WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods mixed methods

  1. Mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  2. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  3. Mixed methods for telehealth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Wade, Victoria

    2017-10-01

    Mixed methods research is important to health services research because the integrated qualitative and quantitative investigation can give a more comprehensive understanding of complex interventions such as telehealth than can a single-method study. Further, mixed methods research is applicable to translational research and program evaluation. Study designs relevant to telehealth research are described and supported by examples. Quality assessment tools, frameworks to assist in the reporting and review of mixed methods research, and related methodologies are also discussed.

  4. Mixed methods research for TESOL

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, James; Farr, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Defining and discussing the relevance of theoretical and practical issues involved in mixed methods research. Covering the basics of research methodology, this textbook shows you how to choose and combine quantitative and qualitative research methods to b

  5. Mixed-Methods Research Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Mixed-Method studies have emerged from the paradigm wars between qualitative and quantitative research approaches to become a widely used mode of inquiry. Depending on choices made across four dimensions, mixed-methods can provide an investigator with many design choices which involve a range of sequential and concurrent strategies. Defining…

  6. Mixed methods research in mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettles, A M; Creswell, J W; Zhang, W

    2011-08-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming more widely used in order to answer research questions and to investigate research problems in mental health and psychiatric nursing. However, two separate literature searches, one in Scotland and one in the USA, revealed that few mental health nursing studies identified mixed methods research in their titles. Many studies used the term 'embedded' but few studies identified in the literature were mixed methods embedded studies. The history, philosophical underpinnings, definition, types of mixed methods research and associated pragmatism are discussed, as well as the need for mixed methods research. Examples of mental health nursing mixed methods research are used to illustrate the different types of mixed methods: convergent parallel, embedded, explanatory and exploratory in their sequential and concurrent combinations. Implementing mixed methods research is also discussed briefly and the problem of identifying mixed methods research in mental and psychiatric nursing are discussed with some possible solutions to the problem proposed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  7. Qualitative and mixed methods in public health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Padgett, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    "This text has a large emphasis on mixed methods, examples relating to health research, new exercises pertaining to health research, and an introduction on qualitative and mixed methods in public health...

  8. Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Studien

    OpenAIRE

    Legewie, Nicolas; Tucci, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-Methods-Studien erfreuen sich wachsender Beliebtheit. Immer mehr Studien nutzen dabei auch Panel-basierte Mixed-Methods-Designs, in denen bestehende Längsschnittstudien durch qualitative Befragungsformen ergänzt werden. Innerhalb der reichhaltigen Veröffentlichungen zum Thema Mixed-Methods-Forschung finden sich bisher aber kaum Diskussionen solcher Mixed-Methods-Designs. Im vorliegenden Artikel diskutieren wir Design, Durchführung, sowie Potenzialeund Herausforderungen von Panel-basiert...

  9. Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K.

    2010-01-01

    I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)

  10. Qualitative Approaches to Mixed Methods Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses how methodological practices can shape and limit how mixed methods is practiced and makes visible the current methodological assumptions embedded in mixed methods practice that can shut down a range of social inquiry. The article argues that there is a "methodological orthodoxy" in how mixed methods is practiced…

  11. Pragmatism, Evidence, and Mixed Methods Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori N.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods evaluation has a long-standing history of enhancing the credibility of evaluation findings. However, using mixed methods in a utilitarian way implicitly emphasizes convenience over engaging with its philosophical underpinnings (Denscombe, 2008). Because of this, some mixed methods evaluators and social science researchers have been…

  12. Mixed Methods, Triangulation, and Causal Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    This article distinguishes a disjunctive conception of mixed methods/triangulation, which brings different methods to bear on different questions, from a conjunctive conception, which brings different methods to bear on the same question. It then examines a more inclusive, holistic conception of mixed methods/triangulation that accommodates…

  13. Using mixed methods in health research.

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq, S.; Woodman, J.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research is the use of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study or series of studies. It is an emergent methodology which is increasingly used by health researchers, especially within health services research. There is a growing literature on the theory, design and critical appraisal of mixed methods research. However, there are few papers that summarize this methodological approach for health practitioners who wish to conduct or critically engage with mixed method...

  14. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  15. Challenges in Using Mix Methods in Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan COJOCARU

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the debates between quantitative and qualitative methods in the evaluation process, analyzes the challenges about methodological mix in terms of credibility and validity of data and tools, and the evaluation findings. Beyond the epistemological contradictions, it seems that, in terms of usefulness, the mixing of methods is a practical solution, along with hybrids theories, able to provide information to improve the sufficiency of the program. Mixing methods is also a wa...

  16. Mixing quantitative with qualitative methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Ann; Viller, Stephen; Heck, Tamara

    2017-01-01

    with or are considering, researching, or working with both quantitative and qualitative evaluation methods (in academia or industry), join us in this workshop. In particular, we look at adding quantitative to qualitative methods to build a whole picture of user experience. We see a need to discuss both quantitative...... and qualitative research because there is often a perceived lack of understanding of the rigor involved in each. The workshop will result in a White Paper on the latest developments in this field, within Australia and comparative with international work. We anticipate sharing submissions and workshop outcomes...

  17. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  18. Mixing Methods in Assessing Coaches' Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergeer, Ineke; Lyle, John

    2007-01-01

    Mixing methods has recently achieved respectability as an appropriate approach to research design, offering a variety of advantages (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003). The purpose of this paper is to outline and evaluate a mixed methods approach within the domain of coaches' decision making. Illustrated with data from a policy-capturing study on…

  19. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  20. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  1. Adaptative mixed methods to axisymmetric shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malta, S.M.C.; Loula, A.F.D.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-09-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin method is applied to axisymmetric shells with uniform and non uniform meshes. Numerical experiments with a cylindrical shell showed a significant improvement in convergence and accuracy with adaptive meshes. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  2. Mixed Methods Research Designs in Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, William E.; Creswell, John W.; Clark, Vicki L. Plano; Petska, Kelly S.; Creswell, David J.

    2005-01-01

    With the increased popularity of qualitative research, researchers in counseling psychology are expanding their methodologies to include mixed methods designs. These designs involve the collection, analysis, and integration of quantitative and qualitative data in a single or multiphase study. This article presents an overview of mixed methods…

  3. What is so new about mixed methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Pertti J

    2015-06-01

    In this article, I dispute claims that mixed methods research emerged only recently in the social sciences. I argue that some anthropologists and sociologists (and others) have used mixed methods in fieldwork for at least 80 years, and there are studies from early in the 20th century that clearly fall within the definition of "mixed methods." I explore some of the history of the mixing of qualitative and quantitative data in earlier ethnographic works and show that in some sectors of social science research, the "emergence" and proliferation of mixed methods were particularly notable around the middle of the 20th century. Furthermore, concerning issues about "paradigms of research" in the social sciences, I identify some of the types of research in which the mixing of QUAL and QUAN approaches was more likely to occur. I suggest that some of the literature about research paradigms has involved a certain amount of "myth-making" in connection with descriptions of qualitative and quantitative research assumptions and styles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Analysis of mixed data methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, Alexander R

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive source on mixed data analysis, Analysis of Mixed Data: Methods & Applications summarizes the fundamental developments in the field. Case studies are used extensively throughout the book to illustrate interesting applications from economics, medicine and health, marketing, and genetics. Carefully edited for smooth readability and seamless transitions between chaptersAll chapters follow a common structure, with an introduction and a concluding summary, and include illustrative examples from real-life case studies in developmental toxicolog

  5. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  6. Mixed Methods: Pengantar dalam Penelitian Olahraga

    OpenAIRE

    putra, miftah fariz

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan artikel ini adalah untuk mendiskusikan tentang mixed methods research (MMR) yang terbuka diaplikasikan dalam konteks olahraga. MMR dipahami sebagai pengabungan dua metode (kuantitatif dan kualitatif) dalam satu proses penelitian yang dilakukan secara berurutan atau bersamaan dengan tujuan untuk memahami lebih komprehensif serta mendalam tentang fenomena keolahragaan yang dikaji. Desain penelitian yang dikembangkan oleh Steckler et al., (1992), Tashakkori & Teddlie (2010), Creswell ...

  7. Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology with Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teddlie, Charles; Yu, Fen

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of mixed methods (MM) sampling techniques. MM sampling involves combining well-established qualitative and quantitative techniques in creative ways to answer research questions posed by MM research designs. Several issues germane to MM sampling are presented including the differences between probability and…

  8. Applying Mixed Methods Techniques in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhees, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    In its most basic form, strategic planning is a process of anticipating change, identifying new opportunities, and executing strategy. The use of mixed methods, blending quantitative and qualitative analytical techniques and data, in the process of assembling a strategic plan can help to ensure a successful outcome. In this article, the author…

  9. New mixed finite-element methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franca, L.P.

    1987-01-01

    New finite-element methods are proposed for mixed variational formulations. The methods are constructed by adding to the classical Galerkin method various least-squares like terms. The additional terms involve integrals over element interiors, and include mesh-parameter dependent coefficients. The methods are designed to enhance stability. Consistency is achieved in the sense that exact solutions identically satisfy the variational equations.Applied to several problems, simple finite-element interpolations are rendered convergent, including convenient equal-order interpolations generally unstable within the Galerkin approach. The methods are subdivided into two classes according to the manner in which stability is attained: (1) circumventing Babuska-Brezzi condition methods; (2) satisfying Babuska-Brezzi condition methods. Convergence is established for each class of methods. Applications of the first class of methods to Stokes flow and compressible linear elasticity are presented. The second class of methods is applied to the Poisson, Timoshenko beam and incompressible elasticity problems. Numerical results demonstrate the good stability and accuracy of the methods, and confirm the error estimates

  10. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  11. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Articles were reviewed, analyzed, and coded through a qualitative content analysis approach. Overall trends are presented with respect to the entire collection of articles followed by an analysis of mixed methods research approaches identified in the subset of 55 studies. The most commonly used research approaches involved collecting data from people through interview, focus group, and survey methodologies. Content analysis was the second most commonly used approach whereby researchers use Facebook posts, Tweets (Twitter posts, YouTube videos, or other social media content as a data source. Many of the studies involving combinations of quantitative and qualitative data followed a design resembling Creswell and Plano Clark’s basic mixed methods typology (e.g., convergent parallel, explanatory sequential, and exploratory sequential.

  12. Investigation of mixed saliva by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Ekaterina; Nepomnyashchaya, Elina; Baranov, Maksim; Velichko, Elena; Aksenov, Evgenii; Bogomaz, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    At present, saliva and its properties are being actively studied. Human saliva is a unique biological material that has potential in clinical practice. A detailed analysis of the characteristics and properties of saliva is relevant for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, the properties and characteristics of saliva are studied using optoelectronic methods: dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and optical microscopy. Mixed saliva from a healthy patient and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 was used as an object of the study. The dynamics of the behavior of a healthy and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 is visible according to the results obtained. All three methods confirm hypothesis of structural changes in mixed saliva in the disease of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  13. Qualitative and Mixed Methods Social Media Research

    OpenAIRE

    Chareen L. Snelson

    2016-01-01

    Social media technologies have attracted substantial attention among many types of users including researchers who have published studies for several years. This article presents an overview of trends in qualitative and mixed methods social media research literature published from 2007 through 2013. A collection of 229 qualitative studies were identified through a systematic literature review process. A subset of 55 of these articles report studies involving a combination of qualitative and q...

  14. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  15. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  16. Mixed Methods Designs for Sports Medicine Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Melissa C; Kucera, Kristen L

    2018-07-01

    Mixed methods research is a relatively new approach in the field of sports medicine, where the benefits of qualitative and quantitative research are combined while offsetting the other's flaws. Despite its known and successful use in other populations, it has been used minimally in sports medicine, including studies of the clinician perspective, concussion, and patient outcomes. Therefore, there is a need for this approach to be applied in other topic areas not easily addressed by one type of research approach in isolation, such as the retirement from sport, effects of and return from injury, and catastrophic injury. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mixed Methods and Action Research: similar or different?

    OpenAIRE

    Wiśniewska, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to analyse and compare ELT studies grounded solely in mixed methods and ELT action research studies based on a mixed methods approach in order to identify to what degree action research studies combining different methods in a single study comply with the principles of rigorous mixed methods study.

  18. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  19. The application of mixed methods designs to trauma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Zhang, Wanqing

    2009-12-01

    Despite the use of quantitative and qualitative data in trauma research and therapy, mixed methods studies in this field have not been analyzed to help researchers designing investigations. This discussion begins by reviewing four core characteristics of mixed methods research in the social and human sciences. Combining these characteristics, the authors focus on four select mixed methods designs that are applicable in trauma research. These designs are defined and their essential elements noted. Applying these designs to trauma research, a search was conducted to locate mixed methods trauma studies. From this search, one sample study was selected, and its characteristics of mixed methods procedures noted. Finally, drawing on other mixed methods designs available, several follow-up mixed methods studies were described for this sample study, enabling trauma researchers to view design options for applying mixed methods research in trauma investigations.

  20. The use of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals

    OpenAIRE

    López-Fernández, Olatz; Molina Azorín, José Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly important in several scientific areas. The analysis of prevalence rates is a new line of research that has emerged in mixed methods research, and this methodological approach has only been applied carefully in a handful of journals. The purpose of this article was to analyse the prevalence of mixed methods research in interdisciplinary educational journals. Moreover, the main characteristics of the mixed methods articles identified were examined...

  1. Educational Accountability: A Qualitatively Driven Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jori N.; Ryan, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of mixed-methods research, in particular the value of qualitatively driven mixed-methods research for quantitatively driven domains like educational accountability. The article demonstrates the merits of qualitative thinking by describing a mixed-methods study that focuses on a middle school's system of…

  2. Writing a Mixed Methods Report in Social Work Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Laura R.; Kovacs, Pamela J.

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly chronicles the development of mixed methods research and its use in social work. We then move onto a discussion of terms and designs, reasons for (and for not) using mixed methods. Drawing upon exemplars, we address how to write up a mixed methods study when (1) the sample is single; single for one part, with a subset for the…

  3. A Preliminary Rubric Design to Evaluate Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    With the increase in frequency of the use of mixed methods, both in research publications and in externally funded grants there are increasing calls for a set of standards to assess the quality of mixed methods research. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to conduct a multi-phase analysis to create a preliminary rubric to evaluate mixed…

  4. Design Patterns for Mixed-Method Research in HCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robert Holwerda; Arthur Bennis; Lambert Zaad; René Bakker; Sabine Craenmehr; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Dick Lenior; Marjolein Jacobs; Koen van Turnhout; Ralph Niels

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss mixed-method research in HCI. We report on an empirical literature study of the NordiCHI 2012 proceedings which aimed to uncover and describe common mixed-method approaches, and to identify good practices for mixed-methods research in HCI. We present our results as

  5. RO1 Funding for Mixed Methods Research: Lessons learned from the Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression Project

    OpenAIRE

    Arnault, Denise Saint; Fetters, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has made significant in-roads in the effort to examine complex health related phenomenon. However, little has been published on the funding of mixed methods research projects. This paper addresses that gap by presenting an example of an NIMH funded project using a mixed methods QUAL-QUAN triangulation design entitled “The Mixed-Method Analysis of Japanese Depression.” We present the Cultural Determinants of Health Seeking model that framed the study, the specific aims, ...

  6. Mixing Methods in Organizational Ethics and Organizational Innovativeness Research : Three Approaches to Mixed Methods Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Riivari, Elina

    2015-01-01

    This chapter discusses three categories of mixed methods analysis techniques: variableoriented, case-oriented, and process/experience-oriented. All three categories combine qualitative and quantitative approaches to research methodology. The major differences among the categories are the focus of the study, available analysis techniques and timely aspect of the study. In variable-oriented analysis, the study focus is relationships between the research phenomena. In case-oriente...

  7. Mixed Methods Research: The "Thing-ness" Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    Contemporary mixed methods research (MMR) veers away from a "loosely bounded" to a "bounded" concept that has important negative implications for how qualitatively driven mixed methods approaches are positioned in the field of mixed methods and overall innovation in the praxis of MMR. I deploy the concept of reification defined as taking an object/abstraction and treating it as if it were real such that it takes on the quality of "thing-ness," having a concrete independent existence. I argue that the contemporary reification of mixed methods as a "thing" is fueled by three interrelated factors: (a) the growing formalization of mixed methods as design, (b) the unexamined belief in the "synergy" of mixed methods and, (c) the deployment of a "practical pragmatism" as the "philosophical partner" for mixed methods inquiry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Approaches to Mixed Methods Dissemination and Implementation Research: Methods, Strengths, Caveats, and Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Carla A; Duan, Naihua; Gibbons, Robert D; Hoagwood, Kimberly E; Palinkas, Lawrence A; Wisdom, Jennifer P

    2015-09-01

    Limited translation of research into practice has prompted study of diffusion and implementation, and development of effective methods of encouraging adoption, dissemination and implementation. Mixed methods techniques offer approaches for assessing and addressing processes affecting implementation of evidence-based interventions. We describe common mixed methods approaches used in dissemination and implementation research, discuss strengths and limitations of mixed methods approaches to data collection, and suggest promising methods not yet widely used in implementation research. We review qualitative, quantitative, and hybrid approaches to mixed methods dissemination and implementation studies, and describe methods for integrating multiple methods to increase depth of understanding while improving reliability and validity of findings.

  9. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    OpenAIRE

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to th...

  10. ADDRESSING RESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM IN MIXED METHODS RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Hamed ALAVI; Patrycja HĄBEK

    2016-01-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be...

  11. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Gail D. Caruth

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research. A review of the literature revealed that it has been gaining acceptance among researchers, researchers have begun using mixed methods research, it ...

  12. Collaboration Patterns as a Function of Article Genre among Mixed Researchers: A Mixed Methods Bibliometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, John; Wachsmann, Melanie; Hoisington, Susan; Gonzalez, Vanessa; Valle, Rachel; Lambert, Jarod; Aleisa, Majed; Wilcox, Rachael; Benge, Cindy L.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Surprisingly, scant information exists regarding the collaboration patterns of mixed methods researchers. Thus, the purpose of this mixed methods bibliometric study was to examine (a) the distribution of the number of co-authors in articles published in the flagship mixed methods research journal (i.e., "Journal of Mixed Methods…

  13. A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary Fanett; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite

  14. Reflections on Mixing Methods in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad R.

    2012-01-01

    This commentary advocates the use of mixed methods research--that is the integration of qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study--in applied linguistics. Based on preliminary findings from a research project in progress, some reflections on the current practice of mixing methods as a new trend in applied linguistics are put forward.…

  15. Demystifying Mixed Methods Research Design: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruth, Gail D.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research evolved in response to the observed limitations of both quantitative and qualitative designs and is a more complex method. The purpose of this paper was to examine mixed methods research in an attempt to demystify the design thereby allowing those less familiar with its design an opportunity to utilize it in future research.…

  16. Breaking from binaries - using a sequential mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Patricia Mary; Begley, Cecily Marion; Devane, Declan

    2014-03-01

    To outline the traditional worldviews of healthcare research and discuss the benefits and challenges of using mixed methods approaches in contributing to the development of nursing and midwifery knowledge. There has been much debate about the contribution of mixed methods research to nursing and midwifery knowledge in recent years. A sequential exploratory design is used as an exemplar of a mixed methods approach. The study discussed used a combination of focus-group interviews and a quantitative instrument to obtain a fuller understanding of women's experiences of childbirth. In the mixed methods study example, qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and quantitative data using regression analysis. Polarised debates about the veracity, philosophical integrity and motivation for conducting mixed methods research have largely abated. A mixed methods approach can contribute to a deeper, more contextual understanding of a variety of subjects and experiences; as a result, it furthers knowledge that can be used in clinical practice. The purpose of the research study should be the main instigator when choosing from an array of mixed methods research designs. Mixed methods research offers a variety of models that can augment investigative capabilities and provide richer data than can a discrete method alone. This paper offers an example of an exploratory, sequential approach to investigating women's childbirth experiences. A clear framework for the conduct and integration of the different phases of the mixed methods research process is provided. This approach can be used by practitioners and policy makers to improve practice.

  17. Using mixed methods in music therapy health care research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    »Mixed methods« (or »multiple methods») is a fairly new concept in music therapy research. It is inspired by recent methodological developments in social science, covering the interaction of quantitative and qualitative methods in one and the same research study. Mixed methods are not the same...... as the diversity or pluralism of methods advocated by many scholars who are critical towards the principles of evidence-based medicine. This article presents a concrete example of mixed methods in music therapy research: a psycho-social study of music therapy with female cancer survivors. Problems related...

  18. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participato...

  19. "Reading" Mixed Methods Research: Contexts for Criticism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn

    2007-01-01

    Health and social care researchers, in their haste to "belong" to academia, have adopted the system of mixed methodology research, overestimating its ability to reveal the truth and occasionally imprisoning their thought in one system. In this article, some of the assumptions underpinning mixed methodology research and its discourse are subjected…

  20. Moyer's method of mixed dentition analysis: a meta-analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The applicability of tables derived from the data Moyer used to other ethnic groups has ... This implies that Moyer's method of prediction may have population variations. ... Key Words: meta-analysis, mixed dentition analysis, Moyer's method

  1. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  2. New mixed quantum/semiclassical propagation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniou, Dimitri; Gelman, David; Schwartz, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors developed a new method for calculating the quantum evolution of multidimensional systems, for cases in which the system can be assumed to consist of a quantum subsystem and a bath subsystem of heavier atoms. The method combines two ideas: starting from a simple frozen Gaussian description of the bath subsystem, then calculate quantum corrections to the propagation of the quantum subsystem. This follows from recent work by one of them, showing how one can calculate corrections to approximate evolution schemes, even when the Hamiltonian that corresponds to these approximate schemes is unknown. Then, they take the limit in which the width of the frozen Gaussians approaches zero, which makes the corrections to the evolution of the quantum subsystem depend only on classical bath coordinates. The test calculations they present use low-dimensional systems, in which comparison to exact quantum dynamics is feasible

  3. Toward a Conceptualization of Mixed Methods Phenomenological Research

    OpenAIRE

    Mayoh, Joanne; Onwuegbuzie, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, researchers are recognizing the benefits of expanding research designs that are rooted in one tradition (i.e., monomethod design) into a design that incorporates or interfaces with the other tradition. The flexibility of phenomenologically driven methods provides one such example. Indeed, phenomenological research methods work extremely well as a component of mixed methods research approaches. However, to date, a mixed methods version of phenomenological research has not been fo...

  4. Mixed methods in psychotherapy research: A review of method(ology) integration in psychotherapy science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Theodore T; Lockard, Allison J

    2018-06-13

    Mixed methods can foster depth and breadth in psychological research. However, its use remains in development in psychotherapy research. Our purpose was to review the use of mixed methods in psychotherapy research. Thirty-one studies were identified via the PRISMA systematic review method. Using Creswell & Plano Clark's typologies to identify design characteristics, we assessed each study for rigor and how each used mixed methods. Key features of mixed methods designs and these common patterns were identified: (a) integration of clients' perceptions via mixing; (b) understanding group psychotherapy; (c) integrating methods with cases and small samples; (d) analyzing clinical data as qualitative data; and (e) exploring cultural identities in psychotherapy through mixed methods. The review is discussed with respect to the value of integrating multiple data in single studies to enhance psychotherapy research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mixed-methods research in nursing - a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Valentina; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Timmins, Fiona; Barisone, Michela; Bianchi, Monica; Pellegrini, Ramona; Sasso, Loredana

    2017-10-01

    To review the use of mixed-methods research in nursing with a particular focus on the extent to which current practice informs nurse researchers. It also aimed to highlight gaps in current knowledge, understanding and reporting of this type of research. Mixed-methods research is becoming increasingly popular among nurses and healthcare professionals. Emergent findings from this type of research are very useful for nurses in practice. The combination of both quantitative and qualitative methods provides a scientific base for practice but also richness from the qualitative enquiry. However, at the same time mixed-methods research is underdeveloped. This study identified mixed-methods research papers and critically evaluated their usefulness for research practice. To support the analysis, we performed a two-stage search using CINAHL to find papers with titles that included the key term 'mixed method'. An analysis of studies that used mixed-methods research revealed some inconsistencies in application and reporting. Attempts to use two distinct research methods in these studies often meant that one or both aspects had limitations. Overall methods were applied in a less rigorous way. This has implications for providing somewhat limited direction for novice researchers. There is also potential for application of evidence in healthcare practice that limited validity. This study highlights current gaps in knowledge, understanding and reporting of mixed-methods research. While these methods are useful to gain insight into clinical problems nurses lack guidance with this type of research. This study revealed that the guidance provided by current mixed-methods research is inconsistent and incomplete and this compounds the lack of available direction. There is an urgent need to develop robust guidelines for using mixed-methods research so that findings may be critically implemented in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Mixed Methods Portrait of Urban Instrumental Music Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to learn about the ways that instrumental music teachers in Chicago navigated the urban landscape. The design of the study most closely resembles Creswell and Plano Clark's (2007) two-part Triangulation Convergence Mixed Methods Design, with the addition of an initial exploratory focus group component.…

  7. Designing, Teaching, and Evaluating Two Complementary Mixed Methods Research Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Thomas W.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching mixed methods research is difficult. This longitudinal explanatory study examined how two classes were designed, taught, and evaluated. Curriculum, Research, and Teaching (EDCS-606) and Mixed Methods Research (EDCS-780) used a research proposal generation process to highlight the importance of the purpose, research question and…

  8. Triangulation, Respondent Validation, and Democratic Participation in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 10 years or so the "Field" of "Mixed Methods Research" (MMR) has increasingly been exerting itself as something separate, novel, and significant, with some advocates claiming paradigmatic status. Triangulation is an important component of mixed methods designs. Triangulation has its origins in attempts to validate research findings…

  9. Mixed Methods in Intervention Research: Theory to Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Hitchcock, John; Sarkar, Sreeroopa; Burkholder, Gary; Varjas, Kristen; Jayasena, Asoka

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of mixed methods research designs to multiyear programmatic research and development projects whose goals include integration of cultural specificity when generating or translating evidence-based practices. The authors propose a set of five mixed methods designs related to different…

  10. Single-Case Designs and Qualitative Methods: Applying a Mixed Methods Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, John H.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Summerville, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe a design that mixes single-case (sometimes referred to as single-subject) and qualitative methods, hereafter referred to as a single-case mixed methods design (SCD-MM). Minimal attention has been given to the topic of applying qualitative methods to SCD work in the literature. These two…

  11. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R. Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent desig...

  12. Addressing Research Design Problem in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamed; Hąbek, Patrycja

    2016-03-01

    Alongside other disciplines in social sciences, management researchers use mixed methods research more and more in conduct of their scientific investigations. Mixed methods approach can also be used in the field of production engineering. In comparison with traditional quantitative and qualitative research methods, reasons behind increasing popularity of mixed research method in management science can be traced in different factors. First of all, any particular discipline in management can be theoretically related to it. Second is that concurrent approach of mixed research method to inductive and deductive research logic provides researchers with opportunity to generate theory and test hypothesis in one study simultaneously. In addition, it provides a better justification for chosen method of investigation and higher validity for obtained answers to research questions. Despite increasing popularity of mixed research methods among management scholars, there is still need for a comprehensive approach to research design typology and process in mixed research method from the perspective of management science. The authors in this paper try to explain fundamental principles of mixed research method, its typology and different steps in its design process.

  13. Why, and how, mixed methods research is undertaken in health services research in England: a mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Murphy, Elizabeth; Nicholl, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Background Recently, there has been a surge of international interest in combining qualitative and quantitative methods in a single study – often called mixed methods research. It is timely to consider why and how mixed methods research is used in health services research (HSR). Methods Documentary analysis of proposals and reports of 75 mixed methods studies funded by a research commissioner of HSR in England between 1994 and 2004. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers sampled from these studies. Results 18% (119/647) of HSR studies were classified as mixed methods research. In the documentation, comprehensiveness was the main driver for using mixed methods research, with researchers wanting to address a wider range of questions than quantitative methods alone would allow. Interviewees elaborated on this, identifying the need for qualitative research to engage with the complexity of health, health care interventions, and the environment in which studies took place. Motivations for adopting a mixed methods approach were not always based on the intrinsic value of mixed methods research for addressing the research question; they could be strategic, for example, to obtain funding. Mixed methods research was used in the context of evaluation, including randomised and non-randomised designs; survey and fieldwork exploratory studies; and instrument development. Studies drew on a limited number of methods – particularly surveys and individual interviews – but used methods in a wide range of roles. Conclusion Mixed methods research is common in HSR in the UK. Its use is driven by pragmatism rather than principle, motivated by the perceived deficit of quantitative methods alone to address the complexity of research in health care, as well as other more strategic gains. Methods are combined in a range of contexts, yet the emerging methodological contributions from HSR to the field of mixed methods research are currently limited to the single

  14. Mixed Methods Research Prevalence Studies: Field-Specific Studies on the State of the Art of Mixed Methods Research

    OpenAIRE

    Molina-Azorín, José F.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) has always welcomed two main kinds of manuscripts: original empirical articles and methodological/theoretical articles (Creswell & Tashakkori, 2007; Fetters & Freshwater, 2015a; Mertens, 2011). Both types of articles must clearly state methodological aims, review mixed methods literature relative to the methodological aim, and advance the field of mixed methods—empirical articles must address integration (Fetters & Freshwater, 2015b). In this edito...

  15. 10 best resources on ... mixed methods research in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Sachiko; Pongpirul, Krit

    2014-05-01

    Mixed methods research has become increasingly popular in health systems. Qualitative approaches are often used to explain quantitative results and help to develop interventions or survey instruments. Mixed methods research is especially important in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings, where understanding social, economic and cultural contexts are essential to assess health systems performance. To provide researchers and programme managers with a guide to mixed methods research in health systems, we review the best resources with a focus on LMICs. We selected 10 best resources (eight peer-reviewed articles and two textbooks) based on their importance and frequency of use (number of citations), comprehensiveness of content, usefulness to readers and relevance to health systems research in resource-limited contexts. We start with an overview on mixed methods research and discuss resources that are useful for a better understanding of the design and conduct of mixed methods research. To illustrate its practical applications, we provide examples from various countries (China, Vietnam, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and India) across different health topics (tuberculosis, malaria, HIV testing and healthcare costs). We conclude with some toolkits which suggest what to do when mixed methods findings conflict and provide guidelines for evaluating the quality of mixed methods research.

  16. Realism and Pragmatism in a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allmark, Peter; Machaczek, Katarzyna

    2018-06-01

    A discussion of how adopting a Realist rather than Pragmatist methodology affects the conduct of mixed methods research. Mixed methods approaches are now extensively employed in nursing and other healthcare research. At the same time, realist methodology is increasingly used as philosophical underpinning of research in these areas. However, the standard philosophical underpinning of mixed methods research is Pragmatism, which is generally considered incompatible or at least at odds with Realism. This paper argues that Realism can be used as the basis of mixed methods research and that doing so carries advantages over using Pragmatism. A mixed method study into patient handover reports is used to illustrate how Realism affected its design and how it would have differed had a Pragmatist approach been taken. Discussion Paper. Philosophers Index; Google Scholar. Those undertaking mixed methods research should consider the use of Realist methodology with the addition of some insights from Pragmatism to do with the start and end points of enquiry. Realism is a plausible alternative methodology for those undertaking mixed methods studies. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. On Self-Adaptive Method for General Mixed Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Bnouhachem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a new self-adaptive method for solving general mixed variational inequalities, which can be viewed as an improvement of the method of (Noor 2003. Global convergence of the new method is proved under the same assumptions as Noor's method. Some preliminary computational results are given to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed method. Since the general mixed variational inequalities include general variational inequalities, quasivariational inequalities, and nonlinear (implicit complementarity problems as special cases, results proved in this paper continue to hold for these problems.

  18. Mixed Methods in Biomedical and Health Services Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Leslie A.; Krumholz, Harlan M.; O’Cathain, Alicia; Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Cherlin, Emily; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods studies, in which qualitative and quantitative methods are combined in a single program of inquiry, can be valuable in biomedical and health services research, where the complementary strengths of each approach can yield greater insight into complex phenomena than either approach alone. Although interest in mixed methods is growing among science funders and investigators, written guidance on how to conduct and assess rigorous mixed methods studies is not readily accessible to the general readership of peer-reviewed biomedical and health services journals. Furthermore, existing guidelines for publishing mixed methods studies are not well known or applied by researchers and journal editors. Accordingly, this paper is intended to serve as a concise, practical resource for readers interested in core principles and practices of mixed methods research. We briefly describe mixed methods approaches and present illustrations from published biomedical and health services literature, including in cardiovascular care, summarize standards for the design and reporting of these studies, and highlight four central considerations for investigators interested in using these methods. PMID:23322807

  19. [Mixed methods research in public health: issues and illustration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guével, Marie-Renée; Pommier, Jeanine

    2012-01-01

    For many years, researchers in a range of fields have combined quantitative and qualitative methods. However, the combined use of quantitative and qualitative methods has only recently been conceptualized and defined as mixed methods research. Some authors have described the emerging field as a third methodological tradition (in addition to the qualitative and quantitative traditions). Mixed methods research combines different perspectives and facilitates the study of complex interventions or programs, particularly in public health, an area where interdisciplinarity is critical. However, the existing literature is primarily in English. By contrast, the literature in French remains limited. The purpose of this paper is to present the emergence of mixed methods research for francophone public health specialists. A literature review was conducted to identify the main characteristics of mixed methods research. The results provide an overall picture of the mixed methods approach through its history, definitions, and applications, and highlight the tools developed to clarify the approach (typologies) and to implement it (integration of results and quality standards). The tools highlighted in the literature review are illustrated by a study conducted in France. Mixed methods research opens new possibilities for examining complex research questions and provides relevant and promising opportunities for addressing current public health issues in France.

  20. Mixed-Methods Research in the Discipline of Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Harrison, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, we examined the prevalence and characteristics of 294 mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing. Creswell and Plano Clark's typology was most frequently used along with concurrent timing. Bivariate statistics was most often the highest level of statistics reported in the results. As for qualitative data analysis, content analysis was most frequently used. The majority of nurse researchers did not specifically address the purpose, paradigm, typology, priority, timing, interaction, or integration of their mixed-methods studies. Strategies are suggested for improving the design, conduct, and reporting of mixed-methods studies in the discipline of nursing.

  1. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Closs, S José

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Mixed-methods methodology, as the name suggests refers to mixing of elements of both qualitative and quantitative methodologies in a single study. In the past decade, mixed-methods methodology has gained popularity among healthcare researchers as it promises to bring together the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Methodology A number of mixed-methods designs are available in the literature and the four most commonly used designs in healthcare research are: the convergent parallel design, the embedded design, the exploratory design, and the explanatory design. Each has its own unique advantages, challenges and procedures and selection of a particular design should be guided by the research question. Guidance on designing, conducting and reporting mixed-methods research is available in the literature, so it is advisable to adhere to this to ensure methodological rigour. When to use it is best suited when the research questions require: triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon; clarifying the results of one method using another method; informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method, development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate possible applications of mixed-methods methodology. Limitations Possessing the necessary knowledge and skills to undertake qualitative and quantitative data collection, analysis, interpretation and integration remains the biggest challenge for researchers conducting mixed-methods studies. Sequential study designs are often time consuming, being in two (or more) phases whereas concurrent study designs may require more than one data collector to collect both qualitative and quantitative data at the same time.

  3. Method for Predicting Solubilities of Solids in Mixed Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Martin Dela; Abildskov, Jens; O'Connell, J. P.

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting solubilities of solid solutes in mixed solvents, based on excess Henry's law constants. The basis is statistical mechanical fluctuation solution theory for composition derivatives of solute/solvent infinite dilution activity coefficients. Suitable approximatio...

  4. Applying Mixed Methods Research at the Synthesis Level: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Historically, qualitative and quantitative approaches have been applied relatively separately in synthesizing qualitative and quantitative evidence, respectively, in several research domains. However, mixed methods approaches are becoming increasingly popular nowadays, and practices of combining qualitative and quantitative research components at…

  5. The use of "mixing" procedure of mixed methods in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Creswell, John

    2013-08-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged alongside qualitative and quantitative approaches as an important tool for health services researchers. Despite growing interest, among health services researchers, in using mixed methods designs, little has been done to identify the procedural aspects of doing so. To describe how mixed methods researchers mix the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their studies in health services research. We searched the PubMed for articles, using mixed methods in health services research, published between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010. We identified and reviewed 30 published health services research articles on studies in which mixed methods had been used. We selected 3 articles as illustrations to help health services researcher conceptualize the type of mixing procedures that they were using. Three main "mixing" procedures have been applied within these studies: (1) the researchers analyzed the 2 types of data at the same time but separately and integrated the results during interpretation; (2) the researchers connected the qualitative and quantitative portions in phases in such a way that 1 approach was built upon the findings of the other approach; and (3) the researchers mixed the 2 data types by embedding the analysis of 1 data type within the other. "Mixing" in mixed methods is more than just the combination of 2 independent components of the quantitative and qualitative data. The use of "mixing" procedure in health services research involves the integration, connection, and embedding of these 2 data components.

  6. Mixed isogeometric finite cell methods for the stokes problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.; Verhoosel, C.V.; Auricchio, F.; van Brummelen, E.H.; Reali, A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the application of the Isogeometric Finite Cell Method (IGA-FCM) to mixed formulations in the context of the Stokes problem. We investigate the performance of the IGA-FCM when utilizing some isogeometric mixed finite elements, namely: Taylor-Hood, Sub-grid, Raviart-Thomas, and Nédélec

  7. Assessing and evaluating multidisciplinary translational teams: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, Kevin C; Rose, Robert M; Ostir, Glenn V; Calhoun, William J; Ameredes, Bill T; Brasier, Allan R

    2014-03-01

    A case report illustrates how multidisciplinary translational teams can be assessed using outcome, process, and developmental types of evaluation using a mixed-methods approach. Types of evaluation appropriate for teams are considered in relation to relevant research questions and assessment methods. Logic models are applied to scientific projects and team development to inform choices between methods within a mixed-methods design. Use of an expert panel is reviewed, culminating in consensus ratings of 11 multidisciplinary teams and a final evaluation within a team-type taxonomy. Based on team maturation and scientific progress, teams were designated as (a) early in development, (b) traditional, (c) process focused, or (d) exemplary. Lessons learned from data reduction, use of mixed methods, and use of expert panels are explored.

  8. Mixed methods research design for pragmatic psychoanalytic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G; Clemence, A Jill; Stevens, Jennifer L

    2011-10-01

    Calls for more rigorous psychoanalytic studies have increased over the past decade. The field has been divided by those who assert that psychoanalysis is properly a hermeneutic endeavor and those who see it as a science. A comparable debate is found in research methodology, where qualitative and quantitative methods have often been seen as occupying orthogonal positions. Recently, Mixed Methods Research (MMR) has emerged as a viable "third community" of research, pursuing a pragmatic approach to research endeavors through integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures in a single study design. Mixed Methods Research designs and the terminology associated with this emerging approach are explained, after which the methodology is explored as a potential integrative approach to a psychoanalytic human science. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are reviewed, as well as how they may be used in Mixed Methods Research to study complex human phenomena.

