WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods modified arrot

  1. Modified risk evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udell, C.J.; Tilden, J.A.; Toyooka, R.T.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a structured and cost-oriented process to determine risks associated with nuclear material and other security interests. Financial loss is a continuing concern for US Department of Energy contractors. In this paper risk is equated with uncertainty of cost impacts to material assets or human resources. The concept provides a method for assessing the effectiveness of an integrated protection system, which includes operations, safety, emergency preparedness, and safeguards and security. The concept is suitable for application to sabotage evaluations. The protection of assets is based on risk associated with cost impacts to assets and the potential for undesirable events. This will allow managers to establish protection priorities in terms of the cost and the potential for the event, given the current level of protection

  2. The Modified Embedded Atom Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskes, M.I.

    1994-08-01

    Recent modifications have been made to generalize the Embedded Atom Method (EAM) to describe bonding in diverse materials. By including angular dependence of the electron density in an empirical way, the Modified Embedded Atom Method (MEAM) has been able to reproduce the basic energetic and structural properties of 45 elements. This method is ideal for examining interfacial behavior of dissimilar materials. This paper explains in detail the derivation of the method, shows how parameters of MEAM are determined directly from experiment or first principles calculations, and examine the quality of the reproduction of the database. Materials with fcc, bcc, hcp, and diamond cubic crystal structure are discussed. A few simple examples of the application of the MEAM to surfaces and interfaces are presented. Calculations of pullout of a SiC fiber in a diamond matrix as a function of applied stress show nonuniform deformation of the fiber.

  3. Global Convergence of a Modified LS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu JinKui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The LS method is one of the effective conjugate gradient methods in solving the unconstrained optimization problems. The paper presents a modified LS method on the basis of the famous LS method and proves the strong global convergence for the uniformly convex functions and the global convergence for general functions under the strong Wolfe line search. The numerical experiments show that the modified LS method is very effective in practice.

  4. preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    steepest descent method, the number of matrix-vector products per iteration .... modified CGM algorithm is used for large class of problems that is not ..... New Trends in the Mathematical and Computer Sciences with Applications to Real World.

  5. Preconditioning the modified conjugate gradient method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the convergence analysis of the conventional conjugate Gradient method was reviewed. And the convergence analysis of the modified conjugate Gradient method was analysed with our extension on preconditioning the algorithm. Convergence of the algorithm is a function of the condition number of M-1A.

  6. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  7. SKOCh modified parameters and data processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.V.; Baldin, B.Yu.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Characteristics of a modified Cherenkov radiation ring spectrometer variant (SKOCH) are presented. Methods of experimental data processing are described. Different SKOCH optics variants are investigated. Multi-particle registering electronic equipment for data read-out from SKOCH providing for the improvement of multiparticle occurance registration conditions is applied in the course of measurements using proton beams. A system of SKOCH spectrometer data processing programms is developed and experimentally tested. Effective algorithm for calibrating Cherenkov radiation ring spectrometers with quite a large angular and radial aperture is developed. The on-line- and off-line-processing program complex provides for the complete control of SKOCH operation during statistics collection and for particle (π, K, P) identification within 5.5-30 GeV/c range

  8. A Modified Homogeneous Balance Method and Its Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunping

    2011-01-01

    A modified homogeneous balance method is proposed by improving some key steps in the homogeneous balance method. Bilinear equations of some nonlinear evolution equations are derived by using the modified homogeneous balance method. Generalized Boussinesq equation, KP equation, and mKdV equation are chosen as examples to illustrate our method. This approach is also applicable to a large variety of nonlinear evolution equations. (general)

  9. Modified Chebyshev Collocation Method for Solving Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ziaul Arif

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents derivation of alternative numerical scheme for solving differential equations, which is modified Chebyshev (Vieta-Lucas Polynomial collocation differentiation matrices. The Scheme of modified Chebyshev (Vieta-Lucas Polynomial collocation method is applied to both Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs and Partial Differential Equations (PDEs cases. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is compared with finite difference method and the exact solution of the example. It is shown that modified Chebyshev collocation method more effective and accurate than FDM for some example given.

  10. Modified cleaning method for biomineralized components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hideto; Jordan, Richard W.

    2018-02-01

    The extraction and concentration of biomineralized components from sediment or living materials is time consuming and laborious and often involves steps that remove either the calcareous or siliceous part, in addition to organic matter. However, a relatively quick and easy method using a commercial cleaning fluid for kitchen drains, sometimes combined with a kerosene soaking step, can produce remarkable results. In this study, the method is applied to sediments and living materials bearing calcareous (e.g., coccoliths, foraminiferal tests, holothurian ossicles, ichthyoliths, and fish otoliths) and siliceous (e.g., diatom valves, silicoflagellate skeletons, and sponge spicules) components. The method preserves both components in the same sample, without etching or partial dissolution, but is not applicable to unmineralized components such as dinoflagellate thecae, tintinnid loricae, pollen, or plant fragments.

  11. expansion method for the Burgers, Burgers–Huxley and modified

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    expansion method; Burgers equation; Burgers–Huxley equation; modified. Burgers–KdV equation .... Substituting the solution set (12) and the corresponding solutions of (4) into (8), we have ..... During the past several years, many have done.

  12. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    The reaction coordinate approach of Mittleman is used to generalize the method of Perturbed Stationary States. A reaction coordinate is defined for each state in the scattering expansion in terms of parameters which depend on the internuclear separation. These are to be determined from a variational principle described by Demkov. The variational result agrees with that of Bates and McCarroll in the limit of separated atoms, but is generally different elsewhere. The theory is formulated for many-electron systems, and the construction of the scattering expansion is discussed for simple one-, two-, and three-electron systsm. The scattering expansion and the Lagrangian for the radial scattering functions are given in detail for a heteronuclear one-electron system. 2 figures

  13. Surface modifying method for metal member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Kazuo; Enomoto, Kunio; Hirano, Akihiko; Hirano, Atsuya; Hattori, Shigeo; Hayashi, Eisaku; Ueyama, Toshiharu; Hayashi, Makoto

    1998-01-01

    A surface of a metal member such as carbon steel to be used in a corrosion circumstance such as in a nuclear power plant and a thermoelectric plant are polished. A printing method is conducted for removing obstacles on the surface of the member. Namely, a photographing printing paper immersed in a diluted sulfuric acid solution is appended tightly to the portion with its surface polished smoothly. Sulfur present in the form of an obstacle of MnS or present alone in the material reacts with the sulfuric acid to form a sulfuric acid gas, and reacts with Ag of the printing paper to discolor the printing paper to brown. When a peeled printing paper is discolored to brown, sulfur printing is repeated. After conforming that the peeled printing paper is white, the surface is washed. Subsequently, surface plasticization is conducted by water jet peening or shot peening. (I.N.)

  14. Method for modifying trigger level for adsorber regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.; Cunningham, Michael J.

    2010-05-25

    A method for modifying a NO.sub.x adsorber regeneration triggering variable. Engine operating conditions are monitored until the regeneration triggering variable is met. The adsorber is regenerated and the adsorbtion efficiency of the adsorber is subsequently determined. The regeneration triggering variable is modified to correspond with the decline in adsorber efficiency. The adsorber efficiency may be determined using an empirically predetermined set of values or by using a pair of oxygen sensors to determine the oxygen response delay across the sensors.

  15. Designing stellarator coils by a modified Newton method using FOCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi

    2018-06-01

    To find the optimal coils for stellarators, nonlinear optimization algorithms are applied in existing coil design codes. However, none of these codes have used the information from the second-order derivatives. In this paper, we present a modified Newton method in the recently developed code FOCUS. The Hessian matrix is calculated with analytically derived equations. Its inverse is approximated by a modified Cholesky factorization and applied in the iterative scheme of a classical Newton method. Using this method, FOCUS is able to recover the W7-X modular coils starting from a simple initial guess. Results demonstrate significant advantages.

  16. Modified Strum functions method in the nuclear three body problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasyrov, M.; Abdurakhmanov, A.; Yunusova, M.

    1997-01-01

    Fadeev-Hahn equations in the nuclear three-body problem were solved by modified Sturm functions method. Numerical calculations were carried out the square well potential. It was shown that the convergence of the method is high and the binding energy value is in agreement with experimental one (A.A.D.)

  17. Calculation of Multiphase Chemical Equilibrium by the Modified RAND Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsanas, Christos; Stenby, Erling Halfdan; Yan, Wei

    2017-01-01

    method. The modified RAND extends the classical RAND method from single-phase chemical reaction equilibrium of ideal systems to multiphase chemical equilibrium of nonideal systems. All components in all phases are treated in the same manner and the system Gibbs energy can be used to monitor convergence....... This is the first time that modified RAND was applied to multiphase chemical equilibrium systems. The combined algorithm was tested using nine examples covering vapor–liquid (VLE) and vapor–liquid–liquid equilibria (VLLE) of ideal and nonideal reaction systems. Successive substitution provided good initial......A robust and efficient algorithm for simultaneous chemical and phase equilibrium calculations is proposed. It combines two individual nonstoichiometric solving procedures: a nested-loop method with successive substitution for the first steps and final convergence with the second-order modified RAND...

  18. Multicriteria Personnel Selection by the Modified Fuzzy VIKOR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasim M. Alguliyev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Personnel evaluation is an important process in human resource management. The multicriteria nature and the presence of both qualitative and quantitative factors make it considerably more complex. In this study, a fuzzy hybrid multicriteria decision-making (MCDM model is proposed to personnel evaluation. This model solves personnel evaluation problem in a fuzzy environment where both criteria and weights could be fuzzy sets. The triangular fuzzy numbers are used to evaluate the suitability of personnel and the approximate reasoning of linguistic values. For evaluation, we have selected five information culture criteria. The weights of the criteria were calculated using worst-case method. After that, modified fuzzy VIKOR is proposed to rank the alternatives. The outcome of this research is ranking and selecting best alternative with the help of fuzzy VIKOR and modified fuzzy VIKOR techniques. A comparative analysis of results by fuzzy VIKOR and modified fuzzy VIKOR methods is presented. Experiments showed that the proposed modified fuzzy VIKOR method has some advantages over fuzzy VIKOR method. Firstly, from a computational complexity point of view, the presented model is effective. Secondly, compared to fuzzy VIKOR method, it has high acceptable advantage compared to fuzzy VIKOR method.

  19. Local Convergence and Radius of Convergence for Modified Newton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Măruşter Ştefan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the local convergence of modified Newton method, i.e., the classical Newton method in which the derivative is periodically re-evaluated. Based on the convergence properties of Picard iteration for demicontractive mappings, we give an algorithm to estimate the local radius of convergence for considered method. Numerical experiments show that the proposed algorithm gives estimated radii which are very close to or even equal with the best ones.

  20. Modified Differential Transform Method for Two Singular Boundary Values Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinwei Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the two singular boundary values problems of second order. Two singular points are both boundary values points of the differential equation. The numerical solutions are developed by modified differential transform method (DTM for expanded point. Linear and nonlinear models are solved by this method to get more reliable and efficient numerical results. It can also solve ordinary differential equations where the traditional one fails. Besides, we give the convergence of this new method.

  1. The modified simple equation method for solving some fractional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... and processes in various areas of natural science. Thus, many effective and powerful methods have been established and improved. In this study, we establish exact solutions of the time fractional biological population model equation and nonlinearfractional Klein–Gordon equation by using the modified simple equation ...

  2. A modified sliding spectral method and its application to COSMIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified sliding spectral method and its application to COSMIC radio occultation data 1751. The window length with 300 samples is supposed to provide a reasonable resolution. In a spherically symmetric atmosphere, the refractive index n as a function of tangent radius r0 can be computed from the bending angle α as.

  3. Calculation of degenerated Eigenmodes with modified power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyun Suk; Lee, Deok Jung [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The modified power method has been studied by many researchers to calculate the higher Eigenmodes and accelerate the convergence of the fundamental mode. Its application to multidimensional problems may be unstable due to degenerated or near-degenerated Eigenmodes. Complex Eigenmode solutions are occasionally encountered in such cases, and the shapes of the corresponding eigenvectors may change during the simulation. These issues must be addressed for the successful implementation of the modified power method. Complex components are examined and an approximation method to eliminate the usage of the complex numbers is provided. A technique to fix the eigenvector shapes is also provided. The performance of the methods for dealing with those aforementioned problems is demonstrated with two dimensional one group and three dimensional one group homogeneous diffusion problems.

  4. A Modified Cooling Method and Its Application in "Drosophila" Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wen-hui; Zhu, Tong-bo; Yang, Da-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Chilling is a cost-effective and safe method of immobilising flies in "Drosophila" experiments. However, should condensation form on the plate, it would be fatal to the flies. Here we describe a modified cooling method using reusable commercial ice pack(s) (ca. 400 ml, 2-3 cm tall) rather than crushed ice. The ice pack is covered with a…

  5. A modified method for preparation of 123I-HDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Decristoforo, C.; Staeger, A.; Fridrich, L.

    1994-01-01

    A modified method for preparation of 123 I-Heptadecanoic acid ( 123 I-HDA) is described. The labelling yield is 92.8%(n = 32, 85%-97%)by heating time of 15 minutes. The overall recovery is about 70%. The time for the whole preparation is about 90 min. The method described is reliable, and convenient. A carrier free and precursor free product of high purity can be prepared in a reasonable short time

  6. Modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds, methods of making the same and methods of using the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Richard A; Pawlak, Joel J; Salam, Abdus; El-Tahlawy, Khaled Fathy

    2015-03-10

    Compositions of matter are provided that include chitosan and a modified carbohydrate. The modified carbohydrate includes a carbohydrate component and a cross linking agent. The modified carbohydrate has increased carboxyl content as compared to an unmodified counterpart carbohydrate. A carboxyl group of the modified carbohydrate is covalently bonded with an amino group of chitosan. The compositions of matter provided herein may include cross linked starch citrate-chitosan and cross linked hemicellulose citrate-chitosan, including foams thereof. These compositions yield excellent absorbency and metal chelation properties. Methods of making cross linked modified carbohydrate-chitosan compounds are also provided.

  7. Modified small angle magnetization rotation method in multilayer magnetic microwires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrejon, J.; Badini, G.; Pirota, K.; Vazquez, M.

    2007-01-01

    The small angle magnetization rotation (SAMR) technique is a widely used method to quantify magnetostriction in elongated ultrasoft magnetic materials. In the present work, we introduce significant optimization of the method, particularly simplification of the required equipment, profiting of the very peculiar characteristics of a recently introduced family of multilayer magnetic microwires consisting of a soft magnetic core, insulating intermediate layer and a hard magnetic outer layer. The introduced modified SAMR method is used not only to determine the saturation magnetostriction constant of the soft magnetic nucleus but also the magnetoelastic and magnetostatic coupling. This new method has a great potential in multifunctional sensor applications

  8. A Review on the Modified Finite Point Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan-Jing Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to make a review on recent advancements of the modified finite point method, named MFPM hereafter. This MFPM method is developed for solving general partial differential equations. Benchmark examples of employing this method to solve Laplace, Poisson, convection-diffusion, Helmholtz, mild-slope, and extended mild-slope equations are verified and then illustrated in fluid flow problems. Application of MFPM to numerical generation of orthogonal grids, which is governed by Laplace equation, is also demonstrated.

  9. ZnS nanoflakes deposition by modified chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Mangesh A.; Sartale, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    We report deposition of zinc sulfide nanoflakes on glass substrates by modified chemical method. The modified chemical method involves adsorption of zinc–thiourea complex on the substrate and its dissociation in presence of hydroxide ions to release sulfur ions from thiourea which react with zinc ions present in the complex to form zinc sulfide nanoflakes at room temperature. Influence of zinc salt and thiourea concentrations ratios on the morphology of the films was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The ratio of zinc and thiourea in the zinc–thiourea complex significantly affect the size of the zinc sulfide nanoflakes, especially width and density of the nanoflakes. The X-ray diffraction analysis exhibits polycrystalline nature of the zinc sulfide nanoflakes with hexagonal phase

  10. Modified Block Newton method for the lambda modes problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González-Pintor, S., E-mail: segonpin@isirym.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Ginestar, D., E-mail: dginestar@mat.upv.es [Instituto de Matemática Multidisciplinar, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Verdú, G., E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Química y Nuclear, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera 14, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► The Modal Method is based on expanding the solution in a set of dominant modes. ► Updating the set of dominant modes improve its performance. ► A Modified Block Newton Method, which use previous calculated modes, is proposed. ► The method exhibits a very good local convergence with few iterations. ► Good performance results are also obtained for heavy perturbations. -- Abstract: To study the behaviour of nuclear power reactors it is necessary to solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation using either a rectangular mesh for PWR and BWR reactors or a hexagonal mesh for VVER reactors. This problem can be solved by means of a modal method, which uses a set of dominant modes to expand the neutron flux. For the transient calculations using the modal method with a moderate number of modes, these modes must be updated each time step to maintain the accuracy of the solution. The updating modes process is also interesting to study perturbed configurations of a reactor. A Modified Block Newton method is studied to update the modes. The performance of the Newton method has been tested for a steady state perturbation analysis of two 2D hexagonal reactors, a perturbed configuration of the IAEA PWR 3D reactor and two configurations associated with a boron dilution transient in a BWR reactor.

  11. A Method To ModifyCorrect The Performance Of Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohith Krishnan R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The actual response of the amplifier may vary with the replacement of some aged or damaged components and this method is to compensate that problem. Here we use op-amp Fixator as the design tool. The tool helps us to isolate the selected circuit component from rest of the circuit adjust its operating point to correct the performance deviations and to modify the circuit without changing other parts of the circuit. A method to modifycorrect the performance of amplifiers by properly redesign the circuit is presented in this paper.

  12. Modifying nodal pricing method considering market participants optimality and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Soofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a method for nodal pricing and market clearing mechanism considering reliability of the system. The effects of components reliability on electricity price, market participants’ profit and system social welfare is considered. This paper considers reliability both for evaluation of market participant’s optimality as well as for fair pricing and market clearing mechanism. To achieve fair pricing, nodal price has been obtained through a two stage optimization problem and to achieve fair market clearing mechanism, comprehensive criteria has been introduced for optimality evaluation of market participant. Social welfare of the system and system efficiency are increased under proposed modified nodal pricing method.

  13. Moving force identification based on modified preconditioned conjugate gradient method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Andy

    2018-06-01

    This paper develops a modified preconditioned conjugate gradient (M-PCG) method for moving force identification (MFI) by improving the conjugate gradient (CG) and preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG) methods with a modified Gram-Schmidt algorithm. The method aims to obtain more accurate and more efficient identification results from the responses of bridge deck caused by vehicles passing by, which are known to be sensitive to ill-posed problems that exist in the inverse problem. A simply supported beam model with biaxial time-varying forces is used to generate numerical simulations with various analysis scenarios to assess the effectiveness of the method. Evaluation results show that regularization matrix L and number of iterations j are very important influence factors to identification accuracy and noise immunity of M-PCG. Compared with the conventional counterpart SVD embedded in the time domain method (TDM) and the standard form of CG, the M-PCG with proper regularization matrix has many advantages such as better adaptability and more robust to ill-posed problems. More importantly, it is shown that the average optimal numbers of iterations of M-PCG can be reduced by more than 70% compared with PCG and this apparently makes M-PCG a preferred choice for field MFI applications.

  14. [Modified Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xunqiang; Liang, Ying; Tan, Hongzhuan; Gong, Wenjie; Deng, Jing; Luo, Jiayou; Di, Xiaokang; Wu, Yue

    2012-11-01

    To constitute school sanitation standard using modified Delphi method, and to explore the feasibility and the predominance of Delphi method in the constitution of school sanitation standard. Two rounds of expert consultations were adopted in this study. The data were analyzed with SPSS15.0 to screen indices of school sanitation standard. Thirty-two experts accomplished the 2 rounds of consultations. The average length of expert service was (24.69 ±8.53) years. The authority coefficient was 0.729 ±0.172. The expert positive coefficient was 94.12% (32/34) in the first round and 100% (32/32) in the second round. The harmonious coefficients of importance, feasibility and rationality in the second round were 0.493 (PDelphi method is a rapid, effective and feasible method in this field.

  15. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  16. Modified X-ray method of a study of duodenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolyuk, I.P.; Bugakov, V.M.; Shinkin, V.M.

    A modified X-ray examination of duodenum under hypotension conditions is described. In comparison with the existing method, the above-mentioned modification allows one to investigate the duodenum by using double contrast - the high-concentrated barium suspension and the gas, formed after the gasificated powder dose. 327 patients have been examined by the given method, 126 of them have been diagnosed to suffer from inflammatory diseases of the stomach and the duodenum, 22 of them suffering from the duodenum peptic ulcer, 107 of them - pancreatitis, 48-cholelithiasis, 24 - the tumor of the pancreatoduodenum zone. 65 patients have been operated on. Roentgenomorphologic comparisons have been carried out for 66 patients suffering from inflammatory deseases of the duodenum. Duodenum visualization of 283 patients is found to be good and satisfactory. The given method may be used under any conditions, including polyclinics, due to the sparing nature.

  17. A Modified Sparse Representation Method for Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we carry on research on a facial expression recognition method, which is based on modified sparse representation recognition (MSRR method. On the first stage, we use Haar-like+LPP to extract feature and reduce dimension. On the second stage, we adopt LC-K-SVD (Label Consistent K-SVD method to train the dictionary, instead of adopting directly the dictionary from samples, and add block dictionary training into the training process. On the third stage, stOMP (stagewise orthogonal matching pursuit method is used to speed up the convergence of OMP (orthogonal matching pursuit. Besides, a dynamic regularization factor is added to iteration process to suppress noises and enhance accuracy. We verify the proposed method from the aspect of training samples, dimension, feature extraction and dimension reduction methods and noises in self-built database and Japan’s JAFFE and CMU’s CK database. Further, we compare this sparse method with classic SVM and RVM and analyze the recognition effect and time efficiency. The result of simulation experiment has shown that the coefficient of MSRR method contains classifying information, which is capable of improving the computing speed and achieving a satisfying recognition result.

  18. Current perspectives on genetically modified crops and detection methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamle, Madhu; Kumar, Pradeep; Patra, Jayanta Kumar; Bajpai, Vivek K

    2017-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops are the fastest adopted commodities in the agribiotech industry. This market penetration should provide a sustainable basis for ensuring food supply for growing global populations. The successful completion of two decades of commercial GM crop production (1996-2015) is underscored by the increasing rate of adoption of genetic engineering technology by farmers worldwide. With the advent of introduction of multiple traits stacked together in GM crops for combined herbicide tolerance, insect resistance, drought tolerance or disease resistance, the requirement of reliable and sensitive detection methods for tracing and labeling genetically modified organisms in the food/feed chain has become increasingly important. In addition, several countries have established threshold levels for GM content which trigger legally binding labeling schemes. The labeling of GM crops is mandatory in many countries (such as China, EU, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Korea, Chile, Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand), whereas in Canada, Hong Kong, USA, South Africa, and Argentina voluntary labeling schemes operate. The rapid adoption of GM crops has increased controversies, and mitigating these issues pertaining to the implementation of effective regulatory measures for the detection of GM crops is essential. DNA-based detection methods have been successfully employed, while the whole genome sequencing using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provides an advanced means for detecting genetically modified organisms and foods/feeds in GM crops. This review article describes the current status of GM crop commercialization and discusses the benefits and shortcomings of common and advanced detection systems for GMs in foods and animal feeds.

  19. Sustainability of three modified soil conservation methods in agriculture area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, M. A.; Sara, F. H.; Christanto, N.; Sartohadi, J.; Samodra, G.; Widicahyono, A.; Ardiana, N.; Widiyati, C. N.; Astuti, E. M.; Martha, G. K.; Malik, R. F.; Sambodo, A. P.; Rokhmaningtyas, R. P.; Swastanto, G. A.; Gomez, C.

    2018-04-01

    Recent innovations in soil conservation methods do not present any breakthrough. Providing more attractive soil conservation methods from the farmer’s perspective is however still of critical importance. Contributing to this soil research gap we attempt to evaluate the sustainable use of three modified conservation methods, namely JALAPA (Jala Sabut Kelapa - geotextile made of coconut fibres), wood sediment trap, and polybag system compared to traditional tillage without conservation method. This research provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the performance of each conservation measures. Therefore, in addition to the total sediment yield value and investment cost – as quantitative analysis, we also evaluate qualitatively the indicator of soil loss, installation, maintenance, and the durability of conservation medium. Those criteria define the sustainability use of each conservation method. The results show that JALAPA is the most effective method for controlling soil loss, but it also requires the most expensive cost for installation. However, our finding confirms that geotextile is sensitive to sun heating by which the coconut fibre can become dry and shrink. Wood sediment trap is the cheapest and easiest to install; however it is easily damaged by termite. Polybag method results in the highest productivity, but requires more time during the first installation. In terms of the farmer’s perspective, soil conservation using polybag system was the most accepted technique due to its high benefits; even if it is less effective at reducing soil loss compared to JALAPA.

  20. A modified Rietveld method to model highly anisotropic ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuncu, G.; Motahari, M.; Daymond, M.R.; Ustundag, E.

    2012-01-01

    High energy X-ray diffraction was employed to probe the complex constitutive behavior of a polycrystalline ferroelectric material in various sample orientations. Pb(Zn,Nb)O 3 –Pb(Zr,Ti)O 3 (PZN–PZT) ceramics were subjected to a cyclic bipolar electric field while diffraction patterns were taken. Using transmission geometry and a two-dimensional detector, lattice strain and texture evolution (domain switching) were measured in multiple sample directions simultaneously. In addition, texture analysis suggests that non-180° domain switching is coupled with lattice strain evolution during uniaxial electrical loading. As a result of this material’s high strain anisotropy, the full-pattern Rietveld method was inadequate to analyze the diffraction data. Instead, a modified Rietveld method, which includes an elastic anisotropy term, yielded significant improvements in the data analysis results.

  1. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Hua-Feng Pan; Gui-Lan Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after ...

  2. Digital Resonant Controller based on Modified Tustin Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOJIC, D.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Resonant controllers are used in power converter voltage and current control due to their simplicity and accuracy. However, digital implementation of resonant controllers introduces problems related to zero and pole mapping from the continuous to the discrete time domain. Namely, some discretization methods introduce significant errors in the digital controller resonant frequency, resulting in the loss of the asymptotic AC reference tracking, especially at high resonant frequencies. The delay compensation typical for resonant controllers can also be compromised. Based on the existing analysis, it can be concluded that the Tustin discretization with frequency prewarping represents a preferable choice from the point of view of the resonant frequency accuracy. However, this discretization method has a shortcoming in applications that require real-time frequency adaptation, since complex trigonometric evaluation is required for each frequency change. In order to overcome this problem, in this paper the modified Tustin discretization method is proposed based on the Taylor series approximation of the frequency prewarping function. By comparing the novel discretization method with commonly used two-integrator-based proportional-resonant (PR digital controllers, it is shown that the resulting digital controller resonant frequency and time delay compensation errors are significantly reduced for the novel controller.

  3. Modified method for registration of particle deflection by bent crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, S.V.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kuznetsov, V.N.; Romanov, S.V.; Sajfulin, Sh.Z.; Taratin, A.M.; Volkov, V.I.; Voevodin, M.A.; Bojko, V.V.

    2003-01-01

    The modified method for registration of particle deflection by a bent crystal was proposed and studied at the external proton beam of the Nuclotron. The telescope of scintillation counters was placed at the angle that was smaller than a crystal bending angle. The count dependence of the telescope on the crystal orientation was formed by the particles, which passed in channeling states only some part of the crystal length. Two maximums were observed in the dependencies due to particles captured into the channeling states on the crystal surface and in the crystal volume. This allows one to obtain, using the telescope and high-intensity beams, useful data about the particle channeling and the crystal, which usually demands more complicated registration by means of the coordinate detectors

  4. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.

  5. A modified microemulsion method for fabrication of hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2018-04-09

    Tragacanth is a nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer applied as a nanostructure form in various fields such as biomedicine and food industry. Here, hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers were fabricated using a modified microemulsion method. The effective parameters on the fabrication of nanofibers such as emulsifier type, stirrer type, processing time and concentrations of emulsifier, Tragacanth and aluminum chloride were studied and the conditions were optimized for high quality nanofibers. SEM images indicated Tragacanth nanofiberswere successfully synthesized with average diameter of 50 nm and uniformdistribution. Appear a peak at 1110 cm -1 related to Al-C bonds and reduce intensity ofthe peaks at 1742 and 1629 cm -1 and in FT-IR spectrum of nanofibersprove the successfully synthesis. Further, the hydrogel properties of the synthesized nanofibers can be proved by the swelling of 142% and drying time of 3 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Comparison of the quick Gram stain method to the B&M modified and favor methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Kayo; Kataoka, Nobumasa; Maruo, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    The Gram stain is an established method for bacterial identification, but the time needed to carry out this stain is 2-3 min. We attempted to shorten this time and stained a total of 70 clinical specimens isolated from using the Bartholomew & Mittwer (B&M) modified or Favor methods with a 3 s duration for washing and staining steps. Results were plotted and analyzed using a Hue Saturation Intensity (HSI) model. The range based on a plot of the two methods with the HSI model was presented as a reference interval. Our results indicated that 100% (35/35) of strains were Gram positive and 97.1% (34/35) were Gram negative for the quick B&M modified method. In the quick Favor method, 80.0% (28/35) were Gram positive and 68.6% (24/35) of strains were Gram negative. We propose that the quick B&M modified method is equivalent to the standard Gram staining method and is superior to the quick Favor method.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of graphene oxide using modified Hummer's method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Harsimran; Kukkar, Deepak

    2018-05-01

    In the present study, a simple approach has been followed for the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) using modified Hummers method in which graphite powder was oxidized in the presence of concentrated H2SO4 and KMnO4. The amount of NaNO3 and KMnO4 was varied to produce sheet like structure. The varied concentrations of NaNO3 and KMnO4 resulted in yielding large amount of the product. Structural, morphological and physicochemical features of the product were studied using UV-Visible spectrophotometer, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and crystal structure was determined using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). UV-Vis spectra of GO was observed at a maximum absorption of 230 nm due to (π-π*) transition of atomic carbon-carbon bonds. FTIR spectra revealed the presence of oxygen containing functional groups which ensures the complete exfoliation of graphite into graphene oxide X-ray powder diffraction pattern of the product showed the diffraction peak at (2θ = 26.7°) with an interlayer spacing of 0.334 nm. All the above characterizations successfully confirmed the formation of GO.

  8. Modified network simulation model with token method of bus access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Stribulevich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the characteristics of the local network with the marker method of access to the bus its modified simulation model was developed. Methodology. Defining characteristics of the network is carried out on the developed simulation model, which is based on the state diagram-layer network station with the mechanism of processing priorities, both in steady state and in the performance of control procedures: the initiation of a logical ring, the entrance and exit of the station network with a logical ring. Findings. A simulation model, on the basis of which can be obtained the dependencies of the application the maximum waiting time in the queue for different classes of access, and the reaction time usable bandwidth on the data rate, the number of network stations, the generation rate applications, the number of frames transmitted per token holding time, frame length was developed. Originality. The technique of network simulation reflecting its work in the steady condition and during the control procedures, the mechanism of priority ranking and handling was proposed. Practical value. Defining network characteristics in the real-time systems on railway transport based on the developed simulation model.

  9. Multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations after gynaecological surgery: a modified Delphi method among experts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A.; Huirne, J.A.F.; Brölmann, H.A.M.; van Mechelen, W.; Anema, J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To generate structured detailed uniform convalescence recommendations after gynaecological surgery by a modified Delphi method amongst experts and a representative group of physicians. Design: Modified Delphi study. Setting: Expert physicians recruited by their respective medical boards

  10. Modified enthalpy method for the simulation of melting and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These include the implicit time stepping method of Voller & Cross. (1981), explicit enthalpy method of Tacke (1985), centroidal temperature correction method ... In variable viscosity method, viscosity is written as a function of liquid fraction.

  11. A method for Effect Modifier Assessment in ergonomic intervention research – The EMA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Winkel, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory. The effe......Introduction: Ergonomic intervention research includes studies in which researchers arrange (or follow) changes in working conditions to determine the effects in risk factors and/or health. Often this research takes place at workplaces and not in a controlled environment of a laboratory...... of the literature revealed lack of or poor consideration of effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. We present a method that has been developed over the course of several years parallel to intervention studies in healthcare. Material and methods: The EMA method is a type of group interview including 3...... sources. Conclusion: The EMA method seems to offer a feasible procedure to obtain significant knowledge on potential effect modifiers in ergonomic intervention research. However, further development and validation is suggested....

  12. A Modified Alternating Direction Method for Variational Inequality Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, D.

    2002-01-01

    The alternating direction method is an attractive method for solving large-scale variational inequality problems whenever the subproblems can be solved efficiently. However, the subproblems are still variational inequality problems, which are as structurally difficult to solve as the original one. To overcome this disadvantage, in this paper we propose a new alternating direction method for solving a class of nonlinear monotone variational inequality problems. In each iteration the method just makes an orthogonal projection to a simple set and some function evaluations. We report some preliminary computational results to illustrate the efficiency of the method

  13. A Modified Method for Isolation of Rhein from Senna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Namita; Laddha, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and efficient method for the isolation of rhein from Cassia angustifolia (senna) leaves is described in which the hydrolysis of the sennosides and extraction of the hydrolysis products (free anthraquinones) is carried out in one step. Further isolation of rhein is achieved from the anthraquinone mixture. This method reduces the number of steps required for isolation of rhein as compared to conventional methods. PMID:20336207

  14. A Modified Conjugacy Condition and Related Nonlinear Conjugate Gradient Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The conjugate gradient (CG method has played a special role in solving large-scale nonlinear optimization problems due to the simplicity of their very low memory requirements. In this paper, we propose a new conjugacy condition which is similar to Dai-Liao (2001. Based on this condition, the related nonlinear conjugate gradient method is given. With some mild conditions, the given method is globally convergent under the strong Wolfe-Powell line search for general functions. The numerical experiments show that the proposed method is very robust and efficient.

  15. Solving a molecular docking problem by the modified PSO method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Karpenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an canonical method of the swarm particles in two modifications to raise this method efficiency in solving multi-extreme problems of high dimension optimization. The essence of PSO-M1 modification is to form two new points to attract swarm particles (along with the points which are responsible for inertial, cognitive, and social components of canonical method. These new points represent the best points of sets of particles-neighbours of a given point. The modification aims to diversify search. All free parameters of the PSO-M1 method (as well as an canonical method are static. In contrast, one of such parameters of PSO-M2 modification is dynamic. So this modification represents an example of a self-adaptive method of optimization. The modification aims to intensify search. A computing experiment to study the method efficiency and its abovementioned modifications at solving the test problems of optimization showed advantages of offered modifications in comparison with canonical method, revealed a superiority of PSO-M2 modification both over canonical method, and over PSO-M1 modification. Using the PSO-M2 method allows us to solve the 28-dimensional molecular docking problem of HIV1 protease and darunaviry 3U7S as the molecules of receptor and a ligand, respectively. Results of computing experiment have shown that the PSO-M2 method successfully finds the position of ligand close to native and can be recommended for solving the molecular docking problems as an alternative to genetic algorithm.

  16. Modified momentum exchange method for fluid-particle interactions in the lattice Boltzmann method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Decai; Shu, Shi; Niu, Xiaodong

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a modified momentum exchange method for fluid-particle interactions is proposed based on the finite-volume lattice Boltzmann method. The idea of the improvement is to remove the restriction that the boundary points must be set as the midpoints of the grid lines or the intersection of the grid lines with the solid boundaries. The particle surface is represented by a set of arc (area) elements, and the interior fluid is used which the geometric conservation law is naturally satisfied. The interactions between fluid and arc (area) elements of particle boundary are considered using the momentum exchange method, and the mass of the fluid particles which collide with an arc (area) element is obtained by means of numerical integration in the control volume. The fluid field is corrected with the help of the smooth kernel function. Moreover, a generalized explicit time marching scheme is introduced to resolve the motion of particle in the problems with the ratio of particle density to fluid density is close to or less than 1. Finally, some numerical case studies of particle sedimentation are carried out to validate the present method. The corresponding results have a good agreement with the previous literature, which strongly demonstrates the capability of the improved method.

  17. Modified conjugate gradient method for diagonalizing large matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Quanlin; Liu, Dunhuan

    2003-11-01

    We present an iterative method to diagonalize large matrices. The basic idea is the same as the conjugate gradient (CG) method, i.e, minimizing the Rayleigh quotient via its gradient and avoiding reintroducing errors to the directions of previous gradients. Each iteration step is to find lowest eigenvector of the matrix in a subspace spanned by the current trial vector and the corresponding gradient of the Rayleigh quotient, as well as some previous trial vectors. The gradient, together with the previous trial vectors, play a similar role as the conjugate gradient of the original CG algorithm. Our numeric tests indicate that this method converges significantly faster than the original CG method. And the computational cost of one iteration step is about the same as the original CG method. It is suitable for first principle calculations.

  18. Evaluation of modified boehm titration methods for use with biochars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidel, Rivka B; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L

    2013-11-01

    The Boehm titration, originally developed to quantify organic functional groups of carbon blacks and activated carbons in discrete pK ranges, has received growing attention for analyzing biochar. However, properties that distinguish biochar from carbon black and activated carbon, including greater carbon solubility and higher ash content, may render the original Boehm titration method unreliable for use with biochars. Here we use seven biochars and one reference carbon black to evaluate three Boehm titration methods that use (i) acidification followed by sparging (sparge method), (ii) centrifugation after treatment with BaCl (barium method), and (iii) a solid-phase extraction cartridge followed by acidification and sparging (cartridge method) to remove carbonates and dissolved organic compounds (DOC) from the Boehm extracts before titration. Our results for the various combinations of Boehm reactants and methods indicate that no one method was free of bias for all three Boehm reactants and that the cartridge method showed evidence of bias for all pK ranges. By process of elimination, we found that a combination of the sparge method for quantifying functional groups in the lowest pK range (∼5 to 6.4), and the barium method for quantifying functional groups in the higher pK ranges (∼6.4 to 10.3 and ∼10.3 to 13) to be free of evidence for bias. We caution, however, that further testing is needed and that all Boehm titration results for biochars should be considered suspect unless efforts were undertaken to remove ash and prevent interference from DOC. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. A Modified Generalized Laguerre Spectral Method for Fractional Differential Equations on the Half Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baleanu

    2013-01-01

    fractional derivatives is based on modified generalized Laguerre polynomials Li(α,β(x with x∈Λ=(0,∞, α>−1, and β>0, and i is the polynomial degree. We implement and develop the modified generalized Laguerre collocation method based on the modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss points which is used as collocation nodes for solving nonlinear multiterm FDEs on the half line.

  20. Modified-Fibonacci-Dual-Lucas method for earthquake prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucouvalas, A. C.; Gkasios, M.; Tselikas, N. T.; Drakatos, G.

    2015-06-01

    The FDL method makes use of Fibonacci, Dual and Lucas numbers and has shown considerable success in predicting earthquake events locally as well as globally. Predicting the location of the epicenter of an earthquake is one difficult challenge the other being the timing and magnitude. One technique for predicting the onset of earthquakes is the use of cycles, and the discovery of periodicity. Part of this category is the reported FDL method. The basis of the reported FDL method is the creation of FDL future dates based on the onset date of significant earthquakes. The assumption being that each occurred earthquake discontinuity can be thought of as a generating source of FDL time series The connection between past earthquakes and future earthquakes based on FDL numbers has also been reported with sample earthquakes since 1900. Using clustering methods it has been shown that significant earthquakes (conjunct Sun, Moon opposite Sun, Moon conjunct or opposite North or South Modes. In order to test improvement of the method we used all +8R earthquakes recorded since 1900, (86 earthquakes from USGS data). We have developed the FDL numbers for each of those seeds, and examined the earthquake hit rates (for a window of 3, i.e. +-1 day of target date) and for <6.5R. The successes are counted for each one of the 86 earthquake seeds and we compare the MFDL method with the FDL method. In every case we find improvement when the starting seed date is on the planetary trigger date prior to the earthquake. We observe no improvement only when a planetary trigger coincided with the earthquake date and in this case the FDL method coincides with the MFDL. Based on the MDFL method we present the prediction method capable of predicting global events or localized earthquakes and we will discuss the accuracy of the method in as far as the prediction and location parts of the method. We show example calendar style predictions for global events as well as for the Greek region using

  1. A simple method to prepare magnetic modified beer yeast and its application for cationic dye adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jun-Xia; Wang, Li-Yan; Chi, Ru-An; Zhang, Yue-Fei; Xu, Zhi-Gao; Guo, Jia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to use a simple method to prepare magnetic modified biomass with good adsorption performances for cationic ions. The magnetic modified biomass was prepared by two steps: (1) preparation of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) modified biomass in N, N-dimethylacetamide solution and (2) preparation of magnetic PMDA modified biomass by a situ co-precipitation method under the assistance of ultrasound irradiation in ammonia water. The adsorption potential of the as-prepared magnetic modified biomass was analyzed by using cationic dyes: methylene blue and basic magenta as model dyes. Optical micrograph and x-ray diffraction analyses showed that Fe(3)O(4) particles were precipitated on the modified biomass surface. The as-prepared biosorbent could be recycled easily by using an applied magnetic field. Titration analysis showed that the total concentration of the functional groups on the magnetic PMDA modified biomass was calculated to be 0.75 mmol g(-1) by using the first derivative method. The adsorption capacities (q(m)) of the magnetic PMDA modified biomass for methylene blue and basic magenta were 609.0 and 520.9 mg g(-1), respectively, according to the Langmuir equation. Kinetics experiment showed that adsorption could be completed within 150 min for both dyes. The desorption experiment showed that the magnetic sorbent could be used repeatedly after regeneration. The as-prepared magnetic modified sorbent had a potential in the dyeing industry wastewater treatment.

  2. Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2014-01-01

    Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.

  3. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  4. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1 digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2 outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3 digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2 . The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P <0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results indicated that by the first method a few cell colonies with homogenous morphology were detectable after 4 days, while in the outgrowth method more time was needed (10-12 days to allow sufficient numbers of heterogeneous phenotype stem cells to migrate out of tissue. Interestingly, with the improved third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. Conclusion: This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  5. Hydrazine determination in presence of uranium by modified spectrophotometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velavendan, P.; Pandey, N.K.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Natarajan, R.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work an indirect, sensitive and accurate method for the determination of hydrazine is described. The method is based on the formation of yellow coloured azine complex by post column derivatization of hydrazine with P-dimethylamino benzaldehyde. The formed yellow coloured complex is stable in acidic medium and has a maximum absorption at 460 nm. Interference due to uranium was studied and the method was applied for the determination of hydrazine in presence of uranium in aqueous stream of nuclear fuel reprocessing. A calibration graph was made for the concentration range of hydrazine from 0.05 ppm to 10 ppm with RSD 0.807% and correlation coefficient of 0.99996. (author)

  6. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  7. A modified method to determine biomass concentration as COD in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drinie

    2002-10-04

    Oct 4, 2002 ... A modification of the standard VSS technique was also proposed using two membranes in the filtration device; this technique allowed the biomass determination in 1 μm size bacteria cultures that cannot be detected by the standard VSS method because cells are not retained by the 1.5 μm diameter pore ...

  8. A modified efficient method for dental pulp stem cell isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoof, Maryam; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi; Derakhshani, Ali; Kamal-Abadi, Ali Mohammadi; Ebrahimi, Behnam; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Shokouhinejad, Noushin

    2014-03-01

    Dental pulp stem cells can be used in regenerative endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to introduce an efficient method for dental pulp stem cells isolation. In this in-vitro study, 60 extracted human third molars were split and pulp tissue was extracted. Dental pulp stem cells were isolated by the following three different methods: (1) digestion of pulp by collagenase/dispase enzyme and culture of the released cells; (2) outgrowth of the cells by culture of undigested pulp pieces; (3) digestion of pulp tissue pieces and fixing them. The cells were cultured in minimum essential medium alpha modification (αMEM) medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum(FBS) in humid 37°C incubator with 5% CO 2. The markers of stem cells were studied by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The student t-test was used for comparing the means of independent groups. P third method, we obtained stem cells successfully with about 60% efficiency after 2 days. The results of RT-PCR suggested the expression of Nanog, Oct-4, and Nucleostemin markers in the isolated cells from dental pulps. This study proposes a new method with high efficacy to obtain dental pulp stem cells in a short time.

  9. Numerical approximations of nonlinear fractional differential difference equations by using modified He-Laplace method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Prakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a numerical algorithm based on a modified He-Laplace method (MHLM is proposed to solve space and time nonlinear fractional differential-difference equations (NFDDEs arising in physical phenomena such as wave phenomena in fluids, coupled nonlinear optical waveguides and nanotechnology fields. The modified He-Laplace method is a combined form of the fractional homotopy perturbation method and Laplace transforms method. The nonlinear terms can be easily decomposed by the use of He’s polynomials. This algorithm has been tested against time-fractional differential-difference equations such as the modified Lotka Volterra and discrete (modified KdV equations. The proposed scheme grants the solution in the form of a rapidly convergent series. Three examples have been employed to illustrate the preciseness and effectiveness of the proposed method. The achieved results expose that the MHLM is very accurate, efficient, simple and can be applied to other nonlinear FDDEs.

  10. A proposed impact assessment method for genetically modified plants (AS-GMP Method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus-Hitzschky, Katia Regina Evaristo de; Silveira, Jose Maria F.J. da

    2009-01-01

    An essential step in the development of products based on biotechnology is an assessment of their potential economic impacts and safety, including an evaluation of the potential impact of transgenic crops and practices related to their cultivation on the environment and human or animal health. The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment method to evaluate the impact of biotechnologies that uses quantifiable parameters and allows a comparative analysis between conventional technology and technologies using GMOs. This paper introduces a method to perform an impact analysis associated with the commercial release and use of genetically modified plants, the Assessment System GMP Method. The assessment is performed through indicators that are arranged according to their dimension criterion likewise: environmental, economic, social, capability and institutional approach. To perform an accurate evaluation of the GMP specific indicators related to genetic modification are grouped in common fields: genetic insert features, GM plant features, gene flow, food/feed field, introduction of the GMP, unexpected occurrences and specific indicators. The novelty is the possibility to include specific parameters to the biotechnology under assessment. In this case by case analysis the factors of moderation and the indexes are parameterized to perform an available assessment.

  11. Drop weight impact measurements of HE sensitivity: modified detection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preston, D N; Brown, G W; Tappan, B C; Oshwald, D M; Koby, J R; Schoonover, M L

    2014-01-01

    High explosives small-scale sensitivity testing has been a hallmark of safety screening since WWII. Sensitivity testing was once crude and simple; broom sticks were used to scrape explosives on the floor while experimenters would look, listen, and smell for signs of a reaction. Since then, a wide variety of testing apparatus have been developed to explore the effects of different stimuli on explosives. In concert with the development of the machines themselves, the reaction detection methods have also evolved. This paper's focus is on the Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL) drop weight impact machine and reaction detection methods. A critical evaluation of results is presented with cautionary examples of false positives that can occur with non-explosive materials.

  12. Determination of condensation nuclei using a modified Aitken method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubie, G.; Schless, D.

    1981-01-01

    A test set-up for ultra-microscopic detection of condensation nuclei according to the Aitken-method is described, and it is shown that due to the delay of a video camera tube the video-technique allows to store flashlight shots of condensation particles such as they occur in an expansion cloud chamber. The possibilities resulting from that technique are stated. (orig.) [de

  13. Application of the bifurcation method to the modified Boussinesq equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoyong Li

    2014-08-01

    Firstly, we give a property of the solutions of the equation, that is, if $1+u(x, t$ is a solution, so is $1-u(x, t$. Secondly, by using the bifurcation method of dynamical systems we obtain some explicit expressions of solutions for the equation, which include kink-shaped solutions, blow-up solutions, periodic blow-up solutions and solitary wave solutions. Some previous results are extended.

  14. Seismic passive earth resistance using modified pseudo-dynamic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, Anindya; Choudhury, Deepankar; Bhattacharyya, S. K.

    2017-04-01

    In earthquake prone areas, understanding of the seismic passive earth resistance is very important for the design of different geotechnical earth retaining structures. In this study, the limit equilibrium method is used for estimation of critical seismic passive earth resistance for an inclined wall supporting horizontal cohesionless backfill. A composite failure surface is considered in the present analysis. Seismic forces are computed assuming the backfill soil as a viscoelastic material overlying a rigid stratum and the rigid stratum is subjected to a harmonic shaking. The present method satisfies the boundary conditions. The amplification of acceleration depends on the properties of the backfill soil and on the characteristics of the input motion. The acceleration distribution along the depth of the backfill is found to be nonlinear in nature. The present study shows that the horizontal and vertical acceleration distribution in the backfill soil is not always in-phase for the critical value of the seismic passive earth pressure coefficient. The effect of different parameters on the seismic passive earth pressure is studied in detail. A comparison of the present method with other theories is also presented, which shows the merits of the present study.

  15. Modified use of Van de Meer method for luminosity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications are suggested which should improve the accuracy of the Van de Meer method of determining beam luminosity at the CERN ISR. Four bending magnets would be inserted between the quadrupoles of a given experimental straight section, connected in series, and shimmed so that the machine parameters are not affected. The magnets would be driven with a zigzag current power supply with a uniform rate of current change. Experiments requiring accurate luminosity determination would be run while the deflection magnets are being driven with the oscillatory current pattern. (U.S.)

  16. Application of a modified collocation method to the one dimensional, one group neutron transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maschek, W.

    1976-07-01

    A modified collocation method is used for solving the one group criticality problem for a uniform multiplying slab. The critical parameters and the angular fluxes for a number of slabs are displayed and compared with previously published values. (orig.) [de

  17. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    OpenAIRE

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Fl?vio Eduardo Guillin; Abr?o, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by m...

  18. General methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems with known or unknown parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yang; Fang, Jian-an

    2008-03-01

    This work is concerned with the general methods for modified projective synchronization of hyperchaotic systems. A systematic method of active control is developed to synchronize two hyperchaotic systems with known parameters. Moreover, by combining the adaptive control and linear feedback methods, general sufficient conditions for the modified projective synchronization of identical or different chaotic systems with fully unknown or partially unknown parameters are presented. Meanwhile, the speed of parameters identification can be regulated by adjusting adaptive gain matrix. Numerical simulations verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin; Ding, Jianfu; Chen, Qingmin; Wang, Qingjun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°

  20. A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Jian; Shi, Pan; Zhu, Lin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Ding, Jianfu [Security and Disruptive Technologies, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, K1A 0R6, Ontario (Canada); Chen, Qingmin [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang, Qingjun, E-mail: njuwqj@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High Performance Polymer Materials and Technology (Nanjing University), Ministry of Eduction, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A modified captive bubble method for determining advancing and receding contact angle is proposed. • We have designed a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental. • The modified method overcomes the deviation of the bubble in the traditional captive bubble method. • The modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. - Abstract: In this work, a modification to the captive bubble method was proposed to test the advancing and receding contact angle. This modification is done by adding a pressure chamber with a pressure control system to the original experimental system equipped with an optical angle mater equipped with a high speed CCD camera, a temperature control system and a computer. A series of samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces were prepared. The advancing and receding contact angles of these samples with highly hydrophilic, hydrophilic, and hydrophobic surfaces through the new methods was comparable to the result tested by the traditional sessile drop method. It is proved that this method overcomes the limitation of the traditional captive bubble method and the modified captive bubble method allows a smaller error from the test. However, due to the nature of the captive bubble technique, this method is also only suitable for testing the surface with advancing or receding contact angle below 130°.

  1. SERS-based detection methods for screening of genetically modified bacterial strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Lidia

    factories vary largely, including industrial production of valuable compounds for biofuels, polymer synthesis and food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry. The improvement of computational and biochemical tools has revolutionized the synthesis of novel modified microbial strains, opening up new......The importance of metabolic engineering has been growing over the last decades, establishing the use of genetically modified microbial strains for overproduction of metabolites at industrial scale as an innovative, convenient and biosustainable method. Nowadays, application areas of microbial...

  2. Effect of modified surgical method on subcutaneous hydrops of patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Through prospective randomized clinical study,to observe the preventive effect of improved surgical method to subcutaneous hydrops after modified radical mastec tomy. Method: A total of 80 cases of patients who have done modified radical mastectomy were selected, and randomly divided them into study group (40 cases and control group (40 cases, then adopted different surgical methods as followed respectively, to observe the daily drainage volume at the first 3 d after surgery; when the drainage volume ≤ 20 mL, 24 h after surgery, removed the drainage tubes, to record the drainage days, total cases who occured subcutaneous hydrops and all adverse events after surgery. Results: Study group: the first 3 d of daily drainage volume declined quickly, and were accordingly less than that in control group; and ≤ 50 mL/24 h on the third day. Drainage total days median (4 d were less than that in control group (7 d; subcutaneous hydrops occurrence rate was only 2%, which wasgreatly lower than that in control group (14%, statistics difference had significance. Through the comparison between study group and control group, this surgical method improvement will not bring any surgical safety problems, such as hematoma, wound infection, skin flap necrosis and upper limb LOM etc. Only extended the surgical time slightly. While in control group, drainage tubes fell into the dead space or were blocked frequently, then induced hydrops; but in study group, due to the suture of latissimus dorsi leading edge and chestwall, dead space disappeared at this spot, drainage tube were not blocked any more. Conclusion: In mastectomy and axillary lymph dissection, due to axillary dissection, ligation might lead to open lymphatic tissue, added that suture fixed latissimus dorsi leading edge and skin flap leading to disappeared dead space, compared with traditional surgical method, this improved surgical method could obviously reduce the occurrence rate of hydrops

  3. A modified method of calculating the lateral build-up ratio for small electron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyner, E; McCavana, P; McClean, B

    2006-01-01

    This note outlines an improved method of calculating dose per monitor unit values for small electron fields using Khan's lateral build-up ratio (LBR). This modified method obtains the LBR directly from the ratio of measured, surface normalized, electron beam percentage depth dose curves. The LBR calculated using this modified method more accurately accounts for the change in lateral scatter with decreasing field size. The LBR is used along with Khan's dose per monitor unit formula to calculate dose per monitor unit values for a set of small fields. These calculated dose per monitor unit values are compared to measured values to within 3.5% for all circular fields and electron energies examined. The modified method was further tested using a small triangular field. A maximum difference of 4.8% was found. (note)

  4. Stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs based on a load-modifying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xiushan; Liu Yinghua; Wang Jianbin; Cen Zhangzhi

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a load-modifying method for the stress and deflection analyses of floating roofs used in cylindrical oil storage tanks. The formulations of loads and deformations are derived according to the equilibrium analysis of floating roofs. Based on these formulations, the load-modifying method is developed to conduct a geometrically nonlinear analysis of floating roofs with the finite element (FE) simulation. In the procedure with the load-modifying method, the analysis is carried out through a series of iterative computations until a convergence is achieved within the error tolerance. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and reliability of the proposed method, which provides an effective and practical numerical solution to the design and analysis of floating roofs

  5. Coherent spectroscopic methods for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moguilnaya, T.; Suminov, Y.; Botikov, A.; Ignatov, S.; Kononenko, A.; Agibalov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We developed the new automatic method that combines the method of forced luminescence and stimulated Brillouin scattering. This method is used for monitoring pathogens, genetically modified products and nanostructured materials in colloidal solution. We carried out the statistical spectral analysis of pathogens, genetically modified soy and nano-particles of silver in water from different regions in order to determine the statistical errors of the method. We studied spectral characteristics of these objects in water to perform the initial identification with 95% probability. These results were used for creation of the model of the device for monitor of pathogenic organisms and working model of the device to determine the genetically modified soy in meat.

