to improve the inactivation calculations within ozone contactors. To develop a method that fully considers the hydraulic behavior of the contactor, two models (Plug Flow with Dispersion and N-CSTR) were successfully fitted with five tracer tests results derived from four Water Treatment Plants and a pilot-scale contactor. A new method based on the N-CSTR model was defined as the Partially Segregated (Pseg) method. The predictions from all the methods mentioned were compared under conditions of poor and good hydraulic performance, low and high disinfectant decay, and different levels of inactivation. These methods were also compared with experimental results from a chlorine pilot-scale contactor used for Escherichia coli inactivation. The T10 and Extended T10 methods led to large over- and under-estimations. The Segregated Flow Analysis (used in the IDDF) also considerably overestimated the inactivation under high disinfectant decay. Only the Extended CSTR and Pseg methods produced realistic and conservative predictions in all cases. Finally, a simple implementation procedure of the Pseg method was suggested for calculation of disinfection performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance study of Active Queue Management methods: Adaptive GRED, REDD, and GRED-Linear analytical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Abdel-jaber

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Congestion control is one of the hot research topics that helps maintain the performance of computer networks. This paper compares three Active Queue Management (AQM methods, namely, Adaptive Gentle Random Early Detection (Adaptive GRED, Random Early Dynamic Detection (REDD, and GRED Linear analytical model with respect to different performance measures. Adaptive GRED and REDD are implemented based on simulation, whereas GRED Linear is implemented as a discrete-time analytical model. Several performance measures are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the compared methods mainly mean queue length, throughput, average queueing delay, overflow packet loss probability, and packet dropping probability. The ultimate aim is to identify the method that offers the highest satisfactory performance in non-congestion or congestion scenarios. The first comparison results that are based on different packet arrival probability values show that GRED Linear provides better mean queue length; average queueing delay and packet overflow probability than Adaptive GRED and REDD methods in the presence of congestion. Further and using the same evaluation measures, Adaptive GRED offers a more satisfactory performance than REDD when heavy congestion is present. When the finite capacity of queue values varies the GRED Linear model provides the highest satisfactory performance with reference to mean queue length and average queueing delay and all the compared methods provide similar throughput performance. However, when the finite capacity value is large, the compared methods have similar results in regard to probabilities of both packet overflowing and packet dropping.

  16. Reforming High School Science for Low-Performing Students Using Inquiry Methods and Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolden, Marsha Gail

    Some schools fall short of the high demand to increase science scores on state exams because low-performing students enter high school unprepared for high school science. Low-performing students are not successful in high school for many reasons. However, using inquiry methods have improved students' understanding of science concepts. The purpose of this qualitative research study was to investigate the teachers' lived experiences with using inquiry methods to motivate low-performing high school science students in an inquiry-based program called Xtreem Science. Fifteen teachers were selected from the Xtreem Science program, a program designed to assist teachers in motivating struggling science students. The research questions involved understanding (a) teachers' experiences in using inquiry methods, (b) challenges teachers face in using inquiry methods, and (c) how teachers describe student's response to inquiry methods. Strategy of data collection and analysis included capturing and understanding the teachers' feelings, perceptions, and attitudes in their lived experience of teaching using inquiry method and their experience in motivating struggling students. Analysis of interview responses revealed teachers had some good experiences with inquiry and expressed that inquiry impacted their teaching style and approach to topics, and students felt that using inquiry methods impacted student learning for the better. Inquiry gave low-performing students opportunities to catch up and learn information that moved them to the next level of science courses. Implications for positive social change include providing teachers and school district leaders with information to help improve performance of the low performing science students.

  17. Modeling Nanoscale FinFET Performance by a Neural Network Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a neural network method to model nanometer FinFET performance. The principle of this method is firstly introduced and its application in modeling DC and conductance characteristics of nanoscale FinFET transistor is demonstrated in detail. It is shown that this method does not need parameter extraction routine while its prediction of the transistor performance has a small relative error within 1 % compared with measured data, thus this new method is as accurate as the physics based surface potential model.

  18. A simple high performance liquid chromatography method for analyzing paraquat in soil solution samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ying; Mansell, Robert S; Nkedi-Kizza, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection was developed to analyze paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-dipyridinium dichloride) herbicide content in soil solution samples. The analytical method was compared with the liquid scintillation counting (LSC) method using 14C-paraquat. Agreement obtained between the two methods was reasonable. However, the detection limit for paraquat analysis was 0.5 mg L(-1) by the HPLC method and 0.05 mg L(-1) by the LSC method. The LSC method was, therefore, 10 times more precise than the HPLC method for solution concentrations less than 1 mg L(-1). In spite of the high detection limit, the UC (nonradioactive) HPLC method provides an inexpensive and environmentally safe means for determining paraquat concentration in soil solution compared with the 14C-LSC method.

  19. Optical and thermal performance of large-size parabolic-trough solar collectors from outdoor experiments: A test method and a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Loreto; López-Martín, Rafael; Zarza, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an outdoor test method to evaluate the optical and thermal performance of parabolic-trough collectors of large size (length ≥ 100 m), similar to those currently installed in solar thermal power plants. Optical performance in line-focus collectors is defined by three parameters, peak-optical efficiency and longitudinal and transversal incidence angle modifiers. In parabolic-troughs, the transversal incidence angle modifier is usually assumed equal to 1, and the incidence angle modifier is referred to the longitudinal incidence angle modifier, which is a factor less than or equal to 1 and must be quantified. These measurements are performed by operating the collector at low fluid temperatures for reducing heat losses. Thermal performance is measured during tests at various operating temperatures, which are defined within the working temperature range of the solar field, and for the condition of maximum optical response. Heat losses are measured from both the experiments performed to measure the overall efficiency and the experiments done by operating the collector to ensure that absorber pipes are not exposed to concentrated solar radiation. The set of parameters describing the performance of a parabolic-trough collector of large size has been measured following the test procedures proposed and explained in the article. - Highlights: • Outdoor test procedures of parabolic-trough solar collector (PTC) of large size working at high temperature are described. • Optical performance measured with cold fluid temperature and thermal performance measured in the complete temperature range. • Experimental data obtained in the testing of a PTC prototype are explained

  20. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Lionnie

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing  methods  used  in  a  hand  gesture  recognition  system.  The  preprocessing methods are based on the combinations ofseveral image processing operations,  namely  edge  detection,  low  pass  filtering,  histogram  equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possibleclasses. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  1. Joint polarization tracking and channel equalization based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qun; Yang, Yanfu; Zhong, Kangping; Liu, Jie; Wu, Xiong; Yao, Yong

    2018-01-01

    We propose a joint polarization tracking and channel equalization scheme based on radius-directed linear Kalman filter (RD-LKF) by introducing the butterfly finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter in our previously proposed RD-LKF method. Along with the fast polarization tracking, it can also simultaneously compensate the inter-symbol interference (ISI) effects including residual chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. Compared with the conventional radius-directed equalizer (RDE) algorithm, it is demonstrated experimentally that three times faster convergence speed, one order of magnitude better tracking capability, and better BER performance is obtained in polarization division multiplexing 16 quadrature amplitude modulation system. Besides, the influences of the algorithm parameters on the convergence and the tracking performance are investigated by numerical simulation.

  2. [Precautions of physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process of medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jin-Zi; Wan, Min; Xu, Hui; Yao, Xiu-Jun; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Jin-Hong

    2009-09-01

    The major idea of this article is to discuss standardization and normalization for the product standard of medical devices. Analyze the problem related to the physical performance requirements and test methods during product standard drafting process and make corresponding suggestions.

  3. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  4. Performance analysis of demodulation with diversity -- A combinatorial approach I: Symmetric function theoretical methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Louis Dornstetter; Daniel Krob; Jean-Yves Thibon; Ekaterina A. Vassilieva

    2002-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the presentation of a combinatorial approach, based on the theory of symmetric functions, for analyzing the performance of a family of demodulation methods used in mobile telecommunications.