  9. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  10. Designing a mixed methods study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W; Fetters, Michael D; Ivankova, Nataliya V

    2004-01-01

    Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research.

  11. Mixed methods research: a design for emergency care research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon; Porter, Jo; Endacott, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    This paper follows previous publications on generic qualitative approaches, qualitative designs and action research in emergency care by this group of authors. Contemporary views on mixed methods approaches are considered, with a particular focus on the design choice and the amalgamation of qualitative and quantitative data emphasising the timing of data collection for each approach, their relative 'weight' and how they will be mixed. Mixed methods studies in emergency care are reviewed before the variety of methodological approaches and best practice considerations are presented. The use of mixed methods in clinical studies is increasing, aiming to answer questions such as 'how many' and 'why' in the same study, and as such are an important and useful approach to many key questions in emergency care.

  12. Mixed-methods approaches in health research in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Simkhada, Padam; Van Teijlingen, Edwin; Wasti, Sharada Prasad; Sathian, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combining and integrating a mixture of qualitative and quantitative methods in one single study is widely used in health and social care research in high-income countries. This editorial adds a few words of advice to the novice mixed-methods researcher in Nepal.

  13. Methods That Matter: Integrating Mixed Methods for More Effective Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, M. Cameron, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    To do research that really makes a difference--the authors of this book argue--social scientists need questions and methods that reflect the complexity of the world. Bringing together a consortium of voices across a variety of fields, "Methods that Matter" offers compelling and successful examples of mixed methods research that do just…

  14. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  15. Mixed methods research - the best of both worlds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Griensven, Hubert; Moore, Ann P; Hall, Valerie

    2014-10-01

    There has been a bias towards quantitative research approaches within manual therapy, which may have resulted in a narrow understanding of manual therapy practice. The aim of this Masterclass is to make a contribution to the expansion of methodologies used in manual therapy enquiry by discussing mixed methods research (MMR), a methodology which utilises both qualitative and quantitative methods within a single study in order to provide more comprehensive insights. To review rationales for MMR, as well as some of the common design options and potential difficulties. The paper also discusses theoretical frameworks that have been used to underpin qualitative and quantitative research, and ongoing debates about the possibility of combining them. Complexities associated with health and manual therapy cannot always be investigated satisfactorily by using a single research method. Some issues require a more comprehensive understanding, which may be provided by combining the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods in a mixed methods study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How to Construct a Mixed Methods Research Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Johnson, R Burke

    2017-01-01

    This article provides researchers with knowledge of how to design a high quality mixed methods research study. To design a mixed study, researchers must understand and carefully consider each of the dimensions of mixed methods design, and always keep an eye on the issue of validity. We explain the seven major design dimensions: purpose, theoretical drive, timing (simultaneity and dependency), point of integration, typological versus interactive design approaches, planned versus emergent design, and design complexity. There also are multiple secondary dimensions that need to be considered during the design process. We explain ten secondary dimensions of design to be considered for each research study. We also provide two case studies showing how the mixed designs were constructed.

  17. A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Alan; White, Heath; Bath-Hextall, Fiona; Salmond, Susan; Apostolo, Joao; Kirkpatrick, Pamela

    2015-09-01

    There are an increasing number of published single-method systematic reviews that focus on different types of evidence related to a particular topic. As policy makers and practitioners seek clear directions for decision-making from systematic reviews, it is likely that it will be increasingly difficult for them to identify 'what to do' if they are required to find and understand a plethora of syntheses related to a particular topic.Mixed-methods systematic reviews are designed to address this issue and have the potential to produce systematic reviews of direct relevance to policy makers and practitioners.On the basis of the recommendations of the Joanna Briggs Institute International Mixed Methods Reviews Methodology Group in 2012, the Institute adopted a segregated approach to mixed-methods synthesis as described by Sandelowski et al., which consists of separate syntheses of each component method of the review. Joanna Briggs Institute's mixed-methods synthesis of the findings of the separate syntheses uses a Bayesian approach to translate the findings of the initial quantitative synthesis into qualitative themes and pooling these with the findings of the initial qualitative synthesis.

  18. Guidance for using mixed methods design in nursing practice research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Hanisko, Lenny; Newman, David; Dyess, Susan; Piyakong, Duangporn; Liehr, Patricia

    2016-08-01

    The mixed methods approach purposefully combines both quantitative and qualitative techniques, enabling a multi-faceted understanding of nursing phenomena. The purpose of this article is to introduce three mixed methods designs (parallel; sequential; conversion) and highlight interpretive processes that occur with the synthesis of qualitative and quantitative findings. Real world examples of research studies conducted by the authors will demonstrate the processes leading to the merger of data. The examples include: research questions; data collection procedures and analysis with a focus on synthesizing findings. Based on experience with mixed methods studied, the authors introduce two synthesis patterns (complementary; contrasting), considering application for practice and implications for research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Designing A Mixed Methods Study In Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Fetters, Michael D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mixed methods or multimethod research holds potential for rigorous, methodologically sound investigations in primary care. The objective of this study was to use criteria from the literature to evaluate 5 mixed methods studies in primary care and to advance 3 models useful for designing such investigations. METHODS We first identified criteria from the social and behavioral sciences to analyze mixed methods studies in primary care research. We then used the criteria to evaluate 5 mixed methods investigations published in primary care research journals. RESULTS Of the 5 studies analyzed, 3 included a rationale for mixing based on the need to develop a quantitative instrument from qualitative data or to converge information to best understand the research topic. Quantitative data collection involved structured interviews, observational checklists, and chart audits that were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical procedures. Qualitative data consisted of semistructured interviews and field observations that were analyzed using coding to develop themes and categories. The studies showed diverse forms of priority: equal priority, qualitative priority, and quantitative priority. Data collection involved quantitative and qualitative data gathered both concurrently and sequentially. The integration of the quantitative and qualitative data in these studies occurred between data analysis from one phase and data collection from a subsequent phase, while analyzing the data, and when reporting the results. DISCUSSION We recommend instrument-building, triangulation, and data transformation models for mixed methods designs as useful frameworks to add rigor to investigations in primary care. We also discuss the limitations of our study and the need for future research. PMID:15053277

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles colourization by a mixing-frequency method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Liang; Wu, Kai; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Brownian and Néel relaxation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) can be characterized by a highly sensitive mixing-frequency method using a search-coil based detection system. The unique magnetic properties of MNPs have been used for biomarkers detection. In this paper, we present a theory and implement an experimental detection scheme using the mixing-frequency method to identify different MNPs simultaneously. A low-frequency sinusoidal magnetic field is applied to saturate the MNPs periodically. A high-frequency sinusoidal magnetic field is then applied to generate mixing-frequency signals that are highly specific to the magnetization of MNPs. The spectra of each MNP can be defined as the complex magnetization of the MNPs over the field frequency. The magnetic spectra of various MNPs and magnetic beads have been characterized and compared. The differences between the MNPs spectra enable us to identify the individual MNPs at the same time. A test has been done to verify the ratio of two different MNPs in mixed samples based on the proposed theory. The experimental results show that the mixing-frequency method is a promising method for MNPs colourization. (paper)

  1. Achieving integration in mixed methods designs-principles and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-12-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs-exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent-and through four advanced frameworks-multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  2. Achieving Integration in Mixed Methods Designs—Principles and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetters, Michael D; Curry, Leslie A; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Mixed methods research offers powerful tools for investigating complex processes and systems in health and health care. This article describes integration principles and practices at three levels in mixed methods research and provides illustrative examples. Integration at the study design level occurs through three basic mixed method designs—exploratory sequential, explanatory sequential, and convergent—and through four advanced frameworks—multistage, intervention, case study, and participatory. Integration at the methods level occurs through four approaches. In connecting, one database links to the other through sampling. With building, one database informs the data collection approach of the other. When merging, the two databases are brought together for analysis. With embedding, data collection and analysis link at multiple points. Integration at the interpretation and reporting level occurs through narrative, data transformation, and joint display. The fit of integration describes the extent the qualitative and quantitative findings cohere. Understanding these principles and practices of integration can help health services researchers leverage the strengths of mixed methods. PMID:24279835

  3. Mixed arrays - problems with current methods and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mennerdahl, D.

    1987-01-01

    Simplified methods are used to control the criticality safety of mixed arrays (non-identical units) in storage or in transport. The basis for these methods is that the analyses of arrays of identical units are sufficient for drawing proper conclusions on mixed arrays. In a recent study of the rules for transport, two general flaws in such methods have been identified. One flaw is caused by increased neutron return rate to the central part of the array. The other flaw is caused by increased neutron coupling between two or more fissile units in an array. In both cases, replacement of fissile units with other units, which appear to be less reactive, can lead to criticality. This paper shows that the two flaws are common in also in current methods used for storage of fissile materials. (author)

  4. Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…

  5. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  6. Relaxation and decomposition methods for mixed integer nonlinear programming

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, Ivo; Bank, RE

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive description of efficient methods for solving nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programs, including several numerical and theoretical results, which are presented here for the first time. It contains many illustrations and an up-to-date bibliography. Because on the emphasis on practical methods, as well as the introduction into the basic theory, the book is accessible to a wide audience. It can be used both as a research and as a graduate text.

  7. A mixed methods inquiry into the validity of data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Nielsen, Dorthe B; Jensen, Laila N

    2008-01-01

    increased awareness and dialogue between researchers and farmers or other stakeholders about the background for data collection related to management and changes in management. By integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods in a mixed methods research approach, the researchers will improve...... greatly by adding a qualitative perspective to the quantitative approach as illustrated and discussed in this article. The combined approach requires, besides skills and interdisciplinary collaboration, also openness, reflection and scepticism from the involved scientists, but the benefits may be extended...

  8. College Students; Justification for Digital Piracy: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Szde

    2012-01-01

    A mixed methods project was devoted to understanding college students' justification for digital piracy. The project consisted of two studies, a qualitative one and a quantitative one. Qualitative interviews were conducted to identify main themes in students' justification for digital piracy, and then the findings were tested in a quantitative…

  9. Mixed methods systematic review exploring mentorship outcomes in nursing academia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lorelli; Norris, Jill M; Mrklas, Kelly; White, Deborah E

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to report on a mixed methods systematic review that critically examines the evidence for mentorship in nursing academia. Nursing education institutions globally have issued calls for mentorship. There is emerging evidence to support the value of mentorship in other disciplines, but the extant state of the evidence in nursing academia is not known. A comprehensive review of the evidence is required. A mixed methods systematic review. Five databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycINFO) were searched using an a priori search strategy from inception to 2 November 2015 to identify quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods studies. Grey literature searches were also conducted in electronic databases (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Index to Theses) and mentorship conference proceedings and by hand searching the reference lists of eligible studies. Study quality was assessed prior to inclusion using standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute. A convergent qualitative synthesis design was used where results from qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies were transformed into qualitative findings. Mentorship outcomes were mapped to a theory-informed framework. Thirty-four studies were included in this review, from the 3001 records initially retrieved. In general, mentorship had a positive impact on behavioural, career, attitudinal, relational and motivational outcomes; however, the methodological quality of studies was weak. This review can inform the objectives of mentorship interventions and contribute to a more rigorous approach to studies that assess mentorship outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. First Generation College Student Leadership Potential: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojan-Clark, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods research compared the leadership potential of traditionally aged first generation college students to that of college students whose parents are college educated. A college education provides advantages to those who can obtain it (Baum & Payea, 2004; Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005; Education and the Value of…

  11. Child Geopolitical Agency: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Janette; Worley, Jody

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the geopolitical agency of Palestinian children. Mixed methodology was used to identify the etiologies contributing to processes of political socialization. Both qualitative and qualitative methods are equally distributed throughout this research. Focus groups and interviews with 12 Palestinian children, aged 10 to 13 years,…

  12. Libraries in Online Elementary Schools: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Laura; Franklin, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    School libraries serve an important role; however, elementary students who attend schools online typically do not have a school library. This study followed an online school's inaugural year in instituting a library. A mixed methods approach examined data from focus groups, interviews, surveys, library-use records and oral reading fluency scores.…

  13. A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in lasertron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, G.

    1987-03-01

    A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown

  14. Credible Phenomenological Research: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Stephen V.; Korcuska, James S.

    2018-01-01

    The authors conducted a 3-phase investigation into the credible standards for phenomenological research practices identified in the literature and endorsed by a sample of counselor education qualitative research experts. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach, the findings offer evidence that professional counseling has a distinctive format in which…

  15. Exploring Intercultural Sensitivity in Early Adolescence: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellizo, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore levels of intercultural sensitivity in a sample of fourth to eighth grade students in the United States (n = 162). "Intercultural sensitivity" was conceptualised through Bennett's Developmental Model of Sensitivity, and assessed through the Adapted Intercultural Sensitivity Index.…

  16. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  17. Creating and supporting a mixed methods health services research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Barbara; Cohen, Lauren W; Elliot, Amy E; Grabowski, David C; Fishman, Nancy W; Sharkey, Siobhan S; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Horn, Susan D; Kemper, Peter

    2013-12-01

    To use the experience from a health services research evaluation to provide guidance in team development for mixed methods research. The Research Initiative Valuing Eldercare (THRIVE) team was organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to evaluate The Green House nursing home culture change program. This article describes the development of the research team and provides insights into how funders might engage with mixed methods research teams to maximize the value of the team. Like many mixed methods collaborations, the THRIVE team consisted of researchers from diverse disciplines, embracing diverse methodologies, and operating under a framework of nonhierarchical, shared leadership that required new collaborations, engagement, and commitment in the context of finite resources. Strategies to overcome these potential obstacles and achieve success included implementation of a Coordinating Center, dedicated time for planning and collaborating across researchers and methodologies, funded support for in-person meetings, and creative optimization of resources. Challenges are inevitably present in the formation and operation of effective mixed methods research teams. However, funders and research teams can implement strategies to promote success. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. A mixed finite element method for particle simulation in Lasertron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, G.

    1987-01-01

    A particle simulation code is being developed with the aim to treat the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic devices, such as Lasertron. The paper describes the use of mixed finite element methods in computing the field components, without derivating them from scalar or vector potentials. Graphical results are shown

  19. Prevalence of Mixed Methods Research in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Amanda A.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    In wake of federal legislation such as the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 that have called for "scientifically based research in education," this study examined the possible trends in mixed methods research articles published in 2 peer-reviewed mathematics education journals (n = 87) from 2002 to 2006. The study also illustrates how…

  20. Is Mixed Methods Research Used in Australian Career Development Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Roslyn

    2010-01-01

    Mixed methods research has become a substantive and growing methodological force that is growing in popularity within the human and social sciences. This article reports the findings of a study that has systematically reviewed articles from the "Australian Journal of Career Development" from 2004 to 2009. The aim of the study was to…

  1. Toward a Unified Validation Framework in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellinger, Amy B.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to further discussions of validity in mixed methods research by introducing a validation framework to guide thinking about validity in this area. To justify the use of this framework, the authors discuss traditional terminology and validity criteria for quantitative and qualitative research, as well as…

  2. Mixed Methods Research: What Are the Key Issues to Consider?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research (MMR) is increasingly becoming a popular methodological approach in several fields due to the promise it holds for comprehensive understanding of complex problems being researched. However, researchers interested in MMR often lack reference to a guide that can explain the key issues pertaining to the paradigm wars…

  3. The role of mixed methods in improved cookstove research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanistreet, Debbi; Hyseni, Lirije; Bashin, Michelle; Sadumah, Ibrahim; Pope, Daniel; Sage, Michael; Bruce, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of promoting access to clean and efficient household energy for cooking and heating is a critical issue facing low- and middle-income countries today. Along with clean fuels, improved cookstoves (ICSs) continue to play an important part in efforts to reduce the 4 million annual premature deaths attributed to household air pollution. Although a range of ICSs are available, there is little empirical evidence on appropriate behavior change approaches to inform adoption and sustained used at scale. Specifically, evaluations using either quantitative or qualitative methods provide an incomplete picture of the challenges in facilitating ICS adoption. This article examines how studies that use the strengths of both these approaches can offer important insights into behavior change in relation to ICS uptake and scale-up. Epistemological approaches, study design frameworks, methods of data collection, analytical approaches, and issues of validity and reliability in the context of mixed methods ICS research are examined, and the article presents an example study design from an evaluation study in Kenya incorporating a nested approach and a convergent case oriented design. The authors discuss the benefits and methodological challenges of mixed-methods approaches in the context of researching behavior change and ICS use recognizing that such methods represent relatively uncharted territory. The authors propose that more published examples are needed to provide frameworks for other researchers seeking to apply mixed methods in this context and suggest a comprehensive research agenda is required that incorporates integrated mixed-methods approaches, to provide best evidence for future scale-up.

  4. Lessons learned: advantages and disadvantages of mixed method research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malina, Mary A.; Nørreklit, Hanne; Selto, Frank H.

    2011-01-01

    on the use and usefulness of a specialized balanced scorecard; and third, to encourage researchers to actually use multiple methods and sources of data to address the very many accounting phenomena that are not fully understood. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is an opinion piece based...... on the authors' experience conducting a series of longitudinal mixed method studies. Findings – The authors suggest that in many studies, using a mixed method approach provides the best opportunity for addressing research questions. Originality/value – This paper provides encouragement to those who may wish......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is first, to discuss the theoretical assumptions, qualities, problems and myopia of the dominating quantitative and qualitative approaches; second, to describe the methodological lessons that the authors learned while conducting a series of longitudinal studies...

  5. Mixing it but not mixed-up: mixed methods research in medical education (a critical narrative review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, Gillian

    2011-01-01

    Some important research questions in medical education and health services research need 'mixed methods research' (particularly synthesizing quantitative and qualitative findings). The approach is not new, but should be more explicitly reported. The broad search question here, of a disjointed literature, was thus: What is mixed methods research - how should it relate to medical education research?, focused on explicit acknowledgement of 'mixing'. Literature searching focused on Web of Knowledge supplemented by other databases across disciplines. Five main messages emerged: - Thinking quantitative and qualitative, not quantitative versus qualitative - Appreciating that mixed methods research blends different knowledge claims, enquiry strategies, and methods - Using a 'horses for courses' [whatever works] approach to the question, and clarifying the mix - Appreciating how medical education research competes with the 'evidence-based' movement, health services research, and the 'RCT' - Being more explicit about the role of mixed methods in medical education research, and the required expertise Mixed methods research is valuable, yet the literature relevant to medical education is fragmented and poorly indexed. The required time, effort, expertise, and techniques deserve better recognition. More write-ups should explicitly discuss the 'mixing' (particularly of findings), rather than report separate components.

  6. Effect of mixing method on the mixing degree during the preparation of triturations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yanagihara, Yoshitsugu; Sekiguchi, Hiroko; Komada, Fusao; Kawabata, Haruno; Ohtani, Michiteru; Saitoh, Yukiya; Kariya, Satoru; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Uchino, Katsuyoshi; Iga, Tatsuji

    2004-03-01

    By using lactose colored with erythrocin, we investigated the effects of mixing methods on mixing degree during the preparation of trituration with a mortar and pestle. The extent of powder dilution was set to 4 to 64 fold in the experiments. We compared the results obtained by using two methods: (1) one-step mixing of powders after addition of diluents and (2) gradual mixing of powders after addition of diluents. As diluents, we used crystallized lactose and powdered lactose for the preparation of trituration. In the preparation of 64-fold trituration, an excellent degree of mixing was obtained, with CV values of less than 6.08%, for both preparation methods and for the two kinds of diluents. The mixing of two kinds of powders whose distributions of particle sizes were similar resulted in much better degree of mixing, with CV values of less than 3.0%. However, the concentration of principal agents in 64-fold trituration was reduced by 20% due to the adsorption of dye to the apparatus. Under conditions in which a much higher dilution rate and/or much better degree of dilution was required, it must be necessary to dilute powders with considering their physicality and to determine the concentrations of principal agents after the mixing.

  7. A mixed finite element method for nonlinear diffusion equations

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin; Carrillo, José ; Wolfram, Marie-Therese

    2010-01-01

    We propose a mixed finite element method for a class of nonlinear diffusion equations, which is based on their interpretation as gradient flows in optimal transportation metrics. We introduce an appropriate linearization of the optimal transport problem, which leads to a mixed symmetric formulation. This formulation preserves the maximum principle in case of the semi-discrete scheme as well as the fully discrete scheme for a certain class of problems. In addition solutions of the mixed formulation maintain exponential convergence in the relative entropy towards the steady state in case of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation with uniformly convex potential. We demonstrate the behavior of the proposed scheme with 2D simulations of the porous medium equations and blow-up questions in the Patlak-Keller-Segel model. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.

  8. A multigrid solution method for mixed hybrid finite elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, W. [Universitaet Augsburg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    We consider the multigrid solution of linear equations arising within the discretization of elliptic second order boundary value problems of the form by mixed hybrid finite elements. Using the equivalence of mixed hybrid finite elements and non-conforming nodal finite elements, we construct a multigrid scheme for the corresponding non-conforming finite elements, and, by this equivalence, for the mixed hybrid finite elements, following guidelines from Arbogast/Chen. For a rectangular triangulation of the computational domain, this non-conforming schemes are the so-called nodal finite elements. We explicitly construct prolongation and restriction operators for this type of non-conforming finite elements. We discuss the use of plain multigrid and the multilevel-preconditioned cg-method and compare their efficiency in numerical tests.

  9. Kontexte qualitativer Sozialforschung: Arts-Based Research, Mixed Methods und Emergent Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Margrit

    2017-01-01

    In dem vorliegenden Beitrag werden drei Kontexte qualitativer Sozialforschung genauer dargestellt, die in den vergangenen Jahren zunehmend an Bedeutung gewonnen haben: Arts-Based Research, Mixed Methods und Emergent Methods. Es werden verschiedene Ansätze und Varianten von Arts-Informed und Arts-Based Research genauer beschrieben, und es wird argumentiert, dass Arts-Based Research eine eigenständige Forschungstradition darstellt, die der qualitativen Sozialforschung wichtige Impulse geben kan...

  10. Hybrid electrokinetic method applied to mix contaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, H.; Maria, E. [Dept. of Building Civil and Environmental Engineering, Concordia Univ., Montreal (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    Several industrials and municipal areas in North America are contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum products. This mix contamination presents a particularly difficult task for remediation when is exposed in clayey soil. The objective of this research was to find a method to cleanup mix contaminated clayey soils. Finally, a multifunctional hybrid electrokinetic method was investigated. Clayey soil was contaminated with lead and nickel (heavy metals) at the level of 1000 ppm and phenanthrene (PAH) of 600 ppm. Electrokinetic surfactant supply system was applied to mobilize, transport and removal of phenanthrene. A chelation agent (EDTA) was also electrokinetically supplied to mobilize heavy metals. The studies were performed on 8 lab scale electrokinetic cells. The mix contaminated clayey soil was subjected to DC total voltage gradient of 0.3 V/cm. Supplied liquids (surfactant and EDTA) were introduced in different periods of time (22 days, 42 days) in order to optimize the most excessive removal of contaminants. The ph, electrical parameters, volume supplied, and volume discharged was monitored continuously during each experiment. At the end of these tests soil and cathalyte were subjected to physico-chemical analysis. The paper discusses results of experiments including the optimal energy use, removal efficiency of phenanthrene, as well, transport and removal of heavy metals. The results of this study can be applied for in-situ hybrid electrokinetic technology to remediate clayey sites contaminated with petroleum product mixed with heavy metals (e.g. manufacture Gas Plant Sites). (orig.)

  11. Application of the Fokker-Planck molecular mixing model to turbulent scalar mixing using moment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadi-Kandjani, E.; Fox, R. O.; Passalacqua, A.

    2017-06-01

    An extended quadrature method of moments using the β kernel density function (β -EQMOM) is used to approximate solutions to the evolution equation for univariate and bivariate composition probability distribution functions (PDFs) of a passive scalar for binary and ternary mixing. The key element of interest is the molecular mixing term, which is described using the Fokker-Planck (FP) molecular mixing model. The direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of Eswaran and Pope ["Direct numerical simulations of the turbulent mixing of a passive scalar," Phys. Fluids 31, 506 (1988)] and the amplitude mapping closure (AMC) of Pope ["Mapping closures for turbulent mixing and reaction," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 2, 255 (1991)] are taken as reference solutions to establish the accuracy of the FP model in the case of binary mixing. The DNSs of Juneja and Pope ["A DNS study of turbulent mixing of two passive scalars," Phys. Fluids 8, 2161 (1996)] are used to validate the results obtained for ternary mixing. Simulations are performed with both the conditional scalar dissipation rate (CSDR) proposed by Fox [Computational Methods for Turbulent Reacting Flows (Cambridge University Press, 2003)] and the CSDR from AMC, with the scalar dissipation rate provided as input and obtained from the DNS. Using scalar moments up to fourth order, the ability of the FP model to capture the evolution of the shape of the PDF, important in turbulent mixing problems, is demonstrated. Compared to the widely used assumed β -PDF model [S. S. Girimaji, "Assumed β-pdf model for turbulent mixing: Validation and extension to multiple scalar mixing," Combust. Sci. Technol. 78, 177 (1991)], the β -EQMOM solution to the FP model more accurately describes the initial mixing process with a relatively small increase in computational cost.

  12. Can mixed assessment methods make biology classes more equitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Ballen, Cissy J

    2017-01-01

    Many factors have been proposed to explain the attrition of women in science, technology, engineering and math fields, among them the lower performance of women in introductory courses resulting from deficits in incoming preparation. We focus on the impact of mixed methods of assessment, which minimizes the impact of high-stakes exams and rewards other methods of assessment such as group participation, low-stakes quizzes and assignments, and in-class activities. We hypothesized that these mixed methods would benefit individuals who otherwise underperform on high-stakes tests. Here, we analyze gender-based performance trends in nine large (N > 1000 students) introductory biology courses in fall 2016. Females underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts, a difference that does not exist with other methods of assessment that compose course grade. Further, we analyzed three case studies of courses that transitioned their grading schemes to either de-emphasize or emphasize exams as a proportion of total course grade. We demonstrate that the shift away from an exam emphasis consequently benefits female students, thereby closing gaps in overall performance. Further, the exam performance gap itself is reduced when the exams contribute less to overall course grade. We discuss testable predictions that follow from our hypothesis, and advocate for the use of mixed methods of assessments (possibly as part of an overall shift to active learning techniques). We conclude by challenging the student deficit model, and suggest a course deficit model as explanatory of these performance gaps, whereby the microclimate of the classroom can either raise or lower barriers to success for underrepresented groups in STEM.

  13. Can mixed assessment methods make biology classes more equitable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehoya Cotner

    Full Text Available Many factors have been proposed to explain the attrition of women in science, technology, engineering and math fields, among them the lower performance of women in introductory courses resulting from deficits in incoming preparation. We focus on the impact of mixed methods of assessment, which minimizes the impact of high-stakes exams and rewards other methods of assessment such as group participation, low-stakes quizzes and assignments, and in-class activities. We hypothesized that these mixed methods would benefit individuals who otherwise underperform on high-stakes tests. Here, we analyze gender-based performance trends in nine large (N > 1000 students introductory biology courses in fall 2016. Females underperformed on exams compared to their male counterparts, a difference that does not exist with other methods of assessment that compose course grade. Further, we analyzed three case studies of courses that transitioned their grading schemes to either de-emphasize or emphasize exams as a proportion of total course grade. We demonstrate that the shift away from an exam emphasis consequently benefits female students, thereby closing gaps in overall performance. Further, the exam performance gap itself is reduced when the exams contribute less to overall course grade. We discuss testable predictions that follow from our hypothesis, and advocate for the use of mixed methods of assessments (possibly as part of an overall shift to active learning techniques. We conclude by challenging the student deficit model, and suggest a course deficit model as explanatory of these performance gaps, whereby the microclimate of the classroom can either raise or lower barriers to success for underrepresented groups in STEM.

  14. The MIXED framework: A novel approach to evaluating mixed-methods rigor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhardt, Ann L; DeVon, Holli A

    2017-10-01

    Evaluation of rigor in mixed-methods (MM) research is a persistent challenge due to the combination of inconsistent philosophical paradigms, the use of multiple research methods which require different skill sets, and the need to combine research at different points in the research process. Researchers have proposed a variety of ways to thoroughly evaluate MM research, but each method fails to provide a framework that is useful for the consumer of research. In contrast, the MIXED framework is meant to bridge the gap between an academic exercise and practical assessment of a published work. The MIXED framework (methods, inference, expertise, evaluation, and design) borrows from previously published frameworks to create a useful tool for the evaluation of a published study. The MIXED framework uses an experimental eight-item scale that allows for comprehensive integrated assessment of MM rigor in published manuscripts. Mixed methods are becoming increasingly prevalent in nursing and healthcare research requiring researchers and consumers to address issues unique to MM such as evaluation of rigor. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: a Mixed-Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed-methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed-methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a "real-world" example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities.

  16. Clustering Methods with Qualitative Data: A Mixed Methods Approach for Prevention Research with Small Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Mohatt, Nathaniel; Allen, James; Kelly, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative methods potentially add depth to prevention research, but can produce large amounts of complex data even with small samples. Studies conducted with culturally distinct samples often produce voluminous qualitative data, but may lack sufficient sample sizes for sophisticated quantitative analysis. Currently lacking in mixed methods research are methods allowing for more fully integrating qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques. Cluster analysis can be applied to coded qualitative data to clarify the findings of prevention studies by aiding efforts to reveal such things as the motives of participants for their actions and the reasons behind counterintuitive findings. By clustering groups of participants with similar profiles of codes in a quantitative analysis, cluster analysis can serve as a key component in mixed methods research. This article reports two studies. In the first study, we conduct simulations to test the accuracy of cluster assignment using three different clustering methods with binary data as produced when coding qualitative interviews. Results indicated that hierarchical clustering, K-Means clustering, and latent class analysis produced similar levels of accuracy with binary data, and that the accuracy of these methods did not decrease with samples as small as 50. Whereas the first study explores the feasibility of using common clustering methods with binary data, the second study provides a “real-world” example using data from a qualitative study of community leadership connected with a drug abuse prevention project. We discuss the implications of this approach for conducting prevention research, especially with small samples and culturally distinct communities. PMID:25946969

  17. Generalization of mixed multiscale finite element methods with applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C S [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Many science and engineering problems exhibit scale disparity and high contrast. The small scale features cannot be omitted in the physical models because they can affect the macroscopic behavior of the problems. However, resolving all the scales in these problems can be prohibitively expensive. As a consequence, some types of model reduction techniques are required to design efficient solution algorithms. For practical purpose, we are interested in mixed finite element problems as they produce solutions with certain conservative properties. Existing multiscale methods for such problems include the mixed multiscale finite element methods. We show that for complicated problems, the mixed multiscale finite element methods may not be able to produce reliable approximations. This motivates the need of enrichment for coarse spaces. Two enrichment approaches are proposed, one is based on generalized multiscale finte element metthods (GMsFEM), while the other is based on spectral element-based algebraic multigrid (rAMGe). The former one, which is called mixed GMsFEM, is developed for both Darcy’s flow and linear elasticity. Application of the algorithm in two-phase flow simulations are demonstrated. For linear elasticity, the algorithm is subtly modified due to the symmetry requirement of the stress tensor. The latter enrichment approach is based on rAMGe. The algorithm differs from GMsFEM in that both of the velocity and pressure spaces are coarsened. Due the multigrid nature of the algorithm, recursive application is available, which results in an efficient multilevel construction of the coarse spaces. Stability, convergence analysis, and exhaustive numerical experiments are carried out to validate the proposed enrichment approaches. iii

  18. A scoring system for appraising mixed methods research, and concomitantly appraising qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods primary studies in Mixed Studies Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Griffiths, Frances; Johnson-Lafleur, Janique

    2009-04-01

    A new form of literature review has emerged, Mixed Studies Review (MSR). These reviews include qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In the present paper, we examine MSRs in health sciences, and provide guidance on processes that should be included and reported. However, there are no valid and usable criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of the qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. To propose criteria for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies or study components. A three-step critical review was conducted. 2322 references were identified in MEDLINE, and their titles and abstracts were screened; 149 potentially relevant references were selected and the full-text papers were examined; 59 MSRs were retained and scrutinized using a deductive-inductive qualitative thematic data analysis. This revealed three types of MSR: convenience, reproducible, and systematic. Guided by a proposal, we conducted a qualitative thematic data analysis of the quality appraisal procedures used in the 17 systematic MSRs (SMSRs). Of 17 SMSRs, 12 showed clear quality appraisal procedures with explicit criteria but no SMSR used valid checklists to concomitantly appraise qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies. In two SMSRs, criteria were developed following a specific procedure. Checklists usually contained more criteria than needed. In four SMSRs, a reliability assessment was described or mentioned. While criteria for quality appraisal were usually based on descriptors that require specific methodological expertise (e.g., appropriateness), no SMSR described the fit between reviewers' expertise and appraised studies. Quality appraisal usually resulted in studies being ranked by methodological quality. A scoring system is proposed for concomitantly appraising the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies for SMSRs. This

  19. Simplified methods to assess thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Timperi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Thermal fatigue is a safety relevant damage mechanism in pipework of nuclear power plants. A well-known simplified method for the assessment of thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing is the so-called sinusoidal method. Temperature fluctuations in the fluid are described by a sinusoidally varying signal at the inner wall of the pipe. Because of limited information on the thermal loading conditions, this approach generally leads to overconservative results. In this paper, a new assessment method is presented, which has the potential of reducing the overconservatism of existing procedures. Artificial fluid temperature signals are generated by superposition of harmonic components with different amplitudes and frequencies. The amplitude-frequency spectrum of the components is modelled by a formula obtained from turbulence theory, whereas the phase differences are assumed to be randomly distributed. Lifetime predictions generated with the new simplified method are compared with lifetime predictions based on real fluid temperature signals, measured in an experimental setup of a mixing tee. Also, preliminary steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations of the total power of the fluctuations are presented. The total power is needed as an input parameter for the spectrum formula in a real-life application. Solution of the transport equation for the total power was included in a CFD code and comparisons with experiments were made. The newly developed simplified method for generating the temperature signal is shown to be adequate for the investigated geometry and flow conditions, and demonstrates possibilities of reducing the conservatism of the sinusoidal method. CFD calculations of the total power show promising results, but further work is needed to develop the approach. (author)

  20. Mixed Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.

    2015-03-03

    In this paper, we present a mixed generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) for solving flow in heterogeneous media. Our approach constructs multiscale basis functions following a GMsFEM framework and couples these basis functions using a mixed finite element method, which allows us to obtain a mass conservative velocity field. To construct multiscale basis functions for each coarse edge, we design a snapshot space that consists of fine-scale velocity fields supported in a union of two coarse regions that share the common interface. The snapshot vectors have zero Neumann boundary conditions on the outer boundaries, and we prescribe their values on the common interface. We describe several spectral decompositions in the snapshot space motivated by the analysis. In the paper, we also study oversampling approaches that enhance the accuracy of mixed GMsFEM. A main idea of oversampling techniques is to introduce a small dimensional snapshot space. We present numerical results for two-phase flow and transport, without updating basis functions in time. Our numerical results show that one can achieve good accuracy with a few basis functions per coarse edge if one selects appropriate offline spaces. © 2015 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Mixed oxide fuel pellet and manufacturing method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets which comprises compression molding a mixed oxide powder containing UO 2 and PuO 2 followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition comprising about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 is mixed to a mixed oxide at a ratio of about 40ppm to about 0.5 wt% based on the total amount of the mixed oxide and the sintering agent, to prepare a mixture. The mixture is molded into a compression product and then sintered at a weakly acidic atmosphere at a temperature of about 1500degC to 1800degC. With such procedures, the sintering agent forms an eutectic product of a single liquid phase, PuO 2 is dispersed over the entire region of the pellet by way of the liquid phase, formation of a solid solution phase is promoted to annihilate a free PuO 2 phase. Further, growth of crystal grains is promoted. Accordingly, since the MOX fuel pellets prepared according to the present invention have a uniform solid solution state, and no free PuO 2 phase remains, increase of FP gas emission due to local nuclear fission of Pu can be avoided. (T.M.)

  2. Method of manufacturing mixed stock powders for nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To alleviate the limit of the present reactor operating conditions by uniformly mixing an additive to the main content as an uranium dioxide or mixture of the uranium dioxide with plutonium dioxide. Method: A mixed stock powder is obtained by adding an additive of at least two of aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, potassium oxide, phosphorus oxide, titanium oxide and iron oxide to suspension having ammonia water as dispersion medium to start the deposition of precipitation at a step of precipitating ammonium diuranate or plutionium hydroxide of a main content of uranium dioxide or mixture of uranium dioxide and plutonium dioxide and deposited precipitate is calcinated and reduced. (Yoshihara, H.)

  3. A multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary Fanett

    2012-02-03

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale mortar multipoint flux mixed finite element method for second order elliptic problems. The equations in the coarse elements (or subdomains) are discretized on a fine grid scale by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method that reduces to cell-centered finite differences on irregular grids. The subdomain grids do not have to match across the interfaces. Continuity of flux between coarse elements is imposed via a mortar finite element space on a coarse grid scale. With an appropriate choice of polynomial degree of the mortar space, we derive optimal order convergence on the fine scale for both the multiscale pressure and velocity, as well as the coarse scale mortar pressure. Some superconvergence results are also derived. The algebraic system is reduced via a non-overlapping domain decomposition to a coarse scale mortar interface problem that is solved using a multiscale flux basis. Numerical experiments are presented to confirm the theory and illustrate the efficiency and flexibility of the method. © EDP Sciences, SMAI, 2012.

  4. Developing an Engineering Design Process Assessment using Mixed Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wind, Stefanie A; Alemdar, Meltem; Lingle, Jeremy A; Gale, Jessica D; Moore, Roxanne A

    Recent reforms in science education worldwide include an emphasis on engineering design as a key component of student proficiency in the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics disciplines. However, relatively little attention has been directed to the development of psychometrically sound assessments for engineering. This study demonstrates the use of mixed methods to guide the development and revision of K-12 Engineering Design Process (EDP) assessment items. Using results from a middle-school EDP assessment, this study illustrates the combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques to inform item development and revisions. Overall conclusions suggest that the combination of quantitative and qualitative evidence provides an in-depth picture of item quality that can be used to inform the revision and development of EDP assessment items. Researchers and practitioners can use the methods illustrated here to gather validity evidence to support the interpretation and use of new and existing assessments.