  6. A modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    , but not for balanced antennas like loops or dipoles. In this paper, a modified Wheeler cap method is proposed for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas and a three-port network model of the Wheeler cap measurement is introduced. The advantage of the modified method...... is that it is wideband, thus does not require any balun, and both the antenna input impedance and radiation efficiency can be obtained. An electrically small loop antenna and a wideband dipole were simulated and measured according to the proposed method and the results of measurements and simulations are presented...

  7. Methods of counting ribs on chest CT: the modified sternomanubrial approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kyung Sik; Kim, Sung Jin; Jeon, Min Hee; Lee, Seung Young; Bae, Il Hun [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of each method of counting ribs on chest CT and to propose a new method: the anterior approach with using the sternocostal joints. CT scans of 38 rib lesions of 27 patients were analyzed (fracture: 25, metastasis: 11, benign bone disease: 2). Each lesion was independently counted by three radiologists with using three different methods for counting ribs: the sternoclavicular approach, the xiphisternal approach and the modified sternomanubrial approach. The rib lesions were divided into three parts of evaluation of each method according to the location of the lesion as follows: the upper part (between the first and fourth thoracic vertebra), the middle part (between the fifth and eighth) and the lower part (between the ninth and twelfth). The most accurate method was a modified sternomanubrial approach (99.1%). The accuracies of a xiphisternal approach and a sternoclavicular approach were 95.6% and 88.6%, respectively. A modified sternomanubrial approach showed the highest accuracies in all three parts (100%, 100% and 97.9%, respectively). We propose a new method for counting ribs, the modified sternomanubrial approach, which was more accurate than the known methods in any parts of the bony thorax, and it may be an easier and quicker method than the others in clinical practice.

  8. Effectiveness of the Modified Intensive Toilet Training Method on Teaching Toilet Skills to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiç, Avsar; Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine effectiveness of a modified version of Azrin and Foxx's (1971) intensive toilet training method on teaching of toilet skills to children with autism. This method consists of administering extra fluids and a time schedule, but does not use overcorrection procedures. Implementation requires a study of six…

  9. Modified variational iteration method for an El Niño Southern Oscillation delayed oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiao-Qun; Song Jun-Qiang; Zhu Xiao-Qian; Zhang Li-Lun; Zhang Wei-Min; Zhao Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies a delayed air—sea coupled oscillator describing the physical mechanism of El Niño Southern Oscillation. The approximate expansions of the delayed differential equation's solution are obtained successfully by the modified variational iteration method. The numerical results illustrate the effectiveness and correctness of the method by comparing with the exact solution of the reduced model. (general)

  10. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED POWER FLOW TRACING METHOD FOR REACTIVE POWER PRICING IN PRACTICAL UTILITY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SUSITHRA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitive trend towards restructuring and unbundling of transmission services has resulted in the need to discover the impact of a particular generator to load. This paper initially presents the analysis of three different reactive power valuation methods namely, Modified Ybus , Virtual flow approach and modified power flow tracing to compute the reactive power output from a particular generator to particular load. Among these methods, the modified power flow electricity tracing method is identified as the best method to trace the reactive power contribution from various reactive power sources to loads, transmission line, etc. Also this proposed method breakdown the total reactive power loss in a transmission line into components to be allocated to individual loads. Secondly, based on this Method a novel allocation method for reactive power service for practical system is proposed. Hence, this method can be useful in providing additional insight into power system operation and can be used to modify existing tariffs of charging for reactive power transmission loss and reactive power transmission services. Simulation and comparison results are shown by taking WSCC 9 and IEEE 30 bus system as test system.

  11. Development of the modified sum-peak method and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Y.; Miyahara, H.; Ishihara, M.; Ishigure, N.; Yamamoto, S.; Kojima, S.

    2016-01-01

    As the sum-peak method requires the total count rate as well as the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate, this meets difficulties when a sample contains other radionuclides than the one to be measured. To solve the problem, a new method using solely the peak and the sum peak count rates was developed. The method was theoretically and experimentally confirmed using "6"0Co, "2"2Na and "1"3"4Cs. We demonstrate that the modified sum-peak method is quite simple and practical and is useful to measure multiple nuclides. - Highlights: • A modified sum-peak method for simple radioactivity measurement was developed. • The method solely requires the peak count rates and the sum peak count rate. • The method is applicable to multiple radionuclides.

  12. Direct runoff assessment using modified SME method in catchments in the Upper Vistula River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wałęga, A.; Rutkowska, A.; Grzebinoga, M.

    2017-04-01

    Correct determination of direct runoff is crucial for proper and safe dimensioning of hydroengineering structures. It is commonly assessed using SCS-CN method developed in the United States. However, due to deficiencies of this method, many improvements and modifications have been proposed. In this paper, a modified Sahu-Mishra-Eldo (SME) method was introduced and tested for three catchments located in the upper Vistula basin. Modification of SME method involved a determination of maximum potential retention S based on CN parameter derived from SCS-CN method. The modified SME method yielded direct runoff values very similar to those observed in the investigated catchments. Moreover, it generated significantly smaller errors in the direct runoff estimation as compared with SCS-CN and SME methods in the analyzed catchments. This approach may be used for estimating the runoff in uncontrolled catchments.

  13. Modified harmonic balance method for the solution of nonlinear jerk equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M. Saifur; Hasan, A. S. M. Z.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a second approximate solution of nonlinear jerk equations (third order differential equation) can be obtained by using modified harmonic balance method. The method is simpler and easier to carry out the solution of nonlinear differential equations due to less number of nonlinear equations are required to solve than the classical harmonic balance method. The results obtained from this method are compared with those obtained from the other existing analytical methods that are available in the literature and the numerical method. The solution shows a good agreement with the numerical solution as well as the analytical methods of the available literature.

  14. Extension of Tom Booth's Modified Power Method for Higher Eigen Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2015-01-01

    A possible technique to get the even higher modes is suggested, but it is difficult to be applied practically. In this paper, a general solution strategy is proposed, which can extend Tom Booth's modified power method to get the higher Eigenmodes and there is no limitation about the number of Eigenmodes that can be obtained with this method. In this paper, a general solution strategy is proposed, which can extend Tom Booth's modified power method to get the higher Eigenmodes and there is no limitation about the number of Eigenmodes that can be obtained with this method. It is more practical than the original solution strategy that Tom Booth proposed. The implementation of the method in Monte Carlo code shows significant advantages comparing to the original power method

  15. The modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Youn Kil; Hahn, Seong Tae; Baek, Jee Hee; Kim, Choon Yul; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the modified pulse-spray method using Urokinase(UK) in subacute and chronic thrombotic arterial occlusion. Modified pulse-spray methods using UK were performed in seven patients with subacute (1 week-1month) to chronic (1month-5years) occlusive symptoms such as limb pain, claudication and impotence. Angiographic examination revealed thrombotic occlusion of the aorta, common iliac arteries, brachial arterio-venous hemodialysis graft and femoro-popliteal bypass graft. The patients underwent thrombolysis using modified pulse-spray and additional constant infusion of UK. In the presence of underlying stenosis or organized clots, balloon angioplasty or stent placement was performed. Complete lysis was obtained in five of seven patients. For initial lysis, the mean dose of UK was 420,000 units, and the mean modified pulse-spray time was 50 minutes. Mean total dose of UK and mean total time for complete lysis were 800,000 units and 161 minutes, respectively. Thrombolysis of the femoro-popliteal bypass graft failed due to severe occlusion of the distal anastomosis. Partial lysis was achieved in one patient with aorto-illac occlusion, but further thrombolysis was stopped due to bleeding at the puncture site. The modified pulse-spray method using UK is effective in treating subacute and chronic arterial thrombotic occlusion. It augments the speed, safety and efficacy of thrombolysis. When underlying stenosis or organized clots remain after thrombolysis, ballon angioplasty or stent placement would be helpful

  16. A New Method for Constructing Travelling Wave Solutions to the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun-Mao, Wang; Miao, Zhang; Wen-Liang, Zhang; Rui, Zhang; Jia-Hua, Han

    2008-01-01

    We present a new method to find the exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear evolution equations, with the aid of the symbolic computation. Based on this method, we successfully solve the modified Benjamin–Bona–Mahoney equation, and obtain some new solutions which can be expressed by trigonometric functions and hyperbolic functions. It is shown that the proposed method is direct, effective and can be used for many other nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics. (general)

  17. A method to modify PVDF microfiltration membrane via ATRP with low-temperature plasma pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yu; Song, Shuijun; Lu, Yin; Zhu, Dongfa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We report a simple method to modify hydrophobic PVDF modification membrane. • Surface modification of PVDF membrane via ATRP with plasma pre-treatment. • ATRP grafting of SBMA onto the PVDF membrane surface form PVDF-g-SBMA membrane. • PVDF-g-SBMA membrane shows superior antifouling properties and hydrophilic. - Abstract: The hydrophilic modification of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane via pretreatment with argon plasma and direct surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. Both modified and unmodified PVDF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and pore size distribution measurements. FTIR and XPS spectra confirmed that sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) had been grafted onto the membrane surface. The initial contact angle decreased from 87.0° to 29.8° and a water drop penetrated into the modified membrane completely in 8 s. The pore size distribution of the modified membrane exhibited a smaller mean value than that of the original membrane. The antifouling properties of the modified PVDF membrane were evaluated by a filtration test using bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The results showed that the initial flux of the modified membrane increased from 2140.1 L/m"2 h to 2812.7 L/m"2 h and the equilibrium flux of BSA solution increased from 31 L/m"2 h to 53 L/m"2 h.

  18. A method to modify PVDF microfiltration membrane via ATRP with low-temperature plasma pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Yu [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Ningbo University of Technology, Fenghua Road 201, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Song, Shuijun [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhejiang University of Science Technology, Liuhe Road 318, Hangzhou, 310023 (China); Lu, Yin, E-mail: luyin@nbu.edu.cn [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China); Zhu, Dongfa [School of Marine Science, Ningbo University, Fenghua Road 818, Ningbo, 315211 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • We report a simple method to modify hydrophobic PVDF modification membrane. • Surface modification of PVDF membrane via ATRP with plasma pre-treatment. • ATRP grafting of SBMA onto the PVDF membrane surface form PVDF-g-SBMA membrane. • PVDF-g-SBMA membrane shows superior antifouling properties and hydrophilic. - Abstract: The hydrophilic modification of a polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane via pretreatment with argon plasma and direct surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) was studied. Both modified and unmodified PVDF membranes were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), water contact angle, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and pore size distribution measurements. FTIR and XPS spectra confirmed that sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA) had been grafted onto the membrane surface. The initial contact angle decreased from 87.0° to 29.8° and a water drop penetrated into the modified membrane completely in 8 s. The pore size distribution of the modified membrane exhibited a smaller mean value than that of the original membrane. The antifouling properties of the modified PVDF membrane were evaluated by a filtration test using bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution. The results showed that the initial flux of the modified membrane increased from 2140.1 L/m{sup 2} h to 2812.7 L/m{sup 2} h and the equilibrium flux of BSA solution increased from 31 L/m{sup 2} h to 53 L/m{sup 2} h.

  19. Comparison between Two Assessment Methods; Modified Essay Questions and Multiple Choice Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assadi S.N.* MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims Using the best assessment methods is an important factor in educational development of health students. Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions are two prevalent methods of assessing the students. The aim of this study was to compare two methods of modified essay questions and multiple choice questions in occupational health engineering and work laws courses. Materials & Methods This semi-experimental study was performed during 2013 to 2014 on occupational health students of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The class of occupational health and work laws course in 2013 was considered as group A and the class of 2014 as group B. Each group had 50 students.The group A students were assessed by modified essay questions method and the group B by multiple choice questions method.Data were analyzed in SPSS 16 software by paired T test and odd’s ratio. Findings The mean grade of occupational health and work laws course was 18.68±0.91 in group A (modified essay questions and was 18.78±0.86 in group B (multiple choice questions which was not significantly different (t=-0.41; p=0.684. The mean grade of chemical chapter (p<0.001 in occupational health engineering and harmful work law (p<0.001 and other (p=0.015 chapters in work laws were significantly different between two groups. Conclusion Modified essay questions and multiple choice questions methods have nearly the same student assessing value for the occupational health engineering and work laws course.

  20. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundong Liu

    Full Text Available To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti surfaces modified with strontium (Sr for bone implant applications.Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts.The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes.These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  1. A Strontium-Modified Titanium Surface Produced by a New Method and Its Biocompatibility In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chundong; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Lichao; Zhang, Xinhua; Chen, Qiuyue; Wu, Buling

    2015-01-01

    To present a new and effective method of producing titanium surfaces modified with strontium and to investigate the surface characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of titanium (Ti) surfaces modified with strontium (Sr) for bone implant applications. Sr-modified Ti surfaces were produced by sequential treatments with NaOH, strontium acetate, heat and water. The surface characteristics and the concentration of the Sr ions released from the samples were examined. Cell adhesion, morphology and growth were investigated using osteoblasts isolated from the calvaria of neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. Expression of osteogenesis-related genes and proteins was examined to assess the effect of the Sr-modified Ti surfaces on osteoblasts. The modified titanium surface had a mesh structure with significantly greater porosity, and approximately5.37±0.35at.% of Sr was incorporated into the surface. The hydrophilicity was enhanced by the incorporation of Sr ions and water treatment. The average amounts of Sr released from the Sr-modified plates subjected to water treatment were slight higher than the plates without water treatment. Sr promoted cellular adhesion, spreading and growth compared with untreated Ti surfaces. The Sr-modified Ti plates also promoted expression of osteogenesis-related genes,and expression of OPN and COL-І by osteoblasts. Ti plates heat treated at 700°C showed increased bioactivity in comparison with those treated at 600°C. Water treatment upregulated the expression of osteogenesis-related genes. These results show that Sr-modification of Ti surfaces may improve bioactivity in vitro. Water treatment has enhanced the response of osteoblasts. The Sr-modified Ti heat-treated at 700°C exhibited better bioactivity compared with that heated at 600°C.

  2. Comparison of Farfan modified and Frobin methods to evaluate the intervertebral disc height

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Kanas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of Farfan modified and Frobin methods to measure the intervertebral disc height in radiographs with inter- and intraobserver comparison. METHOD: Six radiographs of different patients treated for low back pain have been collected and digitized, and five lumbar disc of each patient were evaluated by six examiners with different levels of experience. The measures were done in Image Pro Plus 6.0 software. RESULTS: When compared, both methods showed more than 95% concordance. In intraexaminer analysis, both also shown to be reliable and reproducible, with a high level of concordance. By comparing the correlation between classes of examiners, the higher the level of experience, the greater the agreement for both methods. CONCLUSION: Farfan modified and Frobin are reliable methods to measure the disc height in the lateral radiographs. The higher level of experience of the examiner, the higher was the correlation between measurements.

  3. Two new modified Gauss-Seidel methods for linear system with M-matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bing; Miao, Shu-Xin

    2009-12-01

    In 2002, H. Kotakemori et al. proposed the modified Gauss-Seidel (MGS) method for solving the linear system with the preconditioner [H. Kotakemori, K. Harada, M. Morimoto, H. Niki, A comparison theorem for the iterative method with the preconditioner () J. Comput. Appl. Math. 145 (2002) 373-378]. Since this preconditioner is constructed by only the largest element on each row of the upper triangular part of the coefficient matrix, the preconditioning effect is not observed on the nth row. In the present paper, to deal with this drawback, we propose two new preconditioners. The convergence and comparison theorems of the modified Gauss-Seidel methods with these two preconditioners for solving the linear system are established. The convergence rates of the new proposed preconditioned methods are compared. In addition, numerical experiments are used to show the effectiveness of the new MGS methods.

  4. Modified homotopy perturbation method for solving hypersingular integral equations of the first kind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshkuvatov, Z K; Zulkarnain, F S; Nik Long, N M A; Muminov, Z

    2016-01-01

    Modified homotopy perturbation method (HPM) was used to solve the hypersingular integral equations (HSIEs) of the first kind on the interval [-1,1] with the assumption that the kernel of the hypersingular integral is constant on the diagonal of the domain. Existence of inverse of hypersingular integral operator leads to the convergence of HPM in certain cases. Modified HPM and its norm convergence are obtained in Hilbert space. Comparisons between modified HPM, standard HPM, Bernstein polynomials approach Mandal and Bhattacharya (Appl Math Comput 190:1707-1716, 2007), Chebyshev expansion method Mahiub et al. (Int J Pure Appl Math 69(3):265-274, 2011) and reproducing kernel Chen and Zhou (Appl Math Lett 24:636-641, 2011) are made by solving five examples. Theoretical and practical examples revealed that the modified HPM dominates the standard HPM and others. Finally, it is found that the modified HPM is exact, if the solution of the problem is a product of weights and polynomial functions. For rational solution the absolute error decreases very fast by increasing the number of collocation points.

  5. Factors influencing hydroquinone degradation in aqueous solution using a modified microelectrolysis method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Li, Tingting; Xiong, Houfeng; Zou, Donglei

    2015-01-01

    The discharge of hydroquinone (HQ), an important chemical raw material, to natural waters poses different ecological threats to aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the removal performance of traditional and modified microelectrolysis methods in aqueous solutions. The traditional microelectrolysis packing was modified by adding manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) powder as additives. The factors affecting the removal performance of HQ, such as catalytic metal type, mass fraction of additive, reaction time, and initial pH, were examined. The results showed that the Mn modified packing exhibited the best performance compared to Zn and Cu powder. The removal rate of HQ using Mn modified packing can reach 94% after 4 h. In addition, 9% of Mn packing has a higher removal rate than other mass fractions. The acidic solution pH shows a more favorable degradation than a neutral and alkaline solution. The intermediates of HQ degradation by modified microelectrolysis were identified and then the pathway of HQ degradation was proposed. Our result indicates that Mn as catalytic metal holds promising potential to enhance HQ removal in water using the microelectrolysis method.

  6. A modified method of planning and delivery for dynamic multileaf collimator intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogan, Nesrin; Leybovich, Leonid B.; Sethi, Anil; Krasin, Matthew; Emami, Bahman

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a modified planning and delivery technique that reduces dose nonuniformity for tomographic delivery of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: The NOMOS-CORVUS system delivers IMRT in a tomographic paradigm. This type of delivery is prone to create multiple dose nonuniformity regions at the arc abutment regions. The modified technique was based on the cyclical behavior of arc positions as a function of a target length. With the modified technique, two plans are developed for the same patient, one with the original target and the second with a slightly increased target length and the abutment regions shifted by ∼5 mm compared to the first plan. Each plan is designed to deliver half of the target prescription dose delivered on alternate days, resulting in periodic shifts of abutment regions. This method was experimentally tested in phantoms with and without intentionally introduced errors in couch indexing. Results: With the modified technique, the degree of dose nonuniformity was reduced. For example, with 1 mm error in couch indexing, the degree of dose nonuniformity changed from ∼25% to ∼12%. Conclusion: Use of the modified technique reduces dose nonuniformity due to periodic shifts of abutment regions during treatment delivery

  7. The slab albedo problem for the triplet scattering kernel with modified F{sub N} method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, Demet [Ministry of Education, 75th year Anatolia High School, Ankara (Turkey)

    2016-12-15

    One speed, time independent neutron transport equation for a slab geometry with the quadratic anisotropic scattering kernel is considered. The albedo and transmission factor are calculated by the modified F{sub N} method. The obtained numerical results are listed for different scattering coefficients.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 425 - Modified Monier-Williams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified Monier-Williams Method B Appendix B to Part 425 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pt. 425, App. B Appendix B to...

  9. Modelling of bow-tie microstrip antennas using modified locally conformal FDTD method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, J.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of bow-tie microstrip antennas is presented based on the use of the modified locally conformal finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. This approach enables the number of cells along the antenna length and width to be chosen independently of the antenna central width, which helps to

  10. 48 CFR 215.404-72 - Modified weighted guidelines method for nonprofit organizations other than FFRDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Defense or a Secretary of a Department as receiving sustaining support on a cost-plus-fixed-fee basis from... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Contract Pricing 215.404-72 Modified weighted... of the costs in Block 20 of the DD Form 1547. Show the net (reduced) amount on the DD Form 1547. (ii...

  11. Methods for Cavitation Prediction on Tip-Modified Propellers in Ship Wake Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Regener, Pelle Bo; Andersen, Poul

    2015-01-01

    Unsteady cavitation simulations on a tip-modified propellerin behind-hull condition are made by both BoundaryElement Method (BEM) and Computational FluidDynamics (CFD).As the hull geometry typically is not disclosed to thepropeller designer and thus cannot be included in thesimulation, other meas...

  12. Slab albedo for linearly and quadratically anisotropic scattering kernel with modified F{sub N} method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, R. Goekhan [Kirikkale Univ. (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School

    2017-11-15

    One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation is solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linearly and the quadratically anisotropic scattering kernel. Having written Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among of these eigenfunctions, slab albedo problem is investigated as numerically by using Modified F{sub N} method. Selected numerical results are presented in tables.

  13. The Impact of a Modified Moore Method on Efficacy and Performance in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Thomas E.; Bailey, Brad; Briggs, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In this study, one section of undergraduate Precalculus was taught using a modified Moore method, a student centered inquiry-based approach, and two control sections were taught in a traditional lecture format. A survey of attitudes, beliefs, and efficacy toward mathematics and Precalculus was administered at the beginning and end of the semester…

  14. The Effect of a Modified Moore Method on Attitudes and Beliefs in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brad; Cooper, Thomas E.; Briggs, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a study on the effects of teaching with a Modified Moore Method (MMM), a survey containing 20 items from Schoenfeld's (1989) investigation of attitudes and beliefs about mathematics was administered to students in undergraduate precalculus classes. The study included one section of precalculus taught with an MMM, a student-centered and…

  15. Modified coaxial wire method for measurement of transfer impedance of beam position monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Babbar, L. K.; Deo, R. K.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Senecha, V. K.

    2018-05-01

    The transfer impedance is a very important parameter of a beam position monitor (BPM) which relates its output signal with the beam current. The coaxial wire method is a standard technique to measure transfer impedance of the BPM. The conventional coaxial wire method requires impedance matching between coaxial wire and external circuits (vector network analyzer and associated cables). This paper presents a modified coaxial wire method for bench measurement of the transfer impedance of capacitive pickups like button electrodes and shoe box BPMs. Unlike the conventional coaxial wire method, in the modified coaxial wire method no impedance matching elements have been used between the device under test and the external circuit. The effect of impedance mismatch has been solved mathematically and a new expression of transfer impedance has been derived. The proposed method is verified through simulation of a button electrode BPM using cst studio suite. The new method is also applied to measure transfer impedance of a button electrode BPM developed for insertion devices of Indus-2 and the results are also compared with its simulations. Close agreement between measured and simulation results suggests that the modified coaxial wire setup can be exploited for the measurement of transfer impedance of capacitive BPMs like button electrodes and shoe box BPM.

  16. Modified coaxial wire method for measurement of transfer impedance of beam position monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transfer impedance is a very important parameter of a beam position monitor (BPM which relates its output signal with the beam current. The coaxial wire method is a standard technique to measure transfer impedance of the BPM. The conventional coaxial wire method requires impedance matching between coaxial wire and external circuits (vector network analyzer and associated cables. This paper presents a modified coaxial wire method for bench measurement of the transfer impedance of capacitive pickups like button electrodes and shoe box BPMs. Unlike the conventional coaxial wire method, in the modified coaxial wire method no impedance matching elements have been used between the device under test and the external circuit. The effect of impedance mismatch has been solved mathematically and a new expression of transfer impedance has been derived. The proposed method is verified through simulation of a button electrode BPM using cst studio suite. The new method is also applied to measure transfer impedance of a button electrode BPM developed for insertion devices of Indus-2 and the results are also compared with its simulations. Close agreement between measured and simulation results suggests that the modified coaxial wire setup can be exploited for the measurement of transfer impedance of capacitive BPMs like button electrodes and shoe box BPM.

  17. A Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method for Nonsmooth Equations with Finitely Many Maximum Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-qiang Du

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For solving nonsmooth systems of equations, the Levenberg-Marquardt method and its variants are of particular importance because of their locally fast convergent rates. Finitely many maximum functions systems are very useful in the study of nonlinear complementarity problems, variational inequality problems, Karush-Kuhn-Tucker systems of nonlinear programming problems, and many problems in mechanics and engineering. In this paper, we present a modified Levenberg-Marquardt method for nonsmooth equations with finitely many maximum functions. Under mild assumptions, the present method is shown to be convergent Q-linearly. Some numerical results comparing the proposed method with classical reformulations indicate that the modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm works quite well in practice.

  18. The Innovative Bike Conceptual Design by Using Modified Functional Element Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nien-Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to propose a new design process by modifying functional element design approach which can commence a large amount of innovative concepts within a short period of time. Firstly, the original creative functional elements design method is analyzed and the drawbacks are discussed. Then, the modified is proposed and is divided into 6 steps. The creative functional element representations, generalization, specialization, and particularization are used in this method. Every step is described clearly, and users could design by following the process easily. In this paper, a clear and accurate design process is proposed based on the creative functional element design method. By following this method, a lot of innovative bicycles will be created quickly.

  19. Development and Evaluation of Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for Genetically Modified Soybean MON87701.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukahara, Keita; Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Nishimaki-Mogami, Tomoko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event, MON87701. First, a standard plasmid for MON87701 quantification was constructed. The conversion factor (C f ) required to calculate the amount of genetically modified organism (GMO) was experimentally determined for a real-time PCR instrument. The determined C f for the real-time PCR instrument was 1.24. For the evaluation of the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an inter-laboratory trial. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr), respectively. The determined biases and the RSDr values were less than 30 and 13%, respectively, at all evaluated concentrations. The limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and the developed method would thus be applicable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MON87701.

  20. Modified quasi-boundary value method for Cauchy problems of elliptic equations with variable coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study a Cauchy problem for an elliptic equation with variable coefficients. It is well-known that such a problem is severely ill-posed; i.e., the solution does not depend continuously on the Cauchy data. We propose a modified quasi-boundary value regularization method to solve it. Convergence estimates are established under two a priori assumptions on the exact solution. A numerical example is given to illustrate our proposed method.

  1. A Newly Improved Modified Method Development and Validation of Bromofenac Sodium Sesquihydrate in Bulk Drug Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Kumar Yelamanchi V; Useni Reddy Mallu; I. V Kasi Viswanath; D. Balasubramanyam; G. Narshima Murthy

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a simple, efficient, specific, precise and accurate newly improved modified Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Purity (or) Related substance method for bromofenac sodium sesquihydrate active pharmaceuticals ingredient dosage form. Validation of analytical method is the confirmation by examination and the provision of objective evidence that the particular requirements for a specific intended use are fulfilled as per ICH, USP...

  2. A modified synthetic driving force method for molecular dynamics simulation of grain boundary migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liang; Li, Saiyi

    2015-01-01

    The synthetic driving force (SDF) molecular dynamics method, which imposes crystalline orientation-dependent driving forces for grain boundary (GB) migration, has been considered deficient in many cases. In this work, we revealed the cause of the deficiency and proposed a modified method by introducing a new technique to distinguish atoms in grains and GB such that the driving forces can be imposed properly. This technique utilizes cross-reference order parameter (CROP) to characterize local lattice orientations in a bicrystal and introduces a CROP-based definition of interface region to minimize interference from thermal fluctuations in distinguishing atoms. A validation of the modified method was conducted by applying it to simulate the migration behavior of Ni 〈1 0 0〉 and Al 〈1 1 2〉 symmetrical tilt GBs, in comparison with the original method. The discrepancies between the migration velocities predicted by the two methods are found to be proportional to their differences in distinguishing atoms. For the Al 〈1 1 2〉 GBs, the modified method predicts a negative misorientation dependency for both the driving pressure threshold for initiating GB movement and the mobility, which agree with experimental findings and other molecular dynamics computations but contradict those predicted using the original method. Last, the modified method was applied to evaluate the mobility of Ni Σ5 〈1 0 0〉 symmetrical tilt GB under different driving pressure and temperature conditions. The results reveal a strong driving pressure dependency of the mobility at relatively low temperatures and suggest that the driving pressure should be as low as possible but large enough to trigger continuous migration.

  3. Modified Splitting FDTD Methods for Two-Dimensional Maxwell’s Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a new method to reduce the error in the splitting finite-difference method of Maxwell’s equations. By this method two modified splitting FDTD methods (MS-FDTDI, MS-FDTDII for the two-dimensional Maxwell equations are proposed. It is shown that the two methods are second-order accurate in time and space and unconditionally stable by Fourier methods. By energy method, it is proved that MS-FDTDI is second-order convergent. By deriving the numerical dispersion (ND relations, we prove rigorously that MS-FDTDI has less ND errors than the ADI-FDTD method and the ND errors of ADI-FDTD are less than those of MS-FDTDII. Numerical experiments for computing ND errors and simulating a wave guide problem and a scattering problem are carried out and the efficiency of the MS-FDTDI and MS-FDTDII methods is confirmed.

  4. A Galerkin Finite Element Method for Numerical Solutions of the Modified Regularized Long Wave Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liquan Mei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Galerkin method for a modified regularized long wave equation is studied using finite elements in space, the Crank-Nicolson scheme, and the Runge-Kutta scheme in time. In addition, an extrapolation technique is used to transform a nonlinear system into a linear system in order to improve the time accuracy of this method. A Fourier stability analysis for the method is shown to be marginally stable. Three invariants of motion are investigated. Numerical experiments are presented to check the theoretical study of this method.

  5. Application of modified homotopy perturbation method and amplitude frequency formulation to strongly nonlinear oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyd ghasem enayati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two powerful analytical methods known as modified homotopy perturbation method and Amplitude Frequency Formulation called respectively MHPM and AFF, are introduced to derive approximate solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations appear in mechanical applications. These methods convert a difficult problem into a simple one, which can be easily handled. The obtained solutions are compared with numerical fourth order runge-kutta method to show the applicability and accuracy of both MHPM and AFF in solving this sample problem. The results attained in this paper confirm the idea that MHPM and AFF are powerful mathematical tools and they can be applied to linear and nonlinear problems.

  6. Modified method for the assessment of the remaining strength of corroded pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, Adilson C.; Andrade, Edmundo Q. de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    In this paper a modified version of the RSTRENG 085dL method is proposed. This method, named RPA method or Modified 085dL method, uses two different equations to predict the failure pressure of a corrosion defect: one for short defects (defects in which L {<=} {radical}20 D{sub e} t) and other for long defects (defects in which L > {radical}20 D{sub e} t). The equation for short defects is the same equation used by the original 085dL method in the assessment of short defects. However the equation for long defects is different from the equation used by the original 085dL method in the assessment of long defects and gives conservative results for long uniform depth defects. Also the failure pressures measured in the PETROBRAS laboratory tests are compared with those predicted by the RPA method, the ASME B31G method, the RSTRENG 085dL method and the DNV RP-F101 method for single defects (Part B). (author)

  7. A MODIFIED DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR PROBLEM OF FLOW IN CONVERGING- DIVERGING CHANNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMED KEZZAR

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, an efficient technique of computation considered as a modified decomposition method was proposed and then successfully applied for solving the nonlinear problem of the two dimensional flow of an incompressible viscous fluid between nonparallel plane walls. In fact this method gives the nonlinear term Nu and the solution of the studied problem as a power series. The proposed iterative procedure gives on the one hand a computationally efficient formulation with an acceleration of convergence rate and on the other hand finds the solution without any discretization, linearization or restrictive assumptions. The comparison of our results with those of numerical treatment and other earlier works shows clearly the higher accuracy and efficiency of the used Modified Decomposition Method.

  8. [Treatment of dislocation of shoulder with manipulation of proneposition modified hippocrates method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Sheng; Jing, Guang-Wu; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2012-03-01

    To explore the method of reduction of anterior dislocation of shoulder joint, evaluate the clinical effects of proneposition modified Hippocrates methods. From February 1998 to April 2011, 1 028 patients, 689 males and 339 females, with anterior dislocation of shoulder joint were treated with manipulation of proneposition modified Hippocrates methods. The average age was 38.3 years (ranged from 11 to 86 years). Thirty-two cases by Hippocrates method failure to reset success, 86 cases combined with geater tuberosity tore of humerus. One thousand and twenty-seven example applications, it took average 50 s, 1 case was cured due to a combination of humerus surgical neck fracture. Eighty-six cases combined with greater tuberosity tore of humerus, 84 cases reached anatomical reattachment or nearly anatomical reattachment, 2 cases of large bone pieces instability were reduced by percutaneous needle. According to Neer score, there are 1 012 excellent cases, 15 good cases. Proneposition modified Hippocrates method is better than Hippocrates. It has the advantage of anesthesia, lower expense, short replacement, less pain, easier to master, and worth applying widely.

  9. Numerical investigations on contactless methods for measuring critical current density in HTS: application of modified constitutive-relation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Itoh, T.; Ikuno, S.

    2011-01-01

    A fast method is proposed for calculating the shielding current density in an HTS. The J-E constitutive relation is modified so as not to change the solution. A numerical code is developed on the basis of the proposed method. The permanent magnet method is successfully simulated by means of the code. A fast method has been proposed for calculating the shielding current density in a high-temperature superconducting thin film. An initial-boundary-value problem of the shielding current density cannot be always solved by means of the Runge-Kutta method even when an adaptive step-size control algorithm is incorporated to the method. In order to suppress an overflow in the algorithm, the J-E constitutive relation is modified so that its solution may satisfy the original constitutive relation. A numerical code for analyzing the shielding current density has been developed on the basis of this method and, as an application of the code, the permanent magnet method for measuring the critical current density has been investigated numerically.

  10. A general solution strategy of modified power method for higher mode solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lee, Hyunsuk; Lee, Deokjung

    2016-01-01

    A general solution strategy of the modified power iteration method for calculating higher eigenmodes has been developed and applied in continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. The new approach adopts four features: 1) the eigen decomposition of transfer matrix, 2) weight cancellation for higher modes, 3) population control with higher mode weights, and 4) stabilization technique of statistical fluctuations using multi-cycle accumulations. The numerical tests of neutron transport eigenvalue problems successfully demonstrate that the new strategy can significantly accelerate the fission source convergence with stable convergence behavior while obtaining multiple higher eigenmodes at the same time. The advantages of the new strategy can be summarized as 1) the replacement of the cumbersome solution step of high order polynomial equations required by Booth's original method with the simple matrix eigen decomposition, 2) faster fission source convergence in inactive cycles, 3) more stable behaviors in both inactive and active cycles, and 4) smaller variances in active cycles. Advantages 3 and 4 can be attributed to the lower sensitivity of the new strategy to statistical fluctuations due to the multi-cycle accumulations. The application of the modified power method to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation and the higher eigenmodes up to 4th order are reported for the first time in this paper. -- Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Modified power method is applied to continuous energy Monte Carlo simulation. •Transfer matrix is introduced to generalize the modified power method. •All mode based population control is applied to get the higher eigenmodes. •Statistic fluctuation can be greatly reduced using accumulated tally results. •Fission source convergence is accelerated with higher mode solutions.

  11. Assessment of myocardial perfusion with MRI using a modified dual bolus method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husso, M; Sipola, P; Manninen, H; Vainio, P; Kuittinen, T; Hartikainen, J; Saarakkala, S; Töyräs, J; Kuikka, J

    2014-01-01

    Quantification of regional myocardial blood flow (rMBF) with first-pass magnetic resonance imaging (FP-MRI) requires two contrast agent injections (dual bolus technique), inducing error in the determined rMBF if the injections differ. We hypothesize that using input and residue curves of the same injection would be more reliable. We aim to introduce and evaluate a novel method to correct the high concentration arterial input function (AIF) for determination of rMBF. Sixteen patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were examined before and after chemotherapy. The input function was solved by correcting initial high concentration AIF using the ratio of low and high contrast AIF areas, normalized by corresponding heart rates (modified dual bolus method). For comparison, the scaled low contrast AIF was used as an input function (dual bolus method). Unidirectional transfer coefficient K trans  was calculated using both methods. K trans -values determined with the dual bolus (0.81 ± 0.32 ml g −1  min −1 ) and modified dual bolus (0.77 ± 0.42 ml g −1  min −1 ) methods were in agreement (p = 0.21). Mean K trans -values increased from 0.76 ± 0.43 to 0.89 ± 0.55 ml g −1  min −1  after chemotherapy (p = 0.17). The modified dual bolus technique agrees with the dual bolus technique (R2 = 0.899) when the low and high contrast injections are similar. However, when this is not the case, the modified dual bolus technique may be more reliable. (paper)

  12. Property Analysis of Exfoliated Graphite Nanoplatelets Modified Asphalt Model Using Molecular Dynamics (MD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Yao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This Molecular Dynamics (MD simulation paper presents a physical property comparison study between exfoliated graphite nanoplatelets (xGNP modified and control asphalt models, including density, glass transition temperature, viscosity and thermal conductivity. The three-component control asphalt model consists of asphaltenes, aromatics, and saturates based on previous references. The xGNP asphalt model was built by incorporating an xGNP and control asphalt model and controlling mass ratios to represent the laboratory prepared samples. The Amber Cornell Extension Force Field (ACEFF was used with assigned molecular electro-static potential (ESP charge from NWChem analysis. After optimization and ensemble relaxation, the properties of the control and xGNP modified asphalt models were computed and analyzed using the MD method. The MD simulated results have a similar trend as the test results. The property analysis showed that: (1 the density of the xGNP modified model is higher than that of the control model; (2 the glass transition temperature of the xGNP modified model is closer to the laboratory data of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP asphalt binders than that of the control model; (3 the viscosities of the xGNP modified model at different temperatures are higher than those of the control model, and it coincides with the trend in the laboratory data; (4 the thermal conductivities of the xGNP modified asphalt model are higher than those of the control asphalt model at different temperatures, and it is consistent with the trend in the laboratory data.

  13. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J [Optics Department, INAOE, Puebla (Mexico); Huang, Y C [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Choi, B, E-mail: jcram@inaoep.m [Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2010-11-21

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  14. Integration of image exposure time into a modified laser speckle imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-San-Juan, J C; Salazar-Hermenegildo, N; Ramos-Garcia, R; Munoz-Lopez, J; Huang, Y C; Choi, B

    2010-01-01

    Speckle-based methods have been developed to characterize tissue blood flow and perfusion. One such method, called modified laser speckle imaging (mLSI), enables computation of blood flow maps with relatively high spatial resolution. Although it is known that the sensitivity and noise in LSI measurements depend on image exposure time, a fundamental disadvantage of mLSI is that it does not take into account this parameter. In this work, we integrate the exposure time into the mLSI method and provide experimental support of our approach with measurements from an in vitro flow phantom.

  15. A Method for Microalgae Proteomics Analysis Based on Modified Filter-Aided Sample Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Cao, Xupeng; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Haowei; Xue, Song; Tian, Jing

    2017-11-01

    With the fast development of microalgal biofuel researches, the proteomics studies of microalgae increased quickly. A filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method is widely used proteomics sample preparation method since 2009. Here, a method of microalgae proteomics analysis based on modified filter-aided sample preparation (mFASP) was described to meet the characteristics of microalgae cells and eliminate the error caused by over-alkylation. Using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as the model, the prepared sample was tested by standard LC-MS/MS and compared with the previous reports. The results showed mFASP is suitable for most of occasions of microalgae proteomics studies.

  16. Approximate Solutions of Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations by Modified q-Homotopy Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheed N. Huseen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified q-homotopy analysis method (mq-HAM was proposed for solving nth-order nonlinear differential equations. This method improves the convergence of the series solution in the nHAM which was proposed in (see Hassan and El-Tawil 2011, 2012. The proposed method provides an approximate solution by rewriting the nth-order nonlinear differential equation in the form of n first-order differential equations. The solution of these n differential equations is obtained as a power series solution. This scheme is tested on two nonlinear exactly solvable differential equations. The results demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the algorithm developed.

  17. The development and standardization of testing methods for genetically modified organisms and their derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dabing; Guo, Jinchao

    2011-07-01

    As the worldwide commercialization of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) increases and consumers concern the safety of GMOs, many countries and regions are issuing labeling regulations on GMOs and their products. Analytical methods and their standardization for GM ingredients in foods and feed are essential for the implementation of labeling regulations. To date, the GMO testing methods are mainly based on the inserted DNA sequences and newly produced proteins in GMOs. This paper presents an overview of GMO testing methods as well as their standardization. © 2011 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Modified Spectral Fatigue Methods for S-N Curves With MIL-HDBK-5J Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Tom; Larsen, Curtis

    2016-01-01

    The rainflow method is used for counting fatigue cycles from a stress response time history, where the fatigue cycles are stress-reversals. The rainflow method allows the application of Palmgren-Miner's rule in order to assess the fatigue life of a structure subject to complex loading. The fatigue damage may also be calculated from a stress response power spectral density (PSD) using the semi-empirical Dirlik, Single Moment, Zhao-Baker and other spectral methods. These methods effectively assume that the PSD has a corresponding time history which is stationary with a normal distribution. This paper shows how the probability density function for rainflow stress cycles can be extracted from each of the spectral methods. This extraction allows for the application of the MIL-HDBK-5J fatigue coefficients in the cumulative damage summation. A numerical example is given in this paper for the stress response of a beam undergoing random base excitation, where the excitation is applied separately by a time history and by its corresponding PSD. The fatigue calculation is performed in the time domain, as well as in the frequency domain via the modified spectral methods. The result comparison shows that the modified spectral methods give comparable results to the time domain rainflow counting method.

  19. Image quality enhancement in low-light-level ghost imaging using modified compressive sensing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaohui; Huang, Xianwei; Nan, Suqin; Li, Hengxing; Bai, Yanfeng; Fu, Xiquan

    2018-04-01

    Detector noise has a significantly negative impact on ghost imaging at low light levels, especially for existing recovery algorithm. Based on the characteristics of the additive detector noise, a method named modified compressive sensing ghost imaging is proposed to reduce the background imposed by the randomly distributed detector noise at signal path. Experimental results show that, with an appropriate choice of threshold value, modified compressive sensing ghost imaging algorithm can dramatically enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio of the object reconstruction significantly compared with traditional ghost imaging and compressive sensing ghost imaging methods. The relationship between the contrast-to-noise ratio of the reconstruction image and the intensity ratio (namely, the average signal intensity to average noise intensity ratio) for the three reconstruction algorithms are also discussed. This noise suppression imaging technique will have great applications in remote-sensing and security areas.

  20. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

    2013-11-01

    The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg(-1) GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25.

  1. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized MnZn ferrites via a modified hydrothermal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingling; Liu, Xiansong; Xu, Taotao; Nie, Yu; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Cong

    2017-10-01

    Nanosized MnZn ferrite particles, with narrow size distribution, regular morphology and high saturation magnetization have been synthesized via a modified hydrothermal method. This modified hydrothermal method involves a chemical co-precipitation of hydroxides under a vacuum condition using potassium hydroxide as precipitating agent, followed by a separate hydrothermal process. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of different synthesis conditions (excess ratio of precipitating agent and hydrothermal reaction time) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were discussed. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained samples were superparamagnetic in nature at room temperature. Moreover, the MnZn ferrite nanoparticles with excellent magnetic performance could be synthesized at 180 °C for a short reaction time (3 h).

  2. Solution of Dirac equation for modified Poschl Teller plus trigonometric Scarf potential using Romanovsky polynomials method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prastyaningrum, I.; Cari, C.; Suparmi, A.

    2016-01-01

    The approximation analytical solution of Dirac equation for Modified Poschl Teller plus Trigonometric Scarf Potential are investigated numerically in terms of finite Romanovsky Polynomial. The combination of two potentials are substituted into Dirac Equation then the variables are separated into radial and angular parts. The Dirac equation is solved by using Romanovsky Polynomial Method. The equation that can reduce from the second order of differential equation into the differential equation of hypergeometry type by substituted variable method. The energy spectrum is numerically solved using Matlab 2011. Where the increase in the radial quantum number nr and variable of modified Poschl Teller Potential causes the energy to decrease. The radial and the angular part of the wave function also visualized with Matlab 2011. The results show, by the disturbance of a combination between this potential can change the wave function of the radial and angular part. (paper)

  3. Multiquark masses and wave functions through modified Green's function Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbikov, B.O.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Shevchenko, L.V.

    1987-01-01

    The Modified Green's function Monte Carlo method (MGFMC) is used to calculate the masses and ground-state wave functions of multiquark systems in the potential model. The previously developed MGFMC is generalized in order to treat systems containing quarks with inequal masses. The obtained results are presented with the Cornell potential for the masses and the wave functions of light and heavy flavoured baryons and multiquark states (N=6, 9, 12) made of light quarks

  4. A Modified Method for Reconstruction of Chronic Rupture of the Quadriceps Tendon after Total Knee Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Singh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein a modified technique for reconstruction of chronic rupture of the quadriceps tendon in a patient with bilateral total knee replacement and distal realignment of the patella. The surgery involved the application of a Dacron graft and the ‘double eights’ technique. The patient achieved satisfactory results after surgery and we believe that this technique of reconstruction offers advantages over other methods.

  5. Density Measurement of Liquid Ni-Ta Alloys by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; XIAO Feng; TAO Zainan; Kusuhiro Mukai

    2005-01-01

    The density of liquid Ni-Ta alloys was measured by using a modified sessile drop method. It is found that the density of the liquid Ni-Ta alloys decreases with the increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of tantalum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Ta binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tantalum concentration.

  6. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitanov Nikolay K.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  7. Modified Method of Simplest Equation Applied to the Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.; Dimitrova, Zlatinka I.

    2018-03-01

    We consider an extension of the methodology of the modified method of simplest equation to the case of use of two simplest equations. The extended methodology is applied for obtaining exact solutions of model nonlinear partial differential equations for deep water waves: the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the methodology works also for other equations of the nonlinear Schrödinger kind.

  8. 2D-3D Face Recognition Method Basedon a Modified CCA-PCA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Kamencay

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a proposed methodology for face recognition based on an information theory approach to coding and decoding face images. In this paper, we propose a 2D-3D face-matching method based on a principal component analysis (PCA algorithm using canonical correlation analysis (CCA to learn the mapping between a 2D face image and 3D face data. This method makes it possible to match a 2D face image with enrolled 3D face data. Our proposed fusion algorithm is based on the PCA method, which is applied to extract base features. PCA feature-level fusion requires the extraction of different features from the source data before features are merged together. Experimental results on the TEXAS face image database have shown that the classification and recognition results based on the modified CCA-PCA method are superior to those based on the CCA method. Testing the 2D-3D face match results gave a recognition rate for the CCA method of a quite poor 55% while the modified CCA method based on PCA-level fusion achieved a very good recognition score of 85%.

  9. Automatic segmentation of Leishmania parasite in microscopic images using a modified CV level set method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahi, Maria; Rabbani, Hossein; Talebi, Ardeshir; Sarrafzadeh, Omid; Ensafi, Shahab

    2015-12-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that affects liver, spleen and bone marrow. According to World Health Organization report, definitive diagnosis is possible just by direct observation of the Leishman body in the microscopic image taken from bone marrow samples. We utilize morphological and CV level set method to segment Leishman bodies in digital color microscopic images captured from bone marrow samples. Linear contrast stretching method is used for image enhancement and morphological method is applied to determine the parasite regions and wipe up unwanted objects. Modified global and local CV level set methods are proposed for segmentation and a shape based stopping factor is used to hasten the algorithm. Manual segmentation is considered as ground truth to evaluate the proposed method. This method is tested on 28 samples and achieved 10.90% mean of segmentation error for global model and 9.76% for local model.

  10. Modified Levenberg-Marquardt Method for RÖSSLER Chaotic System Fuzzy Modeling Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Qing-Xian; Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Xue, Ya-Li; Fang, Wei

    Generally, fuzzy approximation models require some human knowledge and experience. Operator's experience is involved in the mathematics of fuzzy theory as a collection of heuristic rules. The main goal of this paper is to present a new method for identifying unknown nonlinear dynamics such as Rössler system without any human knowledge. Instead of heuristic rules, the presented method uses the input-output data pairs to identify the Rössler chaotic system. The training algorithm is a modified Levenberg-Marquardt (L-M) method, which can adjust the parameters of each linear polynomial and fuzzy membership functions on line, and do not rely on experts' experience excessively. Finally, it is applied to training Rössler chaotic system fuzzy identification. Comparing this method with the standard L-M method, the convergence speed is accelerated. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  11. A Novel Method to Generate and Expand Clinical-Grade, Genetically Modified, Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Andrée Forget

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the clinical success achieved with the first generation of adoptive cell therapy (ACT utilizing in vitro expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs, the second and third generations of TIL ACT are evolving toward the use of genetically modified TIL. TIL therapy generally involves the transfer of a high number of TIL, ranging from 109 to 1011 cells. One of the technical difficulties in genetically modifying TIL, using a retroviral vector, is the ability to achieve large expansion of transduced TIL, while keeping the technique suitable to a Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP environment. Consequently, we developed and optimized a novel method for the efficient production of large numbers of GMP-grade, gene-modified TIL for the treatment of patients with ACT. The chemokine receptor CXCR2 was used as the gene of interest for methodology development. The optimized procedure is currently used in the production of gene-modified TIL for two clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic melanoma at MD Anderson Cancer Center.

  12. An efficient sensitivity analysis method for modified geometry of Macpherson suspension based on Pearson correlation coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shojaeefard, Mohammad Hasan; Khalkhali, Abolfazl; Yarmohammadisatri, Sadegh

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to propose a new method for designing Macpherson suspension, based on the Sobol indices in terms of Pearson correlation which determines the importance of each member on the behaviour of vehicle suspension. The formulation of dynamic analysis of Macpherson suspension system is developed using the suspension members as the modified links in order to achieve the desired kinematic behaviour. The mechanical system is replaced with an equivalent constrained links and then kinematic laws are utilised to obtain a new modified geometry of Macpherson suspension. The equivalent mechanism of Macpherson suspension increased the speed of analysis and reduced its complexity. The ADAMS/CAR software is utilised to simulate a full vehicle, Renault Logan car, in order to analyse the accuracy of modified geometry model. An experimental 4-poster test rig is considered for validating both ADAMS/CAR simulation and analytical geometry model. Pearson correlation coefficient is applied to analyse the sensitivity of each suspension member according to vehicle objective functions such as sprung mass acceleration, etc. Besides this matter, the estimation of Pearson correlation coefficient between variables is analysed in this method. It is understood that the Pearson correlation coefficient is an efficient method for analysing the vehicle suspension which leads to a better design of Macpherson suspension system.

  13. The new method of modifying the hydrophobic properties of expanded perlite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vogt Elżbieta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The progressive industrialization and development of the automotive industry is the cause of the increasing demand for chemical products, especially oil products. Unfortunately, during processing, transportation or storage of these products, they get very often into the environment causing pollution. The removal of the results of accidents is still a current problem. The techniques which employ various types of sorbents deserve special attention among the several methods of eliminating the effects of pollutions. Moreover, expanded hydrophobic perlite is an interesting material among sorbents which are used on a large scale. The new method of modifying the hydrophobic properties of expanded perlite, with the use of solutions of stearic acid in organic solvents, was presented. The perlite that was used in research was produced by the PerliPol registered partnership in Bełchatów. Hydrophobic properties of the obtained materials were determined on the basis of the results achieved due to the modified film flotation method, “floating on water” test and on the basis of the value of water retention for individual samples. All grain fractions of perlite obtained hydrophobic properties which were better than or comparable to the hydrophobic properties of the HydroPerl (PerlPol commercial material used to remove petroleum product pollution. The hydrophobization process significantly improved the adsorption capacity of modified perlite to petroleum product pollution.

  14. Composite Differential Evolution with Modified Oracle Penalty Method for Constrained Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minggang Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by recent advancements in differential evolution and constraints handling methods, this paper presents a novel modified oracle penalty function-based composite differential evolution (MOCoDE for constrained optimization problems (COPs. More specifically, the original oracle penalty function approach is modified so as to satisfy the optimization criterion of COPs; then the modified oracle penalty function is incorporated in composite DE. Furthermore, in order to solve more complex COPs with discrete, integer, or binary variables, a discrete variable handling technique is introduced into MOCoDE to solve complex COPs with mix variables. This method is assessed on eleven constrained optimization benchmark functions and seven well-studied engineering problems in real life. Experimental results demonstrate that MOCoDE achieves competitive performance with respect to some other state-of-the-art approaches in constrained optimization evolutionary algorithms. Moreover, the strengths of the proposed method include few parameters and its ease of implementation, rendering it applicable to real life. Therefore, MOCoDE can be an efficient alternative to solving constrained optimization problems.

  15. Determination of Periodic Solution for Tapered Beams with Modified Iteration Perturbation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Mashinchi Joubari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we implemented the Modified Iteration Perturbation Method (MIPM for approximating the periodic behavior of a tapered beam. This problem is formulated as a nonlinear ordinary differential equation with linear and nonlinear terms. The solution is quickly convergent and does not need to complicated calculations. Comparing the results of the MIPM with the exact solution shows that this method is effective and convenient. Also, it is predicated that MIPM can be potentially used in the analysis of strongly nonlinear oscillation problems accurately.

  16. Synthesis of lithium silicates by the modified method of combustion. XRD and IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.

    2002-01-01

    The combustion method is fixed in exothermic reactions for producing ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of metal nitrates and the fuels. This method was modified using non-oxidant compounds as lithium hydroxide and silicide acid and urea as fuel. The precursors were heated during 5 minutes at temperatures between 250 C and 550 C allowing so the mixture combustion. The obtained ceramics were characterized by X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The sample pollution with carbonates was evaluated and it was found that the presence of these diminish according as increase the calcination temperature. (Author)

  17. Treatment and remediation of a wastewater lagoon using microelectrolysis and modified DAT/IAT methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Hua, Tao; Zhou, Qixing

    2011-01-01

    To examine treatment and remediation of a wastewater lagoon with poor biodegradability, a typical wastewater lagoon in Tianjin, China, was treated and remedied using microelectrolysis and modified demand aeration tank (DAT)/intermittent aeration tank (IAT) methods. After pretreatment by microelectrolysis, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was up to 64.6% and the ratio of BOC/COD in the effluent increased from 0.013 to 0.609. The removal rates of COD(Cr) and NH4(+)-N were affected by sludge backflow rate, mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS), and hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the modified DAT/IAT reactor. The highest removal rates of COD(Cr) and NH4(+)-N were up to 78.9% and 62.6%, respectively, when the sludge backflow rate was 38.0 mL/min, the total HRT was 8.0 hr and MLSS was 4088.0 mg/L. In this case, some protozoa and metazoa were observed in activated sludge and biofilm carriers. Most of chrominance was removed by microelectrolysis treatment, while the modified DAT/IAT methods were more effective for COD(Cr) and NH4(+)-N removal.

  18. Two modified symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta methods for solving the elastic wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Bo; Tuo, Xianguo; Xu, Ling

    2017-08-01

    Based on a modified strategy, two modified symplectic partitioned Runge-Kutta (PRK) methods are proposed for the temporal discretization of the elastic wave equation. The two symplectic schemes are similar in form but are different in nature. After the spatial discretization of the elastic wave equation, the ordinary Hamiltonian formulation for the elastic wave equation is presented. The PRK scheme is then applied for time integration. An additional term associated with spatial discretization is inserted into the different stages of the PRK scheme. Theoretical analyses are conducted to evaluate the numerical dispersion and stability of the two novel PRK methods. A finite difference method is used to approximate the spatial derivatives since the two schemes are independent of the spatial discretization technique used. The numerical solutions computed by the two new schemes are compared with those computed by a conventional symplectic PRK. The numerical results, which verify the new method, are superior to those generated by traditional conventional methods in seismic wave modeling.

