WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods initiative development

  1. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  2. Model films of cellulose. I. Method development and initial results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunnars, S.; Wågberg, L.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new method for the preparation of thin cellulose films. NMMO (N- methylmorpholine- N-oxide) was used to dissolve cellulose and addition of DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) was used to control viscosity of the cellulose solution. A thin layer of the cellulose solution is spin- coated

  3. The Development of a Strategic Prioritisation Method for Green Supply Chain Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumik, S Maryam; Abdul-Rashid, Salwa Hanim; Olugu, Ezutah Udoncy

    2015-01-01

    To maintain a competitive position, companies are increasingly required to integrate their proactive environmental strategies into their business strategies. The shift from reactive and compliance-based to proactive and strategic environmental management has driven companies to consider the strategic factors while identifying the areas in which they should focus their green initiatives. In previous studies little attention was given to providing the managers with a basis from which they could strategically prioritise these green initiatives across their companies' supply chains. Considering this lacuna in the literature, we present a decision-making method for prioritising green supply chain initiatives aligned with the preferred green strategies alternatives for the manufacturing companies. To develop this method, the study considered a position between determinism and the voluntarism orientation of environmental management involving both external pressures and internal competitive drivers and key resources as decision factors. This decision-making method was developed using the analytic network process (ANP) technique. The elements of the decision model were derived from the literature. The causal relationships among the multiple decision variables were validated based on the results of structural equation modelling (SEM) using a dataset collected from a survey of the ISO 14001-certified manufacturers in Malaysia. A portion of the relative weights required for computation in ANP was also calculated using the SEM results. A case study is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the method.

  4. Development and verification of an efficient spatial neutron kinetics method for reactivity-initiated event analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hideaki; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2001-01-01

    A space/time nodal diffusion code based on the nodal expansion method (NEM), EPISODE, was developed in order to evaluate transient neutron behavior in light water reactor cores. The present code employs the improved quasistatic (IQS) method for spatial neutron kinetics, and neutron flux distribution is numerically obtained by solving the neutron diffusion equation with the nonlinear iteration scheme to achieve fast computation. A predictor-corrector (PC) method developed in the present study enabled to apply a coarse time mesh to the transient spatial neutron calculation than that applicable in the conventional IQS model, which improved computational efficiency further. Its computational advantage was demonstrated by applying to the numerical benchmark problems that simulate reactivity-initiated events, showing reduction of computational times up to a factor of three than the conventional IQS. The thermohydraulics model was also incorporated in EPISODE, and the capability of realistic reactivity event analyses was verified using the SPERT-III/E-Core experimental data. (author)

  5. Game method application efficiency for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfia Deineko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to prove the effectiveness of using the game method for speed and power capability development of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage. Material & Methods: in the article the materials of the research that was carried out with the help of pedagogical testing of trampoliners of 7–8 years on the basis of the Children and Youth Sports School No. 7, Trampoline Department of Kharkov. Results: conducted pedagogical experiment showed the effectiveness of the developed methodology for the development of speed-strength abilities of trampoline athletes at the initial training stage using the game method. Conclusion: results of the experiment confirm the importance of the use of the game method for the development of speed-strength abilities in the initial training of young trampolines, which further affects the level of their technical preparedness and the effectiveness of competition activities.

  6. Method of development force at the young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khudolii O.N.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The terms of effective development of force are considered for young gymnasts on the stages of initial and specialized preparation. The models of urgent and moved aside training effect of the power loadings are certain for young gymnasts 7-13 years. It is set that the process of power preparation of young gymnasts can be separate on two stages. On the first stage by means of the concentrated power loadings the expressed decline of force of group of muscles is arrived at. On the second stage by means of favourable a display maximal efforts of loadings the increase of force of group of muscles is arrived at. Application of the power loadings of different orientation is given by possibility during 10-12 employments on 30-60% to increase force of group of muscles, shorten time of training on development of force in two times.

  7. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  8. Observations of Fabric Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Basal Pressures: Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Baker, I.; Cole, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests on a 917 kg m-3 polycrystalline ice specimen at 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure, thus simulating ~2,000 m depth. Initial specimen grain orientations were random, typical grain diameters were 1.2 mm, and the applied creep stress was 0.3 MPa. Subsequent microstructural analyses on the deformed specimen and a similarly prepared, undeformed specimen allowed characterization of crystal fabric evolution under pressure. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collected grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtained crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and full c- and a-axis grain orientation data. The combined creep and microstructural data demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, and future directions for hydrostatic creep testing.

  9. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  10. Tiamulin activity against fastidious and nonfastidious veterinary and human bacterial isolates: initial development of in vitro susceptibility test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ronald N; Pfaller, Michael A; Rhomberg, Paul R; Walter, Donald H

    2002-02-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin derivative used in veterinary practice for the control and specific therapy of infections in swine. This report summarizes studies to establish standardized susceptibility testing methods, interpretive criteria, and reagent details for use in veterinary methods recently developed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) (standards M31-A and M37-A, NCCLS, Wayne, Pa., 1999). A total of 636 fastidious and nonfastidious animal and human pathogens were processed by using media and procedures described by the NCCLS. Tiamulin disk diffusion tests used a 30-microg disk concentration, and the proposed MIC breakpoints corresponding to levels achievable in animal target tissues (lung) were or =32 microg/ml for resistance. Correlate zone diameters for specific nonfastidious species were as follows: for Pasteurella multocida and staphylococci tested on Mueller-Hinton agar, susceptibility at > or =19 mm and resistance at or =16 mm and resistance at or =9 mm) was suggested for veterinary fastidious medium broth and enriched chocolate Mueller-Hinton agar. Absolute categorical agreement between NCCLS dilution and disk diffusion test results with these criteria ranged from 90.5 to 96.2%. Tiamulin susceptibility testing methods appear to be accurate in their categorical classification for indicated species, and their availability will allow immediate testing of animal isolates to guide therapy via appropriate levels of dosing and to monitor the development of resistance for agents in this unique class.

  11. Initiation disruptor systems and methods of initiation disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Dennis W

    2014-09-23

    A system that may be used as an initiation disruption system (IDS) according to one embodiment includes an explosive charge; a plurality of particles in a layer at least partially surrounding the explosive charge; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles. A method for disabling an object according to one embodiment includes placing the system as recited above near an object; and causing the explosive charge to initiate, thereby applying mechanical loading to the object such that the object becomes disabled. Additional systems and methods are also presented. A device according to another embodiment includes a plurality of particles bound by a binder thereby defining a sidewall having an interior for receiving an explosive; and a fire suppressant adjacent the plurality of particles and binder. Additional systems and methods are also presented.

  12. Development of a Rapid Cartilage Damage Quantification Method for the Lateral Tibiofemoral Compartment Using Magnetic Resonance Images: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to expand and validate the cartilage damage index (CDI to detect cartilage damage in the lateral tibiofemoral compartment. We used an iterative 3-step process to develop and validate the lateral CDI: development (100 knees, testing (80 knees, and validation (100 knees. The validation set included 100 knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative that was enriched to include all grades of lateral joint space narrowing (JSN, 0–3. Measurement of the CDI was rapid at 7.4 (s.d. 0.73 minutes per knee pair (baseline and follow-up of one knee. The intratester reliability is good (intraclass correlation coefficient (3, 1 model = 0.86 to 0.98. At baseline, knees with greater KL grade and lateral JSN had a lower mean CDI (i.e., greater cartilage damage. Baseline lateral CDI is associated with both lateral JSW (r=0.81 to 0.85, p<0.01 and HKA (r=-0.30 to −0.33, p<0.05. The SRM is good (lateral femur SRM = −0.76; lateral tibia SRM = −0.73; lateral tibiofemoral total SRM = −0.87. The lateral tibiofemoral CDI quantification allows for rapid evaluation and is reliable and responsive, with good construct validity. It may be an efficient method to measure lateral tibiofemoral articular cartilage in large clinical and epidemiologic studies.

  13. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project

  14. New method for initial density reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yanlong; Cautun, Marius; Li, Baojiu

    2018-01-01

    A theoretically interesting and practically important question in cosmology is the reconstruction of the initial density distribution provided a late-time density field. This is a long-standing question with a revived interest recently, especially in the context of optimally extracting the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) signals from observed galaxy distributions. We present a new efficient method to carry out this reconstruction, which is based on numerical solutions to the nonlinear partial differential equation that governs the mapping between the initial Lagrangian and final Eulerian coordinates of particles in evolved density fields. This is motivated by numerical simulations of the quartic Galileon gravity model, which has similar equations that can be solved effectively by multigrid Gauss-Seidel relaxation. The method is based on mass conservation, and does not assume any specific cosmological model. Our test shows that it has a performance comparable to that of state-of-the-art algorithms that were very recently put forward in the literature, with the reconstructed density field over ˜80 % (50%) correlated with the initial condition at k ≲0.6 h /Mpc (1.0 h /Mpc ). With an example, we demonstrate that this method can significantly improve the accuracy of BAO reconstruction.

  15. Informing the development of services supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health conditions: a mixed method study of community based mental health initiatives in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Gillard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supporting self-care is being explored across health care systems internationally as an approach to improving care for long term conditions in the context of ageing populations and economic constraint. UK health policy advocates a range of approaches to supporting self-care, including the application of generic self-management type programmes across conditions. Within mental health, the scope of self-care remains poorly conceptualised and the existing evidence base for supporting self-care is correspondingly disparate. This paper aims to inform the development of support for self-care in mental health by considering how generic self-care policy guidance is implemented in the context of services supporting people with severe, long term mental health problems. Methods A mixed method study was undertaken comprising standardised psychosocial measures, questionnaires about health service use and qualitative interviews with 120 new referrals to three contrasting community based initiatives supporting self-care for severe, long term mental health problems, repeated nine months later. A framework approach was taken to qualitative analysis, an exploratory statistical analysis sought to identify possible associations between a range of independent variables and self-care outcomes, and a narrative synthesis brought these analyses together. Results Participants reported improvement in self-care outcomes (e.g. greater empowerment; less use of Accident and Emergency services. These changes were not associated with level of engagement with self-care support. Level of engagement was associated with positive collaboration with support staff. Qualitative data described the value of different models of supporting self-care and considered challenges. Synthesis of analyses suggested that timing support for self-care, giving service users control over when and how they accessed support, quality of service user-staff relationships and decision

  16. NECTAR: initiatives and development 2008-2016

    OpenAIRE

    Dimmock, Nick; Hibbert, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    A poster illustrating the development of NECTAR, the University of Northampton's research repository, since its launch in 2008. Key initiatives and projects are highlighted, along with statistics on deposit activity and downloads.

  17. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Open Data for Development program's global network will facilitate and scale innovative approaches to open data to ensure benefits reach citizens in developing countries. Combining research and action to address scaling and sustainability of open data for development initiatives is key to the network's success.

  18. Understanding the Sustainability of Private Development Initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsbergen, Sara; Schulpen, Lau; Ruben, Ruerd

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there is a large group of small-scale, voluntary development organisations, referred to as Private Development Initiatives (PDIs). By classifying PDI interventions based on their potential sustainability, we aim to enhance our understanding of PDIs as alternative development

  19. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Research Chairs Initiative pairs top research talent from universities in Canada with their counterparts in developing countries to address key development challenges. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us · Subscribe · Unsubscribe · Site map. Follow us; Facebook · Twitter ...

  20. Developing Skills in Counselling and Psychotherapy: A Scoping Review of Interpersonal Process Recall and Reflecting Team Methods in Initial Therapist Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekums, Bonnie; Macaskie, Jane; Kapur, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The authors conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed literature associated with Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR) and Reflecting Team (RT) methods in order to find evidence for their use within skills development in therapist trainings. Inclusion criteria were: empirical research, reviews of empirical research, and responses to these; RT…

  1. How Agile Methods Inspire Project Management - The Half Double Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeager, Lise Tordrup; Svejvig, Per; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    Increased complexity in projects has forced new project management initiatives. In software development several agile methods have emerged and are today highly implemented in practice. Observations of general project management practice show how it has been inspired by agile software development......, but very little research addresses the issue of agile project management. In order to understand and to provide suggestions for future practice on how agility can be incorporated in general project management, this paper provides an analysis which compares ten characteristics of agile software development...... (identified in theory) and the Half Double Methodology developed by the Danish Project Half Double initiative; a Methodology developed with practitioners and tested in seven Danish case companies. The analysis shows how the general project management to a great extent has been inspired by agile methods...

  2. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Science Granting Councils Initiative in Sub-Saharan Africa is focused on strengthening the capacities of science granting councils in order to support research and evidence-based policies that will contribute to economic and social development in Sub-Saharan Africa. We fund researchers driving global change.

  3. African Initiated Churches’ potential as development actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Öhlmann

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available African Initiated Churches (AICs are not yet recognised as relevant actors of community development interventions. While it has been acknowledged that many of them provide coping mechanisms in adverse environments, support in social transformation and social capital, little information is available on their role as development actors. In this article, we evaluate the potential of AICs as partners of international development agencies for community development. We draw on interviews and focus group discussions with leaders of various AICs conducted in South Africa in February and March 2016. In particular, we examine the churches’ understanding of development, their view on the separation of spiritual and development activities and their priorities. Moreover, we outline the development activities which they are currently engaged in and analyse the structures they have in place to do so. Our findings indicate that AICs are increasingly active in community development and offer various entry points for possible cooperation.

  4. Initial value methods for boundary value problems

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Gunter H

    1973-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  5. An initial investigation on developing a new method to predict short-term breast cancer risk based on deep learning technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yuchen; Wang, Yunzhi; Yan, Shiju; Tan, Maxine; Cheng, Samuel; Liu, Hong; Zheng, Bin

    2016-03-01

    In order to establish a new personalized breast cancer screening paradigm, it is critically important to accurately predict the short-term risk of a woman having image-detectable cancer after a negative mammographic screening. In this study, we developed and tested a novel short-term risk assessment model based on deep learning method. During the experiment, a number of 270 "prior" negative screening cases was assembled. In the next sequential ("current") screening mammography, 135 cases were positive and 135 cases remained negative. These cases were randomly divided into a training set with 200 cases and a testing set with 70 cases. A deep learning based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme was then developed for the risk assessment, which consists of two modules: adaptive feature identification module and risk prediction module. The adaptive feature identification module is composed of three pairs of convolution-max-pooling layers, which contains 20, 10, and 5 feature maps respectively. The risk prediction module is implemented by a multiple layer perception (MLP) classifier, which produces a risk score to predict the likelihood of the woman developing short-term mammography-detectable cancer. The result shows that the new CAD-based risk model yielded a positive predictive value of 69.2% and a negative predictive value of 74.2%, with a total prediction accuracy of 71.4%. This study demonstrated that applying a new deep learning technology may have significant potential to develop a new short-term risk predicting scheme with improved performance in detecting early abnormal symptom from the negative mammograms.

  6. The Ramakrishna Mission economic PV development initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, J.L.; Ullal, H.S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sherring, C. [Sherring Energy Associates, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    India is the world`s second most populous country, quickly approaching one billion persons. Although it has a well-developed electricity grid, many of the people have little or no access to electricity and all of the benefits associated with it. There are areas that are isolated from the grid and will not be connected for many years, if ever. One such area is the Sundarbans located in the delta region of the two great rivers, the Ganges and Brahmaputra, partially in India and partially in Bangladesh. It is estimated that 1.5 million people live in this area, crisscrossed by many islands and rivers, who have only marginal supplies of electricity generated primarily from diesel generators and batteries. Working with the regional non-governmental organization (NGO), the Ramakrishna Mission, and the West Bengal Renewable Energy Development Agency, the governments of India and the US initiated a rural electrification initiative to demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of photovoltaics to provide limited supplies of electricity for such applications as solar home lighting systems (SHS), water pumping, vaccine refrigeration, communications, and economic development activities. This paper details initial results from approximately 30 kilowatts of PV systems installed in the area, including socio-economic impacts and technical performance.

  7. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette

    2008-01-01

    The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...... research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development...

  8. Initial developments in the Stanford SQUIRT program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts, Christopher A.; Twiggs, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    Stanford University's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics has commenced full scale development of a new microsatellite initiative. Known as the satellite quick research testbed (SQUIRT) program, the project's goal is to produce student engineered satellites capable of servicing state-of-the-art research payloads on a yearly basis. This program is specifically designed to meet the education and research goals of the department's Satellite Systems Development Laboratory. SQUIRT vehicles are envisioned to consist of a 25 pound, 9 inch tall, 16 inch diameter hexagonal structure with complete processor, communications, power, thermal, and attitude subsystems. These spacecraft cater to low power, volume, and mass research experiments and student developed educational packages. Mission lifetimes of up to one year are considered. Through student participation, voluntary mentoring from the academic and industrial communities, and the extensive use of off-the-shelf components, the cash outlay target for SQUIRT class vehicles is $50,000. This paper discusses the educational and research issues surrounding the development of Stanford's spacecraft design curriculum and the formulation of the SQUIRT program. A technical review of the first SQUIRT satellite, named SAPPHIRE, and an outline of the conceptual plans for other missions is also presented. Additionally, initiatives concerning partner academic institutions and public domain design information are featured.