  5. Mixed-Methods Research in Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Harris, Jeffrey E

    2017-05-01

    This work focuses on mixed-methods research (MMR) and is the 11th in a series exploring the importance of research design, statistical analysis, and epidemiologic methods as applied to nutrition and dietetics research. MMR research is an investigative technique that applies both quantitative and qualitative data. The purpose of this article is to define MMR; describe its history and nature; provide reasons for its use; describe and explain the six different MMR designs; describe sample selection; and provide guidance in data collection, analysis, and inference. MMR concepts are applied and integrated with nutrition-related scenarios in real-world research contexts and summary recommendations are provided. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mixed Methods for Mixed Reality: Understanding Users' Avatar Activities in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldon, David F.; Kafai, Yasmin B.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the use of mixed methods for analyzing users' avatar-related activities in a virtual world. Server logs recorded keystroke-level activity for 595 participants over a six-month period in Whyville.net, an informal science website. Participants also completed surveys and participated in interviews regarding their experiences.…

  7. Digital Ethnography of Zoophilia - A Multinational Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendler, Damian Jacob; Lew-Starowicz, Michal

    2018-05-10

    This study investigates people who have sex with animals (PSA) by describing their living situation, sexual activity, beliefs, and attitudes toward stigmatization. These data are highly applicable to the work of psychiatric and forensic professionals investigating paraphilias. We apply mixed-methods approach, using qualitative and quantitative analyses. The findings come from anonymous forum postings of 953 participants; of which 345 agreed to complete a survey upon advertising the study. We identify several themes, describing concerns of zoosexuals chatting within online communities: living situation; sex life; social acceptability; getting help. First, we provide data on how PSA justify their relationships with animal sex partners - with particular emphasis on sex practices and physical features most attractive to them. Second, we elaborate on the stigma associated with being a zoosexual, including the coping mechanism for dealing with social ostracism. Third, we elaborate, in detail, on why PSA find animals sexually appealing. Lastly, we present evidence that online discussion spaces serve as the platform for help-seeking behavior for individuals with paraphilias. This study presents the largest analyses of zoophiles in modern history, using mixed-methods approach, uncovering their daily activities, sexual preferences, and help-seeking behavior.

  8. Combining the power of stories and the power of numbers: mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluye, Pierre; Hong, Quan Nha

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of mixed methods research and mixed studies reviews. These two approaches are used to combine the strengths of quantitative and qualitative methods and to compensate for their respective limitations. This article is structured in three main parts. First, the epistemological background for mixed methods will be presented. Afterward, we present the main types of mixed methods research designs and techniques as well as guidance for planning, conducting, and appraising mixed methods research. In the last part, we describe the main types of mixed studies reviews and provide a tool kit and examples. Future research needs to offer guidance for assessing mixed methods research and reporting mixed studies reviews, among other challenges.

  9. Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095

  10. Does Corporate Governance Affect Sustainability Disclosure? A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Mahmood

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE for the period ranging from 2012 to 2015. In addition to the quantitative data, we collected qualitative data through interviews with five board members of different companies. Overall, our results indicate that CG elements enhance sustainability disclosures. This study concludes that a large board size consisting of a female director and a CSR committee (CSRC is better able to check and control management decisions regarding sustainability issues (be they economic, environment, or social and resulted in better sustainability disclosure. This paper, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, provides a methodological and empirical contribution to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability reporting in emerging and developing countries.

  11. Twelve tips for getting started using mixed methods in medical education research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Ellen; Vuk, Jasna; Barber, Carolyn

    2013-04-01

    Mixed methods research, which is gaining popularity in medical education, provides a new and comprehensive approach for addressing teaching, learning, and evaluation issues in the field. The aim of this article is to provide medical education researchers with 12 tips, based on consideration of current literature in the health professions and in educational research, for conducting and disseminating mixed methods research. Engaging in mixed methods research requires consideration of several major components: the mixed methods paradigm, types of problems, mixed method designs, collaboration, and developing or extending theory. Mixed methods is an ideal tool for addressing a full range of problems in medical education to include development of theory and improving practice.

  12. Bisexuality, poverty and mental health: A mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Lori E; O'Gorman, Laurel; MacLeod, Melissa A; Bauer, Greta R; MacKay, Jenna; Robinson, Margaret

    2016-05-01

    Bisexuality is consistently associated with poor mental health outcomes. In population-based data, this is partially explained by income differences between bisexual people and lesbian, gay, and/or heterosexual individuals. However, the interrelationships between bisexuality, poverty, and mental health are poorly understood. In this paper, we examine the relationships between these variables using a mixed methods study of 302 adult bisexuals from Ontario, Canada. Participants were recruited using respondent-driven sampling to complete an internet-based survey including measures of psychological distress and minority stress. A subset of participants completed a semi-structured qualitative interview to contextualize their mental health experiences. Using information regarding household income, number of individuals supported by the income and geographic location, participants were categorized as living below or above the Canadian Low Income Cut Off (LICO). Accounting for the networked nature of the sample, participants living below the LICO had significantly higher mean scores for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and reported significantly more perceived discrimination compared to individuals living above the LICO. Grounded theory analysis of the qualitative interviews suggested four pathways through which bisexuality and poverty may intersect to impact mental health: through early life experiences linked to bisexuality or poverty that impacted future financial stability; through effects of bisexual identity on employment and earning potential; through the impact of class and sexual orientation discrimination on access to communities of support; and through lack of access to mental health services that could provide culturally competent care. These mixed methods data help us understand the income disparities associated with bisexual identity in population-based data, and suggest points of intervention to address their impact on bisexual mental

  13. Nurse educators' critical thinking: A mixed methods exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B

    2018-07-01

    Nurse educator's critical thinking remains unexamined as a key factor in the development of students' critical thinking. The objective of this study is to understand how nurse educators reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting while supervising students. This study uses a single-phase triangulation mixed methods design with multiple data gathering techniques. Participants for this study are clinical nurse educators from a large Western Canadian baccalaureate nursing program who teach 2nd or 3rd year students in medical-surgical settings. Participants for this study completed a demographic survey, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), participant observation in a clinical practice setting, and semi-structured interviews. The results from the California Critical Thinking assessments (CCTST and CCTDI) show that participants are positively inclined and have a moderate to strong ability to think critically, similar to other studies. Participants find it difficult to describe how they reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting, yet all participants use role modeling and questioning to share their critical thinking with students. When the quantitative and qualitative results are compared, it is apparent that the confidence in reasoning subscale of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test is higher in those educators who more frequently demonstrate and voice engagement in reflective activities. Dispositions associated with critical thinking, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, are more easily observed compared to critical thinking skills. This study is a beginning exploration of nurse educators' critical thinking-in-action. Our mixed methods approach uncovers a valuable approach to understanding the complexity of nurse educators' critical thinking. Further study is needed to uncover how nurse educators' can specifically enact

  14. Mixed Methods Analysis of Medical Error Event Reports: A Report from the ASIPS Collaborative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harris, Daniel M; Westfall, John M; Fernald, Douglas H; Duclos, Christine W; West, David R; Niebauer, Linda; Marr, Linda; Quintela, Javan; Main, Deborah S

    2005-01-01

    .... This paper presents a mixed methods approach to analyzing narrative error event reports. Mixed methods studies integrate one or more qualitative and quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis...

  15. Guidelines for Conducting Mixed-methods Research: An Extension and Illustration.

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh, Viswanath

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we extend the guidelines of Venkatesh et al. (2013) for mixed-methods research by identifying and integrating variations in mixed-methods research. By considering 14 properties of mixed-methods research (e.g., purposes, research questions, epistemological assumptions), our guidelines demonstrate how researchers can flexibly identify the existing variations in mixed-methods research and proceed accordingly with a study design that suits their needs. To make the guide...

  16. Student Characteristics, Prior Experiences, and the Perception of Mixed Methods as an Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sydney E.

    2014-01-01

    There are persistent challenges to teaching mixed methods and innovative solutions are sought in order to address the needs of an increasingly diverse global audience seeking mixed methods instruction. This mixed methods study was conducted to gain insights to course design by more fully understanding the relationships among graduate student…

  17. A Case Study of a Mixed Methods Study Engaged in Integrated Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiazza, Daniela Marie

    2013-01-01

    The nascent field of mixed methods research has yet to develop a cohesive framework of guidelines and procedures for mixed methods data analysis (Greene, 2008). To support the field's development of analytical frameworks, this case study reflects on the development and implementation of a mixed methods study engaged in integrated data analysis.…

  18. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines: The Case of Sport Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Roest, Jan-Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport management research. The results indicate that mixed…

  19. Integrative Mixed Methods Data Analytic Strategies in Research on School Success in Challenging Circumstances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunice E.; McDougall, Douglas E.; Pollon, Dawn; Herbert, Monique; Russell, Pia

    2008-01-01

    There are both conceptual and practical challenges in dealing with data from mixed methods research studies. There is a need for discussion about various integrative strategies for mixed methods data analyses. This article illustrates integrative analytic strategies for a mixed methods study focusing on improving urban schools facing challenging…

  20. Validity in Mixed Methods Research in Education: The Application of Habermas' Critical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Haiying

    2017-01-01

    Mixed methods approach has developed into the third methodological movement in educational research. Validity in mixed methods research as an important issue, however, has not been examined as extensively as that of quantitative and qualitative research. Additionally, the previous discussions of validity in mixed methods research focus on research…

  1. The Structure of Mixed Method Studies in Educational Research: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren H.

    2011-01-01

    Educational researchers are beginning to use mixed methods designs to answer complex research questions. This content analysis investigates the structure and use of mixed methods in educational research in order to work toward a more standardized presentation. I used a concurrent mixed methods approach to analyze 30 studies from three prominent…

  2. Mixed Methods in Emerging Academic Subdisciplines : The Case of Sport Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, Jan Willem; Spaaij, Ramón; van Bottenburg, Maarten

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport

  3. Mixed methods in emerging academic subdisciplines: the case of sport management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Roest, J.-W.; Spaaij, R.; van Bottenburg, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the prevalence and characteristics of mixed methods research in the relatively new subdiscipline of sport management. A mixed methods study is undertaken to evaluate the epistemological/philosophical, methodological, and technical levels of mixed methods design in sport

  4. Empathy and childhood maltreatment: a mixed-methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Simon C; Barenblatt, Lisa; Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla

    2014-05-01

    Impaired empathy is regarded as a psychological consequence of childhood maltreatment, yet few studies have explored this relationship empirically. We investigated whether empathy differed in healthy and maltreated individuals by examining their emotional responses to people in distress. Forty-nine individuals (age 20 to 60) viewed short film clips from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission testimonies depicting dialogues between victims and perpetrators of gross human rights violations. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on their scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: control (n = 18), moderate maltreatment (n = 21), and severe maltreatment (n = 10). We employed a mixed-methods design to explore empathic responses to film clips both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative results indicated that self-reported empathy was lower in the moderate maltreatment group compared to the control group, but of similar strengths in the severe maltreatment and control groups. However, qualitative thematic analysis indicated that both maltreatment groups displayed themes of impaired empathy. Our results support the notion that childhood maltreatment is associated with impaired empathy, and suggest that such impairment may differ depending on the level of maltreatment: moderate maltreatment was associated with emotional blunting and impaired cognitive empathy, whereas severe maltreatment was associated with emotional over-arousal and diminished cognitive insight.

  5. Obesity in social media: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby; Kunath, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    The escalating obesity rate in the USA has made obesity prevention a top public health priority. Recent interventions have tapped into the social media (SM) landscape. To leverage SM in obesity prevention, we must understand user-generated discourse surrounding the topic. This study was conducted to describe SM interactions about weight through a mixed methods analysis. Data were collected across 60 days through SM monitoring services, yielding 2.2 million posts. Data were cleaned and coded through Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, yielding popular themes and the most retweeted content. Qualitative analyses of selected posts add insight into the nature of the public dialogue and motivations for participation. Twitter represented the most common channel. Twitter and Facebook were dominated by derogatory and misogynist sentiment, pointing to weight stigmatization, whereas blogs and forums contained more nuanced comments. Other themes included humor, education, and positive sentiment countering weight-based stereotypes. This study documented weight-related attitudes and perceptions. This knowledge will inform public health/obesity prevention practice.

  6. Perceptions of physiotherapists towards research: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, J; Hale, L; Mirfin-Veitch, B; Harland, T

    2016-06-01

    To explore the perceptions of physiotherapists towards the use of and participation in research. Concurrent mixed methods research, combining in-depth interviews with three questionnaires (demographics, Edmonton Research Orientation Survey, visual analogue scales for confidence and motivation to participate in research). One physiotherapy department in a rehabilitation hospital, consisting of seven specialised areas. Twenty-five subjects {four men and 21 women, mean age 38 [standard deviation (SD) 11] years} who had been registered as a physiotherapist for a mean period of 15 (SD 10) years participated in this study. They were registered with the New Zealand Board of Physiotherapy, held a current practising certificate, and were working as a physiotherapist or physiotherapy/allied health manager at the hospital. The primary outcome measure was in-depth interviews and the secondary outcome measures were the three questionnaires. Physiotherapists were generally positive towards research, but struggled with the concept of research, the available literature and the time to commit to research. Individual confidence and orientation towards research seemed to influence how these barriers were perceived. This study showed that physiotherapists struggle to implement research in their daily practice and become involved in research. Changing physiotherapists' conceptions of research, making it more accessible and providing dedicated research time could facilitate increased involvement in the physiotherapy profession. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mixed-Methods for Comparing Tobacco Cessation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Behnoosh; Neri, Antonio; Zhang, Lei; Kahende, Jennifer; Duke, Jennifer; Green, Sonya Goode; Malarcher, Ann; Stewart, Sherri L

    2017-03-01

    The National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) and National Tobacco Control Program (NTCP) are both well-positioned to promote the use of population-based tobacco cessation interventions, such as state quitlines and Web-based interventions. This paper outlines the methodology used to conduct a comparative effectiveness research study of traditional and Web-based tobacco cessation and quitline promotion approaches. A mixed-methods study with three components was designed to address the effect of promotional activities on service usage and the comparative effectiveness of population-based smoking cessation activities across multiple states. The cessation intervention component followed 7,902 smokers (4,307 quitline users and 3,595 Web intervention users) to ascertain prevalence of 30-day abstinence rates 7 months after registering for smoking cessation services. User characteristics and quit success was compared across the two modalities. In the promotions component, reach and use of traditional and innovative promotion strategies were assessed for 24 states, including online advertising, state Web sites, social media, mobile applications, and their effects on quitline call volume. The partnership intervention component studied the extent of collaboration among six selected NCCCPs and NTCPs. This study will guide program staff and clinicians with evidence-based recommendations and best practices for implementation of tobacco cessation within their patient and community populations and establish an evidence base that can be used for decision making.

  8. Nutrition and culture in professional football. A mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Mutsumi; Kennedy, Eileen; Reeves, Sue; Cronin, Linda

    2012-02-01

    An adequate diet is essential for the optimal performance of professional football (soccer) players. Existing studies have shown that players fail to consume such a diet, without interrogating the reasons for this. The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties professional football players experience in consuming a diet for optimal performance. It utilized a mixed method approach, combining nutritional intake assessment with qualitative interviews, to ascertain both what was consumed and the wider cultural factors that affect consumption. The study found a high variability in individual intake which ranged widely from 2648 to 4606 kcal/day. In addition, the intake of carbohydrate was significantly lower than that recommended. The study revealed that the main food choices for carbohydrate and protein intake were pasta and chicken respectively. Interview results showed the importance of tradition within the world of professional football in structuring the players' approach to nutrition. In addition, the players' personal eating habits that derived from their class and national habitus restricted their food choice by conflicting with the dietary choices promoted within the professional football clubs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social Support and Work Stress: A Mixed Method Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Lúcia Pereira de Andrade

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational stress and coping strategies have increasingly become the focus of research for their applied feature. The aim of this study was to investigate how social support has helped people deal with stressful situations in the workplace. In order to reach this aim an exploratory mixed method embedded research design was conducted. Study 1, quantitative, described the level of satisfaction with social support and perceived organizational support by employing a scale that summarized factors of the perceived organizational support. Study 2, a qualitative one, sought to describe the stressors in the workplace environment, to whom the workers resorted to, and the kind of perceived social support. The group interview script was based on the dimensions proposed by Folkman e Lazarus (1985 model. Fifty-one volunteer workers participated in the study. Results showed a lack of social support in the workplace: incivility of colleagues and managers, psychological contract breach and conflict of values. Investments in personal development that stimulate urbanity in organizations and a listening space for employees are suggested actions that can benefit affective dimensions of work.

  10. Exploring nurse leader fatigue: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steege, Linsey M; Pinekenstein, Barbara J; Arsenault Knudsen, Élise; Rainbow, Jessica G

    2017-05-01

    To describe hospital nurse leaders' experiences of fatigue. Fatigue is a critical challenge in nursing. Existing literature focuses on staff nurse fatigue, yet nurse leaders are exposed to high demands that may contribute to fatigue and associated risks to patient, nurse and organisational outcomes. A mixed method approach comprising semi-structured interviews and the Occupational Fatigue Exhaustion Recovery scale with 21 nurse administrators (10 nurse managers and 11 nurse executives) from hospitals in a Midwestern state. Most nurse leaders experience fatigue; nurse managers reported higher levels of chronic fatigue. Participants identified multiple sources of fatigue including 24 h accountability and intensity of role expectations, and used a combination of wellness, restorative, social support and boundary setting strategies to cope with fatigue. The consequences of nurse leader fatigue include an impact on decision-making, work-life balance and turnover intent. The high prevalence of nurse leader fatigue could impact the turnover intent of nurse administrators and quality of care. This study highlights the significance and consequences of nurse leader fatigue. As health care organisations continue to raise awareness and establish systems to reduce nurse fatigue, policies and programmes must be adapted to address nurse leader fatigue. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Research design: qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods approaches Creswell John W Sage 320 £29 0761924426 0761924426 [Formula: see text].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The second edition of Creswell's book has been significantly revised and updated. The author clearly sets out three approaches to research: quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods. As someone who has used mixed methods in my research, it is refreshing to read a textbook that addresses this. The differences between the approaches are clearly identified and a rationale for using each methodological stance provided.

  12. ADVANCING THE STUDY OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN USING MIXED METHODS: INTEGRATING QUALITATIVE METHODS INTO A QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol

    2011-01-01

    A mixed methods approach, combining quantitative with qualitative data methods and analysis, offers a promising means of advancing the study of violence. Integrating semi-structured interviews and qualitative analysis into a quantitative program of research on women’s sexual victimization has resulted in valuable scientific insight and generation of novel hypotheses for testing. This mixed methods approach is described and recommendations for integrating qualitative data into quantitative research are provided. PMID:21307032

  13. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Hani; Pluye, Pierre; Grad, Roland

    2017-03-14

    The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant (R=4.86% [N=234,196] and R=3.04% [n

  14. Mixed methods in gerontological research: Do the qualitative and quantitative data “touch”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happ, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    This paper distinguishes between parallel and integrated mixed methods research approaches. Barriers to integrated mixed methods approaches in gerontological research are discussed and critiqued. The author presents examples of mixed methods gerontological research to illustrate approaches to data integration at the levels of data analysis, interpretation, and research reporting. As a summary of the methodological literature, four basic levels of mixed methods data combination are proposed. Opportunities for mixing qualitative and quantitative data are explored using contemporary examples from published studies. Data transformation and visual display, judiciously applied, are proposed as pathways to fuller mixed methods data integration and analysis. Finally, practical strategies for mixing qualitative and quantitative data types are explicated as gerontological research moves beyond parallel mixed methods approaches to achieve data integration. PMID:20077973

  15. A mixed methods inquiry into the validity of data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaarst Mette

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research in herd health management solely using a quantitative approach may present major challenges to the interpretation of the results, because the humans involved may have responded to their observations based on previous experiences and own beliefs. This challenge can be met through increased awareness and dialogue between researchers and farmers or other stakeholders about the background for data collection related to management and changes in management. By integrating quantitative and qualitative research methods in a mixed methods research approach, the researchers will improve their understanding of this potential bias of the observed data and farms, which will enable them to obtain more useful results of quantitative analyses. Case description An example is used to illustrate the potentials of combining quantitative and qualitative approaches to herd health related data analyses. The example is based on two studies on bovine metritis. The first study was a quantitative observational study of risk factors for metritis in Danish dairy cows based on data from the Danish Cattle Database. The other study was a semi-structured interview study involving 20 practicing veterinarians with the aim to gain insight into veterinarians' decision making when collecting and processing data related to metritis. Discussion and Evaluation The relations between risk factors and metritis in the first project supported the findings in several other quantitative observational studies; however, the herd incidence risk was highly skewed. There may be simple practical reasons for this, e.g. underreporting and differences in the veterinarians' decision making. Additionally, the interviews in the second project identified several problems with correctness and validity of data regarding the occurrence of metritis because of differences regarding case definitions and thresholds for treatments between veterinarians. Conclusion Studies where

  16. Using mixed methods research in medical education: basic guidelines for researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifferdecker, Karen E; Reed, Virginia A

    2009-07-01

    Mixed methods research involves the collection, analysis and integration of both qualitative and quantitative data in a single study. The benefits of a mixed methods approach are particularly evident when studying new questions or complex initiatives and interactions, which is often the case in medical education research. Basic guidelines for when to use mixed methods research and how to design a mixed methods study in medical education research are not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to remedy that situation by providing an overview of mixed methods research, research design models relevant for medical education research, examples of each research design model in medical education research, and basic guidelines for medical education researchers interested in mixed methods research. Mixed methods may prove superior in increasing the integrity and applicability of findings when studying new or complex initiatives and interactions in medical education research. They deserve an increased presence and recognition in medical education research.

  17. A Mixed-Methods Research Framework for Healthcare Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Nathaniel D; Munoz, David; Ventura, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The healthcare system in the United States is spiraling out of control due to ever-increasing costs without significant improvements in quality, access to care, satisfaction, and efficiency. Efficient workflow is paramount to improving healthcare value while maintaining the utmost standards of patient care and provider satisfaction in high stress environments. This article provides healthcare managers and quality engineers with a practical healthcare process improvement framework to assess, measure and improve clinical workflow processes. The proposed mixed-methods research framework integrates qualitative and quantitative tools to foster the improvement of processes and workflow in a systematic way. The framework consists of three distinct phases: 1) stakeholder analysis, 2a) survey design, 2b) time-motion study, and 3) process improvement. The proposed framework is applied to the pediatric intensive care unit of the Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital. The implementation of this methodology led to identification and categorization of different workflow tasks and activities into both value-added and non-value added in an effort to provide more valuable and higher quality patient care. Based upon the lessons learned from the case study, the three-phase methodology provides a better, broader, leaner, and holistic assessment of clinical workflow. The proposed framework can be implemented in various healthcare settings to support continuous improvement efforts in which complexity is a daily element that impacts workflow. We proffer a general methodology for process improvement in a healthcare setting, providing decision makers and stakeholders with a useful framework to help their organizations improve efficiency. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The NIH Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Creswell, John W.; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K.; Castro, Felipe G.; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C.; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: “Research question,” “Design/approach,” “Sampling,” “Data collection,” “Analysis,” and “Dissemination.” Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. Methods We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using Cronbach’s alpha to assess reliability and an ANOVA that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion-relatedness. Results Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (.95) and adequate (>=.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (e.g., published a mixed methods paper) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. Discussion This Self-Rated Mixed Methods Assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning. PMID:28562495

  19. A mixing method for traceable air velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpää, S; Heinonen, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel and quite simple method to establish a traceability link between air velocity and the national standards of mass and time is presented in this paper. The method is based on the humidification of flowing air before the blower of a wind tunnel with a known mass flow of water. Then air velocity can be calculated as a function of humidification water flow. The method is compared against a Pitot-tube-based velocity measurement in a wind tunnel at the MIKES. The results of these two different methods agreed well, with a maximum difference of 0.7%

  20. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  1. Searching for rigour in the reporting of mixed methods population health research: a methodological review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K M; Elliott, S J; Leatherdale, S T; Robertson-Wilson, J

    2015-12-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing rigour in quantitative and qualitative research, there is poor consensus regarding rigour in mixed methods. Using the empirical example of school-based obesity interventions, this methodological review examined how mixed methods have been used and reported, and how rigour has been addressed. Twenty-three peer-reviewed mixed methods studies were identified through a systematic search of five databases and appraised using the guidelines for Good Reporting of a Mixed Methods Study. In general, more detailed description of data collection and analysis, integration, inferences and justifying the use of mixed methods is needed. Additionally, improved reporting of methodological rigour is required. This review calls for increased discussion of practical techniques for establishing rigour in mixed methods research, beyond those for quantitative and qualitative criteria individually. A guide for reporting mixed methods research in population health should be developed to improve the reporting quality of mixed methods studies. Through improved reporting, mixed methods can provide strong evidence to inform policy and practice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Contraceptive Method Mix and Trend at the Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JUTH) North Central Nigeria over an 18-year period, 1985-2002. There were a total of 17,846 clients who used the various methods of contraception. Modern methods of contraception have been accepted in our facility including the permanent ...

  3. Development of a Self-Rated Mixed Methods Skills Assessment: The National Institutes of Health Mixed Methods Research Training Program for the Health Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Creswell, John W; Wittink, Marsha; Barg, Fran K; Castro, Felipe G; Dahlberg, Britt; Watkins, Daphne C; Deutsch, Charles; Gallo, Joseph J

    2017-01-01

    Demand for training in mixed methods is high, with little research on faculty development or assessment in mixed methods. We describe the development of a self-rated mixed methods skills assessment and provide validity evidence. The instrument taps six research domains: "Research question," "Design/approach," "Sampling," "Data collection," "Analysis," and "Dissemination." Respondents are asked to rate their ability to define or explain concepts of mixed methods under each domain, their ability to apply the concepts to problems, and the extent to which they need to improve. We administered the questionnaire to 145 faculty and students using an internet survey. We analyzed descriptive statistics and performance characteristics of the questionnaire using the Cronbach alpha to assess reliability and an analysis of variance that compared a mixed methods experience index with assessment scores to assess criterion relatedness. Internal consistency reliability was high for the total set of items (0.95) and adequate (≥0.71) for all but one subscale. Consistent with establishing criterion validity, respondents who had more professional experiences with mixed methods (eg, published a mixed methods article) rated themselves as more skilled, which was statistically significant across the research domains. This self-rated mixed methods assessment instrument may be a useful tool to assess skills in mixed methods for training programs. It can be applied widely at the graduate and faculty level. For the learner, assessment may lead to enhanced motivation to learn and training focused on self-identified needs. For faculty, the assessment may improve curriculum and course content planning.

  4. Changing Perspectives: Validation Framework Review of Examples of Mixed Methods Research into Culturally Relevant Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick Dean

    2016-01-01

    Mixed methods research becomes more utilized in education research every year. As this pluralist paradigm begins to take hold, it becomes more and more necessary to take a critical eye to studies making use of different mixed methods approaches. An area of education research that has yet struggled to find a foothold with mixed methodology is…

  5. Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches: Some Arguments for Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Thorleif

    2012-01-01

    One purpose of the present paper is to elaborate 4 general advantages of the mixed methods approach. Another purpose is to propose a 5-phase evaluation design, and to demonstrate its usefulness for mixed methods research. The account is limited to research on groups in need of treatment, i.e., vulnerable groups, and the advantages of mixed methods…

  6. Physician assessments of drug seeking behavior: A mixed methods study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Fischer

    Full Text Available Pain complaints are common, but clinicians are increasingly concerned about overuse of opioid pain medications. This may lead patients with actual pain to be stigmatized as "drug-seeking," or attempting to obtain medications they do not require medically. We assessed whether patient requests for specific opioid pain medication would lead physicians to classify them as drug-seeking and change management decisions.Mixed-methods analysis of interviews with 192 office-based primary care physicians after viewing video vignettes depicting patients presenting with back pain. For each presentation physicians were randomly assigned to see either an active request for a specific medication or a more general request for help with pain. The main outcome was assignment by the physician of "drug-seeking" as a potential diagnosis among patients presenting with back pain. Additional outcomes included other actions the physician would take and whether the physician would prescribe the medication requested. A potential diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior was included by 21% of physicians seeing a specific request for oxycodone vs. 3% for a general request for help with back pain(p<0.001. In multivariable models an active request was most strongly associated with a physician-assigned diagnosis of drug-seeking behavior(OR 8.10; 95% CI 2.11-31.15;p = 0.002; other major patient and physician characteristics, including gender and race, did not have strong associations with drug-seeking diagnosis. Physicians described short courses of opioid medications as a strategy for managing patients with pain while avoiding opioid overuse.When patients make a specific request for opioid pain medication, physicians are far more likely to suspect that they are drug-seeking. Physician suspicion of drug-seeking behavior did not vary by patient characteristics, including gender and race. The strategies used to assess patients further varied widely. These findings indicate a need for

  7. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  8. A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Felipe González; Kellison, Joshua G.; Boyd, Stephen J.; Kopak, Albert

    2011-01-01

    Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods. The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities. Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses. This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors' ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies. PMID:22167325

  9. The "movement" of mixed methods research and the role of educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Creswell

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The landscape of research is continually evolving, enabling researchers to study increasingly complex phenomena. Educational researchers have propelled much of this forward progress and have developed novel methodologies to provide increasingly sound and complete evidence. Mixed methods research has emerged alongside quantitative and qualitative approaches as an important tool for researchers. In this article our overall aim is to better acquaint educational scholars with the mixed methods field by articulating the development of the mixed methods field and by citing current trends and issues. The role of educational researchers in the evolution of mixed methods research is high-lighted. The early and ongoing dialogue of mixed methods research is multi-disciplinary in nature with current writings across fields. The current debate over key aspects of mixed methods research is now in progress and is ripe for future contributions. Even the very nature of what constitutes mixed methods research is being discussed among scholars. Understanding and advancing the mixed methods field is an important goal for methodologists and researchers. With the increased interest and enthusiasm for mixed methods research, it is likely that the dialogue surrounding mixed methods approaches will thrive, continuing the movement of the field.

  10. Mixed Methods Not Mixed Messages: Improving LibGuides with Student Usability Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Almeida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – This article describes a mixed methods usability study of research guides created using the LibGuides 2.0 platform conducted in 2016 at an urban, public university library. The goal of the study was to translate user design and learning modality preferences into executable design principles, and ultimately to improve the design and usage of LibGuides at the New York City College of Technology Library. Methods – User-centred design demands that stakeholders participate in each stage of an application’s development and that assumptions about user design preferences are validated through testing. Methods used for this usability study include: a task analysis on paper prototypes with a think aloud protocol (TAP, an advanced scribbling technique modeled on the work of Linek and Tochtermann (2015, and semi-structured interviews. The authors introduce specifics of each protocol in addition to data collection and analysis methods. Results – The authors present quantitative and qualitative student feedback on navigation layouts, terminology, and design elements and discuss concrete institutional and technical measures they will take to implement best practices. Additionally, the authors discuss students’ impressions of multimedia, text-based, and interactive instructional content in relation to specific research scenarios defined during the usability test. Conclusion – The authors translate study findings into best practices that can be incorporated into custom user-centric LibGuide templates and assets. The authors also discuss relevant correlations between students’ learning modality preferences and design feedback, and identify several areas that warrant further research. The authors believe this study will spark a larger discussion about relationships between instructional design, learning modalities, and research guide use contexts.

  11. Expanded Mixed Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Their Applications for Flows in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, L.; Copeland, D.; Moulton, J. D.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of expanded mixed multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and their hybridizations for second-order elliptic equations. This formulation expands the standard mixed multiscale finite element formulation in the sense that four

  12. Critical Communication Pedagogy and Service Learning in a Mixed-Method Communication Research Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudick, C. Kyle; Golsan, Kathryn B.; Freitag, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Course: Mixed-Method Communication Research Methods. Objective: The purpose of this semester-long activity is to provide students with opportunities to cultivate mixed-method communication research skills through a social justice-informed service-learning format. Completing this course, students will be able to: recognize the unique strengths of…

  13. A Proposed Model of Retransformed Qualitative Data within a Mixed Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of mixed methods research design provide equal emphasis of qualitative and quantitative data analyses and interpretation. Other models stress one method more than the other. The present article is a discourse about the investigator's decision to employ a mixed method design to examine special education teachers' advocacy and…

  14. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18 studies from science education journals as they relate to the definition, design, and overall practice of using mixed methods. I scrutinized a purposeful sample, derived from 3 journals (the International Journal of Science Education, the Journal of Research in Science Teaching, and the Research in Science Education) in terms of the type of data collected, timing, priority, design, the mixing of the 2 data strands in the studies, and the justifications authors provide for using mixed methods. Furthermore, the articles were evaluated in terms of how well they met contemporary definitions for mixed methods research. The studies varied considerably in the use and understanding of mixed methods. A systematic evaluation of the employment of mixed methods methodology was used to identify the studies that best reflected contemporary definitions. A comparison to earlier content analyses of mixed methods research indicates that researchers' knowledge of mixed methods methodology may be increasing. The use of this strategy in science education research calls, however, for an improved methodology, especially concerning the practice of mixing. Suggestions are given on how to best use this approach.

  15. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate complex interventions in palliative care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Morag C; Ewing, Gail; Booth, Sara

    2011-12-01

    there is increasing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide comprehensiveness and greater knowledge yield. Mixed methods are valuable in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. They are therefore particularly valuable in palliative care research where the majority of interventions are complex, and the identification of outcomes particularly challenging. this paper aims to introduce the role of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care, and how they may be used in palliative care research. the paper defines mixed methods and outlines why and how mixed methods are used to develop and evaluate complex interventions, with a pragmatic focus on design and data collection issues and data analysis. Useful texts are signposted and illustrative examples provided of mixed method studies in palliative care, including a detailed worked example of the development and evaluation of a complex intervention in palliative care for breathlessness. Key challenges to conducting mixed methods in palliative care research are identified in relation to data collection, data integration in analysis, costs and dissemination and how these might be addressed. the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care benefit from the application of mixed methods. Mixed methods enable better understanding of whether and how an intervention works (or does not work) and inform the design of subsequent studies. However, they can be challenging: mixed method studies in palliative care will benefit from working with agreed protocols, multidisciplinary teams and engaging staff with appropriate skill sets.

  16. Invisible nursing research: thoughts about mixed methods research and nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    In this this essay, the author addresses the close connection between mixed methods research and nursing practice. If the assertion that research and practice are parallel processes is accepted, then nursing practice may be considered "invisible mixed methods research," in that almost every encounter between a nurse and a patient involves collection and integration of qualitative (word) and quantitative (number) information that actually is single-case mixed methods research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Purists need not apply: the case for pragmatism in mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Kristine L

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this column is to describe several different ways of conducting mixed method research. The paradigms that underpin both qualitative and quantitative research are also considered along with a cursory review of classical pragmatism as it relates conducting mixed methods studies. Finally, the idea of loosely coupled systems as a means to support mixed methods studies is proposed along with several caveats to researchers who desire to use this new way of obtaining knowledge. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. The Value of Developing a Mixed-Methods Program of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonovich, Shannon

    2017-07-01

    This article contributes to the discussion of the value of utilizing mixed methodological approaches to conduct nursing research. To this end, the author of this article proposes creating a mixed-methods program of research over time, where both quantitative and qualitative data are collected and analyzed simultaneously, rather than focusing efforts on designing singular mixed-methods studies. A mixed-methods program of research would allow for the best of both worlds: precision through focus on one method at a time, and the benefits of creating a robust understanding of a phenomenon over the trajectory of one's career through examination from various methodological approaches.

  19. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. PMID:27856556

  20. The Mixed Finite Element Multigrid Method for Stokes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzhinji, K.; Shateyi, S.; Motsa, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The stable finite element discretization of the Stokes problem produces a symmetric indefinite system of linear algebraic equations. A variety of iterative solvers have been proposed for such systems in an attempt to construct efficient, fast, and robust solution techniques. This paper investigates one of such iterative solvers, the geometric multigrid solver, to find the approximate solution of the indefinite systems. The main ingredient of the multigrid method is the choice of an appropriate smoothing strategy. This study considers the application of different smoothers and compares their effects in the overall performance of the multigrid solver. We study the multigrid method with the following smoothers: distributed Gauss Seidel, inexact Uzawa, preconditioned MINRES, and Braess-Sarazin type smoothers. A comparative study of the smoothers shows that the Braess-Sarazin smoothers enhance good performance of the multigrid method. We study the problem in a two-dimensional domain using stable Hood-Taylor Q 2-Q 1 pair of finite rectangular elements. We also give the main theoretical convergence results. We present the numerical results to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the multigrid method and confirm the theoretical results. PMID:25945361

  1. Bridging the Gulf: Mixed Methods and Library Service Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Abby

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores library evaluation in Australia and proposes a return to research fundamentals in which evaluators are asked to consider the centrality of philosophical issues and the role of different research methods. A critique of current evaluation examples demonstrates a system-centred, quantitative, input/output focus which fails to…

  2. Mixed-methods designs in mental health services research: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Horwitz, Sarah M; Chamberlain, Patricia; Hurlburt, Michael S; Landsverk, John

    2011-03-01

    Despite increased calls for use of mixed-methods designs in mental health services research, how and why such methods are being used and whether there are any consistent patterns that might indicate a consensus about how such methods can and should be used are unclear. Use of mixed methods was examined in 50 peer-reviewed journal articles found by searching PubMed Central and 60 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded projects found by searching the CRISP database over five years (2005-2009). Studies were coded for aims and the rationale, structure, function, and process for using mixed methods. A notable increase was observed in articles published and grants funded over the study period. However, most did not provide an explicit rationale for using mixed methods, and 74% gave priority to use of quantitative methods. Mixed methods were used to accomplish five distinct types of study aims (assess needs for services, examine existing services, develop new or adapt existing services, evaluate services in randomized controlled trials, and examine service implementation), with three categories of rationale, seven structural arrangements based on timing and weighting of methods, five functions of mixed methods, and three ways of linking quantitative and qualitative data. Each study aim was associated with a specific pattern of use of mixed methods, and four common patterns were identified. These studies offer guidance for continued progress in integrating qualitative and quantitative methods in mental health services research consistent with efforts by NIH and other funding agencies to promote their use.