  19. A modified sparse reconstruction method for three-dimensional synthetic aperture radar image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ziqiang; Ji, Kefeng; Song, Haibo; Zou, Huanxin

    2018-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in three-dimensional Synthetic Aperture Radar (3-D SAR) imaging from observed sparse scattering data. However, the existing 3-D sparse imaging method requires large computing times and storage capacity. In this paper, we propose a modified method for the sparse 3-D SAR imaging. The method processes the collection of noisy SAR measurements, usually collected over nonlinear flight paths, and outputs 3-D SAR imagery. Firstly, the 3-D sparse reconstruction problem is transformed into a series of 2-D slices reconstruction problem by range compression. Then the slices are reconstructed by the modified SL0 (smoothed l0 norm) reconstruction algorithm. The improved algorithm uses hyperbolic tangent function instead of the Gaussian function to approximate the l0 norm and uses the Newton direction instead of the steepest descent direction, which can speed up the convergence rate of the SL0 algorithm. Finally, numerical simulation results are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. It is shown that our method, compared with existing 3-D sparse imaging method, performs better in reconstruction quality and the reconstruction time.

  20. Numerical simulation of binary collisions using a modified surface tension model with particle method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zhongguo; Xi Guang; Chen Xi

    2009-01-01

    The binary collision of liquid droplets is of both practical importance and fundamental value in computational fluid mechanics. We present a modified surface tension model within the moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method, and carry out two-dimensional simulations to investigate the mechanisms of coalescence and separation of the droplets during binary collision. The modified surface tension model improves accuracy and convergence. A mechanism map is established for various possible deformation pathways encountered during binary collision, as the impact speed is varied; a new pathway is reported when the collision speed is critical. In addition, eccentric collisions are simulated and the effect of the rotation of coalesced particle is explored. The results qualitatively agree with experiments and the numerical protocol may find applications in studying free surface flows and interface deformation

  1. Preparation and characterization of Ti-doped MgO nanopowders by a modified coprecipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Qiao Xueliang; Chen Jianguo; Tan Fatang

    2008-01-01

    Ti-doped MgO nanopowders were prepared via a chemical coprecipitation method using acetic acid as a modifier in the presence of the surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG 400). The as-obtained products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that titanium atoms have been successfully incorporated into the crystal lattice of MgO with periclase structure. The modifier, acetic acid, can significantly reduce the particle size, and improve size distribution and dispersion of nanoparticles. In addition, the effect of doped titanium on the structure and morphology of magnesium oxide was also investigated

  2. Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuidong; Choi, Joong Ki; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lei, Yanli

    2002-09-01

    Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities were assessed as indicators of water quality in Korean coastal waters in the summer of 2000. A modified polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, named the bottled PFU (BPFU) system, was used in order to carry out the bioassessment. Both parameters suggested that biomonitoring using the BPFU system was more effective than the conventional PFU method in offshore areas. The species number collected by the BPFU system generally decreased as pollution intensity increased at three main stations and was greater than that collected using the PFU method (paired t-test, t = 4.83, p PFU method (paired t-test, t = 5.37, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the functional parameters, i.e. S(eq),G and T90%, correlated with the pollution status and could thus clearly discriminate the different classes of water quality.

  3. Quantitative Evaluation of Heavy Duty Machine Tools Remanufacturing Based on Modified Catastrophe Progression Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    shunhe, Li; jianhua, Rao; lin, Gui; weimin, Zhang; degang, Liu

    2017-11-01

    The result of remanufacturing evaluation is the basis for judging whether the heavy duty machine tool can remanufacture in the EOL stage of the machine tool lifecycle management.The objectivity and accuracy of evaluation is the key to the evaluation method.In this paper, the catastrophe progression method is introduced into the quantitative evaluation of heavy duty machine tools’ remanufacturing,and the results are modified by the comprehensive adjustment method,which makes the evaluation results accord with the standard of human conventional thinking.Using the catastrophe progression method to establish the heavy duty machine tools’ quantitative evaluation model,to evaluate the retired TK6916 type CNC floor milling-boring machine’s remanufacturing.The evaluation process is simple,high quantification,the result is objective.

  4. Two Modified Three-Term Type Conjugate Gradient Methods and Their Global Convergence for Unconstrained Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongbo Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two modified three-term type conjugate gradient algorithms which satisfy both the descent condition and the Dai-Liao type conjugacy condition are presented for unconstrained optimization. The first algorithm is a modification of the Hager and Zhang type algorithm in such a way that the search direction is descent and satisfies Dai-Liao’s type conjugacy condition. The second simple three-term type conjugate gradient method can generate sufficient decent directions at every iteration; moreover, this property is independent of the steplength line search. Also, the algorithms could be considered as a modification of the MBFGS method, but with different zk. Under some mild conditions, the given methods are global convergence, which is independent of the Wolfe line search for general functions. The numerical experiments show that the proposed methods are very robust and efficient.

  5. Optimization of tensile method and specimen geometry in modified ring tensile test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Koji; Fuketa, Toyoshi; Sasajima, Hideo; Uetsuka, Hiroshi

    2001-03-01

    Several techniques in ring tensile test are proposed in order to evaluate mechanical properties of cladding under hoop loading condition caused by pellet/cladding mechanical interaction (PCMI). In the modified techniques, variety of tensile methods and specimen geometry are being proposed in order to limit deformation within the gauge section. However, the tensile method and the specimen geometry were not determined in the modified techniques. In the present study, we have investigated the tensile method and the specimen geometry through finite element method (FEM) analysis of specimen deformation and tensile test on specimens with various gauge section geometries. In using two-piece tensile tooling, the mechanical properties under hoop loading condition can be correctly evaluated when deformation part (gauge section) is put on the top of a half-mandrel, and friction between the specimen and the half-mandrel is reduced with Teflon tape. In addition, we have shown the optimum specimen geometry for PWR 17 by 17 type cladding. (author)

  6. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejman, Alicja, E-mail: anejman@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Gajdzicki, Bogumił [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Textile Chemistry and Products Modification, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric.

  7. A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom strongly nonlinear stochastic vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Gen; Li, ZePeng

    2016-01-01

    A modified stochastic averaging method on single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) oscillators under white noise excitations with strongly nonlinearity was proposed. Considering the existing approach dealing with strongly nonlinear SDOFs derived by Zhu and Huang [14, 15] is quite time consuming in calculating the drift coefficient and diffusion coefficients and the expressions of them are considerable long, the so-called He's energy balance method was applied to overcome the minor defect of the Zhu and Huang's method. The modified method can offer more concise approximate expressions of the drift and diffusion coefficients without weakening the accuracy of predicting the responses of the systems too much by giving an averaged frequency beforehand. Three examples, a cubic and quadratic nonlinearity coexisting oscillator, a quadratic nonlinear oscillator under external white noise excitations and an externally excited Duffing–Rayleigh oscillator, were given to illustrate the approach we proposed. The three examples were excited by the Gaussian white noise and the Gaussian colored noise separately. The stationary responses of probability density of amplitudes and energy, together with joint probability density of displacement and velocity are studied to verify the presented approach. The reliability of the systems were also investigated to offer further support. Digital simulations were carried out and the output of that are coincide with the theoretical approximations well.

  8. Review of the modified finite particle method and application to incompressible solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Asprone

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of the Modified Finite Particle Method (MFPM on incompressibile elasticity problems. MFPM belongs to the class of meshless methods, nowadays widely investigated due to their characteristics of being totally free of any kind of grid or mesh. This characteristic makes meshless methods potentially useful for the study of large deformations problems and fluid dynamics. In particular, the aim of the work is to compare the results obtained with a simple displacement-based formulation, in the limit of incompressibility, and some formulations proposed in the literature for full incompressibility, where the typical divergence-free constraint is replaced by a different equation, the so-called Pressure Poisson Equation. The obtained results show that the MFPM achieves the expected second-order accuracy on formulation where the equations imposed as constraint satisfies also the original incompressibility equation. Other formulations, differently, do not satisfy the incompressibility constraint, and thus, they are not successfully applicable with the Modified Finite Particle Method.

  9. [Application of a modified culturing method for lymphocytes in cytogenetic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chaoxian; Hui, Changye; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Yan; Li, Limei; Chen, Yuting; Zhang, Liuzhuo; Yang, Xinyue; Huang, Xianqing

    2016-08-01

    To establish a modified method for microculturing whole human blood for cytogenetic analysis. A novel tube rack was designed to overcome the drawbacks of directly culturing the cells within centrifuge tubes. The fractions of human plasma, human serum and two commercial fetal bovine sera were analyzed with 15% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The influence of adding 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% autologous plasma to the culture on lymphocyte transformation rate and mitotic index (MI) was examined. The SDS-PAGE analysis showed a significant difference between commercial fetal bovine sera, and that the components of human plasma were similar to those of fetal bovine serum. The value of MI in lymphocyte was evidently increased along with addition of autologous plasma. However, this has exerted no significant effect on the transformation rate. With the addition of 10% autologous plasma, the MI value has become much higher than the conventional method. A modified method was established by application of a novel tube inclined rack and optimization of whole blood inoculation. This method is easier and cheaper, and is suitable for application in clinical practice.

  10. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, Alicja; Cieślak, Małgorzata; Gajdzicki, Bogumił; Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric

  11. Validation of three new methods for determination of metal emissions using a modified Environmental Protection Agency Method 301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catherine A. Yanca; Douglas C. Barth; Krag A. Petterson; Michael P. Nakanishi; John A. Cooper; Bruce E. Johnsen; Richard H. Lambert; Daniel G. Bivins [Cooper Environmental Services, LLC, Portland, OR (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Three new methods applicable to the determination of hazardous metal concentrations in stationary source emissions were developed and evaluated for use in U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compliance applications. Two of the three independent methods, a continuous emissions monitor-based method (Xact) and an X-ray-based filter method (XFM), are used to measure metal emissions. The third method involves a quantitative aerosol generator (QAG), which produces a reference aerosol used to evaluate the measurement methods. A modification of EPA Method 301 was used to validate the three methods for As, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Hg, representing three hazardous waste combustor Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) metal categories (low volatile, semivolatile, and volatile). The measurement methods were evaluated at a hazardous waste combustor (HWC) by comparing measured with reference aerosol concentrations. The QAG, Xact, and XFM met the modified Method 301 validation criteria. All three of the methods demonstrated precisions and accuracies on the order of 5%. The measurement methods should be applicable to emissions from a wide range of sources, and the reference aerosol generator should be applicable to additional analytes. EPA recently approved an alternative monitoring petition for an HWC at Eli Lilly's Tippecanoe site in Lafayette, IN, in which the Xact is used for demonstrating compliance with the HWC MACT metal emissions (low volatile, semivolatile, and volatile). The QAG reference aerosol generator was approved as a method for providing a quantitative reference aerosol, which is required for certification and continuing quality assurance of the Xact. 30 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration of stochastic differential equations. This approach is illustrated with the constructions of new methods of weak order two, in particular, semi-implicit integrators well suited for stiff (meansquare stable) stochastic problems, and implicit integrators that exactly conserve all quadratic first integrals of a stochastic dynamical system. Numerical examples confirm the theoretical results and show the versatility of our methodology.

  13. Synthesis of highly sinterable YAG nanopowders by a modified co-precipitation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhi-Hui; Yang, Yun; Hu, Zhang-Gui; Li, Jiang-Tao; He, Shu-Li

    2007-01-01

    A hydrate precursor of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) was synthesized by a modified co-precipitation method, in which n-butanol was employed as a low-cost recyclable dehydration solvent. A mixed solution of ethanol and ammonia were used as precipitant. Pure YAG phase appeared after the as-prepared precursors being calcined at 850 o C for 2 h. The nanocrystalline YAG particles calcined at 1100 o C were well dispersed with average diameter of about 40 nm, which can be densified to transparency under vacuum sintering at 1700 o C for 5 h with TEOS as sintering additive

  14. Modified embedded-atom method interatomic potential for the Fe-Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eunkoo; Lee, Byeong-Joo

    2010-01-01

    An interatomic potential for the Fe-Al binary system has been developed based on the modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) potential formalism. The potential can describe various fundamental physical properties of Fe-Al binary alloys-structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties, defect formation behavior and interactions between defects-in reasonable agreement with experimental data or higher-level calculations. The applicability of the potential to atomistic investigations of various defect formation behaviors and their effects on the mechanical properties of high aluminum steels as well as Fe-Al binary alloys is demonstrated.

  15. Infrared video based gas leak detection method using modified FAST features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Hong, Hanyu; Huang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    In order to detect the invisible leaking gas that is usually dangerous and easily leads to fire or explosion in time, many new technologies have arisen in the recent years, among which the infrared video based gas leak detection is widely recognized as a viable tool. However, all the moving regions of a video frame can be detected as leaking gas regions by the existing infrared video based gas leak detection methods, without discriminating the property of each detected region, e.g., a walking person in a video frame may be also detected as gas by the current gas leak detection methods.To solve this problem, we propose a novel infrared video based gas leak detection method in this paper, which is able to effectively suppress strong motion disturbances.Firstly, the Gaussian mixture model(GMM) is used to establish the background model.Then due to the observation that the shapes of gas regions are different from most rigid moving objects, we modify the Features From Accelerated Segment Test (FAST) algorithm and use the modified FAST (mFAST) features to describe each connected component. In view of the fact that the statistical property of the mFAST features extracted from gas regions is different from that of other motion regions, we propose the Pixel-Per-Points (PPP) condition to further select candidate connected components.Experimental results show that the algorithm is able to effectively suppress most strong motion disturbances and achieve real-time leaking gas detection.

  16. Numerical simulation of reaction-diffusion systems by modified cubic B-spline differential quadrature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, R.C.; Rohila, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we have applied modified cubic B-spline based differential quadrature method to get numerical solutions of one dimensional reaction-diffusion systems such as linear reaction-diffusion system, Brusselator system, Isothermal system and Gray-Scott system. The models represented by these systems have important applications in different areas of science and engineering. The most striking and interesting part of the work is the solution patterns obtained for Gray Scott model, reminiscent of which are often seen in nature. We have used cubic B-spline functions for space discretization to get a system of ordinary differential equations. This system of ODE’s is solved by highly stable SSP-RK43 method to get solution at the knots. The computed results are very accurate and shown to be better than those available in the literature. Method is easy and simple to apply and gives solutions with less computational efforts.

  17. Solution of the multigroup neutron diffusion Eigenvalue problem in slab geometry by modified power method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanette, Rodrigo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Matemática Aplicada; Petersen, Claudio Z.; Tavares, Matheus G., E-mail: rodrigozanette@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudiopetersen@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: matheus.gulartetavares@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPEL), RS (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Modelagem Matemática

    2017-07-01

    We describe in this work the application of the modified power method for solve the multigroup neutron diffusion eigenvalue problem in slab geometry considering two-dimensions for nuclear reactor global calculations. It is well known that criticality calculations can often be best approached by solving eigenvalue problems. The criticality in nuclear reactors physics plays a relevant role since establishes the ratio between the numbers of neutrons generated in successive fission reactions. In order to solve the eigenvalue problem, a modified power method is used to obtain the dominant eigenvalue (effective multiplication factor (K{sub eff})) and its corresponding eigenfunction (scalar neutron flux), which is non-negative in every domain, that is, physically relevant. The innovation of this work is solving the neutron diffusion equation in analytical form for each new iteration of the power method. For solve this problem we propose to apply the Finite Fourier Sine Transform on one of the spatial variables obtaining a transformed problem which is resolved by well-established methods for ordinary differential equations. The inverse Fourier transform is used to reconstruct the solution for the original problem. It is known that the power method is an iterative source method in which is updated by the neutron flux expression of previous iteration. Thus, for each new iteration, the neutron flux expression becomes larger and more complex due to analytical solution what makes propose that it be reconstructed through an polynomial interpolation. The methodology is implemented to solve a homogeneous problem and the results are compared with works presents in the literature. (author)

  18. Semantic text relatedness on Al-Qur’an translation using modified path based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwanto, Yudi; Arif Bijaksana, Moch; Adiwijaya

    2018-03-01

    Abdul Baquee Muhammad [1] have built Corpus that contained AlQur’an domain, WordNet and dictionary. He has did initialisation in the development of knowledges about AlQur’an and the knowledges about relatedness between texts in AlQur’an. The Path based measurement method that proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] has never been used in the AlQur’an domain. By using AlQur’an translation dataset in this research, the path based measurement method proposed by Liu, Zhou and Zheng [3] will be used to test this method in AlQur’an domain to obtain similarity values and to measure its correlation value. In this study the degree value is proposed to be used in modifying the path based method that proposed in previous research. Degree Value is the number of links that owned by a lcs (lowest common subsumer) node on a taxonomy. The links owned by a node on the taxonomy represent the semantic relationship that a node has in the taxonomy. By using degree value to modify the path-based method that proposed in previous research is expected that the correlation value obtained will increase. After running some experiment by using proposed method, the correlation measurement value can obtain fairly good correlation ties with 200 Word Pairs derive from Noun POS SimLex-999. The correlation value that be obtained is 93.3% which means their bonds are strong and they have very strong correlation. Whereas for the POS other than Noun POS vocabulary that owned by WordNet is incomplete therefore many pairs of words that the value of its similarity is zero so the correlation value is low.

  19. A Hybrid 3D Colon Segmentation Method Using Modified Geometric Deformable Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Falahieh Hamidpour

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays virtual colonoscopy has become a reliable and efficient method of detecting primary stages of colon cancer such as polyp detection. One of the most important and crucial stages of virtual colonoscopy is colon segmentation because an incorrect segmentation may lead to a misdiagnosis.  Materials and Methods: In this work, a hybrid method based on Geometric Deformable Models (GDM in combination with an advanced region growing and thresholding methods is proposed. GDM are found to be an attractive tool for structural based image segmentation particularly for extracting the objects with complicated topology. There are two main parameters influencing the overall performance of GDM algorithm; the distance between the initial contour and the actual object’s contours and secondly the stopping term which controls the deformation. To overcome these limitations, a two stage hybrid based segmentation method is suggested to extract the rough but precise initial contours at the first stage of the segmentation. The extracted boundaries are smoothed and improved using a modified GDM algorithm by improving the stopping terms of the algorithm based on the gradient value of image voxels. Results: The proposed algorithm was implemented on forty data sets each containing 400-480 slices. The results show an improvement in the accuracy and smoothness of the extracted boundaries. The improvement obtained for the accuracy of segmentation is about 6% in comparison to the one achieved by the methods based on thresholding and region growing only. Discussion and Conclusion: The extracted contours using modified GDM are smoother and finer. The improvement achieved in this work on the performance of stopping function of GDM model together with applying two stage segmentation of boundaries have resulted in a great improvement on the computational efficiency of GDM algorithm while making smoother and finer colon borders.

  20. Direct detection of metal-insulator phase transitions using the modified Backus-Gilbert method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulybyshev Maksim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of the (semimetal-insulator phase transition can be extremely difficult if the local order parameter which characterizes the ordered phase is unknown. In some cases, it is even impossible to define a local order parameter: the most prominent example of such system is the spin liquid state. This state was proposed to exist in the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice in a region between the semimetal phase and the antiferromagnetic insulator phase. The existence of this phase has been the subject of a long debate. In order to detect these exotic phases we must use alternative methods to those used for more familiar examples of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We have modified the Backus-Gilbert method of analytic continuation which was previously used in the calculation of the pion quasiparticle mass in lattice QCD. The modification of the method consists of the introduction of the Tikhonov regularization scheme which was used to treat the ill-conditioned kernel. This modified Backus-Gilbert method is applied to the Euclidean propagators in momentum space calculated using the hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. In this way, it is possible to reconstruct the full dispersion relation and to estimate the mass gap, which is a direct signal of the transition to the insulating state. We demonstrate the utility of this method in our calculations for the Hubbard model on the hexagonal lattice. We also apply the method to the metal-insulator phase transition in the Hubbard-Coulomb model on the square lattice.

  1. A Modified Generalized Laguerre-Gauss Collocation Method for Fractional Neutral Functional-Differential Equations on the Half-Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Bhrawy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss collocation (MGLC method is applied to obtain an approximate solution of fractional neutral functional-differential equations with proportional delays on the half-line. The proposed technique is based on modified generalized Laguerre polynomials and Gauss quadrature integration of such polynomials. The main advantage of the present method is to reduce the solution of fractional neutral functional-differential equations into a system of algebraic equations. Reasonable numerical results are achieved by choosing few modified generalized Laguerre-Gauss collocation points. Numerical results demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency, and versatility of the proposed method on the half-line.

  2. Phonon dispersion on Ag (100) surface: A modified analytic embedded atom method study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Jun; Chen Chang-Le

    2016-01-01

    Within the harmonic approximation, the analytic expression of the dynamical matrix is derived based on the modified analytic embedded atom method (MAEAM) and the dynamics theory of surface lattice. The surface phonon dispersions along three major symmetry directions, and XM-bar are calculated for the clean Ag (100) surface by using our derived formulas. We then discuss the polarization and localization of surface modes at points X-bar and M-bar by plotting the squared polarization vectors as a function of the layer index. The phonon frequencies of the surface modes calculated by MAEAM are compared with the available experimental and other theoretical data. It is found that the present results are generally in agreement with the referenced experimental or theoretical results, with a maximum deviation of 10.4%. The agreement shows that the modified analytic embedded atom method is a reasonable many-body potential model to quickly describe the surface lattice vibration. It also lays a significant foundation for studying the surface lattice vibration in other metals. (paper)

  3. Value of modified Foley catheter method in the removal of blunt esophageal foreign bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung In; Cha, Yoo Mi; Han, Heon; Yang, Dal Mo; Kim, Hyung Sik; Lee, Young Seok

    1993-01-01

    Removal of blunt esophageal foreign bodies using Foley catheter under a fluoroscopic guidance is a well recognized procedure. However, since this procedure is rather cumbersome and uncomfortable to the patient, the authors tried to find an easier and more convenient modified technique. For 10 patients with esophageal foreign body, we tried the method to the patient who is lying in the right lateral decubitus position and 3 assistants hold head, arms, trunk and legs of the patient without tilting the table and without using immobilizer. Foley catheter is inserted through nostril, nasal cavity and pharynx to esophagus. in order to identify the Foley catheter in esophagus, 0.025 inch short wire was inserted in the Foley catheter. The balloon of a Foley catheter was inflated by 10 cc of air, and the syringe was kept attached to the Foley catheter during the procedure. After passage of the foreign body through the upper esophageal sphinter, the balloon was deflated immediately and the foreign body was removed through the mouth. We successfully removed in removing all the blunt esophageal foreign body with ease. This modified method is also fast, safe and efficient

  4. Study on the Melting Point Depression of Tin Nanoparticles Manufactured by Modified Evaporation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Beak, Il Kwon; Kim, Kyu Han; Jang, Seok Pil [Korea Aerospace University, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    In the present study, the melting temperature depression of Sn nanoparticles manufactured using the modified evaporation method was investigated. For this purpose, a modified evaporation method with mass productivity was developed. Using the manufacturing process, Sn nanoparticles of 10 nm size was manufactured in benzyl alcohol solution to prevent oxidation. To examine the morphology and size distribution of the nanonoparticles, a transmission electron microscope was used. The melting temperature of the Sn nanoparticles was measured using a Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) which can calculate the endothermic energy during the phase changing process and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) used for observing the manufactured Sn nanoparticle compound. The melting temperature of the Sn nanoparticles was observed to be 129 ℃, which is 44 ℃ lower than that of the bulk material. Finally, the melting temperature was compared with the Gibbs Thomson and Lai's equations, which can predict the melting temperature according to the particle size. Based on the experimental results, the melting temperature of the Sn nanoparticles was found to match well with those recommended by the Lai's equation.

  5. The methods of receiving coal water suspension and its use as the modifying additive in concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyantuyev, S. L.; Urkhanova, L. A.; Lkhasaranov, S. A.; Stebenkova, Y. Y.; Khmelev, A. B.; Kondratenko, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Results of research of the coal water suspension (CWS) from a cake received in the electrodigit ways in the fluid environment and gas are given in article and also the possibilities of its use as the modifying additive in concrete are considered. Use of a coal cake is perspective as it is a withdrawal of the coal and concentrating enterprises and has extremely low cost. Methods of receiving CWS and possibility of formation of carbon nanomaterials (CNM) are given in their structure. Research and the analysis of a microstructure of a surface of exemplars before electrodigit processing, their element structure, dependence of durability of a cement stone on a look and quantity of an additive of CWS is conducted. For modification of cement the carbon nanomaterials received from the following exemplars of water coal suspensions were used: foams from a cake from a scrubber of the plasma modular reactor, coal water suspension from a cake from electrodigit installation. The product which can find further application for a power engineering as fuel for combustion, and also in structural materials science, in particular, as the modifying additive in concrete allows to receive these methods.

  6. Strong convergence with a modified iterative projection method for hierarchical fixed point problems and variational inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Karahan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Let C be a nonempty closed convex subset of a real Hilbert space H. Let {T_{n}}:C›H be a sequence of nearly nonexpansive mappings such that F:=?_{i=1}^{?}F(T_{i}?Ø. Let V:C›H be a ?-Lipschitzian mapping and F:C›H be a L-Lipschitzian and ?-strongly monotone operator. This paper deals with a modified iterative projection method for approximating a solution of the hierarchical fixed point problem. It is shown that under certain approximate assumptions on the operators and parameters, the modified iterative sequence {x_{n}} converges strongly to x^{*}?F which is also the unique solution of the following variational inequality: ?0, ?x?F. As a special case, this projection method can be used to find the minimum norm solution of above variational inequality; namely, the unique solution x^{*} to the quadratic minimization problem: x^{*}=argmin_{x?F}?x?². The results here improve and extend some recent corresponding results of other authors.

  7. A Modified Droop Control Method for Parallel-Connected Current Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a novel control method was proposed for current source inverters under the grid-connected working mode. The control scheme is based on a modified droop control method, with an additional current reference signal that will be generated instead of the voltage reference. Hence......, there is only a current control loop with droop control in the whole control scheme without voltage control loop. So it is very suitable for grid-connected current source inverter which will simplify the design of the control scheme and combine the advantage of droop control. The parallel configuration...... is widely used to acquire high power demand, but the circulating current problem is a key issue that should be considered. In this paper, a simulation based on parallel current source inverters using the proposed control scheme is provided. Simulation results showed that a good circulating current...

  8. Tourism forecasting using modified empirical mode decomposition and group method of data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. A.; Samsudin, R.; Shabri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hybrid model using modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) model is proposed for tourism forecasting. This approach reconstructs intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) produced by EMD using trial and error method. The new component and the remaining IMFs is then predicted respectively using GMDH model. Finally, the forecasted results for each component are aggregated to construct an ensemble forecast. The data used in this experiment are monthly time series data of tourist arrivals from China, Thailand and India to Malaysia from year 2000 to 2016. The performance of the model is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) where conventional GMDH model and EMD-GMDH model are used as benchmark models. Empirical results proved that the proposed model performed better forecasts than the benchmarked models.

  9. A Modified SPH Method for Dynamic Failure Simulation of Heterogeneous Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH method is applied to simulate the failure process of heterogeneous materials. An elastoplastic damage model based on an extension form of the unified twin shear strength (UTSS criterion is adopted. Polycrystalline modeling is introduced to generate the artificial microstructure of specimen for the dynamic simulation of Brazilian splitting test and uniaxial compression test. The strain rate effect on the predicted dynamic tensile and compressive strength is discussed. The final failure patterns and the dynamic strength increments demonstrate good agreements with experimental results. It is illustrated that the polycrystalline modeling approach combined with the SPH method is promising to simulate more complex failure process of heterogeneous materials.

  10. Three-Dimensional Navier-Stokes Calculations Using the Modified Space-Time CESE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-lyan

    2007-01-01

    The space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is modified to address the robustness issues of high-aspect-ratio, viscous, near-wall meshes. In this new approach, the dependent variable gradients are evaluated using element edges and the corresponding neighboring solution elements while keeping the original flux integration procedure intact. As such, the excellent flux conservation property is retained and the new edge-based gradients evaluation significantly improves the robustness for high-aspect ratio meshes frequently encountered in three-dimensional, Navier-Stokes calculations. The order of accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated for oblique acoustic wave propagation, shock-wave interaction, and hypersonic flows over a blunt body. The confirmed second-order convergence along with the enhanced robustness in handling hypersonic blunt body flow calculations makes the proposed approach a very competitive CFD framework for 3D Navier-Stokes simulations.

  11. Postoperative intraabdominal fluid collections : a modified percutaneous drainage method using a surgical drain track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deok Hee; Kim, Gab Choul; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Song, Ho Young; Sung, Kyu Bo

    2000-01-01

    In the management of postoperative fluid collection, the conventional percutaneous drainage method can be employed. Because of abdominal incisions and various types of surgical drains and/or T-tubes, the application of this method is not always easy, however. We inserted a drainage catheter through a pre-existing percutaneous track formed by a surgical drain located adjacent to the site of abnormal fluid collection. There was no need to remove the drain nor make an additional puncture in the abdominal wall. A dilator was inserted along the drain, and a guide wire was used to negotiate its intraperitoneal track and reach the accumulated fluid. The procedure was simple and safe. We briefly describe our experience of this modified percutaneous drainage technique, as used in three cases involving postoperative fluid collection. (author)

  12. [Results of treatment of milk teeth pulp by modified formocresol method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wochna-Sobańska, M

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was evaluation of the results of treatment of molar pulp diseases by the formocresol method from the standpoint of the development of inflammatory complications in periapical tissues, disturbances of physiological resorption of roots, disturbances of mineralization of crowns of homologous permanent teeth. For the treatment milk molars were qualified with the diagnosis of grade II pulpopathy in children aged from 3 to 9 years. The treatment was done using formocresol by a modified method of pulp amputation according to Buckley after previous devitalization with parapaste. The status of 143 teeth was examined again 1 to 4 years after completion of treatment. The proportion of positive results after one year was 94%, after two years it was 90%, after three years 87% and after four years 80%. The cause of premature loss of most teeth was root resorption acceleration by 18-24 months. No harmful action of formocresol on the buds of permanent teeth was noted.

  13. Evaluation of creep residual life for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel based on Omega method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonaka, Isamu; Torihata, Shoji; Kihara, Shigemitu; Umaki, Hideo; Maruyama, Kouichi.

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the accuracy of creep residual life prediction by the Omega method which is based on creep deformation, a series of creep tests on modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were conducted at 500degC, 550degC and 600degC, and the Omega method was applied to the residual life estimation. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) There was a obvious linear portion, which corresponded to the tertiary creep, in the relationship between logarithm of strain and strain. So it was easy to define the Omega value as a gradient of linear portion. (2) It was proved that the Omega value depended on stress and temperature in such a way as it was the larger, the lower the stress and the lower the temperature. (3) By using the Omega value and strain rate which were determined experimentally, the residual life could be predicted within a factor of 1.5 at the stage of 50% and 80% of actual life. It was confirmed that the accuracy of this method was higher than that of the former method based on rupture time. (4) To apply this method to the residual life evaluation of operating plant materials, the Omega value has to be determined in the lower stress condition. So it is important to develop the extrapolation method of the Omega value based on the laboratory acceleration test to the longer service life. (author)

  14. Modified multiple time scale method for solving strongly nonlinear damped forced vibration systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, M. A.; Alam, M. Z.; Sharif, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, modified multiple time scale (MTS) method is employed to solve strongly nonlinear forced vibration systems. The first-order approximation is only considered in order to avoid complexicity. The formulations and the determination of the solution procedure are very easy and straightforward. The classical multiple time scale (MS) and multiple scales Lindstedt-Poincare method (MSLP) do not give desire result for the strongly damped forced vibration systems with strong damping effects. The main aim of this paper is to remove these limitations. Two examples are considered to illustrate the effectiveness and convenience of the present procedure. The approximate external frequencies and the corresponding approximate solutions are determined by the present method. The results give good coincidence with corresponding numerical solution (considered to be exact) and also provide better result than other existing results. For weak nonlinearities with weak damping effect, the absolute relative error measures (first-order approximate external frequency) in this paper is only 0.07% when amplitude A = 1.5 , while the relative error gives MSLP method is surprisingly 28.81%. Furthermore, for strong nonlinearities with strong damping effect, the absolute relative error found in this article is only 0.02%, whereas the relative error obtained by MSLP method is 24.18%. Therefore, the present method is not only valid for weakly nonlinear damped forced systems, but also gives better result for strongly nonlinear systems with both small and strong damping effect.

  15. Development of an Electronic Pediatric All-Cause Harm Measurement Tool Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, David Christopher; Bisarya, Hema; Classen, David C; Kirkendall, Eric S; Lachman, Peter I; Matlow, Anne G; Tham, Eric; Hyman, Dan; Lehman, Samuel M; Searles, Elizabeth; Muething, Stephen E; Sharek, Paul J

    2016-12-01

    To have impact on reducing harm in pediatric inpatients, an efficient and reliable process for harm detection is needed. This work describes the first step toward the development of a pediatric all-cause harm measurement tool by recognized experts in the field. An international group of leaders in pediatric patient safety and informatics were charged with developing a comprehensive pediatric inpatient all-cause harm measurement tool using a modified Delphi technique. The process was conducted in 5 distinct steps: (1) literature review of triggers (elements from a medical record that assist in identifying patient harm) for inclusion; (2) translation of triggers to likely associated harm, improving the ability for expert prioritization; (3) 2 applications of a modified Delphi selection approach with consensus criteria using severity and frequency of harm as well as detectability of the associated trigger as criteria to rate each trigger and associated harm; (4) developing specific trigger logic and relevant values when applicable; and (5) final vetting of the entire trigger list for pilot testing. Literature and expert panel review identified 108 triggers and associated harms suitable for consideration (steps 1 and 2). This list was pared to 64 triggers and their associated harms after the first of the 2 independent expert reviews. The second independent expert review led to further refinement of the trigger package, resulting in 46 items for inclusion (step 3). Adding in specific trigger logic expanded the list. Final review and voting resulted in a list of 51 triggers (steps 4 and 5). Application of a modified Delphi method on an expert-constructed list of 108 triggers, focusing on severity and frequency of harms as well as detectability of triggers in an electronic medical record, resulted in a final list of 51 pediatric triggers. Pilot testing this list of pediatric triggers to identify all-cause harm for pediatric inpatients is the next step to establish the

  16. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jun; Fang Wei; Wang Daojun; Xu Wenbo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm.

  17. Solving the economic dispatch problem with a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun Sun; Wei Fang; Daojun Wang; Wenbo Xu [School of Information Technology, Jiangnan Univ., Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2009-12-15

    In this paper, a modified quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO) method is proposed to solve the economic dispatch (ED) problem in power systems, whose objective is to simultaneously minimize the generation cost rate while satisfying various equality and inequality constraints. The proposed method, denoted as QPSO-DM, combines the QPSO algorithm with differential mutation operation to enhance the global search ability of the algorithm. Many nonlinear characteristics of the generator, such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, and nonsmooth cost functions are considered when the proposed method is used in practical generator operation. The feasibility of the QPSO-DM method is demonstrated by three different power systems. It is compared with the QPSO, the differential evolution (DE), the particle swarm optimization (PSO), and the genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of the solution quality, robustness and convergence property. The simulation results show that the proposed QPSO-DM method is able to obtain higher quality solutions stably and efficiently in the ED problem than any other tested optimization algorithm. (author)

  18. A modified FOX-1 method for Micro-determination of hydrogen peroxide in honey samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Wang, Meng; Cheng, Ni; Xue, Xiaofeng; Wu, Liming; Cao, Wei

    2017-12-15

    Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a major antibacterial activity-associated biomarker in honey. Measurement of endogenous H 2 O 2 in honey is of great value in prediction of the H 2 O 2 -depended antibacterial activity and characterization or selection of honey samples for their use as an antibacterial agent or natural food preservative. Considering current methods for H 2 O 2 determination are either time-consuming or complicated with their high-cost, a study was conducted to modify and validate the spectrophotometry-based ferrous oxidation-xylenol orange (FOX-1) method for micro-determination of H 2 O 2 in honey samples. The result suggested that the proposed FOX-1 method is fast, sensitive, precise and repeatable. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of a total of 35 honey samples from 5 floral origins and 33 geographical origins. The proposed method is low-cost and easy-to-run, and it can be considered by researchers and industry for routine analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing an Adapted Modified Delphi Method: Synthesizing Multiple Stakeholder Ratings of Health Care Service Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escaron, Anne L; Chang Weir, Rosy; Stanton, Petra; Vangala, Sitaram; Grogan, Tristan R; Clarke, Robin M

    2016-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act incentivizes health systems for better meeting patient needs, but often guidance about patient preferences for particular health services is limited. All too often vulnerable patient populations are excluded from these decision-making settings. A community-based participatory approach harnesses the in-depth knowledge of those experiencing barriers to health care. We made three modifications to the RAND-UCLA appropriateness method, a modified Delphi approach, involving patients, adding an advisory council group to characterize existing knowledge in this little studied area, and using effectiveness rather than "appropriateness" as the basis for rating. As a proof of concept, we tested this method by examining the broadly delivered but understudied nonmedical services that community health centers provide. This method created discrete, new knowledge about these services by defining 6 categories and 112 unique services and by prioritizing among these services based on effectiveness using a 9-point scale. Consistent with the appropriateness method, we found statistical convergence of ratings among the panelists. Challenges include time commitment and adherence to a clear definition of effectiveness of services. This diverse stakeholder engagement method efficiently addresses gaps in knowledge about the effectiveness of health care services to inform population health management. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  20. Multi-objective congestion management by modified augmented ε-constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaili, Masoud; Shayanfar, Heidar Ali; Amjady, Nima

    2011-01-01

    Congestion management is a vital part of power system operations in recent deregulated electricity markets. However, after relieving congestion, power systems may be operated with a reduced voltage or transient stability margin because of hitting security limits or increasing the contribution of risky participants. Therefore, power system stability margins should be considered within the congestion management framework. The multi-objective congestion management provides not only more security but also more flexibility than single-objective methods. In this paper, a multi-objective congestion management framework is presented while simultaneously optimizing the competing objective functions of congestion management cost, voltage security, and dynamic security. The proposed multi-objective framework, called modified augmented ε-constraint method, is based on the augmented ε-constraint technique hybridized by the weighting method. The proposed framework generates candidate solutions for the multi-objective problem including only efficient Pareto surface enhancing the competitiveness and economic effectiveness of the power market. Besides, the relative importance of the objective functions is explicitly modeled in the proposed framework. Results of testing the proposed multi-objective congestion management method on the New-England test system are presented and compared with those of the previous single objective and multi-objective techniques in detail. These comparisons confirm the efficiency of the developed method. (author)

  1. A modified conjugate gradient method based on the Tikhonov system for computerized tomography (CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang

    2011-04-01

    During the past few decades, computerized tomography (CT) was widely used for non-destructive testing (NDT) and non-destructive examination (NDE) in the industrial area because of its characteristics of non-invasiveness and visibility. Recently, CT technology has been applied to multi-phase flow measurement. Using the principle of radiation attenuation measurements along different directions through the investigated object with a special reconstruction algorithm, cross-sectional information of the scanned object can be worked out. It is a typical inverse problem and has always been a challenge for its nonlinearity and ill-conditions. The Tikhonov regulation method is widely used for similar ill-posed problems. However, the conventional Tikhonov method does not provide reconstructions with qualities good enough, the relative errors between the reconstructed images and the real distribution should be further reduced. In this paper, a modified conjugate gradient (CG) method is applied to a Tikhonov system (MCGT method) for reconstructing CT images. The computational load is dominated by the number of independent measurements m, and a preconditioner is imported to lower the condition number of the Tikhonov system. Both simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method can reduce the computational time and improve the quality of image reconstruction. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Modified Right Heart Contrast Echocardiography Versus Traditional Method in Diagnosis of Right-to-Left Shunt: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi; Zeng, Jie; Yin, Lixue; Zhang, Mei; Hou, Dailun

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability, effectiveness, and safety of modified right heart contrast transthoracic echocardiography (cTTE) in comparison with the traditional method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a modified right heart cTTE using saline mixed with a small sample of patient's own blood. Samples were agitated with varying intensity. This study protocol involved microscopic analysis and patient evaluation. 1. Microscopic analysis: After two contr...

  3. Multidimensional scaling analysis of financial time series based on modified cross-sample entropy methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiayi; Shang, Pengjian; Xiong, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Stocks, as the concrete manifestation of financial time series with plenty of potential information, are often used in the study of financial time series. In this paper, we utilize the stock data to recognize their patterns through out the dissimilarity matrix based on modified cross-sample entropy, then three-dimensional perceptual maps of the results are provided through multidimensional scaling method. Two modified multidimensional scaling methods are proposed in this paper, that is, multidimensional scaling based on Kronecker-delta cross-sample entropy (MDS-KCSE) and multidimensional scaling based on permutation cross-sample entropy (MDS-PCSE). These two methods use Kronecker-delta based cross-sample entropy and permutation based cross-sample entropy to replace the distance or dissimilarity measurement in classical multidimensional scaling (MDS). Multidimensional scaling based on Chebyshev distance (MDSC) is employed to provide a reference for comparisons. Our analysis reveals a clear clustering both in synthetic data and 18 indices from diverse stock markets. It implies that time series generated by the same model are easier to have similar irregularity than others, and the difference in the stock index, which is caused by the country or region and the different financial policies, can reflect the irregularity in the data. In the synthetic data experiments, not only the time series generated by different models can be distinguished, the one generated under different parameters of the same model can also be detected. In the financial data experiment, the stock indices are clearly divided into five groups. Through analysis, we find that they correspond to five regions, respectively, that is, Europe, North America, South America, Asian-Pacific (with the exception of mainland China), mainland China and Russia. The results also demonstrate that MDS-KCSE and MDS-PCSE provide more effective divisions in experiments than MDSC.

  4. Modified method for bronchial suture by Ramirez Gama compared to separate stitches suture: experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Mayer de Moura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To experimentally compare two classic techniques described for manual suture of the bronchial stump. METHODS: We used organs of pigs, with isolated trachea and lungs, preserved by refrigeration. We dissected 30 bronchi, which were divided into three groups of ten bronchi each, of 3mm, 5mm, and 7mm, respectively. In each, we performed the suture with simple, separated, extramucosal stitches in five other bronchi, and the technique proposed by Ramirez and modified by Santos et al in the other five. Once the sutures were finished, the anastomoses were tested using compressed air ventilation, applying an endotracheal pressure of 20mmHg. RESULTS: the Ramirez Gama suture was more effective in the bronchi of 3, 5 and 7 mm, and there was no air leak even after subjecting them to a tracheal pressure of 20mmHg. The simple interrupted sutures were less effective, with extravasation in six of the 15 tested bronchi, especially in the angles of the sutures. These figures were not significant (p = 0.08. CONCLUSION: manual sutures of the bronchial stumps were more effective when the modified Ramirez Gama suture was used in the caliber bronchi arms when tested with increased endotracheal pressure.

  5. Modified prepubic TVT-obturator tape procedure versus the conventional method: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Ming-Ping; Wang, Chiu-Lin; Lin, Kun-Ling; Liu, Cheng-Min; Wu, Shu-Hui; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the modified prepubic tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (PTVT-O) system procedure with the original TVT-O methods. One hundred and ninety women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) were included in this study (93 cases in the TVT-O group and 97 in the PTVT-O group). Clinical assessments before and one year after surgery included urinalyses, 1-h pad tests, urodynamic studies, and a personal interview with the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire. There were no differences between the two groups in mean age, parity, menopausal status, mean operative time and subjective cure rates (P>0.05), but the efficacy of surgery (cure and improvement) in the PTVT-O group was significantly higher than that in the TVT-O group (P=0.038). Complication rates and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were found to be similar (P>0.05). OABSS decreased significantly after surgery in both groups (P0.05). Our modified procedure is a safe and effective treatment for female USI. It has an advantage over the original TVT-O with better surgical efficacy and comparable postoperative pain, although the follow-up times in this study are different. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. A modified Delphi method toward multidisciplinary consensus on functional convalescence recommendations after abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Daphne C R; van der Meij, Eva; Bouwsma, Esther V A; Vonk Noordegraaf, Antonie; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J H J; van Baal, W Marchien; Huirne, Judith A F; Anema, Johannes R

    2016-12-01

    Evidence-based information on the resumption of daily activities following uncomplicated abdominal surgery is scarce and not yet standardized in medical guidelines. As a consequence, convalescence recommendations are generally not provided after surgery, leading to patients' insecurity, needlessly delayed recovery and prolonged sick leave. The aim of this study was to generate consensus-based multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations, including advice on return to work, applicable for both patients and physicians. Using a modified Delphi method among a multidisciplinary panel of 13 experts consisting of surgeons, occupational physicians and general practitioners, detailed recommendations were developed for graded resumption of 34 activities after uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic and open appendectomy, laparoscopic and open colectomy and laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons assessed the recommendations on feasibility in daily practice. The response of this group of care providers was discussed with the experts in the final Delphi questionnaire round. Out of initially 56 activities, the expert panel selected 34 relevant activities for which convalescence recommendations were developed. After four Delphi rounds, consensus was reached for all of the 34 activities for all the surgical procedures. A sample of occupational physicians, general practitioners and surgeons regarded the recommendations as feasible in daily practice. Multidisciplinary convalescence recommendations regarding uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy, appendectomy (laparoscopic, open), colectomy (laparoscopic, open) and inguinal hernia repair (laparoscopic, open) were developed by a modified Delphi procedure. Further research is required to evaluate whether these recommendations are realistic and effective in daily practice.

  7. A Method for Precision Closed-Loop Irrigation Using a Modified PID Control Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodchild, Martin; Kühn, Karl; Jenkins, Malcolm; Burek, Kazimierz; Dutton, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    The benefits of closed-loop irrigation control have been demonstrated in grower trials which show the potential for improved crop yields and resource usage. Managing water use by controlling irrigation in response to soil moisture changes to meet crop water demands is a popular approach but requires knowledge of closed-loop control practice. In theory, to obtain precise closed-loop control of a system it is necessary to characterise every component in the control loop to derive the appropriate controller parameters, i.e. proportional, integral & derivative (PID) parameters in a classic PID controller. In practice this is often difficult to achieve. Empirical methods are employed to estimate the PID parameters by observing how the system performs under open-loop conditions. In this paper we present a modified PID controller, with a constrained integral function, that delivers excellent regulation of soil moisture by supplying the appropriate amount of water to meet the needs of the plant during the diurnal cycle. Furthermore, the modified PID controller responds quickly to changes in environmental conditions, including rainfall events which can result in: controller windup, under-watering and plant stress conditions. The experimental work successfully demonstrates the functionality of a constrained integral PID controller that delivers robust and precise irrigation control. Coir substrate strawberry growing trial data is also presented illustrating soil moisture control and the ability to match water deliver to solar radiation.

  8. Modified emission-transmission method for determining trace elements in solid samples using the XRF techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, V.; Alvarez, M.; Hermosilla, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a study of an analysis of trace elements in medium thick solid samples, by the modified transmission emission method, using the energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF). The effects of absorption and reinforcement are the main disadvantages of the EDXRF technique for the quantitative analysis of bigger elements and trace elements in solid samples. The implementation of this method and its application to a variety of samples was carried out using an infinitely thick multi-element white sample that calculates the correction factors by absorbing all the analytes in the sample. The discontinuities in the masic absorption coefficients versus energies association for each element, with medium thick and homogenous samples, are analyzed and corrected. A thorough analysis of the different theoretical and test variables are proven by using real samples, including certified material with known concentration. The simplicity of the calculation method and the results obtained show the method's major precision, with possibilities for the non-destructive routine analysis of different solid samples, using the EDXRF technique (author)

  9. Modified T-history method for measuring thermophysical properties of phase change materials at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaraa, Ehsan; Saman, Wasim; Bruno, Frank; Liu, Ming

    2017-06-01

    Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCMs) can be used to store large amounts of energy in a narrow temperature difference during phase transition. The thermophysical properties of PCMs such as latent heat, specific heat and melting and solidification temperature need to be defined at high precision for the design and estimating the cost of latent heat storage systems. The existing laboratory standard methods, such as differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), use a small sample size (1-10 mg) to measure thermophysical properties, which makes these methods suitable for homogeneous elements. In addition, this small amount of sample has different thermophysical properties when compared with the bulk sample and may have limitations for evaluating the properties of mixtures. To avoid the drawbacks in existing methods, the temperature - history (T-history) method can be used with bulk quantities of PCM salt mixtures to characterize PCMs. This paper presents a modified T-history setup, which was designed and built at the University of South Australia to measure the melting point, heat of fusion, specific heat, degree of supercooling and phase separation of salt mixtures for a temperature range between 200 °C and 400 °C. Sodium Nitrate (NaNO3) was used to verify the accuracy of the new setup.

  10. Synthesis of the lithium metatitanate, Li2TiO3, by the modified combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, D.; Bulbulian, S.; Pfeiffer, H.

    2005-01-01

    A modified combustion method to obtain Li 2 TiO 3 it was used, a compound to be used in fusion reactors like tritium generator material. To obtain Li 2 TiO 3 were proven different molar ratios of lithium hydroxide (LiOH), titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and urea (CO(NH 2 ) 2 ), as well as different heating temperatures (550, 650 and 750 C). The characterization of the products it was carried out using X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy and Thermal gravimetric analysis. The sample prepared with a molar ratio Li: Ti: urea = 2.75: 1: 3 was the one that presented as only product the Li 2 TiO 3 . The particle size and the morphology found in the Li 2 TiO 3 , showed similar particle size and morphology to the TiO 2 used as precursor. (Author)

  11. A Modified Computational Scheme for the Stochastic Perturbation Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wu

    Full Text Available Abstract A modified computational scheme of the stochastic perturbation finite element method (SPFEM is developed for structures with low-level uncertainties. The proposed scheme can provide second-order estimates of the mean and variance without differentiating the system matrices with respect to the random variables. When the proposed scheme is used, it involves finite analyses of deterministic systems. In the case of one random variable with a symmetric probability density function, the proposed computational scheme can even provide a result with fifth-order accuracy. Compared with the traditional computational scheme of SPFEM, the proposed scheme is more convenient for numerical implementation. Four numerical examples demonstrate that the proposed scheme can be used in linear or nonlinear structures with correlated or uncorrelated random variables.

  12. Preparation and characterization of ZnO films by modified SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Liu Jie; Hou Mingdong; Sun Youmei; Duan Jinlai; Yao Huijun; Mo Dan; Chen Yanfeng

    2009-01-01

    A modified solution method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction(SILAR), was applied to prepare transparent zinc oxide(ZnO) film on glass substrate at (125±5) degree C in mixed ion precursor solution. The surface morphology and crystallization of films were analyzed by field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD), respectively. The optical properties of the films were studied by ultraviolet visible(UV-Vis)spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained samples are polycrystalline films of hexagonal wurtzite structure, with the preference of [002] orientation. The as-deposited films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology, with the film thickness of 550 nm, and have high transmittance in the visible band(>80%). (authors)

  13. Indium-defect interactions in FCC and BCC metals studied using the modified embedded atom method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacate, M. O., E-mail: zacatem1@nku.edu [Northern Kentucky University, Department of Physics, Geology, and Engineering Technology (United States)

    2016-12-15

    With the aim of developing a transferable potential set capable of predicting defect formation, defect association, and diffusion properties in a wide range of intermetallic compounds, the present study was undertaken to test parameterization strategies for determining empirical pair-wise interaction parameters in the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) developed by Baskes and coworkers. This report focuses on indium-solute and indium-vacancy interactions in FCC and BCC metals, for which a large set of experimental data obtained from perturbed angular correlation measurements is available for comparison. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with experimental values after model parameters had been adjusted to reproduce as best as possible the following two sets of quantities: (1) lattice parameters, formation enthalpies, and bulk moduli of hypothetical equiatomic compounds with the NaCl crystal structure determined using density functional theory and (2) dilute solution enthalpies in metals as predicted by Miedema’s semi-empirical model.

  14. Density of Liquid Ni-Mo Alloys Measured by a Modified Sessile Drop Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Zushu LI; ZaiNan TAO; Feng XIAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of liquid binary Ni-Mo alloys with molybdenum concentration from 0 to 20% (mass fraction) was measured by a modified sessile drop method. It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [13.18 - 2.65 × 10-3T + (-47.94 + 3.10 × 10-2T) × 10-2XMo] × 10-6m3·mol-1. The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.

  15. Face/core mixed mode debond fracture toughness characterization using the modified TSD test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Costache, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    The modified tilted sandwich debond (TSD) test method is used to examine face/core debond fracture toughness of sandwich specimens with glass/polyester face sheets and PVC H45 and H100 foam cores over a large range of mode-mixities. The modification was achieved by reinforcing the loaded face sheet....... The fracture process was inspected visually during and after testing. For specimens with H45 core the crack propagated in the core. For specimens with an H100 core, the crack propagated between the resin-rich layer and the face sheet. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub...... with a steel bar, and fracture testing of the test specimens was conducted over a range of tilt angles. The fracture toughness exhibited mode-mixity phase angle dependence, especially for mode II dominated loadings; although, the fracture toughness remained quite constant for mode I dominated crack loadings...

  16. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, F K; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, S R; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8-18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Clinical setting and computerized design. A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research.

  17. Modified APHA closed-tube reflux colorimetric method for TOC determination in water and wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Simon Olonkwoh; Bakar, Nor Kartini Abu

    2018-05-30

    The analysis of total organic carbon (TOC) by the American Public Health Association (APHA) closed-tube reflux colorimetric method requires potassium dichromate (K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ), silver sulfate (AgSO 4 ), and mercury (HgSO 4 ) sulfate in addition to large volumes of both reagents and samples. The method relies on the release of oxygen from dichromate on heating which is consumed by carbon associated with organic compounds. The method risks environmental pollution by discharging large amounts of chromium (VI) and silver and mercury sulfates. The present method used potassium monochromate (K 2 CrO 4 ) to generate the K 2 Cr 2 O 7 on demand in the first phase. In addition, miniaturizing the procedure to semi microanalysis decreased the consumption of reagents and samples. In the second phase, mercury sulfate was eliminated as part of the digestion mixture through the introduction of sodium bismuthate (NaBiO 3 ) for the removal of chlorides from the sample. The modified method, the potassium monochromate closed-tube colorimetry with sodium bismuthate chloride removal (KMCC-Bi), generates the potassium dichromate on demand and eliminates mercury sulfate. The semi microanalysis procedure leads to a 60% reduction in sample volume and ≈ 33.33 and 60% reduction in monochromate and silver sulfate consumption respectively. The LOD and LOQ were 10.17 and 33.90 mg L -1 for APHA, and 4.95 and 16.95 mg L -1 for KMCC-Bi. Recovery was between 83 to 98% APHA and 92 to 104% KMCC-Bi, while the RSD (%) ranged between 0.8 to 5.0% APHA and 0.00 to 0.62% KMCC-Bi. The method was applied for the UV-Vis spectrometry determination of COD in water and wastewater. Statistics was done by MINITAB 17 or MS Excel 2016. ᅟ Graphical abstract.

  18. DNA extraction methods for detecting genetically modified foods: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy; Jany, Klaus Dieter

    2011-06-15

    The work presented in this manuscript was achieved to compare six different methods for extracting DNA from raw maize and its derived products. The methods that gave higher yield and quality of DNA were chosen to detect the genetic modification in the samples collected from the Egyptian market. The different methods used were evaluated for extracting DNA from maize kernels (without treatment), maize flour (mechanical treatment), canned maize (sweet corn), frozen maize (sweet corn), maize starch, extruded maize, popcorn, corn flacks, maize snacks, and bread made from corn flour (mechanical and thermal treatments). The quality and quantity of the DNA extracted from the standards, containing known percentages of GMO material and from the different food products were evaluated. For qualitative detection of the GMO varieties in foods, the GMOScreen 35S/NOS test kit was used, to screen the genetic modification in the samples. The positive samples for the 35S promoter and/or the NOS terminator were identified by the standard methods adopted by EU. All of the used methods extracted yielded good DNA quality. However, we noted that the purest DNA extract were obtained using the DNA extraction kit (Roche) and this generally was the best method for extracting DNA from most of the maize-derived foods. We have noted that the yield of DNA extracted from maize-derived foods was generally lower in the processed products. The results indicated that 17 samples were positive for the presence of 35S promoter, while 34% from the samples were positive for the genetically modified maize line Bt-176. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phat M; Chen, Charles Y

    2013-02-01

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA isolation from plant seeds is a prerequisite for many seed specific gene expression studies and DNA is necessary in marker-assisted selection and other genetic studies. We describe a modified method to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissue and have been successful with several oil seeds including peanut, soybean, sunflower, canola, and oil radish. An additional LiCl precipitation step was added to isolate both RNA and DNA from the same seed tissues. High quality nucleic acids were observed based on A(260)/A(280) and A(260)/A(230) ratios above 2.0 and distinct bands on gel-electrophoresis. RNA was shown to be suitable for reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction based on actin or 60S ribosomal primer amplification and DNA was shown to have a single band on gel-electrophoresis analysis. This result shows that RNA and DNA isolated using this method can be appropriate for molecular studies in peanut and other oil containing seeds.