  9. A Non–Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. Methods: A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Results: Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the

  10. A Non-Gas-Based Cryotherapy System for the Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Mixed-Methods Approach for Initial Development and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Miriam; Paul, Proma; Bergman, Katie; Haas, Michael; Maza, Mauricio; Zevallos, Albert; Ossandon, Miguel; Garai, Jillian D; Winkler, Jennifer L

    2017-03-24

    Gas-based cryotherapy is the most widely used treatment strategy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in low-resource settings, but reliance on gas presents challenges in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our team adapted the original CryoPen Cryosurgical System, a cryotherapy device that does not require compressed gas and is powered by electricity, for use in LMICs. A mixed-methods approach was used involving both qualitative and quantitative methods. First, we used a user-centered design approach to identify priority features of the adapted device. U.S.-based and global potential users of the adapted CryoPen participated in discussion groups and a card sorting activity to rank 7 features of the adapted CryoPen: cost, durability, efficacy and safety, maintenance, no need for electricity, patient throughput, and portability. Mean and median rankings, overall rankings, and summary rankings by discussion group were generated. In addition, results of several quantitative tests were analyzed including bench testing to determine tip temperature and heat extraction capabilities; a pathology review of CIN grade 3 cases (N=107) to determine target depth of necrosis needed to achieve high efficacy; and a pilot study (N=5) investigating depth of necrosis achieved with the adapted device to assess efficacy. Discussion groups revealed 4 priority themes for device development in addition to the need to ensure high efficacy and safety and low cost: improved portability, durability, ease of use, and potential for cure. Adaptions to the original CryoPen system included a single-core, single-tip model; rugged carrying case; custom circuit to allow car battery charging; and sterilization by high-level disinfection. In bench testing, there were no significant differences in tip temperature or heat extraction capability between the adapted CryoPen and the standard cryotherapy device. In 80% of the cases in the pilot study, the adapted CryoPen achieved the target depth

  11. Selecting The Best Initial Method For A Transportation Problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is concerned with determining the best initial method for a transportation problem. Seven initial methods are considered and compared. One is a new method that has not been reported in the literature. Comparison is done on the basis of the number of iterations required to reach the final solution if the concerned ...

  12. Oil for development initiative annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, Oil for Development continued to develop its role as a key actor within the field of petroleum related development assistance. Five years after the programme started, we experience a steady demand for our product, which is to provide advice and competence building within petroleum sector management. Our cooperating partners are government agencies and to a lesser extent civil society organizations and parliamentary committees.Main trends in 2010 include the following: OfD continued to be a high priority programme in Norwegian development cooperation. The budget spending was Nok 222 million, 15 million higher than in 2009. The programme provided tailor made assistance to more than 20 countries, taking a holistic approach towards petroleum sector management. This implies that resource management, revenue management and environmental management are addressed in a coordinated manner, and that principles of good governance, such as anti-corruption, transparency and accountability, are cross-cutting. The funding for regional initiatives and South-South cooperation was doubled. (au)

  13. Oil for development initiative annual report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2010, Oil for Development continued to develop its role as a key actor within the field of petroleum related development assistance. Five years after the programme started, we experience a steady demand for our product, which is to provide advice and competence building within petroleum sector management. Our cooperating partners are government agencies and to a lesser extent civil society organizations and parliamentary committees.Main trends in 2010 include the following: OfD continued to be a high priority programme in Norwegian development cooperation. The budget spending was Nok 222 million, 15 million higher than in 2009. The programme provided tailor made assistance to more than 20 countries, taking a holistic approach towards petroleum sector management. This implies that resource management, revenue management and environmental management are addressed in a coordinated manner, and that principles of good governance, such as anti-corruption, transparency and accountability, are cross-cutting. The funding for regional initiatives and South-South cooperation was doubled. (au)

  14. How Agile Methods Conquers General Project Management - The Project Half Double Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Svejvig, Per; Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup

    2016-01-01

    Increased complexity in projects has forced new project management initiatives. In software development several agile methods have emerged and methods such as Scrum are today highly implemented in practice. General project management practice has been inspired by agile software development...

  15. Initial and transition cycle development for KALIMER uranium fueled core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Ji; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Jin; Park, Chang Kue

    1998-01-01

    An economic and safe equilibrium Uranium metallic fuelled core having been established, strategic loading schemes for initial and transition cycles to early reach target equilibrium cycles are suggested for U-U and U-Pu transition cycles. An iterative method to find initial core enrichment splits is developed. With non-uniform feed enrichments at the initial core adopted, this iterative method shows KALIMER can reach Uranium equilibrium cycles just after 4 reloads, keeping feed enrichment unchanged from cycle 2. Recycling of self-generated Pu is not sufficient to make KALIMER a pure Pu equilibrium core even after 56 reloads. equilibrium cycles are suggested for U-U and U-Pu transition cycles. An iterative method to find initial core enrichment splits is developed. With non-uniform feed enrichments at the initial core adopted, this iterative method shows KALIMER can reach Uranium equilibrium cycles just after 4 reloads, keeping feed enrichment unchanged from cycle 2. Recycling of self-generated Pu is not sufficient to make KALIMER a pure Pu equilibrium core even after 56 reloads

  16. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Human Capital Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Irola, G.; Glynn, K.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2008, the Human Capital Development (HCD) subprogramme of the U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) has supported the recruitment, education, training, and retention of the next generation of international safeguards professionals to meet the needs of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the United States. Specifically, HCD's efforts respond to data indicating that 82% of safeguards experts at U.S. Laboratories will have left the workforce within 15 years. This paper provides an update on the status of the subprogramme since its last presentation at the IAEA Safeguards Symposium in 2010. It highlights strengthened, integrated efforts in the areas of graduate and post-doctoral fellowships, young and midcareer professional support, short safeguards courses, and university engagement. It also discusses lessons learned from the U.S. experience in safeguards education and training as well as the importance of long-range strategies to develop a cohesive, effective, and efficient human capital development approach. (author)

  17. GEM simulation methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhonov, V.; Veenhof, R.

    2002-01-01

    A review of methods used in the simulation of processes in gas electron multipliers (GEMs) and in the accurate calculation of detector characteristics is presented. Such detector characteristics as effective gas gain, transparency, charge collection and losses have been calculated and optimized for a number of GEM geometries and compared with experiment. A method and a new special program for calculations of detector macro-characteristics such as signal response in a real detector readout structure, and spatial and time resolution of detectors have been developed and used for detector optimization. A detailed development of signal induction on readout electrodes and electronics characteristics are included in the new program. A method for the simulation of charging-up effects in GEM detectors is described. All methods show good agreement with experiment

  18. Initial planning of monorail development in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbakti, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    Medan City is the third largest city in Indonesia after Jakarta and Surabaya. With a total area of 265.10 km2 and a population of 2.1 million people, it is proper that Medan City has operated a mass transportation system, which can accommodate the needs of the city movement. The current transportation system is dominated by a paratransit that has a capacity of 12 passengers. In fact, the data released by Ditlantas Poldasu and the Department of Transportation of Medan City shows that in 2013 the total number of passenger vehicles is 408,877 units, 99% of which are private vehicles, and there are only 1580 public transport. Planning the bus as a public transportation system in the city of Medan who tried to integrate it with the surrounding cities until now has not been done. One of the problems is the overlap of the bus route with existing public transport routes. This raises resistance from organda as an association of public transport operators located in the city of Medan. Bappeda Medan City in the Year 2014 has done the initial planning of monorail development in Medan City. The results of the study show that economically monorail development is feasible to be implemented and does not compete directly with the existing public transport system. This happens because 90% of monorail routes are in median ring road Medan City, which predicted the next 20 years will experience a large loading.

  19. The Privacy Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ): Initial Development and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, Mark H.; Quan-Haase, Anabel; Gwizdka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Privacy has been identified as a key issue in a variety of domains, including electronic commerce and public policy. While there are many discussions of privacy issues from a legal and policy perspective, there is little information on the structure of privacy as a psychometric construct. Our goal is to develop a method for measuring attitudes towards privacy that can guide the design and personalization of services. This paper reports on the development of an initial version of the PAQ. Four...

  20. Organic Marketing Initiatives and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Otto; Sanders, Jürn; Midmore, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Over recent decades, organic farmers have come together to form collective marketing initiatives. To begin with, such schemes were often essential as the only means of finding markets for organic products, but farmers today participate in them to pool ideas, capital and skills, and to collectively increase added value of products and market power in the supply chain. However, Organic Marketing Initiatives (OMIs) are not only initiated and managed by farmers but also by consumers, processors o...

  1. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  2. Sustainable transportation initiatives in developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M J [ed.

    2000-03-01

    The primary goal of the workshop was to share experiences of sustainable transport practices from invited medium-sized cities in Latin America and Asia. The purpose was to learn how sustainable mechanisms have been incorporated into national planning and implementation systems. Emphasis was given to understand what concrete mechanism work to promote sustainable transport in the selected projects. The workshop included participation of transport economics and engineers, policy makers and policy-advisors, and key representatives from the transportation government and non-governmental sector in El Salvador. Among participants there were also members from academia, private consultants and international NGOs. The workshop provided a basis for outreach in terms of directly informing participants on the specific experiences brought in by the participating countries. The Workshop set out to address the following main objectives: To demonstrate successful examples of transportation initiatives that show positive sustainable economic, environmental and social benefits in selected developing countries; To provide a forum for discussion of sustainable transport paths; To develop a network for information exchange and capacity building; To gather information on concrete mechanisms to promote sustainable transportation; To demonstrate efficient mechanisms and tools for collection and analysis of data in transport; To create an inventory of success stories and alternative visions for the future. Several institutions collaborated in organising the event: the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG-Sri Lanka), The Peace and Development Research Group from Goeteborg University and institutions within El Salvador: Centro Salvadeoreno de Tecnologia Apropiada (CESTA), and the Climate Change Communication office of the Ministry of Environment in Salvador. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions that took place at the workshop in San Salvador. The agenda

  3. General Case in Determining Center-To-Center Spacing Between the Screw and the Roller in a Roller Drive, and Initial Contact Point of Their Mating Thread Turns. Development of Calculation Method and Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Blinov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important trends in development of machine engineering is to improve load capacity of mechanisms, assemblies and parts without increasing their overall dimensions and weight. This is also relevant to the most promising items so far, i.e. orbital roller drives (ORD, which are the rotational-to-progressive motion converters widely used in vehicles. The previously published article suggested increasing a load capacity (by about 15% through reducing a thread turn section angle of the threaded ORD components and change of the radius of roller thread turn section outline. Due to such ORD modification, a number of the most critical ORD parameters are to be changed thereby demanding further research. Further, the article published suggests a method considering the abovementioned changes to calculate the dimensions of ORD main components and their tolerance ranges.Though this method being not complete as the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing in relation to its rated value, required for assembly, is unknown; and to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment, outer diameters of the roller and screw threads are to be known. Hence, these two methods are interconnected.This article presents the numerical calculation method, mathematical support and method to determine the increment of ORD center-to-center spacing and initial contact point of the mating roller and screw thread turns. Due to considerable scope of calculations, the method was turned into the software.Similar calculation methods and techniques were developed to a particular case, where the thread turn section angle of the threaded components was of 90°, and the roller thread turn section outline was a circular arc centered to the roller axis. Hence the developed numerical calculation method, mathematical support and technique refer to the general case which is to determine the ORD center-to-center spacing increment and initial contact point of the mating roller

  4. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    View all initiatives. You are looking at projects supported by The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation. Displaying 1 - 2 of 2. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women. Initiative. Women around the world increasingly participate in economic activities, but they continue to face significant challenges in pursuing better ...

  5. Initialization methods and ensembles generation for the IPSL GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labetoulle, Sonia; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Denvil, Sébastien; Masson, Sébastien

    2010-05-01

    The protocol used and developments made for decadal and seasonal predictability studies at IPSL (Paris, France) are presented. The strategy chosen is to initialize the IPSL-CM5 (NEMO ocean and LMDZ atmosphere) model only at the ocean-atmosphere interface, following the guidance and expertise gained from ocean-only NEMO experiments. Two novel approaches are presented for initializing the coupled system. First, a nudging of sea surface temperature and wind stress towards available reanalysis is made with the surface salinity climatologically restored. Second, the heat, salt and momentum fluxes received by the ocean model are computed as a linear combination of the fluxes computed by the atmospheric model and by a CORE-style bulk formulation using up-to-date reanalysis. The steps that led to these choices are presented, as well as a description of the code adaptation and a comparison of the computational cost of both methods. The strategy for the generation of ensembles at the end of the initialization phase is also presented. We show how the technical environment of IPSL-CM5 (LibIGCM) was modified to achieve these goals.

  6. Developments in Surrogating Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans van Dormolen

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I would like to talk about the developments in surrogating methods for preservation. My main focus will be on the technical aspects of preservation surrogates. This means that I will tell you something about my job as Quality Manager Microfilming for the Netherlands’ national preservation program, Metamorfoze, which is coordinated by the National Library. I am responsible for the quality of the preservation microfilms, which are produced for Metamorfoze. Firstly, I will elaborate on developments in preservation methods in relation to the following subjects: · Preservation microfilms · Scanning of preservation microfilms · Preservation scanning · Computer Output Microfilm. In the closing paragraphs of this paper, I would like to tell you something about the methylene blue test. This is an important test for long-term storage of preservation microfilms. Also, I will give you a brief report on the Cellulose Acetate Microfilm Conference that was held in the British Library in London, May 2005.

  7. Partners and initiatives | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 1 - 10 of 20 ... A longstanding partner, Global Affairs Canada collaborates with us on maternal and ... Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia ... These investments in scientific breakthroughs will improve the health.

  8. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kazuo; Dojiri, Shigeru; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1988-10-01

    The literature survey was carried out on the amount of natural resources, behaviors in reprocessing process and in separation and recovery methods of the platinum group elements and technetium which are contained in spent fuel. The essential results are described below. (1) The platinum group elements, which are contained in spent fuel, are quantitatively limited, compared with total demand for them in Japan. And estimated separation and recovery cost is rather high. In spite of that, development of these techniques is considered to be very important because the supply of these elements is almost from foreign resources in Japan. (2) For recovery of these elements, studies of recovery from undisolved residue and from high level liquid waste (HLLW) also seem to be required. (3) As separation and recovery methods, following techniques are considered to be effective; lead extraction, liquid metal extraction, solvent extraction, ion-exchange, adsorption, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis or their combination. (4) But each of these methods has both advantages and disadvantages. So development of such processes largely depends on future works. (author) 94 refs

  9. E-Government: Initiatives, Developments, and Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrich, Duncan; Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a background of government efforts to incorporate telecommunication and computer technologies to improve government performance and enhance citizen access to government information and services. Describes this symposium issue which discusses key issues that affect the success and implementation of electronic government initiatives. (LRW)

  10. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Initiative. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential for innovation among the region's smallholder farmers, the majority of whom are women. We fund researchers driving global change. Careers · Contact Us ...

  11. An advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination with too short arc data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binzhe; Fang, Li

    2018-02-01

    This paper studies the initial orbit determination (IOD) based on space-based angle measurement. Commonly, these space-based observations have short durations. As a result, classical initial orbit determination algorithms give poor results, such as Laplace methods and Gauss methods. In this paper, an advanced analysis method of initial orbit determination is developed for space-based observations. The admissible region and triangulation are introduced in the method. Genetic algorithm is also used for adding some constraints of parameters. Simulation results show that the algorithm can successfully complete the initial orbit determination.

  12. Developing versus developed companies in Business Excellence initiatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haffer, Rafal; Kristensen, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports the advance of Polish companies in Business Excellence initiatives. It indicates how these activities influence their performance. EFQM Excellence Model indicators are used as the evaluation criteria for the study. The performance variable is introduced to ensure the calculation...... of correlations between EFQM model indicators and performance results. The data are next estimated as a structural equation model by partial least squares using SmartPLS software (Ringle et al., 2005). That estimation is conducted on the model of the Danish Business Excellence Index methodology (Kristensen et al...... results from the Business Excellence Model as a proxy for actual financial results in Poland. Data and results from a similar study done in Denmark are also described; thus, a comparison between developing Polish companies and developed Danish ones is included. Poland and Denmark are used as cases of...