  5. Iterative Estimation in Turbo Equalization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORGOS Lucian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the iterative estimation in turbo equalization process. Turbo equalization is the process of reception in which equalization and decoding are done together, not as separate processes. For the equalizer to work properly, it must receive before equalization accurate information about the value of the channel impulse response. This estimation of channel impulse response is done by transmission of a training sequence known at reception. Knowing both the transmitted and received sequence, it can be calculated estimated value of the estimated the channel impulse response using one of the well-known estimation algorithms. The estimated value can be also iterative recalculated based on the sequence data available at the output of the channel and estimated sequence data coming from turbo equalizer output, thereby refining the obtained results.

  6. The Uneasy Marriage between Law and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline C. Westerman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be said to contribute to equality in the sense of an equal distribution of collective resources. It is argued that whereas the first just requires decision-making to be rule-based, the second principle demands that rules should be based on sound categorical distinctions. Neither of the two can, however, sensibly be linked to equality as equal distribution. The article concludes that the only way to establish such a link is by adding to the principle of non-discrimination “financial resources” as a suspect ground.

  7. A Novel Efficient Cluster-Based MLSE Equalizer for Satellite Communication Channels with -QAM Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalakas Vassilis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In satellites, nonlinear amplifiers used near saturation severely distort the transmitted signal and cause difficulties in its reception. Nevertheless, the nonlinearities introduced by memoryless bandpass amplifiers preserve the symmetries of the -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM constellation. In this paper, a cluster-based sequence equalizer (CBSE that takes advantage of these symmetries is presented. The proposed equalizer exhibits enhanced performance compared to other techniques, including the conventional linear transversal equalizer, Volterra equalizers, and RBF network equalizers. Moreover, this gain in performance is obtained at a substantially lower computational cost.

  8. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE ITALIAN LABOUR MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balazs-Foldi Emese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The integration of persons with disabilities and with reduced work capacity in the labour market represents one of the biggest challenges for labour market policies. The non-integration of disabled people in the labour market causes huge costs for the countries’ economy. The European Union’s aim is to transform passive social support into active support by means of labor market policy measures, to help people to obtain gainful employment and to raise employment levels of people with disabilities and with reduced work capacities. Earlier this target group has to work in the sheltered employment. But it changed from the 90’s years because of the social model of disability definition. Nowadays the main goal to help this target group integrates in the open employment. The members of European Union imagine this aim on other way. The Scandinavian countries or England prefer the equal opportunities and the personalised mainstreaming programmes and services. Other European countries, as Germany, Austria or Italy prefer the rehabilitation quota system. Thus, the labor force participation and employment rates for people with disabilities and with reduced working capacities are strong differences between the European countries. But lot of other options also influence the member of countries’ policy and employment system. Since the Amsterdam Treaty the European Union has devoted exceptional attention to the equal opportunities of disabled people, the enforcement of equal treatment, and the reduction of the dangers of discrimination, as it is, a significant part of persons with disabilities and reduced work capacity do not have a full-time job, they become unemployed two or three times more frequently than their abled-counterparts, and dispose of lower salary, therefore they need the help of their family and the community. This study examines the Italian situation. It bases on statistics on the Italian target group and provides comparisons with

  9. Intuitionistic fuzzy based DEMATEL method for developing green practices and performances in a green supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Khodaverdi, Roohollah; Vafadarnikjoo, Amin

    2015-01-01

    for organizations to enhance their environmental performance and achieve competitive advantages. This study pioneers using the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method with intuitionistic fuzzy sets to handle the important and causal relationships between GSCM practices and performances...... to evaluate the efficiency of the proposed method. The results reveal "internal management support", "green purchasing" and "ISO 14001 certification" are the most significant GSCM practices. The practical results of this study offer useful insights for managers to become more environmentally responsible...

  10. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  11. Gender Equality, Citizenship and Human Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reflect upon challenges to gender equality, citizenship, and human rights in their respective societies; it combines theoretical insights with empirically grounded studies. The volume contextualises feminist political theory in China and the Nordic countries and subsequently puts it into a global......This comparative volume examines the ways in which current controversies and political, legal, and social struggles for gender equality raise conceptual questions and challenge our thinking on political theories of equality, citizenship and human rights. Bringing together scholars and activists who...

  12. Turbo Equalization Using Partial Gaussian Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chuanzong; Wang, Zhongyong; Manchón, Carles Navarro

    2016-01-01

    This letter deals with turbo equalization for coded data transmission over intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. We propose a message-passing algorithm that uses the expectation propagation rule to convert messages passed from the demodulator and decoder to the equalizer and computes messages...... returned by the equalizer by using a partial Gaussian approximation (PGA). We exploit the specific structure of the ISI channel model to compute the latter messages from the beliefs obtained using a Kalman smoother/equalizer. Doing so leads to a significant complexity reduction compared to the initial PGA...

  13. Equal rights as the center of democratization

    OpenAIRE

    Alan Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    Well-stated modern political or democratic theory is rights-based. Meaningful democracy rests as a precondition on the equal rights of citizens. This idea stems from Rousseau’s distinction between a general will*one which is impersonal and tends toward equality, that is, the equal basic rights of citizens*and a transitory will of all. For instance, absent equal basic rights, one might imagine a possible world in which what I have called a self-undermining series of wills of all, or the ...

  14. The use of mixed-methods research to diagnose the organisational performance of a local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The majority of local governments in South Africa are underperforming; a first step to improve their performance is to accurately diagnose their current functioning. The utilisation of a mixed-methods approach for this diagnosis based on a valid model of organisational performance will form a better and holistic understanding of how a local government is performing. Research purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of mixed-methods research as a diagnostic approach for determining the organisational performance of a local government in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The use of either quantitative or qualitative data gathering in isolation as part of an organisational diagnosis can lead to biased information and not identifying the root causes of problems. The use of mixed-methods research in which both quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods are utilised has been shown to produce numerous benefits, such as confirmation of gathered data, providing richer detail and initiating new lines of thinking. Such multiple methodologies are recognised as an essential component of any organisational diagnosis and can be an effective means of eliminating biases in singular data gathering methods. Research design, approach and method: A concurrent transformative mixed-methods strategy based on the Burke–Litwin model of organisational performance with triangulation of results and findings to determine convergence validity was used. A convenience sample of 116 (N = 203 permanent officials in a rural district municipality in South Africa completed a survey questionnaire and were also individually interviewed. Main findings: Results indicate that mixed-methods research is a valid technique for establishing the integrity of survey data and for providing a better and holistic understanding of the functioning of an organisation. The results also indicate that the Burke–Litwin model is a useful and valid

  15. Jarzynski equality in the context of maximum path entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego; Davis, Sergio

    2017-06-01

    In the global framework of finding an axiomatic derivation of nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics from fundamental principles, such as the maximum path entropy - also known as Maximum Caliber principle -, this work proposes an alternative derivation of the well-known Jarzynski equality, a nonequilibrium identity of great importance today due to its applications to irreversible processes: biological systems (protein folding), mechanical systems, among others. This equality relates the free energy differences between two equilibrium thermodynamic states with the work performed when going between those states, through an average over a path ensemble. In this work the analysis of Jarzynski's equality will be performed using the formalism of inference over path space. This derivation highlights the wide generality of Jarzynski's original result, which could even be used in non-thermodynamical settings such as social systems, financial and ecological systems.

  16. Study on Fault Diagnostics of a Turboprop Engine Using Inverse Performance Model and Artificial Intelligent Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Lim, Semyeong

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the health monitoring system of major gas path components of gas turbine uses mostly the model based method like the Gas Path Analysis (GPA). This method is to find quantity changes of component performance characteristic parameters such as isentropic efficiency and mass flow parameter by comparing between measured engine performance parameters such as temperatures, pressures, rotational speeds, fuel consumption, etc. and clean engine performance parameters without any engine faults which are calculated by the base engine performance model. Currently, the expert engine diagnostic systems using the artificial intelligent methods such as Neural Networks (NNs), Fuzzy Logic and Genetic Algorithms (GAs) have been studied to improve the model based method. Among them the NNs are mostly used to the engine fault diagnostic system due to its good learning performance, but it has a drawback due to low accuracy and long learning time to build learning data base if there are large amount of learning data. In addition, it has a very complex structure for finding effectively single type faults or multiple type faults of gas path components. This work builds inversely a base performance model of a turboprop engine to be used for a high altitude operation UAV using measured performance data, and proposes a fault diagnostic system using the base engine performance model and the artificial intelligent methods such as Fuzzy logic and Neural Network. The proposed diagnostic system isolates firstly the faulted components using Fuzzy Logic, then quantifies faults of the identified components using the NN leaned by fault learning data base, which are obtained from the developed base performance model. In leaning the NN, the Feed Forward Back Propagation (FFBP) method is used. Finally, it is verified through several test examples that the component faults implanted arbitrarily in the engine are well isolated and quantified by the proposed diagnostic system.