  20. Reduction of scour around bridge piers using a modified method for vortex reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Entesar A.S. EL-Ghorab

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents a modified method to reduce the scour depth in front of the bridge piers. The idea of this method is based on reducing the stagnation of the flow and vortex formation in front of the pier. Therefore, the pressure difference around the pier is used for driving the flow through an arrangement of openings in front and connected to the openings along the pier’s side. A test program was planned using an experimental flume at the Hydraulics Research Institute (HRI and three hundred thirty six runs were conducted. Three different pier shapes, circular, square, and rectangular, provided with different openings arrangement and vertical spacing are tested. This method showed that the scour depth is reduced by 45% and also the volume of the scoured material is decreased up to 64%. These results were obtained using opening diameter of 20% of the pier width (w and vertical spacing equals the pier width (w. Also, a dimensionless regression equation was developed based on the obtained results. These findings when implemented in the field can easily safeguard the bridge piers and dramatically reduce the maintenance efforts and costs as well as improve the hydraulic performance of the water structure.

  1. Charge-transfer modified embedded atom method dynamic charge potential for Li-Co-O system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fantai; Longo, Roberto C; Liang, Chaoping; Nie, Yifan; Zheng, Yongping; Zhang, Chenxi; Cho, Kyeongjae

    2017-11-29

    To overcome the limitation of conventional fixed charge potential methods for the study of Li-ion battery cathode materials, a dynamic charge potential method, charge-transfer modified embedded atom method (CT-MEAM), has been developed and applied to the Li-Co-O ternary system. The accuracy of the potential has been tested and validated by reproducing a variety of structural and electrochemical properties of LiCoO 2 . A detailed analysis on the local charge distribution confirmed the capability of this potential for dynamic charge modeling. The transferability of the potential is also demonstrated by its reliability in describing Li-rich Li 2 CoO 2 and Li-deficient LiCo 2 O 4 compounds, including their phase stability, equilibrium volume, charge states and cathode voltages. These results demonstrate that the CT-MEAM dynamic charge potential could help to overcome the challenge of modeling complex ternary transition metal oxides. This work can promote molecular dynamics studies of Li ion cathode materials and other important transition metal oxides systems that involve complex electrochemical and catalytic reactions.

  2. A Modified Water-Table Fluctuation Method to Characterize Regional Groundwater Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihong Yang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A modified Water-Table Fluctuation (WTF method is developed to quantitatively characterize the regional groundwater discharge patterns in stressed aquifers caused by intensive agricultural pumping. Two new parameters are defined to express the secondary information in the observed data. One is infiltration efficiency and the other is discharge modulus (recurring head loss due to aquifer discharge. An optimization procedure is involved to estimate these parameters, based on continuous groundwater head measurements and precipitation records. Using the defined parameters and precipitation time series, water level changes are calculated for individual wells with fidelity. The estimated parameters are then used to further address the characterization of infiltration and to better quantify the discharge at the regional scale. The advantage of this method is that it considers recharge and discharge simultaneously, whereas the general WTF methods mostly focus on recharge. In the case study, the infiltration efficiency reveals that the infiltration is regionally controlled by the intrinsic characteristics of the aquifer, and locally distorted by engineered hydraulic structures that alter surface water-groundwater interactions. The seasonality of groundwater discharge is characterized by the monthly discharge modulus. These results from individual wells are clustered into groups that are consistent with the local land use pattern and cropping structures.

  3. Plasma shape reconstruction of merging spherical tokamak based on modified CCS method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushiki, Tomohiko; Inomoto, Michiaki; Itagaki, Masafumi; McNamara, Steven

    2017-10-01

    The merging start-up method is the one of the CS-free start-up schemes that has the advantage of high plasma temperature and density because it involves reconnection heating and compression processes. In order to achieve optimal merging operations, the initial two STs should have identical plasma currents and shapes, and then move symmetrically toward the center of the device with appropriate velocity. Furthermore, from the viewpoint of the compression effect, controlling the plasma major radius is also important. To realize the active feedback control of the plasma currents, the positions, and the shapes of the two initial STs and to optimize the plasma parameters described above, accurate estimation of the plasma boundary shape is highly important. In the present work, the Modified-CCS method is demonstrated to reconstruct the plasma boundary shapes as well as the eddy current profiles in the UTST (The University of Tokyo) and ST40 device (Tokamak Energy Ltd). The present research results demonstrate the effectiveness of the M-CCS method in the reconstruction analyses of ST merging.

  4. Coordinate alignment of combined measurement systems using a modified common points method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, P.; Xiao, W.

    2018-03-01

    The co-ordinate metrology has been extensively researched for its outstanding advantages in measurement range and accuracy. The alignment of different measurement systems is usually achieved by integrating local coordinates via common points before measurement. The alignment errors would accumulate and significantly reduce the global accuracy, thus need to be minimized. In this thesis, a modified common points method (MCPM) is proposed to combine different traceable system errors of the cooperating machines, and optimize the global accuracy by introducing mutual geometric constraints. The geometric constraints, obtained by measuring the common points in individual local coordinate systems, provide the possibility to reduce the local measuring uncertainty whereby enhance the global measuring certainty. A simulation system is developed in Matlab to analyze the feature of MCPM using the Monto-Carlo method. An exemplary setup is constructed to verify the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed method associated with laser tracker and indoor iGPS systems. Experimental results show that MCPM could significantly improve the alignment accuracy.

  5. R Peak Detection Method Using Wavelet Transform and Modified Shannon Energy Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Seon; Lee, Sang-Woong; Park, Unsang

    2017-01-01

    Rapid automatic detection of the fiducial points-namely, the P wave, QRS complex, and T wave-is necessary for early detection of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this paper, we present an R peak detection method using the wavelet transform (WT) and a modified Shannon energy envelope (SEE) for rapid ECG analysis. The proposed WTSEE algorithm performs a wavelet transform to reduce the size and noise of ECG signals and creates SEE after first-order differentiation and amplitude normalization. Subsequently, the peak energy envelope (PEE) is extracted from the SEE. Then, R peaks are estimated from the PEE, and the estimated peaks are adjusted from the input ECG. Finally, the algorithm generates the final R features by validating R-R intervals and updating the extracted R peaks. The proposed R peak detection method was validated using 48 first-channel ECG records of the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database with a sensitivity of 99.93%, positive predictability of 99.91%, detection error rate of 0.16%, and accuracy of 99.84%. Considering the high detection accuracy and fast processing speed due to the wavelet transform applied before calculating SEE, the proposed method is highly effective for real-time applications in early detection of CVDs.

  6. Improved modified energy ratio method using a multi-window approach for accurate arrival picking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho; Byun, Joongmoo; Kim, Dowan; Choi, Jihun; Kim, Myungsun

    2017-04-01

    To identify accurately the location of microseismic events generated during hydraulic fracture stimulation, it is necessary to detect the first break of the P- and S-wave arrival times recorded at multiple receivers. These microseismic data often contain high-amplitude noise, which makes it difficult to identify the P- and S-wave arrival times. The short-term-average to long-term-average (STA/LTA) and modified energy ratio (MER) methods are based on the differences in the energy densities of the noise and signal, and are widely used to identify the P-wave arrival times. The MER method yields more consistent results than the STA/LTA method for data with a low signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. However, although the MER method shows good results regardless of the delay of the signal wavelet for signals with a high S/N ratio, it may yield poor results if the signal is contaminated by high-amplitude noise and does not have the minimum delay. Here we describe an improved MER (IMER) method, whereby we apply a multiple-windowing approach to overcome the limitations of the MER method. The IMER method contains calculations of an additional MER value using a third window (in addition to the original MER window), as well as the application of a moving average filter to each MER data point to eliminate high-frequency fluctuations in the original MER distributions. The resulting distribution makes it easier to apply thresholding. The proposed IMER method was applied to synthetic and real datasets with various S/N ratios and mixed-delay wavelets. The results show that the IMER method yields a high accuracy rate of around 80% within five sample errors for the synthetic datasets. Likewise, in the case of real datasets, 94.56% of the P-wave picking results obtained by the IMER method had a deviation of less than 0.5 ms (corresponding to 2 samples) from the manual picks.

  7. Isolation and Identification of Volatile Components in Tempe by Simultaneous Distillation-Extraction Method by Modified Extraction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahrial Syahrial

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An isolation and identification of volatile components in temps for 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation by simultaneous distillation-extraction method was carried out. Simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus was modified by Muchalal from the basic Likens-Nickerson's design. Steam distillation and benzena as an extraction solvent was used in this system. The isolation was continuously carried out for 3 hours which maximum water temperature In the Liebig condenser was 8 °C. The extract was concentrated by freeze concentration method, and the volatile components were analyzed and identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS. The Muchalal's simultaneous distillation extraction apparatus have some disadvantage in cold finger condenser, and it's extractor did not have condenser. At least 47, 13 and 5 volatile components were found in 2, 5 and 8 days fermentation, respectively. The volatile components in the 2 days fermentation were nonalal, ɑ-pinene, 2,4-decadienal, 5-phenyldecane, 5-phenylundecane, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane, 5-phenyltridecane, and caryophyllene; in the 5 days fermentation were nonalal, caryophyllene, 4-phenylundecane, 5-phenyldodecane, 4-phenyldodecane, 3-phenyldodecane, 2-phenyldodecane; and in the 8 days fermentation were ethenyl butanoic, 2-methy1-3-(methylethenylciclohexyl etanoic and 3,7-dimethyl-5-octenyl etanoic.

  8. Calculation of the Local Free Energy Landscape in the Restricted Region by the Modified Tomographic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changjun

    2016-03-31

    The free energy landscape is the most important information in the study of the reaction mechanisms of the molecules. However, it is difficult to calculate. In a large collective variable space, a molecule must take a long time to obtain the sufficient sampling during the simulation. To save the calculation quantity, decreasing the sampling region and constructing the local free energy landscape is required in practice. However, the restricted region in the collective variable space may have an irregular shape. Simply restricting one or more collective variables of the molecule cannot satisfy the requirement. In this paper, we propose a modified tomographic method to perform the simulation. First, it divides the restricted region by some hyperplanes and connects the centers of hyperplanes together by a curve. Second, it forces the molecule to sample on the curve and the hyperplanes in the simulation and calculates the free energy data on them. Finally, all the free energy data are combined together to form the local free energy landscape. Without consideration of the area outside the restricted region, this free energy calculation can be more efficient. By this method, one can further optimize the path quickly in the collective variable space.

  9. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDatukishvili

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs. New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  10. Electrical properties of bulk InP synthesized by modified horizontal Bridgman method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, K.; Matsui, M.; Fukuhara, H.; Nishinaga, T.; Nakamura, T.; Yasuda, Y.

    1986-01-01

    High purity polycrystalline InP has been required for preparation of starting materials in LEC pulling. Usually, these materials are synthesized by the horizontal Bridgman (HB) or gradient freeze (GF) method. The major problem for InP synthesis has been attributed to silicon contamination during the growth, as shown by several workers. In a previous paper, the authors proposed a model in which the silicon contamination would occur due to the transport of SiO and In/sub 2/O gas species from the In-P melt to the phosphorus region by the reaction of the melt with the quartz boat in the HB growth system and suggested that the Si concentration in the In-P melt would have an intimate correlation with the temperature in the phosphorus region. However, the effect of the temperature in the phosphorus region on the electrical properties has not been studied in details as of yet. In this note, a modified horizontal Bridgman (MHB) method was developed to reduce the residual donor impurities, and the reduction mechanism is discussed

  11. Enhancement of Capacitive Performance in Titania Nanotubes Modified by an Electrochemical Reduction Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Asma Samsudin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Highly ordered titania nanotubes (TNTs were synthesised by an electrochemical anodization method for supercapacitor applications. However, the capacitive performance of the TNTs was relatively low and comparable to the conventional capacitor. Therefore, in order to improve the capacitive performance of the TNTs, a fast and facile electrochemical reduction method was applied to modify the TNTs (R-TNTs by introducing oxygen vacancies into the lattice. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS data confirmed the presence of oxygen vacancies in the R-TNTs lattice upon the reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. Electrochemical reduction parameters such as applied voltage and reduction time were varied to optimize the best conditions for the modification process. The electrochemical performance of the samples was analyzed in a three-electrode configuration cell. The cyclic voltammogram recorded at 200 mV s−1 showed a perfect square-shaped voltammogram indicating the excellent electrochemical performance of R-TNTs prepared at 5 V for 30 s. The total area of the R-TNTs voltammogram was 3 times larger than the unmodified TNTs. A specific capacitance of 11.12 mF cm−2 at a current density of 20 μA cm−2 was obtained from constant current charge-discharge measurements, which was approximately 57 times higher than that of unmodified TNTs. R-TNTs also displayed outstanding cycle stability with 99% capacity retention after 1000 cycles.

  12. Modified Laser Flash Method for Thermal Properties Measurements and the Influence of Heat Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bochuan; Zhu, Shen; Ban, Heng; Li, Chao; Scripa, Rosalia N.; Su, Ching-Hua; Lehoczky, Sandor L.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the effect of natural convection in applying the modified laser flash method to measure thermal properties of semiconductor melts. Common laser flash method uses a laser pulse to heat one side of a thin circular sample and measures the temperature response of the other side. Thermal diffusivity can be calculations based on a heat conduction analysis. For semiconductor melt, the sample is contained in a specially designed quartz cell with optical windows on both sides. When laser heats the vertical melt surface, the resulting natural convection can introduce errors in calculation based on heat conduction model alone. The effect of natural convection was studied by CFD simulations with experimental verification by temperature measurement. The CFD results indicated that natural convection would decrease the time needed for the rear side to reach its peak temperature, and also decrease the peak temperature slightly in our experimental configuration. Using the experimental data, the calculation using only heat conduction model resulted in a thermal diffusivity value is about 7.7% lower than that from the model with natural convection. Specific heat capacity was about the same, and the difference is within 1.6%, regardless of heat transfer models.

  13. A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.

  14. New multiplex PCR methods for rapid screening of genetically modified organisms in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datukishvili, Nelly; Kutateladze, Tamara; Gabriadze, Inga; Bitskinashvili, Kakha; Vishnepolsky, Boris

    2015-01-01

    We present novel multiplex PCR methods for rapid and reliable screening of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). New designed PCR primers targeting four frequently used GMO specific sequences permitted identification of new DNA markers, in particular 141 bp fragment of cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter, 224 bp fragment of Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, 256 bp fragment of 5-enolppyruvylshikimate-phosphate synthase (epsps) gene and 258 bp fragment of Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin (cry1Ab) gene for GMO screening. The certified reference materials containing Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) and maize MON 810 were applied for the development and optimization of uniplex and multiplex PCR systems. Evaluation of amplification products by agarose gel electrophoresis using negative and positive controls confirmed high specificity and sensitivity at 0.1% GMO for both RRS and MON 810. The fourplex PCR was developed and optimized that allows simultaneous detection of three common transgenic elements, such as: CaMV 35S promoter, NOS terminator, epsps gene together with soybean-specific lectin gene. The triplex PCR developed enables simultaneous identification of transgenic elements, such as: 35S promoter and cry1Ab gene together with maize zein gene. The analysis of different processed foods demonstrated that multiplex PCR methods developed in this study are useful for accurate and fast screening of GM food products.

  15. Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method for Phenotypic Detection of Carbapenemase Production among Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Virginia M; Simner, Patricia J; Lonsway, David R; Roe-Carpenter, Darcie E; Johnson, J Kristie; Brasso, William B; Bobenchik, April M; Lockett, Zabrina C; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Thomson, Richard B; Jenkins, Stephen G; Limbago, Brandi M; Das, Sanchita

    2017-08-01

    The ability of clinical microbiology laboratories to reliably detect carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CP-CRE) is an important element of the effort to prevent and contain the spread of these pathogens and an integral part of antimicrobial stewardship. All existing methods have limitations. A new, straightforward, inexpensive, and specific phenotypic method for the detection of carbapenemase production, the carbapenem inactivation method (CIM), was recently described. Here we describe a two-stage evaluation of a modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM), in which tryptic soy broth was substituted for water during the inactivation step and the length of this incubation was extended. A validation study was performed in a single clinical laboratory to determine the accuracy of the mCIM, followed by a nine-laboratory study to verify the reproducibility of these results and define the zone size cutoff that best discriminated between CP-CRE and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae that do not produce carbapenemases. Bacterial isolates previously characterized through whole-genome sequencing or targeted PCR as to the presence or absence of carbapenemase genes were tested for carbapenemase production using the mCIM; isolates with Ambler class A, B, and D carbapenemases, non-CP-CRE isolates, and carbapenem-susceptible isolates were included. The sensitivity of the mCIM observed in the validation study was 99% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 93% to 100%), and the specificity was 100% (95% CI, 82% to 100%). In the second stage of the study, the range of sensitivities observed across nine laboratories was 93% to 100%, with a mean of 97%; the range of specificities was 97% to 100%, with a mean of 99%. The mCIM was easy to perform and interpret for Enterobacteriaceae , with results in less than 24 h and excellent reproducibility across laboratories. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. A comparison of two prospective risk analysis methods: Traditional FMEA and a modified healthcare FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jeong-Eun; Manger, Ryan P; Yock, Adam D; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2016-12-01

    To examine the abilities of a traditional failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and modified healthcare FMEA (m-HFMEA) scoring methods by comparing the degree of congruence in identifying high risk failures. The authors applied two prospective methods of the quality management to surface image guided, linac-based radiosurgery (SIG-RS). For the traditional FMEA, decisions on how to improve an operation were based on the risk priority number (RPN). The RPN is a product of three indices: occurrence, severity, and detectability. The m-HFMEA approach utilized two indices, severity and frequency. A risk inventory matrix was divided into four categories: very low, low, high, and very high. For high risk events, an additional evaluation was performed. Based upon the criticality of the process, it was decided if additional safety measures were needed and what they comprise. The two methods were independently compared to determine if the results and rated risks matched. The authors' results showed an agreement of 85% between FMEA and m-HFMEA approaches for top 20 risks of SIG-RS-specific failure modes. The main differences between the two approaches were the distribution of the values and the observation that failure modes (52, 54, 154) with high m-HFMEA scores do not necessarily have high FMEA-RPN scores. In the m-HFMEA analysis, when the risk score is determined, the basis of the established HFMEA Decision Tree™ or the failure mode should be more thoroughly investigated. m-HFMEA is inductive because it requires the identification of the consequences from causes, and semi-quantitative since it allows the prioritization of high risks and mitigation measures. It is therefore a useful tool for the prospective risk analysis method to radiotherapy.

  17. Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm equation by means of the homotopy analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbasbandy, S.

    2009-01-01

    Solitary wave solutions to the modified form of Camassa-Holm (CH) equation are sought. In this work, the homotopy analysis method (HAM), one of the most effective method, is applied to obtain the soliton wave solutions with and without continuity of first derivatives at crest

  18. A Modified Lindstedt–Poincaré Method for a Strongly Nonlinear System with Quadratic and Cubic Nonlinearities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Chen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A modified Lindstedt–Poincaré method is presented for extending the range of the validity of perturbation expansion to strongly nonlinear oscillations of a system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Different parameter transformations are introduced to deal with equations with different nonlinear characteristics. All examples show that the efficiency and accuracy of the present method are very good.

  19. Modeling thermal inkjet and cell printing process using modified pseudopotential and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Salman; Liu, Yaling

    2018-03-01

    Pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) can simulate a phase transition in high-density ratio multiphase flow systems. If coupled with thermal LBMs through equation of state, they can be used to study instantaneous phase transition phenomena with a high-temperature gradient where only one set of formulations in an LBM system can handle liquid, vapor, phase transition, and heat transport. However, at lower temperatures an unrealistic spurious current at the interface introduces instability and limits its application in real flow system. In this study, we proposed new modifications to the LBM system to minimize a spurious current which enables us to study nucleation dynamic at room temperature. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach, the thermal ejection process is modeled as one example of a complex flow system. In an inkjet printer, a thermal pulse instantly heats up the liquid in a microfluidic chamber and nucleates bubble vapor providing the pressure pulse necessary to eject droplets at high speed. Our modified method can present a more realistic model of the explosive vaporization process since it can also capture a high-temperature/density gradient at nucleation region. Thermal inkjet technology has been successfully applied for printing cells, but cells are susceptible to mechanical damage or death as they squeeze out of the nozzle head. To study cell deformation, a spring network model, representing cells, is connected to the LBM through the immersed boundary method. Looking into strain and stress distribution of a cell membrane at its most deformed state, it is found that a high stretching rate effectively increases the rupture tension. In other words, membrane deformation energy is released through creation of multiple smaller nanopores rather than big pores. Overall, concurrently simulating multiphase flow, phase transition, heat transfer, and cell deformation in one unified LB platform, we are able to provide a better insight into the

  20. A Modified Generalized Fisher Method for Combining Probabilities from Dependent Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongying (Daisy eDai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rapid developments in molecular technology have yielded a large amount of high throughput genetic data to understand the mechanism for complex traits. The increase of genetic variants requires hundreds and thousands of statistical tests to be performed simultaneously in analysis, which poses a challenge to control the overall Type I error rate. Combining p-values from multiple hypothesis testing has shown promise for aggregating effects in high-dimensional genetic data analysis. Several p-value combining methods have been developed and applied to genetic data; see [Dai, et al. 2012b] for a comprehensive review. However, there is a lack of investigations conducted for dependent genetic data, especially for weighted p-value combining methods. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are often correlated due to linkage disequilibrium. Other genetic data, including variants from next generation sequencing, gene expression levels measured by microarray, protein and DNA methylation data, etc. also contain complex correlation structures. Ignoring correlation structures among genetic variants may lead to severe inflation of Type I error rates for omnibus testing of p-values. In this work, we propose modifications to the Lancaster procedure by taking the correlation structure among p-values into account. The weight function in the Lancaster procedure allows meaningful biological information to be incorporated into the statistical analysis, which can increase the power of the statistical testing and/or remove the bias in the process. Extensive empirical assessments demonstrate that the modified Lancaster procedure largely reduces the Type I error rates due to correlation among p-values, and retains considerable power to detect signals among p-values. We applied our method to reassess published renal transplant data, and identified a novel association between B cell pathways and allograft tolerance.

  1. Modeling thermal inkjet and cell printing process using modified pseudopotential and thermal lattice Boltzmann methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Salman; Liu, Yaling

    2018-03-01

    Pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) can simulate a phase transition in high-density ratio multiphase flow systems. If coupled with thermal LBMs through equation of state, they can be used to study instantaneous phase transition phenomena with a high-temperature gradient where only one set of formulations in an LBM system can handle liquid, vapor, phase transition, and heat transport. However, at lower temperatures an unrealistic spurious current at the interface introduces instability and limits its application in real flow system. In this study, we proposed new modifications to the LBM system to minimize a spurious current which enables us to study nucleation dynamic at room temperature. To demonstrate the capabilities of this approach, the thermal ejection process is modeled as one example of a complex flow system. In an inkjet printer, a thermal pulse instantly heats up the liquid in a microfluidic chamber and nucleates bubble vapor providing the pressure pulse necessary to eject droplets at high speed. Our modified method can present a more realistic model of the explosive vaporization process since it can also capture a high-temperature/density gradient at nucleation region. Thermal inkjet technology has been successfully applied for printing cells, but cells are susceptible to mechanical damage or death as they squeeze out of the nozzle head. To study cell deformation, a spring network model, representing cells, is connected to the LBM through the immersed boundary method. Looking into strain and stress distribution of a cell membrane at its most deformed state, it is found that a high stretching rate effectively increases the rupture tension. In other words, membrane deformation energy is released through creation of multiple smaller nanopores rather than big pores. Overall, concurrently simulating multiphase flow, phase transition, heat transfer, and cell deformation in one unified LB platform, we are able to provide a better insight into the

  2. A nonstandard numerical method for the modified KdV equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayhan Aydin

    2017-10-25

    Oct 25, 2017 ... Nonstandard finite difference; modified Korteweg–de Vries equation; local truncation error. PACS Nos 02.70.Bf; 02.30.Jr; 02.60.Lj. 1. Introduction. Many physical phenomena in various fields of science such as fluid mechanics and quantum field theory can be described by the modified Koreteweg–de Vries ...

  3. DNA degradation in genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab by food processing methods: implications for the quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Fuguo; Zhang, Wei; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Food processing methods contribute to DNA degradation, thereby affecting genetically modified organism detection and quantification. This study evaluated the effect of food processing methods on the relative transgenic content of genetically modified rice with Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, the levels of Cry1Ab were ⩾ 100% and <83%, respectively. Frying and baking in rice crackers contributed to a reduction in Pubi and Cry1Ab, while microwaving caused a decrease in Pubi and an increase in Cry1Ab. The processing methods of sweet rice wine had the most severe degradation effects on Pubi and Cry1Ab. In steamed rice and rice noodles, Cry1Ab was the most stable, followed by SPS and Pubi. However, in rice crackers and sweet rice wine, SPS was the most stable, followed by Cry1Ab and Pubi. Therefore, Cry1Ab is a better representative of transgenic components than is Pubi because the levels of Cry1Ab were less affected compared to Pubi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of silica particles modified by in-situ and ex-situ methods on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Yingze; Yu, Jinhong; Dai, Dan; Song, Lixian; Jiang, Nan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles. • In-situ method was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with high BET surface area. • Silicone rubber filled with in-situ modified silica exhibits excellent mechanical and thermal properties. - Abstract: In-situ and ex-situ methods were applied to modify silica particles in order to investigate their effects on the reinforcement of silicone rubber. Surface area and pore analyzer, laser particle size analyzer, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact-angle instrument, and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were utilized to investigate the structure and properties of the modified silica particles. Dynamic mechanical thermal analyzer (DMTA) was employed to characterize the vulcanizing behavior and mechanical properties of the composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to test the thermal stability of the composites. FTIR and contact angle analysis indicated that silica particles were successfully modified by these two methods. The BET surface area and TEM results reflected that in-situ modification was more beneficial to preparing silica particles with irregular shape and higher BET surface area in comparison with ex-situ modification. The DMTA and TGA data revealed that compared with ex-situ modification, the in-situ modification produced positive influence on the reinforcement of silicone rubber

  5. A Modified Kirchhoff plate theory for Free Vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates using meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a modified Kirchhoff theory is presented for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM) plate based on modified radial point interpolation method (RPIM). The shear deformation effects are taken account into modified theory to ignore the locking phenomenon of thin plates. Due to the proposed refined plate theory, the number of independent unknowns reduces one variable and exists with four degrees of freedom per node. The simulated free vibration results employed by the modified RPIM are compared with the other analytical solutions to verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the developed mesh-free method. Detail parametric studies of the proposed method are then conducted including the effectiveness of thickness ratio, boundary condition and material inhomogeneity on the sample problems of square plates. Results illustrated that the modified mesh-free RPIM can effectively predict the numerical calculation as compared to the exact solutions. The obtained numerical results are indicated that the proposed method are stable and well accurate prediction to evaluate with other published analyses.

  6. The Semianalytical Solutions for Stiff Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations by Using Variational Iteration Method and Modified Variational Iteration Method with Comparison to Exact Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tarik Atay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Variational Iteration Method (VIM and Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are used to find solutions of systems of stiff ordinary differential equations for both linear and nonlinear problems. Some examples are given to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of these methods. We compare our results with exact results. In some studies related to stiff ordinary differential equations, problems were solved by Adomian Decomposition Method and VIM and Homotopy Perturbation Method. Comparisons with exact solutions reveal that the Variational Iteration Method (VIM and the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are easier to implement. In fact, these methods are promising methods for various systems of linear and nonlinear stiff ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, VIM, or in some cases MVIM, is giving exact solutions in linear cases and very satisfactory solutions when compared to exact solutions for nonlinear cases depending on the stiffness ratio of the stiff system to be solved.

  7. Development of a qualitative real-time PCR method to detect 19 targets for identification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cheng; Wang, Pengfei; Xu, Xiaoli; Wang, Xiaofu; Wei, Wei; Chen, Xiaoyun; Xu, Junfeng

    2016-01-01

    As the amount of commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) grows recent years, the diversity of target sequences for molecular detection techniques are eagerly needed. Considered as the gold standard for GMO analysis, the real-time PCR technology was optimized to produce a high-throughput GMO screening method. With this method we can detect 19 transgenic targets. The specificity of the assays was demonstrated to be 100 % by the specific amplification of DNA derived from reference material from 20 genetically modified crops and 4 non modified crops. Furthermore, most assays showed a very sensitive detection, reaching the limit of ten copies. The 19 assays are the most frequently used genetic elements present in GM crops and theoretically enable the screening of the known GMO described in Chinese markets. Easy to use, fast and cost efficient, this method approach fits the purpose of GMO testing laboratories.

  8. Doxycycline delivery from PLGA microspheres prepared by a modified solvent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Roshni S; Cho, Daniel Y; Tian, Cheng; Chang, Amy; Estrellas, Kenneth M; Lavin, Danya; Furtado, Stacia; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2012-01-01

    We report on the development of a modified solvent removal method for the encapsulation of hydrophilic drugs within poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Using a water/oil/oil double emulsion, hydrophilic doxycycline was encapsulated within PLGA spheres with particle diameters ranging from approximately 600 nm to 19 µm. Encapsulation efficiencies of up to 74% were achieved for theoretical loadings from 1% to 10% (w/w), with biphasic release over 85 days with nearly complete release at the end of this time course. About 1% salt was added to the formulations to examine its effects on doxycycline release; salt modulated release only by increasing the magnitude of initial release without altering kinetics. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated no characteristic differences between doxycycline-loaded and control spheres. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction suggest that there may be a molecular dispersion of the doxycycline within the spheres and the doxycycline may be in an amorphous state, which could explain the slow, prolonged release of the drug.

  9. Process optimization and properties of magnetically hard cobalt carbide nanoparticles via modified polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamanpour, Mehdi; Bennett, Steven P.; Majidi, Leily; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High-coercivity cobalt carbides were synthesized by polyol method. • No rare earth elements were used during synthesis process. • Process parameters (reaction temperature, precursors’ concentrations, surfactants and reaction duration) were studied/optimized. • Process was scaled-up to synthesis more than 5 g powders per batch. - Abstract: Cobalt carbide magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified polyol process without using a rare-earth catalyst during the synthesis process. The present results show admixtures of Co 2 C and Co 3 C phases possessing magnetization values exceeding 47 emu/g and coercivity values exceeding 2.3 kOe at room temperature. Moreover, these experiments have illuminated the important role of the reaction temperature, hydroxyl ion concentrations and the reaction duration on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The crystallographic structure and particle size of the Co x C nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to determine magnetic properties. Scale-up of synthesis to more than 5 g per batch was demonstrated with no significant degradation of magnetic properties

  10. How the modified method of orbit quality assessment works for Oort spike comets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Królikowska, Małgorzata; Dybczyński, Piotr A.

    2018-03-01

    We present a brief overview of the effectiveness of the modified method of a quality of orbit estimation proposed by us a few years ago. Having now a complete sample of 100 Oort spike comets with large-perihelion distances, we show that it was justified to introduce more restricted conditions separating the individual quality classes as well as introducing a new quality class containing orbits of the excellent quality, marked by us as 1a+. To enrich the perception, we provided a complete collection of visual time-distributions of positional data sets used by us for an orbit determination (see Appendix). We show that modern positional measurements of large-perihelion Oort spike comets should be carried out for at least three years around perihelion (three-four oppositions) to be almost certain that the derived orbit will be of the highest quality (1a+ class). Our results strongly support an expectation that in a near future it will be possible to study a shape of 1/aori-distribution of the Oort spike comets in a great detail basing only on the highest quality orbits, having 1/aori-uncertainties well below 5 . 10-6 au-1.

  11. Preparation of catalyst coated membrane by modified decal transfer method for proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indriyati; Irmawati, Y.; Prihandoko, B.

    2017-07-01

    A new catalyst coated membrane (CCM) was prepared by modified decal transfer method. A structure of ionomer/catalyst/carbon/substrate was used to facilitate the transfer of catalyst layer from decal substrate to the membrane at quite low hot-pressing temperature (120 °C) for 8 min. Several decal substrates were tested to select a proper substrate, namely PTFE cloth, PTFE film, aluminium foil, and OHP transparent sheet. The transfer degree of catalyst layer was estimated. Elemental analysis and SEM-mapping were performed to evaluate the residue, whereas contact angle measurement was conducted to characterize the hydrophobicity of decal substrates. The results showed that PTFE cloth and PFTE film transferred approximately 90% of catalyst layer onto the membrane, while the other two substrates were around 70%. Furthermore, the elemental analysis of the residue on the substrate revealed that it was mainly composed of carbon and fluorine for PTFE cloth and PTFE film. This result supports other findings that PTFE cloth and PTFE film are suitable as decal substrate at low temperature hot pressing for fabricating CCM.

  12. Density of liquid NiCoAlCr quarternary alloys measured by modified sessile drop method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Liang; ZHANG Shu-fang; XIAO Feng; YANG Ling-chuan; DONG Jian-xin; CAO Chun-lan; TAO Zai-nan; K. MUKAI

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni to Co to Al (x(Ni)-x(Co)-x(Al)≈73-12-15) which is close to the average value of the commercial Ni-based superalloys TMS75, INCO713, CM247LC and CMSX-4, and the mass fraction of chromium changes from 0 to 9% were measured by a modified sessile drop method. It is found that with increasing temperature and chromium concentration in the alloys, the densities of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys decrease, whereas the molar volume of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys increases. And the liquid densities of NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, cobalt, aluminum and chromium in the corresponding Ni-bases binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental ones, i.e. within the error tolerance range the densities of the liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state. The molar volume of liquid NiCoAlCr binary alloy shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing and the deviation changes small with the increase of chromium concentration at the same temperature.

  13. Artificial Intelligence Mechanisms on Interactive Modified Simplex Method with Desirability Function for Optimising Surface Lapping Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongchanun Luangpaiboon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study has been made to optimise the influential parameters of surface lapping process. Lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure were chosen from the preliminary studies as parameters to determine process performances in terms of material removal, lap width, and clamp force. The desirability functions of the-nominal-the-best were used to compromise multiple responses into the overall desirability function level or D response. The conventional modified simplex or Nelder-Mead simplex method and the interactive desirability function are performed to optimise online the parameter levels in order to maximise the D response. In order to determine the lapping process parameters effectively, this research then applies two powerful artificial intelligence optimisation mechanisms from harmony search and firefly algorithms. The recommended condition of (lapping time, lapping speed, downward pressure, and charging pressure at (33, 35, 6.0, and 5.0 has been verified by performing confirmation experiments. It showed that the D response level increased to 0.96. When compared with the current operating condition, there is a decrease of the material removal and lap width with the improved process performance indices of 2.01 and 1.14, respectively. Similarly, there is an increase of the clamp force with the improved process performance index of 1.58.

  14. Graft-free Ahmed tube insertion: a modified method at 5 mm from limbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Mesa-Gutiérrez, Juan Lillo-Sopena, Anna Monés-Llivina, Silvia Sanz-Moreno, Jorge Arruga-GinebredaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L’Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, SpainObjective: To determine the medium-term outcome of Ahmed implants inserted through a needle tract at 5 mm from limbus that eliminates the need for a donor scleral graft.Methods: A retrospective case series of 19 patients undergoing Ahmed implant surgery for refractory glaucoma with a mean follow-up of 12 months. Primary outcome measures included control of intraocular pressure after surgery. Secondary outcome measure included the frequency of intraoperative and postoperative complications.Results: Intraocular pressure was maintained between 6 and 21 mmHg throughout the study. There was no postoperative hypotony. There were no complications related to this modified technique.Conclusion: Needle tract at 5 mm from limbus maintains implant’s ability to control intraocular pressure and eliminates the need for a donor scleral graft or heterologous material.Keywords: surgical technique, Ahmed implant, refractory glaucoma, donor scleral graft, tube shunt device

  15. Process optimization and properties of magnetically hard cobalt carbide nanoparticles via modified polyol method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamanpour, Mehdi; Bennett, Steven P. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits (CM3IC), Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Majidi, Leily [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Chen, Yajie [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits (CM3IC), Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Harris, Vincent G. [Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits (CM3IC), Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • High-coercivity cobalt carbides were synthesized by polyol method. • No rare earth elements were used during synthesis process. • Process parameters (reaction temperature, precursors’ concentrations, surfactants and reaction duration) were studied/optimized. • Process was scaled-up to synthesis more than 5 g powders per batch. - Abstract: Cobalt carbide magnetic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized via a modified polyol process without using a rare-earth catalyst during the synthesis process. The present results show admixtures of Co{sub 2}C and Co{sub 3}C phases possessing magnetization values exceeding 47 emu/g and coercivity values exceeding 2.3 kOe at room temperature. Moreover, these experiments have illuminated the important role of the reaction temperature, hydroxyl ion concentrations and the reaction duration on the crystallographic structure and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. The crystallographic structure and particle size of the Co{sub x}C nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry was used to determine magnetic properties. Scale-up of synthesis to more than 5 g per batch was demonstrated with no significant degradation of magnetic properties.

  16. Photoelectrochemical Properties of CuO Grown by Using a Modified Chemical Bath Deposition Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jin-wook; Ryu, Hyukhyun [Inje University, Gimhae (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jae [Dong-Eui University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, cupric oxide (CuO) nanorods were grown on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate using a modified-chemical bath deposition (M-CBD) method. We investigated the morphology, structural, optical and photoelectrochemical properties of the cupric oxide nanorods with various growth durations by using field-emission scanning-electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and three-electrode potentiostat, respectively. In this work, we found that the morphologies, thickness, growth rate, crystallinities, grain sizes and optical bandgap were controllable on the growth duration, which affected photocurrent density and photo-stability. The highest growth rate of CuO nanorods was 126 nm/min. From the XRD measurement, we also confirmed that (020) directional growth affected the growth of the CuO nanorods. A maximum photocurrent density of-1.88 mA/cm² at -0.55 V (vs. SCE) and high photo-stability value about 40% was obtained with 10 minutes growth duration.

  17. Intermediate Compound Preparation Using Modified External Gelation Method and Thermal Treatment Equipment Development for UCO Kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Yeon Ku; Yeo, Seoung Hwan; Kim, Young Min; Cho, Moon Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    VHTR (Very High Temperature Gas Reactor) fuel technology is being actively developed in the US, China, Japan, and Korea for a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The concept of fuel of a VHTR is based on a sphere kernel of UO{sub 2} or UCO, with multiple coating layers to create a gas-tight particle. The fuel particle of a VHTR in the US is based on microspheres containing a UCO, mixture compound of UO{sub 2} and UC{sub 2} , coated particles with multi carbon layers and a SiC layer. This was first prepared through an internal gelation method at ORNL in the late 1970s. This study presents; (1) C-ADU gel particles were prepared using a modified sol-gel process. The particles fabricated with a KAERI-established gelation and AWD processes showed good sphericity and no cracks were found on the surfaces. (2) High temperature rotating furnace was designed and fabricated in our laboratory, and the maximum operation temperature was about 2000℃. The furnace was equipped with Mo crucible and graphite heating system, and now it is being operated. (3) Well-prepared C-ADU gel particles were converted into UCO compounds using high temperature rotating furnace, and the physical properties of the UCO kernels will be analyzed.

  18. A modified Generalized Least Squares method for large scale nuclear data evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Georg [Irfu, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria); Leeb, Helmut [Atominstitut, TU Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear data evaluation aims to provide estimates and uncertainties in the form of covariance matrices of cross sections and related quantities. Many practitioners use the Generalized Least Squares (GLS) formulas to combine experimental data and results of model calculations in order to determine reliable estimates and covariance matrices. A prerequisite to apply the GLS formulas is the construction of a prior covariance matrix for the observables from a set of model calculations. Modern nuclear model codes are able to provide predictions for a large number of observables. However, the inclusion of all observables may lead to a prior covariance matrix of intractable size. Therefore, we introduce mathematically equivalent versions of the GLS formulas to avoid the construction of the prior covariance matrix. Experimental data can be incrementally incorporated into the evaluation process, hence there is no upper limit on their amount. We demonstrate the modified GLS method in a tentative evaluation involving about three million observables using the code TALYS. The revised scheme is well suited as building block of a database application providing evaluated nuclear data. Updating with new experimental data is feasible and users can query estimates and correlations of arbitrary subsets of the observables stored in the database.

  19. Evaluation of left ventricular volume by MRI using modified Simpson's rule method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Masahiro; Kondo, Takeshi; Anno, Naoko

    1990-01-01

    The conventional contrast left ventriculogrpahy (LVG) has been the gold standard for estimating left ventricular volume (LVV), but it is an invasive technique, and volume overload must be caused by contrast medium. the true left ventricular (LV) long axis may not be obtained by LVG in routine right anterior oblique (RAO) projection. MRI, on the other hand, is noninvasive, does not require contrast medium, and permits to obtain the true LV long axis sections. Thus, MRI seems the ideal technique for estimating LVV. To estimate LVV, we have developed the on-line programs for calculating LVV by single-plane (SMS) or biplane modified Simpson's rule method (BMS), and have applied these programs to the water in the bottle with the elliptic short axis plane, normal volunteer and patients with various heart diseases. In the water phantom, the water volume calculated by the BMS was more accurate than the SMS. In nine normal volunteers, multiple LV short axis sections in each end-systole and end-diastole were obtained by ECG-gated spin echo MRI, LVV as standard was calculated by true Simpson's rule method (TS) on these images. Then both vertical and horizontal LV long axis sections were also obtained by ECG-gated field echo (FE) rephasing cine MRI, LVV was calculated by the BMS or SMS on these images. The BMS or SMS significantly correlated (r=0.974, r=0.927, 0.947) with TS for estimating LVV, respectively. In 20 patients with various heart diseases, both vertical and horizontal LV long axis sections were obtained by FE cine MRI. LVV (r=0.907 and r=0.901) and EF (r=0.822 and r=0.938) calculated by the SMS on the vertical or horizontal LV long axis sections significantly correlated with the conventional RAO-LVG, respectively. In conclusion, the MRI using our on-line programs would be clinically useful for estimating LVV and EF. (author)

  20. A new smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method for [Formula: see text]-norm minimization problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shouqiang; Chen, Miao

    2018-01-01

    We consider a kind of nonsmooth optimization problems with [Formula: see text]-norm minimization, which has many applications in compressed sensing, signal reconstruction, and the related engineering problems. Using smoothing approximate techniques, this kind of nonsmooth optimization problem can be transformed into a general unconstrained optimization problem, which can be solved by the proposed smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method. The smoothing modified three-term conjugate gradient method is based on Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method. For the Polak-Ribière-Polyak conjugate gradient method has good numerical properties, the proposed method possesses the sufficient descent property without any line searches, and it is also proved to be globally convergent. Finally, the numerical experiments show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  1. Consideration of regional variations in climatic and soil conditions in the modified triaxial design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) uses the modified triaxial design procedure to check : pavement designs from the flexible pavement system program. Since its original development more than : 50 years ago, little modification has been ma...

  2. High Weak Order Methods for Stochastic Differential Equations Based on Modified Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Abdulle, Assyr; Cohen, David; Vilmart, Gilles; Zygalakis, Konstantinos C.

    2012-01-01

    © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Inspired by recent advances in the theory of modified differential equations, we propose a new methodology for constructing numerical integrators with high weak order for the time integration

  3. Modified Standard Penetration Test–based Drilled Shaft Design Method for Weak Rocks (Phase 2 Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-15

    In this project, Illinois-specific design procedures were developed for drilled shafts founded in weak shale or rock. In particular, a modified standard penetration test was developed and verified to characterize the in situ condition of weak shales ...

  4. Exact Solution of Space-Time Fractional Coupled EW and Coupled MEW Equations Using Modified Kudryashov Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raslan, K. R.; Ali, Khalid K.; EL-Danaf, Talaat S.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, we established a traveling wave solution by using modified Kudryashov method for the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations. The method is used to obtain the exact solutions for different types of the space-time fractional nonlinear partial differential equations such as, the space-time fractional coupled equal width wave equation (CEWE) and the space-time fractional coupled modified equal width wave equation (CMEW), which are the important soliton equations. Both equations are reduced to ordinary differential equations by the use of fractional complex transform and properties of modified Riemann–Liouville derivative. We plot the exact solutions for these equations at different time levels. (paper)

  5. Creep-fatigue evaluation method for modified 9Cr-1Mo steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Y.; Aoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    As creep-fatigue evaluation methods on normalized and tempered Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel for design use, the time fraction rule and the simplified conventional ductility exhaustion rule are investigated for the prediction of tension strain hold creep-fatigue damage of this material. For the above investigation, stress relaxation behaviour during strain hold has to be analyzed using stress-strain-time relation. The initial value of stress relaxation was determined by cyclic stress-strain curves in continuous cycling fatigue tests. Cyclic stress-strain behaviour of Mod.9Cr-1Mo(NT) steel is different from that of austenitic stainless steels, so this effect was considered. Stress relaxation analysis was performed using static creep strain-time relation and conventional hardening rule. The time fraction by using the above stress relaxation analysis results can give good prediction for creep-fatigue life of Mod.9Cr-1Mo(NT) steel. For design use it is practical to be able to estimate creep damages conservatively by both strain behaviour of cyclic plastic (in continuous cycling fatigue tests) and monotonic creep (in standard creep tests). The life reduction by strain hold at the minimum peak of compressive stress in creep-fatigue tests was examined, and this effects can be evaluated by the relationship between the location of oxidation and the effective deformation at crack tip. In an accelerated oxidation environment, for example in high temperature and high pressure steam, a different approach for life reduction should be developed based on the mechanism of growth of oxide and crack growth with oxidation. However, in the creep damage dominant region, its effect is saturated and the effect of cavity growth along grain boundary becomes dominant for long-term strain hold in the high temperature conditions. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  6. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations by using Sine-Cosine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, E.; Bekir, A.; Alp, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we establish exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. The sine-cosine method is used to construct periodic and solitary wave solutions of the Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations. These solutions may be important of significance for the explanation of some practical physical problems

  7. A HIGH ORDER SOLUTION OF THREE DIMENSIONAL TIME DEPENDENT NONLINEAR CONVECTIVE-DIFFUSIVE PROBLEM USING MODIFIED VARIATIONAL ITERATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratibha Joshi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have achieved high order solution of a three dimensional nonlinear diffusive-convective problem using modified variational iteration method. The efficiency of this approach has been shown by solving two examples. All computational work has been performed in MATHEMATICA.

  8. Methods for the enzymatic modification of steviol glycosides, modified steviol glycosides obtainable thereby, and the use thereof as sweeteners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Poele, Evelien; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Gerwig, Gerrit; Kamerling, Johannis

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the production of steviol glycosides. Provided is a method for enzymatically providing a modified steviol glycoside, comprising incubating a steviol glycoside substrate in the presence of sucrose and the glucansucrase GTF180 of Lactobacillus reuteri strain

  9. Solving (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation by a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Lin, Su; Yuan-Xi, Xie

    2010-01-01

    By introducing a more general auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE), a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method is presented for solving the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation. As a result, many explicit and exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation are derived in a simple manner by this technique. (general)

  10. Development of generic quality indicators for patient-centered cancer care by using a RAND modified Delphi method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uphoff, Eleonora P. M. M.; Wennekes, Lianne; Punt, Cornelis J. A.; Grol, Richard P. T. M.; Wollersheim, Hub C. H.; Hermens, Rosella P. M. G.; Ottevanger, Petronella B.

    2012-01-01

    Despite growing attention to patient-centered care, the needs of cancer patients are not always met. Using a RAND modified Delphi method, this study aimed to systematically develop evidence-based indicators, to be used to measure the quality of patient-centered cancer care as a first step toward

  11. Treatment of graphite felt by modified Hummers method for the positive electrode of vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoxin; Xu, Hongfeng; Shen, Yang; Xu, Pengcheng; Lu, Lu; Fu, Jie; Zhao, Hong

    2014-01-01

    A novel and highly effective treatment based on modified Hummers method was firstly used to improve the electrochemical activity of graphite felt as the positive electrode in all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The graphite felt was treated by the modified Hummers method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical performance of the prepared electrode was evaluated through cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Results show that graphite felt treated by modified Hummers method exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity and reaction rate to vanadium redox couples. In our research, the hydrogen electrode and H 2 replaced the graphite felt and V 2+ /V 3+ couple in the negative side in the VRFB performance test. The coulombic, voltage, and energy efficiencies of the VRFB with the as-prepared electrodes at 50 mA cm −2 are 95.0%, 81.3%, and 77.2%, respectively. These values are much higher than those of the cell-assembled graphite felt electrodes that were conventionally and thermally treated. The graphite felt treated by the modified Hummers method carries more hydrophilic groups, such as–OH, on its defects, which is advantageous in facilitating the redox reaction of vanadium ions, thereby improving the operation efficiency of the vanadium redox flow battery

  12. Cooling Effectiveness of a Modified Cold-Water Immersion Method After Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Katherine E; Butts, Cory L; Smith, Cody R; Bonacci, Jeffrey A; Ylanan, Ramon C; Ganio, Matthew S; McDermott, Brendon P

    2016-11-01

     Recommended treatment for exertional heat stroke includes whole-body cold-water immersion (CWI). However, remote locations or monetary or spatial restrictions can challenge the feasibility of CWI. Thus, the development of a modified, portable CWI method would allow for optimal treatment of exertional heat stroke in the presence of these challenges.  To determine the cooling rate of modified CWI (tarp-assisted cooling with oscillation [TACO]) after exertional hyperthermia.  Randomized, crossover controlled trial.  Environmental chamber (temperature = 33.4°C ± 0.8°C, relative humidity = 55.7% ± 1.9%).  Sixteen volunteers (9 men, 7 women; age = 26 ± 4.7 years, height = 1.76 ± 0.09 m, mass = 72.5 ± 9.0 kg, body fat = 20.7% ± 7.1%) with no history of compromised thermoregulation.  Participants completed volitional exercise (cycling or treadmill) until they demonstrated a rectal temperature (T re ) ≥39.0°C. After exercise, participants transitioned to a semirecumbent position on a tarp until either T re reached 38.1°C or 15 minutes had elapsed during the control (no immersion [CON]) or TACO (immersion in 151 L of 2.1°C ± 0.8°C water) treatment.  The T re , heart rate, and blood pressure (reported as mean arterial pressure) were assessed precooling and postcooling. Statistical analyses included repeated-measures analysis of variance with appropriate post hoc t tests and Bonferroni correction.  Before cooling, the T re was not different between conditions (CON: 39.27°C ± 0.26°C, TACO: 39.30°C ± 0.39°C; P = .62; effect size = -0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.2, 0.1). At postcooling, the T re was decreased in the TACO (38.10°C ± 0.16°C) compared with the CON condition (38.74°C ± 0.38°C; P < .001; effect size = 2.27; 95% CI = 0.4, 0.9). The rate of cooling was greater during the TACO (0.14 ± 0.06°C/min) than the CON treatment (0.04°C/min ± 0.02°C/min; t 15 = -8.84; P < .001; effect size = 2.21; 95% CI = -0.13, -0

  13. Development and interlaboratory validation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for screening analysis of genetically modified soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    A novel real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based quantitative screening method was developed for three genetically modified soybeans: RRS, A2704-12, and MON89788. The 35S promoter (P35S) of cauliflower mosaic virus is introduced into RRS and A2704-12 but not MON89788. We then designed a screening method comprised of the combination of the quantification of P35S and the event-specific quantification of MON89788. The conversion factor (Cf) required to convert the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO) from a copy number ratio to a weight ratio was determined experimentally. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDR), respectively. The determined RSDR values for the method were less than 25% for both targets. We consider that the developed method would be suitable for the simple detection and approximate quantification of GMO.

  14. Application of the modified Wheeler cap method for radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas in complex environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Pivnenko, Sergey; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, application of a modified Wheeler cap method for the radiation efficiency measurement of balanced electrically small antennas is presented. It is shown that the limitations on the cavity dimension can be overcome and thus measurement in a large cavity is possible. The cavity loss...... is investigated, and a modified radiation efficiency formula that includes the cavity loss is introduced. Moreover, a modification of the technique is proposed that involves the antenna working complex environment inside the Wheeler Cap and thus makes possible measurement of an antenna close to a hand or head...

  15. The Cysteine S-Alkylation Reaction as a Synthetic Method to Covalently Modify Peptide Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; De Luca, Stefania

    2017-01-05

    Synthetic methodologies to chemically modify peptide molecules have long been investigated for their impact in the field of chemical biology. They allow the introduction of biochemical probes useful for studying protein functions, for manipulating peptides with therapeutic potential, and for structure-activity relationship investigations. The commonly used approach was the derivatization of an amino acid side chain. In this regard, the cysteine, for its unique reactivity, has been widely employed as the substrate for such modifications. Herein, we report on methodologies developed to modify the cysteine thiol group through the S-alkylation reaction. Some procedures perform the alkylation of cysteine derivatives, in order to prepare building blocks to be used during the peptide synthesis, whilst some others selectively modify peptide sequences containing a cysteine residue with a free thiol group, both in solution and in the solid phase. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Synthesis of lithium silicates generators of tritium by a modified method of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz G, D.

    2003-01-01

    The ceramics of lithium have been proposed as generating materials of tritium through the following reaction: 6 Li + 1 n → 4 He + 3 H . In previous works carried out by Pfeiffer and collaborators, the lithium silicates generators of tritium were prepared using the following methods: reactions of solid state, precipitation and sol-gel synthesis. Although those methods have advantages, it is required of heating at high temperatures (900 C during four hours) to be able to obtain the crystalline compounds. Those products found in these works were diverse crystallization forms of the lithium silicates and of SiO 2 , such as, Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 2 Si 2 0 5 , Li 4 SiO 4 , and quartz (SiO 2 ). The combustion method uses exothermic reactions to take place ceramic compounds. The precursor solutions are mixtures of the nitrate of metal oxidizer and the fuels (urea, glycine, carbohydrazide). However the reported method in the literature, it is not useful to prepare lithium silicates, for what was modified using non oxidizers compounds. The lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and the silicic acid (H 2 SiO 3 ) they were the compounds non oxidizers used, and the urea (CH 4 N 2 O) it was the one fuel. They were carried out two series of experiments; inside the series 1 of experiments are varied the molar ratio of lithium hydroxide and urea (LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 = 1, 2 and 3, LiOH : CH 4 N 2 O = 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5) and the prepared mixtures were taken to one muffle previously preheated to a temperature of 450 C during 5 minutes. In the series 2 of experiments was studied the effect of the temperature and of the washed with distilled water in the prepared samples with the following molar ratios: LiOH : H 2 SiO 3 : CH 4 N 2 O = 1:1:3, 2:1:3, 3:1:3 and 3:1:6, those which were heated to temperatures from 450 C up to 750 C and were washed. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared spectroscopy (I S), semiquantitative elemental analysis (EDS) and Thermal gravimetric

  17. Characteristics of Chemical and Functional Properties of Modified Cassava Flour (Manihot esculenta) by Autoclaving-Cooling Cycles Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecep Erwan Andriansyah, Raden; Rahman, Taufik; Herminiati, Ainia; Rahman, Nurhaidar; Luthfiyanti, Rohmah

    2017-12-01

    The modified cassava flour can be made using the method of the autoclaving cooling cycle (AAC). The stability of the warming can be seen from the decreasing value of breakdown viscosity, while the stability of the stirring process can be seen by the decreasing value of setback viscosity. The stages of research include: (1) the making of cassava flour, (2) the making of modified cassava flour by the method of treatment of ACC with a variety of flour concentration and autoclaving time, (3) chemical analysis of the moisture, ash, fat, protein, carbohydrate; The functional properties of the pasting characteristics to the initial temperature of the pasting, peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, breakdown viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback viscosity. The result shows that cassava flour modified by treatment of flour concentration 16% and autoclaving time 41 minutes having pasting code and pasting viscosity which is resistant to high temperature. Flour with this character is flour that is expected to maintain the texture of processed products with a paste form that remains stable. Utilization of modified cassava flour by the ACC method can be applied to the pasting product such as noodle and spaghetti, hoping to support for food diversification program to reduce dependence on wheat flour in Indonesia.