  13. Improved Fuzzy Art Method for Initializing K-means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinc Ilhan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The K-means algorithm is quite sensitive to the cluster centers selected initially and can perform different clusterings depending on these initialization conditions. Within the scope of this study, a new method based on the Fuzzy ART algorithm which is called Improved Fuzzy ART (IFART is used in the determination of initial cluster centers. By using IFART, better quality clusters are achieved than Fuzzy ART do and also IFART is as good as Fuzzy ART about capable of fast clustering and capability on large scaled data clustering. Consequently, it is observed that, with the proposed method, the clustering operation is completed in fewer steps, that it is performed in a more stable manner by fixing the initialization points and that it is completed with a smaller error margin compared with the conventional K-means.

  14. Distance Learning Plan Development: Initiating Organizational Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poole, Clifton

    1998-01-01

    .... Army distance learning plan managers to examine the DLPs they were directing. The analysis showed that neither army nor civilian distance learning plan managers used formalized requirements for organizational structure development (OSD...

  15. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The International Partnerships for Sustainable Societies are collaborations that produce high-quality research to inform academic, public, and policy debates to contribute to create just, inclusive, and sustainable social and economic development.

  16. Child Soldiers Initiative | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The involvement of children in fighting forces continues to be widespread, undercutting security and blocking development in many fragile states. Failure to prevent children from being recruited - and effectively reintegrate those who have been - results in their continued vulnerability, undermines peace agreements, and ...

  17. View all initiatives | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Livestock Vaccine Innovation Fund (LVIF) seeks to improve the health of livestock and the livelihoods of farmers by supporting the development, production, and commercialization of innovative vaccines against neglected livestock diseases (including poultry) in sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia.

  18. Think Tank Initiative | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The UK Department for International Development. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month. Subscribe · Copyright · Open access policy · Privacy policy · Research ethics ...

  19. Modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibalov, V.; Pietsch, G.

    1998-01-01

    Computer modelling of the initial stage of the surface discharge was performed by solving numerically the coupled continuity, the Poisson and Townsend ionization equations and taking into account the ionization, attachment and detachment processes. The potential distribution at the dielectric surface and at the boundaries which surround the integration region have been calculated with the charge-image method in a 3D approach. In order to eliminate numerical diffusion effects, the solution of the continuity equation was corrected using a flux correction transport routine. At the positive voltage the development of the discharge channel is determined mainly by the shape of the electrode tip. At the negative voltage the following phases of the discharge may be distinguished: the initial phase, the cathode directed streamer phase resulting in the cathode layer formation, and the propagating phase. The physical processes governing each discharge phase are described in detail. (J.U.)

  20. Time Interval to Initiation of Contraceptive Methods Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine factors affecting the interval between a woman's last childbirth and the initiation of contraception. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study. Family planning clinic records of the Barau Dikko Teaching Hospital Kaduna from January 2000 to March 2014 ...

  1. Participatory methods for initiating manufacturing employees' involvement in product innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Jensen, Christian Schou; Broberg, Ole

    2016-01-01

    approach that we apply to two case companies, this paper presents an empirical study of how to initiate involvement of manufacturing employees in R&D activities. We have used participatory methods from design thinking that has the ability to create relations between employees from different backgrounds......Employee-driven innovation has the potential to improve product innovation by involving employees as innovative resources. However, it can be a challenge to turn the potential into a reality of collaboration practices across organizational structures and culture. Through an interactive research...... and through a series of facilitated workshops we have investigated how these methods can initiate employee involvement. We see that participatory methods can improve understanding and relation between R&D and manufacturing departments, and thereby support a creative collaboration and emergence of employee...

  2. A Method of Initial Velocity Measurement for Rocket Projectile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiancheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel method is proposed to measure the initial velocity of the rocket based on STFT (the short-time Fourier transform and the WT (wavelet transform. The radar echo signal processing procedure involves the following steps: sampling process, overlapping windows, wavelet decomposition and reconstruction, computing FFT (Fast Fourier Transform and spectrum analysis, power spectrum peak detection. Then, according to the peak of the detection power spectrum, the corresponding Doppler frequency is obtained. Finally, on the basis of the relationship between Doppler frequency and instantaneous velocity, the V-T curve is drawn in MATLAB to obtain the initial velocity of the rocket muzzle.

  3. Initial investigation into development of accelerated pavement evaluation (APE) vehicle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJvdM

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available n e n t d e f o r m a t i o n [ m m ] Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Test 4 Initial indication of performance Indication of performance after traffic application TR-2003/9: Initial investigation into development of APE vehicle. 6 2... Restricted Contract Report Initial Investigation into Development of Accelerated Pavement Evaluation (APE) Vehicle. Author: WJvdM Steyn M de Beer PREPARED FOR: PREPARED BY: CSIR Transportek STEP CSIR Transportek PO...

  4. Initiatives to Reduce Earthquake Risk of Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. E.

    2008-12-01

    The seventeen-year-and-counting history of the Palo Alto-based nonprofit organization GeoHazards International (GHI) is the story of many initiatives within a larger initiative to increase the societal impact of geophysics and civil engineering. GHI's mission is to reduce death and suffering due to earthquakes and other natural hazards in the world's most vulnerable communities through preparedness, mitigation and advocacy. GHI works by raising awareness in these communities about their risk and about affordable methods to manage it, identifying and strengthening institutions in these communities to manage their risk, and advocating improvement in natural disaster management. Some of GHI's successful initiatives include: (1) creating an earthquake scenario for Quito, Ecuador that describes in lay terms the consequences for that city of a probable earthquake; (2) improving the curricula of Pakistani university courses about seismic retrofitting; (3) training employees of the Public Works Department of Delhi, India on assessing the seismic vulnerability of critical facilities such as a school, a hospital, a police headquarters, and city hall; (4) assessing the vulnerability of the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives in Dharamsala, India; (5) developing a seismic hazard reduction plan for a nonprofit organization in Kathmandu, Nepal that works to manage Nepal's seismic risk; and (6) assisting in the formulation of a resolution by the Council of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to promote school earthquake safety among OECD member countries. GHI's most important resource, in addition to its staff and Board of Trustees, is its members and volunteer advisors, who include some of the world's leading earth scientists, earthquake engineers, urban planners and architects, from the academic, public, private and nonprofit sectors. GHI is planning several exciting initiatives in the near future. One would oversee the design and construction of

  5. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yasuo; Kubota, Masumitsu; Abe, Tadashi; Nagato, Kotaro.

    1991-09-01

    Spent fuels from nuclear power stations contain many useful elements, which can be utilized as heat and irradiation sources, radioisotope, elemental resource, etc. Their recovery from spent fuel and effective uses have the advantages in not only converting the radioactive waste to beneficial resources but also promoting rationalization of the management and disposal of the radioactive wastes. In present study, published literature related to recovery and utilization of useful elements in spent fuel was mainly surveyed, present states and trends in their research and development were analyzed, and their future prospects were conjectured. Research and development on recovery and utilization of useful elements are being continued mainly in USA, Europe and Japan. A transportable food irradiator with Cs-137 and an electric power source with Sr-90 for remote weather station are typical examples in major past applications. However, research and development on recovery and utilization are not so much active and the future efforts should be expected hereafter. Present study was conducted under the auspices of the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. (author)

  6. Bridging Technometric Method and Innovation Process: An Initial Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumanti, A. A.; Reynaldo, R.; Samadhi, T. M. A. A.; Wiratmadja, I. I.; Dwita, A. C.

    2018-03-01

    The process of innovation is one of ways utilized to increase the capability of a technology component that reflects the need of SME. Technometric method can be used to identify to what extent the level of technology advancement in a SME is, and also which technology component that needs to be maximized in order to significantly deliver an innovation. This paper serves as an early study, which lays out a conceptual framework that identifies and elaborates the principles of innovation process from a well-established innovation model by Martin with the technometric method, based on the initial background research conducted at SME Ira Silver in Jogjakarta, Indonesia.

  7. Development of partitioning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tsutomu; Shirahashi, Koichi; Kubota, Masumitsu

    1989-11-01

    Precipitation behavior of elements in a high-level liquid waste (HLW) was studied by using the simulated liquid waste, when the transuranic elements group was precipitated and separated as oxalate from HLW generated from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. The results showed that over 90 % of strontium and barium were precipitated when oxalic acid was directly added to HLW to precipitate the transuranic elements group, and the percentages of these elements precipitated were affected by molybdenum and or zirconium. Therefore, a method of adding oxalic acid into the filtrate was studied after removing previously molybdenum and zirconium as precipitate by denitrating HLW, and it was found that precipitated fractions of strontium and barium could be suppressed about 10 %. Adding oxalic acid under the co-existance of ascorbic acid is effective for quantitative precipitation of neptunium in HLW. In this case, it was found that adding ascorbic acid had little influence on precipitation behavior of the other elements except palladium. (author)

  8. A celestial assisted INS initialization method for lunar explorers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Xiaolin; Wang, Longhua; Wu, Weiren; Fang, Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP) are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS) and celestial navigation system (CNS) are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors' biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  9. A Celestial Assisted INS Initialization Method for Lunar Explorers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Fang

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The second and third phases of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP are planning to achieve Moon landing, surface exploration and automated sample return. In these missions, the inertial navigation system (INS and celestial navigation system (CNS are two indispensable autonomous navigation systems which can compensate for limitations in the ground based navigation system. The accurate initialization of the INS and the precise calibration of the CNS are needed in order to achieve high navigation accuracy. Neither the INS nor the CNS can solve the above problems using the ground controllers or by themselves on the lunar surface. However, since they are complementary to each other, these problems can be solved by combining them together. A new celestial assisted INS initialization method is presented, in which the initial position and attitude of the explorer as well as the inertial sensors’ biases are estimated by aiding the INS with celestial measurements. Furthermore, the systematic error of the CNS is also corrected by the help of INS measurements. Simulations show that the maximum error in position is 300 m and in attitude 40″, which demonstrates this method is a promising and attractive scheme for explorers on the lunar surface.

  10. Initial alignment method for free space optics laser beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yuta; Tashiro, Yuki; Izumi, Kiyotaka; Yoshida, Koichi; Tsujimura, Takeshi

    2016-08-01

    The authors have newly proposed and constructed an active free space optics transmission system. It is equipped with a motor driven laser emitting mechanism and positioning photodiodes, and it transmits a collimated thin laser beam and accurately steers the laser beam direction. It is necessary to introduce the laser beam within sensible range of the receiver in advance of laser beam tracking control. This paper studies an estimation method of laser reaching point for initial laser beam alignment. Distributed photodiodes detect laser luminescence at respective position, and the optical axis of laser beam is analytically presumed based on the Gaussian beam optics. Computer simulation evaluates the accuracy of the proposed estimation methods, and results disclose that the methods help us to guide the laser beam to a distant receiver.

  11. Processes of enlightenment : farmer initiatives in rural development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, J.

    2002-01-01

    This research concerns development initiatives in rural communities. I define a farmer initiative as the impetus that sufficiently and necessarily drives a farmer (or group of farmers) to formulate a realistic strategic plan, and to implement it in an

  12. Writing for publication: faculty development initiative using social learning theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Bonnie K; Carter, Matt; Schuessler, Jenny B

    2012-01-01

    Demonstrating scholarly competency is an expectation for nurse faculty. However, there is hesitancy among some faculty to fully engage in scholarly activities. To strengthen a school of nursing's culture of scholarship, a faculty development writing initiative based on Social Learning Theory was implemented. The authors discuss this initiative to facilitate writing for publication productivity among faculty and the successful outcomes.

  13. Developing Teachers' Capacity for Teaching Pupils' Initial Reading ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    that male students performed better on IRMAT than their female counterpart t- calculated 10.80 at ... Key words: Developing, Teachers' Capacity, Teaching, Initial Reading, Multisensory. Approach .... picture that its name starts with the sound.

  14. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  15. Recovery methods of the dragonfly from irregular initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melfi, James; Leonardo, Anthony; Wang, Jane

    We release dragonflies from a magnetic tether in a wide range of initial orientations, which results in them utilizing multiple methods to regain their typical flight orientation. Special focus is placed on dropping them while upside down, as the recovery method used is a purely rolling motion. Filming this stereotypical motion with a trio of high speed cameras at 4000 fps, we capture detailed body and wing kinematics data to determine how the dragonfly generates this motion. By replaying the flights within a computer simulation, we can isolate the significant changes to wing kinematics, and find that it is an asymmetry in the wing pitch which generates the roll. Further investigation demonstrates that this choice is highly dependent upon the state of the dragonfly, and as such our results indicate the dragonfly both tracks its current state, and changes its mid-flight control mechanisms accordingly.

  16. Method Development in Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frank T; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Busardo, Francesco Paolo; Marchei, Emilia; Pichini, Simona

    2017-01-01

    In the field of forensic toxicology, the quality of analytical methods is of great importance to ensure the reliability of results and to avoid unjustified legal consequences. A key to high quality analytical methods is a thorough method development. The presented article will provide an overview on the process of developing methods for forensic applications. This includes the definition of the method's purpose (e.g. qualitative vs quantitative) and the analytes to be included, choosing an appropriate sample matrix, setting up separation and detection systems as well as establishing a versatile sample preparation. Method development is concluded by an optimization process after which the new method is subject to method validation. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Geriatric medicine, Japanese Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative and biomarker development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Hiroyuki; Furukawa, Katsutoshi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Kudo, Yukitsuka

    2010-01-01

    Due to a change in disease spectrum in aged countries, the primary role of geriatricians should be directed to an appropriate management and prevention of cognitive decline and dementia, swallowing and aspiration pneumonia and falls and fractures. Management of dementia constitutes a central part in the practice of geriatric medicine in order to support independence of life in elderly people. The current paradigm of cognitive function-based testing for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is going to drastically shift to a biomarker-based test approach, a shift that will correspond to the emergence of disease-modifying drugs. In addition, a new molecular imaging technique that visualizes neuronal protein deposits or pathological features has been developed in Japan and the U.S.A. Based on these achievements, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) was proposed and initiated in 2005. The ADNI is a long-term observational study being conducted in the U.S.A., Europe, Australia, and Japan using identical protocols. The objectives of ADNI are: to establish methodology which will allow standard values related to long-term changes in imaging data, such as MRI and positron emission tomography (PET), in patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment and normal elderly persons; to obtain clinical indices, psychological test data, and blood/cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers to demonstrate the validity of image-based surrogate markers; and to establish optimum methods to monitor the therapeutic effects of disease-modifying drugs for AD. Patient enrollment in the Japanese ADNI has begun in July 2008. Imaging of AD pathology not only acts as a reliable biomarker with which to assay curative drug development by novel pharmaceutical companies, but it also helps health promotion toward AD prevention. (author)

  18. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  19. Paradise nearly Gained. Volume 1: Developing the Frontline Management Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt-Pugh, Llandis; Soutar, Geoffrey N.

    The Frontline Management Initiative (FMI) provides a framework for competency-based development of frontline managers in Australian enterprises. The FMI's impact on businesses was examined in a national study that included the following activities: focus groups; a national survey of management development and targeted national survey of FMI users;…

  20. Biological Methods and Manual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists conduct research to develop and evaluate analytical methods for the identification, enumeration, evaluation of aquatic organisms exposed to environmental stressors and to correlate exposures with effects on chemical and biological indicators

  1. DDOT MXD+ method development report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Mixed-use development has become increasingly common across the country, including Washington, D.C. : However, a straightforward and empirically validated method for evaluating the traffic impacts of such : projects is still needed. The data presente...

  2. Negotiating a Systems Development Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Fredrik; Hedström, Karin

    Systems development methods (or methods) are often applied in tailored version to fit the actual situation. Method tailoring is in most the existing literature viewed as either (a) a highly rational process with the method engineer as the driver where the project members are passive information providers or (b) an unstructured process where the systems developer makes individual choices, a selection process without any driver. The purpose of this chapter is to illustrate that important design decisions during method tailoring are made by project members through negotiation. The study has been carried out using the perspective of actor-network theory. Our narratives depict method tailoring as more complex than (a) and (b) show the driver role rotates between the project members, and design decisions are based on influences from several project members. However, these design decisions are not consensus decisions.

  3. Using Mixed Methods to Assess Initiatives with Broad-Based Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inkelas, Karen Kurotsuchi

    2017-01-01

    This chapter describes a process for assessing programmatic initiatives with broad-ranging goals with the use of a mixed-methods design. Using an example of a day-long teaching development conference, this chapter provides practitioners step-by-step guidance on how to implement this assessment process.

  4. Variational Homotopy Perturbation Method for Solving Higher Dimensional Initial Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest and analyze a technique by combining the variational iteration method and the homotopy perturbation method. This method is called the variational homotopy perturbation method (VHPM. We use this method for solving higher dimensional initial boundary value problems with variable coefficients. The developed algorithm is quite efficient and is practically well suited for use in these problems. The proposed scheme finds the solution without any discritization, transformation, or restrictive assumptions and avoids the round-off errors. Several examples are given to check the reliability and efficiency of the proposed technique.

