WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods investigated include

  1. Use of the potentiometric titration method to investigate heterogeneous systems including phosphorylated complexones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, G.S.; Kharitonova, L.K.; Kuznetsova, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    Heterogeneous systems Y(NO 3 ) 3 (YCl 3 )-Hsub(n)L-KNO 3 (KCl)-H 2 O are investigated by potentiometric titration (with coulomb-meter generation of oH - ions). Hsub(n)L is one of the following: oxyethylidendiphosphonic; aminobenzilidendiphosphonic; glycine-bis-methyl-phosphonic; nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (H 6 L) and ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acids. The range of the exsistence of YHsub(nL3)LxyH 2 O has been determined. The possibility of using potentiometric titration for investigating heterogeneous systems is demonstrated by the stUdy of the system Y(NO 3 ) 3 -H 6 L-KOH-H 2 o by the method of residual concentration. The two methods have shown that at pH 3 LxyH 2 O; at pH=6, KYH 2 Lxy'H 2 O, and at pH=7, K 2 YHLxy''H 2 O. The complete solubility products of nitrilotrimethylphosphonates are evaluated

  2. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  3. Methods of respiratory system investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenshtraukh, L.C.; Rybakova, N.I.; Vinner, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    Different methods of chest organs investigation are discussed in detail: roentgenoscopy, roentgenography, tomography and others. A detailed roentgenologic semiotics of every method is presented, as well as their comparative evaluation

  4. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  5. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  6. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  7. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  8. Novel methods for tendon investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Michael; Langberg, Henning; Bojsen-Møller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. Tendon structures have been studied for decades, but over the last decade, methodological development and renewed interest for metabolic, circulatory and tissue protein turnover in tendon tissue has resulted in a rising amount of investigations. Method. This paper will detail the various...... modern investigative techniques available to study tendons. Results. There are a variety of investigative methods available to study the correlations between mechanics and biology in tendons. Conclusion. The available methodologies not only allow for potential insight into physiological...... and pathophysiological mechanisms in tendon tissue, but also, to some extent, allow for more elaborate studies of the intact human tendon. Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09638280701785403...

  9. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  10. Nuclear methods in entomological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, G.R.; Bhatia, Parvathy

    1979-01-01

    Insect pests of crops are responsible for immense crop losses in agriculture. Ever since the release of high yielding varieties and improved crop husbandry practices the problems posed by insect pests have been accentuated, as these conditions provide ideal environment for their development. Effective control of insect pests can help greatly in achieving a breakthrough in agricultural production. In order to sustain production and reduce crop losses entomologists all over the world have continued their efforts to devise and develop methods of pest control taking full advantage of the advances made in other branches of science. Consequently, avenues opened by the developments in the field of nuclear energy have also been fully exploited in investigating various pest problems. This communication briefly highlights the various areas of research in which nuclear toots have been fruitfutty used in investigating problems posed by insect pests. (auth.)

  11. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  12. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  13. Investigation equipment and methods used by Posiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehberg, A.

    2006-10-01

    Posiva Oy, a company jointly owned by TVO and Fortum, submitted an application for the Decision in Principle to the Finnish Government in May 1999. A positive decision was made at the end of 2000 by the Government. The Finnish Parliament ratified the Decision in Principle on the final disposal facility for spent nuclear fuel at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki in May 2001. The decision makes it possible for Posiva to focus the confirming bedrock investigations at Olkiluoto, where in the next few years an underground research facility, ONKALO, for rock characterisation for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel will be constructed. The construction of the ONKALO access tunnel was started in September 2004. This report describes the investigation methods and equipment developed and used by Posiva Oy during the confirming site investigations from the surface. The report covers the areas of drilling of deep investigation holes, geophysical loggings, geophysical ground and tunnel surveys, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical as well as rock mechanical methods. Emphasis is given on those equipment and methods developed by Posiva and those that have frequently and recently been used in the Posiva's characterisation programmes including methods applied during excavation of ONKALO access tunnel. The database used for the field investigation data is also briefly described in this report. (orig.)

  14. Investigation of Transverse Oscillation Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udesen, Jesper; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2006-01-01

    focus depth, receive apodization, pulse length, transverse wave length, number of emissions, signal to noise ratio, and type of echo canceling filter used. Using the experimental scanner RASMUS, the performance of the TO method is evaluated. An experimental flowrig is used to create laminar parabolic...... direction. Also the choice of echo canceling filter affects the performance significantly....

  15. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  16. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  17. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-21

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  18. 78 FR 47410 - Certain Wireless Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets Institution of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless devices, including mobile phones... importation of certain wireless devices, including mobile phones and tablets by reason of infringement of... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-889] Certain Wireless Devices, Including...

  19. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    at least one deep chemistry-prioritized cored borehole, and start of long-term monitoring of chemical parameters in new selected sampling points. Fracture-filling mineral investigations are initiated during the final phase of the initial site investigation. The transport properties of the rock are estimated mainly on the basis of the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical description, combined with generic, non-site-specific information. Furthermore, supplementary measurements of groundwater flow are performed in one of the first deep boreholes. In cases where mineralogy and/or groundwater chemistry differs significantly from the generic database, certain time-consuming laboratory investigations such as through diffusion measurements will be initiated. A large number of methods are used to investigate the geology of the site. They can be described in general terms under the headings: geophysics, surface geology, soil geology, bedrock geology, borehole investigations and geodetic measurements. The thermal properties of the rock are determined primarily on the basis of mineral composition and by means of laboratory studies of recovered rock cores. The determination of the transport properties of the rock is based on generic, non-site-specific data, combined with he hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical description of the rock. Laboratory measurements on drill cores and rock material are used to determine/verify sorption values and diffusivities. Diffusion tests and tracer tests in and between boreholes can be used to verify the reasonableness of estimated parameter values. The discipline surface ecosystems includes both the living environment, i.e. animals and plants, and their interactions with the non-living environment, e.g. climate and water. The characterization includes both hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical characterization of soil strata and surface waters and inventory/characterization of flora and fauna

  20. 77 FR 24514 - Certain Consumer Electronics, Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ..., Including Mobile Phones and Tablets; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337 AGENCY: U.S... mobile phones and tablets, by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,854,893... after importation of certain consumer electronics, including mobile phones and tablets, that infringe...

  1. Porosimetry as an effective method of fuel cell investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarinov, V.E.

    1996-04-01

    A porosimetric method is described for the investigation of all kinds of porous materials including soft or frail materials and powders. The method is well suited for the investigation of electrodes in fuel cells and batteries. The method is nondestructive and allows for repeated measurements on the same sample.

  2. Hydrochemical laboratory methods for Nagra's investigation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, H.; Antonsen, O.

    1985-01-01

    Nagra's geological research program is directed toward determination of the possibilities for depositing high level radioactive waste at depth in Northern Switzerland. The program includes ground water analyses for chemical and biological constituents (analyses by Institut Fresenius) as well as for dissolved gases, uranium, and natural radioactivity (analyses by EIR, Eidgenoessisches Institut fuer Reaktorforschung). Two sources were utilized to obtain formation water chemistry in the study area. A regional program was established to investigate mineral and thermal waters. 17 sites of the regional program are scheduled for long term monitoring of water chemistry. A deep drilling program (12 locations projected) was initiated to obtain and analyze water samples from defined depths and formations under in situ conditions. Chapter 2 presents the analytical programs in detail. General chemistry was determined in all samples. In the regional program, well equipped wells and springs provided representative samples at most locations (cf chapter 3). However, at other locations impairment of sample quality could not be avoided. Given sufficient water flow, samples for the deep drilling program were taken both at the earth's surface under atmospheric pressure conditions (from artesian outflow or after pumping), and under formation pressure at various depths with specialized sample containers (chapter 3.7.3). Chapter 4 gives a listing of all analytical methods used in the study, their accuracy ranges and detection limits. Finally, this paper also presents some special problems encountered during the deep drilling program (cf chapter 5). Preliminary results show that no single method can provide completely satisfactory results for all deep drilling water sampling. A combination of procedures and critical evaluation of their respective data can, however, provide valuable information on the chemistry of waters from certain formations. (author)

  3. Investigation of patients with atypical or severe hyperandrogenaemia including androgen-secreting ovarian teratoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dennedy, Michael Conall

    2012-02-01

    Approximately 7% of women of reproductive age manifest polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and <0.5% have other causes of hyperandrogenism including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), androgen-secreting tumour of an ovary or an adrenal gland, Cushing\\'s syndrome or hyperthecosis. The presence of features atypical of PCOS should prompt more extensive evaluation than that usually undertaken. Features atypical of PCOS include the onset of symptoms outside the decade of 15-25 years, rapid progression of symptoms, the development of virilization and a serum testosterone concentration in excess of twice the upper limit of the reference range. Ethnic background, family history and specific clinical findings, e.g. Cushingoid appearance, may inform a focused investigation. Otherwise, patients should have measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) under basal conditions ideally in the early morning, and if abnormal, they should have measurement of 17-OHP one hour after the administration of synthetic ACTH, 250 microg i.v., to screen for CAH, which is present in approximately 2% of hyperandrogenic patients. The overnight cortisol suppression test employing 1 mg dexamethasone at midnight is a sensitive test for Cushing\\'s syndrome. Coronal tomographic (CT) scanning of the adrenals and transvaginal ultrasonography of the ovaries are the investigations of choice when screening for tumours in these organs. Less frequently required is catheterization and sampling from both adrenal and ovarian veins, which is a technically demanding procedure with potential complications which may provide definitive diagnostic information not available from other investigations. Illustrative case reports highlight some complexities in the investigation of hyperandrogenic patients presenting with features atypical of PCOS and include only the ninth case report of an androgen-secreting ovarian teratoma.

  4. Research Investigation of Information Access Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, John H.; Sharkey, Thomas W.; Lim, Jeen-Su

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the satisfaction of library users at Wayne State University who utilize alternative information access methods. The LibQUAL+[TM] desired and perceived that satisfaction ratings are used to determine the user's "superiority gap." By focusing limited library resources to address "superiority gap" issues identified by each…

  5. Site investigations. Investigation methods and general execution programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    characterization of at least one deep chemistry-prioritized cored borehole, and start of long-term monitoring of chemical parameters in new selected sampling points. Fracture-filling mineral investigations are initiated during the final phase of the initial site investigation. The transport properties of the rock are estimated mainly on the basis of the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical description, combined with generic, non-site-specific information. Furthermore, supplementary measurements of groundwater flow are performed in one of the first deep boreholes. In cases where mineralogy and/or groundwater chemistry differs significantly from the generic database, certain time-consuming laboratory investigations such as through diffusion measurements will be initiated. A large number of methods are used to investigate the geology of the site. (abstract truncated)

  6. An investigation of the vortex method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jr., Duaine Wright [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The vortex method is a numerical scheme for solving the vorticity transport equation. Chorin introduced modern vortex methods. The vortex method is a Lagrangian, grid free method which has less intrinsic diffusion than many grid schemes. It is adaptive in the sense that elements are needed only where the vorticity is non-zero. Our description of vortex methods begins with the point vortex method of Rosenhead for two dimensional inviscid flow, and builds upon it to eventually cover the case of three dimensional slightly viscous flow with boundaries. This section gives an introduction to the fundamentals of the vortex method. This is done in order to give a basic impression of the previous work and its line of development, as well as develop some notation and concepts which will be used later. The purpose here is not to give a full review of vortex methods or the contributions made by all the researchers in the field. Please refer to the excellent review papers in Sethian and Gustafson, chapters 1 Sethian, 2 Hald, 3 Sethian, 8 Chorin provide a solid introduction to vortex methods, including convergence theory, application in two dimensions and connection to statistical mechanics and polymers. Much of the information in this review is taken from those chapters, Chorin and Marsden and Batchelor, the chapters are also useful for their extensive bibliographies.

  7. Investigation of enviromental objects by microanalysis methods

    OpenAIRE

    Osīte, Agnese

    2008-01-01

    Investigation of environmental objects by microanalysis methods AEROSOL PARTICLES, SOOT, METALLIC ELEMENTS, WATER, PINE NEEDLES, STRIPPING POTENTIOMETRY, INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASSPECTROMETRY, ENERGY DISPERIVE X-RAY FLUORESCENCE Performing the fractionated sampling by both commercially available and laboratory constructed devices, mass concentrations of four fractions of solid particles PM10, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 and PM1 were determined. Mass concentrations of soot were ...

  8. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  9. Investigating methods of stream planform identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohberg, M. M.; Lusk, K.; Miller, D.; Stonedahl, F.; Stonedahl, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    Stream planforms are used to map scientific measurements, estimate volumetric discharge, and model stream flow. Changes in these planforms can be used to quantify erosion and water level fluctuations. This research investigated five cost-effective methods of identifying stream planforms: (1) consumer-grade digital camera GPS (2) multi-view stereo 3D scene reconstruction (using Microsoft Photosynth (TM)) (3) a cross-sectional measurement approach (4) a triangulation-based measurement approach and (5) the 'square method' - a novel photogrammetric procedure which involved floating a large wooden square in the stream, photographing the square and banks from numerous angles and then using the square to correct for perspective and extract the outline (using custom post-processing software). Data for each of the five methods was collected at Blackhawk Creek in Davenport, Iowa. Additionally we placed 30 control points near the banks of the stream and measured 88 lengths between these control points. We measured or calculated the locations of these control points with each of our five methods and calculated the average percent error associated with each method using the predicted control point locations. The effectiveness of each method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, affordability, environmental intrusiveness, and ease of use. The camera equipped with GPS proved to be a very ineffective method due to an extremely high level of error, 289%. The 3D point cloud extracted from Photosynth was missing markers for many of the control points, so the error calculation (which yielded 11.7%) could only be based on five of the 88 lengths and is thus highly uncertain. The two non-camera methods (cross-sectional and triangulation measurements) resulted in low percent error (2.04% and 1.31% respectively) relative to the control point lengths, but these methods were very time consuming, exhausting, and only provided low resolution outlines. High resolution data collection would

  10. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

  11. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Investigation of methods for hydroclimatic data homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirou, E.; Koutsoyiannis, D.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the methods used for the adjustment of inhomogeneities of temperature time series covering the last 100 years. Based on a systematic study of scientific literature, we classify and evaluate the observed inhomogeneities in historical and modern time series, as well as their adjustment methods. It turns out that these methods are mainly statistical, not well justified by experiments and are rarely supported by metadata. In many of the cases studied the proposed corrections are not even statistically significant. From the global database GHCN-Monthly Version 2, we examine all stations containing both raw and adjusted data that satisfy certain criteria of continuity and distribution over the globe. In the United States of America, because of the large number of available stations, stations were chosen after a suitable sampling. In total we analyzed 181 stations globally. For these stations we calculated the differences between the adjusted and non-adjusted linear 100-year trends. It was found that in the two thirds of the cases, the homogenization procedure increased the positive or decreased the negative temperature trends. One of the most common homogenization methods, 'SNHT for single shifts', was applied to synthetic time series with selected statistical characteristics, occasionally with offsets. The method was satisfactory when applied to independent data normally distributed, but not in data with long-term persistence. The above results cast some doubts in the use of homogenization procedures and tend to indicate that the global temperature increase during the last century is between 0.4°C and 0.7°C, where these two values are the estimates derived from raw and adjusted data, respectively.

  13. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of

  14. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

  15. Etiopathophysiological assessment of cases with chronic daily headache: A functional magnetic resonance imaging included investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Akram; Nami, Mohammad Torabi; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Ganjgahi, Habib; Vahabi, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Chronic daily headache (CDH) has gained little attention in functional neuro-imaging. When no structural abnormality is found in CDH, defining functional correlates between activated brain regions during headache bouts may provide unique insights towards understanding the pathophysiology of this type of headache. Methods We recruited four CDH cases for comprehensive assessments, including history taking, physical examinations and neuropsychological evaluations (The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Evaluation, Beck's Anxiety and Depression Inventories, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and Epworth Sleepiness Scale). Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to self-rate the intensity of headache. Patients then underwent electroencephalography (EEG), transcranial Doppler (TCD) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evaluations during maximal (VAS = 8-10/10) and off-headache (VAS = 0-3/10) conditions. Data were used to compare in both conditions. We also used BOLD (blood oxygen level dependent) -group level activation map fMRI to possibly locate headache-related activated brain regions. Results General and neurological examinations as well as conventional MRIs were unremarkable. Neuropsychological assessments showed moderate anxiety and depression in one patient and minimal in others. Unlike three patients, maximal and off-headache TCD evaluation in one revealed increased middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity, at the maximal pain area. Although with no seizure history, the same patient's EEG showed paroxysmal epileptic discharges during maximal headache intensity, respectively. Group level activation map fMRI showed activated classical pain matrix regions upon headache bouts (periaqueductal grey, substantia nigra and raphe nucleus), and markedly bilateral occipital lobes activation. Conclusion The EEG changes were of note. Furthermore, the increased BOLD signals in areas outside the classical pain matrix (i.e. occipital lobes) during maximal headaches may

  16. Investigation on plasmonic responses in multilayered nanospheres including asymmetry and spatial nonlocal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tianyu; Shi, Yi; Liu, Hui; Chen, Feng; Ma, Xikui; Mittra, Raj

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we present a rigorous approach for analyzing the optical response of multilayered spherical nano-particles comprised of either plasmonic metal or dielectric, when there is no longer radial symmetry and when nonlocality is included. The Lorenz-Mie theory is applied, and a linearized hydrodynamic Drude model as well as the general nonlocal optical response model for the metals are employed. Additional boundary conditions, viz., the continuity of normal components of polarization current density and the continuity of first-order pressure of free electron density, respectively, are incorporated when handling interfaces involving metals. The application of spherical addition theorems, enables us to express a spherical harmonic about one origin to spherical harmonics about a different origin, and leads to a linear system of equations for the inward- and outward-field modal coefficients for all the layers in the nanoparticle. Scattering matrices at interfaces are obtained and cascaded to obtain the expansion coefficients, to yield the final solution. Through extensive modelling of stratified concentric and eccentric metal-involved spherical nanoshells illuminating by a plane wave, we show that, within a nonlocal description, significant modifications of plasmonic response appear, e.g. a blue-shift in the extinction / scattering spectrum and a broadening spectrum of the resonance. In addition, it has been demonstrated that core-shell nanostructures provide an option for tunable Fano-resonance generators. The proposed method shows its capability and flexibility to analyze the nonlocal response of eccentric hybrid metal-dielectric multilayer structures as well as adjoined metal-involved nanoparticles, even when the number of layers is large.

  17. Practical use of the UIC 406 capacity leaflet by including timetable tools in the investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... capacity consumptions. This paper describes how the UIC 406 method is expounded in Denmark. The paper describes the importance of choosing the right length of the line sections examined and how line sections with multiple track sections are examined. Furthermore, the possibility of using idle capacity...

  18. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  19. A method for the computation of turbulent polymeric liquids including hydrodynamic interactions and chain entanglements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes, E-mail: demosthenes.kivotides@strath.ac.uk

    2017-02-12

    An asymptotically exact method for the direct computation of turbulent polymeric liquids that includes (a) fully resolved, creeping microflow fields due to hydrodynamic interactions between chains, (b) exact account of (subfilter) residual stresses, (c) polymer Brownian motion, and (d) direct calculation of chain entanglements, is formulated. Although developed in the context of polymeric fluids, the method is equally applicable to turbulent colloidal dispersions and aerosols. - Highlights: • An asymptotically exact method for the computation of polymer and colloidal fluids is developed. • The method is valid for all flow inertia and all polymer volume fractions. • The method models entanglements and hydrodynamic interactions between polymer chains.

  20. Investigations on LED illumination for micro-PIV including a novel front-lit configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsäter, Melker; Bruus, Henrik; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we provide a general investigation on micro-PIV with LED illumination. A number of improvements over previous LED-based systems are suggested, in particular, we present a novel front-lit configuration. As a demonstration of its versatility we have used this front-lit configuration...

  1. Development of calculation method for one-dimensional kinetic analysis in fission reactors, including feedback effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt

  2. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  3. Investigation of Techno-Stress Levels of Teachers Who Were Included in Technology Integration Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çoklar, Ahmet Naci; Efilti, Erkan; Sahin, Yusef Levent; Akçay, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Techno-stress is defined as a modern adaptation disorder resulting from the failure in coping with new technologies in a healthy way. Techno-stress affects many occupational groups, including teachers. FATIH project and many other previous studies conducted in Turkey in recent years have necessitated the use of technology for teachers. The present…

  4. Multi-method investigation of cushion peatlands (

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbriger, M.; Schittek, K.; Höfle, B.; Siart, C.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    This study presents a multi-method and multi-proxy approach for palaeonvironmental investigations in the western andean cordillera of southern Peru (Lucanas province, 14° S) using cushion peatlands as terrestrial geoarchives. The region stretching between the Altiplano and the Peruvian desert in the lowland shares a long term settlement history, in which local cultures adapted to climate change in many different ways. Being one of the most outstanding human remains, the abri below Cerro Llamoca, 4.450 m a.s.l. in the uppermost ranges of the Llamoca peatland catchment area further reveals an occupation history of almost 10.000 years, as revealed by latest archaeological investigations. In remote and highly elevated regions such as the central Andes, cushion peatlands basically represent the only high resolution terrestrial archives suitable for geoarchaeological and palaeoenvironmental studies. Characterized by high accumulation rates, they ideally document environmental changes, particularly at small time intervals. Within the multidisciplinary project 'Andean Transect - Climate Sensitivity of pre-Columbian Man-Environment-Systems' several sediment cores with depths up to 11.5 m b.s. were recovered from the Llamoca peatland. Based on almost 100 AMS 14C-datings they provide a chronology of 8000 years and, thus, offer profound insights into climatic and environmental changes in the study area. While nearly homogeneous peat layers record stable environmental conditions, the heterogeneous granulometric composition of intercalated sediment layers documents several periods of intense geomorphodynamic activity. Due to high resolution geochemical analyses of peat layers (1 cm interval; humification degree, CNS measurements, XRF-scanning), the existence of slight and short-term trends of landscape development during these phases can be identified. Additional pollen, charred particles and plant macrofossil analyses confirm these findings and help reconstructing local

  5. An investigation of FLUENT's fan model including the effect of swirl velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Saheli, A.; Barron, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate and discuss the reliability of simplified models for the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air flow through automotive engine cooling fans. One of the most widely used simplified fan models in industry is a variant of the actuator disk model which is available in most commercial CFD software, such as FLUENT. In this model, the fan is replaced by an infinitely thin surface on which pressure rise across the fan is specified as a polynomial function of normal velocity or flow rate. The advantages of this model are that it is simple, it accurately predicts the pressure rise through the fan and the axial velocity, and it is robust

  6. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  7. Investigating antenatal nutrition education preferences in South-East Queensland, including Maori and Pasifika women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Andrea; Porteous, Helen E; Palmer, Michelle A

    2017-11-11

    Little is reported about the nutrition-related needs and preferences of women seeking maternity services, particularly Maori and Pasifika (M&P) women who have higher chronic disease rates in Queensland. Nutrition-related knowledge, needs, behaviours and education preferences were compared between women of M&P ancestry and non-Maori and Pasifika women (NMP). Women (≥18 years) admitted to the postnatal ward were surveyed. Anthropometry, dietary quality, nutrition education preferences, country of birth and ancestry were collected. Analysis included chi-squared and t-tests. The survey was completed by 399 eligible women. Country of birth data suggested 4% of respondents were Pasifika and failed to separately identify New Zealand Maori, whereas 18% of respondents (n=73) reported M&P ancestry. Descriptors were similar between groups (28±5 years; 91% any breastfeeding; 18% gestational diabetes mellitus; p>0.05). However M&P women were less often university educated (M&P:6(9%); NMP:71(22%), p2 children (M&P: 30(54%); NMP:70(30%), p75%) women did not know their recommended weight gain. Many respondents reported inadequate intake of vegetables (95%), fruit (29%) and dairy (69%) during pregnancy. Two-fifths (38-41%) reported interest in perinatal nutrition education, with topics including healthy eating postpartum. Findings enable targeted service delivery according to women's preferences. Collecting ancestral and maternal data to facilitate the provision of appropriate nutrition education may be critical for achieving optimal maternal outcomes in Maori and Pasifika women. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Production and investigation of tungsten α emitters including the new isotopes, 165W and 166W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, K.S.; Schmidt-Ott, W.; Bingham, C.R.; Ijaz, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Neutron-deficient tungsten isotopes were produced by bombarding an enriched 156 Dy target with 16 O ions accelerated in the Oak Ridge isochronous cyclotron. A gas-jet-capillary system was used to transport product nuclei to an area where their α-decay properties could be investigated. The data of Eastham and Grant concerning 162 , 163 , 164 W were confirmed. In addition, two new weak α groups were observed. On the basis of excitation functions, 14 N + 156 Dy cross bombardments, and α-decay energy systematics they were assigned to the new isotopes 165 W and 166 W. Their decay properties are as follows: (1) 165 W, E/sub alpha/ = 4.909 plus-or-minus 0.005 MeV, T 1 / 2 = 5.1 plus-or-minus 0.5 sec, and (2) 166 W, E/sub alpha/ = 4.739 plus-or-minus 0.005 MeV, T 1 / 2 = 16 plus-or-minus 3 sec

  9. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  10. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  11. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  12. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  13. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  14. Investigation of rare elements by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarinskij, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of electrochemical methods for the study of complexing, separation of rare element mixtures, their preparation in lower oxidation states, and also for the development of highly sensitive methods of the element determination, is considered in the review. Voltammetric methods of Pt, Au, Re determination are considered, as well as Re preparation in oxidation states +5, +3 by electrolytic methods. The possibility to use electrodialysis methods for purification of insoluble compounds of rare earths (RE) from impurities, and for separation of Re and Mo with simultaneous purification of Re from K and other elements is shown. The application of high-frequency conductometry to analytic chemistry and to the study of Th, In, RE complexing and kinetics of the reactions is considered

  15. Investigation into Methods for Predicting Connection Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical response of connections in fire is largely based on material strength degradation and the interactions between the various components of the connection. In order to predict connection performance in fire, temperature profiles must initially be established in order to evaluate the material strength degradation over time. This paper examines two current methods for predicting connection temperatures: The percentage method, where connection temperatures are calculated as a percentage of the adjacent beam lower-flange, mid-span temperatures; and the lumped capacitance method, based on the lumped mass of the connection. Results from the percentage method do not correlate well with experimental results, whereas the lumped capacitance method shows much better agreement with average connection temperatures. A 3D finite element heat transfer model was also created in Abaqus, and showed good correlation with experimental results. 

  16. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  17. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  18. Investigating alternative dispute resolution methods and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    provide a clear definition; 69.4% of architectural professionals do not discuss. ADR methods ..... The study used a quantitative research approach, as the research involves .... questions. The findings of the data might also identify possible gaps.

  19. Investigating hydrogel dosimeter decomposition by chemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The chemical oxidative decomposition of leucocrystal violet micelle hydrogel dosimeters was investigated using the reaction of ferrous ions with hydrogen peroxide or sodium bicarbonate with hydrogen peroxide. The second reaction is more effective at dye decomposition in gelatin hydrogels. Additional chemical analysis is required to determine the decomposition products

  20. Investigating alternative dispute resolution methods and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article investigates the current knowledge, implementation and benefits of ADR within the South African built environment. The focus population of the study is architectural professionals, as defined by the South African Council for the Architectural Profession (SACAP). A questionnaire was distributed among 581 ...

  1. Satellite Magnetic Residuals Investigated With Geostatistical Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox Maule, Chaterine; Mosegaard, Klaus; Olsen, Nils

    2005-01-01

    (which consists of measurement errors and unmodeled signal), and is typically assumed to be uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed. We have applied geostatistical methods to analyze the residuals of the Oersted (09d/04) field model (www.dsri.dk/Oersted/Field models/IGRF 2005 candidates/), which is based...

  2. The experience sampling method: Investigating students' affective experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Jayson M.; Stetzer, MacKenzie R.; Shemwell, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Improving non-cognitive outcomes such as attitudes, efficacy, and persistence in physics courses is an important goal of physics education. This investigation implemented an in-the-moment surveying technique called the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) [1] to measure students' affective experience in physics. Measurements included: self-efficacy, cognitive efficiency, activation, intrinsic motivation, and affect. Data are presented that show contrasts in students' experiences (e.g., in physics vs. non-physics courses).

  3. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms......The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

  4. Investigation of mixed saliva by optoelectronic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Ekaterina; Nepomnyashchaya, Elina; Baranov, Maksim; Velichko, Elena; Aksenov, Evgenii; Bogomaz, Tatyana

    2018-04-01

    At present, saliva and its properties are being actively studied. Human saliva is a unique biological material that has potential in clinical practice. A detailed analysis of the characteristics and properties of saliva is relevant for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, the properties and characteristics of saliva are studied using optoelectronic methods: dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic light scattering and optical microscopy. Mixed saliva from a healthy patient and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 was used as an object of the study. The dynamics of the behavior of a healthy and patient with diabetes mellitus type 2 is visible according to the results obtained. All three methods confirm hypothesis of structural changes in mixed saliva in the disease of diabetes mellitus type 2.

  5. Use of isotope methods for glacialhydrological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, H.

    1986-01-01

    Glacialhydrological investigations at Vernagtferner (Oetztal Alps, Austria) by means of measurements of 2 H, 18 O, and 3 H contents as well as of electrolytic conductivity yield quantitative data on the different discharge portions in the glacier stream and on residence times in the different storage volumes within the glacier. Hence it follows a detailed picture of the glacier discharge system, which can be simulated by a mathematical model. The total calculated glacier discharge values derived from the energy balance at the glacier surface and from the storage coefficients, are in a satisfying agreement with the measured total glacier discharges for the period 1978-1983 hitherto evaluated. (author)

  6. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

  7. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unwin, S D [Science Applications International Corp., (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board`s program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. A preliminary investigation of PSA validation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unwin, S.D.

    1995-09-01

    This document has been prepared to support the initial phase of the Atomic Energy Control Board's program to review and evaluate Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) studies conducted by nuclear generating station designers and licensees. The document provides (1) a review of current and prospective applications of PSA technology in the Canadian nuclear power industry; (2) an assessment of existing practices and techniques for the review or risk and hazard identification studies in the international nuclear power sector and other technological sectors; and (3) proposed analytical framework in which to develop systematic techniques for the scrutiny and evaluation of a PSA model. These frameworks are based on consideration of the mathematical structure of a PSA model and are intended to facilitate the development of methods to evaluate a model relative to intended end-uses. (author). 34 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs

  9. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  10. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

  11. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  12. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  13. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications

  14. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes method including acoustic damping by eddy viscosity using RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.

  15. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

  16. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Wieselquist, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for handling external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM. • Source term can have polynomial or exponentially decaying time-dependence. • CRAM with source term and adjoint capability implemented to ORIGEN in SCALE. • The new solver is faster and more accurate than the original solver of ORIGEN. - Abstract: A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Furthermore, in most cases, the new solver is up to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one

  17. Improved Riccati Transfer Matrix Method for Free Vibration of Non-Cylindrical Helical Springs Including Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free vibration equations for non-cylindrical (conical, barrel, and hyperboloidal types helical springs with noncircular cross-sections, which consist of 14 first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, are theoretically derived using spatially curved beam theory. In the formulation, the warping effect upon natural frequencies and vibrating mode shapes is first studied in addition to including the rotary inertia, the shear and axial deformation influences. The natural frequencies of the springs are determined by the use of improved Riccati transfer matrix method. The element transfer matrix used in the solution is calculated using the Scaling and Squaring method and Pad'e approximations. Three examples are presented for three types of springs with different cross-sectional shapes under clamped-clamped boundary condition. The accuracy of the proposed method has been compared with the FEM results using three-dimensional solid elements (Solid 45 in ANSYS code. Numerical results reveal that the warping effect is more pronounced in the case of non-cylindrical helical springs than that of cylindrical helical springs, which should be taken into consideration in the free vibration analysis of such springs.

  18. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  19. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  20. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Joel [White Lake, MI

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  1. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  2. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  3. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  4. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  5. Methods for investigating biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpute, Surekha K; Banpurkar, Arun G; Dhakephalkar, Prashant K; Banat, Ibrahim M; Chopade, Balu A

    2010-06-01

    Microorganisms produce biosurfactant (BS)/bioemulsifier (BE) with wide structural and functional diversity which consequently results in the adoption of different techniques to investigate these diverse amphiphilic molecules. This review aims to compile information on different microbial screening methods, surface active products extraction procedures, and analytical terminologies used in this field. Different methods for screening microbial culture broth or cell biomass for surface active compounds production are also presented and their possible advantages and disadvantages highlighted. In addition, the most common methods for purification, detection, and structure determination for a wide range of BS and BE are introduced. Simple techniques such as precipitation using acetone, ammonium sulphate, solvent extraction, ultrafiltration, ion exchange, dialysis, ultrafiltration, lyophilization, isoelectric focusing (IEF), and thin layer chromatography (TLC) are described. Other more elaborate techniques including high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), infra red (IR), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopy (FAB-MS), protein digestion and amino acid sequencing are also elucidated. Various experimental strategies including static light scattering and hydrodynamic characterization for micelles have been discussed. A combination of various analytical methods are often essential in this area of research and a numbers of trials and errors to isolate, purify and characterize various surface active agents are required. This review introduces the various methodologies that are indispensable for studying biosurfactants and bioemulsifiers.

  6. Second-principles method for materials simulations including electron and lattice degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier

    2016-05-01

    We present a first-principles-based (second-principles) scheme that permits large-scale materials simulations including both atomic and electronic degrees of freedom on the same footing. The method is based on a predictive quantum-mechanical theory—e.g., density functional theory—and its accuracy can be systematically improved at a very modest computational cost. Our approach is based on dividing the electron density of the system into a reference part—typically corresponding to the system's neutral, geometry-dependent ground state—and a deformation part—defined as the difference between the actual and reference densities. We then take advantage of the fact that the bulk part of the system's energy depends on the reference density alone; this part can be efficiently and accurately described by a force field, thus avoiding explicit consideration of the electrons. Then, the effects associated to the difference density can be treated perturbatively with good precision by working in a suitably chosen Wannier function basis. Further, the electronic model can be restricted to the bands of interest. All these features combined yield a very flexible and computationally very efficient scheme. Here we present the basic formulation of this approach, as well as a practical strategy to compute model parameters for realistic materials. We illustrate the accuracy and scope of the proposed method with two case studies, namely, the relative stability of various spin arrangements in NiO (featuring complex magnetic interactions in a strongly-correlated oxide) and the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (featuring subtle electron-lattice couplings and screening effects). We conclude by discussing ways to overcome the limitations of the present approach (most notably, the assumption of a fixed bonding topology), as well as its many envisioned possibilities and future extensions.

  7. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  8. Investigation on generalized Variational Nodal Methods for heterogeneous nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yongping; Wu, Hongchun; Li, Yunzhao; Cao, Liangzhi; Shen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed two heterogeneous nodal methods based on the Variational Nodal Method. • Four problems were solved to evaluate the two heterogeneous nodal methods. • The function expansion method is good at treating continuous-changing heterogeneity. • The finite sub-element method is good at treating discontinuous-changing heterogeneity. - Abstract: The Variational Nodal Method (VNM) is generalized for heterogeneous nodes and applied to four kinds of problems including Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) core problem with continuous cross section profile, Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) control rod cusping effect problem, PWR whole-core pin-by-pin problem, and heterogeneous PWR core problem without fuel-coolant homogenization in each pin cell. Two approaches have been investigated for the treatment of the nodal heterogeneity in this paper. To concentrate on spatial heterogeneity, diffusion approximation was adopted for the angular variable in neutron transport equation. To provide demonstrative numerical results, the codes in this paper were developed in slab geometry. The first method, named as function expansion (FE) method, expands nodal flux by orthogonal polynomials and the nodal cross sections are also expressed as spatial depended functions. The second path, named as finite sub-element (FS) method, takes advantage of the finite-element method by dividing each node into numbers of homogeneous sub-elements and expanding nodal flux into the combination of linear sub-element trial functions. Numerical tests have been carried out to evaluate the ability of the two nodal (coarse-mesh) heterogeneous VNMs by comparing with the fine-mesh homogeneous VNM. It has been demonstrated that both heterogeneous approaches can handle heterogeneous nodes. The FE method is good at continuous-changing heterogeneity as in the MSR core problem, while the FS method is good at discontinuous-changing heterogeneity such as the PWR pin-by-pin problem and heterogeneous PWR core

  9. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...

  10. A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.

  11. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  12. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  13. R3GMRES: including prior information in GMRES-type methods for discrete inverse problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yiqiu; Garde, Henrik; Hansen, Per Christian

    2014-01-01

    Lothar Reichel and his collaborators proposed several iterative algorithms that augment the underlying Krylov subspace with an additional low-dimensional subspace in order to produce improved regularized solutions. We take a closer look at this approach and investigate a particular Regularized Ra...

  14. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  15. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  16. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  17. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  18. Indication of Importance of Including Soil Microbial Characteristics into Biotope Valuation Method.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trögl, J.; Pavlorková, Jana; Packová, P.; Seják, J.; Kuráň, P.; Kuráň, J.; Popelka, J.; Pacina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 253. ISSN 2071-1050 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biotope assessment * biotope valuation method * soil microbial communities Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2016

  19. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  20. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  1. TRANSAT-- method for detecting the conserved helices of functional RNA structures, including transient, pseudo-knotted and alternative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nicholas J P; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2010-06-24

    The prediction of functional RNA structures has attracted increased interest, as it allows us to study the potential functional roles of many genes. RNA structure prediction methods, however, assume that there is a unique functional RNA structure and also do not predict functional features required for in vivo folding. In order to understand how functional RNA structures form in vivo, we require sophisticated experiments or reliable prediction methods. So far, there exist only a few, experimentally validated transient RNA structures. On the computational side, there exist several computer programs which aim to predict the co-transcriptional folding pathway in vivo, but these make a range of simplifying assumptions and do not capture all features known to influence RNA folding in vivo. We want to investigate if evolutionarily related RNA genes fold in a similar way in vivo. To this end, we have developed a new computational method, Transat, which detects conserved helices of high statistical significance. We introduce the method, present a comprehensive performance evaluation and show that Transat is able to predict the structural features of known reference structures including pseudo-knotted ones as well as those of known alternative structural configurations. Transat can also identify unstructured sub-sequences bound by other molecules and provides evidence for new helices which may define folding pathways, supporting the notion that homologous RNA sequence not only assume a similar reference RNA structure, but also fold similarly. Finally, we show that the structural features predicted by Transat differ from those assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Unlike the existing methods for predicting folding pathways, our method works in a comparative way. This has the disadvantage of not being able to predict features as function of time, but has the considerable advantage of highlighting conserved features and of not requiring a detailed knowledge of the cellular

  2. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  3. Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tank including hydrodynamic interaction by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.T.; Ting, K.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)

  4. Impact of Including Authentic Inquiry Experiences in Methods Courses for Pre-Service Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Elfring, L.; Novodvorsky, I.; Talanquer, V.; Quintenz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in the context of their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: prepare students to address real world complex problems; develop students' ability to use scientific methods; prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. However, it is unclear what the broader pre-service teacher preparation community is doing in preparing future teachers to promote, manage, and successful facilitate their own students in conducting authentic scientific inquiry. Surveys of undergraduates in secondary science education programs suggests that students have had almost no experiences themselves in conducting open scientific inquiry where they develop researchable questions, design strategies to pursue evidence, and communicate data-based conclusions. In response, the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Arizona requires all students enrolled in its various science teaching methods courses to complete an open inquiry research project and defend their findings at a specially designed inquiry science mini-conference at the end of the term. End-of-term surveys show that students enjoy their research experience and believe that this experience enhances their ability to facilitate their own future students in conducting open inquiry.