  18. A modified time-of-flight method for precise determination of high speed ratios in molecular beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador Palau, A.; Eder, S. D., E-mail: sabrina.eder@uib.no; Kaltenbacher, T.; Samelin, B.; Holst, B. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); Bracco, G. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Allégaten 55, 5007 Bergen (Norway); CNR-IMEM, Department of Physics, University of Genova, V. Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Time-of-flight (TOF) is a standard experimental technique for determining, among others, the speed ratio S (velocity spread) of a molecular beam. The speed ratio is a measure for the monochromaticity of the beam and an accurate determination of S is crucial for various applications, for example, for characterising chromatic aberrations in focussing experiments related to helium microscopy or for precise measurements of surface phonons and surface structures in molecular beam scattering experiments. For both of these applications, it is desirable to have as high a speed ratio as possible. Molecular beam TOF measurements are typically performed by chopping the beam using a rotating chopper with one or more slit openings. The TOF spectra are evaluated using a standard deconvolution method. However, for higher speed ratios, this method is very sensitive to errors related to the determination of the slit width and the beam diameter. The exact sensitivity depends on the beam diameter, the number of slits, the chopper radius, and the chopper rotation frequency. We present a modified method suitable for the evaluation of TOF measurements of high speed ratio beams. The modified method is based on a systematic variation of the chopper convolution parameters so that a set of independent measurements that can be fitted with an appropriate function are obtained. We show that with this modified method, it is possible to reduce the error by typically one order of magnitude compared to the standard method.

  19. Comparison among T1-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Modified Dixon Method, and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Measuring Bone Marrow Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Methods. Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI. Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Results. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 in the L3 vertebra. Correlation between BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 in femoral necks. Conclusion. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  20. Method to account for dose fractionation in analysis of IMRT plans: Modified equivalent uniform dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Clinton S.; Kim, Yongbok; Lee, Nancy; Bucci, Kara M.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Xia Ping

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To propose a modified equivalent uniform dose (mEUD) to account for dose fractionation using the biologically effective dose without losing the advantages of the generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) and to report the calculated mEUD and gEUD in clinically used intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans. Methods and Materials: The proposed mEUD replaces the dose to each voxel in the gEUD formulation by a biologically effective dose with a normalization factor. We propose to use the term mEUD D o /n o that includes the total dose (D o ) and number of fractions (n o ) and to use the term mEUD o that includes the same total dose but a standard fraction size of 2 Gy. A total of 41 IMRT plans for patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at our institution between October 1997 and March 2002 were selected for the study. The gEUD and mEUD were calculated for the planning gross tumor volume (pGTV), planning clinical tumor volume (pCTV), parotid glands, and spinal cord. The prescription dose for these patients was 70 Gy to >95% of the pGTV and 59.4 Gy to >95% of the pCTV in 33 fractions. Results: The calculated average gEUD was 72.2 ± 2.4 Gy for the pGTV, 54.2 ± 7.1 Gy for the pCTV, 26.7 ± 4.2 Gy for the parotid glands, and 34.1 ± 6.8 Gy for the spinal cord. The calculated average mEUD D o /n o using 33 fractions was 71.7 ± 3.5 Gy for mEUD 70/33 of the pGTV, 49.9 ± 7.9 Gy for mEUD 59.5/33 of the pCTV, 27.6 ± 4.8 Gy for mEUD 26/33 of the parotid glands, and 32.7 ± 7.8 Gy for mEUD 45/33 of the spinal cord. Conclusion: The proposed mEUD, combining the gEUD with the biologically effective dose, preserves all advantages of the gEUD while reflecting the fractionation effects and linear and quadratic survival characteristics

  1. Standardised method for reporting exercise programmes: protocol for a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2014-12-30

    Exercise is integral to health across the lifespan and important for people with chronic health conditions. A systematic review of exercise trials for chronic conditions reported suboptimal descriptions of the evaluated interventions and concluded that this hinders interpretation and replication. The aim of this project is to develop a standardised method for reporting essential exercise programme details being evaluated in clinical trials. A modified Delphi technique will be used to gain consensus among international exercise experts. We will use three sequential rounds of anonymous online questionnaires to refine a standardised checklist. A draft checklist of potentially relevant items was developed based on the results of a systematic review of exercise systematic reviews. An international panel of experts was identified by exercise systematic review authorship, established international profile in exercise research and practice and by peer referral. In round 1, the international panel of experts will be asked to rate the importance of each draft item and provide additional suggestions for revisions or new items. Consensus will be considered reached if at least 70% of the panel strongly agree/disagree that an item should be included or excluded. Where agreement is not reached or there are suggestions for altered or new items, these will be taken to round 2 together with an aggregated summary of round 1 responses. Following the second round, a ranking of item importance will be made to rationalise the number of items. The final template will be distributed to panel members for approval. Ethics approval was received from The Cabrini Institute Ethics Committee, Melbourne, Australia (HREC 02-07-04-14). We plan to use a stepwise process to develop and refine a standardised and internationally agreed template for explicit reporting of exercise programmes. The template will be generalisable across all types of exercise interventions. The findings will be disseminated

  2. The Semiconductor Industry and Emerging Technologies: A Study Using a Modified Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Edgar A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to determine what leaders in the semiconductor industry thought the future of computing would look like and what emerging materials showed the most promise to overcome the current theoretical limit of 10 nanometers for silicon dioxide. The researcher used a modified Delphi technique in two…

  3. Improving Student Learning of Calculus Topics via Modified Just-in-Time Teaching Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Rekha; Bennett, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Although the use of traditional just-in-time teaching techniques has long been viewed positively by students and instructors in undergraduate calculus courses, past studies in this area have not addressed gains in student achievement with respect to specific calculus topics. This paper investigates the latter by administering modified just-in-time…

  4. Modified-surface-energy methods for deriving heavy-ion potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of a modified-surface-energy approach for the calculation of heavy-ion interaction potentials is discussed. It is not possible to simultaneously fit elastic scattering, ion interaction barriers, and fission barriers with the same set of constants in this model. Possible explanations of this deficiency are discussed

  5. Correspondence between radioactive and functional methods in the quality control of DNA restriction and modifying enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trujillo, L E; Pupo, E; Miranda, F

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated the use of two radiolabeled lambda DNA/Hpa II substrates to detect 5'-->3', 3'-->5' single and double stranded DNA dependent exonuclease and phosphatase activities found as contaminants in restriction and modifying enzyme preparations. Looking for the meaning of the radioactive assay...

  6. Development of a screening method for genetically modified soybean by plasmid-based quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Eri; Kato, Hisashi; Nakagawa, Yuki; Kodama, Takashi; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Watanabe, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Furui, Satoshi; Hino, Akihiro; Kitta, Kazumi

    2008-07-23

    A novel type of quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction (QC-PCR) system for the detection and quantification of the Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) was developed. This system was designed based on the advantage of a fully validated real-time PCR method used for the quantification of RRS in Japan. A plasmid was constructed as a competitor plasmid for the detection and quantification of genetically modified soy, RRS. The plasmid contained the construct-specific sequence of RRS and the taxon-specific sequence of lectin1 (Le1), and both had 21 bp oligonucleotide insertion in the sequences. The plasmid DNA was used as a reference molecule instead of ground seeds, which enabled us to precisely and stably adjust the copy number of targets. The present study demonstrated that the novel plasmid-based QC-PCR method could be a simple and feasible alternative to the real-time PCR method used for the quantification of genetically modified organism contents.

  7. Comparison among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, modified dixon method, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy in measuring bone marrow fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Gong, Xiuqun; Weiss, Jessica; Jin, Ye

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of studies are utilizing different magnetic resonance (MR) methods to quantify bone marrow fat due to its potential role in osteoporosis. Our aim is to compare the measurements of bone marrow fat among T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), modified Dixon method (also called fat fraction MRI (FFMRI)), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Contiguous MRI scans were acquired in 27 Caucasian postmenopausal women with a modified Dixon method (i.e., FFMRI). Bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) of T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction of the L3 vertebra and femoral necks were quantified using SliceOmatic and Matlab. MRS was also acquired at the L3 vertebra. Correlation among the three MR methods measured bone marrow fat fraction and BMAT ranges from 0.78 to 0.88 (P BMAT measured by T1-weighted MRI and bone marrow fat fraction measured by modified FFMRI is 0.86 (P < 0.001) in femoral necks. There are good correlations among T1-weighted MRI, FFMRI, and MRS for bone marrow fat quantification. The inhomogeneous distribution of bone marrow fat, the threshold segmentation of the T1-weighted MRI, and the ambiguity of the FFMRI may partially explain the difference among the three methods.

  8. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling

  9. Higher-order approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators by modified He's homotopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A; Pascual, C; Fernandez, E; Neipp, C; Belendez, T

    2008-01-01

    A modified He's homotopy perturbation method is used to calculate higher-order analytical approximate solutions to the relativistic and Duffing-harmonic oscillators. The He's homotopy perturbation method is modified by truncating the infinite series corresponding to the first-order approximate solution before introducing this solution in the second-order linear differential equation, and so on. We find this modified homotopy perturbation method works very well for the whole range of initial amplitudes, and the excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones has been demonstrated and discussed. The approximate formulae obtained show excellent agreement with the exact solutions, and are valid for small as well as large amplitudes of oscillation, including the limiting cases of amplitude approaching zero and infinity. For the relativistic oscillator, only one iteration leads to high accuracy of the solutions with a maximal relative error for the approximate frequency of less than 1.6% for small and large values of oscillation amplitude, while this relative error is 0.65% for two iterations with two harmonics and as low as 0.18% when three harmonics are considered in the second approximation. For the Duffing-harmonic oscillator the relative error is as low as 0.078% when the second approximation is considered. Comparison of the result obtained using this method with those obtained by the harmonic balance methods reveals that the former is very effective and convenient

  10. [A study for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast by the Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method. The proposal of the modified JSMM method 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Yayoi; Abe, Michiko; Ikeda, Reiko; Uno, Jun; Oguri, Toyoko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Mohri, Shinobu; Yamada, Tsuyoshi; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Hasumi, Yayoi; Abe, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    The Japanese Society for Medical Mycology (JSMM) method used for testing the antifungal susceptibility of yeast, the MIC end point for azole antifungal agents, is currently set at IC(80). It was recently shown, however that there is an inconsistency in the MIC value between the JSMM method and the CLSI M27-A2 (CLSI) method, in which the end- point was to read as IC(50). To resolve this discrepancy and reassess the JSMM method, the MIC for three azoles, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole were compared to 5 strains of each of the following Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei, for a total of 25 comparisons, using the JSMM method, a modified JSMM method, and the CLSI method. The results showed that when the MIC end- point criterion of the JSMM method was changed from IC(80) to IC(50) (the modified JSMM method) , the MIC value was consistent and compatible with the CLSI method. Finally, it should be emphasized that the JSMM method, using a spectrophotometer for MIC measurement, was superior in both stability and reproducibility, as compared to the CLSI method in which growth was assessed by visual observation.

  11. Electrochemical Cathodic Polarization, a Simplified Method That Can Modified and Increase the Biological Activity of Titanium Surfaces: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Bernedo Alcazar

    Full Text Available The cathodic polarization seems to be an electrochemical method capable of modifying and coat biomolecules on titanium surfaces, improving the surface activity and promoting better biological responses.The aim of the systematic review is to assess the scientific literature to evaluate the cellular response produced by treatment of titanium surfaces by applying the cathodic polarization technique.The literature search was performed in several databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, Scielo and EBSCO Host, until June 2016, with no limits used. Eligibility criteria were used and quality assessment was performed following slightly modified ARRIVE and SYRCLE guidelines for cellular studies and animal research.Thirteen studies accomplished the inclusion criteria and were considered in the review. The quality of reporting studies in animal models was low and for the in vitro studies it was high. The in vitro and in vivo results reported that the use of cathodic polarization promoted hydride surfaces, effective deposition, and adhesion of the coated biomolecules. In the experimental groups that used the electrochemical method, cellular viability, proliferation, adhesion, differentiation, or bone growth were better or comparable with the control groups.The use of the cathodic polarization method to modify titanium surfaces seems to be an interesting method that could produce active layers and consequently enhance cellular response, in vitro and in vivo animal model studies.

  12. A modified compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics method and its application on the numerical simulation of low and high velocity impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanifard, N.; Haghighat Namini, V.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method is introduced which is applicable in problems involving shock wave structures and elastic-plastic deformations of solids. As a matter of fact, algorithm of the method is based on an approach which descritizes the momentum equation into three parts and solves each part separately and calculates their effects on the velocity field and displacement of particles. The most exclusive feature of the method is exactly removing artificial viscosity of the formulations and representing good compatibility with other reasonable numerical methods without any rigorous numerical fractures or tensile instabilities while Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics does not use any extra modifications. Two types of problems involving elastic-plastic deformations and shock waves are presented here to demonstrate the capability of Modified Compressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics in simulation of such problems and its ability to capture shock. The problems that are proposed here are low and high velocity impacts between aluminum projectiles and semi infinite aluminum beams. Elastic-perfectly plastic model is chosen for constitutive model of the aluminum and the results of simulations are compared with other reasonable studies in these cases.

  13. A Modified Method for Evaluating Sustainable Transport Solutions Based on AHP and Dempster–Shafer Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luyuan Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the challenge of transportation environment, a large amount of attention is paid to sustainable mobility worldwide, thus bringing the problem of the evaluation of sustainable transport solutions. In this paper, a modified method based on analytical hierarchy process (AHP and Dempster–Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory is proposed for evaluating the impact of transport measures on city sustainability. AHP is adapted to determine the weight of sustainability criteria while D-S theory is used for data fusion of the sustainability assessment. A Transport Sustainability Index (TSI is presented as a primary measure to determine whether transport solutions have a positive impact on city sustainability. A case study of car-sharing is illustrated to show the efficiency of our proposed method. Our modified method has two desirable properties. One is that the BPA is generated with a new modification framework of evaluation levels, which can flexibly manage uncertain information. The other is that the modified method has excellent performance in sensitivity analysis.

  14. Effect of different gas stunning methods on Manchega suckling lamb meat packed under different modified atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bórnez, R; Linares, M B; Vergara, H

    2010-04-01

    Forty-nine Manchega breed male suckling lambs were used in this experiment. The effect of CO(2) concentration and exposure time at stunning [80% CO(2) for 90 s (G1); 90% CO(2) for 90 s (G2); 90% CO(2) for 60 s (G3); 80% CO(2) for 60 s (G4)] plus an electrically stunned control group (G5) was assessed for pH, colour (L(*), a(*), b(*), C(*) and h(*)), water holding capacity (WHC), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL) and shear force (SF) in samples packed under two different types of modified atmospheres (MA: MA A: 70%O(2)+30%CO(2); MA B: 69.3%N(2)+30%CO(2)+0.7%CO) at 7, 14 and 21 d post-packaging. The lowest pH was found in G4 and in G5. The highest WHC and the lowest CL were found in G2 and G3 groups (P<0.05). Modified atmospheres did not affect on pH, WHC, CL and DL, although a significant effect (P<0.001) on colour was found at all the analysis times. Both the type of stunning and the modified atmosphere affected SF values. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Treatment of Petroleum Drill Cuttings Using Stabilization/Solidification Method by Cement and Modified Clay Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Ghasemi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available High organic content in petroleum drill cuttings is a substantial obstacle which hinders cement hydration and subsequently decreases the clean-up efficiency of the stabilization/solidification (S/S process. In this study, a modified clayey soil (montmorillonite with low to moderate polarity was used as an additive to cement. Because of its high adsorption capacity, the clay is capable of mitigating the destructive role of organic materials and preventing their interference with the hydration process. Mixes containing different ratios of cement, waste and modified clay were prepared and tested for their mechanical and chemical characteristics. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH and Pb content of the samples were analyzed as well. For this purpose, the mixes were subjected to unconfined compressive strength (UCS and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP tests. The results indicated that the specimens with 28-day curing time at a cement/waste ratio of 25% or higher (w/w and 10% modified clay (w/w met the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA criterion for compressive strength. Moreover, a reduction of 94% in the leaching of TPH was observed with the specimens undergoing the TCLP with a cement/waste ratio of 30% (w/w and a clay/waste ratio of 30% (w/w. Finally, the specimens with 30% cement/waste and 10% clay/waste ratios showed the least concentration (6.14% of leached Pb.

  16. Characterization of various two-phase materials based on thermal conductivity using modified transient plane source method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, S.; Prithiviraajan, R. N.; Reddy, K. S.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal conductivity of various two-phase materials using modified transient plane source (MTPS) technique. The values are determined by using commercially available C-Therm TCi apparatus. It is specially designed for testing of low to high thermal conductivity materials in the range of 0.02 to 100 Wm-1K-1 within a temperature range of 223-473 K. The results obtained for the two-phase materials (solids, powders and liquids) are having an accuracy better than 5%. The transient method is one of the easiest and less time consuming method to determine the thermal conductivity of the materials compared to steady state methods.

  17. Numerical Simulation of Wind Turbine Rotors Autorotation by Using the Modified LS-STAG Immersed Boundary Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilia K. Marchevsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A software package is developed for numerical simulation of wind turbine rotors autorotation by using the modified LS-STAG level-set/cut-cell immersed boundary method. The level-set function is used for immersed boundaries description. Algorithm of level-set function construction for complex-shaped airfoils, based on Bézier curves usage, is proposed. Also, algorithm for the level-set function recalculation at any time without reconstructing the Bézier curve for each new rotor position is described. The designed second-order Butterworth low-pass filter for aerodynamic torque filtration for simulations using coarse grids is presented. To verify the modified LS-STAG method, the flow past autorotating Savonius rotor with two blades was simulated at Re=1.96·105.

  18. Application of Modified G'/G-Expansion Method to Traveling Wave Solutions for Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yubin; Li Chao

    2009-01-01

    A modified G'/G-expansion method is presented to derive traveling wave solutions for a class of nonlinear partial differential equations called Whitham-Broer-Kaup-Like equations. As a result, the hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational solutions with parameters to the equations are obtained. When the parameters are taken as special values the solitary wave solutions can be obtained. (general)

  19. Validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire: comparison with energy expenditure according to the doubly labeled water method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological research, physical activity is usually assessed by questionnaires. Questionnaires are suitable for large study populations since they are relatively inexpensive and not very time consuming. However, questionnaire information is by definition subjective and prone to recall bias, especially among elderly subjects. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire, developed by Voorrips and coworkers, measures habitual physical activity in the elderly. The questionnaire includes questions on household activities, sports, and leisure time activities, over a time period of one year. The Modified Baecke Questionnaire results in a score to classify people as high, moderate, or low in daily physical activity, based on tertiles. Methods The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire score was assessed among 21 elderly men and women using the doubly labeled water method as the reference criterion. This method is considered to be the gold standard for measuring energy expenditure in free-living individuals. Energy expenditure on physical activity is estimated by the ratio of total energy expenditure measured by the doubly labeled water method and resting metabolic rate measured by indirect calorimetry. This ratio is called the physical activity ratio. Results The Spearman correlation coefficient between the questionnaire score and the physical activity ratio (PAR was 0.54 (95% CI 0.22–0.66. Correct classification by the questionnaire occurred in 71% of participants who were in the lowest tertile of PAR, in 14% of participants in the middle tertile, and in 43% of participants in the highest tertile. Subjects were not wrongly classified in an opposite tertile. Conclusion The validity of the Modified Baecke Questionnaire is fair-to-moderate. This study shows that the questionnaire can correctly classify individuals as low or high active, but does a poor job for moderately active individuals.

  20. An efficient genotyping method for genome-modified animals and human cells generated with CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Yajie; Yu, Shanshan; Lu, Lu; Ding, Mingqin; Cheng, Jing; Song, Guoxu; Gao, Xing; Yao, Liangming; Fan, Dongdong; Meng, Shu; Zhang, Xuewen; Hu, Shengdi; Tian, Yong

    2014-09-19

    The rapid generation of various species and strains of laboratory animals using CRISPR/Cas9 technology has dramatically accelerated the interrogation of gene function in vivo. So far, the dominant approach for genotyping of genome-modified animals has been the T7E1 endonuclease cleavage assay. Here, we present a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-based (PAGE) method to genotype mice harboring different types of indel mutations. We developed 6 strains of genome-modified mice using CRISPR/Cas9 system, and utilized this approach to genotype mice from F0 to F2 generation, which included single and multiplexed genome-modified mice. We also determined the maximal detection sensitivity for detecting mosaic DNA using PAGE-based assay as 0.5%. We further applied PAGE-based genotyping approach to detect CRISPR/Cas9-mediated on- and off-target effect in human 293T and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Thus, PAGE-based genotyping approach meets the rapidly increasing demand for genotyping of the fast-growing number of genome-modified animals and human cell lines created using CRISPR/Cas9 system or other nuclease systems such as TALEN or ZFN.

  1. Polypropylene (P P) /polystyrene (P S) blends modified by radiation induced methods. I. transparency and structure morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nagger, A.M.; Ibrahim, M.S.; Said, H.M.; Zahran, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    The compatibility of polypropylene (P P)/polystyrene (P S) polymer blends modified through gamma radiation or accelerated electrons has been investigated. Two methods were suggested; either by exposing pp component or by exposing the melt extruded mixed polymers to both type of radiation. The modified blends were characterized by measuring the colour interceptions and observing the structure morphology by scanning electron microscope (SEM). A method was proposed depending on the measurement of the transparency (L * ) of the films of pure polymers and their blend before and after they had been modified by high-energy radiation. The transparency values were used to calculate quantitatively the percentage compatibility of pp/ps blends. The results showed that irradiation process through the two methods used in this work improved the compatibility of P P/P S blends. However, modification through exposing the mixed polymers is more effective than exposing pp component prior to melt extrusion mixing. The modification through irradiating mixed blends gamma radiation tends to yield improved modification than with E B radiation. On the other hand, the fracture surfaces of the blends examined by SEM gives further supports to the results of transparency measurements

  2. Development of a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan: a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizawa, Yoshiyuki; Tsuneto, Satoru; Tamba, Kaichiro; Takamiya, Yusuke; Morita, Tatsuya; Bito, Seiji; Otaki, Junji

    2012-07-01

    There is currently no consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan, although the Cancer Control Act proposed in 2007 covers the dissemination of palliative care. To develop a nationwide consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education in Japan using a modified Delphi method. We adopted the following three-step method: (1) a workshop to produce the draft syllabus; (2) a survey-based provisional syllabus; (3) Delphi rounds and a panel meeting (modified Delphi method) to produce the working syllabus. Educators in charge of palliative medicine from 63% of the medical schools in Japan collaborated to develop a survey-based provisional syllabus before the Delphi rounds. A panel of 32 people was then formed for the modified Delphi rounds comprising 28 educators and experts in palliative medicine, one cancer survivor, one bereaved family member, and two medical students. The final consensus syllabus consists of 115 learning objectives across seven sections as follows: basic principles; disease process and comprehensive assessment; symptom management; psychosocial care; cultural, religious, and spiritual issues; ethical issues; and legal frameworks. Learning objectives were categorized as essential or desirable (essential: 66; desirable: 49). A consensus syllabus of palliative medicine for undergraduate medical education was developed using a clear and innovative methodology. The final consensus syllabus will be made available for further dissemination of palliative care education throughout the country.

  3. Connotations of pixel-based scale effect in remote sensing and the modified fractal-based analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guixiang; Ming, Dongping; Wang, Min; Yang, Jianyu

    2017-06-01

    Scale problems are a major source of concern in the field of remote sensing. Since the remote sensing is a complex technology system, there is a lack of enough cognition on the connotation of scale and scale effect in remote sensing. Thus, this paper first introduces the connotations of pixel-based scale and summarizes the general understanding of pixel-based scale effect. Pixel-based scale effect analysis is essentially important for choosing the appropriate remote sensing data and the proper processing parameters. Fractal dimension is a useful measurement to analysis pixel-based scale. However in traditional fractal dimension calculation, the impact of spatial resolution is not considered, which leads that the scale effect change with spatial resolution can't be clearly reflected. Therefore, this paper proposes to use spatial resolution as the modified scale parameter of two fractal methods to further analyze the pixel-based scale effect. To verify the results of two modified methods (MFBM (Modified Windowed Fractal Brownian Motion Based on the Surface Area) and MDBM (Modified Windowed Double Blanket Method)); the existing scale effect analysis method (information entropy method) is used to evaluate. And six sub-regions of building areas and farmland areas were cut out from QuickBird images to be used as the experimental data. The results of the experiment show that both the fractal dimension and information entropy present the same trend with the decrease of spatial resolution, and some inflection points appear at the same feature scales. Further analysis shows that these feature scales (corresponding to the inflection points) are related to the actual sizes of the geo-object, which results in fewer mixed pixels in the image, and these inflection points are significantly indicative of the observed features. Therefore, the experiment results indicate that the modified fractal methods are effective to reflect the pixel-based scale effect existing in remote sensing

  4. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2014-10-31

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  5. Modified Pressure-Correction Projection Methods: Open Boundary and Variable Time Stepping

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Lee, Sanghyun

    2014-01-01

    © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. In this paper, we design and study two modifications of the first order standard pressure increment projection scheme for the Stokes system. The first scheme improves the existing schemes in the case of open boundary condition by modifying the pressure increment boundary condition, thereby minimizing the pressure boundary layer and recovering the optimal first order decay. The second scheme allows for variable time stepping. It turns out that the straightforward modification to variable time stepping leads to unstable schemes. The proposed scheme is not only stable but also exhibits the optimal first order decay. Numerical computations illustrating the theoretical estimates are provided for both new schemes.

  6. Development of melting temperature-based SYBR Green I polymerase chain reaction methods for multiplex genetically modified organism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Marta; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David; Esteve, Teresa; Prat, Salomé; Pla, Maria

    2003-12-15

    Commercialization of several genetically modified crops has been approved worldwide to date. Uniplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods to identify these different insertion events have been developed, but their use in the analysis of all commercially available genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is becoming progressively insufficient. These methods require a large number of assays to detect all possible GMOs present in the sample and thereby the development of multiplex PCR systems using combined probes and primers targeted to sequences specific to various GMOs is needed for detection of this increasing number of GMOs. Here we report on the development of a multiplex real-time PCR suitable for multiple GMO identification, based on the intercalating dye SYBR Green I and the analysis of the melting curves of the amplified products. Using this method, different amplification products specific for Maximizer 176, Bt11, MON810, and GA21 maize and for GTS 40-3-2 soybean were obtained and identified by their specific Tm. We have combined amplification of these products in a number of multiplex reactions and show the suitability of the methods for identification of GMOs with a sensitivity of 0.1% in duplex reactions. The described methods offer an economic and simple alternative to real-time PCR systems based on sequence-specific probes (i.e., TaqMan chemistry). These methods can be used as selection tests and further optimized for uniplex GMO quantification.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of the aluminium phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum by hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łuczka Kinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of the aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium and molybdenum were conducted. The influence of process parameters (reactive pressure and molar ratios in the reaction mixture were studied. The contents of the individual components in the products were in the range of: 10.97–17.31 wt% Al, 2.65–13.32 wt% Ca, 0.70–3.11 wt% Mo, 4.36–8.38 wt% NH3, and 35.12–50.54 wt% P2O5. The materials obtained in the experiments were characterized by various physicochemical parameters. The absorption oil number was in the range from 67 to 89 of oil/100 g of product, the surface area was within the range of 4–76 m2/g, whereas the average particle size of products reached 282–370 nm. The Tafel tests revealed comparable anticorrosive properties of aluminum phosphates modified with ammonium, calcium, molybdenum in comparison with commercial phosphate.

  8. Magnetic studies of cobalt doped barium hexaferrite nanoparticles prepared by modified sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalini, M. Govindaraj; Sahoo, Subasa C.

    2016-01-01

    M-type barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_2O_1_9) and cobalt doped barium hexaferrite (BaFe_1_1CoO_1_9) nanopowders were synthesized by modified sol-gel auto-combustion technique and were annealed at 900°C in air for 4 hours. The annealed powders were studied in the present work and X-ray diffraction studies showed pure phase formation after annealing. The average grain size in the nanopowder sample was decreased after doping. Magnetization value of 60 emu/g was observed at 300 K for the barium hexaferrite and was reduced to 54 emu/g after doping. The coercivity of 5586 Oe was observed at 300 K for the undoped sample and was found to be decreased in the doped sample. As the measurement temperature was decreased from 300 K to 60 K, magnetization value was increased in both the samples compared to those at 300 K. The coercivity of the undoped sample was found to decrease whereas it was increased for the doped sample at 60 K. The observed magnetic properties may be understood on the basis of modified exchange interaction and anisotropy in the doped sample compared to that of pure barium hexaferrite.

  9. Detection of mercury ions using L-cysteine modified electrodes by anodic stripping voltammetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanitha, M.; Balasubramanian, N.; Joni, I. Made; Panatarani, Camellia

    2018-02-01

    The detection of contaminants in wastewater is of massive importance in today's situation as they pose a serious threat to the environment as well as humans. One such vital contaminants is mercury and its compound, the reported mercury detectors grieve from low sensitivity, high cost and slow response. In the present work graphene based electrode material is developed for sensing mercury contaminants in wastewater using electrochemical technique. The synthesized material graphene oxide (GO) modified with L-Cysteine in presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as capping agent was characterized using SEM, TEM and Raman Spectroscopic analysis. It is ascertained from the morphological characterization that the nanocomposite exhibits a spherical morphology. The L-cysteine modified graphene oxide electrode is electrochemically characterized using redox couple [Fe(CN)63-/4-] and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) analysis. Electrochemical sensing of Hg (II) ions in solution was done using Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV). The incorporation of graphene significantly increases the sensitivity and selectivity towards mercury sensing.

  10. Modified Method for Detection of Benzoylecgonine in Human Urine by GC-MS: Derivatization Using Pentafluoropropanol/Acetic Anhydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Michelle C; Paulemon, Kasandra M; Fuller, Zachary J; Bronner, William E

    2017-05-01

    An existing GC-MS method for detecting benzoylecgonine (BZE) in urine was modified by changing derivatizing reagents. This method modification presents a cost-effective alternative derivatization procedure for the detection of BZE in urine by GC-MS. The combination of pentafluoropropanol and acetic anhydride was found to produce the same reaction product for BZE as pentafluoropropanol with pentafluoropropionic anhydride, while reducing reagent cost. With no anhydride present, derivatization of BZE by pentafluoropropanol did not occur. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Half-space albedo problem with modified F{sub N} method for linear and quadratic anisotropic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuereci, R.G. [Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey). Kirikkale Vocational School; Tuereci, D. [Ministry of Education, Ankara (Turkey). 75th year Anatolia High School

    2017-05-15

    One speed, time independent and homogeneous medium neutron transport equation can be solved with the anisotropic scattering which includes both the linear anisotropic and the quadratic anisotropic scattering properties. Having solved Case's eigenfunctions and the orthogonality relations among these eigenfunctions, some neutron transport problems such as albedo problem can be calculated as numerically by using numerical or semi-analytic methods. In this study the half-space albedo problem is investigated by using the modified F{sub N} method.

  12. Is This the Carbapenemase Test We've Been Waiting for? A Multicenter Evaluation of the Modified Carbapenem Inactivation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Wu, Susan M; Abbott, April N

    2017-08-01

    A plethora of phenotypic methods exist for the detection of carbapenemases; however, clinical laboratories have struggled for years with accurate, objective phenotypic detection of carbapenemase activity in Enterobacteriaceae In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology , V. M. Pierce et al. (J Clin Microbiol 55:2321-2333, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00193-17) report on a multicenter evaluation of the modified carbapenem inactivation method (mCIM). The high sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and ease of interpretation associated with the mCIM for Enterobacteriaceae will likely lead to its adoption by clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  13. A modified precise integration method based on Magnus expansion for transient response analysis of time varying dynamical structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Cong; Ren, Xingmin; Yang, Yongfeng; Deng, Wangqun

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a precise and efficacious methodology for manifesting forced vibration response with respect to the time-variant linear rotational structure subjected to unbalanced excitation. A modified algorithm based on time step precise integration method and Magnus expansion is developed for instantaneous dynamic problems. The iterative solution is achieved by the ideology of transition and dimensional increment matrix. Numerical examples on a typical accelerating rotation system considering gyroscopic moment and mass unbalance force comparatively demonstrate the validity, effectiveness and accuracy with Newmark-β method. It is shown that the proposed algorithm has high accuracy without loss efficiency.

  14. Approximate Analytical Solutions for Mathematical Model of Tumour Invasion and Metastasis Using Modified Adomian Decomposition and Homotopy Perturbation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhasimah Mahiddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified decomposition method (MDM and homotopy perturbation method (HPM are applied to obtain the approximate solution of the nonlinear model of tumour invasion and metastasis. The study highlights the significant features of the employed methods and their ability to handle nonlinear partial differential equations. The methods do not need linearization and weak nonlinearity assumptions. Although the main difference between MDM and Adomian decomposition method (ADM is a slight variation in the definition of the initial condition, modification eliminates massive computation work. The approximate analytical solution obtained by MDM logically contains the solution obtained by HPM. It shows that HPM does not involve the Adomian polynomials when dealing with nonlinear problems.

  15. Comparison of COD, R6, and J-contour integral methods of defect assessment, modified to give critical flaw sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdekin, F.M.; Turner, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    A comparative study of the application of different elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to the calculation of critical defect sizes in pressure vessels showed widely varying results. The present authors have investigated in detail the reasons for the variations resulting from the use of the CEGB R6, COD design curve, and J-design curve methods to the particular pressure vessel problems. To obtain reasonable agreement between the three methods for the calculation of critical flaw sizes in high stress gradient situations, the published COD method in PD6493 has to be modified to remove its inherent safety factor, and to allow for stress gradients, and a consistent treatment for gross yielding/collapse has to be adopted for all three methods. (author)

  16. Newton-Raphson based modified Laplace Adomian decomposition method for solving quadratic Riccati differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishra Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical Laplace transform method is applied to approximate the solution of nonlinear (quadratic Riccati differential equations mingled with Adomian decomposition method. A new technique is proposed in this work by reintroducing the unknown function in Adomian polynomial with that of well known Newton-Raphson formula. The solutions obtained by the iterative algorithm are exhibited in an infinite series. The simplicity and efficacy of method is manifested with some examples in which comparisons are made among the exact solutions, ADM (Adomian decomposition method, HPM (Homotopy perturbation method, Taylor series method and the proposed scheme.

  17. A modified HPLC method improves the simultaneous determination of plasma kynurenine and tryptophan concentrations in patients following maintenance hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    XIAO, CHENGGEN; CHEN, YUANHAN; LIANG, XINLING; XIE, ZHEN; ZHANG, MIN; LI, RUIZHAO; LI, ZHILIAN; FU, XIA; YU, XIYONG; SHI, WEI

    2014-01-01

    The ratio between plasma kynurenine (Kyn) and tryptophan (Trp) serves as a marker of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, a critical immunomodulatory molecule. Simultaneous detection of the two markers may be performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, for uremic patients, the conventional detection method may be affected by a range of accumulated toxins. The current study aimed to establish a method for the simultaneous measurement of Kyn and Trp in patients following maintenance hemodialysis via HPLC-ultraviolet detection. The procedure involved the use of a SinoChrom ODS-BP C18 column (4.6×150 mm; inner diameter, 4.5 μm) and a mobile phase of 15 mmol/l sodium acetate acetic acid solution (containing 5% acetonitrile, pH 4.8). The modified method was verified using plasma samples from 10 healthy controls and 91 maintenance hemodialysis patients. The results demonstrated that the modified method was successful in simultaneously detecting the concentrations of Trp and Kyn in the healthy controls and maintenance hemodialysis patients. The method is simple, fast, accurate and suitable for clinical and research purposes in maintenance hemodialysis patients. PMID:24669249

  18. Low-cost metal oxide activated carbon prepared and modified by microwave heating method for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, S. E. [Islamic Azad University, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Novel microporous activated carbon (MAC) with high surface area and pore volume has been synthesized by microwave heating. Iron oxide nanoparticles were loaded into MAC by using Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O followed by microwave irradiation for up to five minutes. The surface modified microporous activated carbon was characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and thermogravimetric examinations. Adsorption data of H{sub 2} on the unmodified and modified MACs were collected with PCT method for a pressure range up to 120 bar at 303 K. Greater hydrogen adsorption was observed on the carbon adsorbents doped with 1.45 wt% of iron oxide nanoparticle loaded due to the joint properties of hydrogen adsorption on the carbon surface and the spill-over of hydrogen molecules into carbon structures.

  19. Effectiveness of modified 1-hour air-oven moisture methods for determining popcorn moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the most commonly used approved grain moisture air-oven reference methods are the air oven method ASAE S352.2, which requires long heating time (72-h) for unground samples, and the AACC 44-15.02 air-oven method, which dries a ground sample for 1 hr, but there is specific moisture measurement ...

  20. Evaluation and Recalibration of Empirical Constant for Estimation of Reference Crop Evapotranspiration against the Modified Penman Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasireka, K.; Jagan Mohan Reddy, C.; Charan Reddy, C.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The major demand in our country is irrigation demand. Looking to the low irrigation potential and small water resources, it is felt necessary to see that water must be used economically and efficiently. This may be achieved by using latest methods of determination of water requirements for crops and applying the proper water management practices. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a basic for calculation of water requirement for crops. The various popular empirical equations for reference crop evapotranspiration (ETr) belong to three categories namely, Temperature, Radiation based methods and Combined methods. The above methods are site specific; hence it is necessary to recalibrate the coefficients for applying them in India. In the present paper, the standard combined method namely FAO modified Penman method was used to recalibrate the constants in temperature based (TB) methods and it can also be used to determine the ETr for the selected station. Four TB evapotranspiration models namely Blaney-Criddle, Romanenko, Kharrufa, and, Thronthwaite methods are recalibrated and the constant in each method are redefined for the data from Lekkur station, Cuddalore district in India. The result shows that, large error existed when ETr has been calculated with original constants. Hence regression equations were developed to minimise these variations in magnitude. It was found that out of four methods the Blaney-Criddle method suits better for the selected region.

  1. Modified Spectral Projected Subgradient Method: Convergence Analysis and Momentum Parameter Heuristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Loreto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Spectral Projected Subgradient (MSPS was proposed to solve Langrangen Dual Problems, and its convergence was shown when the momentum term was zero. The MSPS uses a momentum term in order to speed up its convergence. The momentum term is built on the multiplication of a momentum parameter and the direction of the previous iterate. In this work, we show convergence when the momentum parameter is a non-zero constant. We also propose heuristics to choose the momentum parameter intended to avoid the Zigzagging Phenomenon of Kind I. This phenomenon is present in the MSPS when at an iterate the subgradient forms an obtuse angle with the previous direction. We identify and diminish the Zigzagging Phenomenon of Kind I on Setcovering problems, and compare our numerical results to those of the original MSPS algorithm.

  2. Derivation of a Performance Checklist for Ultrasound-Guided Arthrocentesis Using the Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Derek; Pariyadath, Manoj; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David; Hartman, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    Arthrocentesis is an important skill for physicians in multiple specialties. Recent studies indicate a superior safety and performance profile for this procedure using ultrasound guidance for needle placement, and improving quality of care requires a valid measurement of competency using this modality. We endeavored to create a validated tool to assess the performance of this procedure using the modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States. We derived a 22-item checklist designed to assess competency for the completion of ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis, which demonstrated a Cronbach's alpha of 0.89, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Although we were able to demonstrate content validity for this tool, further validity evidence should be acquired after the tool is used and studied in clinical and simulated contexts. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Improvement of life prediction accuracy by introduction of strain-rate effect into modified ductility exhaustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yukio

    1994-01-01

    It is important to use a reliable creep-fatigue damage evaluation method to prevent failures due to creep-fatigue damage accumulated during operation life in the structural design for fast breeder reactor plants. In this study, slow strain-rate fatigue tests were conducted for SUS316 steel for fast breeder application (316FR) and the improvement of creep-fatigue life estimation method was proposed based on test results. Main results can be summarized as follows: (1) In the slow strain-rate fatigue tests, life reduction caused by creep damage was observed as in the case of strain-hold creep-fatigue tests. (2) Strain-rate dependency of creep damage was introduced into the modified ductility exhaustion method previously proposed by the author. Good agreement of predicted lives with observed lives was achieved for SUS304 and 316FR steels with the method proposed here. (author)

  4. A New Modified Three-Term Conjugate Gradient Method with Sufficient Descent Property and Its Global Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtawar Baluch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new modified three-term conjugate gradient (CG method is shown for solving the large scale optimization problems. The idea relates to the famous Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP formula. As the numerator of PRP plays a vital role in numerical result and not having the jamming issue, PRP method is not globally convergent. So, for the new three-term CG method, the idea is to use the PRP numerator and combine it with any good CG formula’s denominator that performs well. The new modification of three-term CG method possesses the sufficient descent condition independent of any line search. The novelty is that by using the Wolfe Powell line search the new modification possesses global convergence properties with convex and nonconvex functions. Numerical computation with the Wolfe Powell line search by using the standard test function of optimization shows the efficiency and robustness of the new modification.

  5. The modified extended Fan's sub-equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yomba, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    By using a modified extended Fan's sub-equation method, we have obtained new and more general solutions including a series of non-travelling wave and coefficient function solutions namely: soliton-like solutions, triangular-like solutions, single and combined non-degenerative Jacobi elliptic wave function-like solutions for the (2 + 1)-dimensional dispersive long wave equation. The most important achievement of this method lies on the fact that, we have succeeded in one move to give all the solutions which can be previously obtained by application of at least four methods (method using Riccati equation, or first kind elliptic equation, or auxiliary ordinary equation, or generalized Riccati equation as mapping equation)

  6. Application of the modified neutron source multiplication method for a measurement of sub-criticality in AGN-201K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung-Hyun Kim

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of sub-criticality is a challenging and required task in nuclear industry both for nuclear criticality safety and physics test in nuclear power plant. A relatively new method named as Modified Neutron Source Multiplication Method (MNSM) was proposed in Japan. This method is an improvement of traditional Neutron Source Multiplication (NSM) Method, in which three correction factors are applied additionally. In this study, MNSM was tested in calculation of rod worth using an educational reactor in Kyung Hee University, AGN-201K. For this study, a revised nuclear data library and a neutron transport code system TRANSX-PARTISN were used for the calculation of correction factors for various control rod positions and source locations. Experiments were designed and performed to enhance errors in NSM from the location effects of source and detectors. MNSM can correct these effects but current results showed not much correction effects. (author)

  7. Improved microscopical detection of acid-fast bacilli by the modified bleach method in lymphnode aspirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annam Vamseedhar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To improve the smear microscopy for detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC of lymph node using the bleach method and also to compare this with cytological diagnosis and the conventional Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN method. Study Design: In 99 consecutive patients with clinical suspicion of tuberculosis (TB presenting with lymphadenopathy, FNACs were performed. Smears from the aspirates were processed for routine cytology and the conventional ZN method. The remaining material in the needle hub and/or the syringe was used for the bleach method. The significance of the bleach method over the conventional ZN method and cytology was analyzed using the χ2 test. Results: Of 99 aspirates, 93 were studied and the remaining six were excluded from the study due to diagnosis of malignancy in 4.04% (4/6 and inadequate aspiration in 2.02% (2/6. Among the 93 aspirates, 33.33% (31/93 were positive for AFB on conventional ZN method, 41.94% (39/93 were indicative of TB on cytology and the smear positivity increased to 63.44% (59/93 on bleach method. Conclusion: The bleach method is simple, inexpensive and potent disinfectant, also limiting the risk of laboratory-acquired infections. The implementation of the bleach method clearly improves microscopic detection and can be a useful contribution to routine cytology.

  8. Development and validation of an event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize MIR162.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2014-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize event, MIR162. We first prepared a standard plasmid for MIR162 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf) required to calculate the genetically modified organism (GMO) amount was empirically determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (ABI7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (ABI7500) for which the determined Cf values were 0.697 and 0.635, respectively. To validate the developed method, a blind test was carried out in an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined biases were less than 25% and the RSDr values were less than 20% at all evaluated concentrations. These results suggested that the limit of quantitation of the method was 0.5%, and that the developed method would thus be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of MIR162.

  9. [A comparative study of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of fungemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Axel Rodolfo; Hernández, Betsy; Rodríguez, Marina; Romero, Hilda

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare the efficacy of blood culture conventional method vs. a modified lysis/centrifugation technique. Out of 450 blood specimens received in one year, 100 where chosen for this comparative study: 60 from patients with AIDS, 15 from leukemic patients, ten from febrile neutropenic patients, five from patients with respiratory infections, five from diabetics and five from septicemic patients. The specimens were processed, simultaneously, according to the above mentioned methodologies with daily inspections searching for fungal growth in order to obtain the final identification of the causative agent. The number (40) of isolates recovered was the same using both methods, which included; 18 Candida albicans (45%), ten Candida spp. (25%), ten Histoplasma capsulatum (25%), and two Cryptococcus neoformans (5%). When the fungal growth time was compared by both methods, growth was more rapid when using the modified lysis/centrifugation technique than when using the conventional method. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference (pcentrifugation technique showed to be more efficacious than the conventional one, and therefore the implementation of this methodology is highly recommended for the isolation of fungi from blood.

  10. Development and validation of a 48-target analytical method for high-throughput monitoring of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofei; Wu, Yuhua; Li, Jun; Li, Yunjing; Long, Likun; Li, Feiwu; Wu, Gang

    2015-01-05

    The rapid increase in the number of genetically modified (GM) varieties has led to a demand for high-throughput methods to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We describe a new dynamic array-based high throughput method to simultaneously detect 48 targets in 48 samples on a Fludigm system. The test targets included species-specific genes, common screening elements, most of the Chinese-approved GM events, and several unapproved events. The 48 TaqMan assays successfully amplified products from both single-event samples and complex samples with a GMO DNA amount of 0.05 ng, and displayed high specificity. To improve the sensitivity of detection, a preamplification step for 48 pooled targets was added to enrich the amount of template before performing dynamic chip assays. This dynamic chip-based method allowed the synchronous high-throughput detection of multiple targets in multiple samples. Thus, it represents an efficient, qualitative method for GMO multi-detection.

  11. A Modified AH-FDTD Unconditionally Stable Method Based on High-Order Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The unconditionally stable method, Associated-Hermite FDTD, has attracted more and more attentions in computational electromagnetic for its time-frequency compact property. Because of the fewer orders of AH basis needed in signal reconstruction, the computational efficiency can be improved further. In order to further improve the accuracy of the traditional AH-FDTD, a high-order algorithm is introduced. Using this method, the dispersion error induced by the space grid can be reduced, which makes it possible to set coarser grid. The simulation results show that, on the condition of coarse grid, the waveforms obtained from the proposed method are matched well with the analytic result, and the accuracy of the proposed method is higher than the traditional AH-FDTD. And the efficiency of the proposed method is higher than the traditional FDTD method in analysing 2D waveguide problems with fine-structure.

  12. A combined approach for the enhancement and segmentation of mammograms using modified fuzzy C-means method in wavelet domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Subodh; Sharma, Neeraj; Singh, S K; Srivastava, R

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a combined approach for enhancement and segmentation of mammograms is proposed. In preprocessing stage, a contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) method is applied to obtain the better contrast mammograms. After this, the proposed combined methods are applied. In the first step of the proposed approach, a two dimensional (2D) discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is applied to all the input images. In the second step, a proposed nonlinear complex diffusion based unsharp masking and crispening method is applied on the approximation coefficients of the wavelet transformed images to further highlight the abnormalities such as micro-calcifications, tumours, etc., to reduce the false positives (FPs). Thirdly, a modified fuzzy c-means (FCM) segmentation method is applied on the output of the second step. In the modified FCM method, the mutual information is proposed as a similarity measure in place of conventional Euclidian distance based dissimilarity measure for FCM segmentation. Finally, the inverse 2D-DWT is applied. The efficacy of the proposed unsharp masking and crispening method for image enhancement is evaluated in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and that of the proposed segmentation method is evaluated in terms of random index (RI), global consistency error (GCE), and variation of information (VoI). The performance of the proposed segmentation approach is compared with the other commonly used segmentation approaches such as Otsu's thresholding, texture based, k-means, and FCM clustering as well as thresholding. From the obtained results, it is observed that the proposed segmentation approach performs better and takes lesser processing time in comparison to the standard FCM and other segmentation methods in consideration.

  13. A Modified Limited-Memory BNS Method for Unconstrained Minimization Based on the Conjugate Directions Idea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlček, Jan; Lukšan, Ladislav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 3 (2015), s. 616-633 ISSN 1055-6788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : unconstrained minimization * variable metric methods * limited-memory methods * the BFGS update * conjugate directions * numerical results Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.841, year: 2015

  14. The modified simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Efimova, Olga Yu.

    2010-01-01

    The modification of simplest equation method to look for exact solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations is presented. Using this method we obtain exact solutions of generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation with cubic source and exact solutions of third-order Kudryashov-Sinelshchikov equation describing nonlinear waves in liquids with gas bubbles.

  15. Effect of two prophylaxis methods on marginal gap of Cl Vresin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimyai, Soodabeh; Pournaghi-Azar, Fatemeh; Daneshpooy, Mehdi; Abed Kahnamoii, Mehdi; Davoodi, Farnaz

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study evaluated the effect of two prophylaxis techniques on the marginal gap of CI V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations. Methods. Standard Cl V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 48 sound bovine mandibular incisors in this in vitro study. After restoration of the cavities with GC Fuji II LC resin-modified glass-ionomer, the samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 16. In group 1, the prophylactic procedures were carried out with rubber cup and pumice powder and in group 2 with air-powder polishing device (APD). In group 3 (control), the samples did not undergo any prophylactic procedures. Then the marginal gaps were measured. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare marginal gaps at the occlusal and gingival margins between the groups. Post hoc Tukey test was used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was set at P marginal gaps in terms of prophylactic techniques (P marginal gaps in the APD group compared to the pumice and rubber cup group, which in turn exhibited significantly larger marginal gaps compared to the control group (P marginal gaps were significant in terms of the margin type (P margins compared to the occlusal margins (P marginal gaps of Cl V resin-modified glass-ionomer restorations.

  16. Molecular dynamics for near melting temperatures simulations of metals using modified embedded-atom method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etesami, S. Alireza; Asadi, Ebrahim

    2018-01-01

    Availability of a reliable interatomic potential is one of the major challenges in utilizing molecular dynamics (MD) for simulations of metals at near the melting temperatures and melting point (MP). Here, we propose a novel approach to address this challenge in the concept of modified-embedded-atom (MEAM) interatomic potential; also, we apply the approach on iron, nickel, copper, and aluminum as case studies. We propose adding experimentally available high temperature elastic constants and MP of the element to the list of typical low temperature properties used for the development of MD interatomic potential parameters. We show that the proposed approach results in a reasonable agreement between the MD calculations of melting properties such as latent heat, expansion in melting, liquid structure factor, and solid-liquid interface stiffness and their experimental/computational counterparts. Then, we present the physical properties of mentioned elements near melting temperatures using the new MEAM parameters. We observe that the behavior of elastic constants, heat capacity and thermal linear expansion coefficient at room temperature compared to MP follows an empirical linear relation (α±β × MP) for transition metals. Furthermore, a linear relation between the tetragonal shear modulus and the enthalpy change from room temperature to MP is observed for face-centered cubic materials.

  17. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Daniil

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS, in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1 the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2 the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3 adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4 using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  18. Laboratory modelling of the wind-wave interaction with modified PIV-method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Caulliez, Guillemette; Bopp, Maximilian; Jaehne, Bernd

    Laboratory experiments on studying the structure of the turbulent air boundary layer over waves were carried out at the Wind-Wave Flume of the Large Thermostratified Tank of the Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), in conditions modeling the near water boundary layer of the atmosphere under strong and hurricane winds and the equivalent wind velocities from 10 to 48 m/s at the standard height of 10 m. A modified technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) was used to obtain turbulent pulsation averaged velocity fields of the air flow over the water surface curved by a wave and average profiles of the wind velocity. The main modifications are: 1) the use of high-speed video recording (1000-10000 frames/sec) with continuous laser illumination helps to obtain ensemble of the velocity fields in all phases of the wavy surface for subsequent statistical processing; 2) the development and application of special algorithms for obtaining form of the curvilinear wavy surface of the images for the conditions of parasitic images of the particles and the droplets in the air side close to the surface; 3) adaptive cross-correlation image processing to finding the velocity fields on a curved grid, caused by wave boarder; 4) using Hilbert transform to detect the phase of the wave in which the measured velocity field for subsequent appropriate binning within procedure obtaining the average characteristics.

  19. Credible knowledge: A pilot evaluation of a modified GRADE method using parent-implemented interventions for children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Adrienne

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision-making in child and youth mental health (CYMH care requires recommendations that are developed through an efficient and effective method and are based on credible knowledge. Credible knowledge is informed by two sources: scientific evidence, and practice-based evidence, that reflects the "real world" experience of service providers. Current approaches to developing these recommendations in relation to CYMH will typically include evidence from one source or the other but do not have an objective method to combine the two. To this end, a modified version of the Grading Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE approach was pilot-tested, a novel method for the CYMH field. Methods GRADE has an explicit methodology that relies on input from scientific evidence as well as a panel of experts. The panel established the quality of evidence and derived detailed recommendations regarding the organization and delivery of mental health care for children and youth or their caregivers. In this study a modified GRADE method was used to provide precise recommendations based on a specific CYMH question (i.e. What is the current credible knowledge concerning the effects of parent-implemented, early intervention with their autistic children?. Results Overall, it appeared that early, parent-implemented interventions for autism result in positive effects that outweigh any undesirable effects. However, as opposed to overall recommendations, the heterogeneity of the evidence required that recommendations be specific to particular interventions, based on the questions of whether the benefits of a particular intervention outweighs its harms. Conclusions This pilot project provided evidence that a modified GRADE method may be an effective and practical approach to making recommendations in CYMH, based on credible knowledge. Key strengths of the process included separating the assessments of the quality of the evidence and

  20. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  1. Comparison of chest compression quality between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method during CPR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Sub

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to grasp difference in quality of chest compression accuracy between the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone application and the standardized traditional chest compression method. Participants were progressed 64 people except 6 absentees among 70 people who agreed to participation with completing the CPR curriculum. In the classification of group in participants, the modified chest compression method was called as smartphone group (33 people). The standardized chest compression method was called as traditional group (31 people). The common equipments in both groups were used Manikin for practice and Manikin for evaluation. In the meantime, the smartphone group for application was utilized Android and iOS Operating System (OS) of 2 smartphone products (G, i). The measurement period was conducted from September 25th to 26th, 2012. Data analysis was used SPSS WIN 12.0 program. As a result of research, the proper compression depth (mm) was shown the proper compression depth (p< 0.01) in traditional group (53.77 mm) compared to smartphone group (48.35 mm). Even the proper chest compression (%) was formed suitably (p< 0.05) in traditional group (73.96%) more than smartphone group (60.51%). As for the awareness of chest compression accuracy, the traditional group (3.83 points) had the higher awareness of chest compression accuracy (p< 0.001) than the smartphone group (2.32 points). In the questionnaire that was additionally carried out 1 question only in smartphone group, the modified chest compression method with the use of smartphone had the high negative reason in rescuer for occurrence of hand back pain (48.5%) and unstable posture (21.2%).