  5. Early Development of Entrepreneurial Qualities: the Role of Initial Education

    OpenAIRE

    Isobel van der Kuip; Ingrid Verheul

    2003-01-01

    This study attempts to create a better understanding of the role of entrepreneurship education in developing entrepreneurial qualities. Theory and practice are confronted. The paper discusses the extent to which entrepreneurship can be taught, and the way in which it should be taught. The focus is on the phase of initial education.

  6. EFL Teachers' Self-Initiated Professional Development: Perceptions and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simegn, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed perceptions and practices of secondary schools (Grade 9-12) EFL teachers' self-initiated professional development. A questionnaire of likert scale items and open-ended questions was used to gather data from thirty-two teachers. The teachers were asked to fill out the questionnaire at Bahir Dar University during their…

  7. [Predictive methods versus clinical titration for the initiation of lithium therapy. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerts, I; Sienaert, P

    2013-01-01

    When lithium is administered, the clinician needs to know when the lithium in the patient’s blood has reached a therapeutic level. At the initiation of treatment the level is usually achieved gradually through the application of the titration method. In order to increase the efficacy of this procedure several methods for dosing lithium and for predicting lithium levels have been developed. To conduct a systematic review of the publications relating to the various methods for dosing lithium or predicting lithium levels at the initiation of therapy. We searched Medline systematically for articles published in English, French or Dutch between 1966 and April 2012 which described or studied a method for dosing lithium or for predicting the lithium level reached following a specific dosage. We screened the reference lists of relevant articles in order to locate additional papers. We found 38 lithium prediction methods, in addition to the clinical titration method. These methods can be divided into two categories: the ‘a priori’ methods and the ‘test-dose’ methods, the latter requiring the administration of a test dose of lithium. The lithium prediction methods generally achieve a therapeutic blood level faster than the clinical titration method, but none of the methods achieves convincing results. On the basis of our review, we propose that the titration method should be used as the standard method in clinical practice.

  8. Methods for initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Martine Camilla Holst; Gencay, Yilmaz Emre; Brøndsted, Lone

    2017-01-01

    Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity.......Here we describe an initial characterization of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophages by host range analysis, genome size determination by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and receptor-type identification by screening mutants for phage sensitivity....

  9. Initial Development of an Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Mirilas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to develop our previously presented mechanical device, the Testis Rigidity Tester (TRT, into an electronic system (Electronic Testis Rigidity Tester, ETRT by applying tactile imaging, which has been used successfully with other solid organs. A measuring device, located at the front end of the ETRT incorporates a tactile sensor comprising an array of microsensors. By application of a predetermined deformation of 2 mm, increased pressure alters linearly the resistance of each microsensor, producing changes of voltage. These signals were amplified, filtered, and digitized, and then processed by an electronic collector system, which presented them as a color-filled contour plot of the area of the testis coming into contact with the sensor. Testis models of different rigidity served for initial evaluation of ETRT; their evacuated central spaces contained different, increasing glue masses. An independent method of rigidity measurement, using an electric weight scale and a micrometer, showed that the more the glue injected, the greater the force needed for a 2-mm deformation. In a preliminary test, a single sensor connected to a multimeter showed similar force measurement for the same deformation in these phantoms. For each of the testis models compressed in the same manner, the ETRT system offered a map of pressures, represented by a color scale within the contour plot of the contact area with the sensor. ETRT found certain differences in rigidity between models that had escaped detection by a blind observer. ETRT is easy to use and provides a color-coded “insight“ of the testis internal structure. After experimental testing, it could be valuable in intraoperative evaluation of testes, so that the surgeon can decide about orchectomy or orcheopexy.

  10. The BRAIN Initiative: developing technology to catalyse neuroscience discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Lyric A.; Newsome, William T.; Anderson, David J.; Bargmann, Cornelia I.; Brown, Emery N.; Deisseroth, Karl; Donoghue, John P.; Hudson, Kathy L.; Ling, Geoffrey S. F.; MacLeish, Peter R.; Marder, Eve; Normann, Richard A.; Sanes, Joshua R.; Schnitzer, Mark J.; Sejnowski, Terrence J.; Tank, David W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Ugurbil, Kamil; Wingfield, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the field of neuroscience has been propelled by the advent of novel technological capabilities, and the pace at which these capabilities are being developed has accelerated dramatically in the past decade. Capitalizing on this momentum, the United States launched the Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative to develop and apply new tools and technologies for revolutionizing our understanding of the brain. In this article, we review the scientific vision for this initiative set forth by the National Institutes of Health and discuss its implications for the future of neuroscience research. Particular emphasis is given to its potential impact on the mapping and study of neural circuits, and how this knowledge will transform our understanding of the complexity of the human brain and its diverse array of behaviours, perceptions, thoughts and emotions. PMID:25823863

  11. Scenario development methods and practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The safe management of radioactive waste is an essential aspect of all nuclear power programmes. Although a general consensus has been reached in OECD countries on the use of geological repositories for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, analysis of the long-term safety of these repositories, using performance assessment and other tools, is required prior to implementation. The initial stage in developing a repository safety assessment is the identification of all factors that may be relevant to the long-term safety of the repository and their combination to form scenarios. This must be done in a systematic and transparent way in order to assure the regulatory authorities that nothing important has been forgotten. Scenario development has become the general term used to describe the collection and organisation of the scientific and technical information necessary to assess the long-term performance or safety of radioactive waste disposal systems. This includes the identification of the relevant features, events and processes (FEPs), the synthesis of broad models of scientific understanding, and the selection of cases to be calculated. Scenario development provides the overall framework in which the cases and their calculated consequences can be discussed, including biases or shortcomings due to omissions or lack of knowledge. The NEA Workshop on Scenario Development was organised in Madrid, in May 1999, with the objective of reviewing developments in scenario methodologies and applications in safety assessments since 1992. The outcome of this workshop is the subject of this book. It is a review of developments in scenario methodologies based on a large body of practical experience in safety assessments. It will be of interest to radioactive waste management experts as well as to other specialists involved in the development of scenario methodologies. (author)

  12. Initial teacher education and continuing professional development for science teachers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens; Evans, Robert Harry

    2011-01-01

    Research into ways of improving the initial education and continuing professional development of science teachers is closely related to both common and unique strands. The field is complex since science teachers teach at different educational levels, are often educated in different science subjects......, and belong to various cultures, both educationally and socially. Section 1 presents a review of the research literature across these dimensions and looks at the knowledge, skills and competences needed for teaching science, specific issues within science teacher education, and strategies for educating...... and developing science teachers....

  13. Project management initiative local development through specialized training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neisy Ramos Acevedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The local development should complete a group of basic principles, such as: the design for training and the tools information adapted to the particularity of each territory. This training facilitates, also, the articulation of the stocks deployed by the local leaders, and it increases the administration of the knowledge and the transfer of technologies, processes in those that the nexuses are enlarged between the structures and the population, and where the participation of different present actors is potentialized in the territory. During the year 2010 the Ministry of Economy and Planning begins to offer the possibility to finance projects for the local development, nevertheless these initiatives should be accompanied by a rigorous study of feasibility of the investments. The University of Sancti Spíritus, committed in this zeal, designs the Diplomate of Administration of Projects for Local Initiatives, which offers theoretical tools and it develops practical abilities in the different actors of the local development that facilitate the realization of these studies. The exercise of this graduate's culmination consists on the defence of the study of feasibility of those projects that each municipality identifies as priority for its development.

  14. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    acquired for the ACR phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. Conclusions: A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors’ method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors’ method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions

  15. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia, E-mail: mccollough.cynthia@mayo.edu [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    acquired for the ACR phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. Conclusions: A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors’ method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors’ method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  16. Time Interval to Initiation of Contraceptive Methods Following ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-30

    Jan 30, 2018 ... interval between a woman's last childbirth and the initiation of contraception. Materials and ..... DF=Degree of freedom; χ2=Chi‑square test ..... practice of modern contraception among single women in a rural and urban ...

  17. Lesion insertion in the projection domain: Methods and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baiyu; Leng, Shuai; Yu, Lifeng; Yu, Zhicong; Ma, Chi; McCollough, Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    phantom in terms of Hounsfield unit and high-contrast resolution. For the validation of the lesion realism, lesions of various types were successfully inserted, including well circumscribed and invasive lesions, homogeneous and heterogeneous lesions, high-contrast and low-contrast lesions, isolated and vessel-attached lesions, and small and large lesions. The two experienced radiologists who reviewed the original and inserted lesions could not identify the lesions that were inserted. The same lesion, when inserted into the projection domain and reconstructed with different parameters, demonstrated a parameter-dependent appearance. A framework has been developed for projection-domain insertion of lesions into commercial CT images, which can be potentially expanded to all geometries of CT scanners. Compared to conventional image-domain methods, the authors' method reflected the impact of scan and reconstruction parameters on lesion appearance. Compared to prior projection-domain methods, the authors' method has the potential to achieve higher anatomical complexity by employing clinical patient projections and real patient lesions.

  18. Tradition as an initiator of rural tourism destinations development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural tourism is a form of tourism that best illustrates the importance of tradition in the development of tourist destinations. Music, dance, clothing, culinary specialties of local cuisine, unique natural beauty and the very mentality and hospitality of people in rural areas, represent some of the factors that influence the tourist's consciousness when choosing this type of holiday. The research is focused on the main hypothesis that the tradition is an initiator of rural tourism destinations development. Furthermore, this would imply positive effects in the field of tourism and economy in general and the economy of the region. The goal of the paper is to show the importance of tradition in the cultural identity of rural areas and potentials of tradition in the role of initiating rural tourism destinations development. The interview with staff members in Pozarevac Tourism Organization has helped in the SWOT analysis of the observed rural destination. An empirical research is conducted on a random sample of 232 participants in order to highlight the benefits of rural tourism development in Pozarevac and its surrounding area. The data were processed in SPSS program (version 17.0.

  19. South Africa's Nuclear Skills Development Initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matube, Ntebatse [NECSA, P.O. BOX 582, 00001 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa's long nuclear history has enabled it to develop and explore new nuclear technologies. The country's nuclear industry is becoming innovative and will soon be able to compete within the global nuclear market. This includes projects such as the Pebble-Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR), a generation IV reactor technology, whose construction is anticipated by 2009. This will put South Africa in the fore-front of new technologies. Globally, the nuclear sector is experiencing a renaissance with political support from most governments. The South African government intends to expand the nuclear component in the energy supply mix of the country as a result of an energy crisis resulting from economic growth and thus high demand which will soon outstrip supply. This increased energy demand requires the country to take measures to counteract the crisis. It has been projected that an additional 40000 Megawatts of electricity will be required over the next 20 years in South Africa. Currently about 90% of South Africa's electricity is generated from coal and about 6% from nuclear. The South African electricity utility, Eskom is investigating the expansion of the utility's nuclear power capacity. These investigations are aimed at a potential increase of nuclear capacity to 20000 Megawatts by 2025. Eskom is in the initial phase of the investigation and is considering advanced Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) with a combined capacity of around 3500 Megawatts. This planned expansion of the nuclear energy generating program has presented a challenge of developing and maintaining skills and competencies required by the program. The South African government has acknowledged that they do have a challenge and are going to have to develop an aggressive approach to acquire the necessary skills and competencies required for the program. This aggressive approach will have to accelerate the development of nuclear human capital capacity by ensuring that we utilize the

  20. An analysis method for fatigue crack initiation on geometrical singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amzallag, C.; Bernard, J.L.; Pellissier-Tanon, A.; Vassal, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    For studying the significance of defects a promising point of view is to separate fatigue crack initiation and propagation. Comparing the works done on these two stages it appears that relatively few has been done on the first one. This presentation shows how this stage can be evaluated by using appropriate criteria. The validation of a criterion through experimental data obtained on actual and simulated singularities for different specimen geometries is presented

  1. Development of an International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Clark; David South

    2004-05-01

    NRECA conceived of the International Electric Cooperative Initiative on Energy Efficiency (IECIEE) in order to provide an ongoing means of contributing voluntary actions on greenhouse gas emissions mitigation as an integral component of its international programs and projects. This required designing the IECIEE to be integrated directly with the core interests and attributes of participating cooperatives in the U.S. and Latin America, which was the initial focus area selected for the IECIEE. In the case of NRECA International, the core interests related to promoting and strengthening the electric cooperative model, which has proved highly successful in maximizing operational efficiencies in electric power generation, distribution and retailing, as compared to government-owned entities. The approach involved three basic components: (i) establishing the IECIEE mechanism, which involved setting up a functioning organizational vehicle providing for investment, management, and emissions credit accounting; (ii) developing a portfolio of projects in countries where NRECA International could effectively implement the broader mandate of cooperative development as energy efficient suppliers and distributors of electrical energy; and (iii) conducting outreach to obtain the commitment of participants and resources from U.S. and Latin American cooperatives and partnering agencies in the development financing community.

  2. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Initial Development of Four Forest Species in Different Shading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Silva

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Evaluated the initial development through destructive and non-destructive sampling, forest species Adenanthera pavonina, Cassia fistula, Parkia pendula and Hymenolobium petraeum, propagated by seeds at different levels of shading screens black poliefinas (0, 50 and 65% , in the region of Sinop, MT. There were no significant interactions between time and level of shading to any variable. Changes in fresh and dry weight at all levels of shading occurred from 30 DAT. The highest rates of growth were observed in 50% shading to A. pavonina, P. pendula and H. petraeum and 65% shading for C. fistula.Keywords: seedling, growth, physiology, climatic conditions.

  4. RECONSTRUCTING THE INITIAL DENSITY FIELD OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: METHODS AND TESTS WITH MOCK CATALOGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang Xiaohu; Van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3∼ –1 , much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of ∼0.15 h Mpc –1

  5. Development of a MELCOR self-initialization algorithm for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, C.S.; Wang, S.J.; Cheng, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    The MELCOR code, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, is suitable for calculating source terms and simulating severe accident phenomena of nuclear power plants. Prior to simulating a severe accident transient with MELCOR, the initial steady-state conditions must be generated in advance. The current MELCOR users' manuals do not provide a self-initialization procedure; this is the reason users have to adjust the initial conditions by themselves through a trial-and-error approach. A MELCOR self-initialization algorithm for boiling water reactor plants has been developed, which eliminates the tedious trial-and-error procedures and improves the simulation accuracy. This algorithm adjusts the important plant variable such as the dome pressure, downcomer level, and core flow rate to the desired conditions automatically. It is implemented through input with control functions provided in MELCOR. The reactor power and feedwater temperature are fed as input data. The initialization work of full-power conditions of the Kuosheng nuclear power station is cited as an example. These initial conditions are generated successfully with the developed algorithm. The generated initial conditions can be stored in a restart file and used for transient analysis. The methodology in this study improves the accuracy and consistency of transient calculations. Meanwhile, the algorithm provides all MELCOR users an easy and correct method for establishing the initial conditions

  6. Countering Climate Confusion in the Classroom: New Methods and Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.; Reid, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Politicians and ideologues blocking climate education through legislative manipulation. Free marketeers promoting the teaching of doubt and controversy to head off regulation. Education standards and curricula that skim over, omit, or misrepresent the causes, effects, risks and possible responses to climate change. Teachers who unknowingly foster confusion by presenting "both sides" of a phony scientific controversy. All of these contribute to dramatic differences in the quality and quantity of climate education received by U.S. students. Most U.S. adults and teens fail basic quizzes on energy and climate basics, in large part, because climate science has never been fully accepted as a vital component of a 21st-century science education. Often skipped or skimmed over, human contributions to climate change are sometimes taught as controversy or through debate, perpetuating a climate of confusion in many classrooms. This paper will review recent history of opposition to climate science education, and explore initial findings from a new survey of science teachers on whether, where and how climate change is being taught. It will highlight emerging effective pedagogical practices identified in McCaffrey's Climate Smart & Energy Wise, including the role of new initiatives such as the Next Generation Science Standards and Green Schools, and detail efforts of the Science League of America in countering denial and doubt so that educators can teach consistently and confidently about climate change.