  5. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  6. A convolution method for predicting mean treatment dose including organ motion at imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, J.T.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The random treatment delivery errors (organ motion and set-up error) can be incorporated into the treatment planning software using a convolution method. Mean treatment dose is computed as the convolution of a static dose distribution with a variation kernel. Typically this variation kernel is Gaussian with variance equal to the sum of the organ motion and set-up error variances. We propose a novel variation kernel for the convolution technique that additionally considers the position of the mobile organ in the planning CT image. The systematic error of organ position in the planning CT image can be considered random for each patient over a population. Thus the variance of the variation kernel will equal the sum of treatment delivery variance and organ motion variance at planning for the population of treatments. The kernel is extended to deal with multiple pre-treatment CT scans to improve tumour localisation for planning. Mean treatment doses calculated with the convolution technique are compared to benchmark Monte Carlo (MC) computations. Calculations of mean treatment dose using the convolution technique agreed with MC results for all cases to better than ± 1 Gy in the planning treatment volume for a prescribed 60 Gy treatment. Convolution provides a quick method of incorporating random organ motion (captured in the planning CT image and during treatment delivery) and random set-up errors directly into the dose distribution. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-09-19

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  8. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  9. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  10. Adult Mouse DRG Explant and Dissociated Cell Models to Investigate Neuroplasticity and Responses to Environmental Insults Including Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Sharthiya, Harsh; Tiwari, Vaibhav

    2018-03-09

    This protocol describes an ex vivo model of mouse-derived dorsal root ganglia (DRG) explant and in vitro DRG-derived co-culture of dissociated sensory neurons and glial satellite cells. These are useful and versatile models to investigate a variety of biological responses associated with physiological and pathological conditions of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) ranging from neuron-glial interaction, neuroplasticity, neuroinflammation, and viral infection. The usage of DRG explant is scientifically advantageous compared to simplistic single cells models for multiple reasons. For instance, as an organotypic culture, the DRG explant allows ex vivo transfer of an entire neuronal network including the extracellular microenvironment that play a significant role in all the neuronal and glial functions. Further, DRG explants can also be maintained ex vivo for several days and the culture conditions can be perturbed as desired. In addition, the harvested DRG can be further dissociated into an in vitro co-culture of primary sensory neurons and satellite glial cells to investigate neuronal-glial interaction, neuritogenesis, axonal cone interaction with the extracellular microenvironment, and more general, any aspect associated with the neuronal metabolism. Therefore, the DRG-explant system offers a great deal of flexibility to study a wide array of events related to biological, physiological, and pathological conditions in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Decoding Facial Esthetics to Recreate an Esthetic Hairline: A Method Which Includes Forehead Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anil K; Garg, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The evidence suggests that our perception of physical beauty is based on how closely the features of one's face reflect phi (the golden ratio) in their proportions. By that extension, it must certainly be possible to use a mathematical parameter to design an anterior hairline in all faces. To establish a user-friendly method to design an anterior hairline in cases of male pattern alopecia. We need a flexible measuring tape and skin marker. A reference point A (glabella) is taken in between eyebrows. Mark point E, near the lateral canthus, 8 cm horizontal on either side from the central point A. A mid-frontal point (point B) is marked 8 cm from point A on the forehead in a mid-vertical plane. The frontotemporal points (C and C') are marked on the frontotemporal area, 8 cm in a horizontal plane from point B and 8 cm in a vertical plane from point E. The temporal peak points (D and D') are marked on the line joining the frontotemporal point C to the lateral canthus point E, slightly more than halfway toward lateral canthus, usually 5 cm from the frontotemporal point C. This line makes an anterior border of the temporal triangle. We have conducted a study with 431 cases of male pattern alopecia. The average distance of the mid-frontal point from glabella was 7.9 cm. The patient satisfaction reported was 94.7%. Our method gives a skeletal frame of the anterior hairline with minimal criteria, with no need of visual imagination and experience of the surgeon. It automatically takes care of the curvature of the forehead and is easy to use for a novice surgeon.

  12. A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT METHODS: A CANDELS INVESTIGATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Ferguson, Henry C.; Mobasher, Bahram; Faber, Sandra M.; Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Finlator, Kristian; Fontana, Adriano; Gruetzbauch, Ruth; Johnson, Seth; Pforr, Janine; Dickinson, Mark E.; Salvato, Mara; Wuyts, Stijn; Wiklind, Tommy; Acquaviva, Viviana; Huang, Jiasheng; Huang, Kuang-Han; Newman, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    We present results from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) photometric redshift methods investigation. In this investigation, the results from 11 participants, each using a different combination of photometric redshift code, template spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and priors, are used to examine the properties of photometric redshifts applied to deep fields with broadband multi-wavelength coverage. The photometry used includes U-band through mid-infrared filters and was derived using the TFIT method. Comparing the results, we find that there is no particular code or set of template SEDs that results in significantly better photometric redshifts compared to others. However, we find that codes producing the lowest scatter and outlier fraction utilize a training sample to optimize photometric redshifts by adding zero-point offsets, template adjusting, or adding extra smoothing errors. These results therefore stress the importance of the training procedure. We find a strong dependence of the photometric redshift accuracy on the signal-to-noise ratio of the photometry. On the other hand, we find a weak dependence of the photometric redshift scatter with redshift and galaxy color. We find that most photometric redshift codes quote redshift errors (e.g., 68% confidence intervals) that are too small compared to that expected from the spectroscopic control sample. We find that all codes show a statistically significant bias in the photometric redshifts. However, the bias is in all cases smaller than the scatter; the latter therefore dominates the errors. Finally, we find that combining results from multiple codes significantly decreases the photometric redshift scatter and outlier fraction. We discuss different ways of combining data to produce accurate photometric redshifts and error estimates

  13. North american natural gas supply forecast: the Hubbert method including the effects of institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D. B.; Kolodziej, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the U.S. and southern Canadian natural gas supply market is considered. An important model for oil and natural gas supply is the Hubbert curve. Not all regions of the world are producing oil or natural gas following a Hubbert curve, even when price and market conditions are accounted for. One reason is that institutions are affecting supply. We investigate the possible effects of oil and gas market institutions in North America on natural gas supply. A multi-cycle Hubbert curve with inflection points similar to the Soviet Union's oil production multi-cycle Hubbert curve is used to determine North American natural gas discovery rates and to analyze how market specific institutions caused the inflection points. In addition, we analyze the latest shale natural gas projections critically. While currently, unconventional resources of natural gas suggest that North American natural gas production will increase without bound, the model here suggests a peak in North American natural gas supplies could happen in 2013. (author)

  14. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project.

  15. MERCURY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL DECONTAMINATION METHODS: INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Over the years mercury has been recognized as having serious impacts on human health and the environment. This recognition has led to numerous studies that deal with the properties of various mercury forms, the development of methods to quantify and speciate the forms, fate and transport, toxicology studies, and the development of site remediation and decontamination technologies. This report reviews several critical areas that will be used in developing technologies for cleaning mercury from mercury-contaminated surfaces of metals and porous materials found in many DOE facilities. The technologies used for decontamination of water and mixed wastes (solid) are specifically discussed. Many technologies that have recently appeared in the literature are included in the report. Current surface decontamination processes have been reviewed, and the limitations of these technologies for mercury decontamination are discussed. Based on the currently available technologies and the processes published recently in the literature, several processes, including strippable coatings, chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, chemisorbing surface wipes with forager sponge and grafted cotton, and surface/pore fixation through amalgamation or stabilization, have been identified as potential techniques for decontamination of mercury-contaminated metal and porous surfaces. Their potential merits and applicability are discussed. Finally, two processes, strippable coatings and chemical cleaning with iodine/iodide lixiviant, were experimentally investigated in Phase II of this project

  16. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

  17. Investigating Convergence Patterns for Numerical Methods Using Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sheldon P.

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the patterns that arise in the convergence of numerical methods, particularly those in the errors involved in successive iterations, using data analysis and curve fitting methods. In particular, the results obtained are used to convey a deeper level of understanding of the concepts of linear, quadratic, and cubic…

  18. Investigations on application of multigrid method to MHD equilibrium analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuno, Soichiro

    2000-01-01

    The potentiality of application for Multi-grid method to MHD equilibrium analysis is investigated. The nonlinear eigenvalue problem often appears when the MHD equilibria are determined by solving the Grad-Shafranov equation numerically. After linearization of the equation, the problem is solved by use of the iterative method. Although the Red-Black SOR method or Gauss-Seidel method is often used for the solution of the linearized equation, it takes much CPU time to solve the problem. The Multi-grid method is compared with the SOR method for the Poisson Problem. The results of computations show that the CPU time required for the Multi-grid method is about 1000 times as small as that for the SOR method. (author)

  19. A randomized controlled trial of Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for perfectionism including an investigation of outcome predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey; Egan, Sarah; Nordgren, Lise Bergman; Carlbring, Per; Landström, Andreas; Roos, Stina; Skoglund, Malin; Thelander, Elisabet; Trosell, Linnéa; Örtenholm, Alexander; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-08-01

    Being highly attentive to details can be a positive feature. However, for some individuals, perfectionism can lead to distress and is associated with many psychiatric disorders. Cognitive behavior therapy has been shown to yield many benefits for those experiencing problems with perfectionism, but the access to evidence-based care is limited. The current study investigated the efficacy of guided Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (ICBT) and predictors of treatment outcome. In total, 156 individuals were included and randomized to an eight-week treatment or wait-list control. Self-report measures of perfectionism, depression, anxiety, self-criticism, self-compassion, and quality of life were distributed during screening and at post-treatment. Intention-to-treat were used for all statistical analyses. Moderate to large between-group effect sizes were obtained for the primary outcome measures, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, subscales Concerns over Mistakes and Personal Standards, Cohen's d = 0.68-1.00, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.36-1.33], with 35 (44.9%) of the patients in treatment being improved. Predictors were also explored, but none were related to treatment outcome. In sum, guided ICBT can be helpful for addressing problems with clinical perfectionism, but research of its long-term benefits is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Latest groundwater investigating methods and measuring techniques. 1. ; Investigation on aquifer distribution (investigation method). Saikin no chikasui chosa hoho to keisoku gijutsu. 1. ; Taisuiso no bunpu chosa (tansaho)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamai, T [Asia Air Survey Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1993-06-30

    This paper explains groundwater investigating methods, introducing particularly two methods. The resistivity tomography is a method to measure potential distribution generated when current is applied around an area to be investigated. Using the measurement result as projection data, the resistivity distribution is restructured within the area of the investigation. The paper summarizes the measurement method (measuring equipment, electrode arrangement, etc.), the analytic method (establishment of an initial model, and the alpha-center method to calculate theoretical potentials corresponding to the model), and an application example of the method in which the resistivity change was observed using permeation of salt tracers. The resistivity imaging method (two-dimensional resistivity analysis method) is superior in practicability to the above method under the present state of the art. This method does not differ from the conventional resistivity method in methodology, but improves the analytic accuracy over the conventional electrical investigation method as a result of analysis combining the simplified two-dimensional analysis method with the alpha-center method. A summary is given on the measuring and analyzing methods. 13 refs., 10 figs.

  1. Additivity methods for prediction of thermochemical properties. The Laidler method revisited. 2. Hydrocarbons including substituted cyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rui C.; Leal, Joao P.; Martinho Simoes, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    A revised parameterization of the extended Laidler method for predicting standard molar enthalpies of atomization and standard molar enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K for several families of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, cycloalkanes, substituted cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, substituted cycloalkenes, benzene derivatives, and bi and polyphenyls) is presented. Data for a total of 265 gas-phase and 242 liquid-phase compounds were used for the calculation of the parameters. Comparison of the experimental values with those obtained using the additive scheme led to an average absolute difference of 0.73 kJ . mol -1 for the gas-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation and 0.79 kJ . mol -1 for the liquid-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation. The database used to establish the parameters was carefully reviewed by using, whenever possible, the original publications. A worksheet to simplify the calculation of standard molar enthalpies of formation and standard molar enthalpies of atomization at T = 298.15 K based on the extended Laidler parameters defined in this paper is provided as supplementary material.

  2. Investigating requests and expectations for future methods of CEE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Bente; Jensson, Palle; Bayard, Ove

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a map of requests and expectations for future ‘delivery’ methods of continuing engineering education (CEE) viewed from the perspective of Scandinavian managing directors and their employed engineers. During the last decades numerous attempts have been made to develop new...... into the crystal ball to identify requests and expectations to future methods of CEE. The significance of the investigation will be a conceptual map, which discloses some future focus areas ahead of CEE providers....

  3. Investigation of the paired-gear method in selectivity studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sistiaga, Manu; Herrmann, Bent; Larsen, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    was repeated throughout the eight cases in this investigation. When using the paired-gear method, the distribution of the estimated L50 and SR is wider; the distribution of the estimated split parameter has a higher variability than the true split; the estimated mean L50 and SR can be biased; the estimated...... recommend that the methodology used to obtain selectivity estimates using the paired-gear method be reviewed....

  4. An investigation of calibration methods for solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yff, Barbara T S; Royall, Paul G; Brown, Marc B; Martin, Gary P

    2004-01-28

    Solution calorimetry has been used in a number of varying applications within pharmaceutical research as a technique for the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical materials, such as quantifying small degrees of amorphous content, identifying polymorphs and investigating interactions between drugs and carbohydrates or proteins and carbohydrates. A calibration test procedure is necessary to validate the instrumentation; a few of the suggested calibration reactions are the enthalpies of solution associated with dissolving Tris in 0.1 M HCl or NaCl, KCl or propan-1-ol in water. In addition, there are a number of different methods available to determine enthalpies of solution from the experimental data provided by the calorimeter, for example, the Regnault-Pfaundler's method, a graphical extrapolation based on the Dickinson method, or a manual integration-based method. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate how each of these methods influences the values for the enthalpy of solution. Experiments were performed according to the method outlined by Hogan and Buckton [Int. J. Pharm. 207 (2000) 57] using KCl (samples of 50, 100 and 200 mg), Tris and sucrose as calibrants. For all three materials the manual integration method was found to be the most consistent with the KCl in water (sample mass of 200 mg) being the most precise. Thus, this method is recommended for the validation of solution calorimeters.

  5. Comparison of different methods to investigate postprandial lipaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, A. J. H. H. M.; Alipour, A.; Sijmonsma, T. P.; Verseyden, C.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; Plokker, H. W. M.; Castro Cabezas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Postprandial hyperlipidaemia has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated which of the generally used methods to test postprandial lipaemia differentiated best between patients with premature CAD (50 +/- 4 years, n=20) and healthy controls. Furthermore, the effects of

  6. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for investigating complex problems, but it has not been extensively used in construction management research. In South Africa, the HIV/AIDS pandemic has seen construction management taking on a vital responsibility since the government called upon the ...

  7. Investigation of radiation defects in solids using the EXAFS method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eritsyan, G.N.

    1983-01-01

    The exafs method is proposed as a more informative, universal one to investigate the radiation defects in solids. The successful results as obtained by the author using the synchrotron radiation source are reported for the first time. The measurements were carried out in GaAsP crystals irradiated with 50 MeV electrons

  8. MACROECONOMIC POLICY OF CURRENCY WAR: METHODS OF INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekareva S. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the methods of investigation of a modern international monetary and finance field for some countries which would participate in currency war. Usually currency wars are used in order to achieve some competitive advantages in international trade relations. Real effective exchange rate index was used as the key instrument in our analysis. It reflects a nominal exchange rate and the main trade partners’ structure as well. Moreover, some macroeconomic and finance indices were used. The methods of investigation are cluster and panel data analyses. The period of investigation is 1990-2012. The result of analysis is connected with showing differences in countries’ possibility of implementing monetary policy instruments to improve their competitiveness.

  9. Investigation on filter method for smoothing spiral phase plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanhang; Wen, Shenglin; Luo, Zijian; Tang, Caixue; Yan, Hao; Yang, Chunlin; Liu, Mincai; Zhang, Qinghua; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Spiral phase plate (SPP) for generating vortex hollow beams has high efficiency in various applications. However, it is difficult to obtain an ideal spiral phase plate because of its continuous-varying helical phase and discontinued phase step. This paper describes the demonstration of continuous spiral phase plate using filter methods. The numerical simulations indicate that different filter method including spatial domain filter, frequency domain filter has unique impact on surface topography of SPP and optical vortex characteristics. The experimental results reveal that the spatial Gaussian filter method for smoothing SPP is suitable for Computer Controlled Optical Surfacing (CCOS) technique and obtains good optical properties.

  10. Experimental method for investigating helium effects in irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.; Greenwood, L.; Loomis, B.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses have been performed which indicate that an effective method for experimentally investigating helium effects in neutron irradiated vanadium base alloys can be developed. The experimental procedure involves only modest modifications to existing procedures currently used for irradiation testing of vanadium-base alloys in the FFTF reactor. Helium is generated in the vanadium alloy by decay of tritium which is either preinjected or generated within the test capsule. Calculations indicate that nearly constant He/dpa ratios of desired magnitude can be attained by proper selection of experimental parameters. The proposed method could have a major impact on the development of vanadium base alloys for fusion reactor applications. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. CFT and RTD methods for wastewater treatment plants apparatus investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palige, J.; Owczarczyk, A.; Dobrowolski, A.; Ptaszek, S.

    2006-01-01

    Two methods, residence time distributions (RTD) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are most effective for solid and wastewater phases investigations of flow dynamics. On the basis of measured (in tracer experiment) RTD function, the model of flow can be proposed for the unit under investigation. The experimental and numerical RTD functions were compared for different technological parameters values of processes (apparatus geometry, flow rate, location and construction of input and output). Numerical RTD function was obtained by DRW (discrete random walk) technique - determination of residence times of many liquid particles. The usefulness of these techniques was checked on a large scale laboratory model of settler. Satisfactory agreement of the data obtained by both methods - tracer and CFD - was observed

  12. Serial sectioning methods for 3D investigations in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zankel, Armin; Wagner, Julian; Poelt, Peter

    2014-07-01

    A variety of methods for the investigation and 3D representation of the inner structure of materials has been developed. In this paper, techniques based on slice and view using scanning microscopy for imaging are presented and compared. Three different methods of serial sectioning combined with either scanning electron or scanning ion microscopy or atomic force microscopy (AFM) were placed under scrutiny: serial block-face scanning electron microscopy, which facilitates an ultramicrotome built into the chamber of a variable pressure scanning electron microscope; three-dimensional (3D) AFM, which combines an (cryo-) ultramicrotome with an atomic force microscope, and 3D FIB, which delivers results by slicing with a focused ion beam. These three methods complement one another in many respects, e.g., in the type of materials that can be investigated, the resolution that can be obtained and the information that can be extracted from 3D reconstructions. A detailed review is given about preparation, the slice and view process itself, and the limitations of the methods and possible artifacts. Applications for each technique are also provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  14. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities - Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Holm, Peter E

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff. This paper presents a method to evaluate STFs by addition of synthetic runoff with representative concentrations of contaminant species, including the use of tracer for correction of removal rates for losses not caused by the STF. A list of organic and inorganic contaminant species, including trace elements representative of runoff from roads is suggested, as well as relevant concentration ranges. The method was used for adding contaminants to three different STFs including a curbstone extension with filter soil, a dual porosity filter, and six different permeable pavements. Evaluation of the method showed that it is possible to add a well-defined mixture of contaminants despite different field conditions by having a flexibly system, mixing different stock-solutions on site, and use bromide tracer for correction of outlet concentrations. Bromide recovery ranged from only 12% in one of the permeable pavements to 97% in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  16. Investigation of Evaluation method of chemical runaway reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Yoshihiko; Sasaya, Shinji; Kurakata, Koichiro; Nojiri, Ichiro

    2002-02-01

    Safety study 'Study of evaluation of abnormal occurrence for chemical substances in the nuclear fuel facilities' will be carried out from 2001 to 2005. In this study, the prediction of thermal hazards of chemical substances will be investigated and prepared. The hazard prediction method of chemical substances will be constructed from these results. Therefore, the hazard prediction methods applied in the chemical engineering in which the chemical substances with the hazard of fire and explosion were often treated were investigated. CHETAH (The ASTM Computer Program for Chemical Thermodynamic and Energy Release Evaluation) developed by ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) and TSS (Thermal Safety Software) developed by CISP (ChemInform St. Petersburg) were introduced and the fire and explosion hazards of chemical substances and reactions in the reprocessing process were evaluated. From these evaluated results, CHETAH could almost estimate the heat of reaction at 10% accuracy. It was supposed that CHETAH was useful as a screening for the hazards of fire and explosion of the new chemical substances and so on. TSS could calculate the reaction rate and the reaction behavior from the data measured by the various calorimeters rapidly. It was supposed that TSS was useful as an evaluation method for the hazards of fire and explosion of the new chemical reactions and so on. (author)

  17. Current and investigational non-dopaminergic agents for management of motor symptoms (including motor complications) in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous combination of motor and non motor symptoms. The nigrostriatal dopamine deficit is one of its essential pathophysiologic features. Areas covered: This invited narrative review provides an overlook over current available and future promising non dopaminergic therapeutics to modulate altered dopaminergic neurotransmission in Parkinson's disease. Current research strategies aim to proof clinical efficacy by amelioration of motor symptoms and preponderant levodopa related movement fluctuations. These so-called motor complications are characterized by involuntary movements as a result of an overstimulation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system or by temporary recurrence of motor symptoms, when beneficial effects of dopamine substituting drugs vane. Expert opinion: Non dopaminergic modulation of dopamine replacement is currently mostly investigated in well defined and selected patients with motor complications to get approval. However, the world of daily maintenance of patients with its individually adapted, so-called personalised, therapy will determine the real value of these therapeutics. Here the clinical experience of the treating neurologists and the courage to use unconventional drug combinations are essential preconditions for successful treatments of motor and associated non motor complications in cooperation with the patients and their care giving surroundings.

  18. Anastomotic Strictures after Esophageal Atresia Repair: Incidence, Investigations, and Management, Including Treatment of Refractory and Recurrent Strictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Tambucci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Improved surgical techniques, as well as preoperative and postoperative care, have dramatically changed survival of children with esophageal atresia (EA over the last decades. Nowadays, we are increasingly seeing EA patients experiencing significant short- and long-term gastrointestinal morbidities. Anastomotic stricture (AS is the most common complication following operative repair. An esophageal stricture is defined as an intrinsic luminal narrowing in a clinically symptomatic patient, but no symptoms are sensitive or specific enough to diagnose an AS. This review aims to provide a comprehensive view of AS in EA children. Given the lack of evidence-based data, we critically analyzed significant studies on children and adults, including comments on benign strictures with other etiologies. Despite there is no consensus about the goal of the luminal diameter based on the patient’s age, esophageal contrast study, and/or endoscopy are recommended to assess the degree of the narrowing. A high variability in incidence of ASs is reported in literature, depending on different definitions of AS and on a great number of pre-, intra-, and postoperative risk factor influencing the anastomosis outcome. The presence of a long gap between the two esophageal ends, with consequent anastomotic tension, is determinant for stricture formation and its response to treatment. The cornerstone of treatment is endoscopic dilation, whose primary aims are to achieve symptom relief, allow age-appropriate capacity for oral feeding, and reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration. No clear advantage of either balloon or bougie dilator has been demonstrated; therefore, the choice is based on operator experience and comfort with the equipment. Retrospective evidences suggest that selective dilatations (performed only in symptomatic patients results in significantly less number of dilatation sessions than routine dilations (performed to prevent symptoms with equal long

  19. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  20. Investigation of the fuel temperature evaluation method at BOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Tetsuya; Asaga, Takeo; Nemoto, Junichi

    1999-06-01

    It is one of the major subjects in the improvement of the design method for determining the thermal conditions of the solid type Mixed - Oxide (MOX) fuels in FBR to evaluate the fuel temperature at BOL as precisely as possible. Therefore, we have planned to modify the fuel temperature evaluation method 'FEVER', which was developed by JNC in 1988, as one of the investigation for the establishment of the precise fuel temperature evaluation method. And, we also have planned to use the modified FEVER, named FEVER-M', for estimation of the irradiation conditions of the PTM test in Joyo, called 'B10 test', planning to perform in 2000. In this work, the following results were obtained; 1) As a result of the modification, the uncertainty in the fuel temperature evaluation of 'FEVER-M' is reduced to about ±60 K. 2) Estimating the irradiation conditions of 'B10' test using the method 'FEVER-M', it is found that the appropriate maximum linear heat rate for the test is 620 W/cm. The detail plans of the 'B10' test were also determined based on the results. 3) Based on the results of this work, it is found that one of the effective procedure for the improvement of the accuracy of the fuel temperature evaluation method seems to calculate the fuel temperature taking the pellet relocation phenomena into account. In future, although there are a lot of matters to be discussed in this phenomena, the design method for the thermal conditions of the MOX fuels in FBR should be performed with taking the pellet relocation phenomena into account. (author)

  1. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  2. Investigation of drag effect using the field signature method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Zhengjun; Liao, Junbi; Tian, Gui Yun; Cheng, Liang

    2011-01-01

    The potential drop (PD) method is an established non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique. The monitoring of internal corrosion, erosion and cracks in piping systems, based on electrical field mapping or direct current potential drop array, is also known as the field signature method (FSM). The FSM has been applied in the field of submarine pipe monitoring and land-based oil and gas transmission pipes and containers. In the experimental studies, to detect and calculate the degree of pipe corrosion, the FSM analyses the relationships between the electrical resistance and pipe thickness using an electrode matrix. The relevant drag effect or trans-resistance will cause a large margin of error in the application of resistance arrays. It is the first time that the drag effect in the paper is investigated and analysed in resistance networks with the help of the FSM. Subsequently, a method to calculate the drag factors and eliminate its errors is proposed and presented. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental results show that the measurement accuracy can be improved by eliminating the errors caused by the drag effect

  3. Calorimetric investigations of solids by combined FPPE - TWRC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadarlat, D; Streza, M; Pop, M N; Tosa, V; Delenclos, S; Longuemart, S; Sahraoui, A Hadj

    2010-01-01

    An alternative photopyroelectric (PPE) technique that combines the front detection configuration (FPPE) with the thermal-wave-resonator-cavity (TWRC) method is proposed for direct measurement of thermal effusivity of solid materials inserted as backings in the FPPE detection cell. The method uses the scan of the normalized PPE phase as a function of sample's thickness, in the thermally thin regime for the sensor and liquid layer, and thermally thick regime for the backing material. The value of backing's thermal effusivity results from the optimization of the fit of the phase of the signal, performed with sample's thickness and backing's thermal effusivity as fitting parameters. The paper presents experimental results on several solid materials (inserted as backing in the cell), with different values of thermal effusivity (brass, steel, wood) and two liquids (ethylene glycol, water) largely used in the FPPE-TWRC cells. The paper stresses mainly on the sensitivity of the technique to different liquid/backing effusivity ratios. It seems that the method is suitable especially when investigating solids with values of thermal effusivity close to the effusivity of the liquid layer.

  4. A method to investigate the diffusion properties of nuclear calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Gillian; Wittum, Gabriel

    2011-10-01

    Modeling biophysical processes in general requires knowledge about underlying biological parameters. The quality of simulation results is strongly influenced by the accuracy of these parameters, hence the identification of parameter values that the model includes is a major part of simulating biophysical processes. In many cases, secondary data can be gathered by experimental setups, which are exploitable by mathematical inverse modeling techniques. Here we describe a method for parameter identification of diffusion properties of calcium in the nuclei of rat hippocampal neurons. The method is based on a Gauss-Newton method for solving a least-squares minimization problem and was formulated in such a way that it is ideally implementable in the simulation platform uG. Making use of independently published space- and time-dependent calcium imaging data, generated from laser-assisted calcium uncaging experiments, here we could identify the diffusion properties of nuclear calcium and were able to validate a previously published model that describes nuclear calcium dynamics as a diffusion process.

  5. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of multispectral photoacoustic osteoporosis detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Hershkovich, Hadas Sara; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2014-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disorder, which has a catastrophic impact on patients lives and overwhelming related to healthcare costs. Recently, we proposed a multispectral photoacoustic technique for early detection of osteoporosis. Such technique has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it allows the deduction of both bone functionality from the bone absorption spectrum and bone resistance to fracture from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. We demonstrated the propagation of multiple acoustic modes in animal bones in-vitro. To further investigate the effects of multiple wavelength excitations and of induced osteoporosis on the PA signal a multispectral photoacoustic system is presented. The experimental investigation is based on measuring the interference of multiple acoustic modes. The performance of the system is evaluated and a simple two mode theoretical model is fitted to the measured phase signals. The results show that such PA technique is accurate and repeatable. Then a multiple wavelength excitation is tested. It is shown that the PA response due to different excitation wavelengths revels that absorption by the different bone constitutes has a profound effect on the mode generation. The PA response is measured in single wavelength before and after induced osteoporosis. Results show that induced osteoporosis alters the measured amplitude and phase in a consistent manner which allows the detection of the onset of osteoporosis. These results suggest that a complete characterization of the bone over a region of both acoustic and optical frequencies might be used as a powerful tool for in-vivo bone evaluation.

  7. Nuclear methods for 'in-situ' geophysical investigations. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.P.; Oliver, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    There has been considerable effort expended by governmental, institutional, and private agencies in the development of suitable materials and instruments for application of nuclear methods for exploration and evaluation of mineral, oil, and gas resources. As a consequence of the peculiar circumstances of in situ investigations, much of the apparatus is, of design and construction, specifically adapted to the environment of the borehole (limited lateral dimension, high temperature and pressure, deep boreholes, etc.) which differs considerably from laboratory conditions. Meeting the needs for reliability and stability under adverse conditions of operation has led to often unique and innovative instrumentation. Much of the development effort has been provided by commercial service organizations whose interests require many details be maintained as proprietary. In addition, the tailoring of services to meet varying environmental and informational constraints has led to a wide range of instrument designs. As a result, it is difficult to provide an exhaustive description of all apparatus available for in situ investigations, rather, in this instance, systems and subsystems will be generically discussed. Radiation sources, detectors, and borehole probe designs are covered. (Auth.)

  8. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey)]. E-mail: aerdemy@atauni.edu.tr; Boncukcuoglu, Recep [Department of Environmental Engineering, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering, Erzurum (Turkey); Kocakerim, M. Muhtar [Department of Chemical Engineering, 25240, Atatuerk University, Faculty of Engineering Erzurum (Turkey); Keskinler, Buelent [Department of Environmental Engineering, Gebze Institute of Technology, Gebze/Kocaeli 41400 (Turkey)

    2005-10-17

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm{sup 2}. The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl{sub 2}. Added CaCl{sub 2} increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions.

  9. The investigation of parameters affecting boron removal by electrocoagulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, A. Erdem; Boncukcuoglu, Recep; Kocakerim, M. Muhtar; Keskinler, Buelent

    2005-01-01

    Boron removal from wastewaters by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode material was investigated in this paper. Several working parameters, such as pH, current density, boron concentration and type and concentration of supporting electrolyte were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. The experiments were carried out by keeping the pH of solution constant and optimum pH of solution was determined 8.0 for the aluminum electrode. Although energy consumption increased with decreasing boron concentration, which conductivity of these solutions were low, boron removal efficiency was higher at 100 mg/L than that of 1000 mg/L. Current density was an important parameter affecting removal efficiency. Boron removal efficiency and energy consumption increased with increasing current density from 1.2 to 6.0 mA/cm 2 . The types of different supporting electrolyte were experimented in order to investigate to this parameter effect on boron removal. The highest boron removal efficiency, 97%, was found by CaCl 2 . Added CaCl 2 increased more the conductivity of solution according to other supporting electrolytes, but decreased energy consumption. The results showed to have a high effectiveness of the electrocoagulation method in removing boron from aqueous solutions

  10. Technical and technological investigation of cultural heritage: experience in applications of spectroscopic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorieva I.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical methods of analysis are indispensable for restoration, study of painting techniques, examination and attribution of works of art. Development of new directions of investigations as well as improvements in sample preparation allow applying non-destructive analysis methods, minimizing amount of matter used to obtain informative spectra, preventing alteration and destruction of samples in the course of investigation. This paper observes the examples of applying optical and spectral methods, including molecular spectral analysis and electron microscopy, for study of binding media and pigments of painting and archaeological artifacts.

  11. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  12. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

    2015-04-01

    The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications.

  13. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    that are currently available or under development for recharge monitoring. The material is written primarily for hydrogeologists. Uses of geophysical methods for improving recharge monitoring are explored through brief discussions and case studies. The intent is to indicate how geophysical methods can be used effectively in studying recharge processes and quantifying recharge. As such, the material constructs a framework for matching the strengths of individual geophysical methods with the manners in which they can be applied for hydrologic analyses. The appendix is organized in three sections. First, the key hydrologic parameters necessary to determine the rate, timing, and patterns of recharge are identified. Second, the basic operating principals of the relevant geophysical methods are discussed. Methods are grouped by the physical property that they measure directly. Each measured property is related to one or more of the key hydrologic properties for recharge monitoring. Third, the emerging conceptual framework for applying geophysics to recharge monitoring is presented. Examples of the application of selected geophysical methods to recharge monitoring are presented in nine case studies. These studies illustrate hydrogeophysical applications under a wide range of conditions and measurement scales, which vary from tenths of a meter to hundreds of meters. The case studies include practice-proven as well as emerging applications of geophysical methods to recharge monitoring.

  14. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  15. Operational auditing versus traditional method: A comparative investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Tehrani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Operational auditing is one of the management consultancy services whose significance is on the rise day by day. This approach is, clearly, a systematic and methodical process used to evaluate economic savings of financial processes in organizations and the results of the evaluations are reported to interested people along with some comments to improve operational processes. Accordingly, it appears that the proper employment of the existing rationale in operational auditing can be a significant step towards the improvement of financial efficiency in Iranian public and private banking sector. This paper studies the effects of operational auditing on the improvement of economic saving of financial processes in Iranian private banks compared with traditional approaches where the operations are based on financial statements. The population of this survey includes 15 private and public Iranian banks and the proposed study selects 78 branches, randomly. The Cronbach alpha was used to test the reliability a questionnaire employed to collect the needed data in this study. The results obtained by SPSS Software indicated that the reliability of the instrumentsanged between 0.752 and 0.867, suggesting an acceptable level of the reliability for the questionnaire. Besides, content validity was used to confirm the validity of the instrument. The results of the study indicated that the operational auditing as a useful approach influencing the financial efficiency of public and private banks has significantly transformed the traditional thinking in the field of management auditing. The operational auditing has a number of significant advantages including a better method of controlling financial operations within Iranian banks, efficient planning in the future, facilitating efficient, appropriate, and accurate management decision making, and sound evaluation of managers’ financial operations.

  16. Investigation of Reusable Crucibles on Uranium Casting by Injection Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock

    2014-01-01

    Slurry applied coatings must be recoated after every batch. Thermal plasma-sprayed coatings of refractory materials can be applied to develop a re-usable crucible coating for metallic fuel. Plasma-sprayed coating can provide a crucible with a denser, more durable, coating layer, compared with the more friable coating layer formed by slurry-coating. Plasma-sprayed coatings are consolidated by mechanical interlocking of the molten particles impacting on the substrate and are dense from the heat applied by the plasma. Although the protective layer is more difficult in a dense coating than in a porous coating, the increased coating density is advantageous because it should not require frequent recoating or U-Zr melt penetration. In this study, we used a Vacuum Plasma Spray (VPS) method, which is suitable to prevent oxidization and has a number of advantages such as low defect density and excellent adhesion of the coating layer, to investigate permanent coatings for re-usable crucibles for melting and casting of metallic fuel. After coatings, interaction studies between molten U-Zr alloys and the plasma sprayed coatings were also carried out. We summarized the results of the coating methods. All coated samples maintained good coating integrity in a U-Zr melt, but most of the coating method samples did not maintain integrity in the U-Zr-RE melt because of the cracks or microcracks of the coating layer, presumably formed from the thermal expansion difference. Only the TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) DL VPS coated rod survived the 2 cycles dipping test of U-Zr-RE melt. This is likely caused by good adhesion of the TaC coating onto the niobium rod and the chemical inertness of Y 2 O 3 coating material in the U-Zr-RE melt. Based on the results from the interactions with U-10Zr and U-10Zr-5RE melt, TaC(100)-Y 2 O 3 (100) plasma-sprayed coating methods have been applied to real graphite crucibles

  17. A method for investigating relative timing information on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Daniel; Matsen, Frederick A; Stadler, Tanja

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new way to describe the timing of branching events in phylogenetic trees. Our description is in terms of the relative timing of diversification events between sister clades; as such it is complementary to existing methods using lineages-through-time plots which consider diversification in aggregate. The method can be applied to look for evidence of diversification happening in lineage-specific "bursts", or the opposite, where diversification between 2 clades happens in an unusually regular fashion. In order to be able to distinguish interesting events from stochasticity, we discuss 2 classes of neutral models on trees with relative timing information and develop a statistical framework for testing these models. These model classes include both the coalescent with ancestral population size variation and global rate speciation-extinction models. We end the paper with 2 example applications: first, we show that the evolution of the hepatitis C virus deviates from the coalescent with arbitrary population size. Second, we analyze a large tree of ants, demonstrating that a period of elevated diversification rates does not appear to have occurred in a bursting manner.

  18. Applications of the conjugate gradient FFT method in scattering and radiation including simulations with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical and computational aspects related to the application of the Conjugate Gradient FFT (CGFFT) method in computational electromagnetics are examined. The advantages of applying the CGFFT method to a class of large scale scattering and radiation problems are outlined. The main advantages of the method stem from its iterative nature which eliminates a need to form the system matrix (thus reducing the computer memory allocation requirements) and guarantees convergence to the true solution in a finite number of steps. Results are presented for various radiators and scatterers including thin cylindrical dipole antennas, thin conductive and resistive strips and plates, as well as dielectric cylinders. Solutions of integral equations derived on the basis of generalized impedance boundary conditions (GIBC) are also examined. The boundary conditions can be used to replace the profile of a material coating by an impedance sheet or insert, thus, eliminating the need to introduce unknown polarization currents within the volume of the layer. A general full wave analysis of 2-D and 3-D rectangular grooves and cavities is presented which will also serve as a reference for future work.

  19. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

  20. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  1. Empathy and childhood maltreatment: a mixed-methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Simon C; Barenblatt, Lisa; Fourie, Melike M; Stein, Dan J; Gobodo-Madikizela, Pumla

    2014-05-01

    Impaired empathy is regarded as a psychological consequence of childhood maltreatment, yet few studies have explored this relationship empirically. We investigated whether empathy differed in healthy and maltreated individuals by examining their emotional responses to people in distress. Forty-nine individuals (age 20 to 60) viewed short film clips from the South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission testimonies depicting dialogues between victims and perpetrators of gross human rights violations. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on their scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: control (n = 18), moderate maltreatment (n = 21), and severe maltreatment (n = 10). We employed a mixed-methods design to explore empathic responses to film clips both quantitatively and qualitatively. Quantitative results indicated that self-reported empathy was lower in the moderate maltreatment group compared to the control group, but of similar strengths in the severe maltreatment and control groups. However, qualitative thematic analysis indicated that both maltreatment groups displayed themes of impaired empathy. Our results support the notion that childhood maltreatment is associated with impaired empathy, and suggest that such impairment may differ depending on the level of maltreatment: moderate maltreatment was associated with emotional blunting and impaired cognitive empathy, whereas severe maltreatment was associated with emotional over-arousal and diminished cognitive insight.