  2. Density of Ni-Al Alloys in Liquid and Solid-Liquid Coexistence State Measured by a Modified Pycnometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang FANG; Feng XIAO; Zushu LI; Zainan TAO

    2004-01-01

    The density of Ni-Al alloys in both liquid state and solid-liquid coexistence state was measured with a modified pycnometric method. It was found that the density of NI-Al alloys decreases with increasing temperature and Al concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Al binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and Al concentration. The partial molar volume of Al in NI-Al binary alloy was calculated approximately. The molar volume of liquid NI-Al alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear molar volume.

  3. Mid and long-term optimize scheduling of cascade hydro-power stations based on modified GA-POA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Li

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, to explore the efficiency and rationality of the cascade combined generation, a cascade combined optimal model with the maximum generating capacity is established, and solving the model by the modified GA-POA method. It provides a useful reference for the joint development of cascade hydro-power stations in large river basins. The typical annual runoff data are selected to calculate the difference between the calculated results under different representative years. The results show that the cascade operation of cascaded hydro-power stations can significantly increase the overall power generation of cascade and ease the flood risk caused by concentration of flood season.

  4. A Stabilized Finite Element Method for Modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck Equations to Determine Ion Flow Through a Nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Jehanzeb Hameed; Comer, Jeffrey; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Olson, Luke N.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations do not account for the finite size of ions explicitly. This leads to solutions featuring unrealistically high ionic concentrations in the regions subject to external potentials, in particular, near highly charged surfaces. A modified form of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations accounts for steric effects and results in solutions with finite ion concentrations. Here, we evaluate numerical methods for solving the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations by modeling electric field-driven transport of ions through a nanopore. We describe a novel, robust finite element solver that combines the applications of the Newton's method to the nonlinear Galerkin form of the equations, augmented with stabilization terms to appropriately handle the drift-diffusion processes. To make direct comparison with particle-based simulations possible, our method is specifically designed to produce solutions under periodic boundary conditions and to conserve the number of ions in the solution domain. We test our finite element solver on a set of challenging numerical experiments that include calculations of the ion distribution in a volume confined between two charged plates, calculations of the ionic current though a nanopore subject to an external electric field, and modeling the effect of a DNA molecule on the ion concentration and nanopore current. PMID:24363784

  5. Adaptive Multiscale Noise Control Enhanced Stochastic Resonance Method Based on Modified EEMD with Its Application in Bearing Fault Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimeng Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of mechanical equipment becomes increasingly complex, and tough environments under which it works often make bearings and gears subject to failure. However, effective extraction of useful feature information submerged in strong noise that is indicative of structural defects has remained a major challenge. Therefore, an adaptive multiscale noise control enhanced stochastic resonance (SR method based on modified ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD for mechanical fault diagnosis is proposed in the paper. According to the oscillation characteristics of signal itself, the algorithm of modified EEMD can adaptively decompose the fault signals into different scales and it reduces the decomposition levels to improve calculation efficiency of the proposed method. Through filter processing with the constructed filters, the orthogonality of adjacent intrinsic mode functions (IMFs can be improved, which is conducive to enhancing the extraction of weak features from strong noise. The constructed signal obtained by using IMFs is inputted into the SR system, and the noise control parameter of different scales is optimized and selected with the help of the genetic algorithm, thus achieving the enhancement extraction of weak features. Finally, simulation experiments and engineering application of bearing fault diagnosis demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  6. Immobilization of glucoamylase on ceramic membrane surfaces modified with a new method of treatment utilizing SPCP-CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida; Matsuyama; Yamamoto

    2000-07-01

    Glucoamylase, as a model enzyme, was immobilized on a ceramic membrane modified by surface corona discharge induced plasma chemical process-chemical vapor deposition (SPCP-CVD). Characterizations of the immobilized enzyme were then discussed. Three kinds of ceramic membranes with different amounts of amino groups on the surface were prepared utilizing the SPCP-CVD method. Each with 1-time, 3-times and 5-times surface modification treatments and used for supports in glucoamylase immobilization. The amount of immobilized glucoamylase increased with the increase in the number of surface modification treatments and saturated to a certain maximum value estimated by a two-dimensional random packing. The operational stability of the immobilized glucoamylase also increased with the increase in the number of the surface treatment. It was almost the same as the conventional method, while the activity of immobilized enzyme was higher. The results indicated the possibility of designing the performance of the immobilized enzyme by controlling the amount of amino groups. The above results showed that the completely new surface modification method using SPCP was effective in modifying ceramic membranes for enzyme immobilization.

  7. Application of a modified rational harmonic balance method for a class of strongly nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Gimeno, E.; Alvarez, M.L.; Mendez, D.I.; Hernandez, A.

    2008-01-01

    An analytical approximate technique for conservative nonlinear oscillators is proposed. This method is a modification of the rational harmonic balance method in which analytical approximate solutions have rational form. This approach gives us the frequency of the motion as a function of the amplitude of oscillation. We find that this method works very well for the whole range of parameters, and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies with the exact one has been demonstrated and discussed. The most significant features of this method are its simplicity and its excellent accuracy for the whole range of oscillation amplitude values and the results reveal that this technique is very effective and convenient for solving conservative truly nonlinear oscillatory systems with complex nonlinearities

  8. Real-Time PCR-Based Quantitation Method for the Genetically Modified Soybean Line GTS 40-3-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitta, Kazumi; Takabatake, Reona; Mano, Junichi

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a real-time PCR-based method for quantitation of the relative amount of genetically modified (GM) soybean line GTS 40-3-2 [Roundup Ready(®) soybean (RRS)] contained in a batch. The method targets a taxon-specific soybean gene (lectin gene, Le1) and the specific DNA construct junction region between the Petunia hybrida chloroplast transit peptide sequence and the Agrobacterium 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase gene (epsps) sequence present in GTS 40-3-2. The method employs plasmid pMulSL2 as a reference material in order to quantify the relative amount of GTS 40-3-2 in soybean samples using a conversion factor (Cf) equal to the ratio of the RRS-specific DNA to the taxon-specific DNA in representative genuine GTS 40-3-2 seeds.

  9. Modified Taylor series method for solving nonlinear differential equations with mixed boundary conditions defined on finite intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Leal, Hector; Benhammouda, Brahim; Filobello-Nino, Uriel Antonio; Sarmiento-Reyes, Arturo; Jimenez-Fernandez, Victor Manuel; Marin-Hernandez, Antonio; Herrera-May, Agustin Leobardo; Diaz-Sanchez, Alejandro; Huerta-Chua, Jesus

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we propose the application of a modified Taylor series method (MTSM) for the approximation of nonlinear problems described on finite intervals. The issue of Taylor series method with mixed boundary conditions is circumvented using shooting constants and extra derivatives of the problem. In order to show the benefits of this proposal, three different kinds of problems are solved: three-point boundary valued problem (BVP) of third-order with a hyperbolic sine nonlinearity, two-point BVP for a second-order nonlinear differential equation with an exponential nonlinearity, and a two-point BVP for a third-order nonlinear differential equation with a radical nonlinearity. The result shows that the MTSM method is capable to generate easily computable and highly accurate approximations for nonlinear equations. 34L30.

  10. Application of a modified semismooth Newton method to some elasto-plastic problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysala, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 10 (2012), s. 2004-2021 ISSN 0378-4754 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/09/1830 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : elasto-plasticity * hardening * Incremental finite element method * Semismooth Newton method * damping Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.836, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378475412001292

  11. A highly sensitive and specific method for the screening detection of genetically modified organisms based on digital PCR without pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Zhu, Pengyu; Wang, Chenguang; Huang, Kunlun; Du, Zhixin; Tian, Wenying; Wang, Qin; Wang, Huiyu; Xu, Wentao; Zhu, Shuifang

    2015-08-04

    Digital PCR has developed rapidly since it was first reported in the 1990 s. It was recently reported that an improved method facilitated the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, to use this improved method, the samples must be pretreated, which could introduce inaccuracy into the results. In our study, we explored a pretreatment-free digital PCR detection method for the screening for GMOs. We chose the CaMV35s promoter and the NOS terminator as the templates in our assay. To determine the specificity of our method, 9 events of GMOs were collected, including MON810, MON863, TC1507, MIR604, MIR162, GA21, T25, NK603 and Bt176. Moreover, the sensitivity, intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility of our detection method were assessed. The results showed that the limit of detection of our method was 0.1%, which was lower than the labeling threshold level of the EU. The specificity and stability among the 9 events were consistent, respectively. The intra-laboratory and inter-laboratory reproducibility were both good. Finally, the perfect fitness for the detection of eight double-blind samples indicated the good practicability of our method. In conclusion, the method in our study would allow more sensitive, specific and stable screening detection of the GMO content of international trading products.

  12. [Development and validation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified maize LY038].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Hatano, Shuko; Futo, Satoshi; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Takabatake, Reona; Kitta, Kazumi

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report a novel real-time PCR-based analytical method for quantitation of the GM maize event LY038. We designed LY038-specific and maize endogenous reference DNA-specific PCR amplifications. After confirming the specificity and linearity of the LY038-specific PCR amplification, we determined the conversion factor required to calculate the weight-based content of GM organism (GMO) in a multilaboratory evaluation. Finally, in order to validate the developed method, an interlaboratory collaborative trial according to the internationally harmonized guidelines was performed with blind DNA samples containing LY038 at the mixing levels of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0%. The precision of the method was evaluated as the RSD of reproducibility (RSDR), and the values obtained were all less than 25%. The limit of quantitation of the method was judged to be 0.5% based on the definition of ISO 24276 guideline. The results from the collaborative trial suggested that the developed quantitative method would be suitable for practical testing of LY038 maize.

  13. Exploring the 3D Surfaces with Modified Method of Steepest Descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta GRZENDA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prove expediency of the steepest descent method to divide a given cloud of (Y, X1, X2 points into the spatial clusters with purpose to estimate a simple regression model Y = f(Z|X1,X2 at each cluster. Material and Method: The exemplary data sets {Y, X1, X2} were drawn randomly from assumed 3D surface: Y = f(X1,X2, and then a random noise was added to variable Y. A polynomial model Y = f(X1,X2 and a set of models Y = f(Z|X1,X2 were estimated separately, both under Akaike information criterion (AIC, and then compared with respect to their determination coefficients R-square, and the residuals’ distributions. Results: In the artificial data set studied, the both compared methods after several iterations can provide regression models of the quite similar quality. Conclusions: Because the proposed novel method seems to be more robust to outliers, and easier to graphical presentations and to intuitive understanding than the conventional way of building a regression model, the proposed novel method can be recommended to use by non-statisticians, especially in situation when, besides usual moderate noise, the sporadic but influential measurement errors can occur.

  14. Deflection monitoring for a box girder based on a modified conjugate beam method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shi-Zhi; Wu, Gang; Xing, Tuo

    2017-08-01

    After several years of operation, a box girder bridge would commonly experience excessive deflection, which endangers the bridge’s life span as well as the safety of vehicles travelling on it. In order to avoid potential risks, it is essential to constantly monitor the defection of box girders. However, currently, the direct deflection monitoring methods are limited by the complicated environments beneath the bridges, such as rivers or other traffic lanes, which severely impede the layouts of the sensors. The other indirect deflection monitoring methods mostly do not thoroughly consider the inherent shear lag effect and shear deformation in the box girder, resulting in a rather large error. Under these circumstances, a deflection monitoring method suiting box girders is proposed in this article, based on the conjugate beam method and distributed long-gauge fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. A lab experiment was conducted to verify the reliability and feasibility of this method under practical application. Further, the serviceability under different span-depth ratios and web thicknesses was examined through a finite element model.

  15. A Modified Method Combined with a Support Vector Machine and Bayesian Algorithms in Biological Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Gang Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the deep research of genomics and proteomics, the number of new protein sequences has expanded rapidly. With the obvious shortcomings of high cost and low efficiency of the traditional experimental method, the calculation method for protein localization prediction has attracted a lot of attention due to its convenience and low cost. In the machine learning techniques, neural network and support vector machine (SVM are often used as learning tools. Due to its complete theoretical framework, SVM has been widely applied. In this paper, we make an improvement on the existing machine learning algorithm of the support vector machine algorithm, and a new improved algorithm has been developed, combined with Bayesian algorithms. The proposed algorithm can improve calculation efficiency, and defects of the original algorithm are eliminated. According to the verification, the method has proved to be valid. At the same time, it can reduce calculation time and improve prediction efficiency.

  16. Modified generalized method of moments for a robust estimation of polytomous logistic model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshan Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The maximum likelihood estimation (MLE method, typically used for polytomous logistic regression, is prone to bias due to both misclassification in outcome and contamination in the design matrix. Hence, robust estimators are needed. In this study, we propose such a method for nominal response data with continuous covariates. A generalized method of weighted moments (GMWM approach is developed for dealing with contaminated polytomous response data. In this approach, distances are calculated based on individual sample moments. And Huber weights are applied to those observations with large distances. Mellow-type weights are also used to downplay leverage points. We describe theoretical properties of the proposed approach. Simulations suggest that the GMWM performs very well in correcting contamination-caused biases. An empirical application of the GMWM estimator on data from a survey demonstrates its usefulness.

  17. Modified Differential Transform Method for Solving the Model of Pollution for a System of Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Benhammouda

    2014-01-01

    present the posttreatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé resummation method as a useful strategy to extend the domain of convergence of the approximate solutions. The Fehlberg fourth-fifth order Runge-Kutta method with degree four interpolant (RKF45 numerical solution of the lakes system problem is used as a reference to compare with the analytical approximations showing the high accuracy of the results. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it is based on a few straightforward steps and does not generate secular terms or depend of a perturbation parameter.

  18. Melamine modified P25 with heating method and enhanced the photocatalytic activity on degradation of ciprofloxacin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huiqin [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li, Jinze; Ma, Changchang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Guan, Qingfeng [School of Materials Science & Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Lu, Ziyang [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huo, Pengwei, E-mail: huopw1@163.com [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Yan, Yongsheng [School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Highlights: • We demonstrated the as-prepared photocatalyst of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} with the commercial TiO{sub 2} (P25) composited melamine under ball milling and calcined. • The enhanced photocatalytic performance could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. • The possible photocatalytic mechanism of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/P25 under visible light irradiation is proposed. - Abstract: The graphitic carbon nitride (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}), as one photocatalyst which possess the suitable band gap, is better for modified TiO{sub 2} and enhanced photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants. In this work, the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} were successfully prepared via directly calcined the mixture of melamine and P25. The as-prepared g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), Raman and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic performances of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} composites were investigated by degradation of ciprofloxacin. The results showed that the g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} and P25 were successfully composited, and the bond of C–N was well formed, the calcined temperature for as-prepared photocatalysts and the ratio of melamine and P25 were important to the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin. When the mixture of melamine and P25 with 1:2, and calcined temperature at 600 °C, the degradation rate of ciprofloxacin could reach 95% in 60 min. The enhanced photocatalytic performances could be mainly attributed to the suitable band gap structure with heterojunction of CN-P25. Finally, the possible transferred processes of photoelectrons and photoholes were proposed.

  19. Development and evaluation of event-specific quantitative PCR method for genetically modified soybean A2704-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakata, Kozue; Onishi, Mari; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Teshima, Reiko; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) soybean event; A2704-12. During the plant transformation, DNA fragments derived from pUC19 plasmid were integrated in A2704-12, and the region was found to be A2704-12 specific. The pUC19-derived DNA sequences were used as primers for the specific detection of A2704-12. We first tried to construct a standard plasmid for A2704-12 quantification using pUC19. However, non-specific signals appeared with both qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses using the specific primers with pUC19 as a template, and we then constructed a plasmid using pBR322. The conversion factor (C(f)), which is required to calculate the amount of the genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined with two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT and the Applied Biosystems 7500. The determined C(f) values were both 0.98. The quantitative method was evaluated by means of blind tests in multi-laboratory trials using the two real-time PCR instruments. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.1%. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of relative standard deviation (RSD(R)), and the determined bias and RSD(R) values for the method were each less than 20%. These results suggest that the developed method would be suitable for practical analyses for the detection and quantification of A2704-12.

  20. Metabolic labeling of sialic acids in tissue culture cell lines: methods to identify substituted and modified radioactive neuraminic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, S.; Varki, A.

    1985-01-01

    The parent sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid can be modified or substituted in various ways, giving rise to a family of more than 25 compounds. The definitive identification of these compounds has previously required isolation of nanomole amounts for mass spectrometry or NMR. We have explored the possibility of using the known metabolic precursors of the sialic acids, particularly N-acetyl-[6-3H]mannosamine, to label and identify various forms of sialic acids in tissue culture cells. Firstly, we defined several variables that affect the labeling of sialic acids with N-acetyl-[6-3H]mannosamine. Secondly, we have devised a simple screening method to identify cell lines that synthesize substituted or modified sialic acids. We next demonstrate that it is possible to definitively identify the natures of the various labeled sialic acids without the use of mass spectrometry, even though they are present only in tracer amounts. The methods used include paper chromatography, analytical de-O-acetylation, periodate release of the 9-3H as [3H]formaldehyde (which is subsequently converted to a specific 3H-labeled chromophore), acylneuraminate pyruvate lyase treatment with identification of [3H]acylmannosamines, gas-liquid chromatography with radioactive detection, and two new high-pressure liquid chromatography methods utilizing the amine-adsorption:ion suppression and ion-pair principles. The use of an internal N-acetyl-[4-14C]neuraminic acid standard in each of these methods assures precision and accuracy. The combined use of these methods now allows the identification of radioactive tracer amounts of the various types of sialic acids in well-defined populations of tissue culture cells; it may also allow the identification of hitherto unknown forms of sialic acids

  1. A modified SOR method for the Poisson equation in unsteady free-surface flow calculations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botta, E.F.F.; Ellenbroek, Marcellinus Hermannus Maria

    1985-01-01

    Convergence difficulties that sometimes occur if the successive overrelaxation (SOR) method is applied to the Poisson equation on a region with irregular free boundaries are analyzed. It is shown that these difficulties are related to the treatment of the free boundaries and caused by the appearance

  2. Method of processing titanium aluminium alloys modified by chromium and niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes the method of processing a TiAl base alloy to impart desirable strength and ductility properties which providing a melt of the TiAl base alloy having the formula Ti 51-42 Al 46-50 Cr 1-3 Nb 1-5

  3. A MODIFIED EMBEDDED ZERO-TREE WAVELET METHOD FOR MEDICAL IMAGE COMPRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Celine Therese Jenny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Embedded Zero-tree Wavelet (EZW is a lossy compression method that allows for progressive transmission of a compressed image. By exploiting the natural zero-trees found in a wavelet decomposed image, the EZW algorithm is able to encode large portions of insignificant regions of an still image with a minimal number of bits. The upshot of this encoding is an algorithm that is able to achieve relatively high peak signal to noise ratios (PSNR for high compression levels. The EZW algorithm is to encode large portions of insignificant regions of an image with a minimal number of bits. Vector Quantization (VQ method can be performed as a post processing step to reduce the coded file size. Vector Quantization (VQ method can be reduces redundancy of the image data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form. It is demonstrated by experimental results that the proposed method outperforms several well-known lossless image compression techniques for still images that contain 256 colors or less.

  4. A Modified Fluorimetric Method for Determination of Hydrogen Peroxide Using Homovanillic Acid Oxidation Principle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Paital

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level in biological samples is used as an important index in various studies. Quantification of H2O2 level in tissue fractions in presence of H2O2 metabolizing enzymes may always provide an incorrect result. A modification is proposed for the spectrofluorimetric determination of H2O2 in homovanillic acid (HVA oxidation method. The modification was included to precipitate biological samples with cold trichloroacetic acid (TCA, 5% w/v followed by its neutralization with K2HPO4 before the fluorimetric estimation of H2O2 is performed. TCA was used to precipitate the protein portions contained in the tissue fractions. After employing the above modification, it was observed that H2O2 content in tissue samples was ≥2 fold higher than the content observed in unmodified method. Minimum 2 h incubation of samples in reaction mixture was required for completion of the reaction. The stability of the HVA dimer as reaction product was found to be >12 h. The method was validated by using known concentrations of H2O2 and catalase enzyme that quenches H2O2 as substrate. This method can be used efficiently to determine more accurate tissue H2O2 level without using internal standard and multiple samples can be processed at a time with additional low cost reagents such as TCA and K2HPO4.

  5. A modified 4D ROOSTER method using the Chambolle-Pock algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Mory, Cyril; Jacques, Laurent; The Third International Conference on Image Formation in X-Ray Computed Tomography

    2014-01-01

    The 4D RecOnstructiOn using Spatial and TEmpo- ral Regularization method is a recent 4D cone beam computed tomography algorithm. 4D ROOSTER has not been rigorously proved to converge. This paper aims to reformulate it using the Chambolle & Pock primal-dual optimization scheme. The convergence of this reformulated 4D ROOSTER is therefore guaranteed.

  6. Cox regression with missing covariate data using a modified partial likelihood method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Holst, Klaus K.; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    Missing covariate values is a common problem in survival analysis. In this paper we propose a novel method for the Cox regression model that is close to maximum likelihood but avoids the use of the EM-algorithm. It exploits that the observed hazard function is multiplicative in the baseline hazard...

  7. A computer program for unilateral renal clearance calculation by a modified Oberhausen method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brueggemann, G.

    1980-01-01

    A FORTAN program is presented which, on the basis of data obtained with NUKLEOPAN M, calculates the glomerular filtration rate with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, the unilateral effective renal plasma flow with 131 I-hippuran, and the parameters for describing the isotope rephrogram (ING) with 131 I-hippuran. The results are calculated fully automatically upon entry of the data, and the results are processed and printed out. The theoretical fundamentals of ING and whole-body clearance calculation are presented as well as the methods available for unilateral clearance calculation, and the FORTAN program is described in detail. The standard values of the method are documented, as well as a comparative gamma camera study of 48 patients in order to determine the accuracy of unilateral imaging with the NUKLEOPAN M instrument, a comparison of unilateral clearances by the Oberhausen and Taplin methods, and a comparison between 7/17' plasma clearance and whole-body clearance. Problems and findings of the method are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  8. A modified Gaussian integration method for thermal reaction rate calculation in U- and Pu-isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosevski, T.; Fredin, B.

    1966-01-01

    An advanced multi-group cell calculations a lot of data information is very often necessary, and hence the data administration will be elaborate, and the spectrum calculation will be time consuming. We think it is possible to reduce the necessary data information by using an effective reaction rate integration method well suited for U- and Pu-absorptions (author)

  9. Modified Reduced Differential Transform Method for Partial Differential-Algebraic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Benhammouda

    2014-01-01

    PDAEs in convergent series form. In addition, we present the posttreatment of the power series solutions with the Laplace-Padé resummation method as a useful technique to find exact solutions. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it is based on a few straightforward steps and does not generate secular terms or depend on a perturbation parameter.

  10. PCR-free quantitative detection of genetically modified organism from raw materials. An electrochemiluminescence-based bio bar code method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Debin; Tang, Yabing; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R

    2008-05-15

    A bio bar code assay based on oligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) provides a PCR-free method for quantitative detection of nucleic acid targets. However, the current bio bar code assay requires lengthy experimental procedures including the preparation and release of bar code DNA probes from the target-nanoparticle complex and immobilization and hybridization of the probes for quantification. Herein, we report a novel PCR-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based bio bar code assay for the quantitative detection of genetically modified organism (GMO) from raw materials. It consists of tris-(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (TBR)-labeled bar code DNA, nucleic acid hybridization using Au-NPs and biotin-labeled probes, and selective capture of the hybridization complex by streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads. The detection of target DNA is realized by direct measurement of ECL emission of TBR. It can quantitatively detect target nucleic acids with high speed and sensitivity. This method can be used to quantitatively detect GMO fragments from real GMO products.

  11. Ferrimagnetism and spin excitation in a Ni–Mn partially inverted spinel prepared using a modified polymeric precursor method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rafael A. [Programa de Pos-Graduação em Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais (POSMAT), Universidade Estadual Paulista, Faculdade de Ciências, Caixa Postal 473, 17033-360 Bauru, São Paulo (Brazil); Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes – UMR 6226, Université de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes (France); Tedesco, Julio C.G.; Birk, Jonas O. [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Kalceff, Walter, E-mail: wkalceff@uts.edu.au [School of Physics and Advanced Materials, University of Technology Sydney (UTS), P.O. Box 123, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Yokaichiya, Fabiano [Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil); Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Reactor Multiproposito Brasileiro - RMB, Avenida Lineo Prestes 2242, Bloco A, Cidade Universitaria Armando Salles de Oliveira, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rasmussen, Nina [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Peña, Octavio [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes – UMR 6226, Université de Rennes 1, F-35042 Rennes (France); Henry, Paul F. [European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); Simeoni, Giovanna G. [Heinz Maier-Leibnitz Zentrum (MLZ) and Physics Department, Technische Universität München, Lichtenbergstr. 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Bordallo, Heloisa N. [The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); European Spallation Source ESS AB, Box 176, 22100 Lund (Sweden); and others

    2014-07-01

    We demonstrate that a Ni–Mn oxide partially inverted spinel (Ni{sub 1−ν}Mn{sub ν})[Ni{sub ν}Mn{sub 2−ν}]O{sub 4} having inversion degree ν ≈ 0.8 and produced by a modified polymeric precursor method exhibits behaviour previously reported only in monophased samples. The structure of the specimen was determined using Rietveld analysis of X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data, showing that at room temperature the material crystallizes in the Fd3{sup ¯}m space group with a lattice constant a = 8.392 Å. Combining magnetization measurements with neutron powder diffraction, we show that the magnetic structure of this spinel is associated with the interplay between the ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic lattices which coexist due to the cations' presence on both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. Our analysis of the neutron diffraction data confirms the postulated magnetic structure involving a star-like moment arrangement, arising from competition for the B (octahedral) spinel sites by the Ni and Mn cations. Finally, we show that strong magnetic fluctuations are observed in the inelastic neutron scattering data. - Highlights: • Ni–Mn oxide partially-inverted spinel made by modified polymeric precursor method. • Magnetic measurements showed a ferrimagnetic and a parasitic magnetic transition. • NPD revealed a magnetic structure consistent with a star-like moment arrangement. • INS measurements indicated four distinct temperature-dependent magnetic regimes.

  12. Calcium phosphate formation from sea urchin - (brissus latecarinatus via modified mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Samur

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to produce apatite structures, such as hydroxyapatite (HA and fluorapatite (FA, from precursor calcium phosphates of biological origin, namely from sea urchin, with mechano-chemical stirring and hot-plating conversion method. The produced materials were heat treated at 800 °C for 4 hours. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM studies were conducted. Calcium phosphate phases were developed. The SEM images showed the formation of micro to nano-powders. The experimental results suggest that sea urchin, Brissus latecarinatus skeleton could be an alternative source for the production of various mono or biphasic calcium phosphates with simple and economic mechano-chemical (ultrasonic conversion method.

  13. 2-Alkylcyclobutanones as makers in the detection of irradiated liquid egg -a modified method of processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, J.; Mildau, G.; Vater, N.

    1994-01-01

    Drying for several hours at 100 C may result in a considerable loss of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. It also tends to lead to interfering peaks so that results obtained by mass spectrometry in connection with the SIM technique may wrongly suggest the presence of small amounts of 2-alkylcyclobutanones. An alternative to this procedure is offered by lyophilization. This method also has its limitations in that it is largely dependent upon the available facilities and conditions of lyophilization (duration, vacuum, sample heating). It would therefore appear wise for any laboratory to thoroughly analyze the recovery rate of its lyophilization plant and, if required, to resort to other methods of drying (like short-term drying for 2 h at 100 C). The North Hessian Supervisory Office recommends to avoid drying altogether. Instead, liquid egg should be mixed with large quantities of sodium sulfate and then directly subjected to fat extraction using the Soxhlet apparatus (recovery rate approx. 90%). (orig./vhe) [de

  14. The modified cryogenic adsorption method for the laboratory separation of sup(85)Kr from the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelmova, L.; Tomasek, M.; Dvorak, Z.

    1985-01-01

    A method for laboratory separation of sup(85)Kr from the atmosphere based on cryogenic adsorption technique was developed. The physical parameters of the separation equipment were chosen with respect to the properties of scintillation crystal CaFsub(2)(Eu) used as a detector of sup(85)Kr. The apparatus contains dry-ice, silica gel and molecular sieve traps for the removal of Hsub(2)O and COsub(2). The activated charcoal columns are used for concentration and preparation of krypton sample. The separation technique is supplemented by gas-chromatographic determination of total amount of separated krypton. The apparatus enables processing of up to 20 msup(3) of air with the krypton yield about 80%. The relative errors of the determination of the concentration of sup(85)Kr in the air by elaborated method is about 5%. (author)

  15. Stability of a modified Peaceman–Rachford method for the paraxial Helmholtz equation on adaptive grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Qin, E-mail: Qin_Sheng@baylor.edu [Department of Mathematics and Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics and Engineering Research, Baylor University, One Bear Place, Waco, TX 76798-7328 (United States); Sun, Hai-wei, E-mail: hsun@umac.mo [Department of Mathematics, University of Macau (Macao)

    2016-11-15

    This study concerns the asymptotic stability of an eikonal, or ray, transformation based Peaceman–Rachford splitting method for solving the paraxial Helmholtz equation with high wave numbers. Arbitrary nonuniform grids are considered in transverse and beam propagation directions. The differential equation targeted has been used for modeling propagations of high intensity laser pulses over a long distance without diffractions. Self-focusing of high intensity beams may be balanced with the de-focusing effect of created ionized plasma channel in the situation, and applications of grid adaptations are frequently essential. It is shown rigorously that the fully discretized oscillation-free decomposition method on arbitrary adaptive grids is asymptotically stable with a stability index one. Simulation experiments are carried out to illustrate our concern and conclusions.

  16. Impact of a Modified Jigsaw Method for Learning an Unfamiliar, Complex Topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Kolanczyk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use the jigsaw method with an unfamiliar, complex topic and to evaluate the effectiveness of the jigsaw teaching method on student learning of assigned material (“jigsaw expert” versus non-assigned material (“jigsaw learner”. Innovation: The innovation was implemented in an advanced cardiology elective. Forty students were assigned a pre-reading and one of four valvular heart disorders, a topic not previously taught in the curriculum. A pre-test and post-test evaluated overall student learning. Student performance on pre/post tests as the “jigsaw expert” and “jigsaw learner” was also compared. Critical Analysis: Overall, the post-test mean score of 85.75% was significantly higher than that of the pre-test score of 56.75% (p<0.05. There was significant improvement in scores regardless of whether the material was assigned (“jigsaw experts” pre=58.8% and post=82.5%; p<0.05 or not assigned (“jigsaw learners” pre= 56.25% and post= 86.56%, p<0.05 for pre-study. Next Steps: The use of the jigsaw method to teach unfamiliar, complex content helps students to become both teachers and active listeners, which are essential to the skills and professionalism of a health care provider. Further studies are needed to evaluate use of the jigsaw method to teach unfamiliar, complex content on long-term retention and to further examine the effects of expert vs. non-expert roles. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.   Type: Note

  17. Modified method for zirconium or hafnium gravimetric determination with glycolic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, R.S.; Rocha, J.C.; Terra, V.R.; Marques Neto, A.

    1989-01-01

    The conditions for gravimetric determination of zirconium or hafnium by glicolic acid derivatives were studied by thermogravimetric analysis. The method utilized shown that after precipitation, washing and drying of precipitates at 150 0 C, the resulting solid was weighed in the form of [M{RCH(OH)COO} 4 ] (M = Zr,Hf;R = C 6 H 5 , β-C 10 H 7 ,p-BrC 6 H 4 ). (author) [pt

  18. Quantitation of IgE by means of a modified radial immunodiffusion method in comparison with the radioimmunosorbent test (RIST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedermann, G.; Stemberg, H.; Kraft, D.; Ambrosch, F.; Schadlbauer, B.; Jarischko, E.; Vienna Univ.

    1974-01-01

    Serum IgE were quantitied by means of modified radial immunodiffusion technique (RID). To improve visibility of precipitin bands a staining procedure with DOPA was applied. Pretreatment of sera with dextransulfate proved necessary in order to avoid unspecific ringformation in the agargel. In comparison with the RIST it turned out that sera containing less than 500 I.U. IgE/ml did not produce precipitin bands with this method. Sera containing 500-999 I.U. IgE/ml occasionally exhibited positive results with the RID technique, whereas sera with more than 1,000 I.U./ml were regulary positive. In its present form the RID may be used as screening method for sera with higher IgE levels. Within the above mentioned limits the IgE levels calculated by means of the RID-test roughly corresponded the values determined by the RIST. (orig.) [de

  19. A Wavelet-Modified ESPRIT Hybrid Method for Assessment of Spectral Components from 0 to 150 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waveform distortions are an important issue in distribution systems. In particular, the assessment of very wide spectra, that include also components in the 2–150 kHz range, has recently become an issue of great interest. This is due to the increasing presence of high-spectral emission devices like end-user devices and distributed generation systems. This study proposed a new sliding-window wavelet-modified estimation of signal parameters by rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT method, particularly suitable for the spectral analysis of waveforms that have very wide spectra. The method is very accurate and requires reduced computational effort. It can be applied successfully to detect spectral components in the range of 0–150 kHz introduced both by distributed power plants, such as wind and photovoltaic generation systems, and by end-user equipment connected to grids through static converters, such as fluorescent lamps.

  20. The G′G-expansion method using modified Riemann–Liouville derivative for some space-time fractional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bekir

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the fractional partial differential equations are defined by modified Riemann–Liouville fractional derivative. With the help of fractional derivative and traveling wave transformation, these equations can be converted into the nonlinear nonfractional ordinary differential equations. Then G′G-expansion method is applied to obtain exact solutions of the space-time fractional Burgers equation, the space-time fractional KdV-Burgers equation and the space-time fractional coupled Burgers’ equations. As a result, many exact solutions are obtained including hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions and rational solutions. These results reveal that the proposed method is very effective and simple in performing a solution to the fractional partial differential equation.

  1. [Clinical signification of a modified dilution method (MDM) for blood loss assessment in the cases of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogiev, G; Shishenkov, M; Ninov, B; Dosheva, I

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the modified dilution method (MDM) for in vivo bloodless assessment with the accepted in the clinical practice methods. We measured 148 blood samples from 134 patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) and 21 blood samples from healthy persons as a negative control. In the randomized group of 53 patients with NUGB we compared accuracy of the blood loss determination by means of erythrocyte mass loss (estimated with MDM), Allgower-Burri index and American College of Surgeon Index (ACSI). The obtained results give us a reason to recommend a combination between American College of Surgeon classification for blood loss in patients with NUGB and a parallel measurement of the MDM values.

  2. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for standardisation of ingredients of an ayurvedic powdered formulation Shatavaryadi churna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Puspendra; Jha, Shivesh; Naved, Tanveer

    2013-01-01

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of diagnostic characters of each ingredient of Shatavaryadi churna individually was carried out. Microscopic determination, counting of identifying number, measurement of area, length and breadth of identifying characters were performed using Leica DMLS-2 microscope. The method was validated for intraday precision, linearity, specificity, repeatability, accuracy and system suitability, respectively. The method is simple, precise, sensitive, and accurate, and can be used for routine standardisation of raw materials of herbal drugs. This method gives the ratio of individual ingredients in the powdered drug so that any adulteration of genuine drug with its adulterant can be found out. The method shows very good linearity value between 0.988-0.999 for number of identifying character and area of identifying character. Percentage purity of the sample drug can be determined by using the linear equation of standard genuine drug.

  3. Modified Ponseti method of treatment for correction of neglected clubfoot in older children and adolescents--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashi, Ramin Haj Zargar; Baghdadi, Taghi; Shirazi, Mehdi Ramezan; Abdi, Reza; Aslani, Hossein

    2016-03-01

    Congenital talipes equinovarus may be the most common congenital orthopedic condition requiring treatment. Nonoperative treatment including different methods is generally accepted as the first step in the deformity correction. Ignacio Ponseti introduced his nonsurgical approach to the treatment of clubfoot in the early 1940s. The method is reportedly successful in treating clubfoot in patients up to 9 years of age. However, whether age at the beginning of treatment affects the rate of effective correction and relapse is unknown. We have applied the Ponseti method successfully with some modifications for 11 patients with a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 6 to 19 years) with neglected and untreated clubbed feet. The mean follow-up was 15 months (12 to 36 months). Correction was achieved with a mean of nine casts (six to 13). Clinically, 17 out of 18 feet (94.4%) were considered to achieve a good result with no need for further surgery. The application of this method of treatment is very simple and also cheap in developing countries with limited financial and social resources for health service. To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a modified method as a correction method for clubfoot in older children and adolescents has not been applied previously for neglected clubfeet in older children in the literature.

  4. A modified two-point titration method for the determination of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhe-Xuan; He, Chuan-Shu; Jiang, Jian-Kai; Zhang, Jie; Yang, Hou-Yun; Mu, Yang

    2018-04-10

    The volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration plays important roles in the rapid start-up and stable operation of anaerobic reactors. It's essential to develop a simple and accurate method to monitor the VFA concentration in the anaerobic systems. In present work, a modified two-point titration method was developed to determine the VFA concentration. The results show that VFA concentration in standard solutions estimated by the titration method coincided well with that measured by gas chromatograph, where all relative errors were lower than 5.5%. Compared with the phosphate, ammonium and sulfide subsystems, the effect of bicarbonate on the accuracy of the developed method was relatively significant. When the bicarbonate concentration varied from 0 to 8 mmol/L, the relative errors increased from 1.2% to 30% for VFA concentration at 1 mmol/L, but were within 2.0% for that at 5 mmol/L. In addition, the VFA composition affected the accuracy of the titration method to some extent. This developed titration method was further proved to be effective with practical effluents from a lab-scale anaerobic reactor under organic shock loadings and an unstable full-scale anaerobic reactor. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of 222Rn in water samples from wells and springs in Tokyo by a modified integral counting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Y.; Murase, Y.; Handa, K.; Murakami, I.

    1997-01-01

    222 Rn in 2L-water samples was extracted with 30 mL toluene, and 21 mL of the toluene solution was transferred into a liquid scintillation vial, in which PPO - 2,5-diphenyloxazole was placed in advance. The total activity of 222 Rn in the water sample was calculated based on the Ostwald's coefficient of solubilities of 222 Rn in toluene and water at the temperature of the sample water and the volume of water and toluene. About 40% of 222 Rn dissolved in 2L-water sample can be collected. After allowing to stand for 3.5 h, the equilibrium mixture of 222 Rn and its daughters was measured with an Aloka liquid scintillation spectrometer using a modified integral counting method which extrapolates the integral counting curve not to the zero pulse-height, but to the zero detection threshold, an average energy required to produce a measurable pulse, of the liquid scintillation spectrometer. The general method which agitates water sample (usually about 10 mL) with a liquid scintillation cocktail is practical when the activity of 222 Rn is high. By adding 10 mL of water sample, however, it is possible also to add variable amounts of quencher. In some cases water sample is preserved with nitric acid. The slope of the integral counting rate curve increases as quench level of the sample increases. Therefore, it is clear that the modified integral counting method gives more accurate 222 Rn concentrations for water samples of strong quench than the conventional integral counting method. 222 Rn sample of 0.2 Bq/L can be determined within an overall uncertainty of 3.1%

  6. Performance Evaluation of Residential Demand Response Based on a Modified Fuzzy VIKOR and Scalable Computing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Dong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available For better utilizing renewable energy resources and improving the sustainability of power systems, demand response is widely applied in China, especially in recent decades. Considering the massive potential flexible resources in the residential sector, demand response programs are able to achieve significant benefits. This paper proposes an effective performance evaluation framework for such programs aimed at residential customers. In general, the evaluation process will face multiple criteria and some uncertain factors. Therefore, we combine the multi-criteria decision making concept and fuzzy set theory to accomplish the model establishment. By introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers into the Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacijia I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method, the evaluation model can effectively deal with the subjection and fuzziness of experts’ opinions. Furthermore, we ameliorate the criteria weight determination procedure of traditional models via combining the fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process and Shannon entropy method, which can incorporate objective information and subjective judgments. Finally, the proposed evaluation framework is verified by the empirical analysis of five demand response projects in Chinese residential areas. The results give a valid performance ranking of the five alternatives and indicate that more attention should be paid to the criteria affiliated with technology level and economy benefits. In addition, a series of sensitivity analyses are conducted to examine the validity and effectiveness of the established evaluation framework and results. The study improves traditional multi-criteria decision making method VIKOR by introducing trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and combination weighing technique, which can provide an effective mean for performance evaluation of residential demand response programs in a fuzzy environment.

  7. Multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation analysis using the modified finite element method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Král, Radomil

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 744, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 012177. ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) /13./ and International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016) /12./. Southampton, 04.07.2016-06.07.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-34467P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * finite element method * single degree of freedom systems (SDOF) Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/744/1/012177

  8. Modified micro-diffusion method for 15N-enriched soil solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigner, M.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of solutions for determination of 15 N/ 14 N isotope ratios is described, with special reference to dilute samples. A micro-diffusion method has been simplified to be more suitable for rapid isotope-ratio determination in soil solutions collected in tensionics. Ammonia expelled during micro-diffusion is captured on acidified filter discs fixed to the caps of gas-tight vials. The discs are transferred to tin capsules for shipment to the Soil Science Unit for 15 N-enrichment determination. (author)

  9. Modified Inverse First Order Reliability Method (I-FORM) for Predicting Extreme Sea States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Dallman, Ann Renee; Neary, Vincent Sinclair

    2014-09-01

    Environmental contours describing extreme sea states are generated as the input for numerical or physical model simulation s as a part of the stand ard current practice for designing marine structure s to survive extreme sea states. Such environmental contours are characterized by combinations of significant wave height ( ) and energy period ( ) values calculated for a given recurrence interval using a set of data based on hindcast simulations or buoy observations over a sufficient period of record. The use of the inverse first - order reliability method (IFORM) i s standard design practice for generating environmental contours. In this paper, the traditional appli cation of the IFORM to generating environmental contours representing extreme sea states is described in detail and its merits and drawbacks are assessed. The application of additional methods for analyzing sea state data including the use of principal component analysis (PCA) to create an uncorrelated representation of the data under consideration is proposed. A reexamination of the components of the IFORM application to the problem at hand including the use of new distribution fitting techniques are shown to contribute to the development of more accurate a nd reasonable representations of extreme sea states for use in survivability analysis for marine struc tures. Keywords: In verse FORM, Principal Component Analysis , Environmental Contours, Extreme Sea State Characteri zation, Wave Energy Converters

  10. Percutaneous evacuation (PEVAC) of multivesicular echinococcal cysts with or without cystobiliary fistulas which contain non-drainable material: first results of a modified PAIR method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, H. G.; Laméris, J. S.; van Delden, O. M.; Rauws, E. A.; Kager, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the treatment of choice in echinococcal cysts with cystobiliary fistulas. PAIR (puncture, aspiration, injection, and reaspiration of scolecidals) is contraindicated in these cases. Aim: To evaluate a modified PAIR method for percutoneous treatment of multivesicular

  11. A modified risk evaluation method of slope failure in a heavy rain. For application to slopes in widespread area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suenaga, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shiro; Kobayakawa, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A risk evaluation method of slope failure has developed to combine gas-liquid two phase flow analysis as a rainfall infiltration analysis and elastic-plastic finite element analysis as a slope stability analysis and has applied to a slope field. This method, however, had a difficulty to apply to many slopes since it needed many parameters to calculate the risk of the slope failure. The method was simplified to lessen input parameters which included an inclination and length of a slope, a depth of bedrock and a rainfall pattern assuming that hydraulic properties and mechanical properties were similar for the same geological unit. The method was also modified to represent a water collection structure, a surface runoff, an existence of a forest road and a water level variation of a downward river / pond which could affect infiltration phenomena. Results of the simplification and the modification made it possible to enhance a prediction precision of the method and create a hazard map of slopes in widespread area. (author)

  12. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  13. New manufacturing method for Fe-Si magnetic powders using modified pack-cementation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Young; Kim, Jang Won; Han, Jeong Whan; Jang, Pyungwoo

    2013-03-01

    This paper describes a new method for making Fe-Si magnetic powders using a pack-cementation process. It was found that Fe-Si alloy powders were formed by a reaction of the pack mixture of Fe, Si, NaF, and Al2O3 powders at 900 °C for 24 h under a hydrogen atmosphere. Separation of the Fe-Si alloy powders was dependent on the particle size of the Fe powders in the pack. For small Fe powders, magnetic separation in a medium of strong alkali solution was recommended. But, for relatively larger Fe powders, the Fe-Si alloy powders were easily separated from Al2O3 powders using a magnet in air atmosphere. The Si content in the Fe-Si magnetic powders were easily controlled by changing the weight ratio of Si to (Si+Fe) in the pack.

  14. Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernqvist, M.M.; Mowrer, J.; Jensen, S.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1986-01-01

    Tissue doses of cancer initiators/mutagens are suitably monitored through hemoglobin adducts formed in vivo, but the use of this method has been hampered by a lack of sufficiently simple and fast procedures. It was previously observed that when the N-terminal amino acid in hemoglobin, valine, is alkylated it is cleaved off by the Edman sequencing reagent, phenyl isothiocyanate, in the neutral-alkaline coupling medium, as opposed to the acidic medium required by normal amino acids. Based on this principle, conditions for a functioning procedure for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) determination of N-terminal alkylvalines in hemoglobin were worked out. Derivatizing the protein in formamide solution with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate, using a 2 H-alkylated protein as internal standard, and applying on-column injection during analysis, permit reproducible determination of hydroxyethylvaline and other adducts down into the dose range where cancer risks may be considered acceptably low

  15. Modified Newton-Raphson GRAPE methods for optimal control of spin systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, D. L.; Kuprov, Ilya, E-mail: i.kuprov@soton.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, University of Southampton, Highfield Campus, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-28

    Quadratic convergence throughout the active space is achieved for the gradient ascent pulse engineering (GRAPE) family of quantum optimal control algorithms. We demonstrate in this communication that the Hessian of the GRAPE fidelity functional is unusually cheap, having the same asymptotic complexity scaling as the functional itself. This leads to the possibility of using very efficient numerical optimization techniques. In particular, the Newton-Raphson method with a rational function optimization (RFO) regularized Hessian is shown in this work to require fewer system trajectory evaluations than any other algorithm in the GRAPE family. This communication describes algebraic and numerical implementation aspects (matrix exponential recycling, Hessian regularization, etc.) for the RFO Newton-Raphson version of GRAPE and reports benchmarks for common spin state control problems in magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  16. A novel HPLC method for separation of uranium from thorium using BEHSA modified semi preparative support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Ch.Siva Kesava; Subramanian, M.S.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The determination of uranium and thorium is of great importance with respect to nuclear industry and environmental samples. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has revolutionized as a powerful separation and analytical tool in the field of chemistry, biology, medicine, pharmacy, chemical technology, food science and many more. The major advantages of HPLC are its ability to provide rapid, high performance separations and extending the separations range from laboratory scale to preparative scale purification. HPLC became powerful technique for the separation of uranium and thorium. These methods were widely employed in applications such as separation of uranium from fission products and for the measurement of number of fissions as in the case of burn-up measurements on nuclear reactor fuels

  17. Safety assessment and detection method of genetically modified Chinese Kale (Brassica oleracea cv. alboglabra ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Hui; Lu, Chien-Te; Lin, Hsin-Tang; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2009-03-11

    Sporamins are tuberous storage proteins and account for 80% of soluble protein in sweet potato tubers with trypsin-inhibitory activity. The expression of sporamin protein in transgenic Chinese kale (line BoA 3-1) conferred insecticidal activity toward corn earworm [ Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)] in a previous report. In this study, we present a preliminary safety assessment of transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1. Bioinformatic and simulated gastric fluid (SGF) analyses were performed to evaluate the allergenicity of sporamin protein. The substantial equivalence between transgenic Chinese kale and its wild-type host has been demonstrated by the comparison of important constituents. A reliable real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection method was also developed to control sample quality. Despite the results of most evaluations in this study being negative, the safety of sporamin in transgenic Chinese kale BoA 3-1 was uncluded because of the allergenic risk revealed by bioinformatic analysis.

  18. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. II. Semiclassical and low-velocity quantal approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    For one-electron heteropolar systems, the wave-theoretic Lagrangian of Paper I 2 is simplified in two distinct approximations. The first is semiclassical; the second is quantal, for velocities below those for which the semiclassical treatment is reliable. For each approximation, unitarity and detailed balancing are discussed. Then, the variational method as described by Demkov is used to determine the coupled equations for the radial functions and the Euler-Lagrange equations for the translational factors which are part of the theory. Specific semiclassical formulae for the translational factors are given in a many-state approximation. Low-velocity quantal formulae are obtained in a one-state approximation. The one-state results of both approximations agree with an earlier determination by Riley. 14 references

  19. Physicochemical characterization of modified clay based composites obtained by a novel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Swati; Dudi, D.; Singh, G. P.; Verma, S. K.; Bhojak, N.

    2018-05-01

    Material science is one of the important fields where, absorption spectra of lanthanide ions have been a subject of several investigations because of their possible use as laser materials, diagnostic tools and sensors. Study of absorption spectra in visible and near infrared regions yields useful information regarding energy and intensity parameters, and nature and probabilities of transitions. Chemical physics provides fundamental tool to develop lanthanide chemistry, which has been increasingly significant in the last few years due to the wide variety of potential applications of their complexes in many important areas of biology and medicines. The present work describes the development of a novel method of composite preparation based on clay and its physiochemical characterization. Simultaneous measurement of some thermal properties has made study more useful. Results match with accepted models.

  20. A modified harmony search method for environmental/economic load dispatch of real-world power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeddi, Babak; Vahidinasab, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) model is proposed. • The proposed model considers practical constraints of real-world power systems. • A new modified harmony search algorithm proposed to solve non-convex CEELD. • The proposed algorithm is tested by applying it to solve seven test systems. - Abstract: Economic load dispatch (ELD) problem is one of the basic and important optimization problems in a power system. However, considering practical constraints of real-world power systems such as ramp rate limits, prohibited operating zones, valve loading effects, multi-fuel options, spinning reserve and transmission system losses in ELD problem makes it a non-convex optimization problem, which is a challenging one and cannot be solved by traditional methods. Moreover, considering environmental issues, results in combined economic and emission load dispatch (CEELD) problem that is a multiobjective optimization model with two non-commensurable and contradictory objectives. In this paper, a modified harmony search algorithm (MHSA) proposed and applied to solve ELD and CEELD problem considering the abovementioned constraints. In the proposed MHSA, a new improvising method based on wavelet mutation together with a new memory consideration scheme based on the roulette wheel mechanism are proposed which improves the accuracy, convergence speed, and robustness of the classical HSA. Performance of the proposed algorithm is investigated by applying it to solve various test systems having non-convex solution spaces. To Show the effectiveness of the proposed method, obtained results compared with classical harmony search algorithm (HSA) and some of the most recently published papers in the area

  1. Optical and structural properties of Mo-doped NiTiO{sub 3} materials synthesized via modified Pechini methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Thanh-Truc; Kang, Sung Gu; Shin, Eun Woo, E-mail: ewshin@ulsan.ac.kr

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • Mo-doped NiTiO{sub 3} materials were well prepared by a modified Pechini method. • Recombination rates of the materials were significantly inhibited by Mo doping. • Defect sites were generated by the substitution of Mo for Ni or Ti positions. • The generation of defect sites gradually decreased the grain sizes of the materials. • The surface areas of the materials were increased with decreasing the grain sizes. - Abstract: In this study, molybdenum (Mo)-doped nickel titanate (NiTiO{sub 3}) materials were successfully synthesized as a function of Mo content through a modified Pechini method followed by a solvothermal treatment process. Various characterization methods were employed to investigate the optical and structural properties of the materials. XRD patterns clearly showed that the NiTiO{sub 3} structure maintained a single phase with no observed crystalline structure transformations, even after the addition of 10 wt.% Mo. In the Raman spectra and XRD patterns, peak positions shifted with a change in Mo content, confirming that the NiTiO{sub 3} lattice was doped with Mo. On the other hand, Mo doping of NiTiO{sub 3} materials changed their optical properties. DRS-UV demonstrated that the addition of Mo increased photon absorption within the UV region. Relaxation processes were inhibited by Mo doping, which was evident in the PL spectra. Structural properties of the prepared materials were studied via FE-SEM and HR-TEM. The measured surface area increased proportionally with Mo content due to a reduction in grain size of the materials.

  2. Separating nano graphene oxide from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method with alkaline solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xuebing, E-mail: xuebinghu2010@gmail.com [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, Yun, E-mail: yunyush@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China); Wang, Yongqing; Zhou, Jianer [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Membrane, Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute, Jingdezhen 333001 (China); Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2015-02-28

    Graphical abstract: By adding an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution, the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide undergoes fast aggregation from the residual strong-acid filtrate of the modified Hummers method and forms the stable floccules when the pH value of the filtrate is about 1.7. The acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers plays a role in the aggregation of the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide. - Highlights: • The novel and high-efficient method for separating graphene oxide was showed. • Graphene oxide undergoes aggregation and forms the floccules when pH value is ∼1.7. • The acid–base interaction plays a role in the aggregation of graphene oxide. - Abstract: In the modified Hummers method for preparing graphene oxide, the yellow slurry can be obtained. After filtering through a quantitative filter paper, the strong-acid filtrate containing the unprecipitated nano graphene oxide was gained. The corresponding filtrate was added gradually with an alkaline (NaOH or KOH) solution at room temperature. The unprecipitated nano graphene oxide could undergo fast aggregation when the pH value of the filtrate was about 1.7 and formed the stable floccules. X-ray diffraction analysis shows the dominant peak of the floccules is about 11°, which accords to the peak of graphene oxide. Spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm the presence in the floccules of an abundance of oxygen functional groups and the purified graphene oxide floccules can be obtained. Atomic force microscopy measurement shows the graphene oxide floccules consists of sheet-like objects, mostly containing only a few layers (about 5 layers). Zeta potential analysis demonstrates the surface charge of the graphene oxide is pH-sensitive and its isoelectric point is ∼1.7. The flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide ascribes to the acid–base interaction with the surface functional groups of the carbon layers.

  3. Uranium adsorption studies on aminopropyl modified mesoporous sorbent (NH{sub 2}-MCM-41) using statistical design method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sert, Senol, E-mail: senol.sert@ege.edu.t [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey); Eral, Meral [Ege University, Institute of Nuclear Sciences, 35100 Bornova-Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-11-30

    MCM-41 has been synthesized and modified in order to graft amine groups on its surface. The modified NH{sub 2}-MCM-41 adsorbent was characterized by using XRD, SEM, surface area and porosity analyzer, and FT-IR. This characterized adsorbent was investigated for uranium adsorption using the batch method. The central composite design (CCD) combined with the response surface methodology (RSM) was selected to determine the effects of parameters and their interactions for the removal of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} ions. The optimum values of the parameters determined were 4.2 for the initial pH, 60 {sup o}C for the temperature, 90 mg L{sup -1} for the initial concentration and 173 min for the shaking time using the response surface methodology. {Delta}H{sup o} and {Delta}S{sup o} were calculated from the slope and the intercept of plots of ln K{sub d} versus 1/T. The isotherm models, Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) have been studied to explain the adsorption characteristics.