  3. Implementation of an Experimental Method for Coupled Subchannel Mixing Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, Nicolas; Juanico, Luis; Delmastro, Dario

    2003-01-01

    In this work the application of a thermal tracing technique to the measurement of thermal turbulent mixing between coupled subchannels is presented.The experiment was carried out on a real scale model with geometry similar to nuclear fuel element rod bundles.Thermal mixing rates were measured for water flows at different Reynolds numbers

  4. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  5. A Family of Multipoint Flux Mixed Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems on General Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary F.; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a family of multipoint flux mixed finite element (MFMFE) methods on simplicial, quadrilateral, hexahedral, and triangular-prismatic grids. The MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes, since

  6. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  7. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: recommendations for quality reporting. Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    This is the second of two papers that explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. This paper discusses the rationale, applications, limitations and challenges of conducting mixed-methods research. As with other research methods, the choice of mixed-methods should always be justified because not all research questions require a mixed-methods approach. Mixed-methods research is particularly suitable when one dataset may be inadequate in answering the research question, an explanation of initial results is required, generalizability of qualitative findings is desired or broader and deeper understanding of a research problem is necessary. Mixed-methods research has its own challenges and limitations, which should be considered carefully while designing the study. There is a need to improve the quality of reporting of mixed-methods research. A framework for reporting mixed-methods research is proposed, for researchers and reviewers, with the intention of improving its quality. Pharmacy practice research can benefit from research that uses both 'numbers' (quantitative) and 'words' (qualitative) to develop a strong evidence base to support pharmacy-led services. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING and SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  9. METHODS FOR DETERMINING AGITATOR MIXING REQUIREMENTS FOR A MIXING & SAMPLING FACILITY TO FEED WTP (WASTE TREATMENT PLANT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRIFFIN PW

    2009-08-27

    The following report is a summary of work conducted to evaluate the ability of existing correlative techniques and alternative methods to accurately estimate impeller speed and power requirements for mechanical mixers proposed for use in a mixing and sampling facility (MSF). The proposed facility would accept high level waste sludges from Hanford double-shell tanks and feed uniformly mixed high level waste to the Waste Treatment Plant. Numerous methods are evaluated and discussed, and resulting recommendations provided.

  10. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Methods Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Results Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. Conclusion The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research. PMID:20003210

  11. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  12. Methodological Reporting in Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Health Services Research Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. Data Sources All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. Study Design All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Principal Findings Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ2(1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Conclusion Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the

  13. Using existing case-mix methods to fund trauma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monakova, Julia; Blais, Irene; Botz, Charles; Chechulin, Yuriy; Picciano, Gino; Basinski, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    Policymakers frequently face the need to increase funding in isolated and frequently heterogeneous (clinically and in terms of resource consumption) patient subpopulations. This article presents a methodologic solution for testing the appropriateness of using existing grouping and weighting methodologies for funding subsets of patients in the scenario where a case-mix approach is preferable to a flat-rate based payment system. Using as an example the subpopulation of trauma cases of Ontario lead trauma hospitals, the statistical techniques of linear and nonlinear regression models, regression trees, and spline models were applied to examine the fit of the existing case-mix groups and reference weights for the trauma cases. The analyses demonstrated that for funding Ontario trauma cases, the existing case-mix systems can form the basis for rational and equitable hospital funding, decreasing the need to develop a different grouper for this subset of patients. This study confirmed that Injury Severity Score is a poor predictor of costs for trauma patients. Although our analysis used the Canadian case-mix classification system and cost weights, the demonstrated concept of using existing case-mix systems to develop funding rates for specific subsets of patient populations may be applicable internationally.

  14. Methods for producing single crystal mixed halide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Yixin

    2017-07-11

    An aspect of the present invention is a method that includes contacting a metal halide and a first alkylammonium halide in a solvent to form a solution and maintaining the solution at a first temperature, resulting in the formation of at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal, where the metal halide includes a first halogen and a metal, the first alkylammonium halide includes the first halogen, the at least one alkylammonium halide perovskite crystal includes the metal and the first halogen, and the first temperature is above about 21.degree. C.

  15. Using Mixed Methods to Analyze Video Data: A Mathematics Teacher Professional Development Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Marshall, Patricia L.; McCulloch, Allison W.

    2012-01-01

    This article uses data from 65 teachers participating in a K-2 mathematics professional development research project as an example of how to analyze video recordings of teachers' classroom lessons using mixed methods. Through their discussion, the authors demonstrate how using a mixed methods approach to classroom video analysis allows researchers…

  16. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  17. Mixing Research Methods in Health Professional Degrees: Thoughts for Undergraduate Students and Supervisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaf, Sophie; Sheppard, Lorraine A.

    2007-01-01

    This commentary considers some of the challenges of applying mixed methods research in undergraduate research degrees, especially in professions with a clinical health focus. Our experience in physiotherapy academia is used as an example. Mixed methods research is increasingly appreciated in its own right as a "third paradigm," however the success…

  18. Internet-Mediated Technologies and Mixed Methods Research: Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene; Griffin, Amy J.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an examination of a range of mixed methods research projects that employ Internet-mediated technologies (IMT) for data collection. Using a case study approach, this article allows for the uncovering of a process by which IMT are used as a data collection medium in mixed methods praxis. Under the theoretical position of medium…

  19. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M.

    2016-01-01

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both…

  20. Cognitive Task Complexity Effects on L2 Writing Performance: An Application of Mixed-Methods Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi Tabari, Mahmoud; Ivey, Toni A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a methodological review of previous research on cognitive task complexity, since the term emerged in 1995, and investigates why much research was more quantitative rather than qualitative. Moreover, it sheds light onto the studies which used the mixed-methods approach and determines which version of the mixed-methods designs…

  1. A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voormeeren, S.N.; Van der Valk, P.L.C.; Rixen, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the “Mixed

  2. Expertise in physiological breech birth: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Shawn; Parker, Pam; Scamell, Mandie

    2018-06-01

    The safety of vaginal breech birth depends on the expertise of birth attendants, yet the meaning of "expertise" remains unclear and subjectively defined. The objective of this study was to define expertise and the roles experts may play in expanding access to this service. We performed an integrative analysis of two strands of data concerning expertise in physiological breech birth, including the following: survey data from a Delphi study involving 26 very experienced clinicians (mean experience = 135 breech births) and 2 service user representatives, and interviews from a grounded theory study of 14 clinicians more moderately experienced with physiological methods (5-30 upright breech births). Data were pooled and analyzed using constant comparative methods. Expertise is defined by its ongoing function, the generation of comparatively good outcomes, and confidence and competence among colleagues. Although clinical experience is important, expertise is developed and expressed in social clinical roles, which expand as experience grows: clinician, mentor, specialist, and expert. To develop expertise within a service, clinicians who have an interest in breech birth should be supported to perform these roles within specialist teams. Specialist breech teams may facilitate the development of expertise within maternity care settings. Evaluation of expertise based on enablement of women and colleagues, as well as outcomes, will potentially avoid the pitfalls of alienation produced by some forms of specialist authority. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Structural issues affecting mixed methods studies in health research: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Nicholl, Jon; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2009-12-09

    Health researchers undertake studies which combine qualitative and quantitative methods. Little attention has been paid to the structural issues affecting this mixed methods approach. We explored the facilitators and barriers to undertaking mixed methods studies in health research. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers experienced in mixed methods research in health in the United Kingdom. Structural facilitators for undertaking mixed methods studies included a perception that funding bodies promoted this approach, and the multidisciplinary constituency of some university departments. Structural barriers to exploiting the potential of these studies included a lack of education and training in mixed methods research, and a lack of templates for reporting mixed methods articles in peer-reviewed journals. The 'hierarchy of evidence' relating to effectiveness studies in health care research, with the randomised controlled trial as the gold standard, appeared to pervade the health research infrastructure. Thus integration of data and findings from qualitative and quantitative components of mixed methods studies, and dissemination of integrated outputs, tended to occur through serendipity and effort, further highlighting the presence of structural constraints. Researchers are agents who may also support current structures - journal reviewers and editors, and directors of postgraduate training courses - and thus have the ability to improve the structural support for exploiting the potential of mixed methods research. The environment for health research in the UK appears to be conducive to mixed methods research but not to exploiting the potential of this approach. Structural change, as well as change in researcher behaviour, will be necessary if researchers are to fully exploit the potential of using mixed methods research.

  4. Team Performance Pay and Motivation Theory: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Pamela; Combs, Julie P.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore teachers' perceptions of a team performance pay program in a large suburban school district through the lens of motivation theories. Mixed data analysis was used to analyze teacher responses from two archival questionnaires (Year 1, n = 368; Year 2, n = 649). Responses from teachers who participated in the team…

  5. COMBINING SOURCES IN STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS: ALTERNATIVE METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope mixing models are often used to quantify source contributions to a mixture. Examples include pollution source identification; trophic web studies; analysis of water sources for soils, plants, or water bodies; and many others. A common problem is having too many s...

  6. The influence of different black carbon and sulfate mixing methods on their optical and radiative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhili; Zhao, Shuyun; Li, Jiangnan

    2015-08-01

    Three different internal mixing methods (Core-Shell, Maxwell-Garnett, and Bruggeman) and one external mixing method are used to study the impact of mixing methods of black carbon (BC) with sulfate aerosol on their optical properties, radiative flux, and heating rate. The optical properties of a mixture of BC and sulfate aerosol particles are considered for three typical bands. The results show that mixing methods, the volume ratio of BC to sulfate, and relative humidity have a strong influence on the optical properties of mixed aerosols. Compared to internal mixing, external mixing underestimates the particle mass absorption coefficient by 20-70% and the particle mass scattering coefficient by up to 50%, whereas it overestimates the particle single scattering albedo by 20-50% in most cases. However, the asymmetry parameter is strongly sensitive to the equivalent particle radius, but is only weakly sensitive to the different mixing methods. Of the internal methods, there is less than 2% difference in all optical properties between the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman methods in all bands; however, the differences between the Core-Shell and Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman methods are usually larger than 15% in the ultraviolet and visible bands. A sensitivity test is conducted with the Beijing Climate Center Radiation transfer model (BCC-RAD) using a simulated BC concentration that is typical of east-central China and a sulfate volume ratio of 75%. The results show that the internal mixing methods could reduce the radiative flux more effectively because they produce a higher absorption. The annual mean instantaneous radiative force due to BC-sulfate aerosol is about -3.18 W/m2 for the external method and -6.91 W/m2 for the internal methods at the surface, and -3.03/-1.56/-1.85 W/m2 for the external/Core-Shell/(Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman) methods, respectively, at the tropopause.

  7. Evaluating a physician leadership development program - a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throgmorton, Cheryl; Mitchell, Trey; Morley, Tom; Snyder, Marijo

    2016-05-16

    Purpose - With the extent of change in healthcare today, organizations need strong physician leaders. To compensate for the lack of physician leadership education, many organizations are sending physicians to external leadership programs or developing in-house leadership programs targeted specifically to physicians. The purpose of this paper is to outline the evaluation strategy and outcomes of the inaugural year of a Physician Leadership Academy (PLA) developed and implemented at a Michigan-based regional healthcare system. Design/methodology/approach - The authors applied the theoretical framework of Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation and used surveys, observations, activity tracking, and interviews to evaluate the program outcomes. The authors applied grounded theory techniques to the interview data. Findings - The program met targeted outcomes across all four levels of evaluation. Interview themes focused on the significance of increasing self-awareness, building relationships, applying new skills, and building confidence. Research limitations/implications - While only one example, this study illustrates the importance of developing the evaluation strategy as part of the program design. Qualitative research methods, often lacking from learning evaluation design, uncover rich themes of impact. The study supports how a PLA program can enhance physician learning, engagement, and relationship building throughout and after the program. Physician leaders' partnership with organization development and learning professionals yield results with impact to individuals, groups, and the organization. Originality/value - Few studies provide an in-depth review of evaluation methods and outcomes of physician leadership development programs. Healthcare organizations seeking to develop similar in-house programs may benefit applying the evaluation strategy outlined in this study.

  8. Calculation of mixed mode stress intensity factors using an alternating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, mixed mode stress intensity factors (K I and K II ) of a square plate with a notch were calculated using a finite element alternating method. The obtained results were compared with the ones by a finite element method, and it was shown that the finite element alternating method can accurately estimate mixed mode stress intensity factors. Then, using this finite element alternating method, mixed mode stress intensity factors were calculated as changing the size and position of the notch, and its simplified equations were proposed. (author)

  9. Determination of optimum mixing time for raw materials with the tracer method in the glass industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallyas, M; Gemesi, J; Kurinka, J

    1983-02-01

    The authors explain how the optimum mixing time for the raw materials for glass manufacture can be determined with the aid of the radioactive tracer method. Basing themselves on measurements, they indicate the change in the degree of mixing of the individual components (soda (Na-24), sodium sulphate, coke (La-140) and bone meal (P-32) as a function of mixing time. The optimum degree of mixing and mixing time for dry and for wet mixing are determined. Finally, data for determining the permissible storage time of the mixture are given.

  10. Higher order temporal finite element methods through mixed formalisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinkyu

    2014-01-01

    The extended framework of Hamilton's principle and the mixed convolved action principle provide new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial boundary value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. In this paper, their potential when adopting temporally higher order approximations is investigated. The classical single-degree-of-freedom dynamical systems are primarily considered to validate and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms developed from both formulations. For the undamped system, all the algorithms are symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. For the damped system, they are shown to be accurate with good convergence characteristics.

  11. Rapid screening method for plutonium in mixed waste samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, W.; Culp, T.; Miller, R.

    1987-01-01

    A waste stream sampling program was undertaken to determine those waste streams which contained hazardous constituents, and would therefore be regulated as a hazardous waste under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. The waste streams also had the potential of containing radioactive material, either plutonium, americium, or depleted uranium. Because of the potential for contamination with radioactive material, a method of rapidly screening the liquid samples for radioactive material was required. A counting technique was devised to count a small aliquot of a sample, determine plutonium concentration, and allow the sample to be shipped the same day they were collected. This technique utilized the low energy photons (x-rays) that accompany α decay. This direct, non-destructive x-ray analysis was applied to quantitatively determine Pu-239 concentrations in industrial samples. Samples contained a Pu-239, Am-241 mixture; the ratio and/or concentrations of these two radionuclides was not constant. A computer program was designed and implemented to calculate Pu-239 activity and concentration (g/ml) using the 59.5 keV Am-241 peak to determine Am-241's contribution to the 17 keV region. Am's contribution was subtracted, yielding net counts in the 17 keV region due to Pu. 2 figs., 1 tab

  12. Physical activity among South Asian women: a systematic, mixed-methods review

    OpenAIRE

    Babakus, Whitney S; Thompson, Janice L

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The objective of this systematic mixed-methods review is to assess what is currently known about the levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) and to contextualize these behaviors among South Asian women with an immigrant background. Methods A systematic search of the literature was conducted using combinations of the key words PA, ST, South Asian, and immigrant. A mixed-methods approach was used to analyze and synthesize all evidence, both quantitative an...

  13. Assessing of bulk materials mixing and sorting by radiotracer methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyn, J.

    1983-01-01

    Various applications are indicated of tracer techniques for the evaluation of mixing and sorting of mixtures of solid particles. The evaluation of the process of mixing, i.e., the determination of the homogenization time is done by labelling of the entire volume of the monitored component of the mixture and continuous detection of radiation through the walls of the mixer using one or several detectors. The evaluation of the character of the flow and the evacuation of solid particles from the bin is done by labelling with a radiotracer the material which is spread out on the top along the whole cross-section of the bin, and the concentration is monitored of the tracer in the material outflow. The evaluation of material sorting in bins which takes place during the filling and emptying is done on the basis of significance tests or using self-correlation functions and frequency characteristics. Also monitored was the dependence of the equalizing ability of the continuous gravity mixer at the vertex angle of the tip. (M.D.)

  14. Main flexible pavement and mix design methods in Europe and challenges for the development of an European method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pereira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pavement and mix design represent one of the key components within the life cycle of a road infrastructure, with links to political, economic, technical, societal and environmental issues. Recent researches related to the characteristics of materials and associated behavior models both for materials and pavement, made it appropriate to consider updating current pavement design methods, and especially in the USA this has already been in process while in Europe uses of the methods developed in the early 1970s. Thus, this paper firstly presents a brief historical overview of pavement design methods, highlighting early limitations of old empirical methods. Afterwards, French, UK and Shell methods currently in use in Europe will be presented, underlining their main components in terms of methodology, traffic, climatic conditions and subgrade. The asphalt mix design and modeling in Europe are presented with their inclusion in the pavement design methods. Finally, the main challenges for the development of a European pavement design method are presented as well as the recent research developments that can be used for that method.

  15. Mental health priorities in Vietnam: a mixed-methods analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niemi Maria

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Mental Health Country Profile is a tool that was generated by the International Mental Health Policy and Services Project to inform policy makers, professionals and other key stakeholders about important issues which need to be considered in mental health policy development. The Mental Health Country Profile contains four domains, which include the mental health context, resources, provision and outcomes. We have aimed to generate a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, in order to highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the Vietnamese mental health situation, in order to inform future reform efforts and decision-making. Methods This study used snowball sampling to identify informants for generating a Mental Health Country Profile for Vietnam, and the data gathering was done through semi-structured interviews and collection of relevant reports and documents. The material from the interviews and documents was analysed according to qualitative content analysis. Results Marked strengths of the Vietnam mental health system are the aims to move toward community management and detection of mental illness, and the active involvement of several multilateral organizations and NGOs. However, there are a number of shortages still found, including the lack of treatment interventions apart from medications, the high proportion of treatments to be paid out-of-pocket, prominence of large tertiary psychiatric hospitals, and a lack of preventative measures or mental health information to the public. Conclusions At the end of this decade, mental health care in Vietnam is still characterised by unclear policy and poor critical mass especially within the governmental sector. This initial attempt to map the mental health situation of Vietnam suffers from a number of limitations and should be seen as a first step towards a comprehensive profile.

  16. Mixed Methods: Incorporating multiple learning styles into a measurements course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    The best scientists and engineers regularly combine creative and critical skill sets. As faculty, we are responsible to provide future scientists and engineers with those skills sets. EGR 390: Engineering Measurements at Murray State University is structured to actively engage students in the processes that develop and enhance those skills. Students learn through a mix of traditional lecture and homework, active discussion of open-ended questions, small group activities, structured laboratory exercises, oral and written communications exercises, student chosen team projects, and peer evaluations. Examples of each of these activities, the skill set addressed by each activity, outcomes from and effectiveness of each activity and recommendations for future directions in the EGR 390 course as designed will be presented.

  17. Mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice: basics and beyond (part 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Muhammad Abdul; Alldred, David Phillip; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    This is the first of two papers which explore the use of mixed-methods research in pharmacy practice. In an era of evidence-based medicine and policy, high-quality research evidence is essential for the development of effective pharmacist-led services. Over the past decade, the use of mixed-methods research has become increasingly common in healthcare, although to date its use has been relatively limited in pharmacy practice research. In this article, the basic concepts of mixed-methods research including its definition, typologies and advantages in relation to pharmacy practice research are discussed. Mixed-methods research brings together qualitative and quantitative methodologies within a single study to answer or understand a research problem. There are a number of mixed-methods designs available, but the selection of an appropriate design must always be dictated by the research question. Importantly, mixed-methods research should not be seen as a 'tool' to collect qualitative and quantitative data, rather there should be some degree of 'integration' between the two data sets. If conducted appropriately, mixed-methods research has the potential to generate quality research evidence by combining strengths and overcoming the respective limitations of qualitative and quantitative methodologies. © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  18. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D.; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; ‘Limited Exposure,’ ‘(in)Compatibility,’ ‘Validity,’ and ‘Tokenistic Qualitative Component’; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs. PMID:25429281

  19. A brief measure of attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lynne D; Povee, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mixed methods research in psychology has trailed behind other social science disciplines. Teaching psychology students, academics, and practitioners about mixed methodologies may increase the use of mixed methods within the discipline. However, tailoring and evaluating education and training in mixed methodologies requires an understanding of, and way of measuring, attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology. To date, no such measure exists. In this article we present the development and initial validation of a new measure: Attitudes toward Mixed Methods Research in Psychology. A pool of 42 items developed from previous qualitative research on attitudes toward mixed methods research along with validation measures was administered via an online survey to a convenience sample of 274 psychology students, academics and psychologists. Principal axis factoring with varimax rotation on a subset of the sample produced a four-factor, 12-item solution. Confirmatory factor analysis on a separate subset of the sample indicated that a higher order four factor model provided the best fit to the data. The four factors; 'Limited Exposure,' '(in)Compatibility,' 'Validity,' and 'Tokenistic Qualitative Component'; each have acceptable internal reliability. Known groups validity analyses based on preferred research orientation and self-rated mixed methods research skills, and convergent and divergent validity analyses based on measures of attitudes toward psychology as a science and scientist and practitioner orientation, provide initial validation of the measure. This brief, internally reliable measure can be used in assessing attitudes toward mixed methods research in psychology, measuring change in attitudes as part of the evaluation of mixed methods education, and in larger research programs.

  20. A general mixed boundary model reduction method for component mode synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voormeeren, S N; Van der Valk, P L C; Rixen, D J

    2010-01-01

    A classic issue in component mode synthesis (CMS) methods is the choice for fixed or free boundary conditions at the interface degrees of freedom (DoF) and the associated vibration modes in the components reduction base. In this paper, a novel mixed boundary CMS method called the 'Mixed Craig-Bampton' method is proposed. The method is derived by dividing the substructure DoF into a set of internal DoF, free interface DoF and fixed interface DoF. To this end a simple but effective scheme is introduced that, for every pair of interface DoF, selects a free or fixed boundary condition for each DoF individually. Based on this selection a reduction basis is computed consisting of vibration modes, static constraint modes and static residual flexibility modes. In order to assemble the reduced substructures a novel mixed assembly procedure is developed. It is shown that this approach leads to relatively sparse reduced matrices, whereas other mixed boundary methods often lead to full matrices. As such, the Mixed Craig-Bampton method forms a natural generalization of the classic Craig-Bampton and more recent Dual Craig-Bampton methods. Finally, the method is applied to a finite element test model. Analysis reveals that the proposed method has comparable or better accuracy and superior versatility with respect to the existing methods.

  1. Method development for the determination of volatile organic compounds in mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, W.F.; Rogers, Y.C.; Schappert, M.F.; Boland, K.S.; Spall, W.D.; Wilkerson, C.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    While analytical methods exist for the determination of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) listed organic and inorganic compounds in hazardous materials, equivalent methods suitable for the characterization of radioactively contaminated samples are not at the same level of maturity. The Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. has been established at Los Alamos National Lab. to address the need for such procedures. This presentation will focus on the efforts that have been directed toward the determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in mixed waste matrices. The capabilities of the Mixed Waste Methods Development Lab. will be outlined. Modifications to the containment boxes and analytical instrumentation required for the analyses will be described, as will experimental procedures and system performance benchmarks. Preliminary results from surrogate and real mixed waste matrices will be presented, and future directions for our method development effort will be discussed

  2. The influence of different black carbon and sulfate mixing methods on their optical and radiative properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Zhili; Zhao, Shuyun; Li, Jiangnan

    2015-01-01

    Three different internal mixing methods (Core–Shell, Maxwell-Garnett, and Bruggeman) and one external mixing method are used to study the impact of mixing methods of black carbon (BC) with sulfate aerosol on their optical properties, radiative flux, and heating rate. The optical properties of a mixture of BC and sulfate aerosol particles are considered for three typical bands. The results show that mixing methods, the volume ratio of BC to sulfate, and relative humidity have a strong influence on the optical properties of mixed aerosols. Compared to internal mixing, external mixing underestimates the particle mass absorption coefficient by 20–70% and the particle mass scattering coefficient by up to 50%, whereas it overestimates the particle single scattering albedo by 20–50% in most cases. However, the asymmetry parameter is strongly sensitive to the equivalent particle radius, but is only weakly sensitive to the different mixing methods. Of the internal methods, there is less than 2% difference in all optical properties between the Maxwell-Garnett and Bruggeman methods in all bands; however, the differences between the Core–Shell and Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman methods are usually larger than 15% in the ultraviolet and visible bands. A sensitivity test is conducted with the Beijing Climate Center Radiation transfer model (BCC-RAD) using a simulated BC concentration that is typical of east-central China and a sulfate volume ratio of 75%. The results show that the internal mixing methods could reduce the radiative flux more effectively because they produce a higher absorption. The annual mean instantaneous radiative force due to BC–sulfate aerosol is about –3.18 W/m 2 for the external method and –6.91 W/m 2 for the internal methods at the surface, and –3.03/–1.56/–1.85 W/m 2 for the external/Core–Shell/(Maxwell-Garnett/Bruggeman) methods, respectively, at the tropopause. - Highlights: • The aerosol optical properties with different mixing

  3. A Trojan horse for positivism?: a critique of mixed methods research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2007-01-01

    Mixed methods research is captured by a pragmatically inflected form of postpositivism. Although it passes for an alternative methodological movement that purports to breach the divide between qualitative and quantitative research, most mixed methods studies favor the forms of analysis and truth finding associated with positivism. We anticipate a move away from exploring more philosophical questions or undertaking modes of enquiry that challenge the status quo. At the same time, we recognize that mixed methods research offers particular strengths and that, although it serves as a Trojan Horse for positivism, it may productively carry other paradigmatic passengers.

  4. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  5. Implementing Mixed Method of Peer Teaching and Problem Solving on Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Firli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the application of problem solving method combined with student centered learning (peer teaching method as a mixed method to improve student’s passing level of financial management course. The object of this study was the 84 students of financial management course separated within two classes during the odd semester period 2014/2015, July until December 2015 with fourteen meeting courses. Data used to measure the results of the application is mid and final exam scores of both classes. Researcher used observation, interview and documentation as data collect technique also triangulation technique as data validity check. This study used problem solving method combined with student centered learning (peer teaching method as a mixed method which included into the Classroom Action Research. The final results show the increase in class A passing level is 17%. Class B passing level increased 3%. From the research we also know that in practical use of mixed method learning, leader’s quality and conducive learning environment are influencing factors in improving student’s learning performance. While the result confirms that mixed method improving learning performance, this study also founds additional factors that might be considerably affecting the results of learning performance when implementing the mixed method.

  6. Extending existing structural identifiability analysis methods to mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2018-01-01

    The concept of structural identifiability for state-space models is expanded to cover mixed-effects state-space models. Two methods applicable for the analytical study of the structural identifiability of mixed-effects models are presented. The two methods are based on previously established techniques for non-mixed-effects models; namely the Taylor series expansion and the input-output form approach. By generating an exhaustive summary, and by assuming an infinite number of subjects, functions of random variables can be derived which in turn determine the distribution of the system's observation function(s). By considering the uniqueness of the analytical statistical moments of the derived functions of the random variables, the structural identifiability of the corresponding mixed-effects model can be determined. The two methods are applied to a set of examples of mixed-effects models to illustrate how they work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Using Mixed Methods and Collaboration to Evaluate an Education and Public Outreach Program (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebby, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Traditional indicators (such as the number of participants or Likert-type ratings of participant perceptions) are often used to provide stakeholders with basic information about program outputs and to justify funding decisions. However, use of qualitative methods can strengthen the reliability of these data and provide stakeholders with more meaningful information about program challenges, successes, and ultimate impacts (Stern, Stame, Mayne, Forss, David & Befani, 2012). In this session, presenters will discuss how they used a mixed methods evaluation to determine the impact of an education and public outreach (EPO) program. EPO efforts were intended to foster more effective, sustainable, and efficient utilization of science discoveries and learning experiences through three main goals 1) increase engagement and support by leveraging of resources, expertise, and best practices; 2) organize a portfolio of resources for accessibility, connectivity, and strategic growth; and 3) develop an infrastructure to support coordination. The evaluation team used a mixed methods design to conduct the evaluation. Presenters will first discuss five potential benefits of mixed methods designs: triangulation of findings, development, complementarity, initiation, and value diversity (Greene, Caracelli & Graham, 2005). They will next demonstrate how a 'mix' of methods, including artifact collection, surveys, interviews, focus groups, and vignettes, was included in the EPO project's evaluation design, providing specific examples of how alignment between the program theory and the evaluation plan was best achieved with a mixed methods approach. The presentation will also include an overview of different mixed methods approaches and information about important considerations when using a mixed methods design, such as selection of data collection methods and sources, and the timing and weighting of quantitative and qualitative methods (Creswell, 2003). Ultimately, this presentation will

  8. Mixed Element Formulation for the Finite Element-Boundary Integral Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meese, J; Kempel, L. C; Schneider, S. W

    2006-01-01

    A mixed element approach using right hexahedral elements and right prism elements for the finite element-boundary integral method is presented and discussed for the study of planar cavity-backed antennas...

  9. Coupling multipoint flux mixed finite element methodswith continuous Galerkin methods for poroelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    We study the numerical approximation on irregular domains with general grids of the system of poroelasticity, which describes fluid flow in deformable porous media. The flow equation is discretized by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method

  10. The Full—Discrete Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanpingCHEN; YunqingHUANG

    1998-01-01

    This article treats mixed finite element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations.A fully discrete scheme is presented and improved L2-error estimates are established.The convergence of both the function value andthe flux is demonstrated.

  11. Following User Pathways: Cross Platform and Mixed Methods Analysis in Social Media Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Margeret; Mazarakis, Athanasios; Peters, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    is the mixed method approach (e.g. qualitative and quantitative methods) in order to better understand how users and society interacts online. The workshop 'Following User Pathways' brings together a community of researchers and professionals to address methodological, analytical, conceptual, and technological......Social media and the resulting tidal wave of available data have changed the ways and methods researchers analyze communities at scale. But the full potential for social scientists (and others) is not yet achieved. Despite the popularity of social media analysis in the past decade, few researchers...... challenges and opportunities of cross-platform, mixed method analysis in social media ecosystems....

  12. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  13. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed method design: principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Method-Designs, in denen quantitative und qualitative Methoden Verwendung finden, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit für die Untersuchung komplexer Phänomene. Die vorliegende Besprechung beschäftigt sich in diesem Zusammenhang mit dem Buch "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures" von Janice M. MORSE und Linda NIEHAUS, die für solche Designs Kern- und Ergänzungskomponenten zu identifizieren versuchen. Hierzu differenzieren sie zwischen Projekten, die einer eher deduktiven oder...

  14. Recent Development of Multigrid Algorithms for Mixed and Noncomforming Methods for Second Order Elliptical Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhangxin; Ewing, Richard E.

    1996-01-01

    Multigrid algorithms for nonconforming and mixed finite element methods for second order elliptic problems on triangular and rectangular finite elements are considered. The construction of several coarse-to-fine intergrid transfer operators for nonconforming multigrid algorithms is discussed. The equivalence between the nonconforming and mixed finite element methods with and without projection of the coefficient of the differential problems into finite element spaces is described.

  15. Methodological reporting in qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods health services research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisdom, Jennifer P; Cavaleri, Mary A; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J; Green, Carla A

    2012-04-01

    Methodologically sound mixed methods research can improve our understanding of health services by providing a more comprehensive picture of health services than either method can alone. This study describes the frequency of mixed methods in published health services research and compares the presence of methodological components indicative of rigorous approaches across mixed methods, qualitative, and quantitative articles. All empirical articles (n = 1,651) published between 2003 and 2007 from four top-ranked health services journals. All mixed methods articles (n = 47) and random samples of qualitative and quantitative articles were evaluated to identify reporting of key components indicating rigor for each method, based on accepted standards for evaluating the quality of research reports (e.g., use of p-values in quantitative reports, description of context in qualitative reports, and integration in mixed method reports). We used chi-square tests to evaluate differences between article types for each component. Mixed methods articles comprised 2.85 percent (n = 47) of empirical articles, quantitative articles 90.98 percent (n = 1,502), and qualitative articles 6.18 percent (n = 102). There was a statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 12.20, p = .0005, Cramer's V = 0.09, odds ratio = 1.49 [95% confidence interval = 1,27, 1.74]) in the proportion of quantitative methodological components present in mixed methods compared to quantitative papers (21.94 versus 47.07 percent, respectively) but no statistically significant difference (χ(2) (1) = 0.02, p = .89, Cramer's V = 0.01) in the proportion of qualitative methodological components in mixed methods compared to qualitative papers (21.34 versus 25.47 percent, respectively). Few published health services research articles use mixed methods. The frequency of key methodological components is variable. Suggestions are provided to increase the transparency of mixed methods studies and

  16. Importance of mixed methods in pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Karen; Gechter, Katherine; Kempe, Allison

    2013-01-01

    With increased attention to the importance of translating research to clinical practice and policy, recent years have seen a proliferation of particular types of research, including pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research. Such research seeks to understand how and why interventions function in real-world settings, as opposed to highly controlled settings involving conditions not likely to be repeated outside the research study. Because understanding the context in which interventions are implemented is imperative for effective pragmatic trials and dissemination and implementation research, the use of mixed methods is critical to understanding trial results and the success or failure of implementation efforts. This article discusses a number of dimensions of mixed methods research, utilizing at least one qualitative method and at least one quantitative method, that may be helpful when designing projects or preparing grant proposals. Although the strengths and emphases of qualitative and quantitative approaches differ substantially, methods may be combined in a variety of ways to achieve a deeper level of understanding than can be achieved by one method alone. However, researchers must understand when and how to integrate the data as well as the appropriate order, priority, and purpose of each method. The ability to demonstrate an understanding of the rationale for and benefits of mixed methods research is increasingly important in today's competitive funding environment, and many funding agencies now expect applicants to include mixed methods in proposals. The increasing demand for mixed methods research necessitates broader methodological training and deepened collaboration between medical, clinical, and social scientists. Although a number of challenges to conducting and disseminating mixed methods research remain, the potential for insight generated by such work is substantial. Copyright © 2013 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by

  17. Use and misuse of mixed methods in population oral health research: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Keuskamp, D

    2018-05-30

    Despite the known benefits of a mixed methods approach in health research, little is known of its use in the field of population oral health. To map the extent of literature using a mixed methods approach to examine population oral health outcomes. For a comprehensive search of all the available literature published in the English language, databases including PubMed, Dentistry and Oral Sciences Source (DOSS), CINAHL, Web of Science and EMBASE (including Medline) were searched using a range of keywords from inception to October 2017. Only peer-reviewed, population-based studies of oral health outcomes conducted among non-institutionalised participants and using mixed methods were considered eligible for inclusion. Only nine studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. The most frequent oral health outcome investigated was caries experience. However, most studies lacked a theoretical rationale or framework for using mixed methods, or supporting the use of qualitative data. Concurrent triangulation with a convergent design was the most commonly used mixed methods typology for integrating quantitative and qualitative data. The tools used to collect quantitative and qualitative data were mostly limited to surveys and interviews. With growing complexity recognised in the determinants of oral disease, future studies addressing population oral health outcomes are likely to benefit from the use of mixed methods. Explicit consideration of theoretical framework and methodology will strengthen those investigations. Copyright© 2018 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  18. Criteria for quantitative and qualitative data integration: mixed-methods research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonah; Smith, Carrol A M

    2012-05-01

    Many studies have emphasized the need and importance of a mixed-methods approach for evaluation of clinical information systems. However, those studies had no criteria to guide integration of multiple data sets. Integrating different data sets serves to actualize the paradigm that a mixed-methods approach argues; thus, we require criteria that provide the right direction to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. The first author used a set of criteria organized from a literature search for integration of multiple data sets from mixed-methods research. The purpose of this article was to reorganize the identified criteria. Through critical appraisal of the reasons for designing mixed-methods research, three criteria resulted: validation, complementarity, and discrepancy. In applying the criteria to empirical data of a previous mixed methods study, integration of quantitative and qualitative data was achieved in a systematic manner. It helped us obtain a better organized understanding of the results. The criteria of this article offer the potential to produce insightful analyses of mixed-methods evaluations of health information systems.

  19. Groundwater flow analysis using mixed hybrid finite element method for radioactive waste disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Hiroomi; Shimomura, Masanori; Kawakami, Hiroto; Suzuki, Shunichi

    2011-01-01

    In safety assessments of radioactive waste disposal facilities, ground water flow analysis are used for calculating the radionuclide transport pathway and the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities. For this type of calculations, the mixed hybrid finite element method has been used and discussed about the accuracy of ones in Europe. This paper puts great emphasis on the infiltration flow rate of groundwater into the disposal facilities, and describes the accuracy of results obtained from mixed hybrid finite element method by comparing of local water mass conservation and the reliability of the element breakdown numbers among the mixed hybrid finite element method, finite volume method and nondegenerated finite element method. (author)

  20. Qualitative and mixed methods research in dissemination and implementation science: introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A; Dorsey, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This special issue provides examples of how qualitative and mixed methods research approaches can be used in dissemination and implementation science. In this introductory article, we provide a brief rationale for why and how qualitative and mixed methods approaches can be useful in moving the field forward. Specifically, we provide a brief primer on common qualitative methods, including a review of guidelines provided by the National Institutes of Health. Next, we introduce the six articles in the issue. The first of the articles by Palinkas represents a more thorough and authoritative discussion related to qualitative methods, using the other five articles in the issue (and other published works) as examples. The remaining five articles are empirical and/or descriptive articles of recently completed or ongoing qualitative or mixed methods studies related to dissemination and implementation of evidence-based practices for children and adolescents.

  1. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  2. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  3. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Mixed Feature Representation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kaiyang; Han, Ke; Wu, Song; Wang, Guohua; Wei, Leyi

    2017-09-22

    DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities. The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non-DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features (SSF), is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability. In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in 10-fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique. The feature vectors, which are a combination of SSF and K-Skip-N-Grams, show the best performance in the test set. Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features.

  4. Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Using Mixed Feature Representation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyang Qu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available DNA-binding proteins play vital roles in cellular processes, such as DNA packaging, replication, transcription, regulation, and other DNA-associated activities. The current main prediction method is based on machine learning, and its accuracy mainly depends on the features extraction method. Therefore, using an efficient feature representation method is important to enhance the classification accuracy. However, existing feature representation methods cannot efficiently distinguish DNA-binding proteins from non-DNA-binding proteins. In this paper, a multi-feature representation method, which combines three feature representation methods, namely, K-Skip-N-Grams, Information theory, and Sequential and structural features (SSF, is used to represent the protein sequences and improve feature representation ability. In addition, the classifier is a support vector machine. The mixed-feature representation method is evaluated using 10-fold cross-validation and a test set. Feature vectors, which are obtained from a combination of three feature extractions, show the best performance in 10-fold cross-validation both under non-dimensional reduction and dimensional reduction by max-relevance-max-distance. Moreover, the reduced mixed feature method performs better than the non-reduced mixed feature technique. The feature vectors, which are a combination of SSF and K-Skip-N-Grams, show the best performance in the test set. Among these methods, mixed features exhibit superiority over the single features.