  2. A method for the investigation of cholegraphic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, H.

    1982-01-01

    Isolated perfused rat livers were used for investigating possible interactions between two simultaneously injected contrast media, and which technique, using parenteral application of cholegraphic media, is optimal. The results show that excretion of a parenteral contrast medium is reduced by giving an oral contrast medium at the same time. Simultaneous administration of two different contrast media therefore does not result in improved diagnostic information. The effect depends on the dose, and a sufficiently long interval should be observed between giving an oral and a parenteral contrast medium. A comparison of excretion values following injection of a bolus and prolonged infusion shows higher biliary contrast concentration and increased excretion after a single injection. Comparing only the period after the infusion, no difference was found between these two methods of administration. The single injection offers pharmacokinetic advantages, but an infusion is better tolerated and has fewer side effects. A rapid infusion of 10 to 15 minutes is therefore recommended as the optimal means of administration. (orig.) [de

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  4. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  5. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Telehealth data overload through high alert generation is a significant barrier to sustained adoption of telehealth for managing HF patients. Objective To explore the factors contributing to frequent telehealth alerts including false alerts for Medicare heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a home health agency. Materials and Methods A mixed methods design that combined quantitative correlation analysis of patient characteristic data with number of telehealth alerts and qualitative analysis of telehealth and visiting nurses’ notes on follow-up actions to patients’ telehealth alerts was employed. All the quantitative and qualitative data was collected through retrospective review of electronic records of the home heath agency. Results Subjects in the study had a mean age of 83 (SD = 7.6); 56% were female. Patient co-morbidities (ppatient characteristics along with establishing patient-centered telehealth outcome goals may allow meaningful generation of telehealth alerts. Reducing avoidable telehealth alerts could vastly improve the efficiency and sustainability of telehealth programs for HF management. PMID:24454576

  6. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  7. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe; Khalil, Azza Ahmed; Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Kandi, Maria; Hoffmann, Lone

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing the planning target volume (PTV) while ensuring sufficient target coverage during the entire respiratory cycle is essential for free-breathing radiotherapy of lung cancer. Different methods are used to incorporate the respiratory motion into the PTV. Fifteen patients were analyzed. Respiration can be included in the target delineation process creating a respiratory GTV, denoted iGTV. Alternatively, the respiratory amplitude (A) can be measured based on the 4D-CT and A can be incorporated in the margin expansion. The GTV expanded by A yielded GTV + resp, which was compared to iGTV in terms of overlap. Three methods for PTV generation were compared. PTV del (delineated iGTV expanded to CTV plus PTV margin), PTV σ (GTV expanded to CTV and A was included as a random uncertainty in the CTV to PTV margin) and PTV ∑ (GTV expanded to CTV, succeeded by CTV linear expansion by A to CTV + resp, which was finally expanded to PTV ∑ ). Deformation of tumor and lymph nodes during respiration resulted in volume changes between the respiratory phases. The overlap between iGTV and GTV + resp showed that on average 7% of iGTV was outside the GTV + resp implying that GTV + resp did not capture the tumor during the full deformable respiration cycle. A comparison of the PTV volumes showed that PTV σ was smallest and PTV Σ largest for all patients. PTV σ was in mean 14% (31 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV del , while PTV del was 7% (20 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV Σ . PTV σ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTV del ) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger treatment volumes. PTV Σ should not be used, since it incorporates the disadvantages of both PTV del and PTV σ .

  8. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  9. Investigating a method of producing "red and dead" galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    In optical wavelengths, galaxies are observed to be either red or blue. The overall color of a galaxy is due to the distribution of the ages of its stellar population. Galaxies with currently active star formation appear blue, while those with no recent star formation at all (greater than about a Gyr) have only old, red stars. This strong bimodality has lead to the idea of star formation quenching, and various proposed physical mechanisms. In this dissertation, I attempt to reproduce with Enzo the results of Naab et al. (2007), in which red and dead galaxies are formed using gravitational quenching, rather than with one of the more typical methods of quenching. My initial attempts are unsuccessful, and I explore the reasons why I think they failed. Then using simpler methods better suited to Enzo + AMR, I am successful in producing a galaxy that appears to be similar in color and formation history to those in Naab et al. However, quenching is achieved using unphysically high star formation efficiencies, which is a different mechanism than Naab et al. suggests. Preliminary results of a much higher resolution, follow-on simulation of the above show some possible contradiction with the results of Naab et al. Cold gas is streaming into the galaxy to fuel starbursts, while at a similar epoch the galaxies in Naab et al. have largely already ceased forming stars in the galaxy. On the other hand, the results of the high resolution simulation are qualitatively similar to other works in the literature that show a somewhat different gravitational quenching mechanism than Naab et al. I also discuss my work using halo finders to analyze simulated cosmological data, and my work improving the Enzo/AMR analysis tool "yt". This includes two parallelizations of the halo finder HOP (Eisenstein and Hut, 1998) which allows analysis of very large cosmological datasets on parallel machines. The first version is "yt-HOP," which works well for datasets between about 2563 and 5123 particles

  10. A sequential mixed methods research approach to investigating HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-09-03

    Sep 3, 2016 ... Sequential mixed methods research is an effective approach for ... show the effectiveness of the research method. ... qualitative data before quantitative datasets ..... whereby both types of data are collected simultaneously.

  11. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  12. Development of spraying methods for high density bentonite barriers. Part 3. Field investigation of spraying methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Toshiyuki; Nakajima, Makoto; Kobayashi, Ichizo; Toida, Masaru; Fukuda, Katsumi; Sato, Tatsuro; Nonaka, Katsumi; Gozu, Keisuke

    2007-01-01

    The authors have developed a new method of constructing high density bentonite barriers by means of a wet spraying method. Using this method, backfill material can be placed in narrow upper and side parts in a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility. Using a new supplying machine for bentonite, spraying tests were conducted to investigate the conditions during construction. On the basis of the test results, the various parameters for the spraying method were investigated. The test results are summarized as follows: 1. The new machine supplied about twice the weight of material supplied by a screw conveyor. A dry density of spraying bentonite 0.05 Mg/m 3 higher than that of a screw conveyor with the same water content could be achieved. 2. The dry density of sprayed bentonite at a boundary with concrete was the same as that at the center of the cross section. 3. The variation in densities of bentonite sprayed in the vertical downward and horizontal directions was small. Also, density reduction due to rebound during spraying was not seen. 4. Bentonite controlled by water content could be sprayed smoothly in the horizontal direction by a small machine. Also rebound could be collected by a machine conveying air. (author)

  13. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  14. Investigation of MLE in nonparametric estimation methods of reliability function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Yoon Ik; Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Kil Yoo

    2001-01-01

    There have been lots of trials to estimate a reliability function. In the ESReDA 20 th seminar, a new method in nonparametric way was proposed. The major point of that paper is how to use censored data efficiently. Generally there are three kinds of approach to estimate a reliability function in nonparametric way, i.e., Reduced Sample Method, Actuarial Method and Product-Limit (PL) Method. The above three methods have some limits. So we suggest an advanced method that reflects censored information more efficiently. In many instances there will be a unique maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) of an unknown parameter, and often it may be obtained by the process of differentiation. It is well known that the three methods generally used to estimate a reliability function in nonparametric way have maximum likelihood estimators that are uniquely exist. So, MLE of the new method is derived in this study. The procedure to calculate a MLE is similar just like that of PL-estimator. The difference of the two is that in the new method, the mass (or weight) of each has an influence of the others but the mass in PL-estimator not

  15. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  16. Comparative investigation of methods for determining the lateral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the lateral stiffness of coupled RC shear walls is studied using the continuum method, equivalent frame and finite element methods. For this purpose, asix-story coupled shear walls with typical dimensions are considered and the lateral displacements of system are calculated under a variety of lateral loads such ...

  17. Doppler method leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 3. Investigation of detection sensitivity and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2001-01-01

    To prevent the expansion of tube damage and to maintain structural integrity in the steam generators (SGs) of a fast breeder reactor (FBR), it is necessary to detect precisely and immediately any leakage of water from heat transfer tubes. Therefore, the Doppler method was developed. Previous studies have revealed that, in the SG full-sector model that simulates actual SGs, the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.4 l/s within a few seconds. However in consideration of the dissolution rate of hydrogen generated by a sodium-water reaction even from a small water leak, it is necessary to detect smaller leakages of water from the heat transfer tubes. The detection sensitivity of the Doppler method and the influence of background noise were experimentally investigated. In-water experiments were performed using the SG model. The results show that the Doppler method can detect bubbles of 0.01 l/s (equivalent to a water leak rate of about 0.01 g/s) within a few seconds and that the background noise has little effect on water leak detection performance. The Doppler method thus has great potential for the detection of water leakage in SGs. (author)

  18. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, Edme H

    2011-01-01

    Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating

  19. Methods of amorphization and investigation of the amorphous state

    OpenAIRE

    EINFALT, TOMAŽ; PLANINŠEK, ODON; HROVAT, KLEMEN

    2013-01-01

    The amorphous form of pharmaceutical materials represents the most energetic solid state of a material. It provides advantages in terms of dissolution rate and bioavailability. This review presents the methods of solid-state amorphization described in literature (supercooling of liquids, milling, lyophilization, spray drying, dehydration of crystalline hydrates), with the emphasis on milling. Furthermore, we describe how amorphous state of pharmaceuticals differ depending on method of prepara...

  20. Investigating Diversity and Equality: Methods, Challenges and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Maria

    2007-01-01

    This paper sets out the background and key findings from a number of research projects about diversity and equality at a UK university. The works were commissioned as a result of changes in legislation as well as a genuine concern to investigate the issues of inequity and institutional racism within the university. The paper explores the…

  1. resistivity methods in hydro-geophysical investigation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    under which it occurs can be made by supplementing surface investigation with well log data which gives a clearer picture of groundwater occurrence. It is now generally accepted that the quality of water is just as important as its quantity. Quality of groundwater can be assessed based on total dissolved solids as dissolved.

  2. Investigation of electro-kinetic methods for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabanova, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The choices of effective methods for ecological system decontamination, their perfection and introduction into practical use have been actual tasks for the Ural region. The objective of this work has been to study the potentials of electrical kinetics method of ISOTRON Corporation (US) for decontamination of the Urals soils. Results obtained have shown the method proposed to be usable for decontaminating some types of soils from strontium and plutonium; it is low effective for decontamination in the area of South-Urals radioactive plume. Thus, a low effectiveness can be expected in podsolic and leached laterite characterized by a high content of loamy sand and sandy soils, as well as for sobby-podsolic ones. The method can be promising for decontamination of soils and wastes from chemical contaminants, such as Zn, Ni, Cu, Pb, Hg, and others. Important advantages of this method compared to others have been its simplicity, small amount of wastes, and feasibility of decontamination in areas difficult to access. (authors)

  3. Investigation of Thermal Performance for Atria: a Method Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi Leila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of low energy design in large buildings has encouraged researchers to implement different methods for predicting a building’s thermal performance. Atria, as energy efficient features, have been implemented to improve the indoor thermal environment in large modern buildings. Though widely implemented, the thorough study of atrium performance is restricted due to its large size, complex thermodynamic behavior and the inaccuracies and limitations of available prediction tools. This study reviews the most common research tools implemented in previous researches on atria thermal performance, to explore the advantages and limitation of different methods for future studies. The methods reviewed are analytical, experimental, computer modelling and a combination of any or all of these methods. The findings showed that CFD (computational fluid dynamic models are the most popular tools of recent due to their higher accuracy, capabilities and user-friendly modification. Although the experimental methods were reliable for predicting atria thermal and ventilation performance, they have mostly been used to provide data for validation of CFD models. Furthermore, coupling CFD with other experimental models could increase the reliability and accuracy of the models and provide a more comprehensive analysis.

  4. Introduction to quantitative research methods an investigative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Balnaves, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Introduction to Quantitative Research Methods is a student-friendly introduction to quantitative research methods and basic statistics. It uses a detective theme throughout the text and in multimedia courseware to show how quantitative methods have been used to solve real-life problems. The book focuses on principles and techniques that are appropriate to introductory level courses in media, psychology and sociology. Examples and illustrations are drawn from historical and contemporary research in the social sciences. The multimedia courseware provides tutorial work on sampling, basic statistics, and techniques for seeking information from databases and other sources. The statistics modules can be used as either part of a detective games or directly in teaching and learning. Brief video lessons in SPSS, using real datasets, are also a feature of the CD-ROM.

  5. The Bolmen tunnel project - evaluation of geophysical site investigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanfors, R.

    1987-12-01

    The report presents geophysical measurements along and adjacent to the tunnel and an evaluation of the ability of the various methods to permit prediction of rock mass parameters of significance to stability and water bearing ability. The evaluation shows that, using airborne electro-magnetic surveys, it was possible to indicate about 80% of alla the zones of weakness more than 50 m wide in the tunnel. Airborne magnetic surveys located about 90% of all dolerite dykes more than 10 m wide. Ground-level VLF and Slingram methods of electro-magnetic measurement indicated 75% and 85% respectively of all zones of weakness more than 50 m wide. Resistivity methods were successfully used to locate clay filled and water-bearing fracture zones. About 75% of the length of tunnel over which resistivity values below 500 ohm m were measured required shotcrete support and pre-grouting. (orig./DG)

  6. Acoustic method for investigation of the structural defects in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolaescu, I.I.; Curcaneanu, Nicoleta

    1997-01-01

    In this work an acoustic method is presented called, the resonant bar method, which is based on the interaction between ultrasound and the structural defects in high purity metals. By this method the internal dislocation friction (Q -1 ) and the propagation velocity (v) of the ultrasound in the bar is measured. Both quantities are shown to depend on the dislocation densities and the length of dislocation loop. The experimental setup is shown. It consists of the resonant bar, the excitation spool, a generator of variable frequency and amplitude, a receptor spool, a selective amplifier and the adjacent measuring and displaying apparatus. The two spools are located inside of a toroidal permanent magnet. The bar oscillations are produced by the variable electromagnetic force appearing between the whirl current induced in the sample by the generator and the field of toroidal magnet. This method is applied to nonmagnetic materials with high electric conductivity. If the bar under study consists of a insulating material then on its ends either a conducting thin layer or a metallic thin sheet is deposed. The installation allows measuring the acoustic parameters of materials (v and Q -1 ) by two procedures, the method of free damped oscillations and the method of forced oscillations. Also, the internal friction can be measured with this installation, either dependent on or independent of the generator amplitude. Measurements on aluminium samples resulted in the following values: Q -1 (3 ppm) = 10 -3 and Q -1 (150 ppm) = 10 -5 . By means of this installation internal friction can be studied in re-baked, annealed, mechanical deformed and irradiated samples or in materials submitted to other processes

  7. Investigation of Optimal Integrated Circuit Raster Image Vectorization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonas Jasevičius

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Visual analysis of integrated circuit layer requires raster image vectorization stage to extract layer topology data to CAD tools. In this paper vectorization problems of raster IC layer images are presented. Various line extraction from raster images algorithms and their properties are discussed. Optimal raster image vectorization method was developed which allows utilization of common vectorization algorithms to achieve the best possible extracted vector data match with perfect manual vectorization results. To develop the optimal method, vectorized data quality dependence on initial raster image skeleton filter selection was assessed.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  9. Investigation of eco-friendly casein fibre production methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, M. C.; Kohn, S.; Stierand, A.; Grimmelsmann, N.; Homburg, S. V.; Rattenholl, A.; Ehrmann, A.

    2017-10-01

    The growing environmentally awareness of the consumers leads to a lot of new products in the textile industry. Either a sustainably produced textile or one which is created by reuse of a waste product is preferred. One possibility to create fibers from waste is using waste milk for casein fiber production. Opposite to several other biopolymers, however, spinning fibers from casein causes diverse problems. This article gives an overview of the investigations on how to produce fibres from the milk protein casein in a sustainable way, i.e. without formaldehyde or other polluting ingredients. Mechanical properties as well as water-resistance were investigated for chemical and physical modifications of the base composition. In this way, the positive influence of paraffin oil and wax as well as aggregation at high temperatures could be proven, while temperature treatment resulted in a higher E-modulus.

  10. Investigation of Aerodynamic Interference in a Multirotor by PIV Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Czyż

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents part of the investigation into aerodynamics of the vertical take-off and landing multirotor. There are described the technology to design a research object and the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV setup to measure airflow around the aircraft. The around-the-aircraft speed distribution was investigated for an angle of attack of 0o and for four different configurations. The results are presented in form of vector velocity field of airflow on the plane of symmetry of the test object. The results enabled the characteristics of speed vs. the distance from the fuselage. It was observed that the push propeller and the main rotor impact the speed field around the fuselage.

  11. Fracture toughness of fabrication welds investigated by metallographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Crouse, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The intermediate scale test vessels (ITV) were fabricated to provide test specimens that have sufficient wall thickness and simulate light water reactor pressure vessels. They were fabricated from grades of steel that are similar to those used for nuclear pressure vessels, having a wall thickness of 150mm and the same welded construction. They are, however, considerably smaller in height and diameter than actual vessels. To date, ten vessels have been fabricated and eight have been tested. In preparation for testing the eighth vessel (ITV-8), an extensive investigation was conducted of the toughness properties of the fabrication weld. It was thoroughly characterized and the fracture specimens used in this metallographic investigation were taken from that weld metal

  12. Investigation of the clinical features and therapeutic methods for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To establish if there are different classes of inflammatory lacrimal punctum diseases (ILPDs) and to examine the various strategies by which they can be managed therapeutically. Methods: Two hundred and fifty nine (259) patients with inflammatory punctum lacrimal disease were identified and used as subjects for ...

  13. Investigation of Chemical Equilibrium Kinetics by the Electromigration Method

    CERN Document Server

    Bozhikov, G A; Bontchev, G D; Maslov, O D; Milanov, M V; Dmitriev, S N

    2002-01-01

    Measurement of the chemical reaction rates for complex formation as well as hydrolysis type reactions by the method of horizontal zone electrophoresis is outlined. The correlation between chemical equilibrium kinetics and electrodiffusion processes in a constant d.c. electric field is described. In model electromigration experiments the reaction rate constant of the complex formation of Hf(IV) and DTPA is determined.

  14. Investigating salt frost scaling by using statistical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2010-01-01

    A large data set comprising data for 118 concrete mixes on mix design, air void structure, and the outcome of freeze/thaw testing according to SS 13 72 44 has been analysed by use of statistical methods. The results show that with regard to mix composition, the most important parameter...

  15. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are loosely

  16. Investigation on Carbohydrate Counting Method in Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The results from Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT have propounded the importance of the approach of treatment by medical nutrition when treating diabetes mellitus (DM. During this study, we tried to inquire carbohydrate (Kh count method’s positive effects on the type 1 DM treatment’s success as well as on the life quality of the patients. Methods. 22 of 37 type 1 DM patients who applied to Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Faculty of Medicine Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, had been treated by Kh count method and 15 of them are treated by multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment with applying standard diabetic diet as a control group and both of groups were under close follow-up for 6 months. Required approval was taken from the Ethical Committee of Eskişehir Osmangazi University, Medical Faculty, as well as informed consent from the patients. The body weight of patients who are treated by carbohydrate count method and multiple dosage intensive insulin treatment during the study beginning and after 6-month term, body mass index, and body compositions are analyzed. A short life quality and medical research survey applied. At statistical analysis, t-test, chi-squared test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used. Results. There had been no significant change determined at glycemic control indicators between the Kh counting group and the standard diabetic diet and multiple dosage insulin treatment group in our study. Conclusion. As a result, Kh counting method which offers a flexible nutrition plan to diabetic individuals is a functional method.

  17. Development of an investigation method for redox condition of rocks by self potential (SP) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenji; Inohara, Yoshiki; Oyama, Takahiro

    2012-01-01

    One of the major issues in subsurface disposal of low level radioactive wastes is that long term behaviors of sedimentary rocks can be affected by geochemical factors. Redox conditions can affect to corrosion of metal included in artificial barrier or wastes and adsorption characteristics of a nuclide. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a method for evaluating the redox conditions around natural barrier at waste facilities. In general, geochemical properties are acquired by rock samples or water sampling at a borehole. However, there is a possibility not to acquire data we want to evaluate. If geophysical methods are applied, redox conditions can be evaluated widely and briefly. There is a possibility that self potential (SP) and redox conditions have a correlation. So we have conducted self potential method around test caverns where redox front can be observed at the Rokkasho site. The results demonstrated that self potential decreased around redox front. There was a positive correlation between self potential and pH. One of the factors of self potential change is difference of elevation, however, self potential change around redox front was larger than that expected from elevation difference. Zeta potential is one of the important factors for determination of self potential, and it had a correlation with self potential or pH. Therefore, there is a possibility that self potential change occurs by geochemical condition changes around redox front, and redox condition can be detected by self potential method. (author)

  18. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Edme H. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik

    2012-07-01

    Extensive derivations of required fundamental relations for readers with engineering background New applications based on MRI, PGSE-NMR, and low-field NMR New concepts in quantitative data evaluation and image analysis Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating, emulsions). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as well as low-field NMR are covered with notes on hardware. Emphasis is placed on quantitative data analysis and image processing. (orig.)

  19. NMR methods for the investigation of structure and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Edme H.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive derivations of required fundamental relations for readers with engineering background New applications based on MRI, PGSE-NMR, and low-field NMR New concepts in quantitative data evaluation and image analysis Methods of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are increasingly applied in engineering sciences. The book summarizes research in the field of chemical and process engineering performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). Fundamentals of the methods are exposed for readers with an engineering background. Applications cover the fields of mechanical process engineering (filtration, solid-liquid separation, powder mixing, rheometry), chemical process engineering (trickle-bed reactor, ceramic sponges), bioprocess engineering (biofilm growth), and food process engineering (microwave heating, emulsions). Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) as well as low-field NMR are covered with notes on hardware. Emphasis is placed on quantitative data analysis and image processing. (orig.)

  20. Low resolution spectroscopic investigation of Am stars using Automated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kaushal; Joshi, Santosh; Singh, Harinder P.

    2018-04-01

    The automated method of full spectrum fitting gives reliable estimates of stellar atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g and [Fe/H]) for late A, F, G, and early K type stars. Recently, the technique was further improved in the cooler regime and the validity range was extended up to a spectral type of M6 - M7 (Teff˜ 2900 K). The present study aims to explore the application of this method on the low-resolution spectra of Am stars, a class of chemically peculiar stars, to examine its robustness for these objects. We use ULySS with the Medium-resolution INT Library of Empirical Spectra (MILES) V2 spectral interpolator for parameter determination. The determined Teff and log g values are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from high-resolution spectroscopy.

  1. Investigation of the radioactivity of rocks by the photographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poole, J H.J.; Bremner, J W

    1948-06-05

    The method employed is to place an Ilford Nuclear Research plate at a distance of about 0.1 mm from a flat surface of the specimen cut with a diamond saw, and expose it for one to three weeks, depending or the probable activity of the specimen. In more recent experiments the plate has been placed in contact with the cut surface, as this makes easier the identification of ..cap alpha..-rays tracks, which all originate from one nucleus. Theoretically, from the frequencies of two-, three-, four-, and five-ray stars, it should be possible to estimate the separate amounts of uranium and thorium present. Enough data have not yet been obtained to determine whether this method will prove possible. The results of some experiments are reviewed briefly.

  2. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Hee Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe2+, Fenton-like (Fe3+, and ozone (O3 oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100–1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O3-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O3 doses (10–90 mg/L. We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1% and COD lowering (64.9% among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O3 oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O3 dose were varied systematically to optimize O3 oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O3 dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%.

  3. Investigation of Oxidation Methods for Waste Soy Sauce Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Seo, Gyu-Tae; Jeong, Dae-Woon

    2017-10-07

    To obtain a suitable oxidation method for removing the color and lowering the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste soy sauce, Fenton (Fe 2+ ), Fenton-like (Fe 3+ ), and ozone (O₃) oxidation methods are used as the target reactions. In experimental conditions for Fenton oxidation, the dose of Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ was varied between 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L. The dose of hydrogen peroxide for the reaction was injected from 100-1000 mg/L. For ozone oxidation, the pH was increased from 3 to 14 and the O₃-containing gas was supplied continuously for 30 min through a gas diffuser at the bottom of the reactor at different applied O₃ doses (10-90 mg/L). We subjected it to a simple 1:20 dilution with deionized water to identify the comparison result in detail. O 3 oxidation shows the highest efficiencies of color removal (81.1%) and COD lowering (64.9%) among the three oxidation methods. This is mainly due to the fact that it has a relatively large amount of hydroxyl radical, resulting in the degradation of organics. Thus, O₃ oxidation could be a promising method for removing the color and lowering the COD of waste soy sauce. The critical parameters (pH and applied O₃ dose) were varied systematically to optimize O₃ oxidation. It was found that the optimum pH and applied O₃ dose are 11.0 mg/L and 50.0 mg/L, respectively (color removal = 34.2%, COD removal = 27.4%).

  4. An Investigation into the Methods of Teaching Creative English Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiia Riabokrys

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the actual problem of teaching creative writing at the English lessons. The value of writing in the process of teaching English language is revealed. The principles and peculiarities of evaluation of creative writing are analyzed. The strategy of choosing methods in teaching creative writing is identified. The benefits of creative writing for learner and teachers are considered.

  5. Investigation of free radicals in paprika with the ESR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kispeter, J.; Szabo, I.; Horvath, L.J.

    1998-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The ESR method is the one of the most successfully applied method among the physical methods for the identification of radiation or ionising treatment of foods. The identification of free radicals having short and long lifetimes is the base of the measurement. The quantitative determination makes possible the determination of the absorbed dose deriving from 60 Co radiation treatment. It has to be noted that the treatment of the foods with ionising radiation and other treatments (milling, frying, baking) and the oxidative process result free radicals in paprika samples as a function of absorbed radiation dose (2.5; 5 and 10 kGy) on the different particle size and on storage time. The intensities of the samples given after each of the seven stages of the paprika milling increased till the fifth stage corresponding to the effect of a 2 kGy absorbed dose. After conditioning and increasing the water content by 5-8% the ESR intensity shows significant lowering. This value characterises the ESR intensity of not irradiated sample. As an effect of the irradiation the ESR intensities increased along with the increase of the absorbed dose. The samples having lower particle size are more sensible for the identification of the irradiation. Evaluating the art of the decline we concluded that there are free radicals having short and long shelf lifetimes in paprika samples at the same time

  6. X-ray topographic method of investigation of phase objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levonyan, L.V.

    2001-01-01

    The intensity distribution of the monochromatized synchrotron radiation transmitting through the phase object and crystal-analyzer in Laue geometry is considered. It is shown that the local angular deviation of the incident radiation caused by the refraction on structural inhomogeneities of the object under investigation is directly transferred to the X-ray topographic image. In the absence of the phase object the latter consists of parallel straight fringes with a slowly decreasing period. The presence of the phase object changes the shape and period of fringes. The influence of the spatial and temporal coherence on the image is discussed. 5 refs

  7. Using Experimental Methods to Investigate Discriminatory Tendencies: A Lesson Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Using dictator games in experimental analysis, this lesson report demonstrates the process and results of a postgraduate class project in which university students were instructed to scientifically investigate and explore one of German society’s most hotly-contested issues: the level of discriminatory tendencies of non-Muslims towards Muslims. The results of this class project show little or no discriminatory tendencies toward Muslims. Instead, the university students under our investigation tended to act favorably, or at the very least, fairly toward Muslims. We expect that this lesson report can demonstrate how a postgraduate course can be conducted in an innovative way, empowering students to collect primary data and finishing a small scientific project during the span of a semester. Dieser Bericht stellt die Prozesse und Ergebnisse einer experimentellen Studie eines Postgraduierten-Kurses der Universität Greifswald dar. Wir zeigen, wie Studierende das Thema Migration innovativ untersuchen können, indem sie neben theoretischen Lerninhalten an experimentelle Methoden sowie die Primärforschung herangeführt werden. Anhand eines Diktatorspiels wurden die teilnehmenden Studenten angeleitet, ein in der Öffentlichkeit kontrovers debattiertes Thema wissenschaftlich zu untersuchen: Diskriminierende Tendenzen von Nicht-Muslimen gegenüber Muslimen. Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie lassen jedoch nicht auf diskriminierende Tendenzen der Studenten schließen. Stattdessen deuten sie darauf hin, dass sich die Studierenden zumindest fair gegenüber Muslimen verhalten.

  8. Evaluation of the Repeatability of the Delta Q Duct Leakage Testing TechniqueIncluding Investigation of Robust Analysis Techniques and Estimates of Weather Induced Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickerhoff, Darryl; Walker, Iain

    2008-08-01

    The DeltaQ test is a method of estimating the air leakage from forced air duct systems. Developed primarily for residential and small commercial applications it uses the changes in blower door test results due to forced air system operation. Previous studies established the principles behind DeltaQ testing, but raised issues of precision of the test, particularly for leaky homes on windy days. Details of the measurement technique are available in an ASTM Standard (ASTM E1554-2007). In order to ease adoption of the test method, this study answers questions regarding the uncertainty due to changing weather during the test (particularly changes in wind speed) and the applicability to low leakage systems. The first question arises because the building envelope air flows and pressures used in the DeltaQ test are influenced by weather induced pressures. Variability in wind induced pressures rather than temperature difference induced pressures dominates this effect because the wind pressures change rapidly over the time period of a test. The second question needs to answered so that DeltaQ testing can be used in programs requiring or giving credit for tight ducts (e.g., California's Building Energy Code (CEC 2005)). DeltaQ modeling biases have been previously investigated in laboratory studies where there was no weather induced changes in envelope flows and pressures. Laboratory work by Andrews (2002) and Walker et al. (2004) found biases of about 0.5% of forced air system blower flow and individual test uncertainty of about 2% of forced air system blower flow. The laboratory tests were repeated by Walker and Dickerhoff (2006 and 2008) using a new ramping technique that continuously varied envelope pressures and air flows rather than taking data at pre-selected pressure stations (as used in ASTM E1554-2003 and other previous studies). The biases and individual test uncertainties for ramping were found to be very close (less than 0.5% of air handler flow) to those

  9. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye; Khashab, Niveen M.; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets

  10. Laserspritzer: a simple method for optogenetic investigation with subcellular resolutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Quan Sun

    Full Text Available To build a detailed circuit diagram in the brain, one needs to measure functional synaptic connections between specific types of neurons. A high-resolution circuit diagram should provide detailed information at subcellular levels such as soma, distal and basal dendrites. However, a limitation lies in the difficulty of studying long-range connections between brain areas separated by millimeters. Brain slice preparations have been widely used to help understand circuit wiring within specific brain regions. The challenge exists because long-range connections are likely to be cut in a brain slice. The optogenetic approach overcomes these limitations, as channelrhodopsin 2 (ChR2 is efficiently transported to axon terminals that can be stimulated in brain slices. Here, we developed a novel fiber optic based simple method of optogenetic stimulation: the laserspritzer approach. This method facilitates the study of both long-range and local circuits within brain slice preparations. This is a convenient and low cost approach that can be easily integrated with a slice electrophysiology setup, and repeatedly used upon initial validation. Our data with direct ChR2 mediated-current recordings demonstrates that the spatial resolution of the laserspritzer is correlated with the size of the laserspritzer, and the resolution lies within the 30 µm range for the 5 micrometer laserspritzer. Using olfactory cortical slices, we demonstrated that the laserspritzer approach can be applied to selectively activate monosynaptic perisomatic GABAergic basket synapses, or long-range intracortical glutamatergic inputs formed on different subcellular domains within the same cell (e.g. distal and proximal dendrites. We discuss significant advantages of the laserspritzer approach over the widely used collimated LED whole-field illumination method in brain slice electrophysiological research.

  11. High-Throughput Sequencing Based Methods of RNA Structure Investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kielpinski, Lukasz Jan

    In this thesis we describe the development of four related methods for RNA structure probing that utilize massive parallel sequencing. Using them, we were able to gather structural data for multiple, long molecules simultaneously. First, we have established an easy to follow experimental...... and computational protocol for detecting the reverse transcription termination sites (RTTS-Seq). This protocol was subsequently applied to hydroxyl radical footprinting of three dimensional RNA structures to give a probing signal that correlates well with the RNA backbone solvent accessibility. Moreover, we applied...

  12. Investigation of reaction equilibrium in reactor materials by EMF methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ullmann, H.; Teske, K.; Reetz, T.; Rettig, D.; Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznecov, E.K.

    1979-01-01

    By means of electrochemical cells with solid electrolytes measurements of the chemical activities of oxygen and hydrogen in a sodium test loop were performed. The reaction equilibrium of oxygen and hydrogen in dilute solutions of sodium was investigated. The activities of both oxygen and hydrogen decrease with increasing concentration of the reaction partner. From the relation between the activivy of one component and the analytic concentration of the reaction partner the equilibrium constant of the reaction 0+H = OH was determinded to lg K sub(diss) = -(1,502+-0,216)-(1356+-140)/T. An electrochemical cell with an iron membrane and a solid electrolyte was used to measure the activity of carbon in a carborizing medium. The cell output was stable over a period of more than 1000 hours at a carbon activity of 1. (orig.) [de

  13. Comparison of two methods for investigating indoor radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, H.; Raes, F.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamics of radon daughters in realistic indoor environments has been investigated experimentally at the Universities of Gottingen and Gent. Both studies yielded the important result that the fraction of unattached radon daughters is higher than is assumed in earlier studies. Reineking-Porstendorfer and Vanmarcke-Raes adopted quite different methodologies to determine the unattached fraction. In this paper the methodologies are compared by means of joint measurements performed in a house with elevated radon concentrations. The results for the attachment rate, the deposition rate of the unattached daughters and the unattached fraction differ significantly, while the results for the deposition rate of the attached daughters and the equilibrium factor broadly agree. (author)

  14. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosten, T.R.; Bradford, J.H.; McNamara, J.P.; Gooseff, M.N.; Zarnetske, J.P.; Bowden, W.B.; Johnston, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Porosity of stream sediments has a direct effect on hyporheic exchange patterns and rates. Improved estimates of porosity heterogeneity will yield enhanced simulation of hyporheic exchange processes. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) velocity measurements are strongly controlled by water content thus accurate measures of GPR velocity in saturated sediments provides estimates of porosity beneath stream channels using petrophysical relationships. Imaging the substream system using surface based reflection measurements is particularly challenging due to large velocity gradients that occur at the transition from open water to saturated sediments. The continuous multi-offset method improves the quality of subsurface images through stacking and provides measurements of vertical and lateral velocity distributions. We applied the continuous multi-offset method to stream sites on the North Slope, Alaska and the Sawtooth Mountains near Boise, Idaho, USA. From the continuous multi-offset data, we measure velocity using reflection tomography then estimate water content and porosity using the Topp equation. These values provide detailed measurements for improved stream channel hydraulic and thermal modelling. ?? 2009 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  15. Investigation of medieval ceramics from Ras by physicochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zindović Nataša D.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Although early medieval Serbian ceramic is well described by the archeologists and historians, knowledge of the Balkan ceramic production is still limited. Archaeometric study of ceramics provenance, technology of preparation and used pigments as well as influence of neighboring countries and specific characteristics of different workshops has never been performed so far. The detailed knowledge of the micro-chemical and micro-structural nature of an archaeological artifact is critical in finding solutions to problems of restoration, conservation, dating and authentication in the art world. In this work we present results of systematic investigation of pottery shards from archeological site Ras. The term Ras, which signifies both the fortress and the region encompassing the upper course of Raška River, used to be the center of the medieval Serbian state. Both the ceramic body and the polychromatic glaze of the artifacts were studied by a multianalitical approach combining optical microscopy (OM, FT-IR spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence (XRF. Mineralogical composition of pottery shards has been determined combining results obtained by FT-IR spectroscopy, after deconvolution of the spectra, and XRPD analysis. Firing temperature has been estimated based on the mineralogical composition and positions of Si-O stretching (-1000 cm-1 and banding (-460 cm-1 vibrations. Investigated samples have been classified into two groups based on the mineralogical composition, cross sections and firing temperature. Larger group consists of samples of fine-grained, homogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures bellow 800 °C which indicates imported products. Second, smaller group consists of inhomogeneous ceramics with firing temperatures between 850 and 900 °C produced in the domestic workshops. The obtained results will be used to build up a national database for the compositions of bodies, glazes and pigments.

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations

  17. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  18. Investigating low-frequency compression using the Grid method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fereczkowski, Michal; Dau, Torsten; MacDonald, Ewen

    2016-01-01

    in literature. Moreover, slopes of the low-level portions of the BM I/O functions estimated at 500 Hz were examined, to determine whether the 500-Hz off-frequency forward masking curves were affected by compression. Overall, the collected data showed a trend confirming the compressive behaviour. However......There is an ongoing discussion about whether the amount of cochlear compression in humans at low frequencies (below 1 kHz) is as high as that at higher frequencies. It is controversial whether the compression affects the slope of the off-frequency forward masking curves at those frequencies. Here......, the Grid method with a 2-interval 1-up 3-down tracking rule was applied to estimate forward masking curves at two characteristic frequencies: 500 Hz and 4000 Hz. The resulting curves and the corresponding basilar membrane input-output (BM I/O) functions were found to be comparable to those reported...

  19. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  20. Application of mathematical methods to the investigation of uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formery, P.; Ziegler, V.

    1958-01-01

    It may be considered approximately that grades, widths and accumulations (grade-width products), in french uranium deposits are distributed according to a lognormal law. This property associated to KRIGE'S and de WIGE'S formulae make a powerful tool in ore deposits surveys. The correlation between radioactivities and grades is realized, in logarithmic coordinates, through a straight line the properties of which are analysed in the paper. MATHERON'S recent works, in association with data of classical statistics and the above mentioned formulae make possible to complete the ore reserves evaluation by computing the accuracy. Statistical methods applied to ore deposits have given birth to a parameter which is as important as the mean grade for characterisation of deposits: the absolute dispersion. (author) [fr

  1. Investigation of chemical equilibrium kinetics by the electromigration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozhikov, G.A.; Ivanov, P.I.; Maslov, O.D.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Bontchev, G.D.; Milanov, M.V.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of the chemical reaction rates for complex formation as well as hydrolysis type reactions by the method of horizontal zone electrophoresis is outlined. The correlation between chemical equilibrium kinetics and electrodiffusion processes in a constant d.c. electric field is described. In model electromigration experiments the reaction rate constant of the formation a complex by Hf(IV) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is determined. The electrophoretic mobility, diffusion coefficient and stability constant of the [HfDTPA] - complex are calculated, taking into account experimental electrophoretic data obtained at 298.15±0.05 K and constant ionic strength. No-carrier-added 175 Hf radionuclide was used in electromigration experiments at concentrations of 10 -10 -10 -11 M. (orig.)

  2. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

  3. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  4. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  5. Investigating Methods for Serving Visualizations of Vertical Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. T.; Cechini, M. F.; Lanjewar, K.; Rodriguez, J.; Boller, R. A.; Baynes, K.

    2017-12-01

    Several geospatial web servers, web service standards, and mapping clients exist for the visualization of two-dimensional raster and vector-based Earth science data products. However, data products with a vertical component (i.e., vertical profiles) do not have the same mature set of technologies and pose a greater technical challenge when it comes to visualizations. There are a variety of tools and proposed standards, but no obvious solution that can handle the variety of visualizations found with vertical profiles. An effort is being led by members of the NASA Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) team to gather a list of technologies relevant to existing vertical profile data products and user stories. The goal is to find a subset of technologies, standards, and tools that can be used to build publicly accessible web services that can handle the greatest number of use cases for the widest audience possible. This presentation will describe results of the investigation and offer directions for moving forward with building a system that is capable of effectively and efficiently serving visualizations of vertical profiles.