  17. Good performance of an immunoassay based method for nevirapine measurements in human breast milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salado-Rasmussen, Kirsten; Persson Theilgaard, Zahra; Chiduo, Mercy

    2011-01-01

    , developed and validated for plasma use. In this study, the ARK NVP-test was evaluated for measurement of nevirapine concentrations in breast milk. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is the method currently used to determine nevirapine in breast milk. This method, however, requires complicated...

  18. Performance of different methods for reference evapotranspiration estimation in Jaíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo H. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT FAO Penman-Monteith (FO-PM is considered the standard method for the estimation of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 but requires various meteorological data, which are often not available. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of the FAO-PM method with limited meteorological data and other methods as alternatives to estimate ET0 in Jaíba-MG. The study used daily meteorological data from 2007 to 2016 of the National Institute of Meteorology’s station. Daily ET0 values were randomized, and 70% of these were used to determine the calibration parameters of the ET0 for the equations of each method under study. The remaining data were used to test the calibration against the standard method. Performance evaluation was based on Willmott’s index of agreement, confidence coefficient and root-mean-square error. When one meteorological variable was missing, either solar radiation, relative air humidity or wind speed, or in the simultaneous absence of wind speed and relative air humidity, the FAO-PM method showed the best performances and, therefore, was recommended for Jaíba. The FAO-PM method with two missing variables, one of them being solar radiation, showed intermediate performance. Methods that used only air temperature data are not recommended for the region.

  19. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  20. Prioritizing the effective factors on projectile performance by combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi Case study: selected aerospace industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saberreza bahrami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prioritize the effective factors in projectile performance. Prioritizing of these factors whit combination of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP method and design of experiment Of Taguchi help designers to develop the performance of projectile structure. According to this that since now, researcher tried to increase the performance of projectile whit change in every factors separately, so in this paper tried whit combination of AHP method and design of experiment of Taguchi , analyzed and prioritized all the effective factors in projectile performance simultaneously. For this purpose first by design of experiment Of Taguchi the influence of every these factors on two criteria of range and drift were calculated and then by AHP method these factors were prioritized. By considering of equal weight for both range and drift, the result shows between 11 factors, Firing Angle whit value of 0.3398, Muzzle Velocity whit value of 0.2918 and Burning Time whit value of 0.1257 were the most influenced factors in projectile performance respectively. Propellant Weight and Wind Velocity factors whit value of 0.0104 and 0.00092 were ranked in tenth and eleventh priority respectively.

  1. Are All Pixels Equally Important?

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    When we look at our environment, we primarily pay attention to visually distinctive objects. We refer to these objects as visually important or salient. For efficient visual processing, the human visual system identifies salients objects and dedicates most of its processing resources to them. An analogous resource allocation can be performed by salient-object detection algorithms, which identify objects of interest in an image. Consequently, thanks to salient-object detection, complex visual computing operations can focus on the important parts of the visual data and can save time and resources. About the speaker Dr. Gokhan Yildirim is a research assistant in the School of Computer and Communication Sciences (IC) at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL). His research interests include image understanding, multimedia, pattern recognition, machine learning, salient-object detection on images & videos and its applications on image proces...

  2. Development of methods of key performance indicators formation for corporate planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chebotarev, A.N.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical proposition, a model of enterprise performance management and a concept of balanced key performance indicators as a method to control the enterprise strategy have been systematized and presented. An algorithm that increases the efficiency of action plans' formation has been developed and implemented. In particular, a set of criteria for the selection of events and parameters necessary for the formation of an action plan has been created. A method of control of the business processes, allowing the experts to establish the relationship between the business processes performance indicators and the enterprise's key indicators has been developed [ru

  3. Development and validation of ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography method for determination of illegal dyes and comparison to ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalikova, Maria A; Šatínský, Dalibor; Solich, Petr; Nováková, Lucie

    2015-05-18

    A novel simple, fast and efficient ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) method was developed and validated for the separation and quantitative determination of eleven illegal dyes in chili-containing spices. The method involved a simple ultrasound-assisted liquid extraction of illegal compounds with tetrahydrofuran. The separation was performed using a supercritical fluid chromatography system and CSH Fluoro-Phenyl stationary phase at 70°C. The mobile phase was carbon dioxide and the mixture of methanol:acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) with 2.5% formic acid as an additive at the flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1). The UV-vis detection was accomplished at 500 nm for seven compounds and at 420 nm for Sudan Orange G, Butter Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC and Methyl Red due to their maximum of absorbance. All eleven compounds were separated in less than 5 min. The method was successfully validated and applied using three commercial samples of chili-containing spices - Chili sauce (Indonesia), Feferony sauce (Slovakia) and Mojo sauce (Spain). The linearity range of proposed method was 0.50-9.09 mg kg(-1) (r ≥ 0.995). The detection limits were determined as signal to noise ratio of 3 and were ranged from 0.15 mg kg(-1) to 0.60 mg kg(-1) (1.80 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet) for standard solution and from 0.25 mg kg(-1) to 1.00 mg kg(-1) (2.50 mg kg(-1) for Fast Garnet, 1.50 mg kg(-1) for Sudan Red 7B) for chili-containing samples. The recovery values were in the range of 73.5-107.2% and relative standard deviation ranging from 0.1% to 8.2% for within-day precision and from 0.5% to 8.8% for between-day precision. The method showed potential for being used to monitor forbidden dyes in food constituents. The developed UHPSFC method was compared to the UHPLC-UV method. The orthogonality of Sudan dyes separation by these two methods was demonstrated. Benefits and drawbacks were discussed showing the reliability of both methods for monitoring of studied illegal dyes in real

  4. Combining multiple FDG-PET radiotherapy target segmentation methods to reduce the effect of variable performance of individual segmentation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, Ross J. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lee, John A [Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Many approaches have been proposed to segment high uptake objects in 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography images but none provides consistent performance across the large variety of imaging situations. This study investigates the use of two methods of combining individual segmentation methods to reduce the impact of inconsistent performance of the individual methods: simple majority voting and probabilistic estimation. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association image quality phantom containing five glass spheres with diameters 13-37 mm and two irregularly shaped volumes (16 and 32 cc) formed by deforming high-density polyethylene bottles in a hot water bath were filled with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose and iodine contrast agent. Repeated 5-min positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired at 4:1 and 8:1 object-to-background contrasts for spherical objects and 4.5:1 and 9:1 for irregular objects. Five individual methods were used to segment each object: 40% thresholding, adaptive thresholding, k-means clustering, seeded region-growing, and a gradient based method. Volumes were combined using a majority vote (MJV) or Simultaneous Truth And Performance Level Estimate (STAPLE) method. Accuracy of segmentations relative to CT ground truth volumes were assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the symmetric mean absolute surface distances (SMASDs). Results: MJV had median DSC values of 0.886 and 0.875; and SMASD of 0.52 and 0.71 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE provided similar results with median DSC of 0.886 and 0.871; and median SMASD of 0.50 and 0.72 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values than MJV for spheres (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0101) but MJV had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values compared to STAPLE for irregular shapes (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0027). DSC was not significantly

  5. AN ILLUMINATION INVARIANT FACE RECOGNITION BY ENHANCED CONTRAST LIMITED ADAPTIVE HISTOGRAM EQUALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thamizharasi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Face recognition system is gaining more importance in social networks and surveillance. The face recognition task is complex due to the variations in illumination, expression, occlusion, aging and pose. The illumination variations in image are due to changes in lighting conditions, poor illumination, low contrast or increased brightness. The variations in illumination adversely affect the quality of image and recognition accuracy. The illumination variations in face image have to be pre-processed prior to face recognition. The Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE is an image enhancement technique popular in enhancing medical images. The proposed work is to create illumination invariant face recognition system by enhancing Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization technique. This method is termed as “Enhanced CLAHE”. The efficiency of Enhanced CLAHE is tested using Fuzzy K Nearest Neighbour classifier and fisher face subspace projection method. The face recognition accuracy percentage rate, Equal Error Rate and False Acceptance Rate at 1% are calculated. The performance of CLAHE and Enhanced CLAHE methods is compared. The efficiency of the Enhanced CLAHE method is tested with three public face databases AR, Yale and ORL. The Enhanced CLAHE has very high recognition accuracy percentage rate when compared to CLAHE.