  4. The Method of Coating Fe₃O₄ with Carbon Nanoparticles to Modify Biological Properties of Oxide Measured in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Tomasz; Dudek, Mariusz; Dziekan, Natalia; Jaworski, Sławomir; Przewozik, Aleksandra; Soszka, Emilia; Koperkiewicz, Anna; Koczoń, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    The coating of nanoparticles on materials for medical application [e.g., the coating of Fe3O4 nanopowder (IONP) with a carbon nanolayer] serves to protect and modify the selected biological, physical, and chemical properties of the coated material. Increases in chemical stability, changes in biocompatibility, and a modified surface structure are examples of the effects caused by the formation of carbon coatings. In the current study, Fe3O4 nanoparticles were coated with a carbon nanolayer (IONP@C) in a plasmochemical reactor (using radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods) under various experimental conditions. Based on data from X-ray diffraction, Raman, and IR spectroscopy, the best processing parameters were determined in order to produce a carbon coating that would not change the structure of the IONP. The materials with the best cover, i.e., a uniform carbon nanolayer, were used in cytotoxic tests to investigate their biological properties using the human HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cell line and chicken embryo red blood cells as an in vitro model. The obtained results proved the low cytotoxicity of Fe3O4 micropowder and IONP in contrast to IONP@C, which reduced cell viability, increased hemolysis, and generally was more toxic than bare Fe3O4.

  5. Si-modified BHA bioceramics as a drug delivery system: Effect of modification method on structure and Rifampicin release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Sych

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the investigation of two different methods for introduction of silicon into ceramics, based on biogenic hydroxyapatite (BHA, on the structure and properties. Thus, porous samples of Si-modified BHA-based ceramics containing 2 or 5 wt.% Si were prepared by using two different precursors, i.e. polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate and fine silica (Aerosil® 200 powder. After the modification with silicon a marked change in the structure of material was observed. The use of Aerosil® 200 permits preparation of a more uniform structure as compared to that obtained by using polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate. However, the latter promotes an increase in both the porosity of samples (from 43 to 62.3% and their solubility in saline (from 0.18 to 1.20 wt.%/day as compared to the results obtained after the modification with Aerosil® 200, where maximal porosity and solubility were 48.5% and 0.23 wt.%/day, respectively. At the same time, the modification of hydroxyapatite ceramics with silicon using silica makes it possible to prolong release of a drug (e.g. Rifampicin out of sample pores for the first 24 h as compared to the ceramics modified with polymethylsiloxane polyhydrate.

  6. Using the modified Delphi method to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Lei; Fan, Ning; Hai, Yong; Lu, S B; Su, Q J; Yang, J C; Du, Peng; Gao, Y J

    2015-06-01

    Although cervical radiculopathy is very common, there is no standard treatment for this condition, with little high-level evidence available to guide the treatment choice. Thus, this study aimed to review the current data on the management of cervical radiculopathy; and, further, to establish a new Chinese clinical consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy using the Delphi method. First, a systematic review of the previously established treatment guidelines and of articles related to cervical radiculopathy was conducted to establish a protocol for the clinical consensus of the treatment for cervical radiculopathy. Second, from February 2012 to June 2014, we performed a modified Delphi survey in which the current professional opinions from 30 experienced experts, representing almost all of the Chinese provinces, were gathered. Three rounds were performed, and consensus was defined as ≥70% agreement. Consensus of the treatments for cervical radiculopathy was reached on seven aspects, including the proportion of patients requiring only non-surgical therapies; the effectiveness of neck immobilization, physiotherapy, pharmacologic treatment; surgical indications; contraindications; surgery. The modified Delphi study conducted herein reached a consensus concerning several treatment issues for cervical radiculopathy. In the absence of high-level evidence, at present, these expert opinion findings will help guide health care providers to define the appropriate treatment in their regions. Items with no consensus provide excellent areas for future research.

  7. Facile Synthesis and Characterization of ZrO₂ Nanoparticles via Modified Co-Precipitation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, M; Subadevi, R; Liu, Wei-Ren; Sivakumar, M

    2018-01-01

    The crystalline Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) nano particles were synthesized using optimized content of Zirconium nitrate (Zr(NO3)2·3H2O) with varying KOH concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 M) by co-precipitation method. The thermal history of the precursor was carefully analyzed through Thermogravimetric (TG/DTA) measurement. The as prepared samples were characterized to ensure structural, functional, morphological, compositional, chemical composition and band gap by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Laser Raman, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), High resolution Transverse Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), EDX, Photo luminescence spectroscopy (PL). The monoclinic structure with space group P21/c has been confirmed from XRD (JCPDS 89-9066). The Zr-O stretching vibration and Zr-O2-Zr bending vibrations were confirmed through FTIR analysis. The well dispersed particles with spherical morphology were confirmed through SEM and TEM analysis. The oxidation states of Zr, O and C were confirmed through XPS analysis. The oxygen vacancies and band gap of the particles were investigated through PL analysis.

  8. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, S.M.; Abdelmonem, M.A.S.

    1995-01-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. A modified method of insulin producing cells' generation from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubak, Paweł; Bojarska-Junak, Agnieszka; Tabarkiewicz, Jacek; Putowski, Lechosław

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a result of autoimmune destruction of pancreatic insulin producing β-cells and so far it can be cured only by insulin injection, by pancreas transplantation, or by pancreatic islet cells' transplantation. The methods are, however, imperfect and have a lot of disadvantages. Therefore new solutions are needed. The best one would be the use of differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the present study, we investigated the potential of the bone marrow-derived MSCs line for in vitro differentiation into insulin producing cells (IPSs). We applied an 18-day protocol to differentiate MSCs. Differentiating cells formed cell clusters some of which resembled pancreatic islet-like cells. Using dithizone we confirmed the presence of insulin in the cells. What is more, the expression of proinsulin C-peptide in differentiated IPCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. For the first time, we investigated the influence of growth factors' concentration on IPCs differentiation efficiency. We have found that an increase in the concentration of growth factors up to 60 ng/mL of β-FGF/EGF and 30 ng/mL of activin A/β-cellulin increases the percentage of IPCs. Further increase of growth factors does not show any increase of the percentage of differentiated cells. Our findings suggest that the presented protocol can be adapted for differentiation of insulin producing cells from stem cells.

  10. Effect of method of N-application and modified urea on N-15 recovery by rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, S M; Abdelmonem, M A.S. [Soil and Water Dept., Atomic Energy Auth., Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Rice is a very responsive crop to nitrogen fertilizer, but the efficiency of the applied N-fertilizer is low. Greenhouse experiment conducted to evaluate several methods to improve fertilizer efficiency and reduce N-losses in rice fields. N-15 labelled urea was applied to 10 kg soils in pots, urea was applied alone, with addition of two urease inhibitors (NBPT and HQ), with addition of nitrification inhibitor (DCD),or with the combination of both inhibitors. The fertilizers were applied either broadcast on soil surface or at depth of 8 cm below the surface. At maturity, plants were separated into grain and straw, dried and weighted. Soil and plant samples were analyzed for total N and N-15 excess. Both fertilizer placement and inhibitor application significantly increased straw and grain yield, as well as N-uptake. Nitrogen derived from fertilizer (%Ndff) was more than doubled, when urea was applied deep and in combination with inhibitors. Plant recovery of N-15 labelled urea ranged from 17% to 75% according to treatment. Regardless of inhibitors application, plant recovery was increased from 39% to 65% when urea was applied at depth of 8 cm. Approximately 2/3 of the applied urea (64%)was lost when urea was applied alone. Those losses were reduced down to 12% with deep placement and inhibitor application. The two management practices show significant effect on minimizing N-losses and increasing plant recovery. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  11. A modified assay method for determining serotonin uptake in human platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, R.C.; Meltzer, H.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of various experimental conditions on serotonin (5-HT) uptake in human platelets were examined. The experimental design allowed the evaluation of the effect of diffusion and other non-saturable processes on the affinity and maximum activity of the membrane pump for 5-HT uptake. Total 5-HT uptake was determined by incubating platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with increasing concentrations of serotonin at 37 0 C for 4 min. The passive uptake was measured by the addition of various 5-HT concentrations to PRP in buffer at 37 0 C, followed by immediate transfer to an ice-cold water bath. The difference between the total and passive uptake was linear for 6 min. The affinity (Ksub(m)) for active platelet serotonin uptake was 0.45 +- 0.09 μmol/l and maximal rate of uptake (V) was 10.7 +- 2.1 pmol/10 7 platelets/min. The described method provides a convenient and reliable measure of active 5-HT uptake suitable for clinical investigation. The effect of passive diffusion on kinetic parameters is discussed. (Auth.)

  12. [Construction of a physiological aging scale for healthy people based on a modified Delphi method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yao; Zhou, Xuan; Deng, Pengfei; Liao, Xiong; Wu, Lei; Zhou, Jianming; Huang, Helang

    2016-04-01

    To build a physiological aging scale for healthy people.
 We collected age-related physiologic items through literature screening and expert interview. Two rounds of Delphi were implemented. The importance, feasibility and the degree of authority for the physiological index system were graded. Using analytic hierarchy process, we determined the weight of dimensions and items.
 Using Delphy mothod, 17 physiological and other professional experts offered the results as follow: coefficient of expert authorities Cr was 0.86±0.03, coordination coefficients for the first and second round were 0.264(χ2=229.691, Paging scale for healthy people included 3 dimensions, namely physical form, feeling movement and functional status. Each dimension had 8 items. The weight coefficients for the 3 dimensions were 0.54, 0.16, and 0.30, respectively. The Cronbach's α coefficient of the scale was 0.893, the reliability was 0.796, and the variance of the common factor was 58.17%.
 The improved Delphi method or physiological aging scale is satisfied, which can provide reference for the evaluation of aging.

  13. Small timber harvesting on slopes using the small winch and modified Goldberg methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, W; Sagowski, H

    1981-01-01

    Results are summarized of work studies in 1980 during thinnings in 50- to 60-yr-old beech stands in Forest District Rinteln (Lower Saxony) involving: (a) one-man working using a chain saw and a NORDFOR small (0.8 t) winch to skid 1-2 logs (4-6 m long) to skidding lane, followed by forwarder transport; or (b) 2-man working (in rotation) using a chain saw and a 65 hp tractor/Schlang and Reichart double-drum winch combination to skid 8-15 trimmed tree lengths to goods road or stacking area. Average log volume (cubic m) was 0.18 (a), 0.24 (b); skidding distance (m) was 200-400 (a), average 110 (b). Performance was superior in (b), even in the optimal log volume range of (a), especially at skidding distances less than 200 m. Costs in (a) were 45 DM/0.18 cubic m, in (b) 30DM/0.25 cubic m. Work performance standards and wage calculation factors are given. In both methods, net profit (average 20 DM/cubic 3) was greater and damage to main crop (less than 5%) was lower than for preparation of long industrial wood using the conventional HET/EST wage rate systems. (Refs. 2).

  14. Consensus in controversy: The modified Delphi method applied to Gynecologic Oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, David E; Havrilesky, Laura J; Osann, Kathryn; Lipscomb, Joseph; Hsieh, Susie; Walker, Joan L; Wright, Alexi A; Alvarez, Ronald D; Karlan, Beth Y; Bristow, Robert E; DiSilvestro, Paul A; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Morgan, Robert; Mukamel, Dana B; Wenzel, Lari

    2015-09-01

    To determine the degree of consensus regarding the probabilities of outcomes associated with IP/IV and IV chemotherapy. A survey was administered to an expert panel using the Delphi method. Ten ovarian cancer experts were asked to estimate outcomes for patients receiving IP/IV or IV chemotherapy. The clinical estimates were: 1) probability of completing six cycles of chemotherapy, 2) probability of surviving five years, 3) median survival, and 4) probability of ER/hospital visits during treatment. Estimates for two patients, one with a low comorbidity index (patient 1) and the other with a moderate index (patient 2), were included. The survey was administered in three rounds, and panelists could revise their subsequent responses based on review of the anonymous opinions of their peers. The ranges were smaller for IV compared with IP/IV therapy. Ranges decreased with each round. Consensus converged around outcomes related to IP/IV chemotherapy for: 1) completion of 6 cycles of therapy (type 1 patient, 62%, type 2 patient, 43%); 2) percentage of patients surviving 5 years (type 1 patient, 66%, type 2 patient, 47%); and 3) median survival (type 1 patient, 83 months, type 2 patient, 58 months). The group required three rounds to achieve consensus on the probabilities of ER/hospital visits (type 1 patient, 24%, type 2 patient, 35%). Initial estimates of survival and adverse events associated with IP/IV chemotherapy differ among experts. The Delphi process works to build consensus and may be a pragmatic tool to inform patients of their expected outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High activity PtRu/C catalysts synthesized by a modified impregnation method for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Liang; Liu Changpeng; Liao Jianhui; Lu Tianhong; Xing Wei; Zhang Jiujun

    2009-01-01

    A modified impregnation method was used to prepare highly dispersive carbon-supported PtRu catalyst (PtRu/C). Two modifications to the conventional impregnation method were performed: one was to precipitate the precursors ((NH 4 ) 2 PtCl 6 and Ru(OH) 3 ) on the carbon support before metal reduction; the other was to add a buffer into the synthetic solution to stabilize the pH. The prepared catalyst showed a much higher activity for methanol electro-oxidation than a catalyst prepared by the conventional impregnation method, even higher than that of current commercially available, state-of-the-art catalysts. The morphology of the prepared catalyst was characterized using TEM and XRD measurements to determine particle sizes, alloying degree, and lattice parameters. Electrochemical methods were also used to ascertain the electrochemical active surface area and the specific activity of the catalyst. Based on XPS measurements, the high activity of this catalyst was found to originate from both metallic Ru (Ru 0 ) and hydrous ruthenium oxides (RuO x H y ) species on the catalyst surface. However, RuO x H y was found to be more active than metallic Ru. In addition, the anhydrous ruthenium oxide (RuO 2 ) species on the catalyst surface was found to be less active.

  16. H-M bearing capacity of a modified suction caisson determined by using load-/displacement-controlled methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-kun; Gao, Yu-feng; Li, Da-yong; Mahfouz, Ali H.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a series of monotonically combined lateral loading tests to investigate the bearing capacity of the MSCs (modified suction caissons) in the saturated marine fine sand. The lateral loads were applied under load- and displacement-controlled methods at the loading eccentricity ratios of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5. Results show that, in the displacement-controlled test, the deflection-softening behavior of load-deflection curves for MSCs was observed, and the softening degree of the load-deflection response increased with the increasing external skirt length or the decreasing loading eccentricity. It was also found that the rotation center of the MSC at failure determined by the load-controlled method is slightly lower than that by the displacement-controlled method. The calculated MSC capacity based on the rotation center position in serviceability limit state is relatively conservative, compared with the calculated capacity based on the rotation center position in the ultimate limit state. In the limit state, the passive earth pressures opposite the loading direction under load- and displacement-controlled methods decrease by 46% and 74% corresponding to peak values, respectively; however, the passive earth pressures in the loading direction at failure only decrease by approximately 3% and 7%, compared with their peak values.

  17. Current PCR Methods for the Detection, Identification and Quantification of Genetically Modified Organisms(GMOs: a Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadani F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR technology are increasingly used for the detection of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA sequences associated with genetically modified organisms (GMOs. In the European Union and Switzerland, mandatory labeling of novel foods and food ingredients consisting of, or containing GMOs is required according to food regulations and is triggered by the presence of newly introduced foreign DNA sequences, or newly expressed proteins. In order to meet regulatory and consumer demand, numerous PCR-based methods have been developed which can detect, identify and quantify GMOs in agricultural crops, food and feed. Moreover, the determination of genetic identity allows for segregation and traceability (identity preservation throughout the supply chain of GM crops that have been enhanced with value-added quality traits. Prerequisites for GMO detection include a minimum amount of the target gene and prior knowledge of the type of genetic modification, such as virus or insect resistance traits, including controlling elements (promoters and terminators. Moreover, DNA extraction and purification is a critical step for the preparation of PCR-quality samples, particularly for processed agricultural crops such as tobacco. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of PCR-based method development for the qualitative and quantitative determination and identification of GMOs, and includes a short summary of official and validated GMO detection methods.

  18. Modified Mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian Method Based on Numerical Framework of MT3DMS on Cauchy Boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Heejun

    2016-07-01

    MT3DMS, a modular three-dimensional multispecies transport model, has long been a popular model in the groundwater field for simulating solute transport in the saturated zone. However, the method of characteristics (MOC), modified MOC (MMOC), and hybrid MOC (HMOC) included in MT3DMS did not treat Cauchy boundary conditions in a straightforward or rigorous manner, from a mathematical point of view. The MOC, MMOC, and HMOC regard the Cauchy boundary as a source condition. For the source, MOC, MMOC, and HMOC calculate the Lagrangian concentration by setting it equal to the cell concentration at an old time level. However, the above calculation is an approximate method because it does not involve backward tracking in MMOC and HMOC or allow performing forward tracking at the source cell in MOC. To circumvent this problem, a new scheme is proposed that avoids direct calculation of the Lagrangian concentration on the Cauchy boundary. The proposed method combines the numerical formulations of two different schemes, the finite element method (FEM) and the Eulerian-Lagrangian method (ELM), into one global matrix equation. This study demonstrates the limitation of all MT3DMS schemes, including MOC, MMOC, HMOC, and a third-order total-variation-diminishing (TVD) scheme under Cauchy boundary conditions. By contrast, the proposed method always shows good agreement with the exact solution, regardless of the flow conditions. Finally, the successful application of the proposed method sheds light on the possible flexibility and capability of the MT3DMS to deal with the mass transport problems of all flow regimes. © 2016, National Ground Water Association.

  19. Prediction of non-polar gas solubilities in water, alcohols and aqueous alcohol solutions by the modified ASOG method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochigi, K.; Kojima, K.

    1982-07-01

    This study evaluated a technique for predicting gas solubilities based on a modified ASOG group-contribution method, considering water, alcohols, and aqueous alcohol solutions as the solvents. The nonpolar gaseous solutes considered were oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and butane. Gas solubilities were correlated and predicted for a partial gas pressure of 1 atm and a temperature range of 50/sup 0/-100/sup 0/F (10/sup 0/-40/sup 0/C) in pure solvents, and then predicted for the same pressure and temperature range in mixed solvents using only the solubility data for the pure solvents. The deviations between the observed and predicted solubilities averaged 6.0% in pure systems and 10.2% in mixed solvents.

  20. Structure and physical properties of the LaBiFe2O6 Perovskite produced by the modified Pechini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Johny Andrés Jaramillo; Bello, Elixir William Barrera; Landínez-Téllez, David A.; Roa-Rojas, Jairo; Cagigas, Julián Andrés Munévar; Arnache, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the synthesis of the LaBiFe 2 O 6 material by the modified Pechini method is reported. Structural, morphologic, magnetic and optic experimental studies were performed. Rietveld refinement of x-ray diffraction patterns revealed that LaBiFe 2 O 6 crystallizes in an orthorhombic perovskite structure (space group Pnma, ⧣ 62). Scanning electron microscopy images showed the nanometric feature of grains. X-ray dispersive spectroscopy permitted to infer the obtaining of the LaBiFe 2 O 6 expected stoichiometry. Results of magnetic susceptibility as a function of temperature and field magnetization evidenced mixed ferromagnetism and superparamagnetism behavior at T=300 K. Mössbauer spectroscopy supported the superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic responses as a result of the nanogranular morphology and anisotropy effects. Spectrum of diffuse reflectance suggest that this material behaves as a semiconductor with energy gap E g =2.13 eV. (author)

  1. Proposal of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome in Japan: a modified Delphi method and practice test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtera, Shosuke; Kanazawa, Natsuko; Ozasa, Neiko; Ueshima, Kenji; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-01-27

    Cardiac rehabilitation is underused and its quality in practice is unclear. A quality indicator is a measurable element of clinical practice performance. This study aimed to propose a set of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation following an acute coronary event in the Japanese population and conduct a small-size practice test to confirm feasibility and applicability of the indicators in real-world clinical practice. This study used a modified Delphi technique (the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method), a consensus method which involves an evidence review, a face-to-face multidisciplinary panel meeting and repeated anonymous rating. Evidence to be reviewed included clinical practice guidelines available in English or Japanese and existing quality indicators. Performance of each indicator was assessed retrospectively using medical records at a university hospital in Japan. 10 professionals in cardiac rehabilitation for the consensus panel. In the literature review, 23 clinical practice guidelines and 16 existing indicators were identified to generate potential indicators. Through the consensus-building process, a total of 30 indicators were assessed and finally 13 indicators were accepted. The practice test (n=39) revealed that 74% of patients underwent cardiac rehabilitation. Median performance of process measures was 93% (IQR 46-100%). 'Communication with the doctor who referred the patient to cardiac rehabilitation' and 'continuous participation in cardiac rehabilitation' had low performance (32% and 38%, respectively). A modified Delphi technique identified a comprehensive set of quality indicators for cardiac rehabilitation. The single-site, small-size practice test confirmed that most of the proposed indicators were measurable in real-world clinical practice. However, some clinical processes which are not covered by national health insurance in Japan had low performance. Further studies will be needed to clarify and improve the quality of care in cardiac

  2. A Modified Ficoll-Paque Gradient Method for Isolating Mononuclear Cells from the Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood of Humans for Biobanks and Clinical Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanjuan; Xu, Hui; Li, Yonghong; Wei, Chaojun; Guo, Rui; Wang, Fang; Wu, Yu; Liu, Jing; Jia, Jing; Yan, Junwen; Qi, Xiaoming; Li, Yuanting; Gao, Xiaoling

    2018-04-01

    Although the Ficoll-Paque method is classically used to isolate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), modifications in this method are required for a more rapid and economic output for biobanks and clinical laboratories, particularly in developing countries. In this study, we addressed this issue by modifying the Ficoll-Paque method for the isolation of PBMCs or mononuclear cells from the peripheral and the umbilical cord blood of healthy and diseased (infected, anemic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) adult individuals. In the modified method, we initiated the cell isolation process from the buffy coat layer, which appears in the interface between the plasma and sediments after centrifugation, instead of using the whole blood as described in the classic method. Although the PBMC yield by the modified method was about 12% less than in the classic method, the number of PBMCs isolated by the modified method was more than one million, which is enough for different research/diagnostic purposes, such as multi-omics detection. Assessment of cell viability and purity by hematology analyzer and trypan blue showed no significant difference between the viability and purity of the PBMCs isolated by these two methods in almost all groups, except samples from the infected and cord blood groups, where lower PBMC purity with higher granulocyte contamination were observed. In addition, at delayed processing time points, all parameters for the two methods were decreased in a time-dependent manner, especially at 8, 12, or 24 hours after the sample collection. In summary, the performance of PBMC isolation by the classic and modified methods mainly relies on the PBMC ratio in original samples. The modified method could be preferred for PBMC isolation because of its time and cost savings, especially for the biobanks and clinical laboratories in developing countries.

  3. Interlaboratory validation of quantitative duplex real-time PCR method for screening analysis of genetically modified maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Koiwa, Tomohiro; Kasahara, Masaki; Takashima, Kaori; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Oguchi, Taichi; Mano, Junichi; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2011-01-01

    To reduce the cost and time required to routinely perform the genetically modified organism (GMO) test, we developed a duplex quantitative real-time PCR method for a screening analysis simultaneously targeting an event-specific segment for GA21 and Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (P35S) segment [Oguchi et al., J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan, 50, 117-125 (2009)]. To confirm the validity of the method, an interlaboratory collaborative study was conducted. In the collaborative study, conversion factors (Cfs), which are required to calculate the GMO amount (%), were first determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the ABI PRISM 7900HT and the ABI PRISM 7500. A blind test was then conducted. The limit of quantitation for both GA21 and P35S was estimated to be 0.5% or less. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSD(R)). The determined bias and RSD(R) were each less than 25%. We believe the developed method would be useful for the practical screening analysis of GM maize.

  4. The use of tristimulus colorimetry for the determination of hydrogen cyanide in air by a modified König method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMÍR PITSCHMANN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple visual and tristimulus colorimetric method (three-dimensional system CIE-L*a*b* for the determination of trace amounts of hydrogen cyanide in air has been developed. The method is based on the suction of hydrogen cyanide through a chlorinating cartridge where cyanogen chloride is formed, which is further driven to an indicator disc made of a modified cotton fabric. This indicator disc is placed into an adapter. Prior to analysis, the disc is saturated with a chromogenic reagent, a solution of 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone and 4-benzylpyridine in ethanol. In the presence of hydrogen cyanide (cyanogen chloride, a pink coloration emerges on the indicator disc, the intensity of which is evaluated either visually or by use of a tristimulus colorimeter. The detection limit is 0.1 mg m-3. The method is mainly suitable for mobile field analyses. It was applied for the CHP-5 chemical agent detector introduced into the equipment of the Czech Army corps.

  5. Modified Blumgart anastomosis with the "complete packing method" reduces the incidence of pancreatic fistula and complications after resection of the head of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Toru; Niguma, Takefumi; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Sakata, Taizo; Mimura, Tetsushige

    2018-03-26

    Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) and its complications remain problems. This study evaluated combination treatment with modified Blumgart anastomosis and an original infection control method (complete packing method) following pancreatic head resection. This study included 374 consecutive patients who underwent pancreatic head resection: 103 patients underwent Cattell-Warren anastomosis (CWA); 170 patients underwent modified Kakita anastomosis (KA); and 101 patients underwent modified Blumgart anastomosis with the complete packing method (BAC). The outcomes of the KA and BAC groups were compared statistically. The POPF rate was significantly lower in the BAC group than in the KA group (28.8% vs 2.97%; p anastomosis and the complete packing method is a simple and useful method for reducing the incidence of POPF and postoperative complications. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  7. Improvement of the facial evenness of leave-on skincare products by a modified application method in Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Y; Wang, X; Fan, G

    2015-04-01

    To understand the habits of Chinese women applying leave-on skincare products (LOSCP) and to improve female facial evenness of anti-ageing cosmetics through modifying facial skincare smear ways. A questionnaire on the method of applying LOSCP was distributed to 60 women with habit of using LOSCP. Their facial images before and after applying LOSCP were taken, and their positioning and grey value were used to analyse the effects of different applying methods on the uniformity of facial LOSCP. LOSCP including anti-ageing cosmetics have been widely used among Chinese women for a long time. However, some women do not concern how to properly apply LOSCP. In our survey, the main focal points of the face are forehead, malar region, cheek, mouth corners and chin when they looking into the mirror, and mouth corners and inner canthus are often overlooked when applying cosmetic products. The image analysis found that after applying the LOSCP, the greyscale of the forehead, glabella, malar region, upper lip region and jaw changed significantly whereas that of canthus, mouth corners and lateral cheek region was not significantly different. Applying an improved smear method (11-point method)could significantly increase the grey values of various facial areas. The way of Chinese women applying LOSCP may result in facial unevenness of skin products. By improving facial skincare smear method, one can make the products even in all facial areas, thereby ensuring the efficacy of anti-ageing cosmetics. Thus, further improvement and education regarding skincare is required. © 2014 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow measurements by a noninvasive microsphere method using 123I-IMP. Comparison with the modified fractional uptake method and the continuous arterial blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Seigo; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanizaki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Masafumi; Miyazaki, Yoshiharu; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    1998-01-01

    A noninvasive microsphere method using N-isopropyl-p-( 123 I)iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), developed by Yonekura et al., was performed in 10 patients with neurological diseases to quantify regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). Regional CBF values by this method were compared with rCBF values simultaneously estimated from both the modified fractional uptake (FU) method using cardiac output developed by Miyazaki et al. and the conventional method with continuous arterial blood sampling. In comparison, we designated the factor which converted raw SPECT voxel counts to rCBF values as a CBF factor. A highly significant correlation (r=0.962, p<0.001) was obtained in the CBF factors between the present method and the continuous arterial blood sampling method. The CBF factors by the present method were only 2.7% higher on the average than those by the continuous arterial blood sampling method. There were significant correlation (r=0.811 and r=O.798, p<0.001) in the CBF factor between modified FU method (threshold for estimating total brain SPECT counts; 10% and 30% respectively) and the continuous arterial blood sampling method. However, the CBF factors of the modified FU method showed 31.4% and 62.3% higher on the average (threshold; 10% and 30% respectively) than those by the continuous arterial blood sampling method. In conclusion, this newly developed method for rCBF measurements was considered to be useful for routine clinical studies without any blood sampling. (author)

  9. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. Materials and Methods: In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean values in horizontal width after 6 months were 4.70 ± 0.87 mm, and 4.05 ± 0.89 mm for group I and II, respectively. Regarding vertical heights, obtained mean values were 4.75 ± 0.97 mm and 3.70 ± 0.92 mm for group I and group II, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  10. Development of quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives using a RAND-modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kayo; Ohtera, Shosuke; Kaso, Misato; Nakayama, Takeo

    2017-09-22

    In childbirth, most deliveries are low-risk, defined as spontaneous labor at full term without special high-risk facts or complications, especially in high-resource countries where maternal and perinatal mortality rates are very low. Indeed, the majority of mothers and infants have no serious conditions during labor. However, the quality of care provided is not assured, and performance may vary by birthing facility and provider. The overuse of technology in childbirth in some parts of the world is almost certainly based on assumptions like, "something can go wrong at any minute." There is a need to assess the quality of care provided for mothers and infants in low-risk labor. We aimed to develop specific quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided primarily by midwives in Japan. We used a RAND-modified Delphi method, which integrates evidence review with expert consensus development. The procedure comprises five steps: (1) literature review, including clinical practice guidelines, to extract and develop quality indicator candidates; (2) formation of a multidisciplinary panel; (3) independent panel ratings (Round 1); (4) panel meeting and independent panel ratings (Round 2); and (5) independent panel ratings (Round 3). The three independent panel ratings (Rounds 1-3) were held between July and December 2012. The assembled multidisciplinary panel comprised eight clinicians (two pediatricians, three obstetricians, and three midwives) and three mothers who were nonclinicians. Evidentiary review extracted 166 key recommendations from 32 clinical practice guidelines, and 31 existing quality indicators were added. After excluding duplicate recommendations and quality indicators, the panel discussed 25 candidate indicators. Of these, 18 were adopted, one was modified, six were not adopted, and four were added during the meeting, respectively. We established 23 quality indicators for low-risk labor care provided by midwives in labor units in Japan.

  11. Pressure-induced magneto-structural transition in iron via a modified solid-state nudged elastic band method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, Nikolai A.; Johnson, Duane D.

    2015-03-01

    Materials under pressure may exhibit critical electronic and structural transitions that affect equation of states, as known for superconductors and the magneto-structural transformations of iron with both geophysical and planetary implications. While experiments often use constant-pressure (diamond-anvil cell, DAC) measurements, many theoretical results address a constant-volume transitions, which avoid issues with magnetic collapse but cannot be directly compared to experiment. We establish a modified solid-state nudge elastic band (MSS-NEB) method to handle magnetic systems that may exhibit moment (and volume) collapse during transformation. We apply it to the pressure-induced transformation in iron between the low-pressure body-centered cubic (bcc) and the high-pressure hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phases, find the bcc-hcp equilibrium coexistence pressure and a transitional pathway, and compare to shock and DAC experiments. We use methods developed with support by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG02-03ER46026 and DE-AC02-07CH11358). Ames Laboratory is operated for the DOE by Iowa State University under contract DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  12. CaSnO 3 obtained by modified Pechini method applied in the photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Lucena

    Full Text Available Abstract Pure forms of alkaline-earth stannates with perovskite structure (ASnO3, A= Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+ have been used as photocatalysts. In this work, CaSnO3 perovskite sample was synthesized by a modified Pechini method at 800 ºC and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-visible spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The photocatalytic degradation of remazol golden yellow (RNL dye under UV radiation was evaluated. The XRD pattern showed that the synthesis method favored the orthorhombic CaSnO3 crystallization. According to the Raman spectrum, a material with high short-range order was obtained despite of the relatively low synthesis temperature, compared to the solid-state reaction one. The highest photocatalytic activity was attained at pH 3, which presented 51% discoloration and improved activity of 35% compared to discoloration solely due to adsorption (absence of radiation. The point of zero charge (PZC and the photocatalytic results indicated that a direct mechanism prevailed at pH 3, whereas an indirect mechanism prevailed at pH 6.

  13. Clinical observation of a modified surgical method: posterior vaginal mesh suspension of female rectocele with intractable constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ling; Li, Huai-Fang; Sun, Jing; Zhu, Jian-Long; Ai, Gui-hai; Li, Li; Zhang, Bo; Chi, Feng-li; Tong, Xiao-Wen

    2012-01-01

    To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of a modified posterior vaginal mesh suspension method in treating female rectocele with intractable constipation. Descriptive study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). The study was performed in the Study Center for Female Pelvic Dysfunction Disease, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. The Study Center includes 15 physicians, most of whom have received advanced training in pelvic floor dysfunctional disease and can skillfully perform many types of operations in patients with such disease. Almost 1500 operations to treat pelvic floor dysfunctional disease are performed every year at the center. Thirty-six women with rectocele with intractable constipation. Posterior vaginal mesh suspension. All patients were followed up for 15 to 36 months. In 29 patients, the condition was cured completely; in 5 patients it had improved; and in 2 patients, the intervention had no effect. Insofar as recovery and improved results, the overall effectiveness rate was 94.4%. Posterior vaginal mesh suspension is an effective, harmless, and convenient method for treatment of female rectocele with intractable constipation. It has positive short-term curative effects, with few complications and sequelae. However, the long-term effects of posterior vaginal mesh suspension should be evaluated. Copyright © 2012 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Stabilization of the ulnar stump using modified Breen method after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure in rheumatoid wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanino, Yoshihiko; Yabe, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Kenji; Ikegami, Hiroyasu; Ichikawa, Tooru

    2006-01-01

    We report on the utility of the modified Breen method in addition to the Sauve-Kapandji operation for the treatment of instability and pain in the proximal ulnar stump in rheumatoid arthrities (RA) wrist. We treated a total of 15 hands in 12 patients with disturbances due to instability and pain at the proximal ulnar stump. The average follow-up period was 47 months. We evaluated the range of motion, grip strength, radioulnar distance, and the radioulnar distance at the stump using CT during pronation, supination, and neutral positions of the forearm in 11 of the 15 operated hands. We observed that none of the patients showed any signs of pain at the proximal ulnar stump and no scallop sign was observed. In all the cases, the line connecting the center of the radial head to the proximal ulnar stump served as the axis of rotation for the forearm; this was confirmed by the CT images. We concluded that our operative method resulted in stabilization of the proximal ulnar stump and recovery of powerful grip without pain during forearm rotation. (author)

  15. Lanthanum oxyfluoride nanostructures prepared by modified sonochemical method and their use in the fields of optoelectronics and biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Suresh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dysprosium doped lanthanum oxyfluoride nanostructures were prepared by modified sonochemical method using Aloe Vera gel as a bio-surfactant. The morphology of the product was systematically studied by varying different experimental parameters including concentration of surfactant, sonication time, pH and sonication power. It was found that some of these above parameters play a key role in tuning the morphology of the product. The photoluminescence studies exhibited characteristic emission peaks at ∼483 nm, 574 nm and 674 nm attributed to 4F9/2 → 6H15/2, 4F9/2 → 6H13/2 and 4F9/2 → 6H11/2 transitions of Dy3+ ions respectively. The optimal concentration of Dy3+ ions was found to be ∼3 mol%. The photometric studies revealed that the prepared samples were quite useful for the fabrication of white light emitting diodes. The optimized product was also tested for their capability as an antigen against the bacterial and fungal pathogens. The present method of preparation may be scaled up easily to the larger production for industrial applications. The optimized sample showed an effective visualization of latent fingerprints on various forensic relevant materials and also showed effective antimicrobial potential for applications in nanobiotechnology.

  16. Modified method of simplest equation: Powerful tool for obtaining exact and approximate traveling-wave solutions of nonlinear PDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitanov, Nikolay K.

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the class of equations ∑i,j=0mAij(u){∂iu}/{∂ti}∂+∑k,l=0nBkl(u){∂ku}/{∂xk}∂=C(u) where Aij( u), Bkl( u) and C( u) are functions of u( x, t) as follows: (i) Aij, Bkl and C are polynomials of u; or (ii) Aij, Bkl and C can be reduced to polynomials of u by means of Taylor series for small values of u. For these two cases the above-mentioned class of equations consists of nonlinear PDEs with polynomial nonlinearities. We show that the modified method of simplest equation is powerful tool for obtaining exact traveling-wave solution of this class of equations. The balance equations for the sub-class of traveling-wave solutions of the investigated class of equations are obtained. We illustrate the method by obtaining exact traveling-wave solutions (i) of the Swift-Hohenberg equation and (ii) of the generalized Rayleigh equation for the cases when the extended tanh-equation or the equations of Bernoulli and Riccati are used as simplest equations.

  17. Multi-objective robust optimization method for the modified epoxy resin sheet molding compounds of the impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhang Qu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A kind of modified epoxy resin sheet molding compounds of the impeller has been designed. Through the test, the non-metal impeller has a better environmental aging performance, but must do the waterproof processing design. In order to improve the stability of the impeller vibration design, the influence of uncertainty factors is considered, and a multi-objective robust optimization method is proposed to reduce the weight of the impeller. Firstly, based on the fluid-structure interaction,the analysis model of the impeller vibration is constructed. Secondly, the optimal approximate model of the impeller is constructed by using the Latin hypercube and radial basis function, and the fitting and optimization accuracy of the approximate model is improved by increasing the sample points. Finally, the micro multi-objective genetic algorithm is applied to the robust optimization of approximate model, and the Monte Carlo simulation and Sobol sampling techniques are used for reliability analysis. By comparing the results of the deterministic, different sigma levels and different materials, the multi-objective optimization of the SMC molding impeller can meet the requirements of engineering stability and lightweight. And the effectiveness of the proposed multi-objective robust optimization method is verified by the error analysis. After the SMC molding and the robust optimization of the impeller, the optimized rate reached 42.5%, which greatly improved the economic benefit, and greatly reduce the vibration of the ventilation system.

  18. Shape-controlled synthesis of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting polyhedral morphologies by modified polyol method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Nguyen Viet; Asaka, Toru; Matsubara, Takashi; Nogami, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple synthetic method. First, Pt nanoparticles were synthesized in a controlled manner via the reduction of chloroplantinic acid hexahydrate in ethylene glycol (EG) at 160 deg. C in the presence of silver nitrate and the stabilization of polyvinylpyrrolidon. AgNO 3 used acts as a structure-modifying agent to the morphology of the Pt nanoparticles. These Pt nanoparticles function as the seeds for the successive reduction of sodium tetrachloropalladate (II) hydrate in EG under stirring for 15 min at 160 deg. C in order to synthesize Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles. To characterize the as-prepared Pt-Pd nanoparticles, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM are used. The high-resolution elemental mappings were carried out using the combination of scanning TEM and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The results also demonstrate the homogeneous nucleation and growth of the Pd metal shell on the definite Pt core. The synthesized Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles exhibit a sharp and polyhedral morphology. The epitaxial growth of the controlled Pd shells on the Pt cores via a polyol method was observed. It is suggested that Frank-van der Merwe and Stranski-Krastanov growth modes coexisted in the nucleation and growth of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles.

  19. A Modified Recession Vector Method Based on the Optimization-Simulation Approach to Design Problems of Information Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Bykov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern practical task-solving techniques for designing information security systems in different purpose automated systems assume the solution of optimization tasks when choosing different elements of a security system. Formulations of mathematical programming tasks are rather often used, but in practical tasks it is not always analytically possible to set target function and (or restrictions in an explicit form. Sometimes, calculation of the target function value or checking of restrictions for the possible decision can be reduced to carrying out experiments on a simulation model of system. Similar tasks are considered within optimization-simulation approach and require the ad hoc methods of optimization considering the possible high computational effort of simulation.The article offers a modified recession vector method, which is used in tasks of discrete optimization to solve the similar problems. The method is applied when the task to be solved is to minimize the cost of selected information security tools in case of restriction on the maximum possible damage. The cost index is the linear function of the Boolean variables, which specify the selected security tools, with the restriction set as an "example simulator". Restrictions can be actually set implicitly. A validity of the possible solution is checked using a simulation model of the system.The offered algorithm of a method considers features of an objective. The main advantage of algorithm is that it requires a maximum of m+1 of steps where m is a dimensionality of the required vector of Boolean variables. The algorithm provides finding a local minimum by using the Hamming metrics in the discrete space; the radius of neighborhood is equal to 1. These statements are proved.The paper presents solution results of choosing security tools with the specified basic data.

  20. Monodisperse magnetite (Fe_3O_4) nanoparticles modified with water soluble polymers for the diagnosis of breast cancer by MRI method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezayan, Ali Hossein; Mousavi, Majid; Kheirjou, Somayyeh; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Mohammadnejad, Javad

    2016-01-01

    In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. To enhance the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the synthesized nanoparticles, they were modified with carboxyl functionalized PEG via dopamine (DPA) linker. Both modified and unmodified Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles exhibited super paramagnetic behavior (particle size below 20 nm). The saturation magnetization (Ms) of PEGdiacid-modified Fe_3O_4 was 45 emu/g, which was less than the unmodified Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles (70 emu/g). This difference indicated that PEGdiacid polymer was immobilized on the surface of Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles successfully. To evaluate the efficiency of the resulting nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different concentration of MNPs and different value of echo time TE were investigated. The results showed that by increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles, transverse relaxation time (T_2) decreased, which subsequently resulted in MR signal enhancement. T_2-weighted MR images of the different concentration of MNPs in different value of echo time TE indicated that MR signal intensity increased with increase in TE value up to 66 and then remained constant. The cytotoxicity effect of the modified and unmodified nanoparticles was evaluated in three different concentrations (12, 60 and 312 mg l"−"1) on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells for 24 and 48 h. In both tested time (24 and 48 h) for all three samples, the modified nanoparticles had long life time than unmodified nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of modified MNPs was 80% and reduced to 9% by the unmodified MNPs. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. • MNPs were modified with carboxyl functionalized PEG via dopamine (DPA) linker. • Modified and unmodified Fe_3O_4 nanoparticles exhibited super paramagnetic behavior. • T_2 decrease as MNPs concentration increase, this led to MR signal enhancement. • Modified

  1. Evaluation of sensitivity of modified star protocol microbiological method for beta-lactame antibiotics detection in raw cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borović Branka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic residues when present in animal tissues, through food chain, can enter human body, causing allergic reactions or facilitating the development of resistant bacterial strains. In order to determine the presence of antibiotics in animal tissues, it is appropriate to use convenient, reliable and sensitive methods. Microbiological methods applied for the detection of antibiotic residues in primary products of animal origin are based on the sensitivity of specific bacterial strains to a particular group of antibiotics. Regulatives on the amount of pesticides, metals and metalloids and other toxic substances, chemotherapeutics, anabolics and other substances which can be found in food ("Off. Gazette", No. 5/92, 11/92 - corr. and 32/02, state that milk and milk products can be used in commercial purposes only if not contain antibiotics in quantities that can be detected by reference methods. The applied method is modified STAR (Screening test for detection of antibiotics protocol, regulated by the CRL (Community Reference Laboratory Fougeres, France, in which the initial validation of the method had been carried out. In accordance with the demands of Regulative Commission EC No657/2002, the sensitivity of modified STAR protocol for beta lactam antibiotics group was examined , that is, there was carried out a contracted validation of the method, which initial validation had been performed at CRL. In a couple of series of experiments, 20 blank samples of raw cow milk originating from animals not treated by antibiotics, had been examined. By the beginning of the experiment samples were stored in a freezer at -20ºC. Samples of raw cow milk enriched by working solutions of seven beta-lactam antibiotics, in order to obtain concentrations at the level of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 MRL (Maximmum Residue Limit for each given antibiotic (Commission Regulation EC No. 37/2010. For detection of beta-lactam antibiotics, there was used Kundrat agar test with

  2. Dispersive traveling wave solutions of the Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations via mathematical methods and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, Aly R.; Ali, Asghar

    2018-06-01

    The Equal-Width and Modified Equal-Width equations are used as a model in partial differential equations for the simulation of one-dimensional wave transmission in nonlinear media with dispersion processes. In this article we have employed extend simple equation method and the exp(-varphi(ξ)) expansion method to construct the exact traveling wave solutions of equal width and modified equal width equations. The obtained results are novel and have numerous applications in current areas of research in mathematical physics. It is exposed that our method, with the help of symbolic computation, provides a effective and powerful mathematical tool for solving different kind nonlinear wave problems.

  3. Development of a simple one-pot extraction method for various drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in blood by modifying the QuEChERS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuta, Shuntaro; Nakanishi, Keiko; Miki, Akihiro; Zaitsu, Kei; Shima, Noriaki; Kamata, Tooru; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Tsuboi, Kento; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi

    2013-10-10

    A rapid and convenient extraction method has been developed for the determination of various drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in blood by modifying the dispersive solid-phase extraction method "QuEChERS". The following 13 analytes with various chemical properties were used for the method development and its validation: amphetamine, methamphetamine, zolpidem, the carboxylate-form major metabolite of zolpidem M-1, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoflunitrazepam, phenobarbital, triazolam, α-hydroxytriazolam, brotizolam, α-hydroxybrotizolam, chlorpromazine, and promethazine. The modification of the QuEChERS method includes the use of relatively large amounts of inorganic salts in order to coagulate blood, which allows easy isolation of the organic extract phase. A combination of 100 mg anhydrous magnesium sulfate as a dehydrating agent, 50mg sodium chloride as a salting-out agent, and 500 μL acetonitrile containing 0.2% acetic acid as the organic solvent provided the optimum conditions for processing a 100 μL whole blood sample. The recoveries of the analytes spiked into whole blood at 0.5 μg/mL ranged between 59% and 93%. Although the addition of the graphitized carbon Envi-carb for cleanup decreased the recoveries of zolpidem and its carboxylate-form metabolite M-1, it was very effective in avoiding interferences by cholesterol. The present method can provide a rapid, effective, user-friendly, and relatively hygienic method for the simultaneous extraction of a wide range of drugs and metabolites in whole blood specimens. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing a new method for modifying over-allocated multi-mode resource constraint schedules in the presence of preemptive resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidin Delgoshaei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The issue of resource over-allocating is a big concern for project engineers in the process of scheduling project activities. Resource over-allocating is frequently seen after initial scheduling of a project in practice and causes significant amount of efforts to modify the initial schedules. In this research, a new method is developed for modifying over-allocated schedules in a multi-mode resource constrained project scheduling problems (MRCPSPs with positive cash flows (MRCPSP-PCF. The aim is to maximize profit of the MRCPSPs or logically minimizing costs. The proposed method can be used as a macro in Microsoft Office Project® Software to modify resource over-allocated days after scheduling a project. This research considers progress payment method and preemptive resources. The proposed approach maximizes profit by scheduling activities through the resource calendar respecting to the available level of preemptive resources and activity numbers. To examine the performance of the proposed method a number of experiments derived from the literature are solved. The results are then compared with the circumstances where resource constraints are relaxed. The outcomes show that in all studied cases, the proposed algorithm can provide modified schedules with no over-allocated days. Afterward the method is applied to modify a manufacturing project in practice.

  5. A modified rinsing method for the determination of the S, W-S and D + U fraction of protein and starch in feedstuff within the in situ technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Laar, van H.; Hendriks, W.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2013-01-01

    A modified rinsing method for the in situ technique was developed to separate, isolate and characterise the soluble (S), the insoluble washout (W–S) and the non-washout fractions (D1U) within one procedure. For non-incubated bags ( t50 h), this method was compared with the conventional, Combined

  6. ZnO-SiO{sub 2} based nanocomposites prepared by a modified sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorie, Alexandra Carmen [Politehnica University Timisoara, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, 6 V. Parvan Blv., RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Muntean, Cornelia, E-mail: cornelia.muntean@upt.ro [Politehnica University Timisoara, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, 6 V. Parvan Blv., RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Politehnica University Timisoara, Research Institute for Renewable Energy, 2 Piata Victoriei, RO-300006, Timisoara (Romania); Vlase, Titus [West University of Timisoara, 4 V. Parvan Blv., RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Locovei, Cosmin [Politehnica University Timisoara, Research Institute for Renewable Energy, 2 Piata Victoriei, RO-300006, Timisoara (Romania); Politehnica University Timisoara, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 1 Mihai Viteazul Blv., RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Stefanescu, Mircea [Politehnica University Timisoara, Faculty of Industrial Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, 6 V. Parvan Blv., RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania)

    2017-01-15

    This paper presents a study on nanocomposites formation in ZnO-SiO{sub 2} systems with different ZnO:SiO{sub 2} molar ratios (1:4, 1:1, and 4:1), prepared employing a sol-gel method modified by an original procedure. The evolution of ZnO-SiO{sub 2} systems depending on the composition and temperature was studied by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Zn(II) carboxylate was synthesized in situ in hybrid silica gels by redox reaction between zinc nitrate and 1,3-propanediol. Its thermal decomposition at low temperatures led to ZnO dispersed in the pores of silica matrix. Only for the 4:1 system, at 400 and 600 °C, ZnO nanocrystallites (average size ∼9 nm) embedded in the amorphous silica matrix were obtained, the other systems being amorphous. Whatever the mixture composition is, above 600 °C, ZnO reacts with SiO{sub 2} to form zinc silicate. At 800 °C, for both 1:4 and 1:1 systems, poor crystallized β-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} and α-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phases embedded in silica matrix were formed. Increasing the temperature, at 1000 °C, only for 1:1 system, β-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} phase turned into single phase α-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (average crystallites size 28.3 nm). For 4:1 composition, at 800 and 1000 °C, systems consisting of ZnO and α-Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} nanocrystallites dispersed in silica were obtained. - Highlights: • By modified sol-gel method, ZnO/SiO{sub 2} and Zn{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were obtained. • ZnO dispersed in silica matrix results from zinc carboxylate thermal decomposition. • Zinc carboxylate was synthesized in situ in hybrid silica gels via redox reaction. • Evolution of ZnO in SiO{sub 2} matrix depends on temperature and system composition.

  7. Using the modified Delphi method to establish clinical consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rotator cuff pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breda H. Eubank

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients presenting to the healthcare system with rotator cuff pathology do not always receive high quality care. High quality care occurs when a patient receives care that is accessible, appropriate, acceptable, effective, efficient, and safe. The aim of this study was twofold: 1 to develop a clinical pathway algorithm that sets forth a stepwise process for making decisions about the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology presenting to primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings; and 2 to establish clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology to inform decision-making processes within the algorithm. Methods A three-step modified Delphi method was used to establish consensus. Fourteen experts representing athletic therapy, physiotherapy, sport medicine, and orthopaedic surgery were invited to participate as the expert panel. In round 1, 123 best practice statements were distributed to the panel. Panel members were asked to mark “agree” or “disagree” beside each statement, and provide comments. The same voting method was again used for round 2. Round 3 consisted of a final face-to-face meeting. Results In round 1, statements were grouped and reduced to 44 statements that met consensus. In round 2, five statements reached consensus. In round 3, ten statements reached consensus. Consensus was reached for 59 statements representing five domains: screening, diagnosis, physical examination, investigations, and treatment. The final face-to-face meeting was also used to develop clinical pathway algorithms (i.e., clinical care pathways for three types of rotator cuff pathology: acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic. Conclusion This consensus guideline will help to standardize care, provide guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology, and assist in clinical decision-making for all healthcare professionals.

  8. Evaluation of superparamagnetic and biocompatible properties of mesoporous silica coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles synthesized via microwave modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharibshahian, M. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirzaee, O., E-mail: O_mirzaee@semnan.ac.ir [Faculty of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nourbakhsh, M.S. [Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, Semnan University, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt ferrite nano particles were synthesized by Pechini sol-gel method and calcined at 700 °C in electrical and microwave furnace. The microwave calcined sample was coated with mesoporous silica by hydrothermal method. Characterization was performed by XRD, FESEM, TEM, VSM, BET and FTIR analysis. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT assay with 3T3 fibroblast cells. The XRD and FTIR results confirmed spinal formation in both cases and verified the formation of silica coating on the nanoparticles. For microwave calcination, The XRD and SEM results demonstrated smaller and flat adhesion forms of nanoparticles with the average size of 15 nm. The VSM results demonstrated nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles with significant saturation magnetization equal to 64 emu/g. By coating, saturation magnetization was decreased to 36 emu/g. Moreover, the BET results confirmed the formation of mesoporous coating with the average pore diameters of 2.8 nm and average pore volume of 0.82 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. Microwave calcined nanoparticles had the best structural and magnetic properties. - Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized using the microwave modified Pechini method. • The Effect of calcination route and silica coating on NPs properties was studied. • The nearly superparamagnetic nanoparticles were achieved by microwave calcination. • MFC NPs had the best magnetic properties and MTT assay showed no toxicity for MFC-MSC NPs. • A useful scheme was designed to achieve biological superparamagnetic core/shell NPs.

  9. Use of the bioactive resorbable plate system for zygoma and zygomatic arch replacement and fixation with modified Crockett's method for maxillectomy: A technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukegawa, Shintaro; Kanno, Takahiro; Shibata, Akane; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Sukegawa-Takahashi, Yuka; Sakaida, Kyousuke; Furuki, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    As a surgical approach targeting the pterygopalatine fossa following maxillary cancer due to tumor invasion, Crockett's method is conventional and useful. However, if the tumor is confined to the area between the maxilla and pterygopalatine fossa, it is not necessary to include the zygomatico-orbital in the access osteotomy, and the orbital floor may be preserved. Depending on the range of tumor invasion, the current study reports a more minimally invasive, modified Crockett's surgery that may be considered, which includes resection with modified osteotomy lines and repositioning with fixation of the zygoma and zygomatic arch following maxillary cancer ablation. In addition, the majority of patients with advanced maxillary cancer may require postoperative radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy following maxillectomy according to several guidelines. Therefore, using a low-profile bioactive resorbable plate system as a method of repositioning and fixing the resected and preserved zygoma and zygomatic arch may be more effective in this modified Crockett's method for maxillectomy.

  10. Morphological characterization of tungsten trioxide nano powders synthesized by Sol-Gel modified Pechini's method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi, Leila; Jafari, Hassan, E-mail: jafari_h@yahoo.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    Sol-gel modified Pechini's method was used to prepare WO{sub 3} nano powders using dicarboxylic acid and polyethylene glycol as the chelating agent and polymeric source, respectively. WO{sub 3} powders were first prepared by calcination of resin precursor at 550 deg C under various initial concentrations of metal ion (12.5-50 mmol), acid (125-500 mmol), a complexing agent (32-262 mmol), and polyethylene glycol (1-16.5 mmol) in the air atmosphere. The products were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results revealed that the WO{sub 3} nano powders prepared with different amounts of chelating agent and polyethylene glycol, crystallized in monoclinic phase. The nano powders were impurity-free due to the presence of the complexing agent and polyethylene glycol as carbon sources. Morphological evolution indicated that the nano powders evolved from rod-like to regular and spherical shapes, depending on complexing agent and polyethylene glycol amounts. Nano powders with an average particle size of approximately 58 nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. (author)

  11. Magnetic behavior of iron-modified MCM-41 correlated with clustering processes from the wet impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuello, Natalia I.; Elías, Verónica R. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina); Winkler, Elin [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica – CONICET, Avenue Bustillo 9500, San Carlos de Bariloche 8400 (Argentina); Pozo-López, Gabriela; Oliva, Marcos I. [Facultad de Matemática, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba – IFEG, CONICET, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5000 (Argentina); Eimer, Griselda A., E-mail: geimer@frc.utn.edu.ar [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ) (UTN-CONICET), Facultad Regional Córdoba. Maestro López y Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba 5016 (Argentina)

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic MCM-41 type mesoporous silica materials were synthetized and modified with different iron loadings by the wet impregnation method. The evolution of iron speciation, depending on the metal loading and associated with a particular magnetic behavior was investigated by M vs. H curves, FC–ZFC curves, EPR spectroscopy and other complementary techniques such as SEM, TEM, and chemisorption of pyridine followed by FT-IR studies. A superparamagnetic contribution was larger for the lower loadings suggesting the high dispersion of very small sized iron nanospecies. However, this contribution decreased with increasing metal loading due to the growth of magnetically blocked nanoparticles (hematite) on the outer surface. Finally, a bimodal size distribution for the superparamagnetic nanospecies could be inferred; then the anisotropy constant for this phase and the corresponding nanospecies sizes were estimated. - Highlights: • All samples showed a main superparamagnetic contribution. • The oxide particles grow at expense of superparamagnetic nanospecies. • Bimodal distribution of nanospecies in superparamagnetic regime was determined. • The anisotropy constant for superparamagnetic nanospecies was calculated.