  5. Coarse-mesh method for multidimensional, mixed-lattice diffusion calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Honeck, H.C.; Hostetler, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A coarse-mesh finite difference method has been developed for multidimensional, mixed-lattice reactor diffusion calculations, both statics and kinetics, in hexagonal geometry. Results obtained with the coarse-mesh (CM) method have been compared with a conventional mesh-centered finite difference method and with experiment. The results of this comparison indicate that the accuracy of the CM method for highly heterogeneous (mixed) lattices using one point per hexagonal mesh element (''hex'') is about the same as the conventional method with six points per hex. Furthermore, the computing costs (i.e., central processor unit time and core storage requirements) of the CM method with one point per hex are about the same as the conventional method with one point per hex

  6. Examining mixing methods in an evaluation of a smoking cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betzner, Anne; Lawrenz, Frances P; Thao, Mao

    2016-02-01

    Three different methods were used in an evaluation of a smoking cessation study: surveys, focus groups, and phenomenological interviews. The results of each method were analyzed separately and then combined using both a pragmatic and dialectic stance to examine the effects of different approaches to mixing methods. Results show that the further apart the methods are philosophically, the more diverse the findings. Comparisons of decision maker opinions and costs of the different methods are provided along with recommendations for evaluators' uses of different methods. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative and mixed methods play a prominent role in mental health services research. However, the standards for their use are not always evident, especially for those not trained in such methods. This article reviews the rationale and common approaches to using qualitative and mixed methods in mental health services and implementation research based on a review of the articles included in this special series along with representative examples from the literature. Qualitative methods are used to provide a "thick description" or depth of understanding to complement breadth of understanding afforded by quantitative methods, elicit the perspective of those being studied, explore issues that have not been well studied, develop conceptual theories or test hypotheses, or evaluate the process of a phenomenon or intervention. Qualitative methods adhere to many of the same principles of scientific rigor as quantitative methods but often differ with respect to study design, data collection, and data analysis strategies. For instance, participants for qualitative studies are usually sampled purposefully rather than at random and the design usually reflects an iterative process alternating between data collection and analysis. The most common techniques for data collection are individual semistructured interviews, focus groups, document reviews, and participant observation. Strategies for analysis are usually inductive, based on principles of grounded theory or phenomenology. Qualitative methods are also used in combination with quantitative methods in mixed-method designs for convergence, complementarity, expansion, development, and sampling. Rigorously applied qualitative methods offer great potential in contributing to the scientific foundation of mental health services research.

  8. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C.; Fetters, Michael D.; Creswell, John W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. METHODS We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. RESULTS The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. CONCLUSIONS Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. PMID:26553895

  9. Method for identification of fluid mixing zones subject to thermal fatigue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vole, O.; Beaud, F.

    2009-01-01

    High cycle thermal fatigue due to the mixing of hot and cold fluids may initiate cracking in pipes of safety related circuits. A method has been developed to identify such fluid mixing zones subjected to potential thermal fatigue damage. This method is based on a loading model and a mechanical model that depend on the main characteristics of the mixing zone and on the material properties. It is supported by a large experimental program. This method has been applied to all the mixing zones of safety related circuits of the EDF pressurised water reactors, allowing to identify sensitive zones and to apply an appropriate inspection program that ensures the control of the risk due to this damage mechanism. (authors)

  10. Changes in contraceptive use and method mix in Pakistan: 1990-91 to 2006-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Thomas W; Agha, Sohail

    2012-03-01

    To determine (a) whether the influence of the determinants of family planning use in Pakistan changed between 1990-91 and 2006-07, and (b) if these changes were associated with changes in the method mix. Data from the Pakistan Demographic and Health Surveys (PDHS) of 1990-91 and 2006-07 were used in the analyses. Data on 5184 married, non-pregnant, fecund women in 1990-91 and 8041 married, non-pregnant, fecund women in 2006-07 were used. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with the use of any contraceptive method and whether the influence of these factors changed between the survey years. Changes in the method mix were examined. The effects of urban/rural residence, wealth and education on contraceptive use changed between 1990-91 and 2006-07. Differentials in contraceptive use by residence, wealth and education declined and were accompanied by changes in the method mix. In rural areas and among less-educated women, the contribution of traditional methods to the method mix increased. Among the poorest women, the method mix shifted towards traditional methods and condoms. Less-educated, rural, Pakistani women increased the use of family planning at a faster rate than more-educated, urban, women by adopting the use of traditional family planning methods. Poor women also increased family planning use more quickly than non-poor women, by adopting condoms and traditional methods. The more rapid increase in the demand for family planning among poorer, less-educated, rural women is a positive trend. In order to convert this demand into the use of longer-term modern methods, however, access to high quality services must be improved in rural and low-income urban areas.

  11. The Presentation of Self in Letters of Application: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroko, Emilia

    2012-01-01

    The application letter, as the first phase of employment-seeking, is an opportunity for a job applicant to make a favorable impression on a potential employer. In the current study, the author used a mixed-method approach to empirically explore strategies for self-presentation in job application letters and determine the methods used in the…

  12. Long-term adherence to a local guideline on postoperative body temperature measurement: mixed methods analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storm-Versloot, Marja N.; Knops, Anouk M.; Ubbink, Dirk T.; Goossens, Astrid; Legemate, Dink A.; Vermeulen, Hester

    2012-01-01

    Aim To find out whether a successful multifaceted implementation approach of a local evidence-based guideline on postoperative body temperature measurements (BTM) was persistent over time, and which factors influenced long-term adherence. Methods Mixed methods analysis. Patient records were

  13. Young Dutch people’s everyday experiences of romance and sexuality : A mixed-method approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Wieke G.; Timmerman, Margaretha C.; van Geert, Paul L.C.; Kunnen, Elske S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This exploratory study assessed young Dutch people’s emerging sexual experiences in everyday life, in addition to examine the feasibility of a mixed-methods diary study. Methods: Using one-week diaries, 12- –17-year-olds recorded qualitative reports of their everyday romantic and sexual

  14. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  15. Searching for Rigour in the Reporting of Mixed Methods Population Health Research: A Methodological Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K. M.; Elliott, S. J.; Leatherdale, S. T.; Robertson-Wilson, J.

    2015-01-01

    The environments in which population health interventions occur shape both their implementation and outcomes. Hence, when evaluating these interventions, we must explore both intervention content and context. Mixed methods (integrating quantitative and qualitative methods) provide this opportunity. However, although criteria exist for establishing…

  16. A Review of Mixed Methods Research on Bullying and Peer Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the negative outcomes associated with experiences in bullying at school, educational researchers, school officials, and policy-makers have called for more rigorous research on bullying in school. Research on bullying behavior in school has primarily been examined using quantitative methods. Mixed methods research in the field of…

  17. A Mixed Methods Content Analysis of the Research Literature in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Asta B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, more and more researchers in science education have been turning to the practice of combining qualitative and quantitative methods in the same study. This approach of using mixed methods creates possibilities to study the various issues that science educators encounter in more depth. In this content analysis, I evaluated 18…

  18. Updating and testing of a Finnish method for mixed municipal solid waste composition studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liikanen, M; Sahimaa, O; Hupponen, M; Havukainen, J; Sorvari, J; Horttanainen, M

    2016-06-01

    More efficient recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW) is an essential precondition for turning Europe into a circular economy. Thus, the recycling of MSW must increase significantly in several member states, including Finland. This has increased the interest in the composition of mixed MSW. Due to increased information needs, a method for mixed MSW composition studies was introduced in Finland in order to improve the national comparability of composition study results. The aim of this study was to further develop the method so that it corresponds to the information needed about the composition of mixed MSW and still works in practice. A survey and two mixed MSW composition studies were carried out in the study. According to the responses of the survey, the intensification of recycling, the landfill ban on organic waste and the producer responsibility for packaging waste have particularly influenced the need for information about the composition of mixed MSW. The share of biowaste in mixed MSW interested the respondents most. Additionally, biowaste proved to be the largest waste fraction in mixed MSW in the composition studies. It constituted over 40% of mixed MSW in both composition studies. For these reasons, the classification system of the method was updated by further defining the classifications of biowaste. The classifications of paper as well as paperboard and cardboard were also updated. The updated classification system provides more information on the share of avoidable food waste and waste materials suitable for recycling in mixed MSW. The updated method and the information gained from the composition studies are important in ensuring that the method will be adopted by municipal waste management companies and thus used widely in Finland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Testing the reliability and efficiency of the pilot Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) for systematic mixed studies review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Romina; Pluye, Pierre; Bartlett, Gillian; Macaulay, Ann C; Salsberg, Jon; Jagosh, Justin; Seller, Robbyn

    2012-01-01

    Systematic literature reviews identify, select, appraise, and synthesize relevant literature on a particular topic. Typically, these reviews examine primary studies based on similar methods, e.g., experimental trials. In contrast, interest in a new form of review, known as mixed studies review (MSR), which includes qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies, is growing. In MSRs, reviewers appraise studies that use different methods allowing them to obtain in-depth answers to complex research questions. However, appraising the quality of studies with different methods remains challenging. To facilitate systematic MSRs, a pilot Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) has been developed at McGill University (a checklist and a tutorial), which can be used to concurrently appraise the methodological quality of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods studies. The purpose of the present study is to test the reliability and efficiency of a pilot version of the MMAT. The Center for Participatory Research at McGill conducted a systematic MSR on the benefits of Participatory Research (PR). Thirty-two PR evaluation studies were appraised by two independent reviewers using the pilot MMAT. Among these, 11 (34%) involved nurses as researchers or research partners. Appraisal time was measured to assess efficiency. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by calculating a kappa statistic based on dichotomized responses for each criterion. An appraisal score was determined for each study, which allowed the calculation of an overall intra-class correlation. On average, it took 14 min to appraise a study (excluding the initial reading of articles). Agreement between reviewers was moderate to perfect with regards to MMAT criteria, and substantial with respect to the overall quality score of appraised studies. The MMAT is unique, thus the reliability of the pilot MMAT is promising, and encourages further development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Selection of analytical methods for mixed waste analysis at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morant, P.M.

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the process that the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) and contractor laboratories use to select appropriate or develop new or modified analytical methods. These methods are needed to provide reliable mixed waste characterization data that meet project-specific quality assurance (QA) requirements while also meeting health and safety standards for handling radioactive materials. This process will provide the technical basis for DOE's analysis of mixed waste and support requests for regulatory approval of these new methods when they are used to satisfy the regulatory requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1992)

  2. Multilevel Monte Carlo methods using ensemble level mixed MsFEM for two-phase flow and transport simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.; Iliev, Oleg; Kronsbein, C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) methods that use ensemble level mixed multiscale methods in the simulations of multiphase flow and transport. The contribution of this paper is twofold: (1) a design of ensemble level mixed

  3. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Results in Health Science Mixed Methods Research Through Joint Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guetterman, Timothy C; Fetters, Michael D; Creswell, John W

    2015-11-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming an important methodology to investigate complex health-related topics, yet the meaningful integration of qualitative and quantitative data remains elusive and needs further development. A promising innovation to facilitate integration is the use of visual joint displays that bring data together visually to draw out new insights. The purpose of this study was to identify exemplar joint displays by analyzing the various types of joint displays being used in published articles. We searched for empirical articles that included joint displays in 3 journals that publish state-of-the-art mixed methods research. We analyzed each of 19 identified joint displays to extract the type of display, mixed methods design, purpose, rationale, qualitative and quantitative data sources, integration approaches, and analytic strategies. Our analysis focused on what each display communicated and its representation of mixed methods analysis. The most prevalent types of joint displays were statistics-by-themes and side-by-side comparisons. Innovative joint displays connected findings to theoretical frameworks or recommendations. Researchers used joint displays for convergent, explanatory sequential, exploratory sequential, and intervention designs. We identified exemplars for each of these designs by analyzing the inferences gained through using the joint display. Exemplars represented mixed methods integration, presented integrated results, and yielded new insights. Joint displays appear to provide a structure to discuss the integrated analysis and assist both researchers and readers in understanding how mixed methods provides new insights. We encourage researchers to use joint displays to integrate and represent mixed methods analysis and discuss their value. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  4. Reverse Schreinemakers Method for Experimental Analysis of Mixed-Solvent Electrolyte Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Philip Loldrup; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2009-01-01

    the reverse Schreinemakers (RS) method. The method is based on simple mass balance principles similar to the wet residues method. It allows for accurate determination of the mixed-solvent phase composition even though part of the solvent may precipitate as complexes between solvent and salt. Discrepancies......A method based on Schreinemakers's tie-line theory of 1893 is derived for determining the composition and phase amounts in solubility experiments for multi-solvent electrolyte systems. The method uses the lever rule in reverse compared to Schreinemakers's wet residue method, and is therefore called...... from determining the composition of salt mixtures by pH titration are discussed, and the derived method significantly improves the obtained result from titration. Furthermore, the method reduces the required experimental work needed for analysis of phase composition. The method is applicable to multi...

  5. Adopting a blended learning approach to teaching evidence based medicine: a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Ilic, Dragan; Hart, William; Fiddes, Patrick; Misso, Marie; Villanueva, Elmer

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) is a core unit delivered across many medical schools. Few studies have investigated the most effective method of teaching a course in EBM to medical students. The objective of this study was to identify whether a blended-learning approach to teaching EBM is more effective a didactic-based approach at increasing medical student competency in EBM. Methods A mixed-methods study was conducted consisting of a controlled trial and focus groups with second ye...

  6. Paradigms, pragmatism and possibilities: mixed-methods research in speech and language therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    After the decades of the so-called 'paradigm wars' in social science research methodology and the controversy about the relative place and value of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, 'paradigm peace' appears to have now been declared. This has come about as many researchers have begun to take a 'pragmatic' approach in the selection of research methodology, choosing the methodology best suited to answering the research question rather than conforming to a methodological orthodoxy. With the differences in the philosophical underpinnings of the two traditions set to one side, an increasing awareness, and valuing, of the 'mixed-methods' approach to research is now present in the fields of social, educational and health research. To explore what is meant by mixed-methods research and the ways in which quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods can be combined and integrated, particularly in the broad field of health services research and the narrower one of speech and language therapy. The paper discusses the ways in which methodological approaches have already been combined and integrated in health services research and speech and language therapy, highlighting the suitability of mixed-methods research for answering the typically multifaceted questions arising from the provision of complex interventions. The challenges of combining and integrating quantitative and qualitative methods and the barriers to the adoption of mixed-methods approaches are also considered. The questions about healthcare, as it is being provided in the 21st century, calls for a range of methodological approaches. This is particularly the case for human communication and its disorders, where mixed-methods research offers a wealth of possibilities. In turn, speech and language therapy research should be able to contribute substantively to the future development of mixed-methods research. © 2010 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  7. An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made...

  8. Study on mixed analysis method for fatigue analysis of oblique safety injection nozzle on main piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xifeng; Zhang Yixiong; Ai Honglei; Wang Xinjun; He Feng

    2014-01-01

    The simplified analysis method and the detailed analysis method were used for the fatigue analysis of the nozzle on the main piping. Because the structure of the oblique safety injection nozzle is complex and some more severe transients are subjected. The results obtained are more penalized and cannot be validate when the simplified analysis method used for the fatigue analysis. It will be little conservative when the detailed analysis method used, but it is more complex and time-consuming and boring labor. To reduce the conservatism and save time, the mixed analysis method which combining the simplified analysis method with the detailed analysis method is used for the fatigue analysis. The heat transfer parameters between the fluid and the structure which used for analysis were obtained by heat transfer property experiment. The results show that the mixed analysis which heat transfer property is considered can reduce the conservatism effectively, and the mixed analysis method is a more effective and practical method used for the fatigue analysis of the oblique safety injection nozzle. (authors)

  9. Mixed dual finite element methods for the numerical treatment of the diffusion equation in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, D.

    2001-01-01

    The nodal method Minos has been developed to offer a powerful method for the calculation of nuclear reactor cores in rectangular geometry. This method solves the mixed dual form of the diffusion equation and, also of the simplified P N approximation. The discretization is based on Raviart-Thomas' mixed dual finite elements and the iterative algorithm is an alternating direction method, which uses the current as unknown. The subject of this work is to adapt this method to hexagonal geometry. The guiding idea is to construct and test different methods based on the division of a hexagon into trapeze or rhombi with appropriate mapping of these quadrilaterals onto squares in order to take into advantage what is already available in the Minos solver. The document begins with a review of the neutron diffusion equation. Then we discuss its mixed dual variational formulation from a functional as well as from a numerical point of view. We study conformal and bilinear mappings for the two possible meshing of the hexagon. Thus, four different methods are proposed and are completely described in this work. Because of theoretical and numerical difficulties, a particular treatment has been necessary for methods based on the conformal mapping. Finally, numerical results are presented for a hexagonal benchmark to validate and compare the four methods with respect to pre-defined criteria. (authors)

  10. Reflections on the added value of using mixed methods in the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan; Meskell, Pauline; Higgins, Agnes; Elliot, Naomi; Lalor, Joan; Begley, Cecily

    2014-03-01

    To reflect on the added value that a mixed method design gave in a large national evaluation study of specialist and advanced practice (SCAPE), and to propose a reporting guide that could help make explicit the added value of mixed methods in other studies. Recently, researchers have focused on how to carry out mixed methods research (MMR) rigorously. The value-added claims for MMR include the capacity to exploit the strengths and compensate for weakness inherent in single designs, generate comprehensive description of phenomena, produce more convincing results for funders or policy-makers and build methodological expertise. Data illustrating value added claims were drawn from the SCAPE study. Studies about the purpose of mixed methods were identified from a search of literature. The authors explain why and how they undertook components of the study, and propose a guideline to facilitate such studies. If MMR is to become the third methodological paradigm, then articulation of what extra benefit MMR adds to a study is essential. The authors conclude that MMR has added value and found the guideline useful as a way of making value claims explicit. The clear articulation of the procedural aspects of mixed-methods research, and identification of a guideline to facilitate such research, will enable researchers to learn more effectively from each other.

  11. A Systematic Review of Mixed Methods Research on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research. PMID:26154228

  12. A systematic review of mixed methods research on human factors and ergonomics in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayon, Pascale; Kianfar, Sarah; Li, Yaqiong; Xie, Anping; Alyousef, Bashar; Wooldridge, Abigail

    2015-11-01

    This systematic literature review provides information on the use of mixed methods research in human factors and ergonomics (HFE) research in health care. Using the PRISMA methodology, we searched four databases (PubMed, PsycInfo, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) for studies that met the following inclusion criteria: (1) field study in health care, (2) mixing of qualitative and quantitative data, (3) HFE issues, and (4) empirical evidence. Using an iterative and collaborative process supported by a structured data collection form, the six authors identified a total of 58 studies that primarily address HFE issues in health information technology (e.g., usability) and in the work of healthcare workers. About two-thirds of the mixed methods studies used the convergent parallel study design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected simultaneously. A variety of methods were used for collecting data, including interview, survey and observation. The most frequent combination involved interview for qualitative data and survey for quantitative data. The use of mixed methods in healthcare HFE research has increased over time. However, increasing attention should be paid to the formal literature on mixed methods research to enhance the depth and breadth of this research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mix ratio measurements of pozzolanic blends by Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebagay, T.V.; Dodd, D.A.

    1992-07-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive liquid wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, involves mixing the wastes with pozzolanic grout-forming solid blends. Checking the quality of each blend component and its mix ratio will ensure processibility of the blend and the long-term performance of the resulting waste grout. In earlier work at Hanford laboratories, Fourier transform infrared-transmission method (FTIR-TR) using KBr pellet was applied successfully in the analysis of blends consisting of cement, fly ash, and clays. This method involves time-consuming sample preparation resulting in slow turnaround for repetitive sampling. Because reflection methods do not require elaborate sample preparation, they have the potential to reduce turnaround analysis time. Neat samples may be examined making these methods attractive for quality control. This study investigates the capability of Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance method (FTIR-ATR) to analyze pozzolanic blends

  14. The use of mixed-methods research to diagnose the organisational performance of a local government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Olivier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The majority of local governments in South Africa are underperforming; a first step to improve their performance is to accurately diagnose their current functioning. The utilisation of a mixed-methods approach for this diagnosis based on a valid model of organisational performance will form a better and holistic understanding of how a local government is performing. Research purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of mixed-methods research as a diagnostic approach for determining the organisational performance of a local government in South Africa. Motivation for the study: The use of either quantitative or qualitative data gathering in isolation as part of an organisational diagnosis can lead to biased information and not identifying the root causes of problems. The use of mixed-methods research in which both quantitative and qualitative data gathering methods are utilised has been shown to produce numerous benefits, such as confirmation of gathered data, providing richer detail and initiating new lines of thinking. Such multiple methodologies are recognised as an essential component of any organisational diagnosis and can be an effective means of eliminating biases in singular data gathering methods. Research design, approach and method: A concurrent transformative mixed-methods strategy based on the Burke–Litwin model of organisational performance with triangulation of results and findings to determine convergence validity was used. A convenience sample of 116 (N = 203 permanent officials in a rural district municipality in South Africa completed a survey questionnaire and were also individually interviewed. Main findings: Results indicate that mixed-methods research is a valid technique for establishing the integrity of survey data and for providing a better and holistic understanding of the functioning of an organisation. The results also indicate that the Burke–Litwin model is a useful and valid

  15. Experience of the irradiation method under mixed gas (95% O2 plus 5% CO2) inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Michio; Tazaki, Eio

    1978-01-01

    The irradiation method under mixed gas of 95% O 2 plus CO 2 inhalation at one atomosphere was discussed to improve therapeutic results, in malignant tumors which are not greatly sensitive to irradiation. Randomized study was done in each attending institute, with common protocols. As a result, no positive effect was recognized in irradiation method under mixed gas inhalation with daily dose of 200 rad and 5 fractions per week, which is widely used clinically. But when irradiation dose was increased up to 500 to 600 rad per fraction, effect of the mixed gas was remarkable. But against this, observing for years, results in irradiation under mixed gas inhalation were not always related to the improvement of the long term survival. (author)

  16. Parameter Selection Method for Support Vector Regression Based on Adaptive Fusion of the Mixed Kernel Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Support vector regression algorithm is widely used in fault diagnosis of rolling bearing. A new model parameter selection method for support vector regression based on adaptive fusion of the mixed kernel function is proposed in this paper. We choose the mixed kernel function as the kernel function of support vector regression. The mixed kernel function of the fusion coefficients, kernel function parameters, and regression parameters are combined together as the parameters of the state vector. Thus, the model selection problem is transformed into a nonlinear system state estimation problem. We use a 5th-degree cubature Kalman filter to estimate the parameters. In this way, we realize the adaptive selection of mixed kernel function weighted coefficients and the kernel parameters, the regression parameters. Compared with a single kernel function, unscented Kalman filter (UKF support vector regression algorithms, and genetic algorithms, the decision regression function obtained by the proposed method has better generalization ability and higher prediction accuracy.

  17. A demonstration of mixed-methods research in the health sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Janet; Vandermause, Roxanne; McPherson, Sterling; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina

    2016-11-18

    Background The growth of patient, community and population-centred nursing research is a rationale for the use of research methods that can examine complex healthcare issues, not only from a biophysical perspective, but also from cultural, psychosocial and political viewpoints. This need for multiple perspectives requires mixed-methods research. Philosophy and practicality are needed to plan, conduct, and make mixed-methods research more broadly accessible to the health sciences research community. The traditions and dichotomy between qualitative and quantitative research makes the application of mixed methods a challenge. Aim To propose an integrated model for a research project containing steps from start to finish, and to use the unique strengths brought by each approach to meet the health needs of patients and communities. Discussion Mixed-methods research is a practical approach to inquiry, that focuses on asking questions and how best to answer them to improve the health of individuals, communities and populations. An integrated model of research begins with the research question(s) and moves in a continuum. The lines dividing methods do not dissolve, but become permeable boundaries where two or more methods can be used to answer research questions more completely. Rigorous and expert methodologists work together to solve common problems. Conclusion Mixed-methods research enables discussion among researchers from varied traditions. There is a plethora of methodological approaches available. Combining expertise by communicating across disciplines and professions is one way to tackle large and complex healthcare issues. Implications for practice The model presented in this paper exemplifies the integration of multiple approaches in a unified focus on identified phenomena. The dynamic nature of the model signals a need to be open to the data generated and the methodological directions implied by findings.

  18. Coefficients of singularities and mixed methods for the mixed Dirichlet-Neumann problem for the Stokes operator on a polygon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chettab, M.; Lubuma, M.S.

    1990-08-01

    The behaviour of the weak solution of the Stokes problem on a polygon is considered with emphasis on the maximal regularity of the solution and on global formulae for the coefficients of singularities. This regularity leads to a slow convergent mixed finite element method of fractional order less than one while the use of the above formulae provides better approximations for the solution and for the coefficients. (author). 32 refs

  19. HIV quality report cards: impact of case-mix adjustment and statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Michael E; Richardson, Kelly K; Goto, Michihiko; Vaughan-Sarrazin, Mary; Schweizer, Marin L; Perencevich, Eli N

    2014-10-15

    There will be increasing pressure to publicly report and rank the performance of healthcare systems on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) quality measures. To inform discussion of public reporting, we evaluated the influence of case-mix adjustment when ranking individual care systems on the viral control quality measure. We used data from the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) HIV Clinical Case Registry and administrative databases to estimate case-mix adjusted viral control for 91 local systems caring for 12 368 patients. We compared results using 2 adjustment methods, the observed-to-expected estimator and the risk-standardized ratio. Overall, 10 913 patients (88.2%) achieved viral control (viral load ≤400 copies/mL). Prior to case-mix adjustment, system-level viral control ranged from 51% to 100%. Seventeen (19%) systems were labeled as low outliers (performance significantly below the overall mean) and 11 (12%) as high outliers. Adjustment for case mix (patient demographics, comorbidity, CD4 nadir, time on therapy, and income from VHA administrative databases) reduced the number of low outliers by approximately one-third, but results differed by method. The adjustment model had moderate discrimination (c statistic = 0.66), suggesting potential for unadjusted risk when using administrative data to measure case mix. Case-mix adjustment affects rankings of care systems on the viral control quality measure. Given the sensitivity of rankings to selection of case-mix adjustment methods-and potential for unadjusted risk when using variables limited to current administrative databases-the HIV care community should explore optimal methods for case-mix adjustment before moving forward with public reporting. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  20. Adaptive mixed finite element methods for Darcy flow in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose adaptive mixed finite element methods for simulating the single-phase Darcy flow in two-dimensional fractured porous media. The reduced model that we use for the simulation is a discrete fracture model coupling Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures, and the fractures are modeled by one-dimensional entities. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are utilized for the solution of the coupled Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures. In order to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use adaptive mixed finite element methods based on novel residual-based a posteriori error estimators. In addition, we develop an efficient upscaling algorithm to compute the effective permeability of the fractured porous media. Several interesting examples of Darcy flow in the fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm.

  1. Adaptive mixed finite element methods for Darcy flow in fractured porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Huangxin

    2016-09-21

    In this paper, we propose adaptive mixed finite element methods for simulating the single-phase Darcy flow in two-dimensional fractured porous media. The reduced model that we use for the simulation is a discrete fracture model coupling Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures, and the fractures are modeled by one-dimensional entities. The Raviart-Thomas mixed finite element methods are utilized for the solution of the coupled Darcy flows in the matrix and the fractures. In order to improve the efficiency of the simulation, we use adaptive mixed finite element methods based on novel residual-based a posteriori error estimators. In addition, we develop an efficient upscaling algorithm to compute the effective permeability of the fractured porous media. Several interesting examples of Darcy flow in the fractured porous media are presented to demonstrate the robustness of the algorithm.

  2. Effect of mixing methods and aggregate type on strength of hardened concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadi, S.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the research contained in this paper is to study the effect on strength of concrete which can be caused by changing method of concrete mix with or without changing aggregate crushing value under hand or mechanical compaction, and to compare results obtained when nondestructive testing techniques are used. It has been found that all methods of mix design are nearly identical in predicting the strength under a known value of w/c ratio. Up to strength of about 30 N/mm 2 , hand and mechanical compaction seems to be identical in all methods of concrete mixing. Important results regarding destructive and non-destructive testing has been drawn from the study.(Author)

  3. Method for stabilizing low-level mixed wastes at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun S.; Singh, Dileep

    1997-01-01

    A method to stabilize solid and liquid waste at room temperature is provided comprising combining solid waste with a starter oxide to obtain a powder, contacting the powder with an acid solution to create a slurry, said acid solution containing the liquid waste, shaping the now-mixed slurry into a predetermined form, and allowing the now-formed slurry to set. The invention also provides for a method to encapsulate and stabilize waste containing cesium comprising combining the waste with Zr(OH).sub.4 to create a solid-phase mixture, mixing phosphoric acid with the solid-phase mixture to create a slurry, subjecting the slurry to pressure; and allowing the now pressurized slurry to set. Lastly, the invention provides for a method to stabilize liquid waste, comprising supplying a powder containing magnesium, sodium and phosphate in predetermined proportions, mixing said powder with the liquid waste, such as tritium, and allowing the resulting slurry to set.

  4. Improved Expectation Maximization Algorithm for Gaussian Mixed Model Using the Kernel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Izhan Mohd Yusoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fraud activities have contributed to heavy losses suffered by telecommunication companies. In this paper, we attempt to use Gaussian mixed model, which is a probabilistic model normally used in speech recognition to identify fraud calls in the telecommunication industry. We look at several issues encountered when calculating the maximum likelihood estimates of the Gaussian mixed model using an Expectation Maximization algorithm. Firstly, we look at a mechanism for the determination of the initial number of Gaussian components and the choice of the initial values of the algorithm using the kernel method. We show via simulation that the technique improves the performance of the algorithm. Secondly, we developed a procedure for determining the order of the Gaussian mixed model using the log-likelihood function and the Akaike information criteria. Finally, for illustration, we apply the improved algorithm to real telecommunication data. The modified method will pave the way to introduce a comprehensive method for detecting fraud calls in future work.

  5. Multiple and mixed methods in formative evaluation: Is more better? Reflections from a South African study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Odendaal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formative programme evaluations assess intervention implementation processes, and are seen widely as a way of unlocking the ‘black box’ of any programme in order to explore and understand why a programme functions as it does. However, few critical assessments of the methods used in such evaluations are available, and there are especially few that reflect on how well the evaluation achieved its objectives. This paper describes a formative evaluation of a community-based lay health worker programme for TB and HIV/AIDS clients across three low-income communities in South Africa. It assesses each of the methods used in relation to the evaluation objectives, and offers suggestions on ways of optimising the use of multiple, mixed-methods within formative evaluations of complex health system interventions. Methods The evaluation’s qualitative methods comprised interviews, focus groups, observations and diary keeping. Quantitative methods included a time-and-motion study of the lay health workers’ scope of practice and a client survey. The authors conceptualised and conducted the evaluation, and through iterative discussions, assessed the methods used and their results. Results Overall, the evaluation highlighted programme issues and insights beyond the reach of traditional single methods evaluations. The strengths of the multiple, mixed-methods in this evaluation included a detailed description and nuanced understanding of the programme and its implementation, and triangulation of the perspectives and experiences of clients, lay health workers, and programme managers. However, the use of multiple methods needs to be carefully planned and implemented as this approach can overstretch the logistic and analytic resources of an evaluation. Conclusions For complex interventions, formative evaluation designs including multiple qualitative and quantitative methods hold distinct advantages over single method evaluations. However

  6. Ecological content validation of the Information Assessment Method for parents (IAM-parent): A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujold, M; El Sherif, R; Bush, P L; Johnson-Lafleur, J; Doray, G; Pluye, P

    2018-02-01

    This mixed methods study content validated the Information Assessment Method for parents (IAM-parent) that allows users to systematically rate and comment on online parenting information. Quantitative data and results: 22,407 IAM ratings were collected; of the initial 32 items, descriptive statistics showed that 10 had low relevance. Qualitative data and results: IAM-based comments were collected, and 20 IAM users were interviewed (maximum variation sample); the qualitative data analysis assessed the representativeness of IAM items, and identified items with problematic wording. Researchers, the program director, and Web editors integrated quantitative and qualitative results, which led to a shorter and clearer IAM-parent. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Modelling and Simulation of a Packed Bed of Pulp Fibers Using Mixed Collocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishfaq Ahmad Ganaie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A convenient computational approach for solving mathematical model related to diffusion dispersion during flow through packed bed is presented. The algorithm is based on the mixed collocation method. The method is particularly useful for solving stiff system arising in chemical and process engineering. The convergence of the method is found to be of order 2 using the roots of shifted Chebyshev polynomial. Model is verified using the literature data. This method has provided a convenient check on the accuracy of the results for wide range of parameters, namely, Peclet numbers. Breakthrough curves are plotted to check the effect of Peclet number on average and exit solute concentrations.

  8. Mixing studies at low grade vacuum pan using the radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, some preliminary results achieved in the evaluation of the homogenization time at a vacuum pan for massecuite b and seed preparation , using two approaches of the radiotracer method, are presented. Practically no difference between the o n line , using small size detector and the sampling methods, in mixing studies performed at the high-grade massecuite was detected. Results achieved during the trials performed at the vacuum station show that the mechanical agitation in comparison with normal agitation improves the performance of mixing in high-grade massecuite b and in seed preparation at the vacuum pan

  9. Mixing studies at low grade vacuum pan using the radiotracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, J.M

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, some preliminary results achieved in the evaluation of the homogenization time at a Vacuum Pan for massecuite B and seed preparation , using two approaches of the radiotracer method, are presented. Practically no difference between the Ion Line , using small size detector and the sampling methods, in mixing studies performed at the high-grade massecuite was detected. Results achieved during the trials performed at the vacuum station show that the mechanical agitation in comparison with normal agitation improves the performance of mixing in high-grade massecuite b and in seed preparation at the vacuum pan

  10. John W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Chih-Pei; CHANG, Yan-Yi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. John W. Creswell was previously a professor in educational psychology in the University of Nebraska–Lincoln. He moved to the University of Michigan in 2015 as a professor in the Department of Family Medicine. He has published many articles and close to 27 books on mixed methods. Professor Creswell is also one of the founding members of the Journal of Mixed Methods Research. He was a Fulbright scholar in South Africa in 2008 and Thailand in 2012. In 2011, he served as a visiting prof...

  11. Analysis of subgrid scale mixing using a hybrid LES-Monte-Carlo PDF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olbricht, C.; Hahn, F.; Sadiki, A.; Janicka, J.

    2007-01-01

    This contribution introduces a hybrid LES-Monte-Carlo method for a coupled solution of the flow and the multi-dimensional scalar joint pdf in two complex mixing devices. For this purpose an Eulerian Monte-Carlo method is used. First, a complex mixing device (jet-in-crossflow, JIC) is presented in which the stochastic convergence and the coherency between the scalar field solution obtained via finite-volume methods and that from the stochastic solution of the pdf for the hybrid method are evaluated. Results are compared to experimental data. Secondly, an extensive investigation of the micromixing on the basis of assumed shape and transported SGS-pdfs in a configuration with practical relevance is carried out. This consists of a mixing chamber with two opposite rows of jets penetrating a crossflow (multi-jet-in-crossflow, MJIC). Some numerical results are compared to available experimental data and to RANS based results. It turns out that the hybrid LES-Monte-Carlo method could achieve a detailed analysis of the mixing at the subgrid level

  12. Connecting the dots and merging meaning: using mixed methods to study primary care delivery transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scammon, Debra L; Tomoaia-Cotisel, Andrada; Day, Rachel L; Day, Julie; Kim, Jaewhan; Waitzman, Norman J; Farrell, Timothy W; Magill, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    To demonstrate the value of mixed methods in the study of practice transformation and illustrate procedures for connecting methods and for merging findings to enhance the meaning derived. An integrated network of university-owned, primary care practices at the University of Utah (Community Clinics or CCs). CC has adopted Care by Design, its version of the Patient Centered Medical Home. Convergent case study mixed methods design. Analysis of archival documents, internal operational reports, in-clinic observations, chart audits, surveys, semistructured interviews, focus groups, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services database, and the Utah All Payer Claims Database. Each data source enriched our understanding of the change process and understanding of reasons that certain changes were more difficult than others both in general and for particular clinics. Mixed methods enabled generation and testing of hypotheses about change and led to a comprehensive understanding of practice change. Mixed methods are useful in studying practice transformation. Challenges exist but can be overcome with careful planning and persistence. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. A Family of Multipoint Flux Mixed Finite Element Methods for Elliptic Problems on General Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary F.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a family of multipoint flux mixed finite element (MFMFE) methods on simplicial, quadrilateral, hexahedral, and triangular-prismatic grids. The MFMFE methods are locally conservative with continuous normal fluxes, since they are developed within a variational framework as mixed finite element methods with special approximating spaces and quadrature rules. The latter allows for local flux elimination giving a cell-centered system for the scalar variable. We study two versions of the method: with a symmetric quadrature rule on smooth grids and a non-symmetric quadrature rule on rough grids. Theoretical and numerical results demonstrate first order convergence for problems with full-tensor coefficients. Second order superconvergence is observed on smooth grids. © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  15. A mixed-methods study exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR

    OpenAIRE

    Batty, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Futile CPR has the potential to inflict significant, avoidable harms on dying patients. Futile CPR is widely debated in the literature, but there is little research into futile CPR in the context of nursing. There are no published studies exploring student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR. Aim: To explore student nurses’ understanding of futile CPR Methods: A mixed methods study, using questionnaires to establish background data and identify prominent issues. ...

  16. Is home delivery really preferred? a mixed-methods national study in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Shamsa; Sikander, Siham; Ahmad, Ikhlaq; Ahmad, Mansoor; Parveen, Nazia; Saleem, Shumaila; Nawaz, Tayyba; Suleman, Zainab; Suleman, Nadia; ulAin, Noor; Naeem, Ayesha; Bashir, Asma

    2015-01-01

    Background Pakistan has a high maternal mortality ratio and a low rate of skilled birth attendants (SBAs). To address these two important issues, the Pakistan Maternal Newborn and Child Health (MNCH) programme launched the community midwives (CMW) initiative in 2007. CMWs are supposed to conduct deliveries at community level outside health facilities. The purpose of the current study is to document perceptions about CMWs and preferences for birthing place. Methods A mixed-methods study was co...

  17. Exploration of barriers and facilitators to publishing local public health findings: A mixed methods protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Selina A.; Webb, Nancy C.; Blumenthal, Daniel S.; Willcox, Bobbie; Ballance, Darra; Kinard, Faith; Gates, Madison L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the US accounts for a large proportion of journals related to public health. Although the American Public Health Association (APHA) includes 54 affiliated regional and state associations, little is known about their capacity to support public health scholarship. The aim of this study is to assess barriers and facilitators to operation of state journals for the dissemination of local public health research and practices. Methods A mixed methods approach will be used to co...

  18. Numerical modeling of contaminant transport in fractured porous media using mixed finite-element and finitevolume methods

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Chen; Sun, Shuyu; Taylor, Glenn A.