  6. Sharing information: Mixed-methods investigation of brief experiential interprofessional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocksedge, Simon; Barr, Nicky; Deakin, Corinne

    In UK health policy ‘sharing good information is pivotal to improving care quality, safety, and effectiveness. Nevertheless, educators often neglect this vital communication skill. The consequences of brief communication education interventions for healthcare workers are not yet established. This study investigated a three-hour interprofessional experiential workshop (group work, theoretical input, rehearsal) training healthcare staff in sharing information using a clear structure (PARSLEY). Staff in one UK hospital participated. Questionnaires were completed before, immediately after, and eight weeks after training, with semistructured interviews seven weeks after training. Participants (n=76) were from assorted healthcare occupations (26% non-clinical). Knowledge significantly increased immediately after training. Self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and motivation to use the structure taught were significantly increased immediately following training and at eight weeks. Respondents at eight weeks (n=35) reported their practice in sharing information had changed within seven days of training. Seven weeks after training, most interviewees (n=13) reported confidently using the PARSLEY structure regularly in varied settings. All had re-evaluated their communication practice. Brief training altered self-reported communication behaviour of healthcare staff, with sustained changes in everyday work. As sharing information is central to communication curricula, health policy, and shared decision-making, the effectiveness of brief teaching interventions has economic and educational implications.

  7. Creative Design Methods and Investigation of Cellulose Fiber Transport and Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spencer, Mack-Jan

    1999-01-01

    .... Correlations between the four design methods were also discovered. These investigated methods were analogical reasoning, brainstorming, synectics, and the theory of inventive problem solving (TIPS...

  8. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe

    2017-01-01

    : PTVσ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTVdel) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger...

  9. The investigation of the non-orthogonal basis expansion method for a three-fermion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baoqiu Chen; Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the non-orthogonal basis expansion method has been extended to solve a three-fermion system. The radial wavefunction of such a system is expanded in terms of a non-orthogonal Gaussian basis. All matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, including the central, tensor and spin-orbit potentials are derived in analytical forms. The new method simplifies the three-body system calculations, which are usually rather tedious by other methods. The method can be used to calculate energies for both the ground state and low excited states and has been used further to investigate the other nuclear properties of a three-body system such as Λ 3 H. (Author)

  10. New experimental method for investigation of the nucleon polarizabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevetska, O.; Watzlawik, S.; Ahrens, J.; Alkhazov, G.D.; Chizhov, V.P.; Maev, E.M.; Neumann-Cosel, P. von; Orischin, E.M.; Petrov, G.E.; Porte, J.-M.; Richter, A.; Sarantsev, V.V.; Schrieder, G.; Smirenin, Yu.V.

    2010-01-01

    At the continuous wave (cw) Superconducting Darmstadt Electron Linear Accelerator S-DALINAC, a new method has been developed for the determination of the electric (α-bar) and magnetic (β-bar) polarizabilities of the proton and the deuteron. For that purpose the energy and angular dependence of the differential cross-section for elastic γp and γd scattering of bremsstrahlung photons in the energy range between 20 and 100 MeV is measured by detecting the recoiling proton (deuteron) in coincidence with the scattered bremsstrahlung photon. α-bar and β-bar are then found by means of a best fit to a theoretical description of the scattering cross-section with these quantities as open parameters. The experimental setup consists of a bremsstrahlung photon facility, two specially designed high pressure hydrogen (deuterium) ionization chambers which serve as targets and detectors of the recoil proton (deuteron), NaI gamma spectrometers and several additional detectors for beam diagnostics and normalization. The whole setup was tested using bremsstrahlung photon beams with endpoint energies of 60 and 79.3 MeV. The results of the test experiments show that future high-statistics measurements are feasible.

  11. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  12. A Quadrature Method of Moments for Polydisperse Flow in Bubble Columns Including Poly-Celerity, Breakup and Coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Acher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.

  13. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Guidelines for the documentation of radiation treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.

    1984-01-01

    A great deal of thought has been given in recent years to the documentation of individual patients and their diseases, especially since the computerization of registry sytems facilitates the storage and retrieval of large amounts of data, but the documentation of radiation treatment methods has received surprisingly little attention. The guidelines which follow are intended for use both internally (within radiotherapy centres) and externally when a treatment method is reported in the literature or transferred from one centre to another. The amount of detail reported externally will, of course, depend on the circumstances: for example, a published paper will usually mention only the most important of the radiation and physical parameters, but it is important for the department of origin to list all parameters in a separate document, available on request. These guidelines apply specifically to the documentation of treatment by external radiation beams, although many of the suggestions would also apply to treatment by small sealed sources (brachytherapy) and by unsealed radionuclides. Treatment techniques which involve a combination of external and internal sources (e.g. Ca. cervix uteri treatd by intracavitary sources plus external beam therapy) require particularly careful documentation to indicate the relationship bwtween dose distribution (in both space and time) achieved by the two modalities

  14. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  15. Innovative Methods for Estimating Densities and Detection Probabilities of Secretive Reptiles Including Invasive Constrictors and Rare Upland Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    home range  maintenance  or attraction to or avoidance of  landscape features, including  roads  (Morales et al. 2004, McClintock et al. 2012). For example...radiotelemetry and extensive road survey data are used to generate the first density estimates available for the species. The results show that southern...secretive snakes that combines behavioral observations of snake road crossing speed, systematic road survey data, and simulations of spatial

  16. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K E [ed.; KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  17. Use of spectrophotometric readout method for free radical dosimetry in radiation processing including low energy electrons and bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Our laboratory maintains standards for high doses in India. The glutamine powder dosimeter (spectrophotometric readout) is used for this purpose. Present studies show that 20 mg of unirradiated/irradiated glutamine dissolved in freshly prepared 10 ml of aerated aqueous acidic FX solution containing 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 ferrous ammonium sulphate and 10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange in 0.033 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is suitable for the dosimetry in the dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. Normally no corrections are required for the post-irradiation fading of the irradiated glutamine. The response of glutamine dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the range of about 23-30 deg. C and at other temperatures, a correction is necessary. The dose intercomparison results for photon, electron and bremsstrahlung radiations show that glutamine can be used as a reference standard dosimeter. The use of flat polyethylene bags containing glutamine powder has proved very successful for electron dosimetry of wide energies. Several other amino acids like alanine, valine and threonine can also be used to cover wide range of doses using spectrophotometric readout method. (author)

  18. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

  19. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  20. Optimal Control as a method for Diesel engine efficiency assessment including pressure and NO_x constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, Carlos; Climent, Héctor; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal Control is applied for heat release shaping in internal combustion engines. • Optimal Control allows to assess the engine performance with a realistic reference. • The proposed method gives a target heat release law to define control strategies. - Abstract: The present paper studies the optimal heat release law in a Diesel engine to maximise the indicated efficiency subject to different constraints, namely: maximum cylinder pressure, maximum cylinder pressure derivative, and NO_x emission restrictions. With this objective, a simple but also representative model of the combustion process has been implemented. The model consists of a 0D energy balance model aimed to provide the pressure and temperature evolutions in the high pressure loop of the engine thermodynamic cycle from the gas conditions at the intake valve closing and the heat release law. The gas pressure and temperature evolutions allow to compute the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. The comparison between model and experimental results shows that despite the model simplicity, it is able to reproduce the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. After the model identification and validation, the optimal control problem is posed and solved by means of Dynamic Programming (DP). Also, if only pressure constraints are considered, the paper proposes a solution that reduces the computation cost of the DP strategy in two orders of magnitude for the case being analysed. The solution provides a target heat release law to define injection strategies but also a more realistic maximum efficiency boundary than the ideal thermodynamic cycles usually employed to estimate the maximum engine efficiency.

  1. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

  3. Leading-edge forensic DNA analyses and the necessity of including crime scene investigators, police officers and technicians in a DNA elimination database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapointe, Martine; Rogic, Anita; Bourgoin, Sarah; Jolicoeur, Christine; Séguin, Diane

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, sophisticated technology has significantly increased the sensitivity and analytical power of genetic analyses so that very little starting material may now produce viable genetic profiles. This sensitivity however, has also increased the risk of detecting unknown genetic profiles assumed to be that of the perpetrator, yet originate from extraneous sources such as from crime scene workers. These contaminants may mislead investigations, keeping criminal cases active and unresolved for long spans of time. Voluntary submission of DNA samples from crime scene workers is fairly low, therefore we have created a promotional method for our staff elimination database that has resulted in a significant increase in voluntary samples since 2011. Our database enforces privacy safeguards and allows for optional anonymity to all staff members. We also offer information sessions at various police precincts to advise crime scene workers of the importance and success of our staff elimination database. This study, a pioneer in its field, has obtained 327 voluntary submissions from crime scene workers to date, of which 46 individual profiles (14%) have been matched to 58 criminal cases. By implementing our methods and respect for individual privacy, forensic laboratories everywhere may see similar growth and success in explaining unidentified genetic profiles in stagnate criminal cases. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mixed Methods Research in School Psychology: A Mixed Methods Investigation of Trends in the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Heather; Mihalas, Stephanie; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.; Suldo, Shannon; Daley, Christine E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates the utility of mixed methods research (i.e., combining quantitative and qualitative techniques) to the field of school psychology. First, the use of mixed methods approaches in school psychology practice is discussed. Second, the mixed methods research process is described in terms of school psychology research. Third, the…

  5. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T; Moore, Christopher C; Kersh, Gilbert J; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Montgomery, Joel M; Houpt, Eric; Fields, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Investigation of dispersion-relation-preserving scheme and spectral analysis methods for acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanel, Florence O.; Baysal, Oktay

    1995-01-01

    Important characteristics of the aeroacoustic wave propagation are mostly encoded in their dispersion relations. Hence, a computational aeroacoustic (CAA) algorithm, which reasonably preserves these relations, was investigated. It was derived using an optimization procedure to ensure, that the numerical derivatives preserved the wave number and angular frequency of the differential terms in the linearized, 2-D Euler equations. Then, simulations were performed to validate the scheme and a compatible set of discretized boundary conditions. The computational results were found to agree favorably with the exact solutions. The boundary conditions were transparent to the outgoing waves, except when the disturbance source was close to a boundary. The time-domain data generated by such CAA solutions were often intractable until their spectra was analyzed. Therefore, the relative merits of three different methods were included in the study. For simple, periodic waves, the periodogram method produced better estimates of the steep-sloped spectra than the Blackman-Tukey method. Also, for this problem, the Hanning window was more effective when used with the weighted-overlapped-segment-averaging and Blackman-Tukey methods gave better results than the periodogram method. Finally, it was demonstrated that the representation of time domain-data was significantly dependent on the particular spectral analysis method employed.

  7. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenblat, Vanja; Ryan, Joanne; Wertheim, Eleanor H; King, Ross; Olsson, Craig A; Krug, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment) and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation. Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP), a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female) of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism ( 5-HTTLPR ). Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15-16 years). Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23-24 years) in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA. Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR ( p = 0.0048), genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  8. Investigating Direct Links between Depression, Emotional Control, and Physical Punishment with Adolescent Drive for Thinness and Bulimic Behaviors, Including Possible Moderation by the Serotonin Transporter 5-HTTLPR Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Rozenblat

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To examine the relationship between psychological and social factors (depression, emotional control, sexual abuse, and parental physical punishment and adolescent drive for Thinness and Bulimic behaviors in a large community sample, and to investigate possible genetic moderation.Method: Data were drawn from the Australian Temperament Project (ATP, a population-based cohort study that has followed a representative sample of 2443 participants from infancy to adulthood across 16 waves since 1983. A subsample of 650 participants (50.2% female of Caucasian descent who provided DNA were genotyped for a serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR. Adolescent disordered eating attitudes and behaviors were assessed using the Bulimia and Drive for Thinness scales of the Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (15–16 years. Depression and emotional control were examined at the same age using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, and an ATP-devised measure of emotional control. History of sexual abuse and physical punishment were assessed retrospectively (23–24 years in a subsample of 467 of those providing DNA.Results: EDI-2 scores were associated with depression, emotional control, and retrospectively reported parental physical punishment. Although there was statistically significant moderation of the relationship between parental physical punishment and bulimic behaviors by 5-HTTLPR (p = 0.0048, genotypes in this subsample were not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium. No other G×E interactions were significant. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm the central importance of psychosocial processes in disordered eating patterns in adolescence. Evidence of moderation by 5-HTTLPR was not conclusive; however, genetic moderation observed in a subsample not in Hardy–Weinberg Equilibrium warrants further investigation.

  9. Neurocognitive Poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive- affective bases of literature reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Jacobs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, aesthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neurocognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialised journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott & Jacobs, 2011. In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  10. Method for investigating management impact to causes and consequences of specific hazards MIMIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, J; Rouhiainen, V; Suokas, J [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Tampere (Finland). Safety Engineering; Rasmussen, B [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    Method for Investigating Management Impact to Causes and Consequences of Specific Hazards (MIMIX) is a new method for the identification of deficiencies in managerial means and practices used for maintaining and improving safety in a plant. MIMIX is a part of TOMHID methodology which is aimed for overall identification of hazards in a chemical plant. However, MIMIX can be used independently. This report includes guidelines for carrying out a MIMIX analysis. Some experiences from TOMHID analysis case studies, forms and other supporting material (appendix A) and an example of the preparation of incident scenarios (appendix B) are also included in the report. MIMIX consists of three main stages: preparation of incident scenarios, worker interviews and management interviews. A couple of incident scenarios are prepared to support the worker interviews. In each worker interview, such undesired conditions in the plant which promote errors and violations affecting the incident described in a scenario are identified. Deficiencies in managerial means and practices used for correcting the identified undesired conditions are investigated with management interviews. (author)

  11. Method for investigating management impact to causes and consequences of specific hazards MIMIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, J.; Rouhiainen, V.; Suokas, J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Tampere (Finland). Safety Engineering; Rasmussen, B. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1995-12-31

    Method for Investigating Management Impact to Causes and Consequences of Specific Hazards (MIMIX) is a new method for the identification of deficiencies in managerial means and practices used for maintaining and improving safety in a plant. MIMIX is a part of TOMHID methodology which is aimed for overall identification of hazards in a chemical plant. However, MIMIX can be used independently. This report includes guidelines for carrying out a MIMIX analysis. Some experiences from TOMHID analysis case studies, forms and other supporting material (appendix A) and an example of the preparation of incident scenarios (appendix B) are also included in the report. MIMIX consists of three main stages: preparation of incident scenarios, worker interviews and management interviews. A couple of incident scenarios are prepared to support the worker interviews. In each worker interview, such undesired conditions in the plant which promote errors and violations affecting the incident described in a scenario are identified. Deficiencies in managerial means and practices used for correcting the identified undesired conditions are investigated with management interviews. (author)

  12. Investigation of the performance of fermentation processes using a mathematical model including effects of metabolic bottleneck and toxic product on cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Shiraishi, Fumihide

    2010-11-01

    A number of recent research studies have focused on theoretical and experimental investigation of a bottleneck in a metabolic reaction network. However, there is no study on how the bottleneck affects the performance of a fermentation process when a product is highly toxic and remarkably influences the growth and death of cells. The present work therefore studies the effect of bottleneck on product concentrations under different product toxicity conditions. A generalized bottleneck model in a fed-batch fermentation is constructed including both the bottleneck and the product influences on cell growth and death. The simulation result reveals that when the toxic product strongly influences the cell growth and death, the final product concentration is hardly changed even if the bottleneck is removed, whereas it is markedly changed by the degree of product toxicity. The performance of an ethanol fermentation process is also discussed as a case example to validate this result. In conclusion, when the product is highly toxic, one cannot expect a significant increase in the final product concentration even if removing the bottleneck; rather, it may be more effective to somehow protect the cells so that they can continuously produce the product. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwinn Marta

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8% and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0. We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit, indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a

  14. An automatic method to generate domain-specific investigator networks using PubMed abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wei; Yesupriya, Ajay; Wulf, Anja; Qu, Junfeng; Gwinn, Marta; Khoury, Muin J

    2007-01-01

    Background Collaboration among investigators has become critical to scientific research. This includes ad hoc collaboration established through personal contacts as well as formal consortia established by funding agencies. Continued growth in online resources for scientific research and communication has promoted the development of highly networked research communities. Extending these networks globally requires identifying additional investigators in a given domain, profiling their research interests, and collecting current contact information. We present a novel strategy for building investigator networks dynamically and producing detailed investigator profiles using data available in PubMed abstracts. Results We developed a novel strategy to obtain detailed investigator information by automatically parsing the affiliation string in PubMed records. We illustrated the results by using a published literature database in human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit) as a test case. Our parsing strategy extracted country information from 92.1% of the affiliation strings in a random sample of PubMed records and in 97.0% of HuGE records, with accuracies of 94.0% and 91.0%, respectively. Institution information was parsed from 91.3% of the general PubMed records (accuracy 86.8%) and from 94.2% of HuGE PubMed records (accuracy 87.0). We demonstrated the application of our approach to dynamic creation of investigator networks by creating a prototype information system containing a large database of PubMed abstracts relevant to human genome epidemiology (HuGE Pub Lit), indexed using PubMed medical subject headings converted to Unified Medical Language System concepts. Our method was able to identify 70–90% of the investigators/collaborators in three different human genetics fields; it also successfully identified 9 of 10 genetics investigators within the PREBIC network, an existing preterm birth research network. Conclusion We successfully created a web-based prototype

  15. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  16. Modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control in Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Cook

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aboriginal communities in Canada are challenged by a disproportionate burden of TB infection and disease. Contact investigation (CI guidelines exist but these strategies do not take into account the unique social structure of different populations. Because of the limitations of traditional CI, new approaches are under investigation and include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping to better understand TB transmission. Guidelines for the routine use of network methods and other novel methodologies for TB CI and outbreak investigation do not exist despite the gathering evidence that these approaches can positively impact TB control efforts, even in Aboriginal communities. The feasibility and efficacy of these novel approaches to CI in Aboriginal communities requires further investigation. The successful integration of these novel methodologies will require community involvement, capacity building and ongoing support at every level. The outcome will not only be the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of CI data in high-burden communities to assess transmission but the prioritization of contacts who are candidates for treatment of LTBI which will break the cycle of transmission. Ultimately, the measure of success will be a clear and sustained decline in TB incidence in Aboriginal communities.

  17. Investigation of the Optimal Parameters in Hydrothermal Method for the Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chung Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated a two-step method to deposit the ZnO-based nanostructure films, including nanorods and nanoflowers. In the first step, sputtering method was used to deposit the ZnO films on SiO2/Si substrates as the seed layer. In the second step, Zn(NO32–6H2O and C6H12N4 were used as precursors and hydrothermal process was used as the method to synthesize the ZnO films. After that, the ZnO films were measured by an X-ray diffraction pattern and a FESEM to analyze their crystallization and morphology. We had found that the ZnO films had three different morphologies synthesized on ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates, including irregular-plate structure films, nanorod films, and beautiful chrysanthemum-like clusters (nanoflower films. We would prove that the face direction of ZnO/SiO2/Si substrates in the hydrothermal bottle and deposition time were two important factors to influence the synthesized results of the ZnO films.

  18. Validation of the method for investigation of radiopharmaceuticals for in vitro use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vranjes, S; Jovanovic, M.; Orlic, M.; Lazic, E. . E-mail address of corresponding author: sanjav@vin.bg.ac.yu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate analytical method for determination of total radioactivity and radioactive concentration of 125 I-triiodotironin, radiopharmaceutical for in vitro use. Analytical parameters: selectivity, accuracy, linearity and range of this method were determined. Values obtained for all parameters are reasonable for analytical methods, therefore this method could be used for farther investigation. (author)

  19. Pedagogical Practices and Counselor Self-Efficacy: A Mixed Methods Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, Justin R.

    2009-01-01

    The current study investigated the Lecture Teaching Method and Socratic Teaching Method to determine if there was a relationship between pedagogical methods and Counselor Self-Efficacy (CSE). A course in Advanced Professional Development was utilized to determine if teaching methods could affect student perceptions of competence to practice…

  20. [Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens and methods of its investigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avetisov, S E; Novikov, I A; Pakhomova, N A; Motalov, V G

    2018-01-01

    Bioinorganic chemical composition of the lens of human and experimental animals (cows, dogs, rats, rabbits) have been analyzed in various studies. In most cases, the studies employed different methods to determine the gross (total) composition of chemical elements and their concentrations in the examined samples. Less frequently, they included an assessment of the distribution of chemical elements in the lens and correlation of their concentration with its morphological changes. Chemical elements from all groups (series) of the periodic classification system were discovered in the lens substance. Despite similar investigation methods, different authors obtained contradicting results on the chemical composition of the lens. This article presents data suggesting possible correlation between inorganic chemical elements in the lens substance with the development and formation of lenticular opacities. All currently employed methods are known to only analyze limited number of select chemical elements in the tissues and do not consider the whole range of elements that can be analyzed with existing technology; furthermore, the majority of studies are conducted on the animal model lens. Therefore, it is feasible to continue the development of the chemical microanalysis method by increasing the sensitivity of Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) with the purpose of assessing the gross chemical composition and distribution of the elements in the lens substance, as well as revealing possible correlation between element concentration and morphological changes in the lens.

  1. Verification study on technology for site investigation for geological disposal. Confirmation of the applicability of survey methods through establishing site descriptive models in accordance with stepwise investigation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Koichi; Hasegawa, Takuma; Hamada, Takaomi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2014-01-01

    The Yokosuka Demonstration and Validation Project, which uses the Yokosuka Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) site, a Neogene sedimentary and coastal environment, has been conducted since the 2006 fiscal year as a cooperative research project between NUMO (Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan) and CRIEPI. The objectives of this project were to examine and refine the basic methodology of the investigation and assessment in accordance with the conditions of geological environment at each stage of investigations from the surface (Preliminary Investigation and the first half of Detailed Investigation conducted by NUMO) for high level radioactive waste geological disposal. Within investigation technologies at these early stages, a borehole survey is an important means of directly obtaining various properties of the deep geological environment. On the other hand, surface geophysical prospecting data provide information about the geological and resistivity structures at depth for planning borehole surveys. During the 2006-2009 fiscal years, a series of on-site surveys and tests, including borehole surveys of YDP-1 (depth: 350 m) and YDP-2 (depth: 500 m), were conducted in this test site. Furthermore, seismic surveys (including seismic reflection method) and electromagnetic surveys (including magnetotelluric method) were conducted within the expanded CRIEPI site in the 2010 fiscal year to obtain information about the geological structure, and the resistivity structure reflecting the distribution of the salt water/fresh water boundary, respectively, to a depth of over several hundred meters. The validity of existing survey and testing methods for stepwise investigations (from surface to borehole surveys) for obtaining properties of the geological environment (in various conditions relating to differences in the properties of the Miura and the Hayama Groups at this site) was confirmed through establishing site descriptive models based on

  2. Numerical Investigations on Several Stabilized Finite Element Methods for the Stokes Eigenvalue Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengzhan Huang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Several stabilized finite element methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem based on the lowest equal-order finite element pair are numerically investigated. They are penalty, regular, multiscale enrichment, and local Gauss integration method. Comparisons between them are carried out, which show that the local Gauss integration method has good stability, efficiency, and accuracy properties, and it is a favorite method among these methods for the Stokes eigenvalue problem.

  3. Life coaching following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a mixed-method investigation of feasibility and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, M; Young, F; Mufti, G J; Pagliuca, A; Lim, Z; Ream, E

    2015-07-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) cures many haematological cancers. Recovery post-HSCT is physically and psychologically challenging, lasting several months. Beyond the first post-transplant year, a fifth report difficulties encompassing practical, social and emotional domains, including finance and employment. We investigated the feasibility, acceptability and impact of a life coaching intervention designed to address psychosocial 'survivor' concerns of HSCT recipients and facilitate transition to life post-treatment. A concurrent embedded experimental mixed-method design was employed. Pre- and post-intervention data collection comprised qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews and quantitative postal questionnaires. Seven purposively sampled HSCT recipients (life coaching delivered by a professional life coach fortnightly over 8 weeks. Participants reported less anxiety, depression and fewer survivor concerns post-intervention, with a trend for lower social difficulties and increased functional well-being. Perceived self-efficacy was unchanged. Life coaching was feasible to deliver and acceptable to the participants who indicated it was a positive experience, with benefits described in diverse areas including work, lifestyle and hobbies. Life coaching within cancer services potentially offers the means to address psychosocial concerns and support transition to life after treatment, enabling patients to reach their potential, e.g. returning to employment and financial independence. Further investigation of this intervention in cancer survivors is warranted. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Investigation of innovative radiation imaging method and system for radiological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, H. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joung, J., E-mail: jinhun.joung@nucaremed.com [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nucare, Inc., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, K. [School of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-01

    We have developed a novel imaging method that can be applied to most applications in the field of radiological environment imaging. It resolves either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) distributions of radioactive sources in applications for homeland security, environmental monitoring, radiation contamination monitoring, baggage inspection, nuclear power plant monitoring, and more. The proposed imaging method uses a simple detector configured as a radiation-counting detector with spectroscopic capabilities. The detector module consists of two components: a flat field-of-view (FOV) collimator with a 30° FOV opening and a typical single-channel radiation detector made of a 2 in.×2 in. NaI(Tl) scintillator coupled to a 2 in photomultiplier tube (PMT). This simple detector module makes it possible to develop a cost-effective imaging system and provide design freedom in extending the system configuration to include one-dimensional (1D) or 2D detector-array shapes to meet the needs of various applications. One of most distinctive features of the new imaging method is that it uses only a pair of 2D projections to obtain a 3D reconstruction. The projections are measured by the proposed detector module at two positions orthogonal to one another; the measured projections are manipulated to enhance the resolution of the reconstructed 3D image. The imaging method comprises several steps performed consecutively: projection measurement, energy re-binning, projection separation, resolution and attenuation recovery, image reconstruction, and image consolidation and quantitative analysis. The resolution and attenuation recovery step provides the most distinctive and important processing by which the poor quality of projection data is enhanced. Such poor quality is mainly due to the use of a simple detector with a wide-opening flat FOV collimator. Simulation and experimental studies have been conducted to validate the proposed method. In this investigation, we

  5. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  6. A method for investigating protein-protein interactions related to Salmonella typhimurium pathogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, Saiful M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Shi, Liang [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yoon, Hyunjin [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Ansong, Charles [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rommereim, Leah M. [Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States); Norbeck, Angela D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Auberry, Kenneth J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moore, R. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Joshua N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heffron, Fred [Oregon Health and Science Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Smith, Richard D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2009-02-10

    We successfully modified an existing method to investigate protein-protein interactions in the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella typhimurium (STM). This method includes i) addition of a histidine-biotin-histidine tag to the bait proteins via recombinant DNA techniques; ii) in vivo cross-linking with formaldehyde; iii) tandem affinity purification of bait proteins under fully denaturing conditions; and iv) identification of the proteins cross-linked to the bait proteins by liquid-chromatography in conjunction with tandem mass-spectrometry. In vivo cross-linking stabilized protein interactions permitted the subsequent two-step purification step conducted under denaturing conditions. The two-step purification greatly reduced nonspecific binding of non-cross-linked proteins to bait proteins. Two different negative controls were employed to reduce false-positive identification. In an initial demonstration of this approach, we tagged three selected STM proteins- HimD, PduB and PhoP- with known binding partners that ranged from stable (e.g., HimD) to transient (i.e., PhoP). Distinct sets of interacting proteins were identified with each bait protein, including the known binding partners such as HimA for HimD, as well as anticipated and unexpected binding partners. Our results suggest that novel protein-protein interactions may be critical to pathogenesis by Salmonella typhimurium. .

  7. Spectral and spectral-frequency methods of investigating atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busarev, Vladimir V; Prokof'eva-Mikhailovskaya, Valentina V; Bochkov, Valerii V

    2007-01-01

    A method of reflectance spectrophotometry of atmosphereless bodies of the Solar system, its specificity, and the means of eliminating basic spectral noise are considered. As a development, joining the method of reflectance spectrophotometry with the frequency analysis of observational data series is proposed. The combined spectral-frequency method allows identification of formations with distinctive spectral features, and estimations of their sizes and distribution on the surface of atmospherelss celestial bodies. As applied to investigations of asteroids 21 Lutetia and 4 Vesta, the spectral frequency method has given us the possibility of obtaining fundamentally new information about minor planets. (instruments and methods of investigation)

  8. Computer Anti-forensics Methods and their Impact on Computer Forensic Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Pajek, Przemyslaw; Pimenidis, Elias

    2009-01-01

    Electronic crime is very difficult to investigate and prosecute, mainly\\ud due to the fact that investigators have to build their cases based on artefacts left\\ud on computer systems. Nowadays, computer criminals are aware of computer forensics\\ud methods and techniques and try to use countermeasure techniques to efficiently\\ud impede the investigation processes. In many cases investigation with\\ud such countermeasure techniques in place appears to be too expensive, or too\\ud time consuming t...

  9. Improving safety culture in hospitals: Facilitators and barriers to implementation of Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecevic, Aleksandra A; Li, Alvin Ho-Ting; Ngo, Charity; Halligan, Michelle; Kothari, Anita

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the facilitators and barriers to implementation of the Systemic Falls Investigative Method (SFIM) on selected hospital units. A cross-sectional explanatory mixed methods design was used to converge results from a standardized safety culture survey with themes that emerged from interviews and focus groups. Findings were organized by six elements of the Ottawa Model of Research Use framework. A geriatric rehabilitation unit of an acute care hospital and a neurological unit of a rehabilitation hospital were selected purposefully due to the high frequency of falls. Hospital staff who took part in: surveys (n = 39), interviews (n = 10) and focus groups (n = 12), and 38 people who were interviewed during falls investigations: fallers, family, unit staff and hospital management. Implementation of the SFIM to investigate fall occurrences. Percent of positive responses on the Modified Stanford Patient Safety Culture Survey Instrument converged with qualitative themes on facilitators and barriers for intervention implementation. Both hospital units had an overall poor safety culture which hindered intervention implementation. Facilitators were hospital accreditation, strong emphasis on patient safety, infrastructure and dedicated champions. Barriers included heavy workloads, lack of time, lack of resources and poor communication. Successful implementation of SFIM requires regulatory and organizational support, committed frontline staff and allocation of resources to identify active causes and latent contributing factors to falls. System-wide adjustments show promise for promotion of safety culture in hospitals where falls happen regularly. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Evaluation on ultrasonic examination methods applied to Ni-base alloy weld including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in BWR reactor internal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shinichi; Shimizu, Sadato

    2005-01-01

    A Ni-base alloy weld, including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in the reactor internal of the oldest BWR in Japan, Tsuruga unit 1, in 1999, was examined by three (3) types of UT method. After this examination, a depth of each crack was confirmed by carrying out a little excavation with a grinder and PT examination by turns until each crack disappeared. Then, the depth measured by the former method was compared with the one measured by the latter method. In this fashion, performances of the UT methods were verified. As a result, a combination of the three types of UT method was found to meet the acceptance criteria given by ASME Sec.XI Appendix VIII, Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems-Supplement 6. In this paper, the results of the UT examination described above and their evaluation are discussed. (author)

  11. Electrical investigations of hybrid OLED microcavity structures with novel encapsulation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Brückner, Robert; Fröb, Hartmut; Leo, Karl

    2016-04-01

    An electrical driven organic solid state laser is a very challenging goal which is so far well beyond reach. As a step towards realization, we monolithically implemented an Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) into a dielectric, high quality microcavity (MC) consisting of two Distributed Bragg Reectors (DBR). In order to account for an optimal optical operation, the OLED structure has to be adapted. Furthermore, we aim to excite the device not only electrically but optically as well. Different OLED structures with an emission layer consisting of Alq3:DCM (2 wt%) were investigated. The External Quantum Efficiencies (EQE) of this hybrid structures are in the range of 1-2 %, as expected for this material combination. Including metal layers into a MC is complicated and has a huge impact on the device performance. Using Transfer-Matrix-Algorithm (TMA) simulations, the best positions for the metal electrodes are determined. First, the electroluminescence (EL) of the adjusted OLED structure on top of a DBR is measured under nitrogen atmosphere. The modes showed quality factors of Q = 60. After the deposition of the top DBR, the EL is measured again and the quality factors increased up to Q = 600. Considering the two 25-nm-thick-silver contacts a Q-factor of 600 is very high. The realization of a suitable encapsulation method is important. Two approaches were successfully tested. The first method is based on the substitution of a DBR layer with a layer produced via Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD). The second method uses a 0.15-mm-thick cover glass glued on top of the DBR with a 0.23-μm-thick single-component glue layer. Due to the working encapsulation, it is possible to investigate the sample under ambient conditions.

  12. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part I. Experimental methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and hermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t,gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov quation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter depends

  13. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    %. This means that MR variography provides an easy way to characterise and to compare datasets from cross-sectional or longitudinal studies investigating neurological and neuroscientific questions, even with large subject groups. Furthermore, it can provide useful additional information to other advanced structure analysing methods. Finally, the power and usefulness of MR variography was demonstrated by means of two application examples. First, the relation of spatial correlation parameters and age was investigated by means of 24 datasets of healthy, female volunteers. It was shown that white matter heterogeneity is strongly positively correlated to age up to distances of 3 mm (r=0.83, p -6 ). These findings are in good accordance with results obtained with other advanced structure analysis techniques, such as e.g. diffusion tensor imaging but benefits from much shorter image acquisition times and easier data processing. The second application example includes the investigation of advances and drawbacks of using quantitative MR maps as data basis for MR variography. The correlation parameters obtained from quantitative data were shown to be interpreted more easily, but prevalently the price of less accurate results has to be paid, as quantitative maps have properties which complicate the variographic analysis.

  14. Investigation of spatial correlation in MR images of human cerebral white matter using geostatistical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keil, Fabian

    2014-03-20

    %. This means that MR variography provides an easy way to characterise and to compare datasets from cross-sectional or longitudinal studies investigating neurological and neuroscientific questions, even with large subject groups. Furthermore, it can provide useful additional information to other advanced structure analysing methods. Finally, the power and usefulness of MR variography was demonstrated by means of two application examples. First, the relation of spatial correlation parameters and age was investigated by means of 24 datasets of healthy, female volunteers. It was shown that white matter heterogeneity is strongly positively correlated to age up to distances of 3 mm (r=0.83, p<10{sup -6}). These findings are in good accordance with results obtained with other advanced structure analysis techniques, such as e.g. diffusion tensor imaging but benefits from much shorter image acquisition times and easier data processing. The second application example includes the investigation of advances and drawbacks of using quantitative MR maps as data basis for MR variography. The correlation parameters obtained from quantitative data were shown to be interpreted more easily, but prevalently the price of less accurate results has to be paid, as quantitative maps have properties which complicate the variographic analysis.

  15. Investigation of a Patient With a Partial Trisomy 16q Including the Fat Mass and Obesity Associated Gene (FTO): Fine Mapping and FTO Gene Expression Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, L.; Delemarre-van d Waal, H.A.; Han, J.C.; Ylstra, B.; Eijk, P.; Nesterova, M.; Heutink, P.; Stratakis, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    A female patient with a partial trisomy 16q was described previously. Her clinical characteristics included obesity, severe anisomastia, moderate to severe mental retardation, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dysmorphic facies, and contractions of the small joints. In this article, we

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0 / June 2003), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-06-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 536 consists of a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge. The CAU 536 site is being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of possible contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 03-44-02. The additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for this CAS. The results of this field investigation are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3-2004.

  17. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-09-15

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared

  18. Preliminary site description Laxemar stage 2.1. Feedback for completion of the site investigation including input from safety assessment and repository engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-09-01

    The Laxemar subarea is the focus for the complete site investigations in the Simpevarp area. The south and southwestern parts of the subarea (the so-called 'focused area') have been designated for focused studies during the remainder of the site investigations. This area, some 5.3 square kilometres in size, is characterised on the surface by an arc shaped body of quartz monzodiorite gently dipping to the north, flanked in the north and south by Aevroe granite. The current report documents work conducted during stage 2.1 of the site-descriptive modelling of the Laxemar subarea. The primary objective of the work performed is to provide feedback to the site investigations at Laxemar to ensure that adequate and timely data and information are obtained during the remaining investigation stage. The work has been conducted in cooperation with the site investigation team at Laxemar and representatives from safety assessment and repository engineering. The principal aim of this joint effort has been to safeguard that adequate data are collected that resolve the remaining issues/uncertainties which are of importance for repository layout and long-term safety. The proposed additional works presented in this report should be regarded as recommended additions and/or modifications in relation to the CSI programme published early 2006. The overall conclusion of the discipline-wise review of critical issues is that the CSI programme overall satisfies the demands to resolve the remaining uncertainties. This is interpreted to be partly a result of the close interaction between the site modelling team, site investigation team and the repository engineering teams, which has been in operation since early 2005. In summary, the performed interpretations and modelling have overall confirmed the version 1.2 results. The exception being Hydrogeology where the new Laxemar 2.1 borehole data suggest more favourable conditions in the south and west parts of the focused area compared with the

  19. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan; Østergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine the runtime of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, it allows to identify, which method is preferable in case of changes in the power system such as the integration of distributed ...

  20. Investigation by perturbative and analytical method of electronic properties of square quantum well under electric field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal BAHAR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of applied electric field on the isolated square quantum well was investigated by analytic and perturbative method. The energy eigen values and wave functions in quantum well were found by perturbative method. Later, the electric field effects were investigated by analytic method, the results of perturbative and analytic method were compared. As well as both of results fit with each other, it was observed that externally applied electric field changed importantly electronic properties of the system.

  1. Integrated account of method, site selection and programme prior to the site investigation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    In order to dispose of the spent nuclear fuel in a safe manner, SKB plans to site a deep repository and an encapsulation plant with associated canister fabrication and transportation system. After an integrated evaluation of feasibility studies and other material, SKB will proceed with investigations of the rock and studies regarding establishment of the deep disposal system in the municipality of Oskarshamn or in Northern Uppland. The plans also include further study of the prospects for a deep repository in the municipality of Nykoeping. In the municipality of Oskarshamn, SKB plans further studies of a siting of the deep repository at Simpevarp. There SKB wants to initiate site investigations with test drilling. For the encapsulation plant, SKB wants to continue studying a siting at CLAB. In Northern Uppland, SKB plans to study two siting alternatives for the deep repository. One is Forsmark in the municipality of Oesthammar, where SKB wants to initiate a site investigation with test drilling. The other is Tierp north of Skutskaer, where SKB intends to start test drilling in an area north of Tierp. First, however, a suitable drilling area with possible transport solutions needs to be defined. This alternative requires the participation of the municipalities of both Tierp and Aelvkarleby. A siting of the encapsulation plant in Northern Uppland will also be studied. For the municipality of Nykoeping, SKB plans to conduct a new safety assessment for the Fjaellveden area, based on data from previous investigations as well as additional studies of how a deep repository could be arranged. SKB will thereby gather data from yet another geographic and geological region beyond those that are prioritized. No test drilling is planned in Nykoeping. The goal of the site investigation phase is to obtain all permits needed to build the planned facilities. It will take an estimated 7 - 8 years to assemble the requisite supporting material, carry out consultations, compile siting

  2. Investigation of Tension Forces in A Stay Cable System of A Road Bridge Using Vibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawryszków Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article author presents method of investigation of tension forces in stay cable systems using dynamical methods. Research was carried out during stay cable system installation on WN-24 viaduct near Poznań, that is way it was possible to compare tension forces indicated directly by devices using for tensioning of cable-stayed bridges with results achieved indirectly by means of dynamical methods. Discussion of results was presented. Advantages of dynamical methods and possible fields of application was described. This method, which has been rarely used before, may occur interesting alternative in diagnostics of bridges in comparison to traditional methods.

  3. Introducing Students to the Application of Statistics and Investigative Methods in Political Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dominic D.; Nemire, Nathan A.

    2017-01-01

    This exercise introduces students to the application of statistics and its investigative methods in political science. It helps students gain a better understanding and a greater appreciation of statistics through a real world application.