  6. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Jihan M Badr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. Materials and Method: In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Ha...

  7. A High-Performance Parallel FDTD Method Enhanced by Using SSE Instruction Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dau-Chyrh Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a hardware acceleration technique for the parallel finite difference time domain (FDTD method using the SSE (streaming (single instruction multiple data SIMD extensions instruction set. The implementation of SSE instruction set to parallel FDTD method has achieved the significant improvement on the simulation performance. The benchmarks of the SSE acceleration on both the multi-CPU workstation and computer cluster have demonstrated the advantages of (vector arithmetic logic unit VALU acceleration over GPU acceleration. Several engineering applications are employed to demonstrate the performance of parallel FDTD method enhanced by SSE instruction set.

  8. A service based estimation method for MPSoC performance modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan; Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an abstract service based estimation method for MPSoC performance modelling which allows fast, cycle accurate design space exploration of complex architectures including multi processor configurations at a very early stage in the design phase. The modelling method uses a service...... oriented model of computation based on Hierarchical Colored Petri Nets and allows the modelling of both software and hardware in one unified model. To illustrate the potential of the method, a small MPSoC system, developed at Bang & Olufsen ICEpower a/s, is modelled and performance estimates are produced...

  9. Accurate simulation of MPPT methods performance when applied to commercial photovoltaic panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, Javier; Pindado, Santiago; Sanz-Andrés, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers' datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature) and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  10. Accurate Simulation of MPPT Methods Performance When Applied to Commercial Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Cubas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new, simple, and quick-calculation methodology to obtain a solar panel model, based on the manufacturers’ datasheet, to perform MPPT simulations, is described. The method takes into account variations on the ambient conditions (sun irradiation and solar cells temperature and allows fast MPPT methods comparison or their performance prediction when applied to a particular solar panel. The feasibility of the described methodology is checked with four different MPPT methods applied to a commercial solar panel, within a day, and under realistic ambient conditions.

  11. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  12. MULTICRITERIA METHODS IN PERFORMING COMPANIES’ RESULTS USING ELECTRONIC RECRUITING, CORPORATE COMMUNICATION AND FINANCIAL RATIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bilić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human resources represent one of the most important companies’ resources responsible in creation of companies’ competitive advantage. In search for the most valuable resources, companies use different methods. Lately, one of the growing methods is electronic recruiting, not only as a recruitment tool, but also as a mean of external communication. Additionally, in the process of corporate communication, companies nowadays use the electronic corporate communication as the easiest, the cheapest and the simplest form of business communication. The aim of this paper is to investigate relationship between three groups of different criteria; including main characteristics of performed electronic recruiting, corporate communication and selected financial performances. Selected companies were ranked separately by each group of criteria by usage of multicriteria decision making method PROMETHEE II. The main idea is to research whether companies which are the highest performers by certain group of criteria obtain the similar results regarding other group of criteria or performing results.

  13. Delineating species with DNA barcodes: a case of taxon dependent method performance in moths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Kekkonen

    Full Text Available The accelerating loss of biodiversity has created a need for more effective ways to discover species. Novel algorithmic approaches for analyzing sequence data combined with rapidly expanding DNA barcode libraries provide a potential solution. While several analytical methods are available for the delineation of operational taxonomic units (OTUs, few studies have compared their performance. This study compares the performance of one morphology-based and four DNA-based (BIN, parsimony networks, ABGD, GMYC methods on two groups of gelechioid moths. It examines 92 species of Finnish Gelechiinae and 103 species of Australian Elachistinae which were delineated by traditional taxonomy. The results reveal a striking difference in performance between the two taxa with all four DNA-based methods. OTU counts in the Elachistinae showed a wider range and a relatively low (ca. 65% OTU match with reference species while OTU counts were more congruent and performance was higher (ca. 90% in the Gelechiinae. Performance rose when only monophyletic species were compared, but the taxon-dependence remained. None of the DNA-based methods produced a correct match with non-monophyletic species, but singletons were handled well. A simulated test of morphospecies-grouping performed very poorly in revealing taxon diversity in these small, dull-colored moths. Despite the strong performance of analyses based on DNA barcodes, species delineated using single-locus mtDNA data are best viewed as OTUs that require validation by subsequent integrative taxonomic work.

  14. Comparing performances of clements, box-cox, Johnson methods with weibull distributions for assessing process capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senvar, O.; Sennaroglu, B.

    2016-07-01

    This study examines Clements’ Approach (CA), Box-Cox transformation (BCT), and Johnson transformation (JT) methods for process capability assessments through Weibull-distributed data with different parameters to figure out the effects of the tail behaviours on process capability and compares their estimation performances in terms of accuracy and precision. Design/methodology/approach: Usage of process performance index (PPI) Ppu is handled for process capability analysis (PCA) because the comparison issues are performed through generating Weibull data without subgroups. Box plots, descriptive statistics, the root-mean-square deviation (RMSD), which is used as a measure of error, and a radar chart are utilized all together for evaluating the performances of the methods. In addition, the bias of the estimated values is important as the efficiency measured by the mean square error. In this regard, Relative Bias (RB) and the Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE) are also considered. Findings: The results reveal that the performance of a method is dependent on its capability to fit the tail behavior of the Weibull distribution and on targeted values of the PPIs. It is observed that the effect of tail behavior is more significant when the process is more capable. Research limitations/implications: Some other methods such as Weighted Variance method, which also give good results, were also conducted. However, we later realized that it would be confusing in terms of comparison issues between the methods for consistent interpretations... (Author)

  15. Overcoming challenges to gender equality in the workplace leadership and innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Patricia M; Kilgour, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Many businesses and organizations are increasingly aware of the case for promoting gender equality, both within and outside their organizational boundaries. Evidence suggests that gender equality in the workplace boosts performance, and legal frameworks in many countries mandate specific action on gender inequality in the workplace. However, despite organizational policies on promoting equality and equal opportunities, there remain challenges to be overcome in many businesses, including throughout their supply chains. The book provides research rationales as to why responsible organizations must address the issue of gender equality in the workplace. It also presents case studies, action research and examples of good practices, describing how businesses and organizations are working to promote gender equality in various contexts. The book is designed to support the rationale for gender equality in business and organizations, provide evidence of implementation of gender equality in the workplace, and how to dea...

  16. Diversity, equal opportunities and human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKimm, Judy; Webb, Helen

    2010-08-01

    Equality and diversity are central to education and health services, in terms of both employment and service delivery. Clinical teachers need to be able to support students and trainees around equality issues, have the confidence to challenge discriminatory practice and provide an inclusive and safe learning and teaching environment.

  17. The Many Faces of Equal Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temkin, Larry S.

    2016-01-01

    The ideal of equality of opportunity plays an important role in contemporary social and political discourse, and it is one of the few ideals which most people, across the political spectrum, accept. In this article, I argue that the seemingly widespread agreement about the value of equal opportunity is more apparent than real. I distinguish…

  18. Some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qianping; Leng, Jinsong; Li, Houbiao

    2016-01-01

    Fusion frames have some properties similar to those of frames in Hilbert spaces, but not all of their properties are similar. Some authors have established some equalities and inequalities for conventional frames. In this paper, we give some equalities and inequalities for fusion frames. Our results generalize and improve the remarkable results which have been obtained by Balan, Casazza and G?vruta etc.