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for contaminant species passing through fractured porous media is presented. In the numerical model, we combine two locally conservative methods; i.e., the mixed finite-element (MFE) method and the finite-volume method. Adaptive

  19. The effect of mixing method on tricalcium silicate-based cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, J A; Fernandes, S L; Bubola, J P; Duarte, M A H; Camilleri, J; Marciano, M A

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of three methods of mixing on the physical and chemical properties of tricalcium silicate-based cements. The materials evaluated were MTA Angelus and Portland cement with 20% zirconium oxide (PC-20-Zr). The cements were mixed using a 3 : 1 powder-to-liquid ratio. The mixing methods were manual (m), trituration (tr) and ultrasonic (us) activation. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Flowability was analysed according to ANSI/ADA 57/2012. Initial and final setting times were assessed following ASTM C266/08. Volume change was evaluated using a micro-CT volumetric method. Solubility was analysed according to ADA 57/2012. pH and calcium ion release were measured after 3, 24, 72 and 168 h. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The level of significance was set at P = 0.05. The SEM analysis revealed that ultrasonic activation was associated with a homogeneous distribution of particles. Flowability, volume change and initial setting time were not influenced by the mixing method (P > 0.05). Solubility was influenced by the mixing method (P < 0.05). For pH, at 168 h, significant differences were found between MTA-m and PC-20-Zr-m (P < 0.05). For calcium ion release, PC-20-Zr-tr had higher values than MTA-m at 3 h, and MTA-tr had higher values than PC-20-Zr-m at 168 h (P < 0.05). The ultrasonic and trituration methods led to higher calcium ion release and pH compared with manual mixing for all cements, whilst the ultrasonic method produced smaller particles for the PC-20-Zr cement. Flow, setting times and volume change were not influenced by the mixing method used; however, it did have an impact on solubility. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Expanded Mixed Multiscale Finite Element Methods and Their Applications for Flows in Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, L.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a family of expanded mixed multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and their hybridizations for second-order elliptic equations. This formulation expands the standard mixed multiscale finite element formulation in the sense that four unknowns (hybrid formulation) are solved simultaneously: pressure, gradient of pressure, velocity, and Lagrange multipliers. We use multiscale basis functions for both the velocity and the gradient of pressure. In the expanded mixed MsFEM framework, we consider both separable and nonseparable spatial scales. Specifically, we analyze the methods in three categories: periodic separable scales, G-convergent separable scales, and a continuum of scales. When there is no scale separation, using some global information can significantly improve the accuracy of the expanded mixed MsFEMs. We present a rigorous convergence analysis of these methods that includes both conforming and nonconforming formulations. Numerical results are presented for various multiscale models of flow in porous media with shale barriers that illustrate the efficacy of the proposed family of expanded mixed MsFEMs. © 2012 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  1. Dynamic reflexivity in action: an armchair walkthrough of a qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods study of mindfulness training in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Julianne; Lipschitz, David L; Abrams, Elizabeth M; Vago, David R; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2015-06-01

    Dynamic reflexivity is central to enabling flexible and emergent qualitatively driven inductive mixed-method and multiple methods research designs. Yet too often, such reflexivity, and how it is used at various points of a study, is absent when we write our research reports. Instead, reports of mixed-method and multiple methods research focus on what was done rather than how it came to be done. This article seeks to redress this absence of emphasis on the reflexive thinking underpinning the way that mixed- and multiple methods, qualitatively driven research approaches are thought about and subsequently used throughout a project. Using Morse's notion of an armchair walkthrough, we excavate and explore the layers of decisions we made about how, and why, to use qualitatively driven mixed-method and multiple methods research in a study of mindfulness training (MT) in schoolchildren. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Implementing Quality Criteria in Designing and Conducting a Sequential Quan [right arrow] Qual Mixed Methods Study of Student Engagement with Learning Applied Research Methods Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankova, Nataliya V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of recent methodological developments related to quality assurance in mixed methods research, practical examples of how to implement quality criteria in designing and conducting sequential QUAN [right arrow] QUAL mixed methods studies to ensure the process is systematic and rigorous remain scarce. This article discusses a three-step…

  3. Improving the usefulness of a tool for appraising the quality of qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Quan Nha; Gonzalez-Reyes, Araceli; Pluye, Pierre

    2018-06-01

    Systematic reviews combining qualitative, quantitative, and/or mixed methods studies are increasingly popular because of their potential for addressing complex interventions and phenomena, specifically for assessing and improving clinical practice. A major challenge encountered with this type of review is the appraisal of the quality of individual studies given the heterogeneity of the study designs. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) was developed to help overcome this challenge. The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness of the MMAT by seeking the views and experiences of researchers who have used it. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study using semistructured interviews with MMAT users. A purposeful sample was drawn from the researchers who had previously contacted the developer of the MMAT, and those who have published a systematic review for which they had used the MMAT. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by 2 coders using thematic analysis. Twenty participants from 8 countries were interviewed. Thirteen themes were identified and grouped into the 2 dimensions of usefulness, ie, utility and usability. The themes related to utility concerned the coverage, completeness, flexibility, and other utilities of the tool. Those regarding usability were related to the learnability, efficiency, satisfaction, and errors that could be made due to difficulties understanding or selecting the items to appraise. On the basis of the results of this study, we make several recommendations for improving the MMAT. This will contribute to greater usefulness of the MMAT. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Creating Rich Portraits: A Mixed-Methods Approach to Understanding Profiles of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Wormington, Stephanie V.; Haimovitz, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    A person-centered, mixed-methods approach (self-report surveys, semistructured interviews, school records) was used to characterize and evaluate profiles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations among 243 third- through eighth-grade students. Cluster analysis suggested four distinct profiles: high quantity (high intrinsic, high extrinsic), primarily…

  5. A Mixed Methods Study on Developing Low-Income Kindergarten Students' Intrinsic Reading Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Kara J.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to determine how the effects of kindergarten teachers' evidence-based literacy instructional practices impact the development of low-income kindergarten students' intrinsic reading motivation. The research questions are: (a) What are kindergarten teachers' perceptions of students' intrinsic reading…

  6. Personnel planning in general practices: development and testing of a skill mix analysis method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eitzen-Strassel, J. von; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; Bakker, D.H. de

    2014-01-01

    Background: General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  7. Personnel planning in general practices : Development and testing of a skill mix analysis method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Eitzen-Strassel, J.; Vrijhoef, H.J.M.; Derckx, E.W.C.C.; de Bakker, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    Background General practitioners (GPs) have to match patients’ demands with the mix of their practice staff’s competencies. However, apart from some general principles, there is little guidance on recruiting new staff. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a method which would allow GPs

  8. Managing aging workers: a mixed methods study on bundles of HR practices for aging workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Dorien T. A. M.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; Dikkers, Josje S. E.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2014-01-01

    Since abilities and motives change with age and common human resource (HR) practices might be less suitable for aging employees, scholars and practitioners are currently challenged to find new ways of managing aging workers and motivating them to continue working. Therefore, this mixed methods study

  9. Inkluderende pædagogik - intentioner og virkelighedens verden: et mixed methods forskningsprojekt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyssegaard, Camilla Brørup

    2009-01-01

    Bidraget gvier et indblik i ph.d.-afhandlingen "Inkluderende pædagogik - intentioner og virkelighedens verden: et mixed methods forskningsprojekt. Afhandlingen udgør en del af det strategiske program for velfærdsforskning, der vedrører specialundervisningsområdet. dens overordnede mål er at opnå...

  10. How Do We Know What Is Happening Online?: A Mixed Methods Approach to Analysing Online Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalampidi, Marina; Hammond, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the process of analysing online discussion and argue for the merits of mixed methods. Much research of online participation and e-learning has been either message-focused or person-focused. The former covers methodologies such as content and discourse analysis, the latter interviewing and surveys.…

  11. Using Mixed Methods to Assess Initiatives with Broad-Based Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a process for assessing programmatic initiatives with broad-ranging goals with the use of a mixed-methods design. Using an example of a day-long teaching development conference, this chapter provides practitioners step-by-step guidance on how to implement this assessment process.

  12. Applying the Mixed Methods Instrument Development and Construct Validation Process: the Transformative Experience Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskey, Kristin L. K.; Sondergeld, Toni A.; Stewart, Victoria C.; Pugh, Kevin J.

    2018-01-01

    Onwuegbuzie and colleagues proposed the Instrument Development and Construct Validation (IDCV) process as a mixed methods framework for creating and validating measures. Examples applying IDCV are lacking. We provide an illustrative case integrating the Rasch model and cognitive interviews applied to the development of the Transformative…

  13. A Mixed Methods Examination of the Influence of Dimensions of Support on Training Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Laura A.; Burkholder, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study was to explore how specific dimensions of supervisor support (mentoring, coaching, social support, and task support) influence the transfer of learned knowledge and skills to the job. Quantitative data were collected from employees (N = 48) who develop curriculum at an educational…

  14. The Threat of Unexamined Secondary Data: A Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; Mayorga, Oscar J.

    2018-01-01

    This article uses a critical race theory framework to conceptualize a Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (CRTCMM) in education. CRTCMM is a methodology that challenges normative educational research practices by acknowledging that racism permeates educational institutions and marginalizes Communities of Color. The focus of this…

  15. Understanding Student Stress and Coping in Elementary School: A Mixed-Method, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotardi, Valerie A.

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method, longitudinal study examined daily school stress and coping strategies of elementary schoolchildren in the United States. Students (n = 65) between the ages of 7 and 11 years reported daily school stress measures for 8 weeks and completed individual stress and coping interviews. Results highlight critical relations between…

  16. Curiosity and Pedagogy: A Mixed-Methods Study of Student Experiences in the Design Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Korydon H.

    2010-01-01

    Curiosity is often considered the foundation of learning. There is, however, little understanding of how (or if) pedagogy in higher education affects student curiosity, especially in the studio setting of architecture, interior design, and landscape architecture. This study used mixed-methods to investigate curiosity among design students in the…

  17. Students' Attitudes toward Statistics across the Disciplines: A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, James D.; Adams, Lea T.; Gu, Lucy L.; Hart, Christian L.; Nichols-Whitehead, Penney

    2012-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward statistics were investigated using a mixed-methods approach including a discovery-oriented qualitative methodology among 684 undergraduate students across business, criminal justice, and psychology majors where at least one course in statistics was required. Students were asked about their attitudes toward statistics and…

  18. Investigating the management of diabetes in nursing homes using a mixed methods approach.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2017-03-21

    As populations age there is an increased demand for nursing home (NH) care and a parallel increase in the prevalence of diabetes. Despite this, there is growing evidence that the management of diabetes in NHs is suboptimal. The reasons for this are complex and poorly understood. This study aimed to identify the current level of diabetes care in NHs using a mixed methods approach.

  19. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  20. Learning and Study Strategies of Students with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Erin; Hux, Karen; Zickefoose, Samantha; Simanek, Gina; Holmberg, Michelle; Henderson, Ambyr

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the perceptions of four college students with severe traumatic brain injury and people associated with them regarding the use of learning skills and study strategies. The researchers employed a concurrent mixed method design using descriptive quantitative data as well as qualitative multiple case study…

  1. Next Generation Science Standards: A National Mixed-Methods Study on Teacher Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Susan; Megowan, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) science and engineering practices are ways of eliciting the reasoning and applying foundational ideas in science. As research has revealed barriers to states and schools adopting the NGSS, this mixed-methods study attempts to identify characteristics of professional development (PD) that will support NGSS…

  2. Evaluating the Social Validity of the Early Start Denver Model: A Convergent Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Emily; McCrudden, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    An intervention has social validity to the extent that it is socially acceptable to participants and stakeholders. This pilot convergent mixed methods study evaluated parents' perceptions of the social validity of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a naturalistic behavioral intervention for children with autism. It focused on whether the parents…

  3. Female Juvenile Delinquents' Reactions to a Reading Program: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Dixie; Ritzman, Mitzi; Schaefer, Lauren; Belau, Don

    2010-01-01

    Older students who struggle with reading are more motivated to participate in instructional intervention if they are interested in the program. This mixed methods study examined opinions and reactions of 41 female juvenile delinquents on a 1-hour demonstration of the START-IN (STudents Are Responding To INtervention) reading program. Following a…

  4. Using Mixed Methods to Study First-Year College Impact on Liberal Arts Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Tricia A.; Goodman, Kathleen; King, Patricia M.; Baxter Magolda, Marcia B.

    2010-01-01

    This study details the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data from a national multi-institutional longitudinal mixed methods study of college impact and student development of liberal arts outcomes. The authors found three sets of practices in the quantitative data that corroborated with the themes that emerged from the qualitative data:…

  5. Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Quality in Online Education Courses: A Mixed Methods Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick Myers, Myrell Denice

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine preservice teacher education candidates' perceptions of quality in online education courses within a regional comprehensive university located in Texas. The research questions also addressed students' perceived efficacy in their level of preparedness to: engage in field experiences;…

  6. Engineers' Perceptions of Diversity and the Learning Environment at Work: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Brenda L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation research study was to investigate engineers' perceptions of diversity and the workplace learning environment surrounding diversity education efforts in engineering occupations. The study made use of a mixed methods methodology and was theoretically framed using a critical feminist adult education lens and…

  7. The Effect of English Language Learning on Creative Thinking Skills: A Mixed Methods Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehic, Sandro

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed-methods case study was to investigate the effects of English language learning on creative thinking skills in the domains of fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration as measured with the Alternate Uses Test. Unlike the previous research studies that investigated the links between English…

  8. A Combined Social Action, Mixed Methods Approach to Vocational Guidance Efficacy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a social action, mixed methods approach to verifying the efficacy of vocational guidance programs. Research strategies are discussed in the context of how the processes and purposes of efficacy research have been conceptualized and studied in vocational psychology. Examples of how to implement this approach in future efficacy…

  9. A multipoint flux mixed finite element method on distorted quadrilaterals and hexahedra

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary; Xue, Guangri; Yotov, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a new mixed finite element method for elliptic problems on general quadrilateral and hexahedral grids that reduces to a cell-centered finite difference scheme. A special non-symmetric quadrature rule is employed that yields

  10. Mindful Leaders in Highly Effective Schools: A Mixed-Method Application of Hoy's M-Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, W. Sean; Kelsey, Cheryl; Herrington, David

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a mixed-method study utilizing teacher ratings of principal mindfulness from 149 public schools in Texas and follow-up qualitative data analysis through semi-structured interviews conducted with the top 10 percent of princeipals identified as mindful. This research is based on the theoretical framework of mindfulness as…

  11. Domestication of smartphones and mobile applications: A quantitative mixed-method study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Reuver, G.A.; Nikou, S; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are finding their way into our daily lives. This paper examines the domestication of smartphones by looking at how the way we use mobile applications affects our everyday routines. Data is collected through an innovative quantitative mixed-method approach, combining log data from

  12. Applications of mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods to transient and steady state creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1988-12-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt

  13. Translating Basic Behavioral and Social Science Research to Clinical Application: The EVOLVE Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janey C.; Czajkowski, Susan; Charlson, Mary E.; Link, Alissa R.; Wells, Martin T.; Isen, Alice M.; Mancuso, Carol A.; Allegrante, John P.; Boutin-Foster, Carla; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Jobe, Jared B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe a mixed-methods approach to develop and test a basic behavioral science-informed intervention to motivate behavior change in 3 high-risk clinical populations. Our theoretically derived intervention comprised a combination of positive affect and self-affirmation (PA/SA), which we applied to 3 clinical chronic disease…

  14. Using a Mixed Methods Content Analysis to Analyze Mission Statements from Colleges of Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    A mixed method design was used to conduct a content analysis of the mission statements of colleges of engineering to map inductively derived codes with the EC 2000 outcomes and to test if any of the codes were significantly associated with institutions with reasonably strong representation of women. Most institution's (25 of 48) mission statement…

  15. The creation of the climategate hype in blogs and newspapers: mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, I.; Vasilieadou, E,

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Research into the emergence of a hype requires a mixed methods approach that takes into account both the evolution over time andmutual influences across different types of media. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological approach to detect an emerging hype in online

  16. The creation of the climategate hype in blogs and newspapers : mixed methods approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellsten, I.; Vasileiadou, E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – Research into the emergence of a hype requires a mixed methods approach that takes into account both the evolution over time and mutual influences across different types of media. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodological approach to detect an emerging hype in online

  17. Mixed-Methods Analysis of Rural Special Educators' Role Stressors, Behavior Management, and Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, Justin D.; Werts, Margaret G.; Varghese, Cheryl; Gosey, Leanne

    2018-01-01

    The researchers of this study used a mixed-methods approach to understand issues of rural special education teacher burnout. Results of survey responses (n = 64) and follow-up focus group interviews (n = 12) from rural special education teachers indicated several factors contributing to stress and burnout. Teachers noted that lack of clarity in…

  18. Perceived Family Support, Acculturation, and Life Satisfaction in Mexican American Youth: A Mixed-Methods Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a mixed-methods study designed to explore perceived family support, acculturation, and life satisfaction among 266 Mexican American adolescents. Specifically, the authors conducted a thematic analysis of open-ended responses to a question about life satisfaction to understand participants' perceptions of…

  19. Smartphone Apps for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training and Real Incident Support: A Mixed-Methods Evaluation Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Lenssen, Niklas; Felzen, Marco; Rossaint, Rolf; Tabuenca, Bernardo; Specht, Marcus; Skorning, Max

    2014-01-01

    Background: No systematic evaluation of smartphone/mobile apps for resuscitation training and real incident support is available to date. To provide medical, usability, and additional quality criteria for the development of apps, we conducted a mixed-methods sequential evaluation combining the

  20. Exploring Service Learning Outcomes in Students: A Mixed Methods Study for Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, John F.

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study exploring student outcomes of service learning experiences is inter-disciplinary, near the intersection of higher education research, moral development, and nursing. The specific problem examined in this study is that service learning among university students is utilized by educators, but largely without a full…

  1. Studying the Impact of Academic Mobility on Intercultural Competence: A Mixed-Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cots, Josep M.; Aguilar, Marta; Mas-Alcolea, Sònia; Llanes, Àngels

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to the study of the impact of academic mobility on the development of students' intercultural competence (IC). Following Byram, IC is seen as comprising the three components of knowledge, behaviour and attitude. The study adopts a mixed-methods approach, analysing the results of a quantitative pre-stay post-stay survey…

  2. Filtering apparatus and method for mixing, extraction and/or separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a filtering apparatus and method for mixing a compound of solid and fluid phases, separating the phases and/or extracting fluid from the compound. One embodiment of the invention discloses a filtering apparatus comprising a first filter section accommodating a fir...... in a beer brewing procedure....

  3. The Superconvergence of Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Hyperbolic Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YanpingCHEN; YunqingHUANG

    1998-01-01

    Imprioved L2-error estimates are computed for mixed finte element methods for second order nonlinear hyperbolic equations.Superconvergence results,L∞ in time and discrete L2 in space,are derived for both the solution and gradients on the rectangular domain.Results are given for the continuous-time case.

  4. Hot-mix asphalt testing for the South African pavement design method

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available of local and international hot-mix asphalt (HMA) test methods and modify or adapt them to suit South African road pavement conditions. This paper presents various laboratory HMA test protocols developed as part of the project to revise SAPDM. Large scale...

  5. Understanding University Students' Thoughts and Practices about Digital Citizenship: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Nuri

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate university students' thoughts and practices concerning digital citizenship. An explanatory mixed methods design was used, and it involved collecting qualitative data after a quantitative phase in order to follow up on the quantitative data in more depth. In the first quantitative phase of the study, a…

  6. An Observational Analysis of Coaching Behaviors for Career Development Event Teams: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Anna L.; Bowling, Amanda M.; Sharpless, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    School Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers can use coaching behaviors, along with their agricultural content knowledge to help their Career Development Event (CDE) teams succeed. This mixed methods, collective case study observed three SBAE teachers preparing multiple CDEs throughout the CDE season. The teachers observed had a previous…

  7. Feminist Approaches to Triangulation: Uncovering Subjugated Knowledge and Fostering Social Change in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the deployment of triangulation in the service of uncovering subjugated knowledge and promoting social change for women and other oppressed groups. Feminist approaches to mixed methods praxis create a tight link between the research problem and the research design. An analysis of selected case studies of feminist praxis…

  8. Mixed-Methods Design in Biology Education Research: Approach and Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfa, Abdi-Rizak M

    Educational research often requires mixing different research methodologies to strengthen findings, better contextualize or explain results, or minimize the weaknesses of a single method. This article provides practical guidelines on how to conduct such research in biology education, with a focus on mixed-methods research (MMR) that uses both quantitative and qualitative inquiries. Specifically, the paper provides an overview of mixed-methods design typologies most relevant in biology education research. It also discusses common methodological issues that may arise in mixed-methods studies and ways to address them. The paper concludes with recommendations on how to report and write about MMR. © 2016 L. A.-R. M. Warfa. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Campaign Strategies and Voter Approval of School Referenda: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul A.; Ingle, William Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from state administrative data and surveys of superintendents in Ohio, this mixed methods study examined factors associated with voters' approval of local school levies. Utilizing binomial logistic regression, this study found that new levies and poverty rates were significantly associated with a decrease in the likelihood of passage.…

  10. Educating Linguistically Diverse Students: A Mixed Methods Study of Elementary Teachers' Coursework, Attitudes, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Renée A.

    2016-01-01

    This study followed a mixed-methods sequential explanatory design. Phase I involved the collection of quantitative data to examine inservice teachers' (N = 69) attitudes about language and linguistic diversity as well as their teacher education coursework. All participants were graduates from the same teacher education program. Phase II included…

  11. A mixed nonoverlapping covolume method on quadrilateral grids for elliptic problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, X.; Chen, Y.; Lv, J.

    2016-01-01

    A covolume method is proposed for the mixed formulation of second-order elliptic problems. The solution domain is divided by a quadrilateral grid, corresponding to which a nonoverlapping dual grid is constructed. The velocity and pressure are approximated by the lowest-order Raviart–Thomas space on

  12. Contexts That Matter to the Leadership Development of Latino Male College Students: A Mixed Methods Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Gina A.; Huerta, Adrian H.; Ramirez, Jenesis J.; Patrón, Oscar E.

    2017-01-01

    As the number of Latino males entering college increases, there is a need to understand their unique leadership experiences. This study used a convergent parallel mixed methods design to understand what contexts contribute to Latino male undergraduate students' leadership development, capacity, and experiences. Quantitative data were gathered by…

  13. Education Student Research Paradigms and Emerging Scholar Identities: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick D.; Croxton, Rebecca A.; Kirkman, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Using a mixed-methods approach, this study sought to understand a general sense of paradigm confidence and to see how this confidence relates to doctoral student identities as emerging scholars. Identity development was explored among 46 education doctoral students at a midsized public university in the Southeast. Researchers examined students'…

  14. Communities of Practice: A Research Paradigm for the Mixed Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denscombe, Martyn

    2008-01-01

    The mixed methods approach has emerged as a "third paradigm" for social research. It has developed a platform of ideas and practices that are credible and distinctive and that mark the approach out as a viable alternative to quantitative and qualitative paradigms. However, there are also a number of variations and inconsistencies within the mixed…

  15. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  16. Mixed Methods Analysis of Multicultural Identity and Psychological Help Seeking Beliefs in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jeffrey P.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychological help-seeking beliefs and behaviors of college students has provided evidence for differences among students based on demographic factors, with different variables being salient for different cultural groups. This mixed methods study focuses on understanding how common psychological help-seeking variables, including…

  17. Behavioral Changes Based on a Course in Agroecology: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Kristyn; King, James; Francis, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated and described student perceptions of a course in agroecology to determine if participants experienced changed perceptions and behaviors resulting from the Agroecosystems Analysis course. A triangulation validating quantitative data mixed methods approach included a written survey comprised of both quantitative and open-ended…

  18. Asian American College Students' Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…

  19. Veteran Teacher Engagement in Site-Based Professional Development: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Biaze L.

    2016-01-01

    This research study examined how teachers self-report their levels of engagement, which factors they believe contribute most to their engagement, and which assumptions of andragogy most heavily influence teacher engagement in site-based professional development. This study employed a convergent parallel mixed methods design to study veteran…

  20. Validity Argument for Assessing L2 Pragmatics in Interaction Using Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Soo Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of assessing L2 pragmatics in interaction using mixed methods, focusing on the evaluation inference. Open role-plays that are meaningful and relevant to the stakeholders in an English for Academic Purposes context were developed for classroom assessment. For meaningful score interpretations and accurate…

  1. Cross-Grade Analysis of Chinese Students' English Learning Motivation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian-Mei; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the changes in Chinese students' motivation to learn English from elementary to high school and explored the reasons for these changes at different school levels. A motivational questionnaire was designed and administered to 3,777 elementary, junior high, and high school students, and follow-up interviews were…

  2. Personal Goal Setting and Quality of Life: A Mixed Methods Study of Adult Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Frank

    2017-01-01

    This mixed methods study was designed to examine the potential impactful relationship between personal goal setting and the quality of life satisfaction (built upon the Goal Setting Theory of motivation and performance). The study aimed to determine how influential the goal achievement process is (or is not) regarding personal fulfillment and…

  3. Geo-Nested Analysis: Mixed-Methods Research with Spatially Dependent Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, I.; Ingram, M.C.

    Mixed-methods designs, especially those where cases selected for small-N analysis (SNA) are nested within a large-N analysis (LNA), have become increasingly popular. Yet, since the LNA in this approach assumes that units are independently distributed, such designs are unable to account for spatial

  4. Assessing the Effectiveness of "Wise Guys": A Mixed-Methods Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrman, Judith W.; Gordon, Mellissa; Rahmer, Brian; Moore, Christopher C.; Habermann, Barbara; Haigh, Katherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research raised questions on the validity of survey studies with the teen population. As one response, our team implemented a mixed-methods study to evaluate an evidence-based, interactive curriculum, "Wise Guys," which is designed to promote healthy relationships and sexual behavior in young men ages 4-17. The current study…

  5. Procrastination and Motivation of Undergraduates with Learning Disabilities: A Mixed-Methods Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Krawchuk, Lindsey L.; Lynch, Shane L.; Rajani, Sukaina

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods article was to report two studies exploring the relationships between academic procrastination and motivation in 208 undergraduates with (n = 101) and without (n = 107) learning disabilities (LD). In Study 1, the results from self-report surveys found that individuals with LD reported significantly higher levels…

  6. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Demotivating Factors among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh; Samavarchi, Laila; Hamedi, Seyyedeh Mina

    2017-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate Iranian EFL learners' attitudes towards demotivating factors which may hinder their success in a language learning course. In the quantitative phase, a sample of 337 undergraduate students from universities in Mashhad, Yazd and Gonabad completed a 34-item questionnaire. They also completed…

  7. Key Competencies and Characteristics for Innovative Teaching among Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to understand the key competencies and characteristics for innovative teaching as perceived by Chinese secondary teachers. A mixed-methods research was used to investigate secondary teachers' views. First, a qualitative study was conducted with interviews of teachers to understand the perceived key competencies and…

  8. Development of a Mixed Methods Investigation of Process and Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Alegria, Margarita; Greene-Moton, Ella; Israel, Barbara; Kastelic, Sarah; Magarati, Maya; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Schulz, Amy; Villegas, Malia; White Hat, Emily R.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods study of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership practices and the links between these practices and changes in health status and disparities outcomes. Directed by a CBPR conceptual model and grounded in indigenous-transformative theory, our nation-wide, cross-site study showcases the value…

  9. The "Movement" of Mixed Methods Research and the Role of Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, John W.; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The landscape of research is continually evolving, enabling researchers to study increasingly complex phenomena. Educational researchers have propelled much of this forward progress and have developed novel methodologies to provide increasingly sound and complete evidence. Mixed methods research has emerged alongside quantitative and qualitative…

  10. A Study on the Spatial Abilities of Prospective Social Studies Teachers: A Mixed Method Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurt, Eyüp; Tünkler, Vural

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prospective social studies teachers' spatial abilities. It was conducted with 234 prospective teachers attending Social Studies Teaching departments at Education Faculties of two universities in Central and Southern Anatolia. This study, designed according to the explanatory-sequential design, is a mixed research method,…

  11. Visual Tools for Eliciting Connections and Cohesiveness in Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murawska, Jaclyn M.; Walker, David A.

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary, we offer a set of visual tools that can assist education researchers, especially those in the field of mathematics, in developing cohesiveness from a mixed methods perspective, commencing at a study's research questions and literature review, through its data collection and analysis, and finally to its results. This expounds…

  12. Mixed Methods Research with Internally Displaced Colombian Gay and Bisexual Men and Transwomen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Aguilar-Pardo, Marcela; Betancourt, Fabian; Reisen, Carol A.; Gonzales, Felisa

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the use of mixed methods research to further understanding of displaced Colombian gay and bisexual men and transwomen, a marginalized population at risk. Within the framework of communicative action, which calls for social change through egalitarian dialog, we describe how our multinational, interdisciplinary research team explored the…

  13. Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students' language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program. A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed. Data analysis…

  14. A Survey on Chinese Scholars' Adoption of Mixed Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuchun

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1980s when mixed methods emerged as "the third research methodology", it was widely adopted in Western countries. However, inadequate literature revealed how this methodology was accepted by scholars in Asian countries, such as China. Therefore, this paper used a quantitative survey to investigate Chinese scholars' perceptions…

  15. The promise of mixed-methods for advancing latino health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apesoa-Varano, Ester Carolina; Hinton, Ladson

    2013-09-01

    Mixed-methods research in the social sciences has been conducted for quite some time. More recently, mixed-methods have become popular in health research, with the National Institutes of Health leading the impetus to fund studies that implement such an approach. The public health issues facing us today are great and they range from policy and other macro-level issues, to systems level problems to individuals' health behaviors. For Latinos, who are projected to become the largest minority group bearing a great deal of the burden of social inequality in the U.S., it is important to understand the deeply-rooted nature of these health disparities in order to close the gap in health outcomes. Mixed-methodology thus holds promise for advancing research on Latino heath by tackling health disparities from a variety of standpoints and approaches. The aim of this manuscript is to provide two examples of mixed methods research, each of which addresses a health topic of considerable importance to older Latinos and their families. These two examples will illustrate a) the complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods to advance health of older Latinos in an area that is important from a public health perspective, and b) the "translation" of findings from observational studies (informed by social science and medicine) to the development and testing of interventions.

  16. Innovative Mixed-Methods Research: Moving beyond Design Technicalities to Epistemological and Methodological Realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, A. Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Mixed-methods research (MMR), as an inter-discourse (quantitative and qualitative) methodology, can provide applied linguistics researchers the opportunity to draw on and integrate the strengths of the two research methodological approaches in favour of making more rigorous inferences about research problems. In this article, the argument is made…

  17. Detecting Low Incidents Effects: The Value of Mixed Methods Research Designs in Low-N Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn S.; Newman, Carole; Smith, Shannon; Brown, Russell C.

    2013-01-01

    Many important educational situations such as traumatic brain injury among preschoolers, school gun violence, preadolescent eating disorders, and adolescent suicide happen relatively infrequently. In this article, the authors explain why mixed methods research designs offer more meaningful empirical results than do qualitative or quantitative…

  18. How Do High School Students Solve Probability Problems? A Mixed Methods Study on Probabilistic Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Deleye, Maarten; Saenen, Lore; Van Dooren, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    When studying a complex research phenomenon, a mixed methods design allows to answer a broader set of research questions and to tap into different aspects of this phenomenon, compared to a monomethod design. This paper reports on how a sequential equal status design (QUAN ? QUAL) was used to examine students' reasoning processes when solving…

  19. A Mixed Methods Survey Research Study of Novice Special Education Teachers: Investigation of Reading Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Mary P.

    2017-01-01

    Novice special education teachers have become an integral part of the public and private school systems throughout Pennsylvania. This mixed-methods research study explored the expertise and preparedness of current novice special education teachers. A combination of an electronic survey questionnaire and phone and face-to-face interviews were…

  20. Mixed Methods in Indigenous Research: Building Relationships for Sustainable Intervention Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilisa, Bagele; Tsheko, Gaelebale N.

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous communities raise concerns that they are overresearched and tired of research always asking the same questions and reproducing the same answers, thus pressuring researchers to open the discourse on mixed methods research so as to enable new debates and approaches to emerge. A postcolonial indigenous paradigm provides a theoretical…

  1. Mixed-Methods Research in Language Teaching and Learning: Opportunities, Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riazi, A. Mehdi; Candlin, Christopher N.

    2014-01-01

    This state-of-the-art paper foregrounds mixed-methods research (MMR) in language teaching and learning by discussing and critically reviewing issues related to this newly developed research paradigm. The paper has six sections. The first provides a context for the discussion of MMR through an introductory review of quantitative and qualitative…

  2. Triangulation and Mixed Methods Designs: Data Integration with New Research Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, Nigel G.

    2012-01-01

    Data integration is a crucial element in mixed methods analysis and conceptualization. It has three principal purposes: illustration, convergent validation (triangulation), and the development of analytic density or "richness." This article discusses such applications in relation to new technologies for social research, looking at three…

  3. Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data in Mixed Methods Research--Challenges and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almalki, Sami

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with investigating the integration of quantitative and qualitative data in mixed methods research and whether, in spite of its challenges, it can be of positive benefit to many investigative studies. The paper introduces the topic, defines the terms with which this subject deals and undertakes a literature review to outline…

  4. A Mixed Methods Study of Barriers to Formal Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Laura Foran

    2017-01-01

    Delayed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) into adulthood is common, and self-diagnosis is a growing phenomenon. This mixed methods study aimed to explore barriers to formal diagnosis of ASD in adults. In a qualitative strand, secondary analysis of data on the experiences of 114 individuals who were self-diagnosed or formally diagnosed…

  5. Motivation Beliefs of Secondary School Teachers in Canada and Singapore: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Robert M.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Wong, Isabella; Kates, Allison; Hannok, Wanwisa

    2008-01-01

    A mixed methods approach was used to explore secondary teachers' motivation beliefs in Canada and Singapore. Results from Study 1 revealed that socio-economic status (SES) was the strongest predictor of school climate in Canada, and that collective efficacy mediated the effect of SES on school climate in Singapore, but not in Canada. In Study 2,…

  6. Investigating Learning with an Interactive Tutorial: A Mixed-Methods Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M. R.; Becker, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    From the perspective of parallel mixed-methods research, this paper describes interactivity research that employed usability-testing technology to analyse cognitive learning processes; personal learning styles and times; and errors-and-recovery of learners using an interactive e-learning tutorial called "Relations." "Relations"…

  7. Predicting High School Completion Using Student Performance in High School Algebra: A Mixed Methods Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiado, Wendy S.

    2012-01-01

    Too many of our nation's youth have failed to complete high school. Determining why so many of our nation's students fail to graduate is a complex, multi-faceted problem and beyond the scope of any one study. The study presented herein utilized a thirteen-step mixed methods model developed by Leech and Onwuegbuzie (2007) to demonstrate within a…

  8. Mixed Methods Case Study of Generational Patterns in Responses to Shame and Guilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Moral socialization and moral learning are antecedents of moral motivation. As many as 4 generations interact in workplace and education settings; hence, a deeper understanding of the moral motivation of members of those generations is needed. The purpose of this convergent mixed methods case study was to understand the moral motivation of 5…

  9. Mixed-Methods Resistance Training Increases Power and Strength of Young and Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Robert U.; Hakkinen, Keijo; Hakkinen, Arja; McCormick, Matt; Volek, Jeff; Kraemer, William J.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of a 10-week, mixed-methods resistance training program on young and older men. Although results confirmed some age-related reductions in muscle strength and power, the older men demonstrated similar capacity to the younger men for increases in muscle strength and power via an appropriate, periodized resistance training…

  10. Assessment of condensation of water vapor in the mixing chamber by CFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojkůvková Petra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analyzed topic belongs to the field of design and operation of HVAC systems, focusing mainly on mixing chambers. The paper deals with problems of condensation and freezing of water vapour on walls of mixing chambers in a special case, when the partial pressure of the final resulting state of the mixture of warm moist air and colder air is located above the saturation limit. Experimental in situ methods and computer computational fluid dynamics (CFD modelling method were used for processing. The main contribution of this work is the finding that partial condensation and freezing of water vapour may occur in local parts of the mixing chamber. It causes problems in terms of hygienic safety and service life of these devices. In particular it has been found that condensation and freezing of water vapour may occur even if relative humidity of the resulting mixture is about 70 %.

  11. Development of a Hybrid RANS/LES Method for Turbulent Mixing Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Reshotko, Eli

    2001-01-01

    Significant research has been underway for several years in NASA Glenn Research Center's nozzle branch to develop advanced computational methods for simulating turbulent flows in exhaust nozzles. The primary efforts of this research have concentrated on improving our ability to calculate the turbulent mixing layers that dominate flows both in the exhaust systems of modern-day aircraft and in those of hypersonic vehicles under development. As part of these efforts, a hybrid numerical method was recently developed to simulate such turbulent mixing layers. The method developed here is intended for configurations in which a dominant structural feature provides an unsteady mechanism to drive the turbulent development in the mixing layer. Interest in Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods have increased in recent years, but applying an LES method to calculate the wide range of turbulent scales from small eddies in the wall-bounded regions to large eddies in the mixing region is not yet possible with current computers. As a result, the hybrid method developed here uses a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) procedure to calculate wall-bounded regions entering a mixing section and uses a LES procedure to calculate the mixing-dominated regions. A numerical technique was developed to enable the use of the hybrid RANS-LES method on stretched, non-Cartesian grids. With this technique, closure for the RANS equations is obtained by using the Cebeci-Smith algebraic turbulence model in conjunction with the wall-function approach of Ota and Goldberg. The LES equations are closed using the Smagorinsky subgrid scale model. Although the function of the Cebeci-Smith model to replace all of the turbulent stresses is quite different from that of the Smagorinsky subgrid model, which only replaces the small subgrid turbulent stresses, both are eddy viscosity models and both are derived at least in part from mixing-length theory. The similar formulation of these two models enables the RANS

  12. Points of Convergence in Music Education: The Use of Data Labels as a Strategy for Mixed Methods Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kate R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the mixing of quantitative and qualitative data is an essential component of mixed methods research, the process of integrating both types of data in meaningful ways can be challenging. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of data labels in mixed methods research as a technique for the integration of qualitative and…

  13. Explicating Metatheory for Mixed Methods Research in Educational Leadership: An Application of Habermas's "Theory of Communicative Action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Rodney S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Mixed methods research can provide a fruitful line of inquiry for educational leadership, program evaluation, and policy analysis; however, mixed methods research requires a metatheory that allows for mixing what have traditionally been considered incompatible qualitative and quantitative inquiry. The purpose of this paper is to apply…

  14. A method to estimate the height of temperature inversion layer and the effective mixing depht

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, D.

    1978-05-01

    A review of the concept PBL or turbulent boundary layer is made as it is understood in meteorology. Some features of the PBL parameterization are also discussed, as well as the methods used to estimate the temperature inversion heights during morning and afternoon hours. The study bases on the assumption of the dry adiabatic lapse rate in the mixing layer that is, water vapor and airborne material are supposed to be homogeneously mixed below the inversion layer or in the effective mixing depth. The mean mixing heights over Rio de Janeiro area respectively about 500m and 1000m at morning and afternoon hours. For Sao Paulo these values are respectively 400m and 1300m at morning and afternoon hours [pt

  15. Modeling the Bergeron-Findeisen Process Using PDF Methods With an Explicit Representation of Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C.; Reisner, J.