  7. Leadership Development Initiative: Growing Global Leaders… Advancing Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Frank D; Moore, Shannon Y; Callaway, Mary V; Foley, Kathleen M

    2018-02-01

    The International Palliative Care Leadership Development Initiative (LDI) was a model demonstration project that aimed to expand the global network of palliative care leaders in low- and moderate-resource countries who are well positioned to apply their new leadership skills. Thirty-nine palliative medicine physicians from 25 countries successfully completed the two-year curriculum that included three thematic residential courses, mentorship, and site visits by senior global palliative care leaders and personal projects to apply their new leadership skills. The focus on self-reflection, leadership behaviors and practices, strategic planning, high-level communication, and teaching skills led to significant personal and professional transformation among the participants, mentors, and the LDI team. The resulting residential course curriculum and the personal leadership stories and biosketches of the leaders are now available open access at IPCRC.net. Already, within their first-year postgraduation, the leaders are using their new leadership skills to grow palliative care capacity through significant changes in policy, improved opioid/other medication availability, new and enhanced educational curricula and continuing education activities, and development/expansion of palliative care programs in their organizations and regions. We are not aware of another palliative care initiative that achieves the global reach and ripple effect that LDI has produced. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Germination and initial development of aroeira (Myracrodruon urundeuva seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aroeira has great economic importance due to its wood useful, tannins extraction and use in the pharmacology. The aim of this work was to evaluate the germination aspects and initial seedlings development of aroeira, under gibberellins, substrata and shading effects, and for that two experiments were led out. In the first one, seeds were previously soaked for 24 hours in water and in 100 mg.L-1 gibberellin solution and were sowed directly in cells trays in the following substrata: land and sand (1:1 and 1:2 and Plantmax . In the second experiment, 15 cm length seedlings were transplanted to polyethylene sacks filled out land+sand+poultry manure (1:1:1 partly decomposed and they were maintained at greenhouse for 15 days. Soon after, seedlings were transferred for the following conditions: shading (50% and full sun and they were 50 mg.L-1 and 150 mg.L-1 gibberellins solutions pulverized, as control seedlings water pulverized. Aroeira seeds should not be previously water or gibberellins imbibed before being sowed. The best substrata for aroeira seeds germination was Plantmax without germinative treatments to reach higher than 80% of seedlings survival. The seedlings developed better at full sun light and the gibberellin. It was observed increment in height, diameter, foliar area and fresh and dry mass from aerial and root part when compared to shading situation. The gibberellins applications did not influence the aroeira seedlings initial growth characteristics.

  9. An Improved Sequential Initiation Method for Multitarget Track in Clutter with Large Noise Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daxiong Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved sequential method for underwater multiple objects tracks initiation in clutter, estimating the initial position for the trajectory. The underwater environment is complex and changeable, and the sonar data are not very ideal. When the detection distance is far, the error of measured data is also great. Besides that, the clutter has a grave effect on the tracks initiation. So it is hard to initialize a track and estimate the initial position. The new tracks initiation is that when at least six of ten points meet the requirements, then we determine that there is a new track and the initial states of the parameters are estimated by the linear least square method. Compared to the conventional tracks initiation methods, our method not only considers the kinematics information of targets, but also regards the error of the sonar sensors as an important element. Computer simulations confirm that the performance of our method is very nice.

  10. Applicability of initial stress measurement methods to Horonobe Siliceous rocks and initial stress state around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Hiroyuki; Niunoya, Sumio; Matsui, Hiroya; Fujii, Yoshiaki

    2009-01-01

    Understanding initial stress condition in deep underground is important for such construction as rock cavern for geological disposal of HLW and underground power plant. Neogene sedimentary rock is widely distributed in Japan. There are only a few studies of initial stress measurement in Neogene sedimentary rock mass in Japan due to difficulty of measurement. Evaluation of initial stress condition around Horonobe Underground Research Laboratory Project was carried out in order to understand initial stress condition and applicability of AE, DSCA and hydraulic fracturing (HF) methods to Neogene sedimentary rock. Initial stress values obtained from AE method is smaller than overburden pressure due to time dependency of Kaizer effect. It would be difficult to use AE method as initial stress measurement method for Horonobe Siliceous rocks. Principal stress values by DSCA are similar to those by HF tests. Directions of maximum horizontal principal stresses are approximately in E-W and corresponded to HF results. In HF, rod type and wire-line type systems were compared. Workability of rod type was much better than wire-line type. However, re-opening pressure were not able to be precisely measured in case of rod type system due to the large compliance of the packers and rods. Horizontal maximum and minimum principal stresses increase linearly in HF results. Deviatoric stress is acting at shallow depth. Initial stress condition approaches hydrostatic condition with depth. Direction of maximum horizontal principal stress was in E-W direction which was similar to tectonic movement around Horonobe URL by triangular surveying. (author)

  11. 29 CFR 4211.35 - Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... WITHDRAWING EMPLOYERS Allocation Methods for Merged Multiemployer Plans § 4211.35 Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial plan year. The allocation method under this section is the... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct attribution method for withdrawals after the initial...

  12. The United Nations development programme initiative for sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurry, S.

    1997-12-01

    Energy is central to current concerns about sustainable human development, affecting economic and social development; economic growth, the local, national, regional, and global environment; the global climate; a host of social concerns, including poverty, population, and health, the balance of payments, and the prospects for peace. Energy is not an end in itself, but rather the means to achieve the goals of sustainable human development. The energy systems of most developing countries are in serious crisis involving insufficient levels of energy services, environmental degradation, inequity, poor technical and financial performance, and capital scarcity. Approximately 2.5 billion people in the developing countries have little access to commercial energy supplies. Yet the global demand for energy continues to grow: total primary energy is projected to grow from 378 exajoules (EJ) per year in 1990 to 571 EJ in 2020, and 832 EJ in 2050. If this increase occurs using conventional approaches and energy sources, already serious local (e.g., indoor and urban air pollution), regional (eg., acidification and land degradation), and global (e.g., climate change) environmental problems will be critically aggravated. There is likely to be inadequate capital available for the needed investments in conventional energy sources. Current approaches to energy are thus not sustainable and will, in fact, make energy a barrier to socio-economic development. What is needed now is a new approach in which energy becomes an instrument for sustainable development. The two major components of a sustainable energy strategy are (1) more efficient energy use, especially at the point of end-use, and (2) increased use of renewable sources of energy. The UNDP Initiative for Sustainable Energy (UNISE) is designed to harness opportunities in these areas to build upon UNDP`s existing energy activities to help move the world toward a more sustainable energy strategy by helping program countries.

  13. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes a preliminary investigation to assess the effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, nuclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired), ceramics. Objective is to obtain useful information on defects, cracking, delaminations, agglomerates, inclusions, regions of high porosity, and anisotropy

  14. Mathematics and computational methods development in U.S. department of energy-sponsored research (nuclear energy research initiative and nuclear engineering education research). 4. Development of an Expert System for Generation of an Effective Mesh Distribution for the SN Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patchimpattapong, Apisit; Haghighat, Alireza

    2001-01-01

    The discrete ordinates (S N ) method is widely used to obtain numerical solutions of the transport equation. The method calls for discretization of spatial, energy, and angular variables. To generate an 'effective' spatial mesh distribution, one has to consider various factors including particle mean free path (mfp), material and source discontinuities, and problem objectives. This becomes more complicated if we consider the effect of numerics such as differencing schemes, parallel processing strategies, and computation resources. As a result, one may often over/under-mesh depending upon limitations on accuracy, computing resources, and time allotted. To overcome the foregoing issues, we are developing an expert system for input preparation of the discrete ordinates (S N ) method. This project is a part of an ongoing project sponsored by Nuclear Engineering Education Research. Our expert system consists of two parts: (a) an algorithm for generation of a mesh distribution for a serial calculation and (b) an algorithm for extension to parallel computing, which accounts for parallelization parameters including granularity, load balancing, parallel algorithms, and possible architectural issues. Thus far, we have developed a stand-alone algorithm for generation of an 'effective' mesh distribution for a serial calculation. The algorithm has been successfully tested with the Parallel Environment Neutral-Particle Transport (PENTRAN) code system. In this paper, we discuss the structure of our algorithm and present its use for simulating the VENUS-3 experimental facility. To date, we have developed and tested part 1 of this system. This part comprises of four steps: creation of a geometric model and coarse meshes, calculation of un-collided flux, selection of differencing schemes, and generation of fine-mesh distribution. For the un-collided flux calculation, we have developed a parallel code called PENFC. It is capable of calculating un-collided and first-collision fluxes

  15. Evaluating Teachers' Professional Development Initiatives: Towards an Extended Evaluative Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchie, Emmelien; Tuytens, Melissa; Devos, Geert; Vanderlinde, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating teachers' professional development initiatives (PDI) is one of the main challenges for the teacher professionalisation field. Although different studies have focused on the effectiveness of PDI, the obtained effects and evaluative methods have been found to be widely divergent. By means of a narrative review, this study provides an…

  16. Initial findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of computer-assisted therapy for substance misuse in prisoners: Development, implementation and clinical outcomes from the ‘Breaking Free Health & Justice’ treatment and recovery programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Elison

    2015-08-01

    examine the processes of implementation of this novel digital health programme and the various barriers and facilitators of this, including the practicalities of providing an online treatment programme in an environment in which there are multiple, complex security requirements and considerations. Additionally, the acceptability of the BFHJ programme to prisoners who may have limited experience of using online technologies was also explored. Clinical outcomes in terms of the programmes impact on substance dependence and use were also examined. Methods: In line with the Medical Research Council (MRC guidelines around development and evaluation of complex interventions (Craig et al., 2008, a mixed-methods approach was used including a qualitative study to explore the implementation of this online treatment programme within the secure prison environment, and offender perceptions of this novel, technology-enhanced approach to substance misuse treatment. In addition, quantitative data derived from a battery of standardised psychometric assessments was used to examine clinical effectiveness of BFHJ. Results: In order to meet MoJ security requirements prior to implementation, the BFHJ programme had to be reviewed and ‘white listed’ by NOMS and their security partner XMA to ensure the programme met all security, quality and information assurance processes and standards. This was a lengthy and costly process that entailed freshly developing the programme in partnership with VC experts at NOMS to ensure the programme is ‘sterile’ i.e., there are no holes in the system or links to external websites – this comprised some aspects of the programme content and resulted in some clinical techniques requiring reworking e.g., removing Google maps from one section of the programme. Themes emerging from qualitative data around offenders experiences of BFHJ illustrate its potential for use in prison settings and also to provide, for the first time, genuine continuity of care during

  17. The Initial Development of a Computerized Operator Support System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Ronald L Boring; Thomas A Ulrich; Ken Thomas

    2014-08-01

    A computerized operator support system (COSS) is a collection of resilient software technologies to assist operators in monitoring overall nuclear power plant performance and making timely, informed decisions on appropriate control actions for the projected plant condition. The COSS provides rapid assessments, computations, and recommendations to reduce workload and augment operator judgment and decision-making during fast- moving, complex events. A prototype COSS for a chemical volume control system at a nuclear power plant has been developed in order to demonstrate the concept and provide a test bed for further research. The development process identified four underlying elements necessary for the prototype, which consist of a digital alarm system, computer-based procedures, piping and instrumentation diagram system representations, and a recommender module for mitigation actions. An operational prototype resides at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) using the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Human Systems Simulation Laboratory (HSSL). Several human-machine interface (HMI) considerations are identified and incorporated in the prototype during this initial round of development.

  18. Developing a smoke free homes initiative in Kerala, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichter, Mimi; Padmajam, Sreedevi; Nichter, Mark; Sairu, P; Aswathy, S; Mini, G K; Bindu, V C; Pradeepkumar, A S; Thankappan, K R

    2015-05-10

    Results of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Kerala, India found that 42 % of adults were exposed to second hand smoke (SHS) inside the home. Formative research carried out in rural Kerala suggests that exposure may be much higher. Numerous studies have called for research and intervention on SHS exposure among women and children as an important component of maternal and child health activities. Community-based participatory research was carried out in Kerala. First, a survey was conducted to assess prevalence of SHS exposure in households. Next, a proof of concept study was conducted to develop and test the feasibility of a community-wide smoke free homes initiative. Educational materials were developed and pretested in focus groups. After feasibility was established, pilot studies were implemented in two other communities. Post intervention, surveys were conducted as a means of assessing changes in community support. At baseline, between 70 and 80 % of male smokers regularly smoked inside the home. Over 80 % of women had asked their husband not to do so. Most women felt powerless to change their husband's behavior. When women were asked about supporting a smoke free homes intervention, 88 % expressed support for the idea, but many expressed doubt that their husbands would comply. Educational meetings were held to discuss the harms of second hand smoke. Community leaders signed a declaration that their community was part of the smoke free homes initiative. Six months post intervention a survey was conducted in these communities; between 34 and 59 % of men who smoked no longer smoked in their home. The smoke free homes initiative is based on the principle of collective efficacy. Recognizing the difficulty for individual women to effect change in their household, the movement establishes a smoke free community mandate. Based on evaluation data from two pilot studies, we can project that between a 30 and 60 % reduction of smoking in the home may be achieved, the

  19. Hesitant Trapezoidal Fuzzy QUALIFLEX Method and Its Application in the Evaluation of Green Supply Chain Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how to handle multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM problems in which the criteria values of alternatives take the form of comparative linguistic expressions. Firstly, the new concept of hesitant trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (HTrFNs is provided to model the semantics of the comparative linguistic expressions. Then, the operational laws and the distance measures of HTrFNs are presented. Afterwards, a useful outranking method, the hesitant trapezoidal fuzzy QUALIFLEX method, is developed to handle the MCDM problems with hierarchical structure in the environment of HTrFN. At length, the proposed method is applied to evaluating green supply chain initiatives in order to achieve sustainable economic and environmental performance, and a case study concerned with a fashion retail chain is presented to demonstrate its feasibility and applicability, also, a comparative analysis with other relevant approaches is conducted to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Development of a Research Methods and Statistics Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Jennifer C.; Chapman, Kate M.

    2017-01-01

    Research methods and statistics are core courses in the undergraduate psychology major. To assess learning outcomes, it would be useful to have a measure that assesses research methods and statistical literacy beyond course grades. In two studies, we developed and provided initial validation results for a research methods and statistical knowledge…

  1. [Integrated intensive treatment of tinnitus: method and initial results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, B; Georgiewa, P; Seydel, C; Haupt, H; Scherer, H; Klapp, B F; Reisshauer, A

    2005-07-01

    In recent years, no major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying the development of tinnitus. Hence, the present therapeutic strategies aim at decoupling the subconscious from the perception of tinnitus. Mindful of the lessons drawn from existing tinnitus retraining and desensitisation therapies, a new integrated day hospital strategy of treatment lasting 7-14 days has been developed at the Charité Hospital and is presented in the present paper. The strategy for treating tinnitus in the proximity of patient domicile is designed for patients who feel disturbed in their world of perception and their efficiency due to tinnitus and give evidence of mental and physical strain. In view of the etiologically non-uniform and multiple events connected with tinnitus, consideration was also given to the fact that somatic and psychosocial factors are equally involved. Therefore, therapy should aim at diagnosing and therapeutically influencing those psychosocial factors that reduce the hearing impression to such an extent that the affected persons suffer from strain. The first results of therapy-dependent changes of 46 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus are presented. The data were evaluated before and after 7 days of treatment and 6 months after the end of treatment. Immediately after the treatment, the scores of both the tinnitus questionnaire (Goebel and Hiller) and the subscales improved significantly. These results were maintained during the 6-month post-treatment period and even improved.

  2. A new Method for the Estimation of Initial Condition Uncertainty Structures in Mesoscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. D.; Bach, L.; Hense, A.