  19. Vocational Education and Equality of Opportunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Benjamin; Feinberg, Walter

    1990-01-01

    Examines the concepts of equality of opportunity and equality of educational opportunity and their relationship to vocational education. Traces the history of vocational education. Delineates the distinction between training and education as enumerated in Aristotelian philosophy. Discusses the role vocational education can play in the educative…

  20. The uneasy marriage between Law and Equality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, Pauline C.

    2015-01-01

    There are two ways in which the social ideal of equality has found expression in the law: in the principle of equal treatment and in the principle of non-discrimination. In this article the meaning of these two legal principles is analysed, in order to answer the question to what extent they can be

  1. 78 FR 53231 - Women's Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... Vol. 78 Wednesday, No. 167 August 28, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 9003--Women's Equality Day, 2013 Proclamation 9004--50th Anniversary of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom #0... 9003 of August 23, 2013 Women's Equality Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A...

  2. 34 CFR 108.6 - Equal access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equal access. 108.6 Section 108.6 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EQUAL... limited to, school-related means of communication, such as bulletin board notices and literature...

  3. Do primary health centres and hospitals contribute equally towards achievement of the transversal clinical competencies of medical students? Performance on the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in competency acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-González, Jorge; Buti, Miquel; Boada, Jordi; Ayala, Victoria; Peñascal, Eduard; Rodriguez, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The adaptation of the educational programmes of European faculties of medicine to the European Higher Education Area guidelines has focused curricula design on competence acquisition. Competencies are defined as the achievements of a predetermined level of efficacy in real-world scenarios. Our objective was to assess whether performance on a common competence evaluation test, the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), resulted in different scores for second-year students after a practical medical training course took place in a primary health centre (PHC) or in a hospital. A descriptive study was conducted during the 2010-2014 academic year of the OSCE test scores obtained by all second-year students. Faculty of Medicine at the University of Lleida (Catalonia, Spain). We performed a correlation analysis between students who completed their practical medical training at the PHC and hospitals utilising Student's t-test for comparison of means. 423 students who completed internships at the PHC and at hospitals obtained OSCE mean scores of 7.32 (SD; IC) (0.82; 7.18-7.47) points and 7.17 (0.83; 6.07-7.26) points, respectively (p=0.07). Second-year medical students acquired similar competency levels in the two analysed training scenarios. The two areas both serve their teaching purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of unglazed transpired solar collectors under steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Lei, Bo; Bi, Haiquan; Yu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simplified method for evaluating thermal performance of UTC is developed. • Experiments, numerical simulations, dimensional analysis and data fitting are used. • The correlation of absorber plate temperature for UTC is established. • The empirical correlation of heat exchange effectiveness for UTC is proposed. - Abstract: Due to the advantages of low investment and high energy efficiency, unglazed transpired solar collectors (UTC) have been widely used for heating in buildings. However, it is difficult for designers to quickly evaluate the thermal performance of UTC based on the conventional methods such as experiments and numerical simulations. Therefore, a simple and fast method to determine the thermal performance of UTC is indispensable. The objective of this work is to provide a simplified calculation method to easily evaluate the thermal performance of UTC under steady state. Different parameters are considered in the simplified method, including pitch, perforation diameter, solar radiation, solar absorptivity, approach velocity, ambient air temperature, absorber plate temperature, and so on. Based on existing design parameters and operating conditions, correlations for the absorber plate temperature and the heat exchange effectiveness are developed using dimensional analysis and data fitting, respectively. Results show that the proposed simplified method has a high accuracy and can be employed to evaluate the collector efficiency, the heat exchange effectiveness and the air temperature rise. The proposed method in this paper is beneficial to directly determine design parameters and operating status for UTC.

  5. Adaptation Method for Overall and Local Performances of Gas Turbine Engine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangjo; Kim, Kuisoon; Son, Changmin

    2018-04-01

    An adaptation method was proposed to improve the modeling accuracy of overall and local performances of gas turbine engine. The adaptation method was divided into two steps. First, the overall performance parameters such as engine thrust, thermal efficiency, and pressure ratio were adapted by calibrating compressor maps, and second, the local performance parameters such as temperature of component intersection and shaft speed were adjusted by additional adaptation factors. An optimization technique was used to find the correlation equation of adaptation factors for compressor performance maps. The multi-island genetic algorithm (MIGA) was employed in the present optimization. The correlations of local adaptation factors were generated based on the difference between the first adapted engine model and performance test data. The proposed adaptation method applied to a low-bypass ratio turbofan engine of 12,000 lb thrust. The gas turbine engine model was generated and validated based on the performance test data in the sea-level static condition. In flight condition at 20,000 ft and 0.9 Mach number, the result of adapted engine model showed improved prediction in engine thrust (overall performance parameter) by reducing the difference from 14.5 to 3.3%. Moreover, there was further improvement in the comparison of low-pressure turbine exit temperature (local performance parameter) as the difference is reduced from 3.2 to 0.4%.

  6. Research on the Risk Early Warning Method of Material Supplier Performance in Power Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Zhang, Xi

    2018-01-01

    The early warning of supplier performance risk is still in the initial stage interiorly, and research on the early warning mechanism to identify, analyze and prevent the performance risk is few. In this paper, a new method aiming at marerial supplier performance risk in power industry is proposed, firstly, establishing a set of risk early warning indexes, Then use the ECM method to classify the indexes to form different risk grades. Then, improving Crock Ford risk quantization model by considering three indicators, including the stability of power system, economic losses and successful bid ratio to form the predictive risk grade, and ultimately using short board effect principle to form the ultimate risk grade to truly reflect the supplier performance risk. Finally, making empirical analysis on supplier performance and putting forward the counter measures and prevention strategies for different risks.

  7. Online dynamic equalization adjustment of high-power lithium-ion battery packs based on the state of balance estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shunli; Shang, Liping; Li, Zhanfeng; Deng, Hu; Li, Jianchao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept (SOB, State of Balance) is proposed for the LIB pack equalization. • Core parameter detection and filtering is analyzed to identify the LIB pack behavior. • The electrical UKF model is adopted for the online dynamic estimation. • The equalization target model is built based on the optimum preference. • Comprehensive imbalance state calculation is implemented for the adjustment. - Abstract: A novel concept named as state of balance (SOB) is proposed and its online dynamic estimation method is presented for the high-power lithium-ion battery (LIB) packs, based on which the online dynamic equalization adjustment is realized aiming to protect the operation safety of its power supply application. The core parameter detection method based on the specific moving average algorithm is studied because of their identical varying characteristics on the individual cells due to the manufacturing variability and other factors, affecting the performance of the high-power LIB pack. The SOB estimation method is realized with the detailed deduction, in which a dual filter consisting of the Unscented Kalman filter (UKF), equivalent circuit model (ECM) and open circuit voltage (OCV) is used in order to predict the SOB state. It is beneficial for the energy operation and the energy performance state can be evaluated online prior to the adjustment method based on the terminal voltage consistency. The energy equalization is realized that is based on the credibility reasoning together with the equalization model building process. The experiments including the core parameter detection, SOB estimation and equalization adjustment are done and the experimental results are analyzed. The experiment results show that the numerical Coulomb efficiency is bigger than 95%. The cell voltage measurement error is less than 5 mV and the terminal voltage measurement error of the LIB pack is less than 1% FS. The measurement error of the battery discharge and charge

  8. Justifications of Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2014-01-01

    and Swedish universities juxtapose arguments of utility, innovation, justice, and anti-discrimination, the Danish universities primarily refer to aspects of competitiveness, utility, and innovation when justifying activities on gender equality. The article suggests that the lack of justice......Gender equality in academia is often perceived as receiving more emphasis in Norway and Sweden than in Denmark. But how do the public research institutions in the three countries approach issues of gender equality differently? This study investigates how activities related to gender equality...... are articulated and justified in the policy statements of six Scandinavian universities. The analysis reveals some interesting disparities between the countries. In short, the Danish universities seem to be reluctant to deal with gender equality on the basis of rights-based assumptions. While the Norwegian...

  9. 77 FR 39117 - Equal Access to Justice Act Implementation Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... regularly perform services for remuneration for the applicant, under the applicant's direction and control... Director may delegate authority to take final action on matters pertaining to the Equal Access to Justice... that the Director's final order issued pursuant to Sec. 1081.405 is final and unappealable, both within...