  4. Government, Including: Air Traffic Controllers, Aviation Safety Inspectors, Airspace Systems Inspection Pilots, Accident Investigators, Electronics Technicians, Engineers, Meteorologists. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers in aviation available in federal, state, and local governmental agencies. The first part of the booklet provides general information about civil aviation careers with the federal government, including pay scales, job classifications, and working conditions.…

  5. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-01-07

    We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

  6. An injected gamma-tracer method for soil-moisture movement investigations in arid zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, A.R.; Navada, S.V.; Rao, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method for the in-situ determination of soil-moisture transport rates using K 3 60 Co(CN) 6 is discussed. The tracer compares well with tritiated water in laboratory investigations and the results obtained in limited field studies are very encouraging. The method promises to be of specific interest in arid-zone investigations where the soil-moisture fluxes in liquid and vapour phases could cause complications for tritium tracer data interpretation. (author)

  7. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  8. A protein diet score, including plant and animal protein, investigating the association with HbA1c and eGFR - the PREVIEW project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Grith; Sluik, Diewertje; Ritz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns.......02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m², p

  9. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  10. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, JNES investigated the evaluation method, long-term seawater and marine deposition for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident, and marine impact assessment code, in Japan and overseas. Also, the foreign regulations for marine radiological impact (direct release to ocean from the facilities and fallout on marine, etc.) were investigated. Furthermore, the index (e.g., intervention level) at emergency control in USA and Europe were investigated. (author)

  11. A pilot investigation to optimise methods for a future satiety preload study

    OpenAIRE

    Hobden, Mark R.; Guérin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Commane, Daniel M.; Rowland, Ian; Gibson, Glenn R.; Kennedy, Orla B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Preload studies are used to investigate the satiating effects of foods and food ingredients. However, the design of preload studies is complex, with many methodological considerations influencing appetite responses. The aim of this pilot investigation was to determine acceptability, and optimise methods, for a future satiety preload study. Specifically, we investigated the effects of altering (i) energy intake at a standardised breakfast (gender-specific or non-gender specific), an...

  12. A method for using unmanned aerial vehicles for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards and sample applications of this method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haifeng; Long, Jingjing; Yi, Wu; Yi, Qinglin; Zhang, Guodong; Lei, Bangjun

    2017-11-01

    In recent years, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have become widely used in emergency investigations of major natural hazards over large areas; however, UAVs are less commonly employed to investigate single geo-hazards. Based on a number of successful investigations in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China, a complete UAV-based method for performing emergency investigations of single geo-hazards is described. First, a customized UAV system that consists of a multi-rotor UAV subsystem, an aerial photography subsystem, a ground control subsystem and a ground surveillance subsystem is described in detail. The implementation process, which includes four steps, i.e., indoor preparation, site investigation, on-site fast processing and application, and indoor comprehensive processing and application, is then elaborated, and two investigation schemes, automatic and manual, that are used in the site investigation step are put forward. Moreover, some key techniques and methods - e.g., the layout and measurement of ground control points (GCPs), route planning, flight control and image collection, and the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetry processing - are explained. Finally, three applications are given. Experience has shown that using UAVs for emergency investigation of single geo-hazards greatly reduces the time, intensity and risks associated with on-site work and provides valuable, high-accuracy, high-resolution information that supports emergency responses.

  13. Using the Scientific Method to Engage Mathematical Modeling: An Investigation of pi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lester A. C.; Ng, Karen E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how to use the scientific method as the framework to introduce mathematical model. Two interdisciplinary activities, targeted for students in grade 6 or grade 7, are explained to show the application of the scientific method while building a mathematical model to investigate the relationship between the…

  14. Investigation of the Adaptability of Transient Stability Assessment Methods to Real-Time Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weckesser, Johannes Tilman Gabriel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Sommer, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an investigation of the adaptability of available transient stability assessment methods to real-time operation and their real-time performance is carried out. Two approaches based on Lyapunov’s method and the equal area criterion are analyzed. The results allow to determine...

  15. Lung mucociliary transport function in chronic bronchitis and radionuclide methods of its investigation (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyrenkova, N.Yu.; Faradzheva, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Several methods for studying lung clearance of smokers and non-smoking patients with chronic bronchitis (CB) are described. Modified technique for investigating mucociliary transport (MCT) in CB patients, using 99m Tc-macroaggregate of human serum albumin, is suggested. The method enables to examine more patients and obtain the most comprehensive data on MCT state on any level of tracheobronchial tree

  16. A Mixed-Methods Study Investigating the Relationship between Media Multitasking Orientation and Grade Point Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study was to examine the relationship between media multitasking orientation and grade point average. The study utilized a mixed-methods approach to investigate the research questions. In the quantitative section of the study, the primary method of statistical analyses was multiple regression. The independent variables for the…

  17. Further Investigating Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This article used multitrait-multimethod methodology and covariance modeling for an investigation of the presence and correlates of method effects associated with negatively worded items on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (Rosenberg, 1989) using a sample of 757 adults. Results showed that method effects associated with negative item phrasing…

  18. Radiotracer investigation of the cold-vapour atomic absorption method of analysis for trace mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, D.C.

    1978-01-01

    Because of certain problems found in application of the atomic absorption method for trace analysis of mercury, a careful check of the procedures used was undertaken, with radiotracer mercury to facilitate the investigation. The results obtained, in conjunction with those of sample ashing procedures, indicate that the method is less straightforward than its simplicity suggests. (Auth.)

  19. Further investigations of plutonium in aquatic biota of the Great Miami River Watershed including the canal and ponds in Miamisburg, Ohio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wayman, C.W.; Bartelt, G.E.; Groves, S.E.

    1975-01-01

    Results are reported from a preliminary investigation of Pu in aquatic organisms of the Great Miami River Watershed, Ohio. Data are presented on the Pu content of aquatic biota from the canal and ponds located adjacent to the Mound Laboratory. These areas have elevated levels of 238 Pu in the water and sediments as the result of a past incident. Radiochemical analysis of biota sampled both upstream and downstream from the effluent pipe of Mound Laboratory showed that plants collected downstream of the laboratory concentrate more 238 Pu than the plants located upstream by two to three orders of magnitude. Activities of 238 Pu in background samples are unexpectedly high and may be attributed to contamination. Activities of fallout 239 , 240 Pu in the plants from upstream and downstream were approximately the same

  20. Numerical investigation of a double-junction a:SiGe thin-film solar cell including the multi-trench region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacha, K.; Djeffal, F.; Ferhati, H.; Arar, D.; Meguellati, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new approach based on the multi-trench technique to improve the electrical performances, which are the fill factor and the electrical efficiency. The key idea behind this approach is to introduce a new multi-trench region in the intrinsic layer, in order to modulate the total resistance of the solar cell. Based on 2-D numerical investigation and optimization of amorphous SiGe double-junction (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H) thin film solar cells, in the present paper numerical models of electrical and optical parameters are developed to explain the impact of the multi-trench technique on the improvement of the double-junction solar cell electrical behavior for high performance photovoltaic applications. In this context, electrical characteristics of the proposed design are analyzed and compared with conventional amorphous silicon double-junction thin-film solar cells. (paper)

  1. Investigation into the value of the seismic methods in delineating structure in southwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, J H

    1948-12-31

    This paper constitutes the final report on a project that investigated the possibilities of seismic methods to delineate Palaeozoic structures in areas of hydrocarbon exploration in south-western Ontario. It begins with an introduction on the theory and practice of seismic reflection prospecting and the general Palaeozoic geology of the study area. It then describes the equipment used, preliminary investigations (alignment of instruments, velocity determinations), and field tests conducted over various hydrocarbon prospects. Finally, the feasibility of using seismic methods in the area is discussed along with reasons for difficulties experienced in the investigation.

  2. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS.

  3. Investigation of periodic systems by means of the generalized Hill method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baitin, A.V.; Ivanov, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    We propose the new method of investigation of infinite periodic determination which is a generalized Hill method. This method has been used for finding of the characteristic value for the Hill equation. finding the band structure of the one-dimensional periodic and obtaining of the dispersion equation for the electromagnetic wave propagation in the waveguide by plasma arbitrary periodic density modulation by plasma arbitrary periodic density modulation

  4. Investigation of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including their respective N-oxides in selected food products available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Stephen W C; Lam, Aaron C H

    2017-07-01

    This study determined the levels of pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), including their respective N-oxides, in foodstuffs available in Hong Kong by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 234 samples (48 food items) were collected randomly from a local market and analysed. About 50% of samples were found to contain detectable amount of PAs. Amongst the 48 food items, PAs were not detected in 11 food items, including barley flour, beef, cattle liver, pork, pig liver, chicken meat, chicken liver, milk, non-fermented tea, Melissa tea and linden tea. For those found to contain detectable PAs, the summed PA content ranged up to 11,000 µg kg -1 . The highest sum of PA content among the 37 food items calculated with lower bound was cumin seed, then followed by oregano, tarragon and herbs de Provence with ranges of 2.5-11,000, 1.5-5100, 8.0-3300 and 18-1300 µg kg -1 respectively. Among the samples, the highest sum of PA content was detected in a cumin seed sample (11,000 µg kg -1 ), followed by an oregano (5100 µg kg -1 ), a tarragon (3300 µg kg -1 ) and a herbs de Provence (1300 µg kg -1 ). In general, the results of this study agreed well with other published results in peer-reviewed journals, except that the total PAs in honey and specific tea infusion in this study were comparatively lower.

  5. Comparison of different methods for work accidents investigation in hospitals: A Portuguese case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cláudia; Santos, Joana; da Silva, Manuela Vieira; Lourenço, Irina; Carvalhais, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The hospital environment has many occupational health risks that predispose healthcare workers to various kinds of work accidents. This study aims to compare different methods for work accidents investigation and to verify their suitability in hospital environment. For this purpose, we selected three types of accidents that were related with needle stick, worker fall and inadequate effort/movement during the mobilization of patients. A total of thirty accidents were analysed with six different work accidents investigation methods. The results showed that organizational factors were the group of causes which had the greatest impact in the three types of work accidents. The methods selected to be compared in this paper are applicable and appropriate for the work accidents investigation in hospitals. However, the Registration, Research and Analysis of Work Accidents method (RIAAT) showed to be an optimal technique to use in this context.

  6. Investigation of optimized experimental parameters including laser wavelength for boron measurement in photovoltaic grade silicon using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwiche, S.; Benmansour, M.; Eliezer, N.; Morvan, D.

    2010-01-01

    The quantification of boron and other impurities in photovoltaic grade silicon was investigated using the LIBS technique with attention to the laser wavelength employed, temporal parameters, and the nature of the ambient gas. The laser wavelength was found to have a moderate effect on the performance of the process, while the type of purge gas and temporal parameters had a strong effect on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) of the boron spectral emission, which was used to determine the boron concentration in silicon. The three parameters are not independent, meaning that for each different purge gas, different optimal temporal parameters are observed. Electron density was also calculated from Stark broadening of the 390.5 nm silicon emission line in order to better understand the different performances observed when using different gases and gating parameters. Calibration curves were made for boron measurement in silicon using certified standards with different purge gases while using the temporal parameters which had been optimized for that gas. By comparing the calibration curves, it was determined that argon is superior to helium or air for use as the analysis chamber purge gas with an UV laser.

  7. Investigations on the binary systems of boron with chromium, columbium, nickel, and thorium, including a discussion of the Phase TiB in the titanium-boron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, L H; Kiessling, R

    1950-01-01

    Investigations on the binary systems chromium-, columbium-, nickel-, and thorium-boron are reported. The titanium-boron system is discussed, and it is shown that the phase TiB, previously assumed to have zincblende structure, probably has a face-centered titanium lattice with boron in the octahedral interstices. In the chromium-boron system, the structure of the eta phase has been determined. It has the composition Cr/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and is isomorphous with Ta/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and Mn/sub 3/B/sub 4/. Some data for the delta phase are also given. For the columbium-boron system, a phase analysis has been carried out. The structures of three of the intermediary phases, CbB, Cb/sub 3/B/sub 2/, and CbB/sub 2/ (with extended homogeneity range), have been determined. They are isomorphous with corresponding phases of the tantalum-boron system. A brief phase analysis of the nickel-boron system showed the existence of a phase with lower boron content than Ni/sub 2/B, which has not been previously reported. In the thorium-boron system a new phase, probably with a complicated structure, was found with a boron content of about 50 at. %.

  8. An overview on applied methods in the FRG to investigate human factors in control rooms of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    In the first half of 1984 a feasibility study was carried out with respect to the CSNI of the OECD/NEA inventory of methods for the analysis and evaluation of human factors in the control room of nuclear power plants. In order to enable an analysis of the methods to be made, an elementary categorization of the methods under field studies, laboratory studies and theoretical studies was performed. A further differentiation of these categories was used as the basis for a critical analysis and interpretation of the methods employed in the research plan. In the following sections, an explanation is given of the method categories used and the plans included in the investigation. A short representation is given of the breakdown of the applied methods into categories and an analysis is made of the results. Implications for research programs are discussed. (orig./GL) [de

  9. Numerical investigations on contactless methods for measuring critical current density in HTS: application of modified constitutive-relation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Itoh, T.; Ikuno, S.

    2011-01-01

    A fast method is proposed for calculating the shielding current density in an HTS. The J-E constitutive relation is modified so as not to change the solution. A numerical code is developed on the basis of the proposed method. The permanent magnet method is successfully simulated by means of the code. A fast method has been proposed for calculating the shielding current density in a high-temperature superconducting thin film. An initial-boundary-value problem of the shielding current density cannot be always solved by means of the Runge-Kutta method even when an adaptive step-size control algorithm is incorporated to the method. In order to suppress an overflow in the algorithm, the J-E constitutive relation is modified so that its solution may satisfy the original constitutive relation. A numerical code for analyzing the shielding current density has been developed on the basis of this method and, as an application of the code, the permanent magnet method for measuring the critical current density has been investigated numerically.

  10. Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) including structural PFOS isomers in plasma from elderly men and women from Sweden: Results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihovic, Samira; Kärrman, Anna; Lind, Lars; Lind, P Monica; Lindström, Gunilla; van Bavel, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a class of compounds with unique chemical properties that have been shown useful in a wide variety of applications because they provide materials with reduced surface tension and exceptional non-stick properties. PFASs are commonly found in impregnation materials, coatings of papers and textiles, fire-fighting foams, pesticides, and cleaning agents. The potential for human exposure to PFASs is high because of their widespread distribution. The aim of this study was to investigate levels of PFASs in men and women from Sweden and to assess the influence of gender and parity among women. Levels of 13 PFASs were determined in plasma samples collected during 2001-2004 from 1016 (507 women) 70year-old participants from the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS). The PFASs studied were nine perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), four perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). In addition, structural isomers of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were determined in a subset of 398 individuals. The detection rates were high and the majority of the studied compounds were detected in more than 75% of the participants. Levels of the selected analytes were found to be similar to other studies of non-occupationally exposed populations. Gender differences were observed in levels of PFHpA which was higher in men, while PFHxS was higher in women. Parity among women was shown to have a minor effect on PFAS concentrations and we found primi- and multiparous women to have slightly lower levels of PFUnDA when compared to nulliparous women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Protein Diet Score, Including Plant and Animal Protein, Investigating the Association with HbA1c and eGFR—The PREVIEW Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkilä, Vera; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Dragsted, Lars O.; Poppitt, Sally D.; Silvestre, Marta P.; Feskens, Edith J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Higher-protein diets have been advocated for body-weight regulation for the past few decades. However, the potential health risks of these diets are still uncertain. We aimed to develop a protein score based on the quantity and source of protein, and to examine the association of the score with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Analyses were based on three population studies included in the PREVIEW project (PREVention of diabetes through lifestyle Intervention and population studies in Europe and around the World): NQplus, Lifelines, and the Young Finns Study. Cross-sectional data from food-frequency questionnaires (n = 76,777 subjects) were used to develop a protein score consisting of two components: 1) percentage of energy from total protein, and 2) plant to animal protein ratio. An inverse association between protein score and HbA1c (slope −0.02 ± 0.01 mmol/mol, p < 0.001) was seen in Lifelines. We found a positive association between the protein score and eGFR in Lifelines (slope 0.17 ± 0.02 mL/min/1.73 m2, p < 0.0001). Protein scoring might be a useful tool to assess both the effect of quantity and source of protein on health parameters. Further studies are needed to validate this newly developed protein score. PMID:28714926

  12. A methodology to investigate the contribution of conduction and radiation heat transfer to the effective thermal conductivity of packed graphite pebble beds, including the wall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Beer, M., E-mail: maritz.db@gmail.com [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Du Toit, C.G., E-mail: Jat.DuToit@nwu.ac.za [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, North-West University, Private Bag X6001, Potchefstroom 2520 (South Africa); Rousseau, P.G., E-mail: pieter.rousseau@uct.ac.za [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The radiation and conduction components of the effective thermal conductivity are separated. • Near-wall effects have a notable influence on the effective thermal conductivity. • Effective thermal conductivity is a function of the macro temperature gradient. • The effective thermal conductivity profile shows a characteristic trend. • The trend is a result of the interplay between conduction and radiation. - Abstract: The effective thermal conductivity represents the overall heat transfer characteristics of a packed bed of spheres and must be considered in the analysis and design of pebble bed gas-cooled reactors. During depressurized loss of forced cooling conditions the dominant heat transfer mechanisms for the passive removal of decay heat are radiation and conduction. Predicting the value of the effective thermal conductivity is complex since it inter alia depends on the temperature level and temperature gradient through the bed, as well as the pebble packing structure. The effect of the altered packing structure in the wall region must therefore also be considered. Being able to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction allows a better understanding of the underlying phenomena and the characteristics of the resultant effective thermal conductivity. This paper introduces a purpose-designed test facility and accompanying methodology that combines physical measurements with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations to separate the contributions of radiation and conduction heat transfer, including the wall effects. Preliminary results obtained with the methodology offer important insights into the trends observed in the experimental results and provide a better understanding of the interplay between the underlying heat transfer phenomena.

  13. A combined DFT and restricted open-shell configuration interaction method including spin-orbit coupling: Application to transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-28

    transition metals. These parameters are universal and transferable. Hence, there are no adjustable parameters that are used to fit experimental X-ray absorption spectra. Thus, the new approach classifies as a predictive first-principles method rather than an analysis tool. A series of calculations on transition metal compounds containing Cu, Ti, Fe, and Ni in various oxidation and spin states is investigated and a detailed comparison to experimental data is reported. In most cases, the approach yields good to excellent agreement with experiment. In addition, the origin of the observed spectral features is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the investigated compounds.

  14. Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. 4th edition

    OpenAIRE

    Bowling, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This bestselling book provides an accessible introduction to the concepts and practicalities of research methods in health and health services. This new edition has been extensively re-worked and expanded and now includes expanded coverage of: Qualitative methods Social research Evaluation methodology Mixed methods Secondary data analysis Literature reviewing and critical appraisal Evidence based practiceCovering all core methodologies in detail the book looks at the following kinds of health...

  15. The use of nuclear analytical methods in the investigation of objects of art and historical monuments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janovsky, I.

    2006-01-01

    Special nuclear analytical methods contribute significantly to the identification of the origin, manufacturing technology and/or authenticity of objects of art and historical monuments, Such methods primarily include variants of X-ray fluorescence analysis and activation analysis. The former enables non/destructive testing of materials, the latter features a high sensitivity. The article presents numerous examples of use of such methods especially in the Czech Republic (or former Czechoslovakia). (author)

  16. Integrating Lesion-Symptom Mapping with Other Methods to Investigate Language Networks and Aphasia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Turkeltaub

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM has provided valuable insights into the neural underpinnings of various language functions. Integrating lesion mapping methods with other neuroscience techniques may provide new opportunities to investigate questions related both to the neurobiology of language and to plasticity after brain injury. For example, recent diffusion tensor imaging studies have explored relationships between aphasia symptomology and damage in specific white matter tracts (Forkel et al., 2014 or disruption of the white matter connectome (Bonilha, Rorden, & Fridriksson, 2014. VLSM has also recently been used to assess correlations between lesion location and response to transcranial direct current stimulation aphasia treatment (Campana, Caltagirone, & Marangolo, 2015. We have recently undertaken studies integrating VLSM with other techniques, including voxel-based morphometry (VBM and functional MRI, in order to investigate how parts of the brain spared by stroke contribute to recovery. VLSM can be used in this context to map lesions associated with particular patterns of plasticity in brain structure, function, or connectivity. We have also used VLSM to estimate the variance in behavior due to the stroke itself so that this lesion-symptom relationship can be controlled for when examining the contributions of the rest of the brain. Using this approach in combination with VBM, we have identified areas of the right temporoparietal cortex that appear to undergo hypertrophy after stroke and compensate for speech production deficits. In this talk, I will review recent advances in integrating lesion-symptom mapping with other imaging and brain stimulation techniques in order to better understand the brain basis of language and of aphasia recovery.

  17. A Study on the quantification of hydration and the strength development mechanism of cementitious materials including amorphous phases by using XRD/Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Hoshino, Seiichi; Hirao, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Rietveld method was applied to measure the phase composition of cement. The quantative analysis concerning the progress of hydration was accomplished in an error of about the maximum 2-3% in spite of including amorphous materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume and C-S-H. The influence of the compressive strength on the lime stone fine powder mixture material was studied from the hydration analysis by Rietveld method. The two stages were observed in the strength development mechanism of cement; the hydration promotion of C 3 S in the early stage and the filling of cavities by carbonate hydrate for the longer term. It is useful to use various mixture materials for the formation of the resource recycling society and the durability improvement of concrete. (author)

  18. Investigation of a New Spectrophotometric Method for the analysis of carbohydrates using glucose as model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Ali, A.; Shah, N.U.; Khan, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates are biomolecule of significant importance. Its analysis is of prime importance in the clinical investigations, delivery of medicines and quality control operations of food and fuel products. Based on its importance a novel spectrophotometric method was investigated for the trace analysis of carbohydrates using glucose as model carbohydrate. This method is based on glucosazation followed by oxidation of the glucosazone with acidified iron (III) chloride. Oxidation of the glucsazone is necessary for enhancing the color intensity and optimum conditions were investigated for the process. All the absorbance measurements were carried out using 390 nm as gamma max. The ratio of the reactants was 1: 1.5: 0.1 mole for the glucose, phenyl hydrazine and iron (III) chloride. This method was used for the analysis of carbohydrates in real samples from plants, industrial products, blood and urine using glucose as reference. (author)

  19. Investigation of error estimation method of observational data and comparison method between numerical and observational results toward V and V of seismic simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Kawakami, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Norihiro

    2017-01-01

    The method to estimate errors included in observational data and the method to compare numerical results with observational results are investigated toward the verification and validation (V and V) of a seismic simulation. For the method to estimate errors, 144 literatures for the past 5 years (from the year 2010 to 2014) in the structure engineering field and earthquake engineering field where the description about acceleration data is frequent are surveyed. As a result, it is found that some processes to remove components regarded as errors from observational data are used in about 30% of those literatures. Errors are caused by the resolution, the linearity, the temperature coefficient for sensitivity, the temperature coefficient for zero shift, the transverse sensitivity, the seismometer property, the aliasing, and so on. Those processes can be exploited to estimate errors individually. For the method to compare numerical results with observational results, public materials of ASME V and V Symposium 2012-2015, their references, and above 144 literatures are surveyed. As a result, it is found that six methods have been mainly proposed in existing researches. Evaluating those methods using nine items, advantages and disadvantages for those methods are arranged. The method is not well established so that it is necessary to employ those methods by compensating disadvantages and/or to search for a solution to a novel method. (author)

  20. Investigation of source location determination from Magsat magnetic anomalies: The Euler method approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravat, Dhananjay

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of the Euler method of source location determination was investigated on several model situations pertinent to satellite-data scale situations as well as Magsat data of Europe. Our investigations enabled us to understand the end-member cases for which the Euler method will work with the present satellite magnetic data and also the cases for which the assumptions implicit in the Euler method will not be met by the present satellite magnetic data. These results have been presented in one invited lecture at the Indo-US workshop on Geomagnetism in Studies of the Earth's Interior in August 1994 in Pune, India, and at one presentation at the 21st General Assembly of the IUGG in July 1995 in Boulder, CO. A new method, called Anomaly Attenuation Rate (AAR) Method (based on the Euler method), was developed during this study. This method is scale-independent and is appropriate to locate centroids of semi-compact three dimensional sources of gravity and magnetic anomalies. The method was presented during 1996 Spring AGU meeting and a manuscript describing this method is being prepared for its submission to a high-ranking journal. The grant has resulted in 3 papers and presentations at national and international meetings and one manuscript of a paper (to be submitted shortly to a reputable journal).

  1. Investigation of method for Stainless Steel Welding Wire as a Replacement for Arc Wire Comsumables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koiprasert, H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arc spraying as a coating method is being employed in various industrial applications as a part of maintenance service, and also as a surface engineering technique for many machine parts and components. The major cost in producing the arc spray coating is, however, based on the cost of the arc wire comsumables. This project was carried out to investigate the use of the commercially-available gas metal arc welding wire (GMAW wire as a cheaper alternative to the special-purpose arc wire comsumables. The wire material chosen for this early study is the 316L stainless steel, due to its popularity in many applications as a built-up coating for worn parts. The physical properties of the coatings produced from the two sets of 316L stainless steel wire were determined to be different in the percentage of porosity and the oxide content. The mechanical properties, including the tensile bond strength and the wear rate of the coatings produced from the two types of sprayed wire, were also different. This will, in turn, result in a slight difference in the performance of thecoatings.

  2. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...

  3. Investigations on pelagic food webs in mountain lakes - aims and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirí NEDOMA

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodical approach for the assessment of pelagic biomass and the main carbon fluxes in remote and hardly accessible mountain lakes was elaborated and tested. Number and biomass of bacteria (BAC, autotrophic picoplankton (APP, heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF, ciliates (CIL, phytoplankton (PHY, zooplankton smaller than 40 μm (ZOOS and zooplankton larger than 40 μm (ZOOL were investigated regularly during two ice-free periods in 13 European mountain lakes (1st level approach – fixed samples elaborated in specialized laboratories. Carbon fluxes measured in 9 lakes included: primary production, exudation by PHY and BAC uptake of exudates, BAC production, elimination of BAC. These processes were measured in the field by specialized teams (2nd level approach. The ranges of values found in mountain lakes were evaluated and possible methodical and interpretative errors discussed. BAC were a significant component of pelagic biomass. The intercomparison between different partners showed differences in bacterial counts lower than 10%, whereas the mean cell volumes measured fluctuated by more than 40%. APP was never found in a significant quantity, except in one lake. HNF and CIL, though regularly found, were usually scarce and only occasionally significant in terms of biomass. The main components of pelagic biomass were BAC, PHY and ZOOL+ZOOS, except for acidified lakes, where zooplankton was very low. In oligotrophic mountain lakes, the percentage of extracellular production in the total primary production was considerable. Bacterial abundance and production often reached values quite comparable with the situation found in lowland mesotrophic lakes during winter.

  4. Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using integral method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.І. Токарев

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  Investigation of acoustic field near to elastic thin plate using  integral method The influence of boundary conditions on sound wave propagation, radiation and transmission through thin elastic plate is investigated. Necessary for that numerical model was found using the Helmholtz equation and equation of oscilated plate by means of integral formulation of the solution for acoustic fields near to elastic thin plate and for bending waves of small amplitudes.

  5. Study on Developments in Accident Investigation Methods: A Survey of the 'State-of-the-Art'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollnagel, Erik; Speziali, Josephine (Ecole des Mines de Paris, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France))

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this project was to survey the main accident investigation methods that have been developed since the early or mid-1990s. The motivation was the increasing frequency of accidents that defy explanations in simple terms, for instance cause-effect chains or 'human error'. Whereas the complexity of socio-technical systems is steadily growing across all industrial domains, including nuclear power production, accident investigation methods are only updated when their inability to account for novel types of accidents and incidents becomes inescapable. Accident investigation methods therefore typically lag behind the socio-technological developments by 20 years or more. The project first compiled a set of methods from the recognised scientific literature and in major major research and development programs, excluding methods limited to risk assessment, technological malfunctions, human reliability, and safety management methods. An initial set of 21 methods was further reduced to seven by retaining only prima facie accident investigation methods and avoiding overlapping or highly similar methods. The second step was to develop a set of criteria used to characterise the methods. The starting point was Perrow's description of normal accidents in socio-technical systems, which used the dimensions of coupling, going from loose to tight, and interactions, going from linear to complex. For practical reasons, the second dimension was changed to that of tractability or how easy it is to describe the system, where the sub-criteria are the level of detail, the availability of an articulated model, and the system dynamics. On this basis the seven selected methods were characterised in terms of the systems - or conditions - they could account for, leading to the following four groups: methods suitable for systems that are loosely coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that are tightly coupled and tractable, methods suitable for systems that

  6. An investigation into the pricing methods used by small and medium-sized enterprises / Hamilton Tshegofatso Gape

    OpenAIRE

    Gape, Hamilton Tshegofatso

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigates the pricing methods used by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Prices are a key determinant of demand which influences revenue and in turn the business' profits. A business may fail if products and services are priced incorrectly. Pricing decision is, therefore, one of the critical success factors of a business, including SMEs. There is consensus widely disseminated in the textbook literature, that successful pricing can only be achieved when...

  7. High-speed photographic methods for compression dynamics investigation of laser irradiated shell target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basov, N.G.; Kologrivov, A.A.; Krokhin, O.N.; Rupasov, A.A.; Shikanov, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    Three methods are described for a high-speed diagnostics of compression dynamics of shell targets being spherically laser-heated on the installation ''Kal'mar''. The first method is based on the direct investigation of the space-time evolution of the critical-density region for Nd-laser emission (N sub(e) asymptotically equals 10 21 I/cm 3 ) by means of the streak photography of plasma image in the second-harmonic light. The second method involves investigation of time evolution of the second-harmonic spectral distribution by means of a spectrograph coupled with a streak camera. The use of a special laser pulse with two time-distributed intensity maxima for the irradiation of shell targets, and the analysis of the obtained X-ray pin-hole pictures constitute the basis of the third method. (author)

  8. Investigation on a coupled CFD/DSMC method for continuum-rarefied flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenyu; He, Bijiao; Cai, Guobiao

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of the present work is to investigate the coupled CFD/DSMC method using the existing CFD and DSMC codes developed by the authors. The interface between the continuum and particle regions is determined by the gradient-length local Knudsen number. A coupling scheme combining both state-based and flux-based coupling methods is proposed in the current study. Overlapping grids are established between the different grid systems of CFD and DSMC codes. A hypersonic flow over a 2D cylinder has been simulated using the present coupled method. Comparison has been made between the results obtained from both methods, which shows that the coupled CFD/DSMC method can achieve the same precision as the pure DSMC method and obtain higher computational efficiency.

  9. Interferometric investigation methods of plasma spatial characteristics on stellarators and tokamaks in submillimeter region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhnyj, V.L.; Kononenko, V.I.; Epishin, V.A.; Topkov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    The review of interferometric methods of plasma investigation in the wave submillimeter range is given. The diagnostic schemes in stellarators and tokamaks designed for experienced thermonuclear reactors and also the perspective ones, which are still out of practice, are shown. The methods of these diagnostics, their physical principles, the main possibilities and restrictions at changes of electron density, magnetic fields (currents) and their spatial distributions are described. 105 refs.; 9 figs.; 2 tables. (author)

  10. Investigation of complexing equilibrium of polyacrylate-anion with cadmium ions by polarographic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avlyanov, Zh K; Kabanov, N M; Zezin, A B

    1985-01-01

    Polarographic investigation of cadmium complex with polyacrylate-anion in aqueous KCl solution is carried out. It is shown that the polarographic method allows one to define equilibrium constants of polymer metallic complex (PMC) formation even in the case when current magnitudes are defined by PMC dissociation reaction kinetic characteristics. The obtained equilibrium constants of stepped complexing provide the values of mean coordination PAAxCd complex number of approximately 1.5, that coincides with the value obtained by the potentiometric method.

  11. Investigation of complexing equilibrium of polyacrylate-anion with cadmium ions by polarographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avlyanov, Zh.K.; Kabanov, N.M.; Zezin, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Polarographic investigation of cadmium complex with polyacrylate-anion in aqueous KCl solution is carried out. It is shown that the polarographic method allows one to define equilibrium constants of polymer metallic complex (PMC) formation even in the case, when current magnitudes are defined by PMC dissociation reaction kinetic characteristics. The obtained equilibrium constants of stepped complexing provide the values of mean coordination PAAxCd complex number of approximately 1.5, that coinsides with the value obtained by the potentiometric method

  12. The integrated circuit IC EMP transient state disturbance effect experiment method investigates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Transient state disturbance characteristic study on the integrated circuit, IC, need from its coupling path outset. Through cable (aerial) coupling, EMP converts to an pulse current voltage and results in the impact to the integrated circuit I/O orifice passing the cable. Aiming at the armament system construction feature, EMP effect to the integrated circuit, IC inside the system is analyzed. The integrated circuit, IC EMP effect experiment current injection method is investigated and a few experiments method is given. (authors)

  13. Nuclear-physical methods of investigation of an element composition in samples of soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hushmurodov, Sh.; Botaev, N.

    2002-01-01

    Soil (ground) and vegetative covers of the Earth are one of the most responsive and specific parts of the biosphere with respect to pollution. A proper control after them is of fundamental importance in creating and protecting optical surrounding. Analysis of soils and plants is a necessary and important stage in the process of investigation of microelements' migration in biogeochemical cycles. For this purpose we studied some reserved terrains of Uzbekistan to reveal a level of their contamination by heavy metals, as well as to find out typical and territorial singularities in accumulation of a number of elements by soils and plants. In order to decrease an influence of systematic errors, and to obtain more precise and reliable data, we carried out the element analysis of the samples by different methods, such as gamma-activation analysis, neutron-activation analysis, X-ray spectral analysis, and X-ray fluorescent analysis. As a result of our investigations we have obtained rather great information, which can be used in future to estimate the conditions of the surrounding nature. The investigations allowed us to determine the content of about 40 elements, as well as to show that the data, obtained by different nuclear-physical methods, are in rather good agreement. A reproducibility of the results of the methods, determined in control measurements, depends on the concentration of the analyzed elements, and is equal to 10-35 %. A comparison of the obtained data allowed us to reveal some singularities in element composition of the investigated samples depending on their type and territorial factor. It has been revealed that the data, obtained by different methods, are in rather good agreement. Our investigations allowed us to find out a series of regularities and singularities in accumulation of elements in plants, as well as to show the possibility of using nuclear-physical methods in such investigations

  14. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  15. Investigation of the molecular relationship between breast cancer and obesity by candidate gene prioritization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Garshasbi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer and obesity are two major public health concerns. More than 12 million cases of cancer are reported annually. Many reports confirmed obesity as a risk factor for cancer. The molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer has not been clear yet. The purpose of this study was to investigate priorities of effective genes in the molecular relationship between obesity and breast cancer. Methods: In this study, computer simulation method was used for prioritizing the genes that involved in the molecular links between obesity and breast cancer in laboratory of systems biology and bioinformatics (LBB, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran, from March to July 2014. In this study, ENDEAVOUR software was used for prioritizing the genes and integrating multiple data sources was used for data analysis. Training genes were selected from effective genes in obesity and/or breast cancer. Two groups of candidate genes were selected. The first group was included the existential genes in 5 common region chromosomes (between obesity and breast cancer and the second group was included the results of genes microarray data analysis of research Creighton, et al (In 2012 on patients with breast cancer. The microarray data were analyzed with GER2 software (R online software on GEO website. Finally, both training and candidate genes were entered in ENDEAVOUR software package. Results: The candidate genes were prioritized to four style and five genes in ten of the first priorities were repeated twice. In other word, the outcome of prioritizing of 72 genes (Product of microarray data analysis and genes of 5 common chromosome regions (Between obesity and breast cancer showed, 5 genes (TNFRSF10B, F2, IGFALS, NTRK3 and HSP90B1 were the priorities in the molecular connection between obesity and breast cancer. Conclusion: There are some common genes between breast cancer and obesity. So, molecular relationship is confirmed. In this study the possible effect

  16. Application of radioisotope methods of investigation and control techniques in tube production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizh, V.A.; Drabkin, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Various spheres of radioactive isotopes application of closed and open type in tube production are described. Due to the usage of radioactive indicator method in combination with physicochemical methods and metallography new data are obtained in the theory and practice of tube centrifugal casting, rolling and pressing. Adsorption properties of lubricants and element distribution in the joint weld region of the big diameter tubes are investigated. The application of radioactive isotopes as ionizing radiation source made it possible to develop some radioisotope methods and instruments for tube wall thickness and the wall thickness difference control. Short characteristics of such instruments are given

  17. Investigation of Method for Changing Impression of Musical Piece by Changing its Tempo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Makoto; Okamatsu, Keita; Matsuo, Kazuhisa

    We propose a simple method that changes impression of musical piece by changing its tempo and investigate psycho-physiological effects of the method with listening experiment. In the experiment, 8 subjects listened same musical pieces with various tempi, and analysis of heartbeat and Semantic-Differential method were used. In 6 out of 10 adjective pairs, inverted-U shapes were observed, and peak tempi of them were different. Moreover, “relaxed” evaluation might be related to listener's heart rate in rest. These results suggest possibility of constructing novel media player that changes impression of musical piece.

  18. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  19. Are Imaging and Lesioning Convergent Methods for Assessing Functional Specialisation? Investigations Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Purser, Harry R. M.; Tomlinson, Simon; Mareschal, Denis

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an investigation of the relationship between lesioning and neuroimaging methods of assessing functional specialisation, using synthetic brain imaging (SBI) and lesioning of a connectionist network of past-tense formation. The model comprised two processing "routes": one was a direct route between layers of input and output…

  20. Investigation of evaluation method for marine radiological impact during an accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    In 2012, JNES carried out to investigate the measurement information of radionuclide released to the ocean at Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, the foreign regulation for marine radiological impact, and the evaluation method for release and diffusion to the ocean at the accident inside and outside Japan. (author)

  1. Tank 48H Waste Composition and Results of Investigation of Analytical Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker , D.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-02

    This report serves two purposes. First, it documents the analytical results of Tank 48H samples taken between April and August 1996. Second, it describes investigations of the precision of the sampling and analytical methods used on the Tank 48H samples.

  2. Teaching Ethics in Communication Courses: An Investigation of Instructional Methods, Course Foci, and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canary, Heather E.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the impact of ethics instruction in communication courses on students' moral reasoning competence. Using a quasi-experiment, participants in interpersonal conflict courses and communication ethics courses were exposed to different levels of ethics instruction through a variety of instructional methods. Results indicate that…

  3. The "Frankenplasmid" Lab: An Investigative Exercise for Teaching Recombinant DNA Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Derek M.; Wilder, Jason A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe an investigative laboratory module designed to give college undergraduates strong practical and theoretical experience with recombinant DNA methods within 3 weeks. After deducing restriction enzyme maps for two different plasmids, students ligate the plasmids together in the same reaction, transform "E. coli" with this mixture of…

  4. An Investigation of Three Methods of Teaching Vocabulary at the Junior High Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Evangeline Drury

    This study of methods of teaching vocabulary in the junior high school investigated three approaches: use of a programed text in vocabulary development that emphasized context clues, use of the programed text augmented by listening assistance, and use of the programed text augmented by a word-analysis supplement. Over 300 students with I.Q.'s…

  5. Isotopic method for investigation of process of periodic sedimentation of argillaceous suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohman, L.; Woznicki, T.