    2005-12-01

    Currently, the accurate prediction of cloud droplet and ice crystal number concentration in cloud resolving, numerical weather prediction and climate models is a formidable challenge. The Bergeron-Findeisen process in which ice crystals grow by vapor deposition at the expense of super-cooled droplets is expected to be inhomogeneous in nature--some droplets will evaporate completely in centimeter-scale filaments of sub-saturated air during turbulent mixing while others remain unchanged [Baker et al., QJRMS, 1980]--and is unresolved at even cloud-resolving scales. Despite the large body of observational evidence in support of the inhomogeneous mixing process affecting cloud droplet number [most recently, Brenguier et al., JAS, 2000], it is poorly understood and has yet to be parameterized and incorporated into a numerical model. In this talk, we investigate the Bergeron-Findeisen process using a new approach based on simulations of the probability density function (PDF) of relative humidity during turbulent mixing. PDF methods offer a key advantage over Eulerian (spatial) models of cloud mixing and evaporation: the low probability (cm-scale) filaments of entrained air are explicitly resolved (in probability space) during the mixing event even though their spatial shape, size and location remain unknown. Our PDF approach reveals the following features of the inhomogeneous mixing process during the isobaric turbulent mixing of two parcels containing super-cooled water and ice, respectively: (1) The scavenging of super-cooled droplets is inhomogeneous in nature; some droplets evaporate completely at early times while others remain unchanged. (2) The degree of total droplet evaporation during the initial mixing period depends linearly on the mixing fractions of the two parcels and logarithmically on Damköhler number (Da)---the ratio of turbulent to evaporative time-scales. (3) Our simulations predict that the PDF of Lagrangian (time-integrated) subsaturation (S) goes as

  16. Coupling multipoint flux mixed finite element methodswith continuous Galerkin methods for poroelasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary

    2013-11-16

    We study the numerical approximation on irregular domains with general grids of the system of poroelasticity, which describes fluid flow in deformable porous media. The flow equation is discretized by a multipoint flux mixed finite element method and the displacements are approximated by a continuous Galerkin finite element method. First-order convergence in space and time is established in appropriate norms for the pressure, velocity, and displacement. Numerical results are presented that illustrate the behavior of the method. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013.

  17. A new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism: Response to mixed LED light system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Pan, Jinming; Ying, Yibin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-05-01

    Present study introduced a new method to manipulate broiler chicken growth and metabolism by mixing the growth-advantage LED. We found that the green/blue LED mixed light system (G-B and G × B) have the similar stimulatory effect on chick body weight with single green light and single blue light (G and B), compared with normal artificial light (P = 0.028). Moreover, the percentage of carcass was significantly greater in the mixed light (G × B) when compared with the single light (P = 0.003). Synchronized with body weight, the mixed light (G-B and G × B) had a significant improved influence on the feed conversion of birds compared with normal light (P = 0.002). A significant improvement in feed conversion were found in mixed light (G × B) compared with single LED light (P = 0.037). G group resulted in a greater high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than B group (P = 0.002), whereas B group resulted in a greater low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level than G group (P = 0.017). The mixed light significantly increased the birds’ glucose level in comparison with the single light (P = 0.003). This study might establish an effective strategy for maximizing growth of chickens by mixed LED technology.

  18. Method of interior boundaries in a mixed problem of acoustic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Krutitskii

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed problem for the Helmholtz equation in the exterior of several bodies (obstacles is studied in 2 and 3 dimensions. The Dirichlet boundary condition is given on some obstacles and the impedance boundary condition is specified on the rest. The problem is investigated by a special modification of the boundary integral equation method. This modification can be called ‘Method of interior boundaries’, because additional boundaries are introduced inside scattering bodies, where impedance boundary condition is given. The solution of the problem is obtained in the form of potentials on the whole boundary. The density in the potentials satisfies the uniquely solvable Fredholm equation of the second kind and can be computed by standard codes. In fact our method holds for any positive wave numbers. The Neumann, Dirichlet, impedance problems and mixed Dirichlet–Neumann problem are particular cases of our problem.

  19. Adding Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research to Health Intervention Studies: Interacting With Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R Burke; Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how to improve intervention designs, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs), in health science research using a process philosophy and theory known as dialectical pluralism (DP). DP views reality as plural and uses dialectical, dialogical, and hermeneutical approaches to knowledge construction. Using DP and its "both/and" logic, and its attempt to produce new creative syntheses, researchers on heterogeneous teams can better dialogue with qualitative and mixed methods approaches, concepts, paradigms, methodologies, and methods to improve their intervention research studies. The concept of reflexivity is utilized but is expanded when it is a component of DP. Examples of strategies for identifying, inviting, and creating divergence and integrative strategies for producing strong mixed methods intervention studies are provided and illustrated using real-life examples. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Model's sparse representation based on reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Lijian, E-mail: ljjiang@hnu.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Qiuqi, E-mail: qiuqili@hnu.edu.cn [College of Mathematics and Econometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a model's sparse representation based on reduced mixed generalized multiscale finite element (GMsFE) basis methods for elliptic PDEs with random inputs. A typical application for the elliptic PDEs is the flow in heterogeneous random porous media. Mixed generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) is one of the accurate and efficient approaches to solve the flow problem in a coarse grid and obtain the velocity with local mass conservation. When the inputs of the PDEs are parameterized by the random variables, the GMsFE basis functions usually depend on the random parameters. This leads to a large number degree of freedoms for the mixed GMsFEM and substantially impacts on the computation efficiency. In order to overcome the difficulty, we develop reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods such that the multiscale basis functions are independent of the random parameters and span a low-dimensional space. To this end, a greedy algorithm is used to find a set of optimal samples from a training set scattered in the parameter space. Reduced mixed GMsFE basis functions are constructed based on the optimal samples using two optimal sampling strategies: basis-oriented cross-validation and proper orthogonal decomposition. Although the dimension of the space spanned by the reduced mixed GMsFE basis functions is much smaller than the dimension of the original full order model, the online computation still depends on the number of coarse degree of freedoms. To significantly improve the online computation, we integrate the reduced mixed GMsFE basis methods with sparse tensor approximation and obtain a sparse representation for the model's outputs. The sparse representation is very efficient for evaluating the model's outputs for many instances of parameters. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods, we present a few numerical examples for elliptic PDEs with multiscale and random inputs. In particular, a two-phase flow model in

  1. Development of a method for research in sports policy in Brazil: an approach to method of mixed research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Marinho Mezzadri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a method of mixed research for the study of Sport public policy in Brazil. To reach the result, the text was divided into two phases. In the first, it presents a conceptual model for the qualitative analysis of Brazilian public policies directed to the sport. This phase will still be divided into two stages. The first is the construction of a theoretical framework for the interpretation of the study on public policies and the other one demonstrates a conceptual methodological contribution based on the sociology of Pierre Bourdieu. In the second phase it is developed an analysis of the quantitative part which aims to interpret the data that were collected in the empirical part of the research. Later, it will be possible to produce a model of assessment, monitoring, and, especially, the improvement of public policies for Brazilian sport.

  2. Workplace-related generational characteristics of nurses: A mixed-method systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanin, Simone; Palese, Alvisa; Bressan, Valentina; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Kvist, Tarja

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and summarize workplace characteristics of three nursing generations: Baby Boomers, Generations X and Y. Generational differences affect occupational well-being, nurses' performance, patient outcomes and safety; therefore, nurse managers, administrators and educators are interested increasingly in making evidence-based decisions about the multigenerational nursing workforce. Mixed-method systematic review. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus (January 1991-January 2017). (1) The Joanna Briggs Institute's method for conducting mixed-method systematic reviews; (2) the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and (3) the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research guidelines. The studies' methodological quality was assessed with the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool. Quantitative and mixed-method studies were transformed into qualitative methods using a convergent qualitative synthesis and qualitative findings were combined with a narrative synthesis. Thirty-three studies were included with three main themes and 11 subthemes: (1) Job attitudes (work engagement; turnover intentions, reasons for leaving; reasons, incentives/disincentives to continue nursing); (2) Emotion-related job aspects (stress/resilience; well-being/job satisfaction; affective commitment; unit climate; work ethic) and (3) Practice and leadership-related aspects (autonomy; perceived competence; leadership relationships and perceptions). Baby Boomers reported lower levels of stress and burnout than did Generations X and Y, different work engagement, factors affecting workplace well-being and retention and greater intention to leave compared with Generation Y, which was less resilient, but more cohesive. Although several studies reported methodological limitations and conflicting findings, generational differences in nurses' job attitudes, emotional, practice and leadership factors should be considered to enhance

  3. Critical assessment of extracellular polymeric substances extraction methods from mixed culture biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer i Nàcher, Carles; Domingo Felez, Carlos; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem

    2013-01-01

    . This study presents a rigorous and critical assessment of existing physical and chemical EPS extraction methods applied to mixed-culture biomass samples (nitrifying, nitritation-anammox, and activated sludge biomass). A novel fluorescence-based method was developed and calibrated to quantify the lysis...... potential of different EPS extraction protocols. We concluded that commonly used methods to assess cell lysis (DNA concentrations or G6PDH activities in EPS extracts) do not correlate with cell viability. Furthermore, we discovered that the presence of certain chemicals in EPS extracts results in severe...... underestimation of protein and carbohydrate concentrations by using standard analytical methods. Keeping both maximum EPS extraction yields and minimal biomass lysis as criteria, it was identified a sonication-based extraction method as the best to determine and compare tightly-bound EPS fractions in different...

  4. Development of Mix Design Method in Efforts to Increase Concrete Performance Using Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisnamurti; Soehardjono, A.; Zacoeb, A.; Wibowo, A.

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake disaster can cause infrastructure damage. Prevention of human casualties from disasters should do. Prevention efforts can do through improving the mechanical performance of building materials. To achieve high-performance concrete (HPC), usually used Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). However, the most widely circulating cement types today are Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) or Portland Composite Cement (PCC). Therefore, the proportion of materials used in the HPC mix design needs to adjust to achieve the expected performance. This study aims to develop a concrete mix design method using PPC to fulfil the criteria of HPC. The study refers to the code/regulation of concrete mixtures that use OPC based on the results of laboratory testing. This research uses PPC material, gravel from Malang area, Lumajang sand, water, silica fume and superplasticizer of a polycarboxylate copolymer. The analyzed information includes the investigation results of aggregate properties, concrete mixed composition, water-binder ratio variation, specimen dimension, compressive strength and elasticity modulus of the specimen. The test results show that the concrete compressive strength achieves value between 25 MPa to 55 MPa. The mix design method that has developed can simplify the process of concrete mix design using PPC to achieve the certain desired performance of concrete.

  5. Low Thermal Pretreatment as Method for Increasing the Bioavailability of Organic Matters in Domestic Mixed Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seswoya Roslinda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practice, primary and secondary sludge are fed into anaerobic digestion. However, the microbial cell exists in secondary sludge are an unfavorable substrate for biodegradation. Thermal pretreatment is proved to increase the bioavailability of organic and improve the biodegradation subsequently. During low thermal pretreatment, both intracellular (within the microbial cell and extracellular (within the polymeric network materials were extracted. This process increases the bioavailability meaning that organic compounds are accessible to the microorganisms for their degradation. This research aims to investigate the effect of thermal pretreatment on domestic mixed sludge disintegration. Domestic mixed sludge was thermally treated at 70°C for various holding times. The pre-thermally treated domestic mixed sludge was measured for protein and carbohydrates following the Lowry Method, and Phenol-Sulphuric Acid Method respectively. DR 6000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer, DRB200 Reactor (digester and COD vial (TNT plus 822 were used for COD determination, based on Reactor Digestion Method approved by USEPA. The results showed that the organic matter in domestic mixed sludge is efficiently solubilised during thermal treatment organic matter. The higher soluble yield for each monitored parameter determined in this study indicated that low thermal pretreatment improve bioavailability.

  6. Field measurement of mixing degree in coal mixer by later activable tracer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokooji, Makoto; Uemura, Katsumi; Adachi, Syoichi

    1975-01-01

    Mixing effectiveness in a rotary drum mixer for coke production was examined. Though the method to use the dispersion of characteristic values such as ash content or volatile components is common for measuring the mixing effectiveness, here the later activable tracer method with radioisotopes was employed, because the former method includes the dispersion of the characteristic values for raw materials themselves, and is poor in detectability. In a preliminary test, the expression for mixing degree was determined, and the tracer nuclide was selected. Coal mixture was irradiated in the TRIGA II reactor of St. Paul University for 4 hours at 100 kW. then further preliminary test was performed for La and Mn which were selected among the typical usable elements listed up by reviewing their γ-spectra. Finally, Mn was adopted by comparing both elements regarding their time required for activation analysis and economy. Manganese concentration originally contained in the coal mixture was 38 ppm. Mixing degree after passing through the coal mixer was 99.8%. The results of the regular test are shown in a table, and indicate that the mixer fully attained its aim. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. A Digital Mixed Methods Research Design: Integrating Multimodal Analysis with Data Mining and Information Visualization for Big Data Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, Kay L.; Tan, Sabine; Pham, Duc-Son; Bateman, John; Vande Moere, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    This article demonstrates how a digital environment offers new opportunities for transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in order to use data mining and information visualization for mixed methods research. The digital approach to mixed methods research is illustrated by a framework which combines qualitative methods of multimodal…

  8. Numerical evaluation of fluid mixing phenomena in boiling water reactor using advanced interface tracking method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic design of the current boiling water reactor (BWR) is performed with the subchannel analysis codes which incorporated the correlations based on empirical results including actual-size tests. Then, for the Innovative Water Reactor for Flexible Fuel Cycle (FLWR) core, an actual size test of an embodiment of its design is required to confirm or modify such correlations. In this situation, development of a method that enables the thermal-hydraulic design of nuclear reactors without these actual size tests is desired, because these tests take a long time and entail great cost. For this reason, we developed an advanced thermal-hydraulic design method for FLWRs using innovative two-phase flow simulation technology. In this study, a detailed Two-Phase Flow simulation code using advanced Interface Tracking method: TPFIT is developed to calculate the detailed information of the two-phase flow. In this paper, firstly, we tried to verify the TPFIT code by comparing it with the existing 2-channel air-water mixing experimental results. Secondary, the TPFIT code was applied to simulation of steam-water two-phase flow in a model of two subchannels of a current BWRs and FLWRs rod bundle. The fluid mixing was observed at a gap between the subchannels. The existing two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing is evaluated using detailed numerical simulation data. This data indicates that pressure difference between fluid channels is responsible for the fluid mixing, and thus the effects of the time average pressure difference and fluctuations must be incorporated in the two-phase flow correlation for fluid mixing. When inlet quality ratio of subchannels is relatively large, it is understood that evaluation precision of the existing two-phase flow correlations for fluid mixing are relatively low. (author)

  9. Optimal Error Estimates of Two Mixed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Integro-Differential Equations with Nonsmooth Initial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Pani, Amiya K.; Yadav, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this article, a new mixed method is proposed and analyzed for parabolic integro-differential equations (PIDE) with nonsmooth initial data. Compared to the standard mixed method for PIDE, the present method does not bank on a

  10. Probability density function method for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence and mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakosi, Jozsef; Ristorcelli, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    Probability density function (PDF) methods are extended to variable-density pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. We apply the new method to compute the joint PDF of density and velocity in a non-premixed binary mixture of different-density molecularly mixing fluids under gravity. The full time-evolution of the joint PDF is captured in the highly non-equilibrium flow: starting from a quiescent state, transitioning to fully developed turbulence and finally dissipated by molecular diffusion. High-Atwood-number effects (as distinguished from the Boussinesq case) are accounted for: both hydrodynamic turbulence and material mixing are treated at arbitrary density ratios, with the specific volume, mass flux and all their correlations in closed form. An extension of the generalized Langevin model, originally developed for the Lagrangian fluid particle velocity in constant-density shear-driven turbulence, is constructed for variable-density pressure-gradient-driven flows. The persistent small-scale anisotropy, a fundamentally 'non-Kolmogorovian' feature of flows under external acceleration forces, is captured by a tensorial diffusion term based on the external body force. The material mixing model for the fluid density, an active scalar, is developed based on the beta distribution. The beta-PDF is shown to be capable of capturing the mixing asymmetry and that it can accurately represent the density through transition, in fully developed turbulence and in the decay process. The joint model for hydrodynamics and active material mixing yields a time-accurate evolution of the turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress anisotropy without resorting to gradient diffusion hypotheses, and represents the mixing state by the density PDF itself, eliminating the need for dubious mixing measures. Direct numerical simulations of the homogeneous Rayleigh-Taylor instability are used for model validation.

  11. Study of technological parameters influence on homogeneity of rubber mixings by means of radiotracer methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koczorowska, E.

    1995-01-01

    The radiotracer methods have been worked out for analysis of physico-chemical phenomena. The analysis were carried out for rubber mixings in technological conditions and played a deciding role for quality of manufacturing assortment. The 35 S and 65 Zn have been used as radiotracers. Analysis of different technological parameters influence on behaviour of soluble and polymerized sulfur, zinc compounds as well as other components of the rubber mixing enables to formulate the conclusions important for rubber industry and technology from view point of quality of manufacturing products

  12. Research on Weak Fault Extraction Method for Alleviating the Mode Mixing of LMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the strong background noise, the energy entropy of early fault signals of bearings are weak under actual working conditions. Therefore, extracting the bearings’ early fault features has always been a major difficulty in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Based on the above problems, the masking method is introduced into the Local Mean Decomposition (LMD decomposition process, and a weak fault extraction method based on LMD and mask signal (MS is proposed. Due to the mode mixing of the product function (PF components decomposed by LMD in the noisy background, it is difficult to distinguish the authenticity of the fault frequency. Therefore, the MS method is introduced to deal with the PF components that are decomposed by the LMD and have strong correlation with the original signal, so as to suppress the modal aliasing phenomenon and extract the fault frequencies. In this paper, the actual fault signal of the rolling bearing is analyzed. By combining the MS method with the LMD method, the fault signal mixed with the noise is processed. The kurtosis value at the fault frequency is increased by eight-fold, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is increased by 19.1%. The fault signal is successfully extracted by the proposed composite method.

  13. Mixed-Method Nursing Research: "A Public and Its Problems?" A Commentary on French Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique

    2014-02-01

    Nursing in France is undergoing a transition. In 2009, the preregistration nursing education program was reformed in line with the European Bologna Process, bringing nursing education to the universities. In 2010, the French Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Infirmière, the first national French nursing research funding program, was launched by the French Health Ministry. Of the 149 French research proposals submitted by registered nurses in 2010 and 2011, 13 were mixed-method proposals. The registered nurse principal investigator argued for a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods. These trends highlight major issues regarding mixed-method and nursing research. We can reasonably assume that mixed-method research has a broad appeal for nurse scholars, particularly for the exploration of complex phenomena related to nursing. Moreover, the recent movement in the domain of nursing education and research experienced in France highlights the need for dedicated research education in the development of nursing research capacity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chatwood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required.

  15. Health risk behaviours amongst school adolescents: protocol for a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youness El Achhab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining risky behaviours of adolescents provides valuable information for designing appropriate intervention programmes for advancing adolescent’s health. However, these behaviours are not fully addressed by researchers in a comprehensive approach. We report the protocol of a mixed methods study designed to investigate the health risk behaviours of Moroccan adolescents with the goal of identifying suitable strategies to address their health concerns. Methods We used a sequential two-phase explanatory mixed method study design. The approach begins with the collection of quantitative data, followed by the collection of qualitative data to explain and enrich the quantitative findings. In the first phase, the global school-based student health survey (GSHS was administered to 800 students who were between 14 and 19 years of age. The second phase engaged adolescents, parents and teachers in focus groups and assessed education documents to explore the level of coverage of health education in the programme learnt in the middle school. To obtain opinions about strategies to reduce Moroccan adolescents’ health risk behaviours, a nominal group technique will be used. Discussion The findings of this mixed methods sequential explanatory study provide insights into the risk behaviours that need to be considered if intervention programmes and preventive strategies are to be designed to promote adolescent’s health in the Moroccan school.

  16. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required. PMID:26004427

  17. Numerical methods for the prediction of thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannink, M.H.C.; Blom, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing is caused by moving temperature spots on the pipe wall. → Passing temperature spots cause temperature fluctuations of sinusoidal nature. → Input parameters for a sinusoidal model can be obtained by linking it with a coupled CFD-FEM model. → Overconservatism of the sinusoidal method can be reduced, having more knowledge on thermal loads. - Abstract: Turbulent mixing of hot and cold flows is one of the possible causes of thermal fatigue in piping systems. Especially in primary pipework of nuclear power plants this is an important, safety related issue. Since the frequencies of the involved temperature fluctuations are generally too high to be detected well by common plant instrumentation, accurate numerical simulations are indispensable for a proper fatigue assessment. In this paper, a link is made between two such numerical methods: a coupled CFD-FEM model and a sinusoidal model. By linking these methods, more insight is obtained in the physical phenomenon causing thermal fatigue due to turbulent mixing. Furthermore, useful knowledge is acquired on the determination of thermal loading parameters, essential for reducing overconservatism, as currently present in simplified fatigue assessment methods.

  18. Using a mixed-methods design to examine nurse practitioner integration in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangster-Gormley, Esther; Griffith, Janessa; Schreiber, Rita; Borycki, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    To discuss and provide examples of how mixed-methods research was used to evaluate the integration of nurse practitioners (NPs) into a Canadian province. Legislation enabling NPs to practise in British Columbia (BC) was enacted in 2005. This research evaluated the integration of NPs and their effect on the BC healthcare system. Data were collected using surveys, focus groups, participant interviews and case studies over three years. Data sources and methods were triangulated to determine how the findings addressed the research questions. The challenges and benefits of using the multiphase design are highlighted in the paper. The multiphase mixed-methods research design was selected because of its applicability to evaluation research. The design proved to be robust and flexible in answering research questions. As sub-studies within the multiphase design are often published separately, it can be difficult for researchers to find examples. This paper highlights ways that a multiphase mixed-methods design can be conducted for researchers unfamiliar with the process.

  19. Analysis research on mixing characteristics of lower plenum of Qinshan phase Ⅱ NPP by CFD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Huihui; He Peifeng; Lu Chuan; Zhang Hongliang

    2015-01-01

    The flowing and mixing characteristics of the lower plenum of Qinshan Phase n NPP were analyzed by CFD method. The calculation results were compared with the results of the reactor hydraulic simulation test. On core inlet mass flow distributions, both upwind and high resolution advection schemes show good agreements with test results. While on lower plenum mixing characteristics, the calculation results from either upwind or high resolution advection schemes show relatively large differences to the test data. Relatively, upwind advection schemes predict better anticipations on maximum and minimum mixing factors. Furthermore, whether or not considering helix flow by main pump is the most possible key factor that leads to difference between CFD calculation and test results. (authors)

  20. On a separating method for mixed-modes crack growth in wood material using image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutou Pitti, R.; Dubois, F.; Pop, O.

    2010-06-01

    Due to the complex wood anatomy and the loading orientation, the timber elements are subjected to a mixed-mode fracture. In these conditions, the crack tip advance is characterized by mixed-mode kinematics. In order to characterize the fracture process function versus the loading orientation, a new mixed-mode crack growth timber specimen is proposed. In the present paper, the design process and the experimental validation of this specimen are proposed. Using experimental results, the energy release rate is calculated for several modes. The calculi consist on the separation of each fracture mode. The design of the specimen is based on the analytical approach and numerical simulation by finite element method. The specimen particularity is the stability of the crack propagation under a force control.

  1. Advances in mixed-integer programming methods for chemical production scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Sara; Maravelias, Christos T

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to critically review advances in the area of chemical production scheduling over the past three decades and then present two recently proposed solution methods that have led to dramatic computational enhancements. First, we present a general framework and problem classification and discuss modeling and solution methods with an emphasis on mixed-integer programming (MIP) techniques. Second, we present two solution methods: (a) a constraint propagation algorithm that allows us to compute parameters that are then used to tighten MIP scheduling models and (b) a reformulation that introduces new variables, thus leading to effective branching. We also present computational results and an example illustrating how these methods are implemented, as well as the resulting enhancements. We close with a discussion of open research challenges and future research directions.

  2. Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibert, P.; Beyrich, F.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2002-01-01

    The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) or the mixing height (MH) is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. Two basic possibilities for the practical determination of the MH are its derivation from profile data (measurements or numerical model...... output) and its parameterisation using simple equations or models (which only need a few measured input values). Different methods suggested in the literature are reviewed in this paper. The most important methods have been tested on data sets from three different sites in Europe (Cabauw—NL, Payerne......—CH, Melpitz—D). Parcel and Richardson number methods applied to radiosonde profiles and the analysis of sodar and wind profiler data have been investigated. Modules for MH determination implemented in five currently used meteorological preprocessors for dispersion models have been tested, too. Parcel methods...

  3. Technical Efficiency and Organ Transplant Performance: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Pablos-Heredero, Carmen; Fernández-Renedo, Carlos; Medina-Merodio, Jose-Amelio

    2015-01-01

    Mixed methods research is interesting to understand complex processes. Organ transplants are complex processes in need of improved final performance in times of budgetary restrictions. As the main objective a mixed method approach is used in this article to quantify the technical efficiency and the excellence achieved in organ transplant systems and to prove the influence of organizational structures and internal processes in the observed technical efficiency. The results show that it is possible to implement mechanisms for the measurement of the different components by making use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The analysis show a positive relationship between the levels related to the Baldrige indicators and the observed technical efficiency in the donation and transplant units of the 11 analyzed hospitals. Therefore it is possible to conclude that high levels in the Baldrige indexes are a necessary condition to reach an increased level of the service offered. PMID:25950653

  4. Attempts at estimating mixed venous carbon dioxide tension by the single-breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Takatani, O; Matsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The single-breath method was originally proposed by Kim et al. [1] for estimating the blood carbon dioxide tension and cardiac output. Its reliability has not been proven. The present study was undertaken, using dogs, to compare the mixed venous carbon dioxide tension (PVCO2) calculated by the single-breath method with the PVCO2 measured in mixed venous blood, and to evaluate the influence of variations in the exhalation duration and the volume of expired air usually discarded from computations as the deadspace. Among the exhalation durations of 15, 30 and 45 s tested, the 15 s duration was found to be too short to obtain an analyzable O2-CO2 curve, but at either 30 or 45 s, the calculated values of PVCO2 were comparable to the measured PVCO2. A significant agreement between calculated and measured PVCO2 was obtained when the expired gas with PCO2 less than 22 Torr was considered as deadspace gas.

  5. An equivalent method of mixed dielectric constant in passive microwave/millimeter radiometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jinlong; Tian, Yan; Hu, Fei; Gui, Liangqi; Cheng, Yayun; Peng, Xiaohui

    2017-10-01

    Dielectric constant is an important role to describe the properties of matter. This paper proposes This paper proposes the concept of mixed dielectric constant(MDC) in passive microwave radiometric measurement. In addition, a MDC inversion method is come up, Ratio of Angle-Polarization Difference(RAPD) is utilized in this method. The MDC of several materials are investigated using RAPD. Brightness temperatures(TBs) which calculated by MDC and original dielectric constant are compared. Random errors are added to the simulation to test the robustness of the algorithm. Keywords: Passive detection, microwave/millimeter, radiometric measurement, ratio of angle-polarization difference (RAPD), mixed dielectric constant (MDC), brightness temperatures, remote sensing, target recognition.

  6. Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate a Community Intervention for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews current epistemological and design issues in the mixed methods literature and then examines the application of one specific design, a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, in an evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve postassault care for sexual assault survivors. Guided by a pragmatist epistemological framework, this study collected quantitative and qualitative data to understand how the implementation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program affected prosecution rates of adult sexual assault cases in a large midwestern community. Quantitative results indicated that the program was successful in affecting legal systems change and the qualitative data revealed the mediating mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness. Challenges of implementing this design are discussed, including epistemological and practical difficulties that developed from blending methodologies into a single project. © The Author(s) 2011.

  7. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna, E-mail: malgrad@gmail.com; Woods, Brian G., E-mail: brian.woods@oregonstate.edu

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  8. Development of thermal mixing enhancement method for lower plenum of the High Temperature Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradecka, Malwina Joanna; Woods, Brian G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Coolant mixing in lower plenum might be insufficient and pose operational issues. • Two mixing methods were developed to lower the coolant temperature variation. • The methods resulted with reduction of the temperature variation by 60% and 71%. - Abstract: The High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is one of the most mature Gen IV reactor concepts under development today. The High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) at Oregon State University is a test facility that supports the R&D needs for HTGRs. This study focuses on the issue of helium mixing after the core section in the HTTF, the results of which are generally applicable in HTGRs. In the HTTF, hot helium jets at different temperatures are supposed to uniformly mix in the lower plenum (LP) chamber. However, the level of mixing is not sufficient to reduce the peak helium temperature before the hot jet impinges the LP structure, which can cause issues with structural materials and operational issues in the heat exchanger downstream. The maximum allowable temperature variation in the outlet duct connected to the lower plenum is defined as 40 K (±20 K from the average temperature), while the CFD simulations of this study indicate that the reference design suffers temperature variations in the duct as high as 100 K. To solve this issue, the installation of mixing-enhancing structures within the outlet duct were proposed and analyzed using CFD modeling. We show that using either an optimized “Kwiat” structure (developed in this study) or a motionless mixer installed in the outlet duct, the temperature variations can be brought dramatically, with acceptable increases in pressure drop. The optimal solution appears to be to install double motionless mixers with long blades in the outlet duct, which brings the temperature variation into the acceptable range (from 100 K down to 18 K), with a resulting pressure drop increase in the HTTF loop of 0.73 kPa (6% of total pressure drop).

  9. Prediction of free turbulent mixing using a turbulent kinetic energy method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, P. T.

    1973-01-01

    Free turbulent mixing of two-dimensional and axisymmetric one- and two-stream flows is analyzed by a relatively simple turbulent kinetic energy method. This method incorporates a linear relationship between the turbulent shear and the turbulent kinetic energy and an algebraic relationship for the length scale appearing in the turbulent kinetic energy equation. Good results are obtained for a wide variety of flows. The technique is shown to be especially applicable to flows with heat and mass transfer, for which nonunity Prandtl and Schmidt numbers may be assumed.

  10. Mandatory early warning scoring-implementation evaluated with a mixed-methods approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bunkenborg, Gitte; Poulsen, Ingrid; Samuelson, Karin

    2016-01-01

    to such interventions is required to correctly interpret interventional outcome. METHOD: Adherence was evaluated with a mixed-methods approach. Quantitative data, obtained pre-interventionally (2009) and postinterventionally (2010 and 2011), were used to calculate and compare time intervals between scorings of vital...... modified EWS levels of 0, 2 or 4. The theme Motivation by clinical relevance and meaningfulness was identified as crucial to the implementation process. CONCLUSION: High adherence to an intervention may be strongly related to nurses' perceived clinical relevance of the intervention....

  11. Approximate solutions for the two-dimensional integral transport equation. The critically mixed methods of resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Richard.

    1980-11-01

    This work is divided into two part the first part (note CEA-N-2165) deals with the solution of complex two-dimensional transport problems, the second one treats the critically mixed methods of resolution. These methods are applied for one-dimensional geometries with highly anisotropic scattering. In order to simplify the set of integral equation provided by the integral transport equation, the integro-differential equation is used to obtain relations that allow to lower the number of integral equation to solve; a general mathematical and numerical study is presented [fr

  12. A multipoint flux mixed finite element method on distorted quadrilaterals and hexahedra

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, Mary

    2011-11-06

    In this paper, we develop a new mixed finite element method for elliptic problems on general quadrilateral and hexahedral grids that reduces to a cell-centered finite difference scheme. A special non-symmetric quadrature rule is employed that yields a positive definite cell-centered system for the pressure by eliminating local velocities. The method is shown to be accurate on highly distorted rough quadrilateral and hexahedral grids, including hexahedra with non-planar faces. Theoretical and numerical results indicate first-order convergence for the pressure and face fluxes. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  13. Domain decomposition methods for the mixed dual formulation of the critical neutron diffusion problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, P.

    2007-12-01

    The neutronic simulation of a nuclear reactor core is performed using the neutron transport equation, and leads to an eigenvalue problem in the steady-state case. Among the deterministic resolution methods, diffusion approximation is often used. For this problem, the MINOS solver based on a mixed dual finite element method has shown his efficiency. In order to take advantage of parallel computers, and to reduce the computing time and the local memory requirement, we propose in this dissertation two domain decomposition methods for the resolution of the mixed dual form of the eigenvalue neutron diffusion problem. The first approach is a component mode synthesis method on overlapping sub-domains. Several Eigenmodes solutions of a local problem solved by MINOS on each sub-domain are taken as basis functions used for the resolution of the global problem on the whole domain. The second approach is a modified iterative Schwarz algorithm based on non-overlapping domain decomposition with Robin interface conditions. At each iteration, the problem is solved on each sub domain by MINOS with the interface conditions deduced from the solutions on the adjacent sub-domains at the previous iteration. The iterations allow the simultaneous convergence of the domain decomposition and the eigenvalue problem. We demonstrate the accuracy and the efficiency in parallel of these two methods with numerical results for the diffusion model on realistic 2- and 3-dimensional cores. (author)

  14. Complex Method Mixed with PSO Applying to Optimization Design of Bridge Crane Girder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In engineer design, basic complex method has not enough global search ability for the nonlinear optimization problem, so it mixed with particle swarm optimization (PSO has been presented in the paper,that is the optimal particle evaluated from fitness function of particle swarm displacement complex vertex in order to realize optimal principle of the largest complex central distance.This method is applied to optimization design problems of box girder of bridge crane with constraint conditions.At first a mathematical model of the girder optimization has been set up,in which box girder cross section area of bridge crane is taken as the objective function, and its four sizes parameters as design variables, girder mechanics performance, manufacturing process, border sizes and so on requirements as constraint conditions. Then complex method mixed with PSO is used to solve optimization design problem of cane box girder from constrained optimization studying approach, and its optimal results have achieved the goal of lightweight design and reducing the crane manufacturing cost . The method is reliable, practical and efficient by the practical engineer calculation and comparative analysis with basic complex method.

  15. A method for fitting regression splines with varying polynomial order in the linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lloyd J; Stewart, Paul W; MacDougall, James E; Helms, Ronald W

    2006-02-15

    The linear mixed model has become a widely used tool for longitudinal analysis of continuous variables. The use of regression splines in these models offers the analyst additional flexibility in the formulation of descriptive analyses, exploratory analyses and hypothesis-driven confirmatory analyses. We propose a method for fitting piecewise polynomial regression splines with varying polynomial order in the fixed effects and/or random effects of the linear mixed model. The polynomial segments are explicitly constrained by side conditions for continuity and some smoothness at the points where they join. By using a reparameterization of this explicitly constrained linear mixed model, an implicitly constrained linear mixed model is constructed that simplifies implementation of fixed-knot regression splines. The proposed approach is relatively simple, handles splines in one variable or multiple variables, and can be easily programmed using existing commercial software such as SAS or S-plus. The method is illustrated using two examples: an analysis of longitudinal viral load data from a study of subjects with acute HIV-1 infection and an analysis of 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure profiles.

  16. Mixed price and load forecasting of electricity markets by a new iterative prediction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Daraeepour, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Load and price forecasting are the two key issues for the participants of current electricity markets. However, load and price of electricity markets have complex characteristics such as nonlinearity, non-stationarity and multiple seasonality, to name a few (usually, more volatility is seen in the behavior of electricity price signal). For these reasons, much research has been devoted to load and price forecast, especially in the recent years. However, previous research works in the area separately predict load and price signals. In this paper, a mixed model for load and price forecasting is presented, which can consider interactions of these two forecast processes. The mixed model is based on an iterative neural network based prediction technique. It is shown that the proposed model can present lower forecast errors for both load and price compared with the previous separate frameworks. Another advantage of the mixed model is that all required forecast features (from load or price) are predicted within the model without assuming known values for these features. So, the proposed model can better be adapted to real conditions of an electricity market. The forecast accuracy of the proposed mixed method is evaluated by means of real data from the New York and Spanish electricity markets. The method is also compared with some of the most recent load and price forecast techniques. (author)

  17. Direct inversion of circulation and mixing from tracer measurements – Part 1: Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Clarmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From a series of zonal mean global stratospheric tracer measurements sampled in altitude vs. latitude, circulation and mixing patterns are inferred by the inverse solution of the continuity equation. As a first step, the continuity equation is written as a tendency equation, which is numerically integrated over time to predict a later atmospheric state, i.e., mixing ratio and air density. The integration is formally performed by the multiplication of the initially measured atmospheric state vector by a linear prediction operator. Further, the derivative of the predicted atmospheric state with respect to the wind vector components and mixing coefficients is used to find the most likely wind vector components and mixing coefficients which minimize the residual between the predicted atmospheric state and the later measurement of the atmospheric state. Unless multiple tracers are used, this inversion problem is under-determined, and dispersive behavior of the prediction further destabilizes the inversion. Both these problems are addressed by regularization. For this purpose, a first-order smoothness constraint has been chosen. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by application to various tracer measurements recorded with the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS. This method aims at a diagnosis of the Brewer–Dobson circulation without involving the concept of the mean age of stratospheric air, and related problems like the stratospheric tape recorder, or intrusions of mesospheric air into the stratosphere.

  18. Domestication of smartphones and mobile applications: A quantitative mixed-method study

    OpenAIRE

    de Reuver, G.A.; Nikou, S; Bouwman, W.A.G.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smartphones are finding their way into our daily lives. This paper examines the domestication of smartphones by looking at how the way we use mobile applications affects our everyday routines. Data is collected through an innovative quantitative mixed-method approach, combining log data from smartphones and survey (perception) data. We find that there are dimensions of domestication that explain how the use of smartphones affects our daily routines. Contributions are stronger for downloaded a...

  19. Factors influencing trainee doctor emigration in a high income country: a mixed methods study.

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas; Crowe, Sophie; Humphries, Niamh; Conroy, Ronan; O'Hare, Simon; Kavanagh, Paul; Brugha, Ruairi F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Global Code of Practice on the International Recruitment of Health Personnel focuses particularly on migration of doctors from low- and middle-income countries. Less is understood about migration from high-income countries. Recession has impacted several European countries in recent years, and in some cases emigration has reached unprecedented levels. This study measures and explores the predictors of trainee doctor emigration from Ireland. METHODS: Using a partially mixed ...

  20. Everyday life in a UK retirement village: a mixed-methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Liddle, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the experiences of older people living in a UK purpose-built retirement community – Denham Garden Village (DGV). The aim was to understand more about everyday life in this particular environmental context including how the environment and organisation of the village related to residents’ everyday experiences. Using a mixed methods approach, the study draws on quantitative survey data from the Longitudinal study of Ageing in a Retirement Community (LARC) and combines this...