  10. Estimation of acoustic resonances for room transfer function equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil-Cacho, Pepe; van Waterschoot, Toon; Moonen, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Strong acoustic resonances create long room impulse responses (RIRs) which may harm the speech transmission in an acoustic space and hence reduce speech intelligibility. Equalization is performed by cancelling the main acoustic resonances common to multiple room transfer functions (RTFs), i...

  11. Performance evaluation of the zero-multipole summation method in modern molecular dynamics software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuraba, Shun; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2018-05-04

    The zero-multiple summation method (ZMM) is a cutoff-based method for calculating electrostatic interactions in molecular dynamics simulations, utilizing an electrostatic neutralization principle as a physical basis. Since the accuracies of the ZMM have been revealed to be sufficient in previous studies, it is highly desirable to clarify its practical performance. In this paper, the performance of the ZMM is compared with that of the smooth particle mesh Ewald method (SPME), where the both methods are implemented in molecular dynamics software package GROMACS. Extensive performance comparisons against a highly optimized, parameter-tuned SPME implementation are performed for various-sized water systems and two protein-water systems. We analyze in detail the dependence of the performance on the potential parameters and the number of CPU cores. Even though the ZMM uses a larger cutoff distance than the SPME does, the performance of the ZMM is comparable to or better than that of the SPME. This is because the ZMM does not require a time-consuming electrostatic convolution and because the ZMM gains short neighbor-list distances due to the smooth damping feature of the pairwise potential function near the cutoff length. We found, in particular, that the ZMM with quadrupole or octupole cancellation and no damping factor is an excellent candidate for the fast calculation of electrostatic interactions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Standard Test Method for Electrical Performance of Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Systems Under Natural Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic concentrator modules and systems under natural sunlight using a normal incidence pyrheliometer. 1.2 The test method is limited to module assemblies and systems where the geometric concentration ratio specified by the manufacturer is greater than 5. 1.3 This test method applies to concentrators that use passive cooling where the cell temperature is related to the air temperature. 1.4 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of concentrator reporting conditions to facilitate comparison of results. 1.5 This test method applies only to concentrator terrestrial modules and systems. 1.6 This test method assumes that the module or system electrical performance characteristics do not change during the period of test. 1.7 The performance rating determined by this test method applies only at the period of the test, and implies no past or future performance level. 1.8...

  13. Performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven PID control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y M; Xie, W F; Tu, X W

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, performance-based parameter tuning method of model-driven Two-Degree-of-Freedom PID (MD TDOF PID) control system has been proposed to enhance the control performances of a process. Known for its ability of stabilizing the unstable processes, fast tracking to the change of set points and rejecting disturbance, the MD TDOF PID has gained research interest recently. The tuning methods for the reported MD TDOF PID are based on internal model control (IMC) method instead of optimizing the performance indices. In this paper, an Integral of Time Absolute Error (ITAE) zero-position-error optimal tuning and noise effect minimizing method is proposed for tuning two parameters in MD TDOF PID control system to achieve the desired regulating and disturbance rejection performance. The comparison with Two-Degree-of-Freedom control scheme by modified smith predictor (TDOF CS MSP) and the designed MD TDOF PID tuned by the IMC tuning method demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed tuning method. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Periodic Discordance Between Vote Equality and Representational Equality in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Cowan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available American democracy has two central values that are often in tension: vote equality, that each vote has equal influence, and representational equality, that each elected official represents equal numbers of people. The electoral standard of “one person, one vote” ensures representational equality, and that often ensures vote equality. This relationship fails, however, under certain demographic conditions, namely, when a large, non-enfranchised population resides unevenly across jurisdictions. Then, representational equality is preserved and vote equality is violated. Prior to women’s suffrage, for example, western states had relatively fewer women than the remainder of the country, contributing to gross vote inequality, though rectified through extension of the franchise. Given recent high rates of immigration to some states, I ask whether the two values are in tension. I find that they are, and quantify the electoral consequences of this disjuncture at 13 House seats in 2010.

  15. THE PRESENCE OF EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN HR MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Farkas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring equal opportunities is a priority for CEO-s and decision makers, however, it is often not put into practice. Changes in recent years along with the priorities of the EU and the efforts made to banish discrimination becoming more prominent brought with themselves a pressure on firms to provide equal opportunities for the different under-privileged social groups. In Hungary the Act CXXV of 2003 on discrimination and equal opportunities lists the groups in need of protection. The law requires employers with more than fifty employees to have an equal opportunities program. In spite of this, these programs are often general and do not implement the changes and goals identified after the assessment. Still, strategies and plans are only worth how much of them are realized. Our article is about the conscious principles of the Hungarian business sector about equality and whether there are regional differences. We compare answers given by both employers and employees on the subject of the extent to which the above mentioned principles are realized by the management and whether the employees experience these changes. Our theory is that the prioritisation of equal opportunities in firms is more the result of access to project funds than that of inner initiative from the firm's management. We analyse our research questions using a quantitative method on a regionally representative national sample. We examined 992 firms with special attention on those and their employees who had some sort of written guidelines on equal opportunities and plans on implementing these. In our paper we give a short review on the importance of equal opportunities, it's manifestation in HR management and it's written declaration, the so called Equal Opportunities Plan (EOP. The efforts of the EU and access to financial resources for the EU projects as a condition our hypotheses are that (1 at least 30% of the firms studied have written guidelines or declaration on equal

  16. 29 CFR 34.22 - Designation of Equal Opportunity Officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPPORTUNITY REQUIREMENTS OF THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) Recordkeeping and... and implementation of the Methods of Administration pursuant to § 34.33. The Equal Opportunity Officer..., Job Corps Center Director, SESA Administrator, or chief executive officer of the SDA or substate grant...

  17. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  18. Standard Test Methods for Electrical Performance of Nonconcentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Modules and Arrays Using Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the electrical performance of photovoltaic modules and arrays under natural or simulated sunlight using a calibrated reference cell. 1.1.1 These test methods allow a reference module to be used instead of a reference cell provided the reference module has been calibrated using these test methods against a calibrated reference cell. 1.2 Measurements under a variety of conditions are allowed; results are reported under a select set of reporting conditions (RC) to facilitate comparison of results. 1.3 These test methods apply only to nonconcentrator terrestrial modules and arrays. 1.4 The performance parameters determined by these test methods apply only at the time of the test, and imply no past or future performance level. 1.5 These test methods apply to photovoltaic modules and arrays that do not contain series-connected photovoltaic multijunction devices; such module and arrays should be tested according to Test Methods E 2236. 1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be re...

  19. Markov chain-based mass estimation method for loose part monitoring system and its performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Hwan Shin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A loose part monitoring system is used to identify unexpected loose parts in a nuclear reactor vessel or steam generator. It is still necessary for the mass estimation of loose parts, one function of a loose part monitoring system, to develop a new method due to the high estimation error of conventional methods such as Hertz's impact theory and the frequency ratio method. The purpose of this study is to propose a mass estimation method using a Markov decision process and compare its performance with a method using an artificial neural network model proposed in a previous study. First, how to extract feature vectors using discrete cosine transform was explained. Second, Markov chains were designed with codebooks obtained from the feature vector. A 1/8-scaled mockup of the reactor vessel for OPR1000 was employed, and all used signals were obtained by impacting its surface with several solid spherical masses. Next, the performance of mass estimation by the proposed Markov model was compared with that of the artificial neural network model. Finally, it was investigated that the proposed Markov model had matching error below 20% in mass estimation. That was a similar performance to the method using an artificial neural network model and considerably improved in comparison with the conventional methods.