    1976-01-01

    The process of periodic sedimentation of kaolinic suspension in water has been investigated, by isotopic tracer method. the tracer was either the irradiated matrix material or 198 Au, adsorbed on the kaolin grains. The velocity of suspension level lowering (the sedimentation curve) and the variation in density in vertical section of sediment layer have been determined. (author)

  6. New Learning Method of a Lecture of ‘Machine Fabrication’ by Self-study with Investigation and Presentation Incorporated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuga, Yukio

    A new teaching method was developed in learning ‘machine fabrication’ for the undergraduate students. This consists of a few times of lectures, grouping, decision of industrial products which each group wants to investigate, investigation work by library books and internet, arrangement of data containing characteristics of the products, employed materials and processing methods, presentation, discussions and revision followed by another presentation. This new method is derived from one of the Finland‧s way of primary school education. Their way of education is believed to have boosted up to the top ranking in PISA tests by OECD. After starting the new way of learning, students have fresh impressions on this lesson, especially for self-study, the way of investigation, collaborate work and presentation. Also, after four years of implementation, some improvements have been made including less use of internet, and determination of products and fabricating methods in advance which should be investigated. By this, students‧ lecture assessment shows further encouraging results.

  7. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  8. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

  9. Efficiency of computerized tomography in comparison with other neuroradiological investigation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, H.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized tomography is considered to be a decisive and the most reliable investigation method for the diagnosis of cerebral tumors. The rate of detection of intracranial blastomas is over 90%. Supratentorial growths are more easy to prove than tumors at the posterior cranial fossa. In the group of patients examined, 97.3% of the cerebral tumors were confirmed by computerized tomography: 98.7% of these were located above the tentorium and 89.3% under the tentorium. But the diagnostic value of computerized tomography is not only due to the high growth detection rate but also to its informative power as regards the position of growths in relation to vital centres, the type of the blastomas and their space-occupying effect. Thus this investigation method permits to evaluate the complex ''space occupation'' at one glance. By the angiographic method cerebral growths are confirmed in 86% of the cases; 88.6% of these are located above the tentorium. (orig.) [de

  10. Investigation of e-Linac tube construction method and implementation suitable method for IPM e-Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of electron linear accelerator project in institute for research in fundamental sciences(IPM is to build its components as many as they can in Iran. This accelerator is a traveling wave type. Investigations show that there are various techniques in forming and connecting the accelerating tube cavities. The shrinking method applied for constructing the accelerating tube is selected based on the one applied for Stanford University’s Mark III accelerator. With success in building an 8-cavity test tube and finding the problems of the method, the construction of the final accelerating tube with 24 cavities has been accomplished. The results show that the obtained frequency of 2996.5 MHz and quality factor of 11200, satisfy the design desired values.

  11. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  12. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or "frosties," show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50-85%). We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  13. On Numerical Methods for Including the Effect of Capillary Pressure Forces on Two-phase, Immiscible Flow in a Layered Porous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, B.G.

    1996-05-01

    This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Derivatization method of free cyanide including cyanogen chloride for the sensitive analysis of cyanide in chlorinated drinking water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-01-20

    A novel derivatization method of free cyanide (HCN + CN(-)) including cyanogen chloride in chlorinated drinking water was developed with d-cysteine and hypochlorite. The optimum conditions (0.5 mM D-cysteine, 0.5 mM hypochlorite, pH 4.5, and a reaction time of 10 min at room temperature) were established by the variation of parameters. Cyanide (C(13)N(15)) was chosen as an internal standard. The formed β-thiocyanoalanine was directly injected into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer without any additional extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.07 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, and the interday relative standard deviation was less than 4% at concentrations of 4.0, 20.0, and 100.0 μg/L. The method was successfully applied to determine CN(-) in chlorinated water samples. The detected concentration range and detection frequency of CN(-) were 0.20-8.42 μg/L (14/24) in source drinking water and 0.21-1.03 μg/L (18/24) in chlorinated drinking water.

  15. Computational Investigation of Novel Tip Leakage Mitigation Methods for High Pressure Turbine Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mounir; Gupta, Abhinav; Shyam, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings on a possible approach to reducing tip leakage losses. In this paper a computational study was conducted on the Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) High Pressure Turbine (HPT) rotor tip geometry using the commercial numerical solver ANSYS FLUENT. The flow solver was validated against aerodynamic data acquired in the NASA Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade facility. The scope of the ongoing study is to computationally investigate how the tip leakage and overall blade losses are affected by (1) injection from the tip near the pressure side, (2) injection from the tip surface at the camber line, and (3) injection from the tip surface into the tip separation bubble. The objective is to identify the locations on the tip surface at which to place appropriately configured blowing keeping in mind the film cooling application of tip blowing holes. The validation was conducted at Reynolds numbers of 85,000, 343,000, and 685,000 and at engine realistic flow conditions. The coolant injection simulations were conducted at a Reynolds number of 343,000 based on blade chord and inlet velocity and utilized the SST turbulence model in FLUENT. The key parameters examined are the number of jets, jet angle and jet location. A coolant to inlet pressure ratio of 1.0 was studied for angles of +30 deg, -30 deg, and 90 deg to the local free stream on the tip. For the 3 hole configuration, 3 holes spaced 3 hole diameters apart with length to diameter ratio of 1.5 were used. A simulation including 11 holes along the entire mean camber line is also presented (30 deg toward suction side). In addition, the effect of a single hole is also compared to a flat tip with no injection. The results provide insight into tip flow control methods and can be used to guide further investigation into tip flow control. As noted in past research it is concluded that reducing leakage flow is not necessarily synonymous with reducing losses due to leakage.

  16. Alternative methods and radionuclides for use in soil-erosion and sedimentation investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Q.; Walling, D.E.; Wallbrink, P.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of 137 Cs for documenting rates and patterns of soil redistribution and sediment deposition represents an important advance that overcomes many of the limitations of existing techniques. Thus, the 137 Cs approach presents several key advantages but a number of potential limitations must also be recognized and addressed in any application. For example, traditional procedures for applying 137 Cs measurements in soil-erosion and sedimentation investigations involve the collection of soil or sediment cores from a study site and their subsequent transfer to the laboratory for preparation and analysis of 137 Cs activity by gamma spectrometry. The resulting measurements of 137 Cs activity (Bq g -1 ) are used to calculate the 137 Cs inventories (Bq m -2 ) for the individual cores and, thus the sampling points. In cases where a large number of cores are collected and require analysis, their processing and laboratory measurement will involve substantial effort. Furthermore, an extended period of time will generally be required for the measurements, because long count times are required for environmental samples containing relatively low levels of 137 Cs activity. Appreciable delays in obtaining results may, therefore, arise and it is not generally possible to obtain immediate data for use in planning and developing an ongoing sampling programme for detailed investigations. In view of these limitations, there is clearly a need to explore the potential for enhancing and extending the 137 Cs technique by using other methods to obtain the 137 Cs measurements within a shorter period of time and by using other fallout radionuclides with behaviour similar to that of 137 Cs but with a continuous input or a half-life extending to days rather than years, that could be used to document either the short-term contemporary rates of soil redistribution and sediment deposition or address issues of variability. This chapter discusses the procedures involved in employing field

  17. Preliminary investigation on welding and cutting methods for first wall support leg in ITER blanket module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohri, Kensuke; Suzuki, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Kakudate, Satoshi; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Akiba, Masato

    2006-08-01

    Concept of a module type of blanket has been applied to ITER shield blanket, of which size is typically 1mW x 1mH x 0.4mB with the weight of 4 ton, in order to enhance its maintainability and fabricability. Each shield blanket module consists of a shield block and four first walls which are separable from the shield block for the purpose of reduction of an electro-magnetic force in disruption events, radio-active waste reduction in the maintenance work and cost reduction in fabrication process. A first wall support leg, a part of the first wall component located between the first wall and the shield block, is required not only to be connected metallurgically to the shield block in order to withstand the electro-magnetic force and coolant pressure, but also to be able to replace the first wall more than 2 times in the hot cell during the life time of the reactor. Therefore, the consistent structure where remote handling equipment can be access to the joint and carry out the welding/cutting works perfectly to replace the first wall in the hot cell is required in the shield blanket design. This study shows an investigation of the blanket module no.10 design with a new type of the first wall support leg structure based on Disc-Cutter technology, which had been developed for the main pipe cutting in the maintenance phase and was selected out of a number of candidate methods, taking its large advantages into account, such as 1) a post-treatment can be eliminated in the hot cell because of no making material chips and of no need of lubricant, 2) the cut surface can be rewelded without any machining. And also, a design for the small type of Disc-Cutter applied to the new blanket module no.10 has been investigated. In conclusion, not only the good performance of Disc-Cutter technology applied to the updated blanket module, but also consistent structure of the simplified shield blanket module including the first wall support leg in order to satisfy the requirements in the

  18. Investigation of colistin sensitivity via three different methods in Acinetobacter baumannii isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinirtaş, Melda; Akalin, Halis; Gedikoğlu, Suna

    2009-09-01

    In recent years there has been an increase in life-threatening infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii with multiple antibiotic resistance, which has lead to the use of polymyxins, especially colistin, being reconsidered. The aim of this study was to investigate the colistin sensitivity of A. baumannii isolates with multiple antibiotic resistance via different methods, and to evaluate the disk diffusion method for colistin against multi-resistant Acinetobacter isolates, in comparison to the E-test and Phoenix system. The study was carried out on 100 strains of A. baumannii (colonization or infection) isolated from the microbiological samples of different patients followed in the clinics and intensive care units of Uludağ University Medical School between the years 2004 and 2005. Strains were identified and characterized for their antibiotic sensitivity by Phoenix system (Becton Dickinson, Sparks, MD, USA). In all studied A. baumannii strains, susceptibility to colistin was determined to be 100% with the disk diffusion, E-test, and broth microdilution methods. Results of the E-test and broth microdilution method, which are accepted as reference methods, were found to be 100% consistent with the results of the disk diffusion tests; no very major or major error was identified upon comparison of the tests. The sensitivity and the positive predictive value of the disk diffusion method were found to be 100%. Colistin resistance in A. baumannii was not detected in our region, and disk diffusion method results are in accordance with those of E-test and broth microdilution methods.

  19. Investigation of a dual modal method for bone pathologies using quantitative ultrasound and photoacoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Idan; Gannot, Israel; Eyal, Avishay

    2015-03-01

    Osteoporosis is a widespread disease that has a catastrophic impact on patient's lives and overwhelming related healthcare costs. In recent works, we have developed a multi-spectral, frequency domain photoacoustic method for the evaluation of bone pathologies. This method has great advantages over pure ultrasonic or optical methods as it provides both molecular information from the bone absorption spectrum and bone mechanical status from the characteristics of the ultrasound propagation. These characteristics include both the Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband Ultrasonic Attenuation (BUA). To test the method's quantitative predictions, we have constructed a combined ultrasound and photoacoustic setup. Here, we experimentally present a dual modality system, and compares between the methods on bone samples in-vitro. The differences between the two modalities are shown to provide valuable insight into the bone structure and functional status.

  20. [Investigation of new classification and repair methods for fingertip traverse amputation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Xu, Yajun; Rui, Yongjun; Yao, Qun

    2008-09-01

    To investigate new classification and repair methods for the traverse amputated fingertip. From March 2000 to October 2006, 20 cases of 20 fingers with traverse amputated fingertip, including 13 males and 7 females aged 17-47 years, were treated. Twenty patients (9 crush injuries, 5 cutting injuries and 6 sawing injuries) were classified into 4 types, namely type I (the distal one third of nail bed), type II (the middle of nail bed), type III (the proximal one third of nail bed), and type IV (the root of nail bed). There were 3 patients (2 index fingers and 1 little finger) of type I, 8 patients (2 thumbs, 3 index fingers and 3 middle fingers) of type II, 5 patients (3 index fingers, 1 ring finger and 1 little finger) of type III, and 4 patients (2 thumbs, 1 middle finger and 1 little finger) of type IV. The soft tissue defect ranged from 1.2 cm x 1.2 cm to 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm. The time from injury to surgery was 3-10 hours. Fingers of type I and type II were treated with forward flow axial flap and modified nail bed lengthening. Fingers of type III and type IV were treated with forward flow axial flap and partial nail bed replantation as well as modified nail bed lengthening. The flaps ranged in size from 1.5 cm x 1.2 cm to 2.0 cm x 1.4 cm. Twenty patients incisions healed by first intention and the flaps, nails and skin grafting survived. All donor sites healed by first intention. All patients were followed up for 2-6 months (4 months on average). The appearances of fingertips were good. The texture of the flap was soft, and the fingers had no tenderness and motor disturbance. The two-point discrimination was 4.5-6.5 mm. The finger nails of type I and type II extended 3-4 mm after operation, while the finger nails of type III and type IV extended 8-10 mm after operation. All finger nails were smooth and flat without pain. Hook nail happened in 1 case 6 months after operation. Classification of the injured fingers according to the condition of the amputation base is

  1. A holographic method for investigating cylindrical symmetry plasmas resulting from electric discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosu, N.; Ralea, M.; Foca, M.; Iova, I.

    1992-01-01

    A new method based on holographic interferometry in real time with reference fringes for diagnosing gas electric discharges in cylindrical symmetry tubes is presented. A method for obtaining and quantitatively investigating interferograms obtained with a video camera is described. By studying the resulting images frame by frame and introducing the measurements into an adequate computer programme one gets a graphical recording of the radial distribution of the charged particle concentration in the plasma in any region of the tube at a given time, as well as their axial distribution. The real time evolution of certain phenomena occurring in the discharge tube can also be determined by this non-destructive method. The method is used for electric discharges in Ar at average pressures in a discharge tube with hollow cathode effect. (Author)

  2. Investigation of Compton scattering correction methods in cardiac SPECT by Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, A.M. Marques da; Furlan, A.M.; Robilotta, C.C.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work was the use of Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the effects of two scattering correction methods: dual energy window (DEW) and dual photopeak window (DPW), in quantitative cardiac SPECT reconstruction. MCAT torso-cardiac phantom, with 99m Tc and non-uniform attenuation map was simulated. Two different photopeak windows were evaluated in DEW method: 15% and 20%. Two 10% wide subwindows centered symmetrically within the photopeak were used in DPW method. Iterative ML-EM reconstruction with modified projector-backprojector for attenuation correction was applied. Results indicated that the choice of the scattering and photopeak windows determines the correction accuracy. For the 15% window, fitted scatter fraction gives better results than k = 0.5. For the 20% window, DPW is the best method, but it requires parameters estimation using Monte Carlo simulations. (author)

  3. Numerical Investigation of Vertical Cavity Lasers With High-Contrast Gratings Using the Fourier Modal Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2016-01-01

    We explore the use of a modal expansion technique, Fourier modal method (FMM), for investigating the optical properties of vertical cavities employing high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Three techniques for determining the resonance frequency and quality factor (Q-factor) of a cavity mode are compared......, the scattering losses of several HCG-based vertical cavities with inplane heterostructures which have promising prospects for fundamental physics studies and on-chip laser applications, are investigated. This type of parametric study of 3D structures would be numerically very demanding using spatial...

  4. The radiation factor 'hot particles': origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Vapirev, E.; Yanev, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest

  5. The radiation factor `hot particles`: origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts; Vapirev, E; Yanev, Y

    1994-12-31

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest.

  6. Apparatus and methods for investigations into acoustic properties of electronic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazov, V.M.; Timoshenko, V.I.; Kim, S.G.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus and highly sensitive methods of systematic investigations into acoustic properties of electronic melts are described. A variant of a measuring cell to investigate agressive melts is presented. A new technique for the reception of an acoustic contact with high transmission capacity of ultrasonic wave based on utilization of clarified layers of liquid boron anhydride is described. Results of calibration tests on lead and aluminium melts point to a good agreement with literature data. High sensitivity of the above technique allows one to reveal thin structural effects in melts

  7. A numeric investigation of co-flowing liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Andy; Tagg, Randall

    2007-11-01

    We present a numerical investigation of co-flowing immiscible liquid streams using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) for multi component, dissimilar viscosity, immiscible fluid flow. When a liquid is injected into another immiscible liquid, the flow will eventually transition from jetting to dripping due to interfacial tension. Our implementation of LBM models the interfacial tension through a variety of techniques. Parallelization is also straightforward for both single and multi component models as only near local interaction is required. We compare the results of our numerical investigation using LBM to several recent physical experiments.

  8. Investigating the Effects of a Math-Enhanced Agricultural Teaching Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2013-01-01

    Numerous calls have been made for agricultural education to support core academic subject matter including mathematics. Previous research has shown that the incorporation of mathematics content into a teaching methods course had a positive effect on preservice teachers' mathematics content knowledge. The purpose of this study was to investigate…

  9. La pronunciacion espanola y los metodos de investigacion. (Spanish Pronunciation and Methods of Investigation.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torreblanca, Maximo

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the validity of studies of Spanish pronunciation in terms of research methods employed. Topics include data collection in the laboratory vs. in a natural setting; recorded vs. non-recorded data; quality of the recording; aural analysis vs. spectrographic analysis; and transcriber reliability. Suggestions for improving data collection are…

  10. Creating Critical Conversations: Investigating the Utility of Socratic Dialogues in Elementary Social Studies Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Lisa Brown

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the utility of Socratic dialogues in the elementary social studies methods course. Findings include preservice teachers' behaviors during dialogues, perceived strengths and challenges of using Socratic dialogues in teacher education, and the impact on student learning. Challenges and apprehensions encountered by the teacher…

  11. Use of casual tree method for investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Senne Junior, Murillo; Marques, Raissa Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    There are many methodologies used for investigation of accidents to facilitate the search of the factors that cause these events in different areas of industry. These can be called proactive methods, if they are used before the occurrence of the events, or reactive methods that are applied after the occurrence of the incident or accident, and are used as a basis of information to prevent further events. One of these methods is the Causal Tree Method (CTM). The basic idea of this technique is that incidents and accidents result from variations in usual processes. These variations can be related to the individual, the task, the material or the environment. The tree starts with the end event (incident or accident) and works backwards. The facts relating to the end event are used in the construction of the causal tree. The end event is the starting point and only the facts that contributed to the incident or accident should be selected. The analyst has to identify and list the variations and then display them in the analytic tree, showing causal relations. The objective of this paper is to test the application of the CTM method in investigation of incidents and accidents involving radioactive materials, in order to evaluate its efficiency on finding the typical factors causing these events. (author)

  12. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An analytical method for the investigation of instability of a collisionless plasma in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, V.U.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical method for the investigation of special types of dispersion relations is presented. In particular, analysis of the propagation of small-amplitude hydromagnetic waves in a collisionless plasma in a strong magnetic field leads to such dispersion relations. The fifth-degree dispersion relation corresponding to a particular case is considered. The necessary stability condition for a steady state and conditions for the degeneration of small-amplitude waves are derived. A comparison with other methods for the analysis of similar dispersion relations is also presented. (author)

  14. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment

  15. Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Janis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.

  16. Investigation by tracer method of water balance in filling the gob with slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jureczko, J.; Skowronek, E.

    1977-01-01

    Results of investigations on the establishment of conditions of water flow in filling old workings with mud, in order to determine the degree of water hazard for mine workings in one of mines are given. For the inspection of flow, the stable tracer method and the neutron activation analysis were used. Chromium as a complex compound with EDTA was used as tracer. Geological and mining conditions in the area of investigations by tracers are given and the disposal of diluted stowing slurry is characterized. The method of interpretation of results is discussed in order to determine the water flow rate in the gob and to draw up the water balance on the basis of the curve of tracer travel. (author)

  17. Application of remote sensing methods and GIS in erosive process investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafić Sanja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern geomorphologic investigations of condition and change of the intensity of erosive process should be based on application of remote sensing methods which are based on processing of aerial and satellite photographs. Using of these methods is very important because it enables good possibilities for realizing regional relations of the investigated phenomenon, as well as the estimate of spatial and temporal variability of all physical-geographical and anthropogenic factors influencing given process. Realizing process of land erosion, on the whole, is only possible by creating universal data base, as well as by using of appropriate software, more exactly by establishing uniform information system. Geographical information system, as the most effective one, the most complex and the most integral system of information about the space enables unification as well as analytical and synthetically processing of all data.

  18. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.

  19. Preparing investigation of methods for surveying tree seed demands among farmers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabæk, Anders

    Insufficient seed supplies is often a major constraint on tree planting activities in developing countries. A central problem is to assess the actual demands for tree seed. This report shall, as a part of a PhD-study, prepare an investigation of different methods for surveying tree seed demands...... and preferences among private farmers in Tanzania. A framework for investigating seed demand and supply is outlined. The role of a national tree seed project in a seed supply sector is discussed and data requirements for strategy on seed procurement and tree improvement are outlined. Earlier surveys on seed...... demand pattern in Tanzania, Uganda and Nicaragua are discussed and a choice of strategy for an extensive survey of seed demand and supply in Tanzania is made. Different data collection methods and tools, e.g. quantitative and qualitative surveys and rapid rural appraisals, are described in detail...

  20. Criminal investigations: pupil pharmacological reactivity as method for assessing time since death is fallacious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrico, Marco; Melotti, Roberto; Mantovani, Anna; Avesani, Barbara; De Marco, Roberto; De Leo, Domenico

    2008-12-01

    Determination of the time since death in the early postmortem period is one of the most critical issues to be faced by criminal investigators. One of the techniques is the evaluation of the pupil pharmacological reactivity. In the present work, we aim at identifying whether an objective and single method, based on pharmacological pupil reaction, is feasible or not. Between 2002 and 2003 calendar years, we observed 309 bodies, whose eyes have been each instilled apart, within 26 hours since death, with either a myotic substance or a mydriatic solution. Our results show that the real effectiveness of pupil pharmacological reactivity as method for assessing the time since death in early postmortem period is not only questionable but even highly misleading if not replaced by alternative objective physiological tests and appropriate professional judgments by the investigators.

  1. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  2. Small angle neutron scattering in polyelectrolyte solutions: investigation of polymethacrylic acid solutions by contrast variation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavata, D.; Pleshtil, I.; Kunchenko, A.B.; Ostanevich, Yu.M.

    1982-01-01

    Neutron experiments performed by the contrast (background) variation method allows to understand better the role that hydration plays in the study of macromolecules and to draw the connection between the excess scattering amplitude of hydrated molecule with its partial volume. The observed dependence of the compensation point on the degree of neutralization apparently plays an important role in the investigation of polyelectrolytes of biological origin

  3. Investigation for thermal stability of U3Si2 and protection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Huiying; Sun Jichang; Sun Rongxian

    1994-08-01

    The thermal stability of U 3 Si 2 in Ar, N 2 and air, and the interaction between U 3 Si 2 and Al, Zr have been investigated by thermal analysis method. According to the results of thermal analysis, protection measures for various procedures have been improved. From the practice, it shows that the protection measures can ensure the safety of production and raise the product quality as well as reduce the cost effectively

  4. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, L A; Dill, B D; Molina, H; Birtwistle, M R; Maze, I

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover-the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones-is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human "bomb pulse labeling") for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of "neuroepigenetic" plasticity. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-destructive investigations of Swiss museums objects with neutron and x-ray imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, E.H.; Deschler, E.; Pernet, L.; Vontobel, P.

    2004-01-01

    Many objects of archaeological relevance found in Switzerland are from the Celtic and Roman era. Because of their uniqueness in most cases it is demanded to perform any investigation with such samples non-destructively. Depending on the structure and size of the objects a transmission experiment performed either with X-ray or neutron can alight inner structures, composition, defects or the principles of the manufacturing procedures. Furthermore, the treatment by conservators and restaurateurs becomes visible in many cases. This report describes some examples of such investigations. In the case of neutron investigations, beside the transmission imaging as a radiograph the three-dimensional structure was observed with a tomography technique. For X-ray radiography, the images were obtained in the same digital format because the similar experimental method (imaging plates) was applied. It becomes evident in the described examples that the combination and complementary use of both methods (neutrons and X-ray) brings insights in different aspects of the samples properties and treatment. This approach to study museums objects stored and exhibit in Switzerland can be extrapolated to other countries where these techniques are also simultaneously available in order to investigate other objects of relevance. The European network COST-G8 entitled 'Non-destructive analysis and testing of museum objects' can help to support initiatives in this direction. (author)

  6. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  7. Investigation of modern methods of probalistic sensitivity analysis of final repository performance assessment models (MOSEL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiessl, Sabine; Becker, Dirk-Alexander

    2017-06-15

    Sensitivity analysis is a mathematical means for analysing the sensitivities of a computational model to variations of its input parameters. Thus, it is a tool for managing parameter uncertainties. It is often performed probabilistically as global sensitivity analysis, running the model a large number of times with different parameter value combinations. Going along with the increase of computer capabilities, global sensitivity analysis has been a field of mathematical research for some decades. In the field of final repository modelling, probabilistic analysis is regarded a key element of a modern safety case. An appropriate uncertainty and sensitivity analysis can help identify parameters that need further dedicated research to reduce the overall uncertainty, generally leads to better system understanding and can thus contribute to building confidence in the models. The purpose of the project described here was to systematically investigate different numerical and graphical techniques of sensitivity analysis with typical repository models, which produce a distinctly right-skewed and tailed output distribution and can exhibit a highly nonlinear, non-monotonic or even non-continuous behaviour. For the investigations presented here, three test models were defined that describe generic, but typical repository systems. A number of numerical and graphical sensitivity analysis methods were selected for investigation and, in part, modified or adapted. Different sampling methods were applied to produce various parameter samples of different sizes and many individual runs with the test models were performed. The results were evaluated with the different methods of sensitivity analysis. On this basis the methods were compared and assessed. This report gives an overview of the background and the applied methods. The results obtained for three typical test models are presented and explained; conclusions in view of practical applications are drawn. At the end, a recommendation

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  9. Investigating issues influencing knowledge sharing in a research organization, using the Appreciative Inquiry Method

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Penny

    2013-01-01

    This research contributes to the literature on the subjective experience of knowledge sharing from the perspective of those actively engaged in it. The sharing of knowledge in organizations is influenced by interconnecting factors, including organizational mission, the use made of information technology, and the motivation of individuals. Much of the existing literature takes a reductionist approach to investigating these, treating knowledge as an asset and humans as rational beings. A re...

  10. Attitudes and Experiences of Close Interethnic Friendships Among Native Emerging Adults: A Mixed-Methods Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Merrill L.

    2017-01-01

    This study included 114 Native adults and 6 Native/non-Native pairs of friends (age 18-25). Experiences and attitudes for close interethnic friendships were investigated. Friendship patterns and predictors were quantitatively assessed for the 114 Natives, with qualitative examination of the development and qualities of the six friend pairs. Results of quantitative analysis revealed that 80% of this sample reported friendship investment with Whites, and 55% reported friendship investment wi...

  11. Experimental and mathematical modeling methods for the investigation of toxicological interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Masri, Hisham A.

    2007-01-01

    While procedures have been developed and used for many years to assess risk and determine acceptable exposure levels to individual chemicals, most cases of environmental contamination can result in concurrent or sequential exposure to more than one chemical. Toxicological predictions of such combinations must be based on an understanding of the mechanisms of action and interaction of the components of the mixtures. Statistical and experimental methods test the existence of toxicological interactions in a mixture. However, these methods are limited to experimental data ranges for which they are derived, in addition to limitations caused by response differences from experimental animals to humans. Empirical methods such as isobolograms, median-effect principle and response surface methodology (RSM) are based on statistical experimental design and regression of data. For that reason, the predicted response surfaces can be used for extrapolation across dose regions where interaction mechanisms are not anticipated to change. In general, using these methods for predictions can be problematic without including biologically based mechanistic descriptions that can account for dose and species differences. Mechanistically based models, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models, include explicit descriptions of interaction mechanisms which are related to target tissues levels. These models include dose-dependent mechanistic hypotheses of toxicological interactions which can be tested by model-directed experimental design and used to identify dose regions where interactions are not significant

  12. Video elicitation interviews: a qualitative research method for investigating physician-patient interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G; Fetters, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants' associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care.

  13. Video Elicitation Interviews: A Qualitative Research Method for Investigating Physician-Patient Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Stephen G.; Fetters, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the concept and method of video elicitation interviews and provide practical guidance for primary care researchers who want to use this qualitative method to investigate physician-patient interactions. During video elicitation interviews, researchers interview patients or physicians about a recent clinical interaction using a video recording of that interaction as an elicitation tool. Video elicitation is useful because it allows researchers to integrate data about the content of physician-patient interactions gained from video recordings with data about participants’ associated thoughts, beliefs, and emotions gained from elicitation interviews. This method also facilitates investigation of specific events or moments during interactions. Video elicitation interviews are logistically demanding and time consuming, and they should be reserved for research questions that cannot be fully addressed using either standard interviews or video recordings in isolation. As many components of primary care fall into this category, high-quality video elicitation interviews can be an important method for understanding and improving physician-patient interactions in primary care. PMID:22412003

  14. Technical meeting on lessons learned with respect to SAT implementation, including development of trainers and use of cost effective training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The past years have brought some significant changes in the world energy market, where the nuclear power plants and utilities are operating. Part of NPPs is privatised now; the electricity markets are liberalized and become more and more international. Due to the increase of competition, the power production costs are now monitored more closely than before. The opening of electricity markets has led the nuclear power plants to be under the serious economic pressure with a demand for continuous cost reduction. All these require from NPPs to make their personnel training more cost-effective. In addition, based on modern technology, a great amount of new training tools, aids and technologies have been introduced during the last 2-3 years, these new opportunities can be quite useful for training cost optimization. On the basis of experience gained worldwide in the application of the systematic approach to training (SAT), SAT based training is now a broad integrated approach emphasizing not only technical knowledge and skills but also human factor related knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this way, all competency requirements for attaining and maintaining personnel competence and qualification can be met, thus promoting and strengthening quality culture and safety culture, which should be fostered throughout the initial and continuing training programmes. The subject of the present technical meeting was suggested by the members of the Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of the IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. The technical Meeting on 'Lessons Learned with Respect to SAT Implementation, Including Development of Trainers and Use of Cost Effective Training Methods' was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Tecnatom A.S. and was held from 21 to 24 October 2002 in San Sebastian de los Reyes/ Madrid, Spain. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for

  15. Investigation of Improved Methods in Power Transfer Efficiency for Radiating Near-Field Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesheng Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically small antenna is proposed, firstly. And then several improving power transfer efficiency (PTE methods for wireless power transfer (WPT systems composed of the proposed antenna in the radiating near-field region are investigated. Method one is using a proposed antenna as a power retriever. This WPT system consisted of three proposed antennas: a transmitter, a receiver, and a retriever. The system is fed by only one power source. At a fixed distance from receiver to transmitter, the distance between the transmitter and the retriever is turned to maximize power transfer from the transmitter to the receiver. Method two is using two proposed antennas as transmitters and one antenna as receiver. The receiver is placed between the two transmitters. In this system, two power sources are used to feed the two transmitters, respectively. By adjusting the phase difference between the two feeding sources, the maximum PTE can be obtained at the optimal phase difference. Using the same configuration as method two, method three, where the maximum PTE can be increased by regulating the voltage (or power ratio of the two feeding sources, is proposed. In addition, we combine the proposed methods to construct another two schemes, which improve the PTE at different extent than classical WPT system.

  16. Investigation on method of elasto-plastic analysis for piping system (benchmark analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabaya, Takuro; Kojima, Nobuyuki; Arai, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides method of an elasto-plastic analysis for practical seismic design of nuclear piping system. JSME started up the task to establish method of an elasto-plastic analysis for nuclear piping system. The benchmark analyses have been performed in the task to investigate on method of an elasto-plastic analysis. And our company has participated in the benchmark analyses. As a result, we have settled on the method which simulates the result of piping exciting test accurately. Therefore the recommended method of an elasto-plastic analysis is shown as follows; 1) An elasto-plastic analysis is composed of dynamic analysis of piping system modeled by using beam elements and static analysis of deformed elbow modeled by using shell elements. 2) Bi-linear is applied as an elasto-plastic property. Yield point is standardized yield point multiplied by 1.2 times, and second gradient is 1/100 young's modulus. Kinematic hardening is used as a hardening rule. 3) The fatigue life is evaluated on strain ranges obtained by elasto-plastic analysis, by using the rain flow method and the fatigue curve of previous studies. (author)

  17. Oxide properties of autoclaved zircaloy cladding tubes investigated by the photoelectric polarization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystrand, A.C.

    2000-06-01

    Corrosion of zirconium alloys is an important lifetime limiting factor for the nuclear reactor fuel. The corrosion resistance of a metal is highly dependent on the ability of the surface metal oxide to transport electrons and ions, which is related to the stoichiometry of the oxide and the oxide defect concentration. The Photoelectric Polarization Method (PEP) is a structure sensitive method which earlier has been investigated as a possible method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides. The purpose of the following work is, by using more optimized experimental equipment, to verify if the PEP method is a suitable method to study the defect structure in zirconium oxides and to predict the corrosion resistance for different zirconium alloys. The conclusions from the experiments are as follows: - The modifications of the experimental setup by means of a new source of light (deuterium lamp) and a new oscilloscope with an amplifier gave distinct Vpep signals. - The photoresponse is negative for all types of cladding and under all kind of oxidation regimes and hence the oxide is a n-type semiconductor with deficiency of oxygen. - The method needs to be verified by testing semiconductors with a known defect concentration

  18. Investigation of RNA Structure by High-Throughput SHAPE-Based Probing Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl

    of highthroughput SHAPE-based approaches to investigate RNA structure based on novel SHAPE reagents that permit selection of full-length cDNAs. The SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) method is applied to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plus strand RNA genome, and the data is used to construct a genome-wide structural...... that they are functional. The SHAPES method is further applied to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), where the data is used to refine known and predicted structures. Over the past years, the interest of studying RNA structure in their native environment has been increased, and to allow studying RNA structure inside living cells...... using the SHAPE Selection approach, I introduce a biotinylated probing reagent. This chemical can cross cell membranes and reacts with RNA inside the cells, allowing the structural conformations to be studied in the context of physiological relevant conditions in living cells. The methods and results...

  19. Investigating the performance of directional boundary layer model through staged modeling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Moon-Gyu; Lee, Won-Chan; Yang, Seung-Hune; Jang, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seong-Bo; Kim, Young-Chang; Suh, Chun-Suk; Choi, Seong-Woon; Kim, Young-Hee

    2011-04-01

    Generally speaking, the models used in the optical proximity effect correction (OPC) can be divided into three parts, mask part, optic part, and resist part. For the excellent quality of the OPC model, each part has to be described by the first principles. However, OPC model can't take the all of the principles since it should cover the full chip level calculation during the correction. Moreover, the calculation has to be done iteratively during the correction until the cost function we want to minimize converges. Normally the optic part in OPC model is described with the sum of coherent system (SOCS[1]) method. Thanks to this method we can calculate the aerial image so fast without the significant loss of accuracy. As for the resist part, the first principle is too complex to implement in detail, so it is normally expressed in a simple way, such as the approximation of the first principles, and the linear combinations of factors which is highly correlated with the chemistries in the resist. The quality of this kind of the resist model depends on how well we train the model through fitting to the empirical data. The most popular way of making the mask function is based on the Kirchhoff's thin mask approximation. This method works well when the feature size on the mask is sufficiently large, but as the line width of the semiconductor circuit becomes smaller, this method causes significant error due to the mask topography effect. To consider the mask topography effect accurately, we have to use rigorous methods of calculating the mask function, such as finite difference time domain (FDTD[2]) and rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA[3]). But these methods are too time-consuming to be used as a part of the OPC model. Until now many alternatives have been suggested as the efficient way of considering the mask topography effect. Among them we focused on the boundary layer model (BLM) in this paper. We mainly investigated the way of optimization of the parameters for the

  20. Quality of life among dermatology patients: a systematic review of investigations using qualitative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanminder; Ehsani-Chimeh, Nazanin; Kornmehl, Heather; Armstrong, April W

    2017-07-13

    Quality of life may be assessed using quantitative or qualitative methods. Quantitative methods are commonly used in research settings; however, they may fail to capture the full range of patient experiences and impact on quality of life. Qualitative methods may be used to address this limitation. In this systematic review, we aim to synthesize data from articles utilizing qualitative methods to assess quality of life in dermatology patients. We performed a systematic review search using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and SCOPUS databases. The search was conducted using the following search criteria: ("Dermatology" [MeSH]) AND ("Quality of Life" [MeSH]), AND ("Qualitative Research" [MeSH]), searching literature spanning from January 1, 1946- October 5, 2016. The systematic review of 15 articles included 533 dermatology patients. Patients expressed frustration over the unpredictability of disease symptoms and having to compensate for the subsequent limitations by altering their daily routines. Patients also reported profound helplessness due to chronic skin disease and social isolation in an effort to hide their disease. Patients noted the patient-provider relationship as a source of support and information exchange, with the goal to form easy to use treatment plans that met both physician and patient expectations. Qualitative assessment of patient quality of life can provide new insights into the patient experience and the impact of their skin disease. Qualitative methodology may capture meaningful information that may be overlooked by quantitative methods, and it should be included in quality of life research.

  1. Development of the numerical method for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics (I). Investigation of the method and development of the 2D method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohira, H.; Ara, K.

    2002-11-01

    Advanced electromagnetic components are investigated in Feasibility Studies on Commercialized FR Cycle System to apply to the main cooling systems of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor. Although a lot of experiments and numerical analysis were carried out on both high Reynolds numbers and high magnetic Reynolds numbers, the complex phenomena could not be evaluated in detail. As the first step of the development of the numerical methods for the liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics, we investigated numerical methods that could be applied to the electromagnetic components with both complex structures and high magnetic turbulent field. As a result, we selected GSMAC (Generalized-Simplified MArker and Cell) method for calculating the liquid metal fluid dynamics because it could be easily applied to the complex flow field. We also selected the vector-FEM for calculating the magnetic field of the large components because the method had no interaction procedure. In the high magnetic turbulent field, the dynamic-SGS models would be also a promising model for the good estimation, because it could calculate the field directly without any experimental constant. In order to verify the GSMAC and the vector-FEM, we developed the 2D numerical models and calculated the magnetohydrodynamics in the large electromagnetic pump. It was estimated from these results that the methods were basically reasonable, because the calculated pressure differences had the similar tendencies to the experimental ones. (author)

  2. Measurement methods of physical activity in investigation associated with assessment of quality of life in elder adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurysh N.O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of publication in physical activity measurement methods is provided. Presented three groups of physical activity measurement methods criterion, objective, subjective methods. Established that criterion methods are more accurate and used for validate objective and subjective methods. Subjective methods frequently used in investigation of youth and elderly population. Advisability of IPAQ questionnaire in international physical activity investigation of elderly adults is substantiated.

  3. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  4. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  5. INVESTIGATION OF CEMENT CONCRETE CONGLOMERATE SOLIDIFICATION PROCESS BY IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Bandarenka

    2015-01-01

    are connected with usage of technogenic wastes (e.g. granite chippings as a fine aggregate and optimization of mineral and granulometric mix composition for road pavement. Development of an approach for investigation of properties on cement concrete materials on the basis of an impedance spectrum analysis will permit  quantitatively to characterize processes which are occurring in them including such processes as concrete solidification and corrosion.

  6. Experimental investigation of radiation effect on human thermal comfort by Taguchi method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslanoglu, Nurullah; Yigit, Abdulvahap

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Radiation heat flux from lighting lamps on human thermal comfort is studied. • The effect of posture position on thermal comfort is investigated. • The effect of clothing color on thermal comfort is examined. • Radiation heat flux from halogen reflector lamp increase skin temperature more. • Posture position effect on thermal comfort is less than the other parameters. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of radiation heat flux of lighting lamps on human thermal comfort was investigated by using Taguchi method. In addition, at indoor conditions, clothing color and posture position under the radiation effect on thermal comfort were also investigated. For this purpose, experiments were performed in an air conditioned laboratory room in summer and autumn seasons. The amount of temperature rise on the back was considered as performance parameter. An L8 orthogonal array was selected as an experimental plan for the third parameters mentioned above for summer and autumn seasons. The results were analyzed for the optimum conditions using signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and ANOVA method. The optimum results were found to be clear halogen lamp as lighting lamp, white as t-shirt color, standing as posture position, in summer season. The optimum levels of the lighting lamp, t-shirt color and posture position were found to be clear halogen lamp, white, sitting in autumn season, respectively.