    2012-12-01

    The estimation of fast growing error modes of a system is a key interest of ensemble data assimilation when assessing uncertainty in initial conditions. Over the last two decades three methods (and variations of these methods) have evolved for global numerical weather prediction models: ensemble Kalman filter, singular vectors and breeding of growing modes (or now ensemble transform). While the former incorporates a priori model error information and observation error estimates to determine ensemble initial conditions, the latter two techniques directly address the error structures associated with Lyapunov vectors. However, in global models these structures are mainly associated with transient global wave patterns. When assessing initial condition uncertainty in mesoscale limited area models, several problems regarding the aforementioned techniques arise: (a) additional sources of uncertainty on the smaller scales contribute to the error and (b) error structures from the global scale may quickly move through the model domain (depending on the size of the domain). To address the latter problem, perturbation structures from global models are often included in the mesoscale predictions as perturbed boundary conditions. However, the initial perturbations (when used) are often generated with a variant of an ensemble Kalman filter which does not necessarily focus on the large scale error patterns. In the framework of the European regional reanalysis project of the Hans-Ertel-Center for Weather Research we use a mesoscale model with an implemented nudging data assimilation scheme which does not support ensemble data assimilation at all. In preparation of an ensemble-based regional reanalysis and for the estimation of three-dimensional atmospheric covariance structures, we implemented a new method for the assessment of fast growing error modes for mesoscale limited area models. The so-called self-breeding is development based on the breeding of growing modes technique

  3. Application of NDE methods to green ceramics: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Karplus, H.B.; Poeppel, R.B.; Ellingson, W.A.; Berger, H.; Robbins, C.; Fuller, E.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of microradiography, ultrasonic methods, unclear magnetic resonance, and neutron radiography was assessed for the nondestructive evaluation of green (unfired) ceramics. The application of microradiography to ceramics is reviewed, and preliminary experiments with a commercial microradiography unit are described. Conventional ultrasonic techniques are difficult to apply to flaw detection green ceramics because of the high attenuation, fragility, and couplant-absorbing properties of these materials. However, velocity, attenuation, and spectral data were obtained with pressure-coupled transducers and provided useful informaion related to density variations and the presence of agglomerates. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imaging techniques and neutron radiography were considered for detection of anomalies in the distribution of porosity. With NMR, areas of high porosity might be detected after the samples are doped with water. In the case of neutron radiography, although imaging the binder distribution throughout the sample may not be feasible because of the low overall concentration of binder, regions of high binder concentration (thus high porosity) should be detectable

  4. Development and initial validation of a cessation fatigue scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Amanda R; Heckman, Bryan W; Meier, Ellen; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-07-01

    Smoking cessation fatigue, or tiredness of attempting to quit smoking, has been posited as a latent construct encompassing loss of motivation, loss of hope in cessation success, decreased self-efficacy, and exhaustion of self-control resources. Despite the potential clinical impact of characterizing cessation fatigue, there is currently no validated measure to assess it. Using a rational scale development approach, we developed a cessation fatigue measure and examined its reliability and construct validity in relation to a) smokers' experience of a recently failed quit attempt (QA) and b) readiness to engage in a subsequent QA. Data were drawn from an online cross-sectional survey of 484 smokers who relapsed from a QA within the past 30days. Exploratory factor analysis identified three factors within the 17-item Cessation Fatigue Scale (CFS), which we labeled: emotional exhaustion, pessimism, and devaluation. High internal consistency was observed for each factor and across the full scale. As expected, CFS overall was positively associated with withdrawal severity and difficulty quitting. CFS was negatively associated with previously validated measures of intention to quit, self-efficacy, and abstinence-related motivational engagement, even after adjusting for nicotine dependence. Findings provide initial validation for a new tool to assess cessation fatigue and contribute needed information on a theory-driven component of cessation-related motivation and relapse risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riyadi, Eko H.

    2014-01-01

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events

  6. A review for identification of initiating events in event tree development process on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riyadi, Eko H., E-mail: e.riyadi@bapeten.go.id [Center for Regulatory Assessment of Nuclear Installation and Materials, Nuclear Energy Regulatory Agency (BAPETEN), Jl. Gajah Mada 8 Jakarta 10120 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-30

    Initiating event is defined as any event either internal or external to the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that perturbs the steady state operation of the plant, if operating, thereby initiating an abnormal event such as transient or loss of coolant accident (LOCA) within the NPPs. These initiating events trigger sequences of events that challenge plant control and safety systems whose failure could potentially lead to core damage or large early release. Selection for initiating events consists of two steps i.e. first step, definition of possible events, such as by evaluating a comprehensive engineering, and by constructing a top level logic model. Then the second step, grouping of identified initiating event's by the safety function to be performed or combinations of systems responses. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to discuss initiating events identification in event tree development process and to reviews other probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). The identification of initiating events also involves the past operating experience, review of other PSA, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA), feedback from system modeling, and master logic diagram (special type of fault tree). By using the method of study for the condition of the traditional US PSA categorization in detail, could be obtained the important initiating events that are categorized into LOCA, transients and external events.

  7. Initial Progress in Developing the New ICSU World Data System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, J. H.; Capitaine, N.; Clark, D. M.; Mokrane, M.

    2009-12-01

    On October 24, 2008, at the 29th International Council for Science (ICSU) General Assembly in Maputo, Mozambique, a decision to form a new ICSU World Data System (WDS) was taken. The new ICSU World Data System (WDS) will replace the framework within which the current ICSU World Data Centers (WDCs) and services of the Federation of Astronomical and Geophysical data-analysis Services (FAGS) are currently organized. The transition from the old organizations to the new WDS was facilitated by the ICSU ad-hoc WDS Transition Team which developed a white paper with recommendations for the new WDS Scientific Committee (WDS-SC). The WDS-SC was appointed by ICSU and reports to the Executive Board and the General Assembly of ICSU. The WDSSC met for the first time in October 2009. WDS-SC shall be the governing body of WDS with the following tasks: 1) to ensure that the WDS clearly supports ICSU’s mission and objectives by ensuring the long-term stewardship and provision of quality-assessed data and data services to the international science community and other stakeholders; 2) to develop, and keep under continuous review, an implementation plan for the creation of the WDS by incorporating the ICSU WDCs, the Services of FAGS and a wide range of other data centers and services; 3) to define agreed standards, establish and oversee the procedures for the review and accreditation of existing and new facilities; 4) to monitor the geographic and disciplinary scope of the system and to develop strategies for the recruitment and establishment of new WDS facilities as necessary; 5) to consider resource issues and provide guidance on funding mechanisms for facilities within WDS when appropriate; 6) to develop strong cooperative links with the ICSU Strategic Coordinating Committee on Information and Data (SCCID);and 7) to cooperate closely with the ICSU Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA). WDS development will proceed from these initial concepts: history and legacy of

  8. The initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Robyn J; Dryer, Rachel; Saliba, Anthony; Kohlhoff, Jane

    2018-05-30

    Pregnancy-related anxiety is a distinct anxiety characterised by pregnancy-specific concerns. This anxiety is consistently associated with adverse birth outcomes, and obstetric and paediatric risk factors, associations generally not seen with other anxieties. The need exists for a psychometrically sound scale for this anxiety type. This study, therefore, reports on the initial development of the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale. The item pool was developed following a literature review and the formulation of a definition for pregnancy-related anxiety. An Expert Review Panel reviewed the definition, item pool and test specifications. Pregnant women were recruited online (N=671). Using a subsample (N=262, M=27.94, SD=4.99), fourteen factors were extracted using Principal Components Analysis accounting for 63.18% of the variance. Further refinement resulted in 11 distinct factors. Confirmatory Factor Analysis further tested the model with a second subsample (N=369, M=26.59, SD=4.76). After additional refinement, the resulting model was a good fit with nine factors (childbirth, appearance, attitudes towards childbirth, motherhood, acceptance, anxiety, medical, avoidance, and baby concerns). Internal consistency reliability was good with the majority of subscales exceeding α=.80. The Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale is easy to administer with higher scores indicative of greater pregnancy-related anxiety. The inclusion of reverse-scored items is a potential limitation with poorer reliability evident for these factors. Although still in its development stage, the Pregnancy-related Anxiety Scale will eventually be useful both clinically (affording early intervention) and in research settings. Copyright © 2018 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconstructing the Initial Density Field of the Local Universe: Methods and Tests with Mock Catalogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Mo, H. J.; Yang, Xiaohu; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-07-01

    Our research objective in this paper is to reconstruct an initial linear density field, which follows the multivariate Gaussian distribution with variances given by the linear power spectrum of the current cold dark matter model and evolves through gravitational instabilities to the present-day density field in the local universe. For this purpose, we develop a Hamiltonian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to obtain the linear density field from a posterior probability function that consists of two components: a prior of a Gaussian density field with a given linear spectrum and a likelihood term that is given by the current density field. The present-day density field can be reconstructed from galaxy groups using the method developed in Wang et al. Using a realistic mock Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, obtained by populating dark matter halos in the Millennium simulation (MS) with galaxies, we show that our method can effectively and accurately recover both the amplitudes and phases of the initial, linear density field. To examine the accuracy of our method, we use N-body simulations to evolve these reconstructed initial conditions to the present day. The resimulated density field thus obtained accurately matches the original density field of the MS in the density range 0.3 \\lesssim \\rho /\\bar{\\rho } \\lesssim 20 without any significant bias. In particular, the Fourier phases of the resimulated density fields are tightly correlated with those of the original simulation down to a scale corresponding to a wavenumber of ~1 h Mpc-1, much smaller than the translinear scale, which corresponds to a wavenumber of ~0.15 h Mpc-1.

  10. Initialization method for triple-layer exchanged coupled direct overwrite MO disk (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatwar, T. K.; Genova, D. J.; Palumbo, A. C.

    1993-05-01

    Increasing efforts are directed at the development of direct overwrite (DOW) capability for achieving higher data transfer rate in MO media. DOW by light intensity modulation on a triple-layer medium has shown great promise. The three layers consist of memory, reference, and intermediate layers that are weakly coupled to each other. This scheme uses an auxiliary magnet to initialize the reference layer in one direction in addition to the bias magnet. DOW is between high and low power levels. High power aligns the magnetization of the coupled layers in one direction, and low power aligns the magnetization in the opposite direction. These high (Ph) and low (Pl) powers are generally widely separated. Since the focused writing beam has a Gaussian profile, when the center of the spot does the high power writing, the ``skirt'' is actually doing the low power writing. As a result, if the background is initialized in the direction of the high power written mark, a chain-like domain pattern is observed. This leads to high writing noise. We found that such writing noise can be eliminated by initializing the background in the direction of the low power written marks. We will discuss the spin structure in exchanged coupled triple-layer films and the DOW characteristics of the disk with the two different initialization methods.

  11. Environmental controls on pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus initiation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. P. Lareau

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the first direct observational evidence that the condensation level in pyrocumulus and pyrocumulonimbus clouds can be significantly higher than the ambient lifted condensation level. In addition, we show that the environmental thermodynamic profile, day-to-day variations in humidity, and ambient wind shear all exert significant influence over the onset and development of pyroconvective clouds. These findings are established using a scanning Doppler lidar and mobile radiosonde system during two large wildfires in northern California, the Bald Fire and the Rocky Fire. The lidar is used to distinguish liquid water from smoke backscatter during the plume rise, and thus provides a direct detection of plume condensations levels. Plume tops are subsequently determined from both the lidar and nearby radar observations. The radiosonde data, obtained adjacent to the fires, contextualize the lidar and radar observations, and enable estimates of the plume ascent, convective available potential energy, and equilibrium level. A noteworthy finding is that in these cases, the convective condensation level, not the lifted condensation level, provides the best estimate of the pyrocumulus initiation height.

  12. Development and initial evaluation of the SCI-FI/AT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jette, Alan M; Slavin, Mary D; Ni, Pengsheng; Kisala, Pamela A; Tulsky, David S; Heinemann, Allen W; Charlifue, Susie; Tate, Denise G; Fyffe, Denise; Morse, Leslie; Marino, Ralph; Smith, Ian; Williams, Steve

    2015-05-01

    To describe the domain structure and calibration of the Spinal Cord Injury Functional Index for samples using Assistive Technology (SCI-FI/AT) and report the initial psychometric properties of each domain. Cross sectional survey followed by computerized adaptive test (CAT) simulations. Inpatient and community settings. A sample of 460 adults with traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) stratified by level of injury, completeness of injury, and time since injury. None SCI-FI/AT RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Item response theory (IRT) analyses identified 4 unidimensional SCI-FI/AT domains: Basic Mobility (41 items) Self-care (71 items), Fine Motor Function (35 items), and Ambulation (29 items). High correlations of full item banks with 10-item simulated CATs indicated high accuracy of each CAT in estimating a person's function, and there was high measurement reliability for the simulated CAT scales compared with the full item bank. SCI-FI/AT item difficulties in the domains of Self-care, Fine Motor Function, and Ambulation were less difficult than the same items in the original SCI-FI item banks. With the development of the SCI-FI/AT, clinicians and investigators have available multidimensional assessment scales that evaluate function for users of AT to complement the scales available in the original SCI-FI.

  13. Development and initial validation of a caffeine craving questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Oliver; Roderique-Davies, Gareth

    2008-01-01

    Craving for caffeine has received little empirical attention, despite considerable research into the potential for caffeine dependence. The main aim of this study was to develop, and initially validate, a multi-item, multidimensional instrument to measure cravings for caffeine. Participants were 189 caffeine consumers who completed the Questionnaire of Caffeine Cravings, which was based on the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU), in one of five naturally occurring periods of abstinence; 1-15 min; 16-120 mins; 3-7 h; 12-48 h and +48 h. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor solution best described the data; Factor 1 reflected strong desires, intentions and positive reinforcement; Factor 2 reflected mild/general positive and negative reinforcement and Factor 3 reflected functional/mood-based negative reinforcement. Significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 2 scores were recorded for high frequency users; significantly higher Factor 1 and Factor 3 scores were recorded as a function of increased levels of dependence. Duration of abstinence did not significantly effect cravings across all three factors. Regression analyses suggested level of dependence best predicted both current cravings and frequency of daily use. These findings suggest caffeine cravings may be conceptualized multidimensionally and further validates the use of multidimensional, multi-item instruments. Cravings for caffeine may manifest and be detected across varying levels of dependence and, frequency of use and independently of duration of abstinence.

  14. Initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Claudia Goncalves de; Costa, Fernando de Souza [National Institute for Space Research (INPE) Cachoeira Paulista, SP (Brazil). Associated Lab. of Combustion and Propulsion], Emails: claudia@lcp.inpe.br, fernando@lcp.inpe.br; Couto, Heraldo da Silva [Vale Energy Solution, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: heraldo.couto@vsesa.com.br

    2010-07-01

    The increasing costs of fossil fuels, environmental concerns and stringent regulations on fuel emissions have caused a significant interest on biofuels, especially ethanol and biodiesel. The combustion of liquid fuels in diesel engines, turbines, rocket engines and industrial furnaces depends on the effective atomization to increase the surface area of the fuel and thus to achieve high rates of mixing and evaporation. In order to promote combustion with maximum efficiency and minimum emissions, an injector must create a fuel spray that evaporates and disperses quickly to produce a homogeneous mixture of vaporized fuel and air. Blurry injectors can produce a spray of small droplets of similar sizes, provide excellent vaporization and mixing of fuel with air, low emissions of NO{sub x} and CO, and high efficiency. This work describes the initial development of a blurry injector for biofuels. Theoretical droplet sizes are calculated in terms of feed pressures and mass flow rates of fuel and air. Droplet size distribution and average diameters are measured by a laser system using a diffraction technique. (author)

  15. The development and initial validation of the Countertransference Management Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rojas, Andrés E; Palma, Beatriz; Bhatia, Avantika; Jackson, John; Norwood, Earta; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Gelso, Charles J

    2017-09-01

    Countertransference is an important aspect of the therapeutic relationship that exists in therapies of all theoretical orientations, and depending on how it is managed, it can either help or hinder treatment. Management of countertransference has been measured almost exclusively with the Countertransference Factors Inventory (Van Wagoner, Gelso, Hayes, & Diemer, 1991) and its variations, all of which focus on 5 therapist qualities theorized to facilitate management: self-insight, conceptualizing ability, empathy, self-integration, and anxiety management. Existing versions of the Countertransference Factors Inventory, however, possess certain psychometric limitations that appear to constrain how well they assess actual management of countertransference during a therapy session. We thus sought to develop a new measure that addressed these limitations and that captured the 5 therapist qualities as constituents (rather than correlates) of countertransference management that manifest in the treatment hour. The development and initial validation of the resulting 22-item Countertransference Management Scale (CMS) is described here. Exploratory factor analysis of ratings of 286 therapy supervisors of current supervisees indicated that the 5 constituents of countertransference management could be grouped into 2 correlated factors: "Understanding Self and Client" and "Self-Integration and Regulation." Evidence of convergent and criterion-related validity was supported by CMS total and subscale scores correlating as expected with measures of theoretically relevant constructs, namely, therapist countertransference behavior, theoretical framework, self-esteem, observing ego, empathic understanding, and tolerance of anxiety. Results also supported the internal consistency of the CMS and its subscales. Research, clinical, and training implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Self-Organization in Integrated Conservation and Development Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Simão Seixas

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses a cooking metaphor to explore key elements (i.e., ingredients for a great meal that contribute to self-organization processes in the context of successful community-based conservation (CBC or integrated conservation and development projects (ICDP. We pose two major questions: (1 What are the key factors that drive peoples' and/or organizations' willingness to take responsibilities and to act? (2 What contributes to community self-organization? In other words, how conservation-development projects originate, evolve, survive or disappear? In order to address these questions we examine trigger events and catalytic elements in several cases among the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees, from both the 2002 and 2004 awards. The Prize recognizes efforts in integrating biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction. We use secondary data in our analysis, including data from several technical reports and scientific papers written about the Equator Prize finalists and short-listed nominees. We observed common ingredients in most projects including: (1 involvement and commitment of key players (including communities, (2 funding, (3 strong leadership, (4 capacity building, (5 partnership with supportive organizations and government, and (6 economic incentives (including alternative livelihood options. We also observed that CBC and ICDP initiatives opportunistically evolve in a multi-level world, in which local communities establish linkages with people and organizations at different political levels, across different geographical scales and for different purposes. We conclude that there is no right 'recipe' to promote community self-organization but often a mix of some of these six ingredients need to come together for 'success' and that one or two ingredients are not sufficient to ensure success. Also the existence of these six ingredients does not guarantee a great meal - the 'chef's' creativity also is critical. That is

  17. 77 FR 5044 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program for Fiscal Year 2010 AGENCY...) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program. This announcement contains the... CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management Division, Office of Community...