  20. Description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.

    2000-01-01

    The description of JNC's analytical method and its performance for FBR cores includes: an outline of JNC's Analytical System Compared with ERANOS; a standard data base for FBR Nuclear Design in JNC; JUPITER Critical Experiment; details of Analytical Method and Its Effects on JUPITER; performance of JNC Analytical System (effective multiplication factor k eff , control rod worth, and sodium void reactivity); design accuracy of a 600 MWe-class FBR Core. JNC developed a consistent analytical system for FBR core evaluation, based on JENDL library, f-table method, and three dimensional diffusion/transport theory, which includes comprehensive sensitivity tools to improve the prediction accuracy of core parameters. JNC system was verified by analysis of JUPITER critical experiment, and other facilities. Its performance can be judged quite satisfactory for FBR-core design work, though there is room for further improvement, such as more detailed treatment of cross-section resonance regions

  1. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  2. Analyzing the Performances of Automotive Companies Using Entropy Based MAUT and SAW Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Ömürbek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, performances of automotive companies traded on BİST (Istanbul Stock Exchange and also operated in our country have been  compared with the multi-criteria decision making techniques. Data of the most important automotive companies operating in Turkey have been analyzed based on capital, stock certificate, marketing value, sales revenue, number of employees, net profit margin, current ratio, net profit/capital, net profit/sales and net sales/number of employees. Criteria applied on  Performance measurement  was gained  operating reports of companies  in 2014. Entropy method  has been used to determine the weights of the criteria. Those weights have been used MAUT (Multi-Attribute Utility Theory and SAW (Simple Additive Weighting  methods to rank automative companies’ performances The findings highlight that the same companies were in the first three places  in both methods.

  3. FINANCIAL EQUALIZATION TRANSFERS BETWEEN PUBLIC AUTHORITIES BUDGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents financial balancing mechanisms that it is applied by the most of the states with competitive market economy, in order to ensure equity between local authorities, as well as the stability of the entire national tax and budgetary system. In this regard, it is described the concept of financial equalization and its structure according to two fundamental criteria: - equalization in accordance with the financial transfers orientation, distinguishing thus (1 horizontal equalization, which is carried out between local authorities and consists in assigning a part of the richest territorial collectivities resources to the disadvantaged ones; (2 vertical financial equalization, achieved through consolidated transfers the state / federal budget to the budgets by territorial administrative units, both for the operating budget section and for the development one; - financial equalization according to the regional or local disparities observed as a result of territorial-level analyzes: (1 financial equalization based on balancing public revenues of the administrative-territorial units, which tries to correct the differences between the financial resources of each local authority and (2 the financial balancing based on the costs, which aims to reduce differences between standard costs of public services per capita. Financial equalization mechanisms have as main objective the reduction as far as the total elimination of the regional or local disparities, which are also described in this article.

  4. Quantum secret information equal exchange protocol based on dense coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Dai, Jin-Qiao; Shi, Zhi-Ping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we design a novel quantum secret information equal exchange protocol, which implements the equal exchange of secret information between the two parties with the help of semi-trusted third party (TP). In the protocol, EPR pairs prepared by the TP are, respectively, distributed to both the communication parties. Then, the two parties perform Pauli operation on each particle and return the new particles to TP, respectively. TP measures each new pair with Bell basis and announces the measurement results. Both parties deduce the secret information of each other according to the result of announcement by TP. Finally, the security analysis shows that this protocol solves the problem about equal exchange of secret information between two parties and verifies the security of semi-trusted TPs. It proves that the protocol can effectively resist glitch attacks, intercept retransmission attacks and entanglement attack.

  5. Multiple-beam equalization radiography in chest radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, B.; Forsberg, H.; Hansson, B.; Haverling, M.

    1991-01-01

    The large difference in transmission between the mediastinum and the part of the chest mainly containing lungs causes major problems in chest radiography. A system for advanced multiple beam equalization radiography has been evaluated. Evaluation of image quality has been performed both using standard phantoms and from clinical radiographs. Measurements of radiation dose burden to the patient have been made both in clinical examinations and using an anthropomorphic phantom. The image quality, in areas with low transmission, is substantially increased using the equalization system. In parts of the chest mainly containing lung tissue, conventional systems show an equal or slightly better image quality. The radiation dose burden to the patient is increased by 25 percent using the equation system, as compared to a low-dose air-gap system. In our opinion, the slight increase in radiation dose burden is well motivated by the high quality of the radiographs produced. (orig.)

  6. Using Multilayered Substrate Integrated Waveguide to Design Microwave Gain Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and experiment of a novel microwave gain equalizer based on the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW technique. The proposed equalizer is formed by an SIW loaded by SIW resonators, which has very compact structure and can compensate for gain slope of microwave systems. Equivalent circuit analysis is given about the proposed structure for a better insight into the structure’s response. A Ku-Band equalizer with four SIW resonators is simulated and fabricated with a multilayer printed circuit board process. The measured results show good performance and agreement with the simulated results; an attenuation slope of −4.5 dB over 12.5–13.5 GHz is reached with a size reduction of 76%.

  7. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom (N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of “equality for all” similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents’ judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for “paternalized” groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed. PMID:25914516

  8. Equality Hypocrisy, Inconsistency, and Prejudice: The Unequal Application of the Universal Human Right to Equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Dominic; Houston, Diane M; Van de Vyver, Julie; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2015-02-01

    In Western culture, there appears to be widespread endorsement of Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (which stresses equality and freedom). But do people really apply their equality values equally, or are their principles and application systematically discrepant, resulting in equality hypocrisy? The present study, conducted with a representative national sample of adults in the United Kingdom ( N = 2,895), provides the first societal test of whether people apply their value of "equality for all" similarly across multiple types of status minority (women, disabled people, people aged over 70, Blacks, Muslims, and gay people). Drawing on theories of intergroup relations and stereotyping we examined, relation to each of these groups, respondents' judgments of how important it is to satisfy their particular wishes, whether there should be greater or reduced equality of employment opportunities, and feelings of social distance. The data revealed a clear gap between general equality values and responses to these specific measures. Respondents prioritized equality more for "paternalized" groups (targets of benevolent prejudice: women, disabled, over 70) than others (Black people, Muslims, and homosexual people), demonstrating significant inconsistency. Respondents who valued equality more, or who expressed higher internal or external motivation to control prejudice, showed greater consistency in applying equality. However, even respondents who valued equality highly showed significant divergence in their responses to paternalized versus nonpaternalized groups, revealing a degree of hypocrisy. Implications for strategies to promote equality and challenge prejudice are discussed.

  9. Introduction into scientific work methods-a necessity when performance-based codes are introduced

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dederichs, Anne; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    The introduction of performance-based codes in Denmark in 2004 requires new competences from people working with different aspects of fire safety in the industry and the public sector. This abstract presents an attempt in reducing problems with handling and analysing the mathematical methods...... and CFD models when applying performance-based codes. This is done within the educational program "Master of Fire Safety Engineering" at the department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. It was found that the students had general problems with academic methods. Therefore, a new...

  10. Performance Evaluation of Multivariate Analysis Methods on the $Z \\gamma$ Final State

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Kieran Robert

    2017-01-01

    The performance of various machine learning algorithms are evaluated for their separation power of the $Z\\gamma$ Electroweak process (with $Z\\rightarrow\\ell\\ell$ and $\\ell=e,\\mu$) against the various backgrounds that populate the selection.\\\\ The Boosted Decision Tree method is found to deliver the best performance and is compared to that of neural net analysis and previously used methods using $36.1\\, \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data obtained at $\\sqrt{s}=13\\, \\text{TeV}$ from the ATLAS detector in 2015 and 2016.

  11. Land Governance, Gender Equality and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnborg, Helle Munk; Spichiger, Rachel; Broegaard, Rikke Brandt

    2016-01-01

    pursued in these reforms and examines the role played by donor cooperation. Despite significant progress in developing land legislation that upholds gender equality, implementation often does not follow suit, and women still face discrimination. Based on country case studies, the article identifies six......Most land governance reforms seek to enhance tenure security, encourage investments and thereby promote economic growth. Increasingly, land reforms attempt to secure women's and other vulnerable groups' access to land. This article reviews the extent to which gender equality in land tenure has been...... challenges, which should be addressed to achieve gender equality in land tenure....