  7. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, A., E-mail: kamitani@yz.yamagata-u.ac.jp [Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takayama, T. [Yamagata University, 4-3-16, Johnan, Yonezawa, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Saitoh, A. [University of Hyogo, 2167, Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • The defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position. • The defect parameter shows a remarkable change only near a crack. • A crack detection method is proposed on the basis of the permanent-magnet method. • The high-speed rough detection can be achieved by means of the proposed method. - Abstract: The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed.

  8. Numerical investigations on applicability of permanent magnet method to crack detection in HTS film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitani, A.; Takayama, T.; Saitoh, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position. • The defect parameter shows a remarkable change only near a crack. • A crack detection method is proposed on the basis of the permanent-magnet method. • The high-speed rough detection can be achieved by means of the proposed method. - Abstract: The scanning permanent-magnet (PM) method was originally developed for determining the spatial distribution of the critical current density in a high-temperature superconducting (HTS) film. In the present study, its applicability to the crack detection in an HTS film is investigated numerically. To this end, a defect parameter is defined for characterizing a crack position and it is calculated along various scanning lines. The results of computations show that, only when the scanning position is near a crack, the defect parameter shows a violent change. On the basis of the behavior of the defect parameter, the method for roughly identifying a crack is also proposed

  9. Microtubules Nonlinear Models Dynamics Investigations through the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Alam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research article, we present exact solutions with parameters for two nonlinear model partial differential equations(PDEs describing microtubules, by implementing the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method. The considered models, describing highly nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, can be reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations. While the first PDE describes the longitudinal model of nonlinear dynamics of microtubules, the second one describes the nonlinear model of dynamics of radial dislocations in microtubules. The acquired solutions are then graphically presented, and their distinct properties are enumerated in respect to the corresponding dynamic behavior of the microtubules they model. Various patterns, including but not limited to regular, singular kink-like, as well as periodicity exhibiting ones, are detected. Being the method of choice herein, the exp(−Φ(ξ-Expansion Method not disappointing in the least, is found and declared highly efficient.

  10. Investigating Appropriate Financing Methods in Collaborative Projects of Water and Wastewater with AHP Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Vosoughi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mix of public and private funding is employed worldwide to enable the construction of large public projects and even, in some cases, the work of public services. In this study, the selected methods of financing of participatory projects of water and water wastes were studied and prioritized. Questionnaires and comments of experts were used along with AHP decision-making and Expert Choice software. Different financing methods include: BOT and BOO and its types, the publication of bonds, foreign direct investment, the method of buyback, internal financing, current financing, development banks, Barter transactions, new tax resources and foreign financing. Results are shown and discussed and a final ranking is provided.

  11. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  12. Investigating flow patterns in a channel with complex obstacles using the lattice Boltzmann method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yojina, Jiraporn; Ngamsaad, Waipot; Nuttavut, Narin; Triampo, Darapond; Lenbury, Yongwimon; Sriyab, Somchai; Triampo, Wannapong [Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Kanthang, Paisan [Rajamangala University of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, mesoscopic modeling via a computational lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is used to investigate the flow pattern phenomena and the physical properties of the flow field around one and two square obstacles inside a two-dimensional channel with a fixed blockage ratio,{beta} =14 , centered inside a 2D channel, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) from 1 to 300. The simulation results show that flow patterns can initially exhibit laminar flow at low Re and then make a transition to periodic, unsteady, and, finally, turbulent flow as the Re get higher. Streamlines and velocity profiles and a vortex shedding pattern are observed. The Strouhal numbers are calculated to characterize the shedding frequency and flow dynamics. The effect of the layouts or configurations of the obstacles are also investigated, and the possible connection between the mixing process and the appropriate design of a chemical mixing system is discussed

  13. A method for radiobiological investigations in radiation fields with different LET and high dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundler, W.

    1976-01-01

    For investigations: 1. Performed in the field of radiobiology with different LET-radiation and a relatively high background dose rate of one component (e.g. investigations with fast and intermediate reactor neutrons) 2. Concerning radiation risk studies within a wide range 3. Of irradiations, covering a long time period (up to 100 days) a test system is necessary which on the one hand makes it possible to analyze the influence of different LET radiation and secondly shows a relative radiation resistant behaviour and allows a simple cell cycle regulation. A survey is given upon the installed device of a simple cell observation method, the biological test system used and the analysis of effects caused by dose, repair and LET. It is possible to analyze the behaviour of the nonsurvival cells and to demonstrate different reactions of the test parameters to the radiation of different LET. (author)

  14. Investigation Of Interaction Between Nitinol Stent And A Vascular Plaque Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Güneş

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the interaction between the Nitinol stent and the artery with plaque was investigated using finite element method. The occurring pressure values during the cardiac contraction (systolic and loosening (diastolic were applied as loading to the modeled system with Nitinol stent. In the light of the stress values, the suitability of the Nitinol stent in an artery with plaque was investigated. In the analysis, Nitinol stent was assumed to be shape memory alloy, and artery and plaque were assumed to behave linearly elastic. As a result, the stress and deformations in the plaque and artery due to the interference of Nitinol stent were discussed and concluded that the structure of artery with plaque can be expanded in accordance with Nitinol stent.

  15. Practical investigation of a monopod fabrication method and the numerical investigation of its up-righting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled A. Hafez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal purpose of this paper is to present a novel two phases rational scenario applied in constructing an offshore monopod platform; in which the two phases are the all-ground horizontal construction phase and the post-construction phase. Concerning the all-ground construction phase, a brief investigation of its different stages, i.e., pre-fabrication, fabrication, pre-assembling, positioning, assembling, and surface finishing is introduced. The important practical aspects of such construction phase are investigated without going into the nitty-gritty of the details involved therein. Concerning the post-construction phase, a clear investigation of its sequential stages, i.e., lifting, moving and up-righting is introduced. A finite element model (FEM of the monopod platform is created to perform the structural analysis necessary to decide the suspension points/devices and the handling scenario during the various stages of the post-construction phase on a rational wise. Such structural analysis is performed within the framework of the three dimensional quasi-static modeling and analysis aiming at simulating the realistic handling condition, and hence introducing a reliable physical interpretation of the numerical results. For the whole effort to be demonstrated efficiently, the results obtained are analyzed, the conclusions are presented, and few related recommendations are suggested.

  16. Employment of a novel ultrasonic method to investigate high pressure phase transitions in oleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostocki, A. J.; Siegoczyński, R. M.; Kiełczyński, P.; Szalewski, M.; Balcerzak, A.; Zduniak, M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work, the variation of sound velocity with hydrostatic pressure for oleic acid is evaluated up to 350 MPa. During the measurement, we identified the phase transformation of oleic acid and the presence of the hysteresis of the dependence of sound velocity on pressure. From the performed measurements, it can be seen that the dependence of sound velocity on pressure can be used to investigate phase transformations in natural oils. Ultrasonic waves were excited and detected using piezoelectric LiNbO3(Y-36 cut) 5 MHz transducers. The phase velocity of the longitudinal ultrasonic waves was measured using a cross-correlation method to evaluate the time of flight.

  17. Thermalization calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Bo; Sanz, Alejandro; Niss, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition......We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This “Thermalization Calorimetry” technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat...

  18. Transition processes in the novel method of the muon catalysis investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filchenkov, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of modifying the interpretation of the results to be obtained with the novel method of muon catalysis investigation to take the fast transition processes into account is first considered. The results of exploring the process kinetics are compared with the ones found from the analysis of the appropriate Monte Carlo distributions. The calculation programs simulate both the kinetics and the registration system of the experiment which is now performed in the frame of the large international project TRITON. The main conclusion is that the multiplicity distribution of the fusion neutrons is 'invariant' under any assumptions of the fast transition stage

  19. Investigation of the stability of blocks around underground openings by using the boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Ünal

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a two-dimensional software was developed by using the boundary element method, in order to model and solve the rock mechanics problems encountered in surface and underground excavations. Stability of rock wedges formed at the roof of underground excavations were investigated in detail by using this software. The behaviour of the symmetric wedge on different joint stiffnesses was studied using a modified boundary element software. Then the results obtained were discussed and compared with the analytical solution, considering the surface tractions, shear stresses (developed along the discontinuity, wedge displacements and strains (along the wedge height.

  20. Investigations in the problem of pion condensation using generator co-ordinate methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, P.; Providencia, J. da

    1981-01-01

    Pion condensation in neutron matter has been investigated using the generator coordinate methode and a simple p-wave interaction. The assumption of a condensed mode corresponding to one pion momentum (determined variationally) helps evaluate all the necessary matrix elements exactly. The technique of charge projection from a coherent state of negative pions is discussed, and calculations have been carried out for the cases of average charge conversation, charge projection before variation and for a charge conserving trial function. The ground-state energies and the lowest excitations of the system are obtained from numerical solutions of the Hill-Wheeler equation. (orig.)

  1. Investigation of the cluster formation in lithium niobate crystals by computer modeling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voskresenskii, V. M.; Starodub, O. R., E-mail: ol-star@mail.ru; Sidorov, N. V.; Palatnikov, M. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Tananaev Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Rare Earth Elements and Mineral Raw Materials, Kola Science Centre (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    The processes occurring upon the formation of energetically equilibrium oxygen-octahedral clusters in the ferroelectric phase of a stoichiometric lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) crystal have been investigated by the computer modeling method within the semiclassical atomistic model. An energetically favorable cluster size (at which a structure similar to that of a congruent crystal is organized) is shown to exist. A stoichiometric cluster cannot exist because of the electroneutrality loss. The most energetically favorable cluster is that with a Li/Nb ratio of about 0.945, a value close to the lithium-to-niobium ratio for a congruent crystal.

  2. Investigation of the crystallization process of titanium alloy ingots produced by vacuum arc melting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetyukhin, V.V.; Kurapov, V.N.; Trubin, A.N.; Demchenko, M.V.; Lazarev, V.G.; Ponedilko, S.V.; Dubrovina, N.T.; Kurapova, L.A.

    1978-01-01

    The process of crystallization and hardening of the VT3-1 and VT9 titanium alloys ingots during the vacuum-arc remelting (VAR) has been studied. In order to investigate the kinetics of the hole shape changing and the peculiarities of the ingot formation during the VAR, the radiography method has been used. It is established that the VAR of the titanium alloy ingots is basically a continuous process. An intense heating of the liquid bath mirror and the availability of high temperature gradients in the hole are the typical features of the VAR process

  3. INSTRUMENTS AND METHODS OF INVESTIGATION: Positron annihilation spectroscopy in materials structure studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafutin, Viktor I.; Prokop'ev, Evgenii P.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of materials structure analysis — positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) — is reviewed. Measurements of positron lifetimes, the determination of positron 3γ- and 2γ-annihilation probabilities, and an investigation of the effects of different external factors on the fundamental characteristics of annihilation constitute the basis for this promising method. The ways in which the positron annihilation process operates in ionic crystals, semiconductors, metals and some condensed matter systems are analyzed. The scope of PAS is described and its prospects for the study of the electronic and defect structures are discussed. The applications of positron annihilation spectroscopy in radiation physics and chemistry of various substances as well as in physics and chemistry of solutions are exemplified.

  4. Investigation of an Autofocusing Method for Visible Aerial Cameras Based on Image Processing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize the autofocusing in aerial camera, an autofocusing system is established and its characteristics such as working principle and optical-mechanical structure and focus evaluation function are investigated. The reason for defocusing in aviation camera is analyzed and several autofocusing methods along with appropriate focus evaluation functions are introduced based on the image processing techniques. The proposed autofocusing system is designed and implemented using two CMOS detectors. The experiment results showed that the proposed method met the aviation camera focusing accuracy requirement, and a maximum focusing error of less than half of the focus depth is achieved. The system designed in this paper can find the optical imaging focal plane in real-time; as such, this novel design has great potential in practical engineering, especially aerospace applications.

  5. A simple method for the investigation of the high temperature plasticity of metallic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinh, N.Q. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Juhasz, A. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Tasnadi, P. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)); Kovacs, I. (Inst. for General Physics, Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary))

    1993-11-01

    The indentation creep test is a powerful and quick method for the investigation of the high temperature plasticity of various materials. During creep test a small cylindrical punch is pressed at constant loads into the surface of the sample and the penetration depth is registered as a function of testing time. On the basis of the creep curves taken at various temperatures and loads the strain rate sensitivity and the activation energy of the steady-state creep process can be determined. The main advantage of this test is that it needs only a small amount of testing material. In this paper the usefullness of this method illustrated by some results obtained on superplastic and non superplastic Al alloys. The indentation results are compared with tensile data obtained on the same materials. (orig.).

  6. Investigation of bacterial adherence to a non-precious alloy with radiolabeling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonugelen, M.; Iyiyapici Destan, U.; Oeztuerk, B.; Yurt Lambrecht, F.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial adherence to a non-precious alloy with radiolabeling method. S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicanswere labeled with 99m Tc by using stannous chloride and their radiolabeling yields were calculated. After the labeling procedure, metal disks (3 mm x 10 mm) were treated with microorganisms. The amount of labeled microorganisms adhered on metal surfaces was determined by activity measurements. The labeling yields for S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicanswere 69.95 ± 7.58%, 78.84 ± 0.44% and 79.71 ± 10.17%, respectively. The mean values for adherence for S. mutans, E. coliand C. albicans on metal samples were 7.02 ± 2.18%, 0.96 ± 0.49% and 8.80 ± 8.24%, respectively. The radiolabeling method could be considered as safe and precise for determining the adherence of microorganisms. (author)

  7. Investigation on human serum albumin and Gum Tragacanth interactions using experimental and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sajad; Taran, Mojtaba; Shahlaei, Mohsen

    2018-02-01

    The study on the interaction of human serum albumin and Gum Tragacanth, a biodegradable bio-polymer, has been undertaken. For this purpose, several experimental and computational methods were used. Investigation of thermodynamic parameters and mode of interactions were carried out using Fluorescence spectroscopy in 300 and 310K. Also, a Fourier transformed infrared spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy was performed. To give detailed insight of possible interactions, docking and molecular dynamic simulations were also applied. Results show that the interaction is based on hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. Structural analysis implies on no adverse change in protein conformation during binding of GT. Furthermore, computational methods confirm some evidence on secondary structure enhancement of protein as a presence of combining with Gum Tragacanth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Investigating the Effectiveness of Teaching Methods Based on a Four-Step Constructivist Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çalik, Muammer; Ayas, Alipaşa; Coll, Richard K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of the effectiveness an intervention using several different methods for teaching solution chemistry. The teaching strategy comprised a four-step approach derived from a constructivist view of learning. A sample consisting of 44 students (18 boys and 26 girls) was selected purposively from two different Grade 9 classes in the city of Trabzon, Turkey. Data collection employed a purpose-designed `solution chemistry concept test', consisting of 17 items, with the quantitative data from the survey supported by qualitative interview data. The findings suggest that using different methods embedded within the four-step constructivist-based teaching strategy enables students to refute some alternative conceptions, but does not completely eliminate student alternative conceptions for solution chemistry.

  9. Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan; Ohlsson, Yvonne; Tullborg, Eva-Lena

    2003-06-01

    This report comprises a strategy for the handling of laboratory investigations of diffusivity and sorption characteristics within the discipline-specific programme 'Transport Properties of the Rock' in the SKB site investigations. The aim of the transport programme is to investigate the solute transport properties at a site in order to acquire data that are required for an assessment of the long-term performance and radiological safety of the deep repository. The result of the transport programme is the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the site-specific properties for the transport of solutes in the groundwater at a site. A strategy for the methodology, control of sampling and characterisation programme and interpretation of the results, is proposed. The basis for the laboratory investigations is a conceptual geological model based on the geological model produced in the geology programme. Major and minor types of rock and fractures are defined and characterised according to the quality of the general database and site-specific needs. The selection of samples and analyses is determined in close co-operation with the geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics programmes. The result of the laboratory investigations is a retardation model, which is used as an input in the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model. The interpretation and production of a retardation model is described and exemplified. Lastly, method-specific strategies and recommendations are given, including strategies for the selection of tracers in the experiments and for the treatment of the sampled geologic materials

  10. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  11. Neurocognitive poetics: methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literature reception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    A long tradition of research including classical rhetoric, esthetics and poetics theory, formalism and structuralism, as well as current perspectives in (neuro)cognitive poetics has investigated structural and functional aspects of literature reception. Despite a wealth of literature published in specialized journals like Poetics, however, still little is known about how the brain processes and creates literary and poetic texts. Still, such stimulus material might be suited better than other genres for demonstrating the complexities with which our brain constructs the world in and around us, because it unifies thought and language, music and imagery in a clear, manageable way, most often with play, pleasure, and emotion (Schrott and Jacobs, 2011). In this paper, I discuss methods and models for investigating the neuronal and cognitive-affective bases of literary reading together with pertinent results from studies on poetics, text processing, emotion, or neuroaesthetics, and outline current challenges and future perspectives.

  12. Neutronics investigation of CANDU deuterium uranium 6 reactor fueled (transuranic-TH) O-2 using a computational method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholamzadeh, Zohreh; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Khalafi, Hossein [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    241Am, 243Am, and 237Np isotopes are among the most radiotoxic components of spent nuclear fuel. Recently, researchers have planned different incineration scenarios for the highly radiotoxic elements of nuclear waste in critical reactors. Computational methods are widely used to predict burnup rates of such nuclear wastes that are used under fuel matrixes in critical reactors. In this work, the Monte Carlo N-particle transport code was used to calculate the neutronic behavior of a transuranic (TRU)-bearing CANada Deuterium Uranium 6 reactor. The computational data showed that the 1.0% TRU-containing thorium-based fuel matrix presents higher proliferation resistance and TRU depletion rate than the other investigated fuel Matrixes. The fuel matrix includes higher negative temperature reactivity coefficients as well. The investigated thorium-based fuel matrix can be successfully used to decrease the production of highly radiotoxic isotopes.

  13. Tools of Thor - more than a hammer: An overview of some analysis methods for turbulence investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Stein; Vaivads, Andris; Eriksson, Elin

    2016-04-01

    In the old Norse mythology Thor was a hammer-wielding god associated with thunder and lightning. THOR is also an acronym for Turbulence Heating ObserveR - a planned space mission dedicated to stydy space plasma turbulence. Whereas the mythological Thor did most of his work with a single tool, Mjølnir - his hammer, the modern version of THOR is far more versatile. The proposed THOR spacecraft comes with a comprehensive package of instruments to explore the energy dissipation and particle energization taking place in turbulent plasma environments. This paper presents a more detailed investigation of some of the analysis methods listed in the submitted THOR proposal. To demonstrate the methods, we have used data from existing spacecraft missions like Cluster and MMS to examine and compare single-spacecraft and multi-spacecraft methods to establish proper frames. The presented analysis methods are based on fundamental plasma laws, such as conservation of mass, momentum and energy and do not require any triangulation or gradients based on multiple spacecraft. Our experience based on Cluster and MMS results show that a well equipped single spacecraft platform, like the proposed THOR mission, very often provides better and less ambiguous results that a constellation of many spacecraft with less capable instrumentation. Limitations in underlying assumptions, such as planarity and linearity, as well as non-optimal spacecraft separation and configurations often limit the possibility to utilize multi-spacecraft methods. We also investigate the role of time resolution and dynamical range of the measurements used in the methods. Since the particle instruments onboard THOR will have a much better time resolution than existing magnetospheric satellite missions, we infer that THOR will be far better suited to resolve time evolution in plasma structures. This is of particular importance in the solar wind and magnetosheat, where frame velocities can be very high. With a larger

  14. An Investigation of the Variety and Complexity of Statistical Methods Used in Current Internal Medicine Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Roshni; Nugent, Rebecca; Nugent, Kenneth

    2015-10-01

    Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines require internal medicine residents to develop skills in the interpretation of medical literature and to understand the principles of research. A necessary component is the ability to understand the statistical methods used and their results, material that is not an in-depth focus of most medical school curricula and residency programs. Given the breadth and depth of the current medical literature and an increasing emphasis on complex, sophisticated statistical analyses, the statistical foundation and education necessary for residents are uncertain. We reviewed the statistical methods and terms used in 49 articles discussed at the journal club in the Department of Internal Medicine residency program at Texas Tech University between January 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. We collected information on the study type and on the statistical methods used for summarizing and comparing samples, determining the relations between independent variables and dependent variables, and estimating models. We then identified the typical statistics education level at which each term or method is learned. A total of 14 articles came from the Journal of the American Medical Association Internal Medicine, 11 from the New England Journal of Medicine, 6 from the Annals of Internal Medicine, 5 from the Journal of the American Medical Association, and 13 from other journals. Twenty reported randomized controlled trials. Summary statistics included mean values (39 articles), category counts (38), and medians (28). Group comparisons were based on t tests (14 articles), χ2 tests (21), and nonparametric ranking tests (10). The relations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed with simple regression (6 articles), multivariate regression (11), and logistic regression (8). Nine studies reported odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals, and seven analyzed test performance using sensitivity and specificity calculations

  15. Isotopic methods of investigations of hydrodynamics in installations for hydrometallurgic processing of copper concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stsheletski, M.; Urban'ski, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    Isotope methods have been presented of investigations of hydrodynamics of liquid and solid phases in pilot-scale installations for hydrometallurgic processing of copper concentrates: in the column installation for leaching; in the tubular reactor for copper reduction by hydrogen and in the installation for crystallization of magnesium sulphate under pressure conditions. The column leaching installation has been tested by pulse injection of two radioisotope indicators simultaneously. The copper concentrate was labelled by sorbed colloidal gold-198 and the liquid phase was labelled by solution of sodium chloride containing sodium-24. Measurements of the radiation intensities were registered by scintillation counters, working with a single-channel amplitude analyzer, integrators and counting rate monitors. According to the distribution of time of stay, by the moments method, number of powers of ideal intermixings in the cell model of flow of the both phases. In the tubular reactor process of copper reduction by hydrogen is going on in three phases: gas-liquid-solig phase. Hydrodynamic investigations in this instalation was done in the presence of air, water and copper powder. Water was labelled by sodium-24 and copper powder by copper-64. Changes of intensity of radiation were measured by scintillation counters, located along the installation and were registered by multichannel amplitude analyzer. Peckle number and longitudal dispersion factor were determined. In investigations of the solid phase hydrodynamics during crystallization of magnesium sulphate under elevated temperature and high pressure, as an indicator, isotope gold-198 has been used, by which crystalls of the solid phase were labelled, and isotope sodium-24 was added to a liquid. Simultaneousely were measured and registered by a single-channel analyzer intensity of radiation of both indicators. Mean time of stay and parameters of a mathematical model of the phases flow in this installation were

  16. A numerical method for investigating crystal settling in convecting magma chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J.; Schmalzl, J.

    2009-12-01

    Magma chambers can be considered as thermochemically driven convection systems. We present a new numerical method that describes the movement of crystallized minerals in terms of active spherical particles in a convecting magma that is represented by an infinite Prandtl number fluid. The main part focuses on the results we obtained. A finite volume thermochemical convection model for two and three dimensions and a discrete element method, which is used to model granular material, are combined. The new model is validated with floating experiments using particles of different densities and an investigation of single and multiparticle settling velocities. The resulting velocities are compared with theoretical predictions by Stokes's law and a hindered settling function for the multiparticle system. Two fundamental convection regimes are identified in the parameter space that is spanned by the Rayleigh number and the chemical Rayleigh number, which is a measure for the density of the particles. We define the T regime that is dominated by thermal convection. Here the thermal driving force is strong enough to keep all particles in suspension. As the particles get denser, they start settling to the ground, which results in a C regime. The C regime is characterized by the existence of a sediment layer with particle-rich material and a suspension layer with few particles. It is shown that the presence of particles can reduce the vigor of thermal convection. In the frame of a parameter study we discuss the change between the regimes that is systematically investigated. We show that the so-called TC transition fits a power law. Furthermore, we investigate the settling behavior of the particles in vigorous thermal convection, which can be linked to crystal settling in magma chambers. We develop an analytical settling law that describes the number of settled particles against time and show that the results fit the observations from numerical and laboratory experiments.

  17. Investigation and application of reduced-order methods for flows study in heat exchanger tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarede, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to study the ability of model reduction for investigations of flow-induced vibrations in heat exchangers tube bundle systems.These mechanisms are a cause of major concern because heat exchangers are key elements of nuclear power plants and on-board stoke-holds.In a first part, we give a recall on heat exchangers functioning and on vibratory problems to which they are prone. Then, complete calculations leaded with the CFD numerical code Code-Saturne are carried out, first for the flow around a single circular cylinder (fixed then elastically mounted) and then for the case of a tube bundle system submitted to cross-flow. Reduced-order method POD is applied to the flow resolution with fixed structures. The obtained results show the efficiency of this technique for such configurations, using stabilization methods for the dynamical system resolution in the tube-bundle case. Multiphase-POD, which is a method enabling the adaptation of POD to fluid-structure interactions, is applied. Large displacements of a single cylinder elastically mounted under cross-flow, corresponding to the lock-in phenomenon,are well reproduced with this reduction technique. In the same way, large displacements of a confined moving tube in a bundle are shown to be faithfully reconstructed.Finally, the use of model reduction is extended to parametric studies. First, we propose to use the method which consists in projecting Navier-Stokes equations for several values of the Reynolds number on to a unique POD basis. The results obtained confirm the fact that POD predictability is limited to a range of parameter values. Then, a basis interpolation method, constructed using Grassmann manifolds and allowing the construction of a POD basis from other pre-calculated basis, is applied to basic cases. (author)

  18. From blackbirds to black holes: Investigating capture-recapture methods for time domain astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laycock, Silas G. T.

    2017-07-01

    In time domain astronomy, recurrent transients present a special problem: how to infer total populations from limited observations. Monitoring observations may give a biassed view of the underlying population due to limitations on observing time, visibility and instrumental sensitivity. A similar problem exists in the life sciences, where animal populations (such as migratory birds) or disease prevalence, must be estimated from sparse and incomplete data. The class of methods termed Capture-Recapture is used to reconstruct population estimates from time-series records of encounters with the study population. This paper investigates the performance of Capture-Recapture methods in astronomy via a series of numerical simulations. The Blackbirds code simulates monitoring of populations of transients, in this case accreting binary stars (neutron star or black hole accreting from a stellar companion) under a range of observing strategies. We first generate realistic light-curves for populations of binaries with contrasting orbital period distributions. These models are then randomly sampled at observing cadences typical of existing and planned monitoring surveys. The classical capture-recapture methods, Lincoln-Peterson, Schnabel estimators, related techniques, and newer methods implemented in the Rcapture package are compared. A general exponential model based on the radioactive decay law is introduced which is demonstrated to recover (at 95% confidence) the underlying population abundance and duty cycle, in a fraction of the observing visits (10-50%) required to discover all the sources in the simulation. Capture-Recapture is a promising addition to the toolbox of time domain astronomy, and methods implemented in R by the biostats community can be readily called from within python.

  19. Investigation of potential analytical methods for redox control of the vitrification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate several analytical techniques to measure ferrous/ferric ratios in simulated and radioactive nuclear waste glasses for eventual redox control of the vitrification process. Redox control will minimize the melt foaming that occurs under highly oxidizing conditions and the metal precipitation that occurs under highly reducing conditions. The analytical method selected must have a rapid response for production problems with minimal complexity and analyst involvement. The wet-chemistry, Moessbauer spectroscopy, glass color analysis, and ion chromatography techniques were explored, with particular emphasis being placed on the Moessbauer technique. In general, all of these methods can be used for nonradioactive samples. The Moessbauer method can readily analyze glasses containing uranium and thorium. A shielded container was designed and built to analyze fully radioactive glasses with the Moessbauer spectrometer in a hot cell environment. However, analyses conducted with radioactive waste glasses containing 90 Sr and 137 Cs were unsuccessful, presumably due to background radiation problems caused by the samples. The color of glass powder can be used to analyze the ferrous/ferric ratio for low chromium glasses, but this method may not be as precise as the others. Ion chromatography was only tested on nonradioactive glasses, but this technique appears to have the required precision due to its analysis of both Fe +2 and Fe +3 and its anticipated adaptability for radioactivity samples. This development would be similar to procedures already in use for shielded inductively coupled plasma emission (ICP) spectrometry. Development of the ion chromatography method is therefore recommended; conventional wet-chemistry is recommended as a backup procedure

  20. Particle size distribution in soils and marine sediments by laser diffraction using Malvern Mastersizer 2000—method uncertainty including the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Keck, Hannes; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2018-01-01

    with less than 1% C and some marine sediments. Materials and methods: The method uncertainty for particle size analysis by the laser diffraction method using or not using H2O2 pretreatment followed by 2 min ultrasound and 1-mm sieving was determined for two soil samples and two aquatic sediments......Purpose: Methods for particle size distribution (PSD) determination by laser diffraction are not standardized and differ between disciplines and sectors. The effect of H2O2 pretreatment before a sonication treatment in laser diffraction analysis of soils and marine sediments was examined on soils...... pretreatment on the PSD was small and not significant. The standard deviation (std) in particle size fractions increased with particle size. PSDs and std for some samples were presented for future reference. Similar to other studies, the content of clay and silt (by sieving/hydrometer, SHM) was lower...

  1. Investigation into the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin using multispectroscopic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Keerti M; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the interaction of methylparaben and erythromycin with human serum albumin (HSA) was studied for the first time using spectroscopic methods including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence quenching under physiological conditions. The binding parameters were evaluated using a fluorescence quenching method. Based on Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r between the donor (HSA) and the acceptor (methylparaben and erythromycin) was evaluated. UV/vis absorption, FTIR, synchronous and 3D spectral results showed that the conformation of HSA was changed in the presence of methylparaben and erythromycin. The thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation and are discussed. The effect of some biological metal ions and site probes on the binding of methylparaben and erythromycin to HSA were further examined. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Investigation on welding and cutting methods for blanket support legs of fusion experimental reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokami, Ikuhide; Nakahira, Masataka; Kurasawa, Toshimasa; Sato, Satoshi; Furuya, Kazuyuki; Hatano, Toshihisa; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Kuroda, Toshimasa.

    1996-07-01

    A toroidally-and poloidally-divided modular blanket has been proposed for a fusion experimental reactor, such as ITER, to enhance its maintainability as well as improve its fabricability. The blanket module, typically the size of 1 m wide, 1-2 m high and 0.4 m deep and the weight of 4 ton, will be supported by support legs which are extruded from back of the module and connected to a 70-100 mm thick strong back plate. The support leg has to withstand large electromagnetic force during plasma disruption and provide the way for in-situ module replacement by remote handling. For the connection method of the support leg to the back plate, a welding approach has been investigated here in terms of its high reliability against the large electromagnetic loads. For the welding approach, the support leg needs to be 70 mm thick, and the working space for welding/cutting heads are limited to 100 mm x 150 mm adjacent to the support leg. Based on a comparison of several welding methods, e.g. NGTIG, NGMIG and laser, NGTIG has been selected as a reference due to its well-established technology and the least R and D required. As for the cutting method, a plasma cutting has been given the highest priority to be pursued because of its compactness and high speed. Through preliminary design studies, the possibility of small welding/cutting heads that will work in the limited space has been shown, and maintenance route for in-situ module replacement with pre-and postfixture of the module has been investigated. Also preliminary R and Ds have resulted in; 1)the welding distortion is predictable according to the shape of weld groove and adjustable to meet the placement requirement of the module first wall, 2)the plasma cut surface can be rewelded without machining, 3)the welding/cutting time will meet the requirement of maintenance time. (author)

  3. New methods for the investigation of phase objects by digital Speckle-pattern-interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliesser, W.

    1996-11-01

    This work shows new possibilities for spatially resolved interferometric investigations of transparent objects (phase-objects) applying the method of Digital-Speckle-Pattern-Interferometry (DSPI). A feedback-system using an additional MICHELSON-interferometer in the reference-arm of the Speckle-interferometer was installed for computer-controlled digitalization of the primary interferograms at defined phase-shifts. A special program for interferogram analysis allows the evaluation of two-dimensional phase distributions using different phase-stepping algorithms as 3-Frame-, 4-Frame-, CARRE-, 4+1-Frame- and 6+1-Frame technique. Special DSPI-setups with modified MACH-ZEHNDER-interferometers were used to check the system. In some basic experiments the temperature distribution in a cross section of convective heat-flows of air was measured. As an application on plasma-diagnostics the space-resolved electron density in a high pressure mercury lamp was determined using two-wavelength-DSPI. To increase the sensitivity of the method a Nd-YAG-laser at 1064 nm was employed in addition to an Ar + -laser at 488 Nm. The electron density in one cross-section of the lamp could be calculated by ABEL-inversion of the measured phase data. A multi-directional optical setup with a special mirror system was developed to investigate asymmetric phase-objects by DSPI. The setup allows to store six primary interferograms from different directions in one step, while using a single reference-beam only. Helium flows in air with different flow geometries were used as phase-objects. Tomographic reconstruction procedures such as the convolution-method yield the distributions of the refractive-index and the related helium concentrations in selected cross sections of the flow. (author)

  4. Ultrasound investigation central hemodynamics as a method of assessment effective analgesia in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Dmytriieva

    2016-06-01

    Vinnitsa National Medical University M.I. Pirogov   Summary: The study was include in 23 children (12,4±1,2 years operated on for tumors of the retroperitoneal space (14 children, 61%, renal tumors (6 children, 26%, ovarian cancer (3 children, 13% showed that a comprehensive study of the reactions of pain behavior and central hemodynamics by ultrasonography showed that the use of the scheme KSME bupivacaine 0.3-0.4 mg / kg and a continuous infusion of drugs (fentanyl in a dose of 10 mcg/kg/h for postoperative pain relief leads to effective analgesia after traumatic operations and comprehensive ultrasound including color and spectral Doppler studies, is the main tool by enabling timely and accurately assess the condition of the central hemodynamics at different methods of analgesia.   Key words: central hemodynamics, ultrasound, anesthesia.

  5. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  6. Methods of modification and investigations of properties of fuel UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurina, I.; Popov, V.; Rogov, S.; Dvoryashin, A.; Serebrennikova, O.

    2009-01-01

    In the SSC RF-IPPE the researches are carried out directed towards the uranium dioxide fuel pellets modification with the purpose of improvement of their performance parameters (increase of thermal conductivity, growth of grain for decrease gas release, decrease of interaction with coolant). The following technological methods of manufacturing of modified pellets UO 2 were used: 1) The water method including precipitation of Ammonium Polyuranate (APU) with manufacturing of simultaneously coarse and super dispersed particles, and also coprecipitation APU with additives (Cr, Ti, etc.), with the after calcination of powders, reduction to UO 2 pressing and sintering of pellets; 2) A method including addition of chemical reagent containing ammonia to the powder UO 2 manufactured under the dry or water technology; mechanical mixture; pressing and sintering of pellets. Application of the specified up methods makes manufacturing the UO 2 fuel pellets having the properties differing from pellets manufactured by industrial technology. Conclusions: 1) Properties of powders and the pellets manufactured by different technologies considerably differ; 2) Precipitate manufactured by water industrial technology, consists of phase NH 3 ·3UO 3 ·5H 2 O whereas the precipitate manufactured by nanotechnology contains in addition phase NH 3 ·2UO 3 ·3H 2 O; 3) Powders of U 3 O 8 manufactured by water nanotechnology have particles size 300-500 nm and ultra dispersive particles size ∼70-75 nm; 4) Powder UO 2 obtained by water nanotechnology differs by greater activity because all phase changes under oxidation result at lower temperatures; 5) Basic differences of properties of modified UO 2 pellets was established: decreasing of defects inside and on grains boundaries, minor porosity (pore size 0,05-0,5 μm), presence of pore of spherical form, presence of additional chemical bond U-U (presence of metal clusters), polyvalence of U; 6) Methods including addition of Cr and Ti under

  7. Investigation of effective forensic cleaning methods for bullet and cartridge case samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuherk, Cassie Marie

    Bullet and cartridge case evidence may potentially link weapons and crimes through the comparison of toolmark patterns. This analysis relies on the clarity of the toolmarks and the ability of the examiner to identify patterns on the evidence. These patterns may be distorted by debris such as soil, blood, cyanoacrylate, and construction materials. Despite the potential importance of bullet and cartridge case evidence, few investigations of proper cleaning methods have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the effects of various cleaning solutions and application methods on copper and brass bullets and cartridge cases. Additionally, this research investigated the efficacy of these cleaning protocols on the common evidence contaminants blood and cyanoacrylate. No cleaning method was found to be universally effective on both contaminant types and nondestructive to the metal surface. Ultrasonication was the most efficient application method employed when used in conjunction with an appropriate cleaning solution. Acetone proved to be safe and successful at removing heavy cyanoacrylate deposits from brass cartridge cases without damaging the metal. Although sulfuric acid removed most of the cyanoacrylate from the brass cartridge case, ultrasonication of the fumed cartridge cases in sulfuric acid caused the nickel-plated primer caps to turn black. Additionally, etching occurred when sulfuric acid was allowed to dry on the cartridge case surface. Citric acid, salt-flour-vinegar paste, TergazymeRTM, and water did not effectively remove the cyanoacrylate from the cartridge cases, but the solutions were safe to use on the brass and sometimes resulted in a shinier surface. Regardless of the cleaning method employed, the bloodstained bullets retained most or all of the underlying brown tarnish. Ultrasonication with sulfuric acid was successful at removing some blood-initiated tarnishing; however, the removal of residues was not complete, making it difficult

  8. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  9. Integrated Site Investigation Methods and Modeling: Recent Developments at the BHRS (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrash, W.; Bradford, J. H.; Cardiff, M. A.; Dafflon, B.; Johnson, B. A.; Malama, B.; Thoma, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Boise Hydrogeophysical Research Site (BHRS) is a field-scale test facility in an unconfined aquifer with the goals of: developing cost-effective, non-invasive methods for quantitative characterization of heterogeneous aquifers using hydrologic and geophysical techniques; understanding fundamental relations and processes at multiple scales; and testing theories and models for groundwater flow and solute transport. The design of the BHRS supports a wide range of single-well, cross-hole, multiwell and multilevel hydrologic, geophysical, and combined hydrogeophysical experiments. New installations support direct and geophysical monitoring of hydrologic fluxes and states from the aquifer through the vadose zone to the atmosphere, including ET and river boundary behavior. Efforts to date have largely focused on establishing the 1D, 2D, and 3D distributions of geologic, hydrologic, and geophysical parameters which can then be used as the basis for testing methods to integrate direct and indirect data and invert for “known” parameter distributions, material boundaries, and tracer test or other system state behavior. Aquifer structure at the BHRS is hierarchical and includes layers and lenses that are recognized with geologic, hydrologic, radar, electrical, and seismic methods. Recent advances extend findings and method developments, but also highlight the need to examine assumptions and understand secular influences when designing and modeling field tests. Examples of advances and caveats include: New high-resolution 1D K profiles obtained from multi-level slug tests (inversion improves with priors for aquifer K, wellbore skin, and local presence of roots) show variable correlation with porosity and bring into question a Kozeny-Carman-type relation for much of the system. Modeling of 2D conservative tracer transport through a synthetic BHRS-like heterogeneous system shows the importance of including porosity heterogeneity (rather than assuming constant porosity for

  10. Carer mentoring: a mixed methods investigation of a carer mentoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Nan; Habibi, Ruth

    2014-03-01

    Worldwide with ageing populations, the numbers of informal carers are likely to increase. Although being a carer is often satisfying, it can be challenging and require support. Volunteer-provided carer mentoring services where carers are supported by volunteer mentors are one such intervention. However, little is known about the impact of mentoring, carers' experiences or the mechanisms by which these schemes may work. Previous quantitative findings have been inconsistent suggesting a different, mixed methods approach using qualitative and quantitative methods may be valuable. Objectives were to explore two main questions: whether mentoring had a significant positive effect on carer mentees in terms of mental health, quality of life and confidence in caring and to explore how carers experience and perceive the process and benefits of mentoring. In addition, the study aimed to suggest possible mechanisms to understand how mentoring may benefit carers. Mixed methods (quantitative questionnaires and depth interviews) investigated an established mentoring service provided by volunteer mentors. During the study period, 28 carers received mentoring. Of these, 25 carers completed structured questionnaires both before and after mentoring, to determine whether mentoring had an impact on carer wellbeing and confidence in caring. Depth interviews were also undertaken with 11 purposively sampled carers to explore how carers experience and perceive the process and benefits of mentoring. Statistically significant improvements in carer anxiety (pemotional support, information provision, problem solving facilitation and gaining new perspectives may be mechanisms by which mentoring achieves positive outcomes. Mentor personal characteristics, experiences and training are possible facilitators of the process. Carer mentoring services can be a valuable form of carer support that falls somewhere between formal and informal support. Adopting mixed methods permitted greater understanding

  11. Comparative characterization of the quaternary deposits of Northwest Peninsular Malaysia by wash boring and CPTU site investigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Mohamad R.; Rosli, Ros N.; Ramli, Muhd H.; Azmi, Mastura; Kumaravelu, Prakash; Govindasamy, Darvintharen

    2017-10-01

    A site investigation by wash boring method was carried out in the compound of the Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, in Northwest Peninsular Malaysia. The subsurface soils of the region are known to be comprised of quaternary deposits including the prominent marine clays of the Gula formation. The conventional Standard Penetration Test, or SPT, was carried out for every 1.5m depth. The 18 disturbed samples collected were tested for grain size distribution, Atterberg limits, and specific gravity; and categorized according to the unified soil classification system. The results indicate low SPT numbers, or SPTN, i.e. SPTN8 for depths deeper than 12m. Samples from shallower than 12m were mostly classified as low plasticity clay, or CL, which represents the soft marine clay while the underlying materials were mostly sands, namely poorly graded sand, or SP, silty sand, or SM, clayey sand, or SC, and well graded sand, or SW. Another site investigation by the CPTU method was also carried out 5m from the wash boring position, penetrating the entire soft clay stratum, thus giving another marine clay characterization in addition to the one given by the first method. The CPTU results generally gave SPTN≤2 for depths lesser than 8m, 2≤;SPTN≤4 for depths between 8 and 12m, and SPTN=23 at 12.5m, where the CPTU test terminated. The CPTU method classified the soft materials as sensitive fine grains, clays, and clayey silts to silty clays. Thus the CPTU results did not agree very well with the conventional wash boring SPT results in terms of the SPTN obtained. Nevertheless both methods equally identified the prominent presence of the soft marine clay stratum in the top 12.5m and the underlying strong sandy bed with higher bearing capacity values.