  12. The use of a modified pairwise comparison method in evaluating critical success factors for community-based rural homestay programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Tourism industry has become the highlighted sector which has amazingly increased the national income level. Despite the tourism industry being one of the highest income generating sectors, Homestay Programme as a Community-Based Tourism (CBT) product in Malaysia does not absorbed much of the incoming wealth. Homestay Programme refers to a programme in a community where a tourist stays together with a host family and experiences the everyday way of life of the family in both direct and indirect manner. There are over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia which mostly are located in rural areas, but only a few excel and enjoying the fruit of the booming industry. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Community-Based Rural Homestay Programme in Malaysia. A modified pairwise method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  13. Evaluation of criteria for sustainability of community-based rural homestay programs via a modified pairwise comparison method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Rohaini; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ramli, Razamin; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2014-12-01

    Ministry of Tourism and Culture Malaysia has long introduced homestay programs across the country to enhance the quality of life of people, especially those living in rural areas. This type of program is classified as a community-based tourism (CBT) as it is expected to economically improve livelihood through cultural and community associated activities. It is the aspiration of the ministry to see that the income imbalance between people in the rural and urban areas is reduced, thus would contribute towards creating more developed states of Malaysia. Since 1970s, there are 154 homestay programs registered with the ministry. However, the performance and sustainability of the programs are still not satisfying. There are only a number of homestay programs that perform well and able to sustain. Thus, the aim of this paper is to identify relevant criteria contributing to the sustainability of a homestay program. The criteria are evaluated for their levels of importance via the use of a modified pairwise method and analyzed for other potentials. The findings will help the homestay operators to focus on the necessary criteria and thus, effectively perform as the CBT business initiative.

  14. Morphological characterization of tungsten trioxide nano powders synthesized by Sol-Gel modified Pechini's method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi, Leila; Jafari, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Sol-gel modified Pechini's method was used to prepare WO 3 nano powders using dicarboxylic acid and polyethylene glycol as the chelating agent and polymeric source, respectively. WO 3 powders were first prepared by calcination of resin precursor at 550 deg C under various initial concentrations of metal ion (12.5-50 mmol), acid (125-500 mmol), a complexing agent (32-262 mmol), and polyethylene glycol (1-16.5 mmol) in the air atmosphere. The products were characterized using X-ray powder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results revealed that the WO 3 nano powders prepared with different amounts of chelating agent and polyethylene glycol, crystallized in monoclinic phase. The nano powders were impurity-free due to the presence of the complexing agent and polyethylene glycol as carbon sources. Morphological evolution indicated that the nano powders evolved from rod-like to regular and spherical shapes, depending on complexing agent and polyethylene glycol amounts. Nano powders with an average particle size of approximately 58 nm and a narrow size distribution were obtained. (author)

  15. Information-entropic method for studying the stability bound of nonrelativistic polytropic stars within modified gravity theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibisono, C.; Sulaksono, A.

    We study the stability of nonrelativistic polytropic stars within two modified gravity theories, i.e. beyond Horndeski gravity and Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theories, using the configuration entropy method. We use the spatially localized bounded function of energy density as solutions from stellar effective equations to construct the corresponding configuration entropy. We use the same argument as the one used by Gleiser and coworkers [M. Gleiser and D. Sowinski, Phys. Lett. B 727 (2013) 272; M. Gleiser and N. Jiang, Phys. Rev. D 92 (2015) 044046] that the stars are stable if there is a peak in configuration entropy as a function of adiabatic index curve. Specifically, the boundary between stable and unstable regions which corresponds to Chandrasekhar stability bound is indicated from the existence of the maximum peak while the most stable polytropic stars are indicated by the minimum peak in the corresponding curve. We have found that the values of critical adiabatic indexes of Chandrasekhar stability bound and the most stable polytropic stars predicted by the nonrelativistic limits of beyond Horndeski gravity and Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theories are different to those predicted by general relativity where the corresponding differences depend on the free parameters of both theories.

  16. Density of liquid NiCrAlMo quarternary alloys measured by a modified sessile drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, L.; Wang, Y.F.; Xiao, F.; Tao, Z.N.; MuKai, K.

    2006-01-01

    The densities of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys with a fixed molar ratio of Ni:Cr:Al (approximately as 73:14:13) and molybdenum concentration from 0 to 10 mass% were measured by a modified sessile drop method (MSDM). It was found that the density of the liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration. The molar volume of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The density of liquid NiCrAlMo quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, chromium, aluminum and molybdenum in the corresponding Ni-based binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental results, means, within the error tolerance range the density of liquid Ni-based multi-component alloys can be predicted from the partial volumes of elements in Ni-based binary alloys in liquid state

  17. Developing clinical practice guidelines for Chinese herbal treatment of polycystic ovary syndrome: A mixed-methods modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lily; Flower, Andrew; Moore, Michael; Lewith, George

    2015-06-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) could be a viable treatment option for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Prior to conducting a clinical trial it is important to consider the characteristics of good clinical practice. This study aims to use professional consensus to establish good clinical practice guidelines for the CHM treatment of PCOS. CHM practitioners participated in a mixed-methods modified Delphi study involving three rounds of structured group communication. Round 1 involved qualitative interviews with practitioners to generate statements regarding good clinical practice. In round 2, these statements were distributed online to the same practitioners to rate their agreement using a 7-point Likert scale, where group consensus was defined as a median rating of ≥5. Statements reaching consensus were accepted for consideration onto the guideline whilst those not reaching consensus were re-distributed for consideration in round 3. Statements presented in the guidelines were graded from A (strong consensus) to D (no consensus) determined by median score and interquartile range. 11 CHM practitioners in the UK were recruited. After three Delphi rounds, 91 statement items in total had been considered, of which 89 (97.8%) reached consensus and 2 (2.2%) did not. The concluding set of guidelines consists of 85 items representing key features of CHM prescribing for PCOS. These guidelines can be viewed as an initial framework that captures fundamental principles of good clinical practice for CHM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Photoelectrocatalytic degradation of indanthrene blue dye using Ti/Ru-based electrodes prepared by a modified Pechini method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupo, Marilia M.S.; Costa, Lucas S. da; Figueiredo, Aile C.; Eguiluz, Katlin I. B.; Salazar-Banda, Giancarlo R., E-mail: gianrsb@gmail.com [Universidade Tiradentes, Aracaju, SE (Brazil). Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Processos; Silva, Ronaldo S. da [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica. Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos Avancados; Cunha, Frederico G.C. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2013-03-15

    Photoelectrodes were used to treat synthetic textile wastewater contaminated with indanthrene blue dye. Two media of treatment were used (NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), with variations on temperature, pH, current density, dye and chloride concentration. A modified Pechini method was applied to obtain Ti/Ru-based electrodes (Ti, Ru, Ti{sub 0.5}Ru{sub 0.5}, Ti{sub 0.75}Ru{sub 0.25} and Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75}) containing anatase TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and a color degradation analysis was done. Physical (atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometry) and electrochemical characterizations (cyclic voltammetry) were considered. The condition that yielded highest color removal for the system presented 0.05 mol L-1 NaCl, 100 mA cm-2, 35 Degree-Sign C and pH 7, independent of the dye concentration for the Ti{sub 0.25}Ru{sub 0.75} electrode. (author)

  19. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by a Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa García-Betancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD is a preferential method to fabricate carbon nanotubes (CNTs. Several changes have been proposed to obtain improved CNTs. In this work we have fabricated nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs by means of a CVD which has been slightly modified. Such modification consists in changing the content of the by-product trap. Instead of acetone, we have half-filled the trap with an aqueous solution of NaCl (0–26.82 wt.%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM characterization showed morphological changes depending upon concentration of NaCl included in the trap. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy several shape changes on the catalyst nanoparticles were also observed. According to Raman spectroscopy results N-MWCNTs fabricated using pure distillate water exhibit better crystallinity. Resistivity measurements performed on different samples by physical properties measurement Evercool system (PPMS showed metallic to semiconducting temperature dependent transitions when high content of NaCl is used. Results of magnetic properties show a ferromagnetic response to static magnetic fields and the coercive fields were very similar for all the studied cases. However, saturation magnetization is decreased if aqueous solution of NaCl is used in the trap.

  20. A rapid method for detection of genetically modified organisms based on magnetic separation and surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Burcu; Boyacı, İsmail Hakkı; Tamer, Ugur; Çalık, Pınar

    2012-01-07

    In this study, a new method combining magnetic separation (MS) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) was developed to detect genetically modified organisms (GMOs). An oligonucleotide probe which is specific for 35 S DNA target was immobilized onto gold coated magnetic nanospheres to form oligonucleotide-coated nanoparticles. A self assembled monolayer was formed on gold nanorods using 5,5'-dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and the second probe of the 35 S DNA target was immobilized on the activated nanorod surfaces. Probes on the nanoparticles were hybridized with the target oligonucleotide. Optimization parameters for hybridization were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography. Optimum hybridization parameters were determined as: 4 μM probe concentration, 20 min immobilization time, 30 min hybridization time, 55 °C hybridization temperature, 750 mM buffer salt concentration and pH: 7.4. Quantification of the target concentration was performed via SERS spectra of DTNB on the nanorods. The correlation between the target concentration and the SERS signal was found to be linear within the range of 25-100 nM. The analyses were performed with only one hybridization step in 40 min. Real sample analysis was conducted using Bt-176 maize sample. The results showed that the developed MS-SERS assay is capable of detecting GMOs in a rapid and selective manner. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  1. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat.

  2. Understanding the modifiable health systems barriers to hypertension management in Malaysia: a multi-method health systems appraisal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risso-Gill, Isabelle; Balabanova, Dina; Majid, Fadhlina; Ng, Kien Keat; Yusoff, Khalid; Mustapha, Feisul; Kuhlbrandt, Charlotte; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Schwalm, J-D; McCready, Tara; Teo, Koon K; Yusuf, Salim; McKee, Martin

    2015-07-03

    The growing burden of non-communicable diseases in middle-income countries demands models of care that are appropriate to local contexts and acceptable to patients in order to be effective. We describe a multi-method health system appraisal to inform the design of an intervention that will be used in a cluster randomized controlled trial to improve hypertension control in Malaysia. A health systems appraisal was undertaken in the capital, Kuala Lumpur, and poorer-resourced rural sites in Peninsular Malaysia and Sabah. Building on two systematic reviews of barriers to hypertension control, a conceptual framework was developed that guided analysis of survey data, documentary review and semi-structured interviews with key informants, health professionals and patients. The analysis followed the patients as they move through the health system, exploring the main modifiable system-level barriers to effective hypertension management, and seeking to explain obstacles to improved access and health outcomes. The study highlighted the need for the proposed intervention to take account of how Malaysian patients seek treatment in both the public and private sectors, and from western and various traditional practitioners, with many patients choosing to seek care across different services. Patients typically choose private care if they can afford to, while others attend heavily subsidised public clinics. Public hypertension clinics are often overwhelmed by numbers of patients attending, so health workers have little time to engage effectively with patients. Treatment adherence is poor, with a widespread belief, stemming from concepts of traditional medicine, that hypertension is a transient disturbance rather than a permanent asymptomatic condition. Drug supplies can be erratic in rural areas. Hypertension awareness and education material are limited, and what exist are poorly developed and ineffective. Despite having a relatively well funded health system offering good access to

  3. Using the modified Delphi method to establish clinical consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with rotator cuff pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eubank, Breda H; Mohtadi, Nicholas G; Lafave, Mark R; Wiley, J Preston; Bois, Aaron J; Boorman, Richard S; Sheps, David M

    2016-05-20

    Patients presenting to the healthcare system with rotator cuff pathology do not always receive high quality care. High quality care occurs when a patient receives care that is accessible, appropriate, acceptable, effective, efficient, and safe. The aim of this study was twofold: 1) to develop a clinical pathway algorithm that sets forth a stepwise process for making decisions about the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology presenting to primary, secondary, and tertiary healthcare settings; and 2) to establish clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology to inform decision-making processes within the algorithm. A three-step modified Delphi method was used to establish consensus. Fourteen experts representing athletic therapy, physiotherapy, sport medicine, and orthopaedic surgery were invited to participate as the expert panel. In round 1, 123 best practice statements were distributed to the panel. Panel members were asked to mark "agree" or "disagree" beside each statement, and provide comments. The same voting method was again used for round 2. Round 3 consisted of a final face-to-face meeting. In round 1, statements were grouped and reduced to 44 statements that met consensus. In round 2, five statements reached consensus. In round 3, ten statements reached consensus. Consensus was reached for 59 statements representing five domains: screening, diagnosis, physical examination, investigations, and treatment. The final face-to-face meeting was also used to develop clinical pathway algorithms (i.e., clinical care pathways) for three types of rotator cuff pathology: acute, chronic, and acute-on-chronic. This consensus guideline will help to standardize care, provide guidance on the diagnosis and treatment of rotator cuff pathology, and assist in clinical decision-making for all healthcare professionals.

  4. Evaluating the construct of triage acuity against a set of reference vignettes developed via modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Michèle; Wallis, Lee A; Myers, Jonathan E

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the construct of triage acuity as measured by the South African Triage Scale (SATS) against a set of reference vignettes. A modified Delphi method was used to develop a set of reference vignettes. Delphi participants completed a 2-round consensus-building process, and independently assigned triage acuity ratings to 100 written vignettes unaware of the ratings given by others. Triage acuity ratings were summarised for all vignettes, and only those that reached 80% consensus during round 2 were included in the reference set. Triage ratings for the reference vignettes given by two independent experts using the SATS were compared with the ratings given by the international Delphi panel. Measures of sensitivity, specificity, associated percentages for over-triage/under-triage were used to evaluate the construct of triage acuity (as measured by the SATS) by examining the association between the ratings by the two experts and the international panel. On completion of the Delphi process, 42 of the 100 vignettes reached 80% consensus on their acuity rating and made up the reference set. On average, over all acuity levels, sensitivity was 74% (CI 64% to 82%), specificity 92% (CI 87% to 94%), under-triage occurred 14% (CI 8% to 23%) and over-triage 12% (CI 8% to 23%) of the time. The results of this study provide an alternative to evaluating triage scales against the construct of acuity as measured with the SATS. This method of using 80% consensus vignettes may, however, systematically bias the validity estimate towards better performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. A Modified method for reducing renal injury in zoledronic acid treatment of hypercalcemia and adverse skeletal events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In this paper, we have reported a previously undescribed risk factor of deterioration of renal function in zoledronic acid treatment of skeletal metastasis - high serum calcium level. Based on this consideration, a modified method of treatment of hypercalcemia (HCM with zoledronic acid is suggested in this paper. Material and Methods: Bone scan findings of 1090 cancer patients were analyzed, of which 26 had intense renal parenchymal uptake as a result of HCM or bone metastases. Subsequently, a total of 56 bone metastases patients with zoledronic acid treatment were divided into three groups: HCM group who were pre-treated to normal serum calcium level (13 patients, HCM group (19 patients, and normal serum calcium group (24 patients. Results: More patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were hyperglycemic, statistically significantly (18/26 versus 19/1064, P = 2.1, E-78. No more patients with intense renal parenchymal uptake were associated with bone metastases (14/26 versus 438/1064, P = 0.20. Subsequently, more HCM patients receiving zoledronic acid treatment showed renal injury compared to patients with normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 2/24, P < 0.05 and HCM patients with pre-treatment to normal serum calcium level (5/15 versus 1/17, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Intense renal parenchymal uptake of bisphosphonates is closely related to HCM rather than to bone metastases in cancer patients. The serum calcium should be measured and reduced to normal level before zoledronic acid is used in managements of adverse skeletal events in order to decrease the risk of renal injury.

  6. Comparison of Modified Impedance Whole Blood Platelet Aggregation Method Detecting Platelet Function in ACS Patients with Different CYP2C19 Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Chanjuan; Qiao, Rui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    A reliable laboratory test to monitor onclopidogrel platelet reactivity (PR) is very necessary. In addition, genetic factors also play an important part in onclopidogrel PR. This study aimed to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay associated with the release assay to monitor onclopidogrel PR and assess their relationship with genotype. We adjusted the concentration of calcium in the in vitro reaction system of platelet aggregation to modify the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay. Meanwhile, chronolume, which quantified the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) released from platelet dense granules, is added to this reaction system to reflect the platelet release function. In the modified assay, platelet magnified activation time (MAT) and the maximal platelet ATP release value (RV) were used to reflect platelet function parameters. In the original assay, the electrical resistance (omega) and RV were used to reflect platelet function parameters. Onclopidogrel PR was detected by the original impedance whole blood platelet aggregation assay, modified assay, and flow cytometric vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) assay in 168 patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). CYP2C19*2 and CYP2C19*3 polymorphisms were also detected in all of these patients. This modified method showed that when 12.5 microL CaCl2 (0.2 mmol/L) was added to the reaction system, MAT was appropriate (93 +/- 23 seconds). The CVs for the modified impedance assay and release assay were 9.31% and 6.13%, respectively. The mean VASP-PRI in the patient group treated with clopidogrel was significantly lower than that in the control group without antiplatelet therapy (54.88 +/- 16.81% vs. 79.86 +/- 10.24%, p 50% group were shorter than that in the PRI 50% group were higher than that in the PRI omega) and RV of the original method showed no differences between the two groups [0 (0-2) vs. 0 (0-1.25), 0.05 (0-0.25) vs. 0.08 (0-0.24); p > 0.05, p > 0

  7. Efficacious and safe orotracheal intubation for laboratory mice using slim torqueable guidewire-based technique: comparisons between a modified and a conventional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chieh-Shou; Lai, Hui-Chin; Wang, Chih-Yen; Lee, Wen-Lieng; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Yang, Ya-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Liu, Chia-Ning; Liu, Tsun-Jui

    2016-01-18

    Tracheal intubation of laboratory mice remains essential yet challenging for most researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this procedure can be more efficiently and safely accomplished by a novel method using slim and torqueable guidewires to guide access to the trachea. This study was carried out in an animal laboratory affiliated to a tertiary medical center. Mice weighing 22 to 28 g were subjected to various open-chest experiments after being anesthetized with intraperitoneal ketamine (100 mg/kg) and lidocaine hydrochloride (10 mg/kg). The oropharyngeal cavity was opened with angled tissue forceps, and the trachea was transilluminated using an external light. The vocal cords were then crossed using either the Conventional method with a 38-mm-long, end-blunted stiff needle as a guide for insertion of a 22-gauge, 25-mm-long intravenous catheter into the trachea, or the Modified method utilizing using a 0.014-inch-thin torqueable wire as the guide to introduce an identical tube over it into the trachea. The epithelial integrity of the trachea was later examined histologically when the animals were sacrificed either immediately after the surgery or at 28 days post-surgery, depending on the corresponding research protocols. Orotracheal intubation was successfully completed in all mice using either the Conventional (N = 42) or the Modified method (N = 50). With the Modified method, intubation took less time (1.73 vs. 2.17 min, Modified vs. Conventional, p Conventional method. Histological analysis revealed a significantly lower incidence of immediate (0% vs. 39%, p Conventional method. Tracheal intubation for laboratory mice can be completed efficiently, safely and atraumatically using the proposed Modified method employing readily available inexpensive instruments.

  8. A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method and its application to (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified generalized Broer-Kaup system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qing; Zhu Jiamin; Hong Bihai

    2008-01-01

    A modified variable-coefficient projective Riccati equation method is proposed and applied to a (2 + 1)-dimensional simplified and generalized Broer-Kaup system. It is shown that the method presented by Huang and Zhang [Huang DJ, Zhang HQ. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2005; 23:601] is a special case of our method. The results obtained in the paper include many new formal solutions besides the all solutions found by Huang and Zhang

  9. Characterization and stability studies of a novel liposomal cyclosporin A prepared using the supercritical fluid method: comparison with the modified conventional Bangham method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karn PR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pankaj Ranjan Karn,1,3 Wonkyung Cho,1,3 Hee-Jun Park,1,3 Jeong-Sook Park,3 Sung-Joo Hwang1,21Yonsei Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Yonsei University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 2College of Pharmacy, Yonsei University, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon, Republic of Korea; 3College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, Republic of KoreaAbstract: A novel method to prepare cyclosporin A encapsulated liposomes was introduced using supercritical fluid of carbon dioxide (SCF-CO2 as an antisolvent. To investigate the strength of the newly developed SCF-CO2 method compared with the modified conventional Bangham method, particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index (PDI of both liposomal formulations were characterized and compared. In addition, entrapment efficiency (EE and drug loading (DL characteristics were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly larger particle size and PDI were revealed from the conventional method, while EE (% and DL (% did not exhibit any significant differences. The SCF-CO2 liposomes were found to be relatively smaller, multilamellar, and spherical with a smoother surface as determined by transmission electron microscopy. SCF-CO2 liposomes showed no significant differences in their particle size and PDI after more than 3 months, whereas conventional liposomes exhibited significant changes in their particle size. The initial yield (%, EE (%, and DL (% of SCF-CO2 liposomes and conventional liposomes were 90.98 ± 2.94, 92.20 ± 1.36, 20.99 ± 0.84 and 90.72 ± 2.83, 90.24 ± 1.37, 20.47 ± 0.94, respectively, which changed after 14 weeks to 86.65 ± 0.30, 87.63 ± 0.72, 18.98 ± 0.22 and 75.04 ± 8.80, 84.59 ± 5.13, 15.94 ± 2.80, respectively. Therefore, the newly developed SCF-CO2 method could be a better alternative compared with the conventional method and may provide a promising approach for large-scale production of liposomes

  10. [The modified method registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials and its application for research of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders at spondylogenic cervical myelopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Voronin, S G

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the efficacy of modified (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion/extension) and «standard» (passive radiocarpal articulation flexion) methods of kinesthetic evoked potentials for proprioceptive sensitivity assessment in healthy subjects and patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. The study included 14 healthy subjects (4 women and 10 men, mean age 54.1±10.5 years) and 8 patients (2 women and 6 men, mean age 55.8±10.9 years) with spondylotic cervical myelopathy. Muscle-joint sensation was examined during the clinical study. A modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials was developed. This method differed from the "standard" one by the organization of a cycle including several passive movements,where each new movement differed from the preceding one by the direction. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials ensures more reliable kinesthetic sensitivity assessment due to movement variability. Asignificant increaseof the latent periods of the early components of the response was found in patients compared to healthy subjects. The modified method of kinesthetic evoked potentials can be used for objective diagnosis of proprioceptive sensitivity disorders in patients with spondylotic cervical myelopathy.

  11. Preparation of β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by a modified indirect wet chemistry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Cheng-Long, E-mail: johnyucl@aliyun.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan); Wang, Fei; Zhang, Ai-Lin; Gao, Dan-Peng; Cao, Shu-Yao [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Guo, Ying-Yan [College of Resources and Environment, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Hui, Huai-Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Technology Research Institute, Technical Center at Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Company Limited, Wuhan 430056 (China); Hao, Xin [School of Management, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Wang, Dao-Yi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science & Technology, Xi’an 710021 (China); Yanagisawa, Kazumichi [Research Laboratory of Hydrothermal Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Kochi University, Kochi 780-8520 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with about 1.56 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02 and relative sintered density of 95.8%T.D. are successfully fabricated when sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in ambient conditions. - Highlights: • β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powders via hydrothermal method are used as raw materials. • A mixture of the acetone and carbon tetrachloride bath is used. • The wet gel pebbles can be fabricated at room temperature. - Abstract: β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were fabricated by a modified indirect wet chemistry method. The first feature lies in that β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} powders via hydrothermal method were used as raw materials. The second one lies in that a mixture of the acetone and carbon tetrachloride was used for formation and aging of the pebbles at room temperature. The phase identification of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} sintered pebbles was conducted by the X-ray Diffraction analysis. The morphology of the sintered β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles was observed by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope. The experimental results show that the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles with about 1.56 mm in diameter, a better sphericity of 1.02 and relative sintered density of 95.8%T.D. are successfully fabricated when sintered at 1100 °C for 6 h in ambient conditions. The grains in the pebbles are polyhedral brick-shaped, and homogeneous in size distribution. The morphology evolution and relative density of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles are governed by the sintering temperature, between 1050 °C and 1150 °C. More homogeneous in grain size, less porosity, and higher densification of the β-Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles can be obtained at 1100 °C.

  12. The Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE): Construct and Content Validation Using a Modified Delphi Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette-Warren, Jann; Tyler, Marie; Fournie, Meghan; Harris, Stewart B

    2017-06-01

    In order to scale-up successful innovations, more evidence is needed to evaluate programs that attempt to address the rising prevalence of diabetes and the associated burdens on patients and the healthcare system. This study aimed to assess the construct and content validity of the Diabetes Evaluation Framework for Innovative National Evaluations (DEFINE), a tool developed to guide the evaluation, design and implementation with built-in knowledge translation principles. A modified Delphi method, including 3 individual rounds (questionnaire with 7-point agreement/importance Likert scales and/or open-ended questions) and 1 group round (open discussion) were conducted. Twelve experts in diabetes, research, knowledge translation, evaluation and policy from Canada (Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia) and Australia participated. Quantitative consensus criteria were an interquartile range of ≤1. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically and confirmed by participants. An importance scale was used to determine a priority multi-level indicator set. Items rated very or extremely important by 80% or more of the experts were reviewed in the final group round to build the final set. Participants reached consensus on the content and construct validity of DEFINE, including its title, overall goal, 5-step evaluation approach, medical and nonmedical determinants of health schematics, full list of indicators and associated measurement tools, priority multi-level indicator set and next steps in DEFINE's development. Validated by experts, DEFINE has the right theoretic components to evaluate comprehensively diabetes prevention and management programs and to support acquisition of evidence that could influence the knowledge translation of innovations to reduce the burden of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation and physicochemical characteristics of polylactide microspheres of emamectin benzoate by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao Fei; Chen, Peng Hao; Zhang, Fei; Yang, Yan Fang; Liu, De Kun; Wu, Gang

    2013-12-18

    Emamectin benzoate is highly effective against insect pests and widely used in the world. However, its biological activity is limited because of high resistance of target insects and rapid degradation speed in fields. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of degradable microcapsules of emamectin benzoate were studied by modified solvent evaporation/extraction method using polylactide (PLA) as wall material. The influence of different compositions of the solvent in internal organic phase and external aqueous phase on diameter, span, pesticide loading, and entrapment rate of the microspheres was investigated. The results indicated that the process of solvent extraction and the formation of the microcapsules would be accelerated by adding water-miscible organic solvents such as ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, or n-butanol into internal organic phase and external aqueous phase. Accelerated formation of the microcapsules would result in entrapment rates of emamectin benzoate increased to as high as 97%. In addition, by adding ethanol into the external aqueous phase, diameters would reduce to 6.28 μm, whereas the loading efficiency of emamectin benzoate did not increase. The PLA microspheres prepared under optimum conditions were smoother and more spherical. The degradation rate in PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate on the 10th day was 4.29 ± 0.74%, whereas the degradation rates of emamectin benzoate in methanol solution and solid technical material were 46.3 ± 2.11 and 22.7 ± 1.51%, respectively. The PLA skeleton had combined with emamectin benzoate in an amorphous or molecular state by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) determination. The results indicated that PLA microspheres of emamectin benzoate with high entrapment rate, loading efficiency, and physicochemical characteristics could be obtained by adding water-miscible organic solvents into the internal organic phase and external aqueous phase.

  14. Comparative study of DNA encapsulation into PLGA microparticles using modified double emulsion methods and spray drying techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, C G; Kissel, T

    2005-05-01

    Recently, several research groups have shown the potential of microencapsulated DNA as adjuvant for DNA immunization and in tissue engineering approaches. Among techniques generally used for microencapsulation of hydrophilic drug substances into hydrophobic polymers, modified WOW double emulsion method and spray drying of water-in-oil dispersions take a prominent position. The key parameters for optimized microspheres are particle size, encapsulation efficiency, continuous DNA release and stabilization of DNA against enzymatic and mechanical degradation. This study investigates the possibility to encapsulate DNA avoiding shear forces which readily degrade DNA during this microencapsulation. DNA microparticles were prepared with polyethylenimine (PEI) as a complexation agent for DNA. Polycations are capable of stabilizing DNA against enzymatic, as well as mechanical degradation. Further, complexation was hypothesized to facilitate the encapsulation by reducing the size of the macromolecule. This study additionally evaluated the possibility of encapsulating lyophilized DNA and lyophilized DNA/PEI complexes. For this purpose, the spray drying and double emulsion techniques were compared. The size of the microparticles was characterized by laser diffractometry and the particles were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA encapsulation efficiencies were investigated photometrically after complete hydrolysis of the particles. Finally, the DNA release characteristics from the particles were studied. Particles with a size of <10 microm which represent the threshold for phagocytic uptake could be prepared with these techniques. The encapsulation efficiency ranged from 100-35% for low theoretical DNA loadings. DNA complexation with PEI 25?kDa prior to the encapsulation process reduced the initial burst release of DNA for all techniques used. Spray-dried particles without PEI exhibited high burst releases, whereas double emulsion techniques showed continuous

  15. Comparison between modified Dixon MRI techniques, MR spectroscopic relaxometry, and different histologic quantification methods in the assessment of hepatic steatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kukuk, Guido M.; Block, Wolfgang; Willinek, Winfried A.; Schild, Hans H.; Traeber, Frank [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Hittatiya, Kanishka; Fischer, Hans-Peter [University of Bonn, Department of Pathology, Bonn (Germany); Sprinkart, Alois M. [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Ruhr-University, Institute of Medical Engineering, Bochum (Germany); Eggers, Holger [Philips Research Europe, Hamburg (Germany); Gieseke, Juergen [University of Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Philips Healthcare, Best (Netherlands); Moeller, Philipp; Spengler, Ulrich; Trebicka, Jonel [University of Bonn, Department of Internal Medicine I, Bonn (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    To compare systematically quantitative MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS), and different histological methods for liver fat quantification in order to identify possible incongruities. Fifty-nine consecutive patients with liver disorders were examined on a 3 T MRI system. Quantitative MRI was performed using a dual- and a six-echo variant of the modified Dixon (mDixon) sequence, calculating proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps, in addition to single-voxel MRS. Histological fat quantification included estimation of the percentage of hepatocytes containing fat vesicles as well as semi-automatic quantification (qHisto) using tissue quantification software. In 33 of 59 patients, the hepatic fat fraction was >5 % as determined by MRS (maximum 45 %, mean 17 %). Dual-echo mDixon yielded systematically lower PDFF values than six-echo mDixon (mean difference 1.0 %; P < 0.001). Six-echo mDixon correlated excellently with MRS, qHisto, and the estimated percentage of hepatocytes containing fat vesicles (R = 0.984, 0.967, 0.941, respectively, all P < 0.001). Mean values obtained by the estimated percentage of hepatocytes containing fat were higher by a factor of 2.5 in comparison to qHisto. Six-echo mDixon and MRS showed the best agreement with values obtained by qHisto. Six-echo mDixon, MRS, and qHisto provide the most robust and congruent results and are therefore most appropriate for reliable quantification of liver fat. (orig.)

  16. Habitat relationships of reptiles in pine beetle disturbed forests of Alabama, U.S.A., with guidelines for a modified drift-fence sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    William B. Sutton; Yong Wang; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2010-01-01

    Understanding vertebrate habitat relationships is important to promote management strategies for the longterm conservation of many species. Using a modified drift fence method, we sampled reptiles and compared habitat variables within the William B. Bankhead National Forest (BNF) in Alabama, U.S.A from April 2005 to June 2006. We captured 226 individual reptiles...

  17. Monodisperse magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles modified with water soluble polymers for the diagnosis of breast cancer by MRI method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezayan, Ali Hossein, E-mail: ahrezayan@ut.ac.ir [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mousavi, Majid [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kheirjou, Somayyeh [Department of Chemistry, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amoabediny, Ghasem [School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee [Department of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadnejad, Javad [Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Sciences and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    In this study, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. To enhance the biocompatibility and colloidal stability of the synthesized nanoparticles, they were modified with carboxyl functionalized PEG via dopamine (DPA) linker. Both modified and unmodified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited super paramagnetic behavior (particle size below 20 nm). The saturation magnetization (Ms) of PEGdiacid-modified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} was 45 emu/g, which was less than the unmodified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles (70 emu/g). This difference indicated that PEGdiacid polymer was immobilized on the surface of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles successfully. To evaluate the efficiency of the resulting nanoparticles as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), different concentration of MNPs and different value of echo time TE were investigated. The results showed that by increasing the concentration of the nanoparticles, transverse relaxation time (T{sub 2}) decreased, which subsequently resulted in MR signal enhancement. T{sub 2}-weighted MR images of the different concentration of MNPs in different value of echo time TE indicated that MR signal intensity increased with increase in TE value up to 66 and then remained constant. The cytotoxicity effect of the modified and unmodified nanoparticles was evaluated in three different concentrations (12, 60 and 312 mg l{sup −1}) on MDA-MB-231 cancer cells for 24 and 48 h. In both tested time (24 and 48 h) for all three samples, the modified nanoparticles had long life time than unmodified nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of modified MNPs was 80% and reduced to 9% by the unmodified MNPs. - Highlights: • Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesized via co-precipitation method. • MNPs were modified with carboxyl functionalized PEG via dopamine (DPA) linker. • Modified and unmodified Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles exhibited super paramagnetic behavior. • T{sub 2} decrease as MNPs

  18. Determination of the ionic transport numbers of lanthanum gallate materials by impedance spectroscopy and modified EMF method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peña-Martínez, J.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A combination of impedance spectroscopy and a modified electromotive force method (emf were used to evaluate the ionic transport numbers and the overall conductivity of several doped lanthanum gallate materials, i.e. La0.9Sr0.1Ga1-xMgxO3-δ (x=0.05-0.30, La0.9A0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (A=Sr, Ba and Ca and La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2-yCoyO3-δ (y=0.015 and 0.045. La0.9Sr0.1Ga0.8Mg0.2O2.85 (LSGM sample showed the maximum ionic transport number in the temperature range 900-1173 K, around 0.99 in both O2/air and H2/air gradients.

    La conductividad total y los números de transporte iónico de las composiciones, basadas en el galato de lantano, La0,9Sr0,1Ga1-xMgxO3-δ (x=0,05-0,30, La0,9A0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2O3-δ (A=Sr, Ba, Ca y La0,9Sr0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2-yCoyO3-δ (y=0.015; 0,045 fueron estudiadas mediante una combinación de técnicas de espectroscopia de impedancia compleja y fuerza electromotriz (fem. La composición La0,9Sr0,1Ga0,8Mg0,2O2,85 (LSGM presenta el mayor número de transporte iónico, concretamente 0,99 en el rango de temperaturas 900-1173 K, tanto en gradiente de O2/aire como de H2/aire.

  19. A Critical Assessment of Methods for Analysis of Social Welfare Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops: a Literature Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scatasta, S.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Demont, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a review of existing literature on economic and environmental costs and benefits of genetically modified (GM) crops focusing on methodological issues arising from this literature. Particular attention is given to the production function framework commonly used to quantify costs and

  20. Improved Method for Preparation of Amidoxime Modified Poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid: Characterizations and Adsorption Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amirah Mohd Zahri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Redox polymerization of poly(acrylonitrile-co-acrylic acid (poly(AN-co-AA is performed at 40 °C under N2 gas by varying the ratio of acrylonitrile (AN and acrylic acid (AA in the feed. The yield production of poly(acrylonitrile (PAN is 73% and poly(AN-co-AA with a feed ratio of 93:7 is the highest yield (72%. The PAN and poly(AN-co-AA are further chemically modify with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The FTIR spectroscopy is used to confirm the copolymerization of poly(AN-co-AA and chemical modification of poly(AN-co-AA. Elemental microanalysis shows that the overall trend percentage of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen for all feed ratios are slightly decreasing as the feed ratio of AA is increasing except for poly(AN-co-AA 93:7. The SEM images shows that spherical diameter of poly(AN-co-AA is smaller compared to the PAN and amidoxime (AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The TGA (thermogravimetric analysis analysis reveals that the poly(AN-co-AA degrades at lower temperatures compared to the PAN but higher than AO modified poly(AN-co-AA. The case study adsorption test showed that the AO modified poly(AN-co-AA 93:7 had the highest percentage removal of Cd2+ and Pb2+.

  1. The Importance of Source: A Mixed Methods Analysis of Undergraduate Students' Attitudes toward Genetically Modified Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Taylor K.; Rumble, Joy N.; Gay, Keegan D.; Rodriguez, Mary T.

    2016-01-01

    Even though science says genetically modified (GM) foods are safe, many consumers remain skeptical of the technology. Additionally, the scientific community has trouble communicating to the public, causing consumers to make uninformed decisions. The Millennial Generation will have more buying power than any other generation before them, and more…

  2. The modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method to nonlinear evolution equation: application to the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, M Ali; Mohd Ali, Norhashidah Hj; Mohyud-Din, Syed Tauseef

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, (G'/G)-expansion method is employed to generate traveling wave solutions to various wave equations in mathematical physics. In the present paper, the alternative (G'/G)-expansion method has been further modified by introducing the generalized Riccati equation to construct new exact solutions. In order to illustrate the novelty and advantages of this approach, the (1+1)-dimensional Drinfel'd-Sokolov-Wilson (DSW) equation is considered and abundant new exact traveling wave solutions are obtained in a uniform way. These solutions may be imperative and significant for the explanation of some practical physical phenomena. It is shown that the modified alternative (G'/G)-expansion method an efficient and advance mathematical tool for solving nonlinear partial differential equations in mathematical physics.

  3. Distribution network connection pricing framework and methodology: identification of areas of improvement for Sarawak Energy Berhad Connection Charges Guidelines through modified delphi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J. K.; Abas, N.

    2017-07-01

    Complaints on issues and matters related to connection charges have been very common for electricity supply utility companies around the world including Sarawak Energy Berhad. In order to identify the areas that can be improved, a mixed method of exploratory research involving qualitative and quantitative methods have been designed and undertaken rather than a single method of survey. This will ensure a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the issues from various target groups. The method is designed under three phases, employing Modified Delphi Technique for phase 1 through a series of stake holder engagements, online and offline survey questionnaires to be filled by internal wiring contractors for phase 2 whilst under phase 3, case studies shall be carried out on the issues identified from phase 1 and phase 2 of the study. This paper presented the findings from the Modified Delphi Technique. The findings revealed that there are areas of improvement for Sarawak Energy Berhad connection guidelines in term of differentiation of dedicated and shared assets which leads to unfairness to the connecting customers, inconsistency and non-transparent in charging. The findings of Modified Delphi Technique shall be used for implementation of phase 2 and phase 3 of the study.

  4. Interfacial Modifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Ina; French, Roger H.

    2018-03-19

    Our project objective in the first and only Budget Period was to demonstrate the potential of nm-scale organofunctional silane coatings as a method of extending the lifetime of PV materials and devices. Specifically, the target was to double the lifetime performance of a laminated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) cell under real-world and accelerated aging exposure conditions. Key findings are that modification of aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) films (materials used as transparent conductive oxide (TCO) top contacts) resulted in decreased degradation of optical and electrical properties under damp heat (DH) exposure compared to un-modified AZO. The most significant finding is that modification of the AZO top contact of full CIGS devices resulted in significantly improved properties under DH exposure compared to un-modified devices, by a factor of 4 after 1000 h. Results of this one-year project have demonstrated that surface functionalization is a viable pathway for extending the lifetime of state-of-the-art CIGS devices.

  5. Modified ground-truthing: an accurate and cost-effective food environment validation method for town and rural areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Friebur, Robin

    2016-03-17

    A major concern in food environment research is the lack of accuracy in commercial business listings of food stores, which are convenient and commonly used. Accuracy concerns may be particularly pronounced in rural areas. Ground-truthing or on-site verification has been deemed the necessary standard to validate business listings, but researchers perceive this process to be costly and time-consuming. This study calculated the accuracy and cost of ground-truthing three town/rural areas in Minnesota, USA (an area of 564 miles, or 908 km), and simulated a modified validation process to increase efficiency without comprising accuracy. For traditional ground-truthing, all streets in the study area were driven, while the route and geographic coordinates of food stores were recorded. The process required 1510 miles (2430 km) of driving and 114 staff hours. The ground-truthed list of stores was compared with commercial business listings, which had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.57 and sensitivity of 0.62 across the three sites. Using observations from the field, a modified process was proposed in which only the streets located within central commercial clusters (the 1/8 mile or 200 m buffer around any cluster of 2 stores) would be validated. Modified ground-truthing would have yielded an estimated PPV of 1.00 and sensitivity of 0.95, and would have resulted in a reduction in approximately 88 % of the mileage costs. We conclude that ground-truthing is necessary in town/rural settings. The modified ground-truthing process, with excellent accuracy at a fraction of the costs, suggests a new standard and warrants further evaluation.

  6. Application of DNA Hybridization Biosensor as a Screening Method for the Detection of Genetically Modified Food Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Filipiak

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical biosensor for the detection of genetically modified food components is presented. The biosensor was based on 21-mer single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssDNA probe specific to either 35S promoter or nos terminator, which are frequently present in transgenic DNA cassettes. ssDNA probe was covalently attached by 5’-phosphate end to amino group of cysteamine self-assembled monolayer (SAM on gold electrode surface with the use of activating reagents – water soluble 1-ethyl-3(3’- dimethylaminopropyl-carbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxy-sulfosuccinimide (NHS. The hybridization reaction on the electrode surface was detected via methylene blue (MB presenting higher affinity to ssDNA probe than to DNA duplex. The electrode modification procedure was optimized using 19-mer oligoG and oligoC nucleotides. The biosensor enabled distinction between DNA samples isolated from soybean RoundupReady® (RR soybean and non-genetically modified soybean. The frequent introduction of investigated DNA sequences in other genetically modified organisms (GMOs give a broad perspectives for analytical application of the biosensor.

  7. Modified cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  8. Analysis of energy efficiency retrofit schemes for heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in existing office buildings based on the modified bin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Ding, Yan; Geng, Geng; Zhu, Neng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified bin method is adopted to propose and optimize the EER schemes. • A case study is presented to demonstrate the analysis procedures of EER schemes. • Pertinent EER schemes for HVAC systems are proposed for the object building. - Abstract: Poor thermal performance of building envelop and low efficiencies of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can always be found in the existing office buildings with large energy consumption. This paper adopted a modified bin method to propose and optimize the energy efficiency retrofit (EER) schemes. An existing office building in Tianjin was selected as an example to demonstrate the procedures of formulating the design scheme. Pertinent retrofit schemes for HVAC system were proposed after the retrofit of building envelop. With comprehensive consideration of energy efficiency and economic benefits, the recommended scheme that could improve the overall energy efficiency by 71.20% was determined

  9. Determination of the quadrupole moment of the fission-isomeric state in 238U by a modified charge-plunger method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, J.; Goerlach, U.; Habs, D.; Just, M.; Metag, V.; Mosler, E.; Schukraft, J.; Singer, P.; Specht, H.J.; Ulfert, G.

    1978-01-01

    A modified version of the charge plunger method has been developed which, by utilizing electrostatic fields, renders possible the separation of low- and high-charge recoil ions over short flight distances. With this technique the quadrupole moment of the 200 ns fission isomer in 238 U has been determined to be (29 +- 3) b. The corresponding deformation of c/a = (1.8 +- 0.1) provides another quantitative proof for shape isomerism in the actinide region. (orig.) [de

  10. A Novel Grouping Method for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries Based on a Fractional Joint Kalman Filter and a New Modified K-Means Clustering Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel grouping method for lithium iron phosphate batteries. In this method, a simplified electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS model is utilized to describe the battery characteristics. Dynamic stress test (DST and fractional joint Kalman filter (FJKF are used to extract battery model parameters. In order to realize equal-number grouping of batteries, a new modified K-means clustering algorithm is proposed. Two rules are designed to equalize the numbers of elements in each group and exchange samples among groups. In this paper, the principles of battery model selection, physical meaning and identification method of model parameters, data preprocessing and equal-number clustering method for battery grouping are comprehensively described. Additionally, experiments for battery grouping and method validation are designed. This method is meaningful to application involving the grouping of fresh batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and screening of aged batteries for recycling.

  11. An optimal implicit staggered-grid finite-difference scheme based on the modified Taylor-series expansion with minimax approximation method for elastic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Yan, Hongyong; Liu, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Implicit staggered-grid finite-difference (ISFD) scheme is competitive for its great accuracy and stability, whereas its coefficients are conventionally determined by the Taylor-series expansion (TE) method, leading to a loss in numerical precision. In this paper, we modify the TE method using the minimax approximation (MA), and propose a new optimal ISFD scheme based on the modified TE (MTE) with MA method. The new ISFD scheme takes the advantage of the TE method that guarantees great accuracy at small wavenumbers, and keeps the property of the MA method that keeps the numerical errors within a limited bound at the same time. Thus, it leads to great accuracy for numerical solution of the wave equations. We derive the optimal ISFD coefficients by applying the new method to the construction of the objective function, and using a Remez algorithm to minimize its maximum. Numerical analysis is made in comparison with the conventional TE-based ISFD scheme, indicating that the MTE-based ISFD scheme with appropriate parameters can widen the wavenumber range with high accuracy, and achieve greater precision than the conventional ISFD scheme. The numerical modeling results also demonstrate that the MTE-based ISFD scheme performs well in elastic wave simulation, and is more efficient than the conventional ISFD scheme for elastic modeling.

  12. A Metal Matrix CNTS Modified Electrode Fabricated Using Micromachining-Based Implantation Method for Improving Sensitivity and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metal matrix carbon nanotubes modified electrode (MCME has been fabricated by a novel process involving preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polyimide (PI composite film, wet, etching, sputtering, electroplating, and wet-etch releasing. Pretreated CNTs are dispersed in PI by mechanical ball milling and then CNTs solution is spin-coated on the substrate. The CNTs/PI composite film is etched away a layer of PI to expose tips of CNTs using buffering solution. These exposed tips of CNTs are covered by metal particles in sputtering process as metal seed layer, followed by metal supporting film formed by electroplating. The MCME is obtained after releasing PI film from the metal supporting film. The MCME shows well morphology of uniform distributional protruding tips of CNTs and increased electron transfer efficiency with strong bonding connection between CNTs and metal matrix, which greatly improves sensitivity and stability of the MCME. The oxidation peak of the MCME in cyclic voltammeter (CV test is 1.7 times more than that of CNTs suspension spin-coated metal electrode (SCME. The decline of peak current of the MCME after fifty cycles is only 1.8% much less than 67% of the SCME. Better sensitivity and stability may be helpful for CNTs modified electrodes wide application for trace test of many special materials.

  13. Alveolar ridge augmentation by connective tissue grafting using a pouch method and modified connective tissue technique: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev

    2015-01-01

    Localized alveolar ridge defect may create physiological and pathological problems. Developments in surgical techniques have made it simpler to change the configuration of a ridge to create a more aesthetic and more easily cleansable shape. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of alveolar ridge augmentation using a subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch and modified connective tissue graft technique. In this randomized, double blind, parallel and prospective study, 40 non-smoker individuals with 40 class III alveolar ridge defects in maxillary anterior were randomly divided in two groups. Group I received modified connective tissue graft, while group II were treated with subepithelial connective tissue graft in pouch technique. The defect size was measured in its horizontal and vertical dimension by utilizing a periodontal probe in a stone cast at base line, after 3 months, and 6 months post surgically. Analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed P connective tissue graft proposed significantly more improvement as compare to connective tissue graft in pouch.

  14. Extension of Modified Polak-Ribière-Polyak Conjugate Gradient Method to Linear Equality Constraints Minimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining the Rosen gradient projection method with the two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient method, we propose a two-term Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP conjugate gradient projection method for solving linear equality constraints optimization problems. The proposed method possesses some attractive properties: (1 search direction generated by the proposed method is a feasible descent direction; consequently the generated iterates are feasible points; (2 the sequences of function are decreasing. Under some mild conditions, we show that it is globally convergent with Armijio-type line search. Preliminary numerical results show that the proposed method is promising.

  15. [On necessity to modify biochemical methods for detecting organophosphorus componds in chemical weapons extinction objects (review of literature)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokofieva, D S; Shmurak, V I; Sadovnikov, S V; Gontcharov, N V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers problems of biochemical methods assessing organophosphorus toxic compounds in objects of chemical weapons extinction. The authors present results of works developing new, more specific and selective biochemical methods.

  16. Identification and quantification of genetically modified Moonshade carnation lines using conventional and TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jia, Junwei; Bai, Lan; Pan, Aihu; Tang, Xueming

    2013-07-01

    Genetically modified carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) Moonshade was approved for planting and commercialization in several countries from 2004. Developing methods for analyzing Moonshade is necessary for implementing genetically modified organism labeling regulations. In this study, the 5'-transgene integration sequence was isolated using thermal asymmetric interlaced (TAIL)-PCR. Based upon the 5'-transgene integration sequence, conventional and TaqMan real-time PCR assays were established. The relative limit of detection for the conventional PCR assay was 0.05 % for Moonshade using 100 ng total carnation genomic DNA, corresponding to approximately 79 copies of the carnation haploid genome, and the limits of detection and quantification of the TaqMan real-time PCR assay were estimated to be 51 and 254 copies of haploid carnation genomic DNA, respectively. These results are useful for identifying and quantifying Moonshade and its derivatives.

  17. A modified approach to predict pore pressure using the D exponent method: An example from the Carbonera Formation, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano, Yully P; Uribe, Rodolfo; Frydman, Marcelo; Saavedra, Nestor F; Calderon, Zuly H

    2007-01-01

    The methodology for the pore pressure prediction known as an exponent is o function of an exponent of adjustment that was originally defined for the Gulf of Mexico (Jorden and Shirley, 1966; Eaton, 1972). A limiting factor of this methodology is the definition of the normal compaction trend (NCT), which needs to be interpreted from the data (Mouchet and Mitchell, 1989). In this study, the D exponent methodology was modified to make it applicable to the Oligocene Carbonera Formation in an oil field of the llanos foothills Colombia. The approach consisted of calculating the ratio between affective stress and the D exponent of each wall, in order to find a robust NCT for the entire field, thus reducing subjectivity in the traditional d exponent methodology. Pore pressure determinations from Measured Direct Tests (MDT) at one wall confirm the predictive capability of our approach

  18. Preincubation of Penicillium commune conidia under modified atmosphere conditions: Influence on growth potential as determined by an impedimetric method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haasum, Iben; Nielsen, Per Væggemose

    1996-01-01

    The combined effect of preincubation time, relative humidity (r.h.), headspace carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen (O2) on subsequent growth potential of conidia from Penicillium commune was studied using Response Surface Modelling (RSM). Native conidia were preincubated under modified atmosphere...... conditions in sealed vials for 14, 35 and 56 d. Lag time and growth rates were determined using impedance microbiology on a Bactometer. Conidia survived and some swelling was observed during all experimental preincubation conditions. Regression analysis of the subsequent growth responses showed that relative...... humidity in the vials was the most significant factor affecting lag time of the conidia after preincubation for 14 and 35 d. Storage for 35 d extended lag times by 15 h when the level of r.h. was increased from 41% to 80%. After prolonged storage (56 d) r.h and CO2 levels elicited a significant effect...

  19. Enhancement of open-circuit voltage on organic photovoltaic devices by Al-doped TiO{sub 2} modifying layer produced by sol–gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valaski, R.; Arantes, C.; Senna, C.A.; Carôzo, Victor; Achete, C.A. [Materials Metrology Division, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Xerém, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, RJ (Brazil); Cremona, M., E-mail: cremona@fis.puc-rio.br [Materials Metrology Division, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Xerém, Duque de Caxias 25250-020, RJ (Brazil); Physics Department, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 22453-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-12-01

    Sol–gel method has shown several advantages for oxide synthesis, such as lower cost production, coating large areas, lower processing temperatures and ease insertion of doping materials. Therefore, it is attractive for production of intermediate and electrode modifying layers in organic optoelectronic devices. Herein, spin-coated aluminum-doped titanium dioxide (AlTiO{sub 2}) thin films were produced by sol–gel method onto glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, using different Al-dopant concentrations and post-done annealing temperatures. Electrical measurements were performed in order to investigate the improvement of the TiO{sub 2} resistivity. Additionally, structural, compositional, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the optimal AlTiO{sub 2} modifying layers onto FTO substrates were probed by different techniques, and compared with those obtained from the undoped thin films produced under similar conditions. Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with the structure FTO/AlTiO{sub 2}(30 nm)/C{sub 60}(50 nm)/CuPc(50 nm)/Al with an Al concentration of 0.03 M in AlTiO{sub 2} layer were produced. The insertion of AlTiO{sub 2} thin films improved the short-circuit current density (J{sub sc}) as well as the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) in comparison with non-modified electrode FTO based devices. This behavior is discussed in terms of induced interface phenomena as dipole formation induced by Al. - Highlights: • Easy and cheap solution-process for AlTiO{sub 2} modification of FTO electrode for OPVs • Electrical, structural and optical characterization of TiO{sub 2} layers with Al-dopant • Improvement of Voc and Jsc of inverted OPVs with AlTiO{sub 2} modified electrode.

  20. Enhancement of open-circuit voltage on organic photovoltaic devices by Al-doped TiO2 modifying layer produced by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valaski, R.; Arantes, C.; Senna, C.A.; Carôzo, Victor; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2014-01-01

    Sol–gel method has shown several advantages for oxide synthesis, such as lower cost production, coating large areas, lower processing temperatures and ease insertion of doping materials. Therefore, it is attractive for production of intermediate and electrode modifying layers in organic optoelectronic devices. Herein, spin-coated aluminum-doped titanium dioxide (AlTiO 2 ) thin films were produced by sol–gel method onto glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates, using different Al-dopant concentrations and post-done annealing temperatures. Electrical measurements were performed in order to investigate the improvement of the TiO 2 resistivity. Additionally, structural, compositional, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the optimal AlTiO 2 modifying layers onto FTO substrates were probed by different techniques, and compared with those obtained from the undoped thin films produced under similar conditions. Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) with the structure FTO/AlTiO 2 (30 nm)/C 60 (50 nm)/CuPc(50 nm)/Al with an Al concentration of 0.03 M in AlTiO 2 layer were produced. The insertion of AlTiO 2 thin films improved the short-circuit current density (J sc ) as well as the open circuit voltage (V oc ) in comparison with non-modified electrode FTO based devices. This behavior is discussed in terms of induced interface phenomena as dipole formation induced by Al. - Highlights: • Easy and cheap solution-process for AlTiO 2 modification of FTO electrode for OPVs • Electrical, structural and optical characterization of TiO 2 layers with Al-dopant • Improvement of Voc and Jsc of inverted OPVs with AlTiO 2 modified electrode