  18. 77 FR 5043 - Announcement of Funding Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Awards for the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) Program for Fiscal Year 2009 AGENCY...) for the Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) program. This announcement contains the... CONTACT: David Kaminsky, Office of Economic Development Grants Management Division, Office of Community...

  19. 76 FR 2405 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... Information Collection: Brownfield Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... proposed use: The Brownfield Economic Development Initiative is authorized pursuant to Section 108(q... applicable: HUD 40123, Brownfields Economic Development Application; SF-LLL, Disclosure of Lobbying...

  20. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e.

  1. METHODS TO DEVELOP A TOROIDAL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANAILA Ligia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper work presents two practical methods to draw the development of a surface unable to be developed applying classical methods of Descriptive Geometry, the toroidal surface, frequently met in technical practice. The described methods are approximate ones; the development is obtained with the help of points. The accuracy of the methods is given by the number of points used when drawing. As for any other approximate method, when practically manufactured the development may need to be adjusted on site.

  2. Center Planning and Development: Multi-User Spaceport Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    The Vehicle Assembly building at NASAs Kennedy Space Center has been used since 1966 to vertically assemble every launch vehicle, since the Apollo Program, launched from Launch Complex 39 (LC-39). After the cancellation of the Constellation Program in 2010 and the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011, the VAB faced an uncertain future. As the Space Launch System (SLS) gained a foothold as the future of American spaceflight to deep space, NASA was only using a portion of the VABs initial potential. With three high bays connected to the Crawler Way transportation system, the potential exists for up to three rockets to be simultaneously processed for launch. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Master plan, supported by the Center Planning and Development (CPD) Directorate, is guiding Kennedy toward a 21st century multi-user spaceport. This concept will maintain Kennedy as the United States premier gateway to space and provide multi-user operations through partnerships with the commercial aerospace industry. Commercial aerospace companies, now tasked with transporting cargo and, in the future, astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) via the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) and Commercial Crew Program (CCP), are a rapidly growing industry with increasing capabilities to make launch operations more economical for both private companies and the government. Commercial operations to Low Earth Orbit allow the government to focus on travel to farther destinations through the SLS Program. With LC-39B designated as a multi-use launch pad, companies seeking to use it will require an integration facility to assemble, integrate, and test their launch vehicle. An Announcement for Proposals (AFP) was released in June, beginning the process of finding a non-NASA user for High Bay 2 (HB2) and the Mobile Launcher Platforms (MLPs). An Industry Day, a business meeting and tour for interested companies and organizations, was also arranged to identify and answer any

  3. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S P Suchitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. Objective: To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ. Materials and Methods: A 135-item  Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A, pittaja (B, and kaphaja prakriti (C characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists. Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years . CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. Results: The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach′s alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84 with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. Conclusions: The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  4. Modeling of asphalt by means of discrete element method – an initial study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Hededal, Ole; Stang, Henrik

    of conducting time-consuming and lab-costly procedures. The use of numerical models, capable of reducing greatly the testing cost, has shown great potential in characterizing asphalt-aggregate mixtures for both material evaluation and structural design purposes, [1],[2]. Discrete element method (DEM) is one...... – will be applied. The work presented here will focus on the discrete element method as a tool for modelling composite materials, i.e. determination of a representative volume; boundary conditions; characterisation of the components mastic (binder + filler) and aggregates; and establishment of virtual test samples....... Results from initial tests will be presented and the future development of the model towards characterising asphalt from its composition will be outlined....

  5. Ethnographic Contributions to Method Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2016-01-01

    of IR—Critical Security Studies. Ethnographic research works with what has been termed a “strong” understanding of objectivity. When this understanding is taken seriously, it must lead to a refashioning of the processes of gathering, analyzing, and presenting data in ways that reverse many standard...... of research in the ethnographic tradition. However, it would also require rethinking standard methods instructions and the judgments they inform....... assumptions and instructions pertaining to “sound methods.” Both in the context of observation and in that of justification, working with “strong objectivity” requires a flexibility and willingness to shift research strategies that is at odds with the usual emphasis on stringency, consistency, and carefully...

  6. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  7. Taxonomic Dimensions for Studying Situational Method Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Mehmet N.; Harmsen, Frank; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Ralyté, Jolita; Brinkkemper, Sjaak; Henderson-Sellers, Brian

    2007-01-01

    This paper is concerned with fragmented literature on situational method development, which is one of fundamental topics related to information systems development (ISD) methods. As the topic has attracted many scholars from various and possibly complementary schools of thought, different

  8. Method Engineering: Engineering of Information Systems Development Methods and Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkkemper, J.N.; Brinkkemper, Sjaak

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes the term method engineering for the research field of the construction of information systems development methods and tools. Some research issues in method engineering are identified. One major research topic in method engineering is discussed in depth: situational methods, i.e. the configuration of a project approach that is tuned to the project at hand. A language and support tool for the engineering of situational methods are discussed.

  9. Developments in geophysical exploration methods

    CERN Document Server

    1982-01-01

    One of the themes in current geophysical development is the bringing together of the results of observations made on the surface and those made in the subsurface. Several benefits result from this association. The detailed geological knowledge obtained in the subsurface can be extrapolated for short distances with more confidence when the geologi­ cal detail has been related to well-integrated subsurface and surface geophysical data. This is of value when assessing the characteristics of a partially developed petroleum reservoir. Interpretation of geophysical data is generally improved by the experience of seeing the surface and subsurface geophysical expression of a known geological configuration. On the theoretical side, the understanding of the geophysical processes themselves is furthered by the study of the phenomena in depth. As an example, the study of the progress of seismic wave trains downwards and upwards within the earth has proved most instructive. This set of original papers deals with some of ...

  10. Children Develop Initial Orthographic Knowledge during Storybook Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Brimo, Danielle; Wilson-Fowler, Elizabeth B.; Vorstius, Christian; Radach, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether young children acquire orthographic knowledge during structured adult-led storybook reading even though minimal viewing time is devoted to print. Sixty-two kindergarten children were read 12 storybook "chapters" while their eye movements were tracked. Results indicated that the children quickly acquired initial mental…

  11. Developing Cooperative Learning in Initial Teacher Education: Indicators for Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, Wendy; Snaith, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of supporting pre-service teachers to use cooperative learning in one initial teacher education institution in England. In a context where the government requires all teacher education to be "school-led" and where school partners do not commonly use cooperative learning (Baines, Rubie-Davies, and Blatchford…

  12. Nuclear methods in national development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings of the First National Conference on Nuclear Methods held at Kongo Conference Hotel Zaria from 2-4 September 1993, contains the full text of about 30 technical papers and speeches of invited dignitaries presented at the conference. The technical papers are original or review articles containing results and experiences in nuclear and related analytical techniques. Topics treated include neutron generator operation and control, nuclear data, application of nuclear techniques in environment, geochemistry, medicine, biology, agriculture, material science and industries. General topics in nuclear laboratory organization and research experiences were also covered. The papers were fully discussed during the conference and authors were requested to make changes in the manuscripts where necessary. However, they were further edited. The organizing committee wishes to thank all authors for their presentation and cooperation in submitting their manuscripts promptly and the participants for their excellent contribution during the conference

  13. Development of a Radial Deconsolidation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmreich, Grant W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of experiments have been initiated to determine the retention or mobility of fission products* in AGR fuel compacts [Petti, et al. 2010]. This information is needed to refine fission product transport models. The AGR-3/4 irradiation test involved half-inch-long compacts that each contained twenty designed-to-fail (DTF) particles, with 20-μm thick carbon-coated kernels whose coatings were deliberately fabricated such that they would crack under irradiation, providing a known source of post-irradiation isotopes. The DTF particles in these compacts were axially distributed along the compact centerline so that the diffusion of fission products released from the DTF kernels would be radially symmetric [Hunn, et al. 2012; Hunn et al. 2011; Kercher, et al. 2011; Hunn, et al. 2007]. Compacts containing DTF particles were irradiated at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) [Collin, 2015]. Analysis of the diffusion of these various post-irradiation isotopes through the compact requires a method to radially deconsolidate the compacts so that nested-annular volumes may be analyzed for post-irradiation isotope inventory in the compact matrix, TRISO outer pyrolytic carbon (OPyC), and DTF kernels. An effective radial deconsolidation method and apparatus appropriate to this application has been developed and parametrically characterized.

  14. An initialization method for the k-means using the concept of useful nearest centers

    OpenAIRE

    Ismkhan, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the k-means is to minimize squared sum of Euclidean distance from the mean (SSEDM) of each cluster. The k-means can effectively optimize this function, but it is too sensitive for initial centers (seeds). This paper proposed a method for initialization of the k-means using the concept of useful nearest center for each data point.

  15. Developing National Capacity to Initiate Nuclear Power Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndontchueng, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: ⇒ Nuclear power is needed for Developing Countries in the long term development strategy; ⇒ Developing Countries are lack of man power for both the NPP projects and the long term nuclear power program; ⇒ A long term HRD program (strategy) is needed to be established, in cooperation with Developed countries; ⇒ Education and training abroad is essential to the technology transfer; ⇒ Establishment of adequate infrastructure supporting HRD (nuclear engineering faculties, research groups, technical support centers) is indispensible for Developing Countries

  16. A successful local economic development-urban renewal initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...

  17. Development and initial evaluation of a treatment decision dashboard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, James G; Veazie, Peter J; Russ, Ann J

    2013-04-21

    For many healthcare decisions, multiple alternatives are available with different combinations of advantages and disadvantages across several important dimensions. The complexity of current healthcare decisions thus presents a significant barrier to informed decision making, a key element of patient-centered care.Interactive decision dashboards were developed to facilitate decision making in Management, a field marked by similarly complicated choices. These dashboards utilize data visualization techniques to reduce the cognitive effort needed to evaluate decision alternatives and a non-linear flow of information that enables users to review information in a self-directed fashion. Theoretically, both of these features should facilitate informed decision making by increasing user engagement with and understanding of the decision at hand. We sought to determine if the interactive decision dashboard format can be successfully adapted to create a clinically realistic prototype patient decision aid suitable for further evaluation and refinement. We created a computerized, interactive clinical decision dashboard and performed a pilot test of its clinical feasibility and acceptability using a multi-method analysis. The dashboard summarized information about the effectiveness, risks of side effects and drug-drug interactions, out-of-pocket costs, and ease of use of nine analgesic treatment options for knee osteoarthritis. Outcome evaluations included observations of how study participants utilized the dashboard, questionnaires to assess usability, acceptability, and decisional conflict, and an open-ended qualitative analysis. The study sample consisted of 25 volunteers - 7 men and 18 women - with an average age of 51 years. The mean time spent interacting with the dashboard was 4.6 minutes. Mean evaluation scores on scales ranging from 1 (low) to 7 (high) were: mechanical ease of use 6.1, cognitive ease of use 6.2, emotional difficulty 2.7, decision-aiding effectiveness 5

  18. A Novel Flood Forecasting Method Based on Initial State Variable Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of initial state variables on flood forecasting accuracy by using conceptual hydrological models is analyzed in this paper and a novel flood forecasting method based on correction of initial state variables is proposed. The new method is abbreviated as ISVC (Initial State Variable Correction. The ISVC takes the residual between the measured and forecasted flows during the initial period of the flood event as the objective function, and it uses a particle swarm optimization algorithm to correct the initial state variables, which are then used to drive the flood forecasting model. The historical flood events of 11 watersheds in south China are forecasted and verified, and important issues concerning the ISVC application are then discussed. The study results show that the ISVC is effective and applicable in flood forecasting tasks. It can significantly improve the flood forecasting accuracy in most cases.

  19. Dual initiation strip charge apparatus and methods for making and implementing the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos [Albuquerque, NM; Todd,; Steven, N [Rio Rancho, NM; Polisar, Stephen [Albuquerque, NM; Hughs, Chance [Tijeras, NM

    2011-03-22

    A Dual Initiation Strip Charge (DISC) apparatus is initiated by a single initiation source and detonates a strip of explosive charge at two separate contacts. The reflection of explosively induced stresses meet and create a fracture and breach a target along a generally single fracture contour and produce generally fragment-free scattering and no spallation. Methods for making and implementing a DISC apparatus provide numerous advantages over previous methods of creating explosive charges by utilizing steps for rapid prototyping; by implementing efficient steps and designs for metering consistent, repeatable, and controlled amount of high explosive; and by utilizing readily available materials.

  20. Reactor physics methods development at Westinghouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, E.; Mayhue, L.; Zhang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The current state of reactor physics methods development at Westinghouse is discussed. The focus is on the methods that have been or are under development within the NEXUS project which was launched a few years ago. The aim of this project is to merge and modernize the methods employed in the PWR and BWR steady-state reactor physics codes of Westinghouse. (author)

  1. IoT System Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giray, G.; Tekinerdogan, B.; Tüzün, E.

    2018-01-01

    It is generally believed that the application of methods plays an important role in developing quality systems. A development method is mainly necessary for structuring the process in producing largescale and complex systems that involve high costs. Similar to the development of other systems, it is

  2. The initial rise method extended to multiple trapping levels in thermoluminescent materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C. [CICATA-Legaria, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, 11500 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Guzman, S. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Ruiz, B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Departamento de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Universidad de Sonora, A.P. 305, 83190 Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E., E-mail: ecruz@nucleares.unam.m [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-02-15

    The well known Initial Rise Method (IR) is commonly used to determine the activation energy when only one glow peak is presented and analysed in the phosphor materials. However, when the glow peak is more complex, a wide peak and some holders appear in the structure. The application of the Initial Rise Method is not valid because multiple trapping levels are considered and then the thermoluminescent analysis becomes difficult to perform. This paper shows the case of a complex glow curve structure as an example and shows that the calculation is also possible using the IR method. The aim of the paper is to extend the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to minerals extracted from Nopal cactus and Oregano spices because the thermoluminescent glow curve's shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level.

  3. The initial rise method extended to multiple trapping levels in thermoluminescent materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furetta, C; Guzmán, S; Ruiz, B; Cruz-Zaragoza, E

    2011-02-01

    The well known Initial Rise Method (IR) is commonly used to determine the activation energy when only one glow peak is presented and analysed in the phosphor materials. However, when the glow peak is more complex, a wide peak and some holders appear in the structure. The application of the Initial Rise Method is not valid because multiple trapping levels are considered and then the thermoluminescent analysis becomes difficult to perform. This paper shows the case of a complex glow curve structure as an example and shows that the calculation is also possible using the IR method. The aim of the paper is to extend the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to minerals extracted from Nopal cactus and Oregano spices because the thermoluminescent glow curve's shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The initial rise method extended to multiple trapping levels in thermoluminescent materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furetta, C.; Guzman, S.; Ruiz, B.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.

    2011-01-01

    The well known Initial Rise Method (IR) is commonly used to determine the activation energy when only one glow peak is presented and analysed in the phosphor materials. However, when the glow peak is more complex, a wide peak and some holders appear in the structure. The application of the Initial Rise Method is not valid because multiple trapping levels are considered and then the thermoluminescent analysis becomes difficult to perform. This paper shows the case of a complex glow curve structure as an example and shows that the calculation is also possible using the IR method. The aim of the paper is to extend the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to minerals extracted from Nopal cactus and Oregano spices because the thermoluminescent glow curve's shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level.

  5. A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad

    2009-01-01

    Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8 deg. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision.

  6. A novel method for estimating the initial rotor position of PM motors without the position sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostami, Alireza; Asaei, Behzad [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran)

    2009-08-15

    Permanent magnet (PM) motors have been used widely in the industrial applications. However, a need of the position sensor is a drawback of their control system. The sensorless methods using the back-EMF (electromotive force) cannot detect the rotor position at a standstill; recently, a few methods proposed to detect the initial rotor position, but they have high estimation error which reduces starting torque of the motor. Therefore, in this paper, a novel method to detect the initial rotor position of the PM motors is proposed, first, by using a space vector model, response of the stator current space vector to the saturation of the stator core is analyzed; then a novel method based on the saturation effect is presented that estimates the initial rotor position and the maximum estimation error is less than 3.8. Simulation results confirm this method is effective and precise, and variation of the motor parameters does not affect its precision. (author)

  7. The Community Development Process: The Rediscovery of Local Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, William W.; Biddle, Loureide J.