  12. 3D Blade Hydraulic Design Method of the Rotodynamic Multiphase Pump Impeller and Performance Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxue Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic design method of three-dimensional blade was presented to design the blades of the rotodynamic multiphase pump. Numerical simulations and bench test were conducted to investigate the performance of the example impeller designed by the presented method. The results obtained from the bench test were in good agreement with the simulation results, which indicated the reasonability of the simulation. The distributions of pressure and gas volume fraction were analyzed and the results showed that the designed impeller was good for the transportation of mixture composed of gas and liquid. In addition, the advantage of the impeller designed by the presented method was suitable for using in large volume rate conditions, which were reflected by the comparison of the head performance between this three-dimensional design method and another one.

  13. Energy Storage System with Voltage Equalization Strategy for Wind Energy Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an energy storage system with voltage equalization strategy for wind energy conversion is presented. The proposed energy storage system provides a voltage equalization strategy for series-connected lead-acid batteries to increase their total storage capacity and lifecycle. In order to draw the maximum power from the wind energy, a perturbation-and-observation method and digital signal processor (DSP are incorporated to implement maximum power point tracking (MPPT algorithm and power regulating scheme. In the proposed energy storage system, all power switches have zero-voltage-switching (ZVS feature at turn-on transition. Therefore, the conversion efficiency can be increased. Finally, a prototype energy storage system for wind energy conversion is built and implemented. Experimental results have verified the performance and feasibility of the proposed energy storage system for wind energy conversion.

  14. Performance of some numerical Laplace inversion methods on American put option formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Octaviano, I.; Yuniar, A. R.; Anisa, L.; Surjanto, S. D.; Putri, E. R. M.

    2018-03-01

    Numerical inversion approaches of Laplace transform is used to obtain a semianalytic solution. Some of the mathematical inversion methods such as Durbin-Crump, Widder, and Papoulis can be used to calculate American put options through the optimal exercise price in the Laplace space. The comparison of methods on some simple functions is aimed to know the accuracy and parameters which used in the calculation of American put options. The result obtained is the performance of each method regarding accuracy and computational speed. The Durbin-Crump method has an average error relative of 2.006e-004 with computational speed of 0.04871 seconds, the Widder method has an average error relative of 0.0048 with computational speed of 3.100181 seconds, and the Papoulis method has an average error relative of 9.8558e-004 with computational speed of 0.020793 seconds.

  15. Performance of particle in cell methods on highly concurrent computational architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M.F.; Ethier, S.; Wichmann, N.

    2009-01-01

    Particle in cell (PIC) methods are effective in computing Vlasov-Poisson system of equations used in simulations of magnetic fusion plasmas. PIC methods use grid based computations, for solving Poisson's equation or more generally Maxwell's equations, as well as Monte-Carlo type methods to sample the Vlasov equation. The presence of two types of discretizations, deterministic field solves and Monte-Carlo methods for the Vlasov equation, pose challenges in understanding and optimizing performance on today large scale computers which require high levels of concurrency. These challenges arises from the need to optimize two very different types of processes and the interactions between them. Modern cache based high-end computers have very deep memory hierarchies and high degrees of concurrency which must be utilized effectively to achieve good performance. The effective use of these machines requires maximizing concurrency by eliminating serial or redundant work and minimizing global communication. A related issue is minimizing the memory traffic between levels of the memory hierarchy because performance is often limited by the bandwidths and latencies of the memory system. This paper discusses some of the performance issues, particularly in regard to parallelism, of PIC methods. The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is used for these studies and a new radial grid decomposition is presented and evaluated. Scaling of the code is demonstrated on ITER sized plasmas with up to 16K Cray XT3/4 cores.

  16. Performance of particle in cell methods on highly concurrent computational architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, M F; Ethier, S; Wichmann, N

    2007-01-01

    Particle in cell (PIC) methods are effective in computing Vlasov-Poisson system of equations used in simulations of magnetic fusion plasmas. PIC methods use grid based computations, for solving Poisson's equation or more generally Maxwell's equations, as well as Monte-Carlo type methods to sample the Vlasov equation. The presence of two types of discretizations, deterministic field solves and Monte-Carlo methods for the Vlasov equation, pose challenges in understanding and optimizing performance on today large scale computers which require high levels of concurrency. These challenges arises from the need to optimize two very different types of processes and the interactions between them. Modern cache based high-end computers have very deep memory hierarchies and high degrees of concurrency which must be utilized effectively to achieve good performance. The effective use of these machines requires maximizing concurrency by eliminating serial or redundant work and minimizing global communication. A related issue is minimizing the memory traffic between levels of the memory hierarchy because performance is often limited by the bandwidths and latencies of the memory system. This paper discusses some of the performance issues, particularly in regard to parallelism, of PIC methods. The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) is used for these studies and a new radial grid decomposition is presented and evaluated. Scaling of the code is demonstrated on ITER sized plasmas with up to 16K Cray XT3/4 cores

  17. Evaluation of the long-term performance of six alternative disposal methods for LLRW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossik, R.; Sharp, G. [Golder Associates, Inc., Redmond, WA (United States); Chau, T. [Rogers & Associates Engineering Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The State of New York has carried out a comparison of six alternative disposal methods for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). An important part of these evaluations involved quantitatively analyzing the long-term (10,000 yr) performance of the methods with respect to dose to humans, radionuclide concentrations in the environment, and cumulative release from the facility. Four near-surface methods (covered above-grade vault, uncovered above-grade vault, below-grade vault, augered holes) and two mine methods (vertical shaft mine and drift mine) were evaluated. Each method was analyzed for several generic site conditions applicable for the state. The evaluations were carried out using RIP (Repository Integration Program), an integrated, total system performance assessment computer code which has been applied to radioactive waste disposal facilities both in the U.S. (Yucca Mountain, WIPP) and worldwide. The evaluations indicate that mines in intact low-permeability rock and near-surface facilities with engineered covers generally have a high potential to perform well (within regulatory limits). Uncovered above-grade vaults and mines in highly fractured crystalline rock, however, have a high potential to perform poorly, exceeding regulatory limits.

  18. A systematic method for characterizing the time-range performance of ground penetrating radar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strange, A D

    2013-01-01

    The fundamental performance of ground penetrating radar (GPR) is linked to the ability to measure the signal time-of-flight in order to provide an accurate radar-to-target range estimate. Having knowledge of the actual time range and timing nonlinearities of a trace is therefore important when seeking to make quantitative range estimates. However, very few practical methods have been formally reported in the literature to characterize GPR time-range performance. This paper describes a method to accurately measure the true time range of a GPR to provide a quantitative assessment of the timing system performance and detect and quantify the effects of timing nonlinearity due to timing jitter. The effect of varying the number of samples per trace on the true time range has also been investigated and recommendations on how to minimize the effects of timing errors are described. The approach has been practically applied to characterize the timing performance of two commercial GPR systems. The importance of the method is that it provides the GPR community with a practical method to readily characterize the underlying accuracy of GPR systems. This in turn leads to enhanced target depth estimation as well as facilitating the accuracy of more sophisticated GPR signal processing methods. (paper)

  19. Improved inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance using panel bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Caulfield, Tristan; Ioannidis, Christos; Tonks, I P

    2014-01-01

    Two new methodologies are introduced to improve inference in the evaluation of mutual fund performance against benchmarks. First, the benchmark models are estimated using panel methods with both fund and time effects. Second, the non-normality of individual mutual fund returns is accounted for by using panel bootstrap methods. We also augment the standard benchmark factors with fund-specific characteristics, such as fund size. Using a dataset of UK equity mutual fund returns, we find that fun...

  20. IMPORTANCE OF EARNED VALUE METHOD (EVA IN THE PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARGARITA JANESKA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The economics of the projects is an important process in the project management. Effective control of projects is based on appropriate methods for monitoring, and the entire project, the timetable, cost, quality and risk. Unlike accounting aspects in project management are looking for information that allow insight into the status and trends of financial progress of the project. Such information provide a method of earned value. It is a key component for assessing the actual performance of the project. The method of earned value is a better indicator of the progress of the project in comparison to the classical method of comparing planned and actual costs. This method shows the profit in relation to actual costs at a specific time point. This method is the basis for calculating the index of the project performance. In this sense, MS Project provides many opportunities for quality control and monitoring of the realization of the projects. In this study will be described the architecture of this method, outlined the benefits of the application of this method, and the basic criteria that should satisfy project management to be able to apply it.