  12. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  13. A method to investigate the biomechanical alterations in Perthes’ disease by hip joint contact modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmingo, Remel A.; Skytte, Tina Lercke; Traberg, Marie Sand

    2017-01-01

    for the preoperative planning to obtain stress relief for the highly stressed areas in the malformed hip. This single-patient study demonstrated that the biomechanical alterations in Perthes’ disease can be evaluated individually by patient-specific finite element contact modeling using MRI. A multi-patient study...... was to develop a method to investigate the biomechanical alterations in Perthes’ disease by finite element (FE ) contact modeling using MRI. The MRI data of a unilateral Perthes’ case was obtained to develop the three-dimensional FE model of the hip joint. The stress and contact pressure patterns...... in the unaffected hip were well distrib uted. Elevated concentrations of stress and contact pressure were found in the Perthes’ hip. The highest femoral cartilagev on Mises stress 3.9 MPa and contact pressure 5.3 M P a were found in the Perthes’ hip, whereas 2.4 M P a and 4.9 MP a in the healthy hip, respectively...

  14. Neutron autoradiography: working-out method and application in investigations of test paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalicki, A.; Panczyk, E.; Rowinska, L.; Sartowska, B.; Walis, L.; Pytel, K.; Pytel, B.; Koziel, A.; Dabkowski, L.; Wierzchnicka, M.; Strzalkowski, L.; Ostrowski, T.

    2001-01-01

    Neutron-induced autoradiography was carried out at MARIA research reactor in Poland. The paintings were exposed to the thermal neutrons. As a result, the radionuclides emitting beta particles and gamma rays were created from some of the elements existing in the painting. Beta particles were detected during successive exposure to a series of X-ray medical-sensitive films. The obtained images--blackening of the films depends mainly on the nuclear characteristic of recorded radionuclides and exposure parameters. The main purpose of this work was to work out a method, build a special stand and test sample paintings using neutron autoradiography. Samples of paintings were investigated and according to the obtained results, optimum test parameters have been selected: neutron irradiation conditions and autoradiographs exposure conditions

  15. Investigation of impurity defects in α-iron by molecular dynamics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevorkyan, Yu.R.

    1986-01-01

    Investigation of the configuration of impurity defects in α-iron by the molecular dynamics method is presented. The Jhonson model potential has been used to calculate the interaction of matrix atoms. The impurity-matrix atom interaction is described by the same form of the potential shifted along the axis of interatomic distances for a definite value. The correspondence between the shift value and change in the radius of the impurity defect is established on the basis of calculation of the relaxation volume. Possible configurations of the impurity - interstitial matrix atom complexes are obtained for the given model of the impurity defect, dimensional boundaries of possible transitions between different configurations are determined. Formation and bound energies, relaxation volumes of impurity defects are calculated

  16. Investigation for calculation methods used in analyzing the physics characteristics of nuclear power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Tuan Khai; Hoang Van Khanh; Phan Quoc Vuong; Tran Viet Phu; Tran Vinh Thanh; Nguyen Thi Mai Huong; Nguyen Thi Dung; Le Tran Chung; Nguyen Minh Tuan; Tran Quoc Duong

    2014-01-01

    The project aims at nuclear human resource development and enhancement in research capability in reactor physics and kinetics at Nuclear Energy Center (Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology) and Nuclear Reactor Center (Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat). The main research items of the project can be summarized as follows: i) Considering possibility on using modern calculation techniques and methods in investigating neutronic characteristics and neutronics-thermal hydraulics coupling. This item is proposed to carry out based on international collaboration with Prof. Le Trong Thuy, San Jose University, US; ii) Carrying out the collaborative activities in research and training between Nuclear Energy Center (Institute for Nuclear Science and Technology) and Nuclear Reactor Center (Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat); iii) Opening two-week training course on nuclear reactor engineering (25 Nov - 12 Dec 2013) in collaboration with Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). (author)

  17. Investigation methods for the determination of thermodynamic properties of lithium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, F.

    1981-01-01

    For the determination of thermodynamic properties of the highly reactive lithium alloys, during the last years a number of measuring methods, especially apt for the investigation of these systems, have been developed. The most important measuring arrangements are presented in regard to their manner of function and their technical applicability for the measurements. Among these devices are high temperature calorimeters for the determination of mixing enthalpies of liquid alloys, whilst the formation enthalpies of intermetallic compounds can be determined using a suitable solution calorimeter. Heat contents measurements using a drop calorimeter are resulting in the determination of specific heats, of the enthalpy of fusion and of the temperature dependence of the mixing enthalpy. The Gibbs free enthalpy of mixing of lithium alloys can successfully be determined using suitable galvanic cells. (orig.)

  18. An investigation of the element composition of superconducting ceramics by neutron activation and radiography methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kist, A.A.; Flitsiyan, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The neutron activation methods for determining the general composition and distribution of the main components in HTSC ceramics were developed. The conditions for the reduction of the analysis error were discussed. The dependences of the oxygen content and superconducting parameters of single-phase and polyphase yttrium ceramics on the regime of heat treatment in air were investigated. Variation in the oxygen content was found to have a nonmonotone character, depending on the temperature of quenching and annealing. Correlation between the character of the superconducting transition and the oxygen content was observed. During the heat treatment, reversible structural phase transitions proceed in the single-phase ceramics in the polyphase ceramics, the recrystallization processes occur, which result in homogenization of its structure

  19. Investigations of the Propagation of Plant Pollen by an Indicator Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendrik, I.; Glubrecht, H. [Technische Hochschule, Hanover (Germany)

    1967-10-15

    The study of the propagation of plant pollen is of special interest in ecology and plant breeding. Generally, radioactive labelling cannot be applied for this purpose since radioactive contamination of the materials under investigation cannot be tolerated. Instead, labelling can be performed by the use of an indicator element that has a high cross-section for neutron activation. This substance is introduced into the plant under consideration. The flying pollen is caught by polyethylene foils by means of electrostatic attraction. The foils with the pollen are irradiated in a nuclear reactor with a suitable flux of thermal neutrons. The labelled pollen grains can be detected and counted by autoradiography or by direct measurement. The method has proved satisfactory for pines and sugar beet. Indicator elements used for detection by neutron activation were manganese and dysprosium. (author)

  20. Thermalization calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Jakobsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This “Thermalization Calorimetry” technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample’s specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s, as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  1. Developing a spatial-temporal method for the geographic investigation of shoeprint evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ge; Elmes, Gregory; Walnoha, Mike; Chen, Xiannian

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the potential of a spatial-temporal method for analysis of forensic shoeprint data. The large volume of shoeprint evidence recovered at crime scenes results in varied success in matching a print to a known shoe type and subsequently linking sets of matched prints to suspected offenders. Unlike DNA and fingerprint data, a major challenge is to reduce the uncertainty in linking sets of matched shoeprints to a suspected serial offender. Shoeprint data for 2004 were imported from the Greater London Metropolitan Area Bigfoot database into a geographic information system, and a spatial-temporal algorithm developed for this project. The results show that by using distance and time constraints interactively, the number of candidate shoeprints that can implicate one or few suspects can be substantially reduced. It concludes that the use of space-time and other ancillary information within a geographic information system can be quite helpful for forensic investigation.

  2. Investigation of Reliabilities of Bolt Distances for Bolted Structural Steel Connections by Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertekin Öztekin Öztekin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Design of the distance of bolts to each other and design of the distance of bolts to the edge of connection plates are made based on minimum and maximum boundary values proposed by structural codes. In this study, reliabilities of those distances were investigated. For this purpose, loading types, bolt types and plate thicknesses were taken as variable parameters. Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS method was used in the reliability computations performed for all combination of those parameters. At the end of study, all reliability index values for all those distances were presented in graphics and tables. Results obtained from this study compared with the values proposed by some structural codes and finally some evaluations were made about those comparisons. Finally, It was emphasized in the end of study that, it would be incorrect of the usage of the same bolt distances in the both traditional designs and the higher reliability level designs.

  3. Investigating groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin (Zambia) with hydrogeophysical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; A. Nyambe, Imasiku; Larsen, Flemming

    resources worldwide. This thesis presents the application of geo-electrical and electromagnetic methods for the investigation of groundwater salinity in the Machile-Zambezi Basin in south western Zambia, southern central Africa. Aerial and ground based transient electromagnetic measurenments were used...... use of direct current and transient electromagnetic data in one optimization. The result from the regional mapping with transient electromagnetic measurenments showed a spatial distribution of electrical resistivity that indicated block faulting in the Machile-Zambezi Basin. Saline groundwater...... parameters. This was for a coupled flow and solute transport model setup for the Kasaya transect under the forcing of evapotranspiration. Performance of the coupled hydrogeophysical inversion was better with the inclusion of direct current data in comparison to the use of transient electromagnetic data alone...

  4. An Investigation to Manufacturing Analytical Services Composition using the Analytical Target Cascading Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tien, Kai-Wen; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Jung, Kiwook; Prabhu, Vittaldas

    2017-01-01

    As cloud computing is increasingly adopted, the trend is to offer software functions as modular services and compose them into larger, more meaningful ones. The trend is attractive to analytical problems in the manufacturing system design and performance improvement domain because 1) finding a global optimization for the system is a complex problem; and 2) sub-problems are typically compartmentalized by the organizational structure. However, solving sub-problems by independent services can result in a sub-optimal solution at the system level. This paper investigates the technique called Analytical Target Cascading (ATC) to coordinate the optimization of loosely-coupled sub-problems, each may be modularly formulated by differing departments and be solved by modular analytical services. The result demonstrates that ATC is a promising method in that it offers system-level optimal solutions that can scale up by exploiting distributed and modular executions while allowing easier management of the problem formulation.

  5. Efficiency indicators versus forntier methods: an empirical investigation of italian public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Clementi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency has a key-role in the measurement of the impact of the National Health Service (NHS reforms. We investigate the issue of inefficiency in health sector and provide empirical evidence derived from Italian public hospitals. Despite the importance of efficiency measurement in health care services, only recently advanced econometric methods have been applied to hospital data. We provide a synoptic survey of few empirical analyses of efficiency measurement in health care services. An estimate of the cost efficiency level in Italian public hospitals during 2001-2003 is obtained through a sample. We propose an efficiency indicator and provide cost frontiers for such hospitals, using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA for longitudinal data.

  6. An Investigation of ABF++, LSCM, and ARAP Methods for Parametrization of Shoetrees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynas Sabaliauskas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses on the numerical model flattening algorithms enabling the representation of straightened surface of three-dimensional objects in the plane. These algorithms are widely used in the engineering industry which requires a precise representation of surfaces of various fragments of 2D maps, such as the automotive industry. One of the examples of the application in the manufacture of footwear could be automatic formation of molds using shoetrees, which are usually produced by a unit ignoring the fact that manufacturers are still using wax foil for flattening. This paper provides an investigation of the most widely used 3D object surface flattening algorithms and also the comparison of molds of shoetrees obtained by these methods.

  7. On the sensitivity of FPPE - TWRC method in thermal effusivity investigations of solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadarlat, Dorin; Streza, Mihaela; Pop, Mircea N; Tosa, Valer

    2009-01-01

    The front detection configuration (FPPE) together with the thermal-wave-resonator-cavity (TWRC) method was used for direct measurement of the thermal effusivity of solid materials inserted as backings in the FPPE detection cell. It was demonstrated that the normalized phase of the FPPE signal has an oscillating dependence as a function of sample's thickness. The paper presents experimental results on solid materials, with various values of thermal effusivity (Cu, brass, steel, bakelite, wood). A study of the sensitivity of the technique for different liquid/backing effusivity ratios is performed. The highest sensitivity was obtained when investigating solids with values of thermal effusivity not far from the effusivity of the liquid layer of the detection cell.

  8. Controlled in meso phase crystallization--a method for the structural investigation of membrane proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kubicek

    Full Text Available We investigated in meso crystallization of membrane proteins to develop a fast screening technology which combines features of the well established classical vapor diffusion experiment with the batch meso phase crystallization, but without premixing of protein and monoolein. It inherits the advantages of both methods, namely (i the stabilization of membrane proteins in the meso phase, (ii the control of hydration level and additive concentration by vapor diffusion. The new technology (iii significantly simplifies in meso crystallization experiments and allows the use of standard liquid handling robots suitable for 96 well formats. CIMP crystallization furthermore allows (iv direct monitoring of phase transformation and crystallization events. Bacteriorhodopsin (BR crystals of high quality and diffraction up to 1.3 Å resolution have been obtained in this approach. CIMP and the developed consumables and protocols have been successfully applied to obtain crystals of sensory rhodopsin II (SRII from Halobacterium salinarum for the first time.

  9. Investigation of Detectability of Elementary Composition of Rainbow trout muscle with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltuk Buğrahan CEYHUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study, it is investigated that detectability of elementary composition of rainbow trout muscle using Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS. EDS system which has worked with attached to scanning electron microscope can do qualitative and semi-quantitative elementary analyses on selected region of sample using characteristic X-rays. For this purpose, it was performed four point and two mapping analyses from four samples. According to results, it was detected 13 elements which are consist of C, N and O in 87.70 percentage. As a result, although the method is sensitive and reliable, it is concluded that not adequate for elemental analysis alone but can be used as a support for analyzes with systems such as especially atomic absorption and ICP-MS.

  10. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  11. Application of environmetric methods to investigate control factors on water quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyacioglu Hülya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the study, environmetric methods were successfully performed a to explore natural and anthropogenic controls on reservoir water quality, b to investigate spatial and temporal differences in quality, and c to determine quality variables discriminating three reservoirs in Izmir, Turkey. Results showed that overall water quality was mainly governed by “natural factors” in the whole region. A parameter that was the most important in contributing to water quality variation for one reservoir was not important for another. Between summer and winter periods, difference in arsenic concentrations were statistically significant in the Tahtalı, Ürkmez and iron concentrations were in the Balçova reservoirs. Observation of high/low levels in two seasons was explained by different processes as for instance, dilution from runoff at times of high flow seeped through soil and entered the river along with the rainwater run-off and adsorption. Three variables “boron, arsenic and sulphate” discriminated quality among Balçova & Tahtalı, Balçova & Ürkmez and two variables “zinc and arsenic” among the Tahtalı & Ürkmez reservoirs. The results illustrated the usefulness of multivariate statistical techniques to fingerprint pollution sources and investigate temporal/spatial variations in water quality.

  12. Methods and instrumentation for investigating Hall sensors during their irradiation in nuclear research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshakova, I.; Holyaka, R.; Makido, E.; Marusenkov, A.; Shurygin, F.; Yerashok, V.; Moreau, P. J.; Vayakis, G.; Duran, I.; Stockel, J.; Chekanov, V.; Konopleva, R.; Nazarkin, I.; Kulikov, S.; Leroy, C.

    2009-01-01

    Present work discusses the issues of creating the instrumentation for testing the semiconductor magnetic field sensors during their irradiation with neutrons in nuclear reactors up to fluences similar to neutron fluences in steady-state sensor locations in ITER. The novelty of the work consists in Hall sensor parameters being investigated: first, directly during the irradiation (in real time), and, second, at high irradiation levels (fast neutron fluence > 10 18 n/cm 2 ). Developed instrumentation has been successfully tested and applied in the research experiments on radiation stability of magnetic sensors in IBR-2 (JINR, Dubna) and VVR-M (PNPI, Saint-Petersburg) reactors. The 'Remote-Rad' bench consists of 2 heads (head 1 and head 2) bearing investigated sensors put in a ceramic setting, of electronic unit, of personal computer and of signal lines. Each head contains 6 Hall sensors and a coil for generating test magnetic field. Moreover head 1 contains thermocouples for temperature measurement while the temperature of head 2 is measured by thermo-resistive method. The heads are placed in the reactor channel

  13. A simple method to evaluate the fission gas release at fuel grain boundary including the grain growth both at constant and at transient power histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, M.; Paraschiv, A.

    1991-01-01

    A method to rewrite Fick's second law for a region with a moving boundary when the moving law in time of this boundary is known, has been proposed. This method was applied to Booth's sphere model for radioactive and stable fission product diffusion from the oxide fuel grain in order to take into account the grain growth. The solution of this new equation was presented in the mathematical formulation for power histories from ANS 5.4 model for the stable species. It is very simple to apply and very accurate. The results obtained with this solution for constant and transient temperatures show that the fission gas release (FGR) at grain boundary is strongly dependent on kinetics of grain growth. The utilization of two semiempirical grain growth laws, from published information, shows that the fuel microstructural properties need to be multicitly considered in the fission gas release for every manufacturer of fuel. (orig.)

  14. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  15. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Method Development of Cadmium Investigation in Rice by Radiochemical Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promsawad, Arunee; Pareepart, Ratirot; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Arunee, Kongsakpaisal

    2007-08-01

    Full text: A radiochemical neutron activation analysis for the determination of cadmium was investigated. A chemical separation of cadmium utilized ion exchange chromatography of a strong basic anion-exchange resin BIO-RAD 1X 8 (Chloride form). The adsorbing medium of 2M HCl was found to be the most suitable among the concentration attempted (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10M HCl) and the eluent for desorption of the cadmium from column was 8M NH 3 solution. A chemical yield of 95% was found. The method has been evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials with 0.5.g/g (SRM 1577b, Bovine Liver) and 2.48.g/g (SRM 1566b, Oyster Tissue) cadmium. The agreement of the result with certified values is within 92% for Bovine Liver and 96% for Oyster Tissue. The method developed was applied to determine the cadmium concentrations in contaminated Thai rice. It was found that the cadmium concentrations ranged from 7.4 to 578.9 ppb

  17. Evaluation and development of hydrogeological and geochemical investigation methods for aquifers of low permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijland, G.C.; Langemeijer, H.D.; Stapper, R.A.M.; Glasbergen, P.; Michelot, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Studies are currently being carried out in the Netherlands to assess the environmental consequences of geological disposal of radioactive waste. In these studies transport models are used to evaluate the geohydrological system in formations overlying the potential host-rock, and to establish the potential pathways for radionuclides to the biosphere. Knowledge of parameter values, and of their variability for the investigated formations, is necessary to construct these models. From preceding work it became obvious that only a poor set of data is available, in particular for Paleogene and Upper Cretaceous deposits, that are present in the overburden of salt structures in the Netherlands. Within the current phase of the Netherlands programme on geological disposal it was considered essential to obtain an overview of methods and their accuracy which would be applicable for a geohydrological research programme first. From this work guidelines for the construction of new boreholes might also be derived. The main purposes of this study were defined as follows: to evaluate and to test techniques to obtain geohydrological data of the aquifers and aquitards of the Upper Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary formations. Also, geohydrochemical methods were evaluated and tested in order to find out whether they could contribute to the understanding of the groundwater flow system in aquifers of low permeability

  18. Methods of investigation and analysis on groundwater using radon as an indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Hiromasa; Imaizumi, Masayuki; Komae, Takami

    1997-01-01

    As for groundwater, the quality is good, and the temperature is constant throughout year, further, it can be easily utilized only by digging wells. The quantity of its utilization in one year is about 20% of total water utilization, and about 17 billion m 3 . Recently in Japan, the frequency of occurrence of water shortage is high, and the supply of river water is unstable, therefore, the importance of groundwater increased. It is indispensable to grasp in detail the state of groundwater flow as groundwater pollution is actualized, and the water quality has become problem. As the principle that radon becomes the index for groundwater analysis, the physical characteristic of radon and the features of the radon in groundwater are explained. The method of measuring radon concentration in groundwater and surface water is described. The investigation and analysis methods, to which the processes of radon formation and radon decay are applied, in which the equilibrium radon concentration in groundwater is used as the index, to which the relation of the degree of saturation in aquifer to the radon concentration in liquid phase is applied, and to which the difference of the concentrations in surface water and groundwater is applied, are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Coupling Strategies Investigation of Hybrid Atomistic-Continuum Method Based on State Variable Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Different configurations of coupling strategies influence greatly the accuracy and convergence of the simulation results in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. This study aims to quantitatively investigate this effect and offer the guidance on how to choose the proper configuration of coupling strategies in the hybrid atomistic-continuum method. We first propose a hybrid molecular dynamics- (MD- continuum solver in LAMMPS and OpenFOAM that exchanges state variables between the atomistic region and the continuum region and evaluate different configurations of coupling strategies using the sudden start Couette flow, aiming to find the preferable configuration that delivers better accuracy and efficiency. The major findings are as follows: (1 the C→A region plays the most important role in the overlap region and the “4-layer-1” combination achieves the best precision with a fixed width of the overlap region; (2 the data exchanging operation only needs a few sampling points closer to the occasions of interactions and decreasing the coupling exchange operations can reduce the computational load with acceptable errors; (3 the nonperiodic boundary force model with a smoothing parameter of 0.1 and a finer parameter of 20 can not only achieve the minimum disturbance near the MD-continuum interface but also keep the simulation precision.

  20. Investigation of test methods, material properties, and processes for solar cell encapsulants. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willis, P. B.; Baum, B.; Schnitzer, H. S.

    1980-07-01

    The goal of this program is to identify, evaluate, and recommend encapsulant materials and processes for the production of cost-effective, long-life solar cell modules. Technical activities during the past year have covered a number of topics and have emphasized the development of solar module encapsulation technology that employs ethylene/vinyl acetate, copolymer (EVA) as the pottant. These activities have included: (1) continued production of encapsulation grade EVA in sheet form to meet the needs of the photovoltaic industry; (2) investigations of three non-blocking techniques for EVA sheet; (3) performed an economic analysis of the high volume production of each pottant in order to estimate the large volume selling price (EVA, EPDM, aliphatic urethane, PVC plastisol, and butyl acrylate); (4) initiated an experimental corrosion protection program to determine if metal components could be successfully protected by encapsulation; (5) began an investigation to determine the maximum temperature which can be tolerated by the candidate pottant material in the event of hot spot heating or other temperature override; (6) continuation of surveys of potentially useful outer cover materials; and (7) continued with the accelerated artificial weathering of candidate encapsulation materials. Study results are presented. (WHK)

  1. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  2. INVESTIGATION OF HEALTH EFFECT OF FRUIT JUICE FROM LINGONBERRY (VACCINIUM VITIS - IDEA VIA PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poli Radusheva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antioxidants reduce cell damaging effects of free radicals, they also are used as medications to treat various forms of brain injury. Forest fruits as a lingonberry contain a lot of flavonoids and antioxidant supplements which contribute to the protection of different types of cancers and cardiovascular health problems. Purpose: The aim of this study is to explore the relations between natural fluorescence in juice from lingonberry and its total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity in view of the usefulness of these compounds for human health and hygiene of food. Materials and Methods: For this reason, the juices from lingonberry from the region of Velingrad еnriched with lactulose will be investigated by using optical methods (colour measuring, fluorescence spectroscopy, rheological properties and sensor analysis. It may be an alternative method for quantifying the phenols and vitamins in juice from wild berries. Results: The dependences between chemical parameters, colour characteristics and the ratio between the intensity of emission and the intensity of excitation for exciting wavelength 275 nm have been found. The dependence between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content also exists. Excitation in the UV region is suitable for distinguishing the phenolic content and antioxidant compounds. The most suitable wavelengths found to be 265 nm and 275 nm. Lingonberry juices with lactulose exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour and Ostwald-de-Waele model are applied to calculate its rheological properties. Conclusions: The natural fluorescence of the lingonberry juices was correlated with their antioxidant properties, total phenolic content and lightness. From fluorescence spectra three groups of fluorescence components are determined – phenolic acids, tannins and flavonoids. The obtained results and discussion presented here give the direction for further studies and additional test for validation of the correlation

  3. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  4. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  5. Efficacy and prospects for cryopreserved thyroid gland transplantation as a method for treatment of different forms of primary hypothyroidism including postradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Lyakh, I.A.; Khasiev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was established that auto-and allo transplantation of cryopreserved thyroid is a physiologically well grounded technique of treatment and can be an alternative to substitution hormonotherapy of hypothyroidism and can be a main method of treatment in cases when hormone treatment is not effective or is contraindicated.Talking into account the efficiency of cryopreserved thyroid transplantation in patients with primary hypothyroidism,it is possible to predict its positive effect for c postradiation hypothyroidism treatment,if substitution hormonotherapy is not effective

  6. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  7. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  8. Mofettes - Investigation of Natural CO2 Springs - Insights and Methods applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübben, A.; Leven, C.

    2014-12-01

    The quantification of carbon dioxide concentrations and fluxes leaking from the subsurface into the atmosphere is highly relevant in several research fields such as climate change, CCS, volcanic activity, or earthquake monitoring. Many of the areas with elevated carbon dioxide degassing pose the problem that under the given situation a systematic investigation of the relevant processes is only possible to a limited extent (e.g. in terms of spatial extent, accessibility, hazardous conditions). The upper Neckar valley in Southwest Germany is a region of enhanced natural subsurface CO2 concentrations and mass fluxes of Tertiary volcanic origin. At the beginning of the twentieth century several companies started industrial mining of CO2. The decreasing productivity of the CO2 springs led to the complete shutdown of the industry in 1995 and the existing boreholes were sealed. However, there are evidences that the reservoir, located in the deposits of the Lower Triassic, started to refill during the last 20 years. The CO2 springs replenished and a variety of different phenomena (e.g. mofettes and perished flora and fauna) indicate the active process of large scale CO2 exhalation. This easy-to-access site serves as a perfect example for a natural analog to a leaky CCS site, including abandoned boreholes and a suitable porous rock reservoir in the subsurface. During extensive field campaigns we applied several monitoring techniques like measurements of soil gas concentrations, mass fluxes, electrical resistivity, as well as soil and atmospheric parameters. The aim was to investigate and quantify mass fluxes and the effect of variations in e.g. temperature, soil moisture on the mass flux intensity. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of the vicinity to a mofette on soil parameters like electrical conductivity and soil CO2 concentrations. In times of a changing climate due to greenhouse gases, regions featuring natural CO2 springs demand to be intensively investigated

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE TOTAL ORGANIC HALOGEN ANALYTICAL METHOD AT THE WASTE SAMPLING CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY (WSCF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOUGLAS JG; MEZNARICH HD, PHD; OLSEN JR; ROSS GA; STAUFFER M

    2008-01-01

    Total organic halogen (TOX) is used as a parameter to screen groundwater samples at the Hanford Site. Trending is done for each groundwater well, and changes in TOX and other screening parameters can lead to costly changes in the monitoring protocol. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) analyzes groundwater samples for TOX using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) SW-846 method 9020B (EPA 1996a). Samples from the Soil and Groundwater Remediation Project (S and GRP) are submitted to the WSCF for analysis without information regarding the source of the sample; each sample is in essence a 'blind' sample to the laboratory. Feedback from the S and GRP indicated that some of the WSCF-generated TOX data from groundwater wells had a number of outlier values based on the historical trends (Anastos 2008a). Additionally, analysts at WSCF observed inconsistent TOX results among field sample replicates. Therefore, the WSCF lab performed an investigation of the TOX analysis to determine the cause of the outlier data points. Two causes were found that contributed to generating out-of-trend TOX data: (1) The presence of inorganic chloride in the groundwater samples: at inorganic chloride concentrations greater than about 10 parts per million (ppm), apparent TOX values increase with increasing chloride concentration. A parallel observation is the increase in apparent breakthrough of TOX from the first to the second activated-carbon adsorption tubes with increasing inorganic chloride concentration. (2) During the sample preparation step, excessive purging of the adsorption tubes with oxygen pressurization gas after sample loading may cause channeling in the activated-carbon bed. This channeling leads to poor removal of inorganic chloride during the subsequent wash step with aqueous potassium nitrate. The presence of this residual inorganic chloride then produces erroneously high TOX values. Changes in sample preparation were studied to more

  10. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

  11. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  12. Whither RDS? An investigation of Respondent Driven Sampling as a method of recruiting mainstream marijuana users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousineau Marie-Marthe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important challenge in conducting social research of specific relevance to harm reduction programs is locating hidden populations of consumers of substances like cannabis who typically report few adverse or unwanted consequences of their use. Much of the deviant, pathologized perception of drug users is historically derived from, and empirically supported, by a research emphasis on gaining ready access to users in drug treatment or in prison populations with higher incidence of problems of dependence and misuse. Because they are less visible, responsible recreational users of illicit drugs have been more difficult to study. Methods This article investigates Respondent Driven Sampling (RDS as a method of recruiting experienced marijuana users representative of users in the general population. Based on sampling conducted in a multi-city study (Halifax, Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver, and compared to samples gathered using other research methods, we assess the strengths and weaknesses of RDS recruitment as a means of gaining access to illicit substance users who experience few harmful consequences of their use. Demographic characteristics of the sample in Toronto are compared with those of users in a recent household survey and a pilot study of Toronto where the latter utilized nonrandom self-selection of respondents. Results A modified approach to RDS was necessary to attain the target sample size in all four cities (i.e., 40 'users' from each site. The final sample in Toronto was largely similar, however, to marijuana users in a random household survey that was carried out in the same city. Whereas well-educated, married, whites and females in the survey were all somewhat overrepresented, the two samples, overall, were more alike than different with respect to economic status and employment. Furthermore, comparison with a self-selected sample suggests that (even modified RDS recruitment is a cost-effective way of

  13. An investigation on characterizing dense coal-water slurry with ultrasound: theoretical and experimental method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, M.H.; Su, M.X.; Dong, L.L.; Shang, Z.T.; Cai, X.S. [Shanghai University of Science & Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2010-07-01

    Particle size distribution and concentration in particulate two-phase flow are important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of online characterization in dense coal-water slurries, ultrasonic methods have many advantages such as avoiding dilution, the capability for being used in real time, and noninvasive testing, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods often require the slurry to be diluted. In this article, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine the concentration by means of the measurement of ultrasonic velocity in a coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of theoretical analysis and experimental study. A combination of the coupled-phase model and the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer law is employed in this work, and the attenuation spectrum is measured within the frequency region from 3 to 12 MHz. Particle size distributions of the coal-water slurry at different volume fractions are obtained with the optimum regularization technique. Therefore, the ultrasonic technique presented in this work brings the possibility of using ultrasound for online measurements of dense slurries.

  14. 8-channel system for neutron-nuclear investigations by time-of-flight method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvetsov, V.N.; Enik, T.L.; Mitsyna, L.V.; Popov, A.B.; Salamatin, I.M.; Sedyshev, P.V.; Sirotin, A.P.; Astakhova, N.V.; Salamatin, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In connection with commissioning of the IREN pulsed resonance neutron source, new electronics and appropriate software are developed for registration of time-of-flight spectra with small width of the channel (10 ns). The hardware-software system is intended for research of the IREN neutron beam characteristics, properties of new detectors, and also for performance of precision experiments under conditions of low intensity or registration of rare events. The time encoder is the key element of the system hardware. It is developed on the basis of the Cypress-technologies. The unit can measure time intervals for signals intensity up to 10 5 for each of eight inputs. Using a USB interface provides system mobility. The TOF System Software includes the control program, driver software layer, data sorting program and data processing utilities and other units, performed as executable applications. The interprocess communication between units is provided by network and/or by specially designed interface based on the mechanism of named files mapped into memory. This method provides fastest possible communication between processes. The developed methods of integrating the executable components into a system provide a distributed system, improve the reusing of the software and provide the ability to assemble the system by the user

  15. Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Kungaelv (Sweden); Ohlsson, Yvonne [SWECO VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    This report comprises a strategy for the handling of laboratory investigations of diffusivity and sorption characteristics within the discipline-specific programme 'Transport Properties of the Rock' in the SKB site investigations. The aim of the transport programme is to investigate the solute transport properties at a site in order to acquire data that are required for an assessment of the long-term performance and radiological safety of the deep repository. The result of the transport programme is the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the site-specific properties for the transport of solutes in the groundwater at a site. A strategy for the methodology, control of sampling and characterisation programme and interpretation of the results, is proposed. The basis for the laboratory investigations is a conceptual geological model based on the geological model produced in the geology programme. Major and minor types of rock and fractures are defined and characterised according to the quality of the general database and site-specific needs. The selection of samples and analyses is determined in close co-operation with the geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics programmes. The result of the laboratory investigations is a retardation model, which is used as an input in the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model. The interpretation and production of a retardation model is described and exemplified. Lastly, method-specific strategies and recommendations are given, including strategies for the selection of tracers in the experiments and for the treatment of the sampled geologic materials.

  16. Investigation of major international and Turkish companies via hierarchical methods and bootstrap approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, E.; Deviren, B.; Keskin, M.

    2011-11-01

    We present a study, within the scope of econophysics, of the hierarchical structure of 98 among the largest international companies including 18 among the largest Turkish companies, namely Banks, Automobile, Software-hardware, Telecommunication Services, Energy and the Oil-Gas sectors, viewed as a network of interacting companies. We analyze the daily time series data of the Boerse-Frankfurt and Istanbul Stock Exchange. We examine the topological properties among the companies over the period 2006-2010 by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (the minimal spanning tree (MST) and the hierarchical tree (HT)). The period is divided into three subperiods, namely 2006-2007, 2008 which was the year of global economic crisis, and 2009-2010, in order to test various time-windows and observe temporal evolution. We carry out bootstrap analyses to associate the value of statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use average linkage clustering analysis (ALCA) in order to better observe the cluster structure. From these studies, we find that the interactions among the Banks/Energy sectors and the other sectors were reduced after the global economic crisis; hence the effects of the Banks and Energy sectors on the correlations of all companies were decreased. Telecommunication Services were also greatly affected by the crisis. We also observed that the Automobile and Banks sectors, including Turkish companies as well as some companies from the USA, Japan and Germany were strongly correlated with each other in all periods.

  17. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  18. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Study protocol: the empirical investigation of methods to correct for measurement error in biobanks with dietary assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson Lindsey F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Public Population Project in Genomics (P3G is an organisation that aims to promote collaboration between researchers in the field of population-based genomics. The main objectives of P3G are to encourage collaboration between researchers and biobankers, optimize study design, promote the harmonization of information use in biobanks, and facilitate transfer of knowledge between interested parties. The importance of calibration and harmonisation of methods for environmental exposure assessment to allow pooling of data across studies in the evaluation of gene-environment interactions has been recognised by P3G, which has set up a methodological group on calibration with the aim of; 1 reviewing the published methodological literature on measurement error correction methods with assumptions and methods of implementation; 2 reviewing the evidence available from published nutritional epidemiological studies that have used a calibration approach; 3 disseminating information in the form of a comparison chart on approaches to perform calibration studies and how to obtain correction factors in order to support research groups collaborating within the P3G network that are unfamiliar with the methods employed; 4 with application to the field of nutritional epidemiology, including gene-diet interactions, ultimately developing a inventory of the typical correction factors for various nutrients. Methods/Design Systematic review of (a the methodological literature on methods to correct for measurement error in epidemiological studies; and (b studies that have been designed primarily to investigate the association between diet and disease and have also corrected for measurement error in dietary intake. Discussion The conduct of a systematic review of the methodological literature on calibration will facilitate the evaluation of methods to correct for measurement error and the design of calibration studies for the prospective pooling of

  20. Investigation of toxigenic potential of fungal species by the use of simple screening method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bočarov-Stančić Aleksandra S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential for the biosynthesis of aflatoxin B1 (AFLB1, ochratoxin A (OTA, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS, T-2 toxin (T2, and zearalenone (ZON was investigated in different fungal species belonging to the genera: Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium. The majority of investigated isolates originated from cereal grains, crushed oil soybean seed and fodder mixtures. The simple screening method developed by Filtenborg et al. (1983 was applied with few modifications concerning the type of the medium and cultivation temperature. In order to optimise the biosynthetic conditions for different mycotoxins, the following control cultures, known as mycotin producers were used: OTA - A. ochraceus CBS 108.08, DAS - F. semitectum (SL-B i SL-C, T2 - F. sporotrichioides (ITM-391, M-1-1, R-2301 and ZON - F. graminearum (GZ-LES. The fungi were cultivated on the standard medium (YESA - 2% yeast extract, 15% sucrose and 2% agar, pH 6.5, three modifications of the basic medium (YESAZn - the standard medium supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O; PPSA - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1; PPSAZn - the medium in which yeast extract was replaced with peptone-1 and supplemented with 0.23 mg/l ZnSO4 x 5 H2O, and the potato-dextrose agar (PDA. The earlier biosynthesis of tested mycotoxins was recorded under the following cultivation conditions of fungal species: AFLB1 - after 14 days on PDA at 27±1°C, OTA - after 10 days on YESA and YESAZn at 27±1°C, DAS - after 10 days on PPSA and PPSAZn at 27±1°C, T2 - after 7 days on PPSAZn and PPSA at room temperature (20-24°C, and ZON - after 1 week on YESA and YESAZn at room temperature (21-24°C.