  1. The relationship between team climate and interprofessional collaboration: preliminary results of a mixed methods study

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Christopher; Agreli, Heloise F.; Peduzzi, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Relational and organisational factors are key elements of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and team climate. Few studies have explored the relationship between IPC and team climate. This article presents a study that 10 aimed to explore IPC in primary healthcare teams and understand how the assessment of team climate may provide insights into IPC. A mixed methods study design was adopted. In Stage 1 of the study, team climate was assessed using the Team Climate Inventory with 159 profess...

  2. Using qualitative repertory grid interviews to gather shared perspectives in a sequential mixed methods research design

    OpenAIRE

    Rojon, C; Saunders, M.N.K.; McDowall, Almuth

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we consider a specific example of applying mixed methods designs combining both qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis approaches, giving particular attention to issues including reliability and validity. Human resource management (HRM) researchers, like others setting out to examine a novel or insufficiently defined research topic, frequently favour qualitative approaches to gather data during initial stages, to facilitate an in-depth exploration of indivi...

  3. A complementary marriage of perspectives: understanding organizational social context using mixed methods

    OpenAIRE

    Beidas, Rinad S; Wolk, Courtney L Benjamin; Walsh, Lucia M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Barg, Frances K

    2014-01-01

    Background Organizational factors impact the delivery of mental health services in community settings. Mixed-methods analytic approaches have been recommended, though little research within implementation science has explicitly compared inductive and deductive perspectives to understand their relative value in understanding the same constructs. The purpose of our study is to use two different paradigmatic approaches to deepen our understanding of organizational social context. We accomplish t...

  4. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers’ expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers’ preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discuss...

  5. Assessing the performance of variational methods for mixed logistic regression models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rijmen, F.; Vomlel, Jiří

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 8 (2008), s. 765-779 ISSN 0094-9655 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) 2C06019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Mixed models * Logistic regression * Variational methods * Lower bound approximation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.353, year: 2008

  6. Mixed methods research in pedagogy: Characteristics, advantages and difficulties in application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matović Nataša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mixed methods research, as a new type of research, is discussed in the context of re-examining the relation between the two approaches, i.e. the possibility of not opposing, but connecting, combining and integrating them within research. The possibility to use such grounding in research as well could be quite important for pedagogy since the nature of the examined phenomena in this field is such that the majority has both quantitative and qualitative aspects. In order to explain the essence of a mixed methods research, the paper analyses its characteristics, first of all, what elements are combined, what is the nature of the relation between the combined elements and why they are combined, as well as its advantages and difficulties in application. The essential thing in a mixed methods research is the fact that combining refers to the research process as a whole, including the ontological and epistemological assumptions it is based on, which implies that the elements that are combined are understood rather broadly. The advantages and difficulties in application are considered in the context of the discussion of the possibility to combine all research elements, neutralise the limitations of quantitative and qualitative research methodology, implement the complex combining procedures etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179060: Modeli procenjivanja i strategije unapređivanja kvaliteta obrazovanja

  7. Time motion study using mixed methods to assess service delivery by frontline health workers from South India: methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Samiksha; Upadhyaya, Sanjeev; Deshmukh, Pradeep; Dongre, Amol; Dwivedi, Neha; Dey, Deepak; Kumar, Vijay

    2018-04-02

    In India, amidst the increasing number of health programmes, there are concerns about the performance of frontline health workers (FLHW). We assessed the time utilisation and factors affecting the work of frontline health workers from South India. This is a mixed methods study using time and motion (TAM) direct observations and qualitative enquiry among frontline/community health workers. These included 43 female and 6 male multipurpose health workers (namely, auxiliary nurse midwives (ANMs) and male-MPHWs), 12 nutrition and health workers (Anganwadi workers, AWWs) and 53 incentive-based community health workers (accredited social health activists, ASHAs). We conducted the study in two phases. In the formative phase, we conducted an in-depth inductive investigation to develop observation checklists and qualitative tools. The main study involved deductive approach for TAM observations. This enabled us to observe a larger sample to capture variations across non-tribal and tribal regions and different health cadres. For the main study, we developed GPRS-enabled android-based application to precisely record time, multi-tasking and field movement. We conducted non-participatory direct observations (home to home) for consecutively 6 days for each participant. We conducted in-depth interviews with all the participants and 33 of their supervisors and relevant officials. We conducted six focus group discussions (FGDs) with ASHAs and one FGD with ANMs to validate preliminary findings. We established a mechanism for quality assurance of data collection and analysis. We analysed the data separately for each cadre and stratified for non-tribal and tribal regions. On any working day, the ANMs spent median 7:04 h, male-MPHWs spent median 5:44 h and AWWs spent median 6:50 h on the job. The time spent on the job was less among the FLHWs from tribal areas as compared to those from non-tribal areas. ANMs and AWWs prioritised maternal and child health, while male-MPHWs were

  8. A method for the deliberate and deliberative selection of policy instrument mixes for climate change adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleen L. P. Mees

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Policy instruments can help put climate adaptation plans into action. Here, we propose a method for the systematic assessment and selection of policy instruments for stimulating adaptation action. The multi-disciplinary set of six assessment criteria is derived from economics, policy, and legal studies. These criteria are specified for the purpose of climate adaptation by taking into account four challenges to the governance of climate adaptation: uncertainty, spatial diversity, controversy, and social complexity. The six criteria and four challenges are integrated into a step-wise method that enables the selection of instruments starting from a generic assessment and ending with a specific assessment of policy instrument mixes for the stimulation of a specific adaptation measure. We then apply the method to three examples of adaptation measures. The method's merits lie in enabling deliberate choices through a holistic and comprehensive set of adaptation specific criteria, as well as deliberative choices by offering a stepwise method that structures an informed dialog on instrument selection. Although the method was created and applied by scientific experts, policy-makers can also use the method.

  9. The evaluation of student-centredness of teaching and learning: a new mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Ana R; Sandars, John E; Alves, Palmira; Costa, Manuel J

    2014-08-14

    The aim of the study was to develop and consider the usefulness of a new mixed-methods approach to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on undergraduate medical courses. An essential paradigm for the evaluation was the coherence between how teachers conceptualise their practice (espoused theories) and their actual practice (theories-in-use). The context was a module within an integrated basic sciences course in an undergraduate medical degree programme. The programme had an explicit intention of providing a student-centred curriculum. A content analysis framework based on Weimer's dimensions of student-centred teaching was used to analyze data collected from individual interviews with seven teachers to identify espoused theories and 34h of classroom observations and one student focus group to identify theories-in-use. The interviewees were identified by purposeful sampling. The findings from the three methods were triangulated to evaluate the student-centredness of teaching and learning on the course. Different, but complementary, perspectives of the student-centredness of teaching and learning were identified by each method. The triangulation of the findings revealed coherence between the teachers' espoused theories and theories-in-use. A mixed-methods approach that combined classroom observations with interviews from a purposeful sample of teachers and students offered a useful evaluation of the extent of student-centredness of teaching and learning of this basic science course. Our case study suggests that this new approach is applicable to other courses in medical education.

  10. Compatible-strain mixed finite element methods for incompressible nonlinear elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghih Shojaei, Mostafa; Yavari, Arash

    2018-05-01

    We introduce a new family of mixed finite elements for incompressible nonlinear elasticity - compatible-strain mixed finite element methods (CSFEMs). Based on a Hu-Washizu-type functional, we write a four-field mixed formulation with the displacement, the displacement gradient, the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress, and a pressure-like field as the four independent unknowns. Using the Hilbert complexes of nonlinear elasticity, which describe the kinematics and the kinetics of motion, we identify the solution spaces of the independent unknown fields. In particular, we define the displacement in H1, the displacement gradient in H (curl), the stress in H (div), and the pressure field in L2. The test spaces of the mixed formulations are chosen to be the same as the corresponding solution spaces. Next, in a conforming setting, we approximate the solution and the test spaces with some piecewise polynomial subspaces of them. Among these approximation spaces are the tensorial analogues of the Nédélec and Raviart-Thomas finite element spaces of vector fields. This approach results in compatible-strain mixed finite element methods that satisfy both the Hadamard compatibility condition and the continuity of traction at the discrete level independently of the refinement level of the mesh. By considering several numerical examples, we demonstrate that CSFEMs have a good performance for bending problems and for bodies with complex geometries. CSFEMs are capable of capturing very large strains and accurately approximating stress and pressure fields. Using CSFEMs, we do not observe any numerical artifacts, e.g., checkerboarding of pressure, hourglass instability, or locking in our numerical examples. Moreover, CSFEMs provide an efficient framework for modeling heterogeneous solids.

  11. Using mixed-methods research to study the quality of life of coeliac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Almagro, Julián; Hernández Martínez, Antonio; Solano Ruiz, María Carmen; Siles González, José

    2017-04-01

    To research the quality of life of Spanish women with coeliac disease. Women with coeliac disease express lower quality of life than men with coeliac disease. Explanatory sequential approach using mixed methods and with a gender perspective. The research was carried out between May and July 2015. In its quantitative stage, it aimed to determine the health-related quality of life in a representative sample (n = 1097) of Spanish adult women with coeliac disease using a specific questionnaire named Coeliac Disease-Quality of Life. In its qualitative phase, it aimed to describe the life experiences of a woman with coeliac disease in a qualitative manner by means of interviews (n = 19) with a semistructured script. Quantitative data were analysed using spss version 20 and presented in descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were analysed using the directed content analysis. The quantitative process gave us the values on the four aspects studied: dysphoria, disease limitations, health problems and inadequate treatment. These aspects allowed us to create a qualitative process, based on which we generated an interview, from which four larger categories emerged. These categories were feelings at diagnosis, limitations in day-to-day life, social perceptions of the disease and personal meanings of coeliac disease. Thus, both phases of our project are totally connected. There was a high level of congruence between quantitative scores and narratives. This study shows us the strong points of mixed-methods strategy in health sciences. The mixed-methods strategy gave us a wider view of the experience of women living with coeliac disease. In our case, a strength and not a limitation is having performed the quality of life study in women with coeliac disease using a mixed methodology, approaching the experience of being a woman with coeliac disease in Spain in two different but complementary ways. The quantitative and qualitative data allowed us to interpret the experiences of

  12. Review and intercomparison of operational methods for the determination of the mixing height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibert, P.; Beyrich, F.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2000-01-01

    The height of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) or the mixing height (MH) is a fundamental parameter characterising the structure of the lower troposphere. Two basic possibilities for the practical determination of the MH are its derivation from profile data (measurements or numerical model...... output) and its parameterisation using simple equations or models (which only need a few measured input values). Different methods suggested in the literature are reviewed in this paper. The most important methods have been tested on data sets from three different sites in Europe (Cabauw - NL, Payerne...... - CH, Melpitz - D). Parcel and Richardson number methods applied to radiosonde profiles and the analysis of sodar and wind profiler data have been investigated. Modules for MH determination implemented in five currently used meteorological preprocessors for dispersion models have been tested, too...

  13. Assessing the feasibility of community health insurance in Uganda: A mixed-methods exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, M; Nannini, M; Putoto, G

    2018-03-01

    Community health insurance (CHI) aims to provide financial protection and facilitate health care access among poor rural populations. Given common operational challenges that hamper the full development of the scheme, there is need to undertake systematic feasibility studies. These are scarce in the literature and usually they do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the local context. The present research intends to adopt a mixed-methods approach to assess ex-ante the feasibility of CHI. In particular, eight preconditions are proposed to inform the viability of introducing the micro insurance. A case study located in rural northern Uganda is presented to test the effectiveness of the mixed-methods procedure for the feasibility purpose. A household survey covering 180 households, 8 structured focus group discussions, and 40 key informant interviews were performed between October and December 2016 in order to provide a complete and integrated analysis of the feasibility preconditions. Through the data collected at the household level, the population health seeking behaviours and the potential insurance design were examined; econometric analyses were carried out to investigate the perception of health as a priority need and the willingness to pay for the scheme. The latter component, in particular, was analysed through a contingent valuation method. The results validated the relevant feasibility preconditions. Econometric estimates demonstrated that awareness of catastrophic health expenditures and the distance to the hospital play a critical influence on household priorities and willingness to pay. Willingness is also significantly affected by socio-economic status and basic knowledge of insurance principles. Overall, the mixed-methods investigation showed that a comprehensive feasibility analysis can shape a viable CHI model to be implemented in the local context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Carer mentoring: a mixed methods investigation of a carer mentoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nan; Habibi, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide with ageing populations, the numbers of informal carers are likely to increase. Although being a carer is often satisfying, it can be challenging and require support. Volunteer-provided carer mentoring services where carers are supported by volunteer mentors are one such intervention. However, little is known about the impact of mentoring, carers' experiences or the mechanisms by which these schemes may work. Previous quantitative findings have been inconsistent suggesting a different, mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative methods may be valuable. Objectives were to explore two main questions: whether mentoring had a significant positive effect on carer mentees in terms of mental health, quality of life and confidence in caring and to explore how carers experience and perceive the process and benefits of mentoring. In addition, the study aimed to suggest possible mechanisms to understand how mentoring may benefit carers. Mixed methods (quantitative questionnaires and depth interviews) investigated an established mentoring service provided by volunteer mentors. During the study period, 28 carers received mentoring. Of these, 25 carers completed structured questionnaires both before and after mentoring, to determine whether mentoring had an impact on carer wellbeing and confidence in caring. Depth interviews were also undertaken with 11 purposively sampled carers to explore how carers experience and perceive the process and benefits of mentoring. Statistically significant improvements in carer anxiety (pemotional support, information provision, problem solving facilitation and gaining new perspectives may be mechanisms by which mentoring achieves positive outcomes. Mentor personal characteristics, experiences and training are possible facilitators of the process. Carer mentoring services can be a valuable form of carer support that falls somewhere between formal and informal support. Adopting mixed methods permitted greater understanding

  15. Dual-mixed finite elements for the three-field Stokes model as a finite volume method on staggered grids

    KAUST Repository

    Kou, Jisheng; Sun, Shuyu

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new three-field weak formulation for Stokes problems is developed, and from this, a dual-mixed finite element method is proposed on a rectangular mesh. In the proposed mixed methods, the components of stress tensor are approximated

  16. Benefits, Challenges, and Dynamism of Positionalities Associated with Mixed Methods Research in Developing Countries: Evidence from Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye, Joseph Kofi

    2012-01-01

    Although mixed methods designs have gained visibility in recent years, most of the publications on this methodological strategy have been written by scholars in the developed world. Consequently, the practical challenges associated with mixed methods research in developing countries have not been adequately discussed in the literature. Relying on…

  17. The Contribution of Mixed Methods Research to the Field of Childhood Trauma: A Narrative Review Focused on Data Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeije, Hennie; Slagt, Meike; van Wesel, Floryt

    2013-01-01

    In mixed methods research (MMR), integrating the quantitative and the qualitative components of a study is assumed to result in additional knowledge (or "yield"). This narrative review examines the extent to which MMR is used in the field of childhood trauma and provides directions for improving mixed methods studies in this field. A…

  18. Performance comparison of two efficient genomic selection methods (gsbay & MixP) applied in aquacultural organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hailin; Li, Hengde; Wang, Shi; Wang, Yangfan; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-02-01

    Genomic selection is more and more popular in animal and plant breeding industries all around the world, as it can be applied early in life without impacting selection candidates. The objective of this study was to bring the advantages of genomic selection to scallop breeding. Two different genomic selection tools MixP and gsbay were applied on genomic evaluation of simulated data and Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) field data. The data were compared with genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) method which has been applied widely. Our results showed that both MixP and gsbay could accurately estimate single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker effects, and thereby could be applied for the analysis of genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV). In simulated data from different scenarios, the accuracy of GEBV acquired was ranged from 0.20 to 0.78 by MixP; it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.67 by gsbay; and it was ranged from 0.21 to 0.61 by GBLUP. Estimations made by MixP and gsbay were expected to be more reliable than those estimated by GBLUP. Predictions made by gsbay were more robust, while with MixP the computation is much faster, especially in dealing with large-scale data. These results suggested that both algorithms implemented by MixP and gsbay are feasible to carry out genomic selection in scallop breeding, and more genotype data will be necessary to produce genomic estimated breeding values with a higher accuracy for the industry.

  19. A mixed method Poisson solver for three-dimensional self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Comer; Jones, Jim

    1993-01-01

    A key ingredient in the simulation of self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems is the gravitational potential and its gradient. This paper focuses on the development of a mixed method multigrid solver of the Poisson equation formulated so that both the potential and the Cartesian components of its gradient are self-consistently and accurately generated. The method achieves this goal by formulating the problem as a system of four equations for the gravitational potential and the three Cartesian components of the gradient and solves them using a distributed relaxation technique combined with conventional full multigrid V-cycles. The method is described, some tests are presented, and the accuracy of the method is assessed. We also describe how the method has been incorporated into our three-dimensional hydrodynamics code and give an example of an application to the collision of two stars. We end with some remarks about the future developments of the method and some of the applications in which it will be used in astrophysics.

  20. Day ahead price forecasting of electricity markets by a mixed data model and hybrid forecast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2008-01-01

    In a competitive electricity market, forecast of energy prices is a key information for the market participants. However, price signal usually has a complex behavior due to its nonlinearity, nonstationarity, and time variancy. In spite of all performed researches on this area in the recent years, there is still an essential need for more accurate and robust price forecast methods. In this paper, a combination of wavelet transform (WT) and a hybrid forecast method is proposed for this purpose. The hybrid method is composed of cascaded forecasters where each forecaster consists of a neural network (NN) and an evolutionary algorithms (EA). Both time domain and wavelet domain features are considered in a mixed data model for price forecast, in which the candidate input variables are refined by a feature selection technique. The adjustable parameters of the whole method are fine-tuned by a cross-validation technique. The proposed method is examined on PJM electricity market and compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods. (author)

  1. Optimisation Of Process Parameters In High Energy Mixing As A Method Of Cohesive Powder Flowability Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leś Karolina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Flowability of fine, highly cohesive calcium carbonate powder was improved using high energy mixing (dry coating method consisting in coating of CaCO3 particles with a small amount of Aerosil nanoparticles in a planetary ball mill. As measures of flowability the angle of repose and compressibility index were used. As process variables the mixing speed, mixing time, and the amount of Aerosil and amount of isopropanol were chosen. To obtain optimal values of the process variables, a Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD was applied. To match the RSM requirements it was necessary to perform a total of 31 experimental tests needed to complete mathematical model equations. The equations that are second-order response functions representing the angle of repose and compressibility index were expressed as functions of all the process variables. Predicted values of the responses were found to be in a good agreement with experimental values. The models were presented as 3-D response surface plots from which the optimal values of the process variables could be correctly assigned. The proposed, mechanochemical method of powder treatment coupled with response surface methodology is a new, effective approach to flowability of cohesive powder improvement and powder processing optimisation.

  2. Developing a methodology to assess the impact of research grant funding: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Carter; Sørensen, Mads P; Graversen, Ebbe K; Schneider, Jesper W; Schmidt, Evanthia Kalpazidou; Aagaard, Kaare; Mejlgaard, Niels

    2014-04-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mixed methods approach to analyse research funding. Research policy has taken on an increasingly prominent role in the broader political scene, where research is seen as a critical factor in maintaining and improving growth, welfare and international competitiveness. This has motivated growing emphasis on the impacts of science funding, and how funding can best be designed to promote socio-economic progress. Meeting these demands for impact assessment involves a number of complex issues that are difficult to fully address in a single study or in the design of a single methodology. However, they point to some general principles that can be explored in methodological design. We draw on a recent evaluation of the impacts of research grant funding, discussing both key issues in developing a methodology for the analysis and subsequent results. The case of research grant funding, involving a complex mix of direct and intermediate effects that contribute to the overall impact of funding on research performance, illustrates the value of a mixed methods approach to provide a more robust and complete analysis of policy impacts. Reflections on the strengths and weaknesses of the methodology are used to examine refinements for future work. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of mixed formulations for the particle finite element method in soil mechanics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monforte, Lluís; Carbonell, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Marcos; Gens, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a computational framework for the numerical analysis of fluid-saturated porous media at large strains. The proposal relies, on one hand, on the particle finite element method (PFEM), known for its capability to tackle large deformations and rapid changing boundaries, and, on the other hand, on constitutive descriptions well established in current geotechnical analyses (Darcy's law; Modified Cam Clay; Houlsby hyperelasticity). An important feature of this kind of problem is that incompressibility may arise either from undrained conditions or as a consequence of material behaviour; incompressibility may lead to volumetric locking of the low-order elements that are typically used in PFEM. In this work, two different three-field mixed formulations for the coupled hydromechanical problem are presented, in which either the effective pressure or the Jacobian are considered as nodal variables, in addition to the solid skeleton displacement and water pressure. Additionally, several mixed formulations are described for the simplified single-phase problem due to its formal similitude to the poromechanical case and its relevance in geotechnics, since it may approximate the saturated soil behaviour under undrained conditions. In order to use equal-order interpolants in displacements and scalar fields, stabilization techniques are used in the mass conservation equation of the biphasic medium and in the rest of scalar equations. Finally, all mixed formulations are assessed in some benchmark problems and their performances are compared. It is found that mixed formulations that have the Jacobian as a nodal variable perform better.

  4. A Lagrangian parcel based mixing plane method for calculating water based mixed phase particle flows in turbo-machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Colin S.

    2015-05-01

    A method for calculating particle transport through turbo-machinery using the mixing plane analogy was developed and used to analyze the energy efficient engine . This method allows the prediction of temperature and phase change of water based particles along their path and the impingement efficiency and particle impact property data on various components in the engine. This methodology was incorporated into the LEWICE3D V3.5 software. The method was used to predict particle transport in the low pressure compressor of the . The was developed by NASA and GE in the early 1980s as a technology demonstrator and is representative of a modern high bypass turbofan engine. The flow field was calculated using the NASA Glenn ADPAC turbo-machinery flow solver. Computations were performed for a Mach 0.8 cruise condition at 11,887 m assuming a standard warm day for ice particle sizes of 5, 20 and 100 microns and a free stream particle concentration of . The impingement efficiency results showed that as particle size increased average impingement efficiencies and scoop factors increased for the various components. The particle analysis also showed that the amount of mass entering the inner core decreased with increased particle size because the larger particles were less able to negotiate the turn into the inner core due to particle inertia. The particle phase change analysis results showed that the larger particles warmed less as they were transported through the low pressure compressor. Only the smallest 5 micron particles were warmed enough to produce melting with a maximum average melting fraction of 0.18. The results also showed an appreciable amount of particle sublimation and evaporation for the 5 micron particles entering the engine core (22.6 %).

  5. Connecting Past with Present: A Mixed-Methods Science Ethics Course and its Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semendeferi, Ioanna; Tsiamyrtzis, Panagiotis; Dcosta, Malcolm; Pavlidis, Ioannis

    2016-02-01

    We present a graduate science ethics course that connects cases from the historical record to present realities and practices in the areas of social responsibility, authorship, and human/animal experimentation. This content is delivered with mixed methods, including films, debates, blogging, and practicum; even the instructional team is mixed, including a historian of science and a research scientist. What really unites all of the course's components is the experiential aspect: from acting in historical debates to participating in the current scientific enterprise. The course aims to change the students' culture into one deeply devoted to the science ethics cause. To measure the sought after cultural change, we developed and validated a relevant questionnaire. Results of this questionnaire from students who took the course, demonstrate that the course had the intended effect on them. Furthermore, results of this questionnaire from controls indicate the need for cultural change in that cohort. All these quantitative results are reinforced by qualitative outcomes.

  6. Synthesis of mesoporous cerium-zirconium mixed oxides by hydrothermal templating method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous cerium-zirconium mixed oxides were prepared by hydrothermal method using cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) as template.The effects of amount of template,pH value of solution and hydrothermal temperature on mesostructure of samples were systematically investigated.The final products were characterized by XRD,TEM,FT-IR,and BET.The results indicate that all the cerium-zirconium mixed oxides present a meso-structure.At molar ratio of n(CTAB)/n((Ce)+(Zr))=0.15,pH value of 9,and hydrothermal temperature of 120 ℃,the samples obtained possess a specific surface area of 207.9 m2/g with pore diameter of 3.70 nm and pore volume of 0.19 cm3/g.

  7. Quadratic temporal finite element method for linear elastic structural dynamics based on mixed convolved action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Kim, Dong Keon

    2016-01-01

    A common approach for dynamic analysis in current practice is based on a discrete time-integration scheme. This approach can be largely attributed to the absence of a true variational framework for initial value problems. To resolve this problem, a new stationary variational principle was recently established for single-degree-of-freedom oscillating systems using mixed variables, fractional derivatives and convolutions of convolutions. In this mixed convolved action, all the governing differential equations and initial conditions are recovered from the stationarity of a single functional action. Thus, the entire description of linear elastic dynamical systems is encapsulated. For its practical application to structural dynamics, this variational formalism is systemically extended to linear elastic multidegree- of-freedom systems in this study, and a corresponding weak form is numerically implemented via a quadratic temporal finite element method. The developed numerical method is symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to a time step for the underlying conservative system. For the forced-damped vibration, a three-story shear building is used as an example to investigate the performance of the developed numerical method, which provides accurate results with good convergence characteristics

  8. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Eclecticism as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-03-01

    This article examines the value of "eclecticism" as the foundation of meta-theoretical, mixed methods and interdisciplinary research in social sciences. On the basis of the analysis of the historical background of the concept, it is first suggested that eclecticism-based theoretical scholarship in social sciences could benefit from the more systematic research method that has been developed for synthesizing theoretical works under the name metatheorizing. Second, it is suggested that the mixed methods community could base its research approach on philosophical eclecticism instead of pragmatism because the basic idea of eclecticism is much more in sync with the nature of the combined research tradition. Finally, the Kuhnian frame is used to support the argument for interdisciplinary research and, hence, eclecticism in social sciences (rather than making an argument against multiple paradigms). More particularly, it is suggested that integrating the different (inter)disciplinary traditions and schools into one is not necessarily desirable at all in social sciences because of the complexity and openness of the research field. If it is nevertheless attempted, experience in economics suggests that paradigmatic unification comes at a high price.

  10. Quadratic temporal finite element method for linear elastic structural dynamics based on mixed convolved action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu [School of Architecture and Architectural Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Keon [Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Dong A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    A common approach for dynamic analysis in current practice is based on a discrete time-integration scheme. This approach can be largely attributed to the absence of a true variational framework for initial value problems. To resolve this problem, a new stationary variational principle was recently established for single-degree-of-freedom oscillating systems using mixed variables, fractional derivatives and convolutions of convolutions. In this mixed convolved action, all the governing differential equations and initial conditions are recovered from the stationarity of a single functional action. Thus, the entire description of linear elastic dynamical systems is encapsulated. For its practical application to structural dynamics, this variational formalism is systemically extended to linear elastic multidegree- of-freedom systems in this study, and a corresponding weak form is numerically implemented via a quadratic temporal finite element method. The developed numerical method is symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to a time step for the underlying conservative system. For the forced-damped vibration, a three-story shear building is used as an example to investigate the performance of the developed numerical method, which provides accurate results with good convergence characteristics.

  11. Robust mixed finite element methods to deal with incompressibility in finite strain in an industrial framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akhrass, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Simulations in solid mechanics exhibit several difficulties, as dealing with incompressibility, with nonlinearities due to finite strains, contact laws, or constitutive laws. The basic motivation of our work is to propose efficient finite element methods capable of dealing with incompressibility in finite strain context, and using elements of low order. During the three last decades, many approaches have been proposed in the literature to overcome the incompressibility problem. Among them, mixed formulations offer an interesting theoretical framework. In this work, a three-field mixed formulation (displacement, pressure, volumetric strain) is investigated. In some cases, this formulation can be condensed in a two-field (displacement - pressure) mixed formulation. However, it is well-known that the discrete problem given by the Galerkin finite element technique, does not inherit the 'inf-sup' stability condition from the continuous problem. Hence, the interpolation orders in displacement and pressure have to be chosen in a way to satisfy the Brezzi-Babuska stability conditions when using Galerkin approaches. Interpolation orders must be chosen so as to satisfy this condition. Two possibilities are considered: to use stable finite element satisfying this requirement, or to use finite element that does not satisfy this condition, and to add terms stabilizing the FE Galerkin formulation. The latter approach allows the use of equal order interpolation. In this work, stable finite element P2/P1 and P2/P1/P1 are used as reference, and compared to P1/P1 and P1/P1/P1 formulations stabilized with a bubble function or with a VMS method (Variational Multi-Scale) based on a sub-grid-space orthogonal to the FE space. A finite strain model based on logarithmic strain is selected. This approach is extended to three and two field mixed formulations with stable or stabilized elements. These approaches are validated on academic cases and used on industrial cases. (author)

  12. A Mixed Methods Study of Teach for America Teachers' Mathematical Beliefs, Knowledge, and Classroom Teaching Practices during a Reform-Based University Mathematics Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swars, Susan Lee

    2015-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the mathematical preparation of elementary teachers in a Teach for America (TFA) program, focal participants for whom there is scant extant research. Data collection occurred before and after a university mathematics methods course, with a particular focus on the participants' (n = 22) mathematical beliefs,…

  13. Using mixed methods to develop and evaluate an online weight management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Katherine; Dennison, Laura; Little, Paul; Yardley, Lucy

    2015-02-01

    This article illustrates the use of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of the Positive Online Weight Reduction (POWeR) programme, an e-health intervention designed to support sustainable weight loss. The studies outlined also explore how human support might enhance intervention usage and weight loss. Mixed methods were used to develop and evaluate POWeR. In the development phase, we drew on both quantitative and qualitative findings to plan and gain feedback on the intervention. Next, a feasibility trial, with nested qualitative study, explored what level of human support might lead to the most sustainable weight loss. Finally, a large community-based trial of POWeR, with nested qualitative study, explored whether the addition of brief telephone coaching enhances usage. Findings suggest that POWeR is acceptable and potentially effective. Providing human support enhanced usage in our trials, but was not unproblematic. Interestingly, there were some indications that more basic (brief) human support may produce more sustainable weight loss outcomes than more regular support. Qualitative interviews suggested that more regular support might foster reliance, meaning patients cannot sustain their weight losses when support ends. Qualitative findings in the community trial also suggested explanations for why many people may not take up the opportunity for human support. Integrating findings from both our qualitative and quantitative studies provided far richer insights than would have been gained using only a single method of inquiry. Further research should investigate the optimum delivery of human support needed to maximize sustainable weight loss in online interventions. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? There is evidence that human support may increase the effectiveness of e-health interventions. It is unclear what level of human support might be optimal or how human support improves effectiveness. Triangulation of

  14. Utilisation and prevalence of mixed methods research in library and information research in South Africa 2002-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ngulube

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of mixed methods research (MMR in library and information science (LIS research in South Africa from 2000 to 2008. The authors contrast the mixed methods research debate in the general methodological literature to how this method was practiced within the LIS scientific community. They reviewed 613 research articles published in six peer-reviewed LIS journals in South Africa, finding the research methods in these journals to be surveys drawing on positivistic assumptions and cross-sectional designs, and historical research based on constructivist knowledge claims. Mixed methods approaches that the authors identified in the methodological literature have had little impact on LIS research in South Africa. Given these limitations, the authors argue for greater methodological pluralism in conducting research in LIS and recommend the use of mixed methods research.

  15. The Importance of Context in Screening in Occupational Health Interventions in Organizations: A Mixed Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Vignoli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In occupational health interventions, there is a debate as to whether standardized or tailored measures should be used to identify which aspects of the psychosocial work environment should be targeted in order to improve employees’ well-being. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the main aim of the present study is to demonstrate how a mixed methods approach to conducting screening enables the identification of potential context-dependent demands and resources in the workplace, which should to be targeted by the intervention. Specifically, we used a mixed methods exploratory sequential research design. First, we conducted four focus groups (N = 37 in a sample of employees working in grocery stores in Italy. The qualitative results allowed to identify one possible context-specific job demand: the use of a work scheduling IT software, whose implementation resulted in a high rotation between different market’s departments. From the qualitative results, this context-specific demand seemed to be related to workers’ well-being. Thus, in a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 288, we included this demand together with generic measures of social support and psychological well-being. Results confirmed that this context-specific job demand was related to emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, it was found that social support moderated the relationship between this specific job demand and emotional exhaustion showing among employees whose activities depended on the IT software, employees that perceived higher levels of social support from colleagues experienced lower levels of emotional exhaustion with respect to their colleagues who perceived lower levels of social support. The present study confirms that mixed methods approach is useful in occupational health intervention research and offers a way forward on helping organizations prioritize their intervention activities.

  16. Enhancing Science Education Instruction: A Mixed-Methods Study on University and Middle School Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen-Stone, Deborah S.

    The purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to examine the collaborative relationship between scientists and science teachers and to incorporate and advocate scientific literacy based on past and current educational theories such as inquiry based teaching. The scope of this study included archived student standardized test scores, semi-structured interviews, and a Likert scale survey to include open-ended comments. The methodology was based on the guiding research question: To what extent and in what ways does the collaboration and inquiry methodology, with GTF and PT teams, serve toward contributing to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of this predicting relationship between student PASS scores, inquiry skills, and increased scientific literacy for GTF's, PT's, and students via an integrative mixed methods analysis? The data analysis considerations were derived from the qualitative data collected from the three GTF/PT teams by the use of recorded interviews and text answered survey comments. The quantitative data of archived student Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) scores on scientific literacy and inquiry tests and the Likert-scale portion of the survey were support data to the aforementioned qualitative data findings. Limitations of the study were (1) the population of only the GK-12 teachers and their students versus the inclusion of participants that did not experience the GK-12 Fellow partnerships within their classrooms, should they be considered as participants, (2) involved the researcher as a participant for two years of the program and objectivity remained through interpretation and well documented personal reflections and experiences to inform accuracy, and (3) cultural diversity contributed to the relationship formed between the research Fellow and science educator and communication and scientific language did form a barrier between the Fellow, educator, and student rapport within the classroom. This study

  17. A mixed methods thematic review: Health-related decision-making by the older person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lindy; Harrington, Ann; Linedale, Ecushla; Tanner, Elizabeth

    2018-04-01

    To undertake a mixed methods thematic literature review that explored how elderly adults approached decision-making in regard to their health care following discharge. A critical time for appropriate health decisions occurs during hospital discharge planning with nursing staff. However, little is known how the 89% of elderly living at home make decisions regarding their health care. Research into older adults' management of chronic conditions emerges as an important step to potentially encourage symptom monitoring, prevent missed care and detect deterioration. All should reduce the risk of hospital re-admission. A mixed methods thematic literature review was undertaken. The structure followed the PRISMA reporting guidelines for systematic reviews recommended by the EQUATOR network. PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Scopus online databases were searched using keywords, inclusion and exclusion criteria. References drawn from relevant publications, identified by experts and published between 1995 and 2017 were also considered. Twenty-five qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies and reviews were critically appraised (CASP 2013) before inclusion in the review. Analysis of each study's findings was undertaken using Braun and Clarke's (2006) steps to identify major themes and sub-themes. Four main themes associated with health-related decision-making in the elderly were identified: "the importance of maintaining independence," "decision making style," "management of conditions at home" and "discharge planning." Health care decision preferences in the elderly emerged as highly complex and influenced by multiple factors. Development of a tool to assess these components has been recommended. Nurses play a vital role in exploring and understanding the influence that maintaining independence has with each patient. This understanding provides an initial step toward development of a tool to assist collaboration between

  18. A complementary marriage of perspectives: understanding organizational social context using mixed methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidas, Rinad S; Wolk, Courtney L Benjamin; Walsh, Lucia M; Evans, Arthur C; Hurford, Matthew O; Barg, Frances K

    2014-11-23

    Organizational factors impact the delivery of mental health services in community settings. Mixed-methods analytic approaches have been recommended, though little research within implementation science has explicitly compared inductive and deductive perspectives to understand their relative value in understanding the same constructs. The purpose of our study is to use two different paradigmatic approaches to deepen our understanding of organizational social context. We accomplish this by using a mixed-methods approach in an investigation of organizational social context in community mental health clinics. Nineteen agencies, representing 23 sites, participated. Enrolled participants included 130 therapists, 36 supervisors, and 22 executive administrators. Quantitative data was obtained via the Organizational Social Context (OSC) measure. Qualitative data, comprised of direct observation with spot sampling generated from agency visits, was coded using content analysis and grounded theory. The present study examined elements of organizational social context that would have been missed if only quantitative data had been obtained and utilized mixed methods to investigate if stratifying observations based on quantitative ratings from the OSC resulted in the emergence of differential themes. Four of the six OSC constructs were commonly observed in field observations (i.e., proficiency, rigidity, functionality, stress), while the remaining two constructs were not frequently observed (i.e., resistance, engagement). Constructs emerged related to organizational social context that may have been missed if only quantitative measurement was employed, including those around the physical environment, commentary about evidence-based practice initiatives, leadership, cultural diversity, distrust, and affect. Stratifying agencies by "best," "average," and "worst" organizational social context impacted interpretation for three constructs (affect, stress, and leadership). Results

  19. Leading for the long haul: a mixed-method evaluation of the Sustainment Leadership Scale (SLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise M; Willging, Cathleen E; Moullin, Joanna C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2018-01-19

    Despite our progress in understanding the organizational context for implementation and specifically the role of leadership in implementation, its role in sustainment has received little attention. This paper took a mixed-method approach to examine leadership during the sustainment phase of the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, Sustainment (EPIS) framework. Utilizing the Implementation Leadership Scale as a foundation, we sought to develop a short, practical measure of sustainment leadership that can be used for both applied and research purposes. Data for this study were collected as a part of a larger mixed-method study of evidence-based intervention, SafeCare®, sustainment. Quantitative data were collected from 157 providers using web-based surveys. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure of the Sustainment Leadership Scale (SLS). Qualitative data were collected from 95 providers who participated in one of 15 focus groups. A framework approach guided qualitative data analysis. Mixed-method integration was also utilized to examine convergence of quantitative and qualitative findings. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the a priori higher order factor structure of the SLS with subscales indicating a single higher order sustainment leadership factor. The SLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability. Qualitative analyses offered support for the dimensions of sustainment leadership captured by the quantitative measure, in addition to uncovering a fifth possible factor, available leadership. This study found qualitative and quantitative support for the pragmatic SLS measure. The SLS can be used for assessing leadership of first-level leaders to understand how staff perceive leadership during sustainment and to suggest areas where leaders could direct more attention in order to increase the likelihood that EBIs are institutionalized into the normal functioning of the organization.

  20. Residual-based a posteriori error estimation for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods

    KAUST Repository

    Du, Shaohong; Sun, Shuyu; Xie, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    A novel residual-type a posteriori error analysis technique is developed for multipoint flux mixed finite element methods for flow in porous media in two or three space dimensions. The derived a posteriori error estimator for the velocity and pressure error in L-norm consists of discretization and quadrature indicators, and is shown to be reliable and efficient. The main tools of analysis are a locally postprocessed approximation to the pressure solution of an auxiliary problem and a quadrature error estimate. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the competitive behavior of the estimator.