    The development process in two communities, a mining county in rural Appalachia and a deteriorating neighborhood in a northern industrial city, is presented in case-study form. Concepts and commonly used terms are defined; a process of development is identified that can be used in groups small enough to permit attention to the growth of persons.…

  8. Kidney organ donation: developing family practice initiatives to reverse inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Kidney transplantation is associated with greater long term survival rates and improved quality of life compared with dialysis. Continuous growth in the number of patients with kidney failure has not been matched by an increase in the availability of kidneys for transplantation. This leads to long waiting lists, higher treatment costs and negative health outcomes. Discussion Misunderstandings, public uncertainty and issues of trust in the medical system, that limit willingness to be registered as a potential donor, could be addressed by community dissemination of information and new family practice initiatives that respond to individuals' personal beliefs and concerns regarding organ donation and transplantation. Summary Tackling both personal and public inertia on organ donation is important for any community oriented kidney donation campaign. PMID:20478042

  9. [Development and validation of an instrument for initial nursing assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sola, Cayetano; Granero-Molina, José; Mollinedo-Mallea, Judith; de Gonzales, María Hilda Peredo; Aguilera-Manrique, Gabriel; Ponce, Mara Luna

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study, conducted in Bolivia from April to July of 2008, is the design and validation of an initial nursing assessment instrument to be used in clinical and educational environments in Santa Cruz (Bolivia). Twelve Bolivian nurses participated; both document analysis as well as consensus techniques were used to determine the categories and criteria to be assessed. Categories included in the nursing assessment instrument are a physical assessment and the eleven Gordon's Functional Health Patterns. The nursing assessment instrument stands out as being concise, easy to complete and utilizing a nursing approach. It does not include items for advanced nursing assessment. However, it incorporates items regarding lifestyle and the patient's autonomy. The nursing assessment instrument contributes to improving the quality of clinical records, supports the nursing diagnosis and implementation of the nursing process, promotes the nurse's role and helps to standardize practice.

  10. Development and Initial Psychometric Assessment of the Plant Attitude Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fančovičová, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2010-10-01

    Plants are integral parts of ecosystems which determine life on Earth. People's attitudes toward them are however, largely overlooked. Here we present initial psychometric assessment of self-constructed Plant Attitude Scale (PAS) that was administered to a sample of 310 Slovakian students living in rural areas aged 10-15 years. The final version of PAS consists from 29 Likert-scale items that were loaded to four distinct dimensions (Interest, Importance, Urban trees and Utilization). Mean scores revealed that Slovakian students lack positive attitudes toward plants and that gender had no effect on their mean attitude scores. Living in a family with a garden was associated with a more positive attitude toward plants. Further correlative research on diverse samples containing urban children and experimental research examining the impact of gardening in schools on student attitudes toward plants is required.

  11. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J.; Meier, Matthias M.; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B.; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis suggests

  12. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  13. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolski, M., E-mail: marcin.wolski@curtin.edu.au; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W. [Tribology Laboratory, School of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia 6102 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS{sub Sta}), vertical (FS{sub V}) and horizontal (FS{sub H}) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early

  14. Directional fractal signature methods for trabecular bone texture in hand radiographs: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolski, M.; Podsiadlo, P.; Stachowiak, G. W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop directional fractal signature methods for the analysis of trabecular bone (TB) texture in hand radiographs. Problems associated with the small size of hand bones and the orientation of fingers were addressed. Methods: An augmented variance orientation transform (AVOT) and a quadrant rotating grid (QRG) methods were developed. The methods calculate fractal signatures (FSs) in different directions. Unlike other methods they have the search region adjusted according to the size of bone region of interest (ROI) to be analyzed and they produce FSs defined with respect to any chosen reference direction, i.e., they work for arbitrary orientation of fingers. Five parameters at scales ranging from 2 to 14 pixels (depending on image size and method) were derived from rose plots of Hurst coefficients, i.e., FS in dominating roughness (FS Sta ), vertical (FS V ) and horizontal (FS H ) directions, aspect ratio (StrS), and direction signatures (StdS), respectively. The accuracy in measuring surface roughness and isotropy/anisotropy was evaluated using 3600 isotropic and 800 anisotropic fractal surface images of sizes between 20 × 20 and 64 × 64 pixels. The isotropic surfaces had FDs ranging from 2.1 to 2.9 in steps of 0.1, and the anisotropic surfaces had two dominating directions of 30° and 120°. The methods were used to find differences in hand TB textures between 20 matched pairs of subjects with (cases: approximate Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade ≥2) and without (controls: approximate KL grade <2) radiographic hand osteoarthritis (OA). The OA Initiative public database was used and 20 × 20 pixel bone ROIs were selected on 5th distal and middle phalanges. The performance of the AVOT and QRG methods was compared against a variance orientation transform (VOT) method developed earlier [M. Wolski, P. Podsiadlo, and G. W. Stachowiak, “Directional fractal signature analysis of trabecular bone: evaluation of different methods to detect early osteoarthritis

  15. SIVA/DIVA- INITIAL VALUE ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SOLUTION VIA A VARIABLE ORDER ADAMS METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, F. T.

    1994-01-01

    The SIVA/DIVA package is a collection of subroutines for the solution of ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single precision and double precision arithmetic. These solutions are applicable to stiff or nonstiff differential equations of first or second order. SIVA/DIVA requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable order Adams predictor-corrector methods. There is an option for the direct integration of second order equations which can make integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Other capabilities of SIVA/DIVA include: monitoring a user supplied function which can be separate from the derivative; dynamically controlling the step size; displaying or not displaying output at initial, final, and step size change points; saving the estimated local error; and reverse communication where subroutines return to the user for output or computation of derivatives instead of automatically performing calculations. The user must supply SIVA/DIVA with: 1) the number of equations; 2) initial values for the dependent and independent variables, integration stepsize, error tolerance, etc.; and 3) the driver program and operational parameters necessary for subroutine execution. SIVA/DIVA contains an extensive diagnostic message library should errors occur during execution. SIVA/DIVA is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and is machine independent. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 120K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1983 and last updated in 1987.

  16. Moral counselling: a method in development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Jack; Leget, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method of moral counselling developed in the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen (The Netherlands). The authors apply insights of Paul Ricoeur to the non-directive counselling method of Carl Rogers in their work of coaching patients with moral problems in health care. The developed method was shared with other health care professionals in a training course. Experiences in the course and further practice led to further improvement of the method.

  17. Student perception of initial transition into a nursing program: A mixed methods research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Meghan; Brown, Janine; Knihnitski, Crystal

    2018-05-01

    Transition into undergraduate education programs is stressful and impacts students' well-being and academic achievement. Previous research indicates nursing students experience stress, depression, anxiety, and poor lifestyle habits which interfere with learning. However, nursing students' experience of transition into nursing programs has not been well studied. Incongruence exists between this lack of research and the desire to foster student success. This study analyzed students' experiences of initial transition into a nursing program. An embedded mixed method design. A single site of a direct-entry, four year baccalaureate Canadian nursing program. All first year nursing students enrolled in the fall term of 2016. This study combined the Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire (SACQ) with a subset of participants participating in qualitative focus groups. Quantitative data was analyzed using descriptive statistics to identify statistically significant differences in full-scale and subscale scores. Qualitative data was analyzed utilizing thematic analysis. Significant differences were seen between those who moved to attend university and those who did not, with those who moved scoring lower on the Academic Adjustment subscale. Focus group thematic analysis highlighted how students experienced initial transition into a baccalaureate nursing program. Identified themes included reframing supports, splitting focus/finding focus, negotiating own expectations, negotiating others' expectations, and forming identity. These findings form the Undergraduate Nursing Initial Transition (UNIT) Framework. Significance of this research includes applications in faculty development and program supports to increase student success in the first year of nursing and to provide foundational success for ongoing nursing practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Foresight studies and reform initiatives in construction: Lessons for developing countries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses construction foresight studies and construction reform initiatives with a view to identifying lessons for developing countries. It notes the number of construction reform initiatives over the last 60 years, mostly...

  19. AN EFFICIENT INITIALIZATION METHOD FOR K-MEANS CLUSTERING OF HYPERSPECTRAL DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alizade Naeini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available K-means is definitely the most frequently used partitional clustering algorithm in the remote sensing community. Unfortunately due to its gradient decent nature, this algorithm is highly sensitive to the initial placement of cluster centers. This problem deteriorates for the high-dimensional data such as hyperspectral remotely sensed imagery. To tackle this problem, in this paper, the spectral signatures of the endmembers in the image scene are extracted and used as the initial positions of the cluster centers. For this purpose, in the first step, A Neyman–Pearson detection theory based eigen-thresholding method (i.e., the HFC method has been employed to estimate the number of endmembers in the image. Afterwards, the spectral signatures of the endmembers are obtained using the Minimum Volume Enclosing Simplex (MVES algorithm. Eventually, these spectral signatures are used to initialize the k-means clustering algorithm. The proposed method is implemented on a hyperspectral dataset acquired by ROSIS sensor with 103 spectral bands over the Pavia University campus, Italy. For comparative evaluation, two other commonly used initialization methods (i.e., Bradley & Fayyad (BF and Random methods are implemented and compared. The confusion matrix, overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient are employed to assess the methods’ performance. The evaluations demonstrate that the proposed solution outperforms the other initialization methods and can be applied for unsupervised classification of hyperspectral imagery for landcover mapping.

  20. Initial development of an automated task analysis profiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A program for automated task analysis is described. Called TAPS (task analysis profiling system), the program accepts normal English prose and outputs skills, knowledges, attitudes, and abilities (SKAAs) along with specific guidance and recommended ability measurement tests for nuclear power plant operators. A new method for defining SKAAs is presented along with a sample program output

  1. NAIRAS aircraft radiation model development, dose climatology, and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christopher J; Meier, Matthias M; Brown, Steven; Norman, Ryan B; Xu, Xiaojing

    2013-10-01

    [1] The Nowcast of Atmospheric Ionizing Radiation for Aviation Safety (NAIRAS) is a real-time, global, physics-based model used to assess radiation exposure to commercial aircrews and passengers. The model is a free-running physics-based model in the sense that there are no adjustment factors applied to nudge the model into agreement with measurements. The model predicts dosimetric quantities in the atmosphere from both galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles, including the response of the geomagnetic field to interplanetary dynamical processes and its subsequent influence on atmospheric dose. The focus of this paper is on atmospheric GCR exposure during geomagnetically quiet conditions, with three main objectives. First, provide detailed descriptions of the NAIRAS GCR transport and dosimetry methodologies. Second, present a climatology of effective dose and ambient dose equivalent rates at typical commercial airline altitudes representative of solar cycle maximum and solar cycle minimum conditions and spanning the full range of geomagnetic cutoff rigidities. Third, conduct an initial validation of the NAIRAS model by comparing predictions of ambient dose equivalent rates with tabulated reference measurement data and recent aircraft radiation measurements taken in 2008 during the minimum between solar cycle 23 and solar cycle 24. By applying the criterion of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) on acceptable levels of aircraft radiation dose uncertainty for ambient dose equivalent greater than or equal to an annual dose of 1 mSv, the NAIRAS model is within 25% of the measured data, which fall within the ICRU acceptable uncertainty limit of 30%. The NAIRAS model predictions of ambient dose equivalent rate are generally within 50% of the measured data for any single-point comparison. The largest differences occur at low latitudes and high cutoffs, where the radiation dose level is low. Nevertheless, analysis

  2. Development of precursors recognition methods in vector signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapralov, V. G.; Elagin, V. V.; Kaveeva, E. G.; Stankevich, L. A.; Dremin, M. M.; Krylov, S. V.; Borovov, A. E.; Harfush, H. A.; Sedov, K. S.

    2017-10-01

    Precursor recognition methods in vector signals of plasma diagnostics are presented. Their requirements and possible options for their development are considered. In particular, the variants of using symbolic regression for building a plasma disruption prediction system are discussed. The initial data preparation using correlation analysis and symbolic regression is discussed. Special attention is paid to the possibility of using algorithms in real time.

  3. 78 FR 71635 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... Information Collection: Appalachia Economic Development Initiative and Semi-Annual Reporting AGENCY: Office of... of Rural Housing & Economic Development, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th Street... application for the Appalachia Economic Development Initiative grant process. Information is required to rate...

  4. Novel method of interpolation and extrapolation of functions by a linear initial value problem

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shatalov, M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel method of function approximation using an initial value, linear, ordinary differential equation (ODE) is presented. The main advantage of this method is to obtain the approximation expressions in a closed form. This technique can be taught...

  5. The Initial Rise Method in the case of multiple trapping levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furetta, C.; Guzman, S.; Cruz Z, E.

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the paper is to extent the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to the minerals extracted from Nopal herb and Oregano spice because the thermoluminescent glow curves shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. (Author)

  6. The Initial Rise Method in the case of multiple trapping levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furetta, C. [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, IPN, Av. Legaria 694, Col. Irrigacion, 11500 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Guzman, S.; Cruz Z, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, UNAM, A. P. 70-543, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the paper is to extent the well known Initial Rise Method (IR) to the case of multiple trapping levels. The IR method is applied to the minerals extracted from Nopal herb and Oregano spice because the thermoluminescent glow curves shape suggests a trap distribution instead of a single trapping level. (Author)

  7. Spectral methods for a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasciak, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Spectral methods (Fourier methods) for approximating the solution of a nonlinear initial value problem involving pseudo differential operators are defined and analyzed. A semidiscrete approximation to the nonlinear equation based on an L 2 projection is described. The semidiscrete L 2 approximation is shown to be a priori stable and convergent under sufficient decay and smoothness assumptions on the initial data. It is shown that the semidiscrete method converges with infinite order, that is, higher order decay and smoothness assumptions imply higher order error bounds. Spectral schemes based on spacial collocation are also discussed

  8. Proven Innovations and New Initiatives in Ground System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Jody M.

    2006-01-01

    The state-of-the-practice for engineering and development of Ground Systems has evolved significantly over the past half decade. Missions that challenge ground system developers with significantly reduced budgets in spite of requirements for greater and previously unimagined functionality are now the norm. Making the right trades early in the mission lifecycle is one of the key factors to minimizing ground system costs. The Mission Operations Strategic Leadership Team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory has spent the last year collecting and working through successes and failures in ground systems for application to future missions.

  9. X-ray scatter correction method for dedicated breast computed tomography: improvements and initial patient testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, Senthil; D’Orsi, Carl J; Sechopoulos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    A previously proposed x-ray scatter correction method for dedicated breast computed tomography was further developed and implemented so as to allow for initial patient testing. The method involves the acquisition of a complete second set of breast CT projections covering 360° with a perforated tungsten plate in the path of the x-ray beam. To make patient testing feasible, a wirelessly controlled electronic positioner for the tungsten plate was designed and added to a breast CT system. Other improvements to the algorithm were implemented, including automated exclusion of non-valid primary estimate points and the use of a different approximation method to estimate the full scatter signal. To evaluate the effectiveness of the algorithm, evaluation of the resulting image quality was performed with a breast phantom and with nine patient images. The improvements in the algorithm resulted in the avoidance of introduction of artifacts, especially at the object borders, which was an issue in the previous implementation in some cases. Both contrast, in terms of signal difference and signal difference-to-noise ratio were improved with the proposed method, as opposed to with the correction algorithm incorporated in the system, which does not recover contrast. Patient image evaluation also showed enhanced contrast, better cupping correction, and more consistent voxel values for the different tissues. The algorithm also reduces artifacts present in reconstructions of non-regularly shaped breasts. With the implemented hardware and software improvements, the proposed method can be reliably used during patient breast CT imaging, resulting in improvement of image quality, no introduction of artifacts, and in some cases reduction of artifacts already present. The impact of the algorithm on actual clinical performance for detection, diagnosis and other clinical tasks in breast imaging remains to be evaluated. (paper)

  10. Application of neutron transmutation doping method to initially p-type silicon material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myong-Seop; Kang, Ki-Doo; Park, Sang-Jun

    2009-01-01

    The neutron transmutation doping (NTD) method was applied to the initially p-type silicon in order to extend the NTD applications at HANARO. The relationship between the irradiation neutron fluence and the final resistivity of the initially p-type silicon material was investigated. The proportional constant between the neutron fluence and the resistivity was determined to be 2.3473x10(19)nOmegacm(-1). The deviation of the final resistivity from the target for almost all the irradiation results of the initially p-type silicon ingots was at a range from -5% to 2%. In addition, the burn-up effect of the boron impurities, the residual (32)P activity and the effect of the compensation characteristics for the initially p-type silicon were studied. Conclusively, the practical methodology to perform the neutron transmutation doping of the initially p-type silicon ingot was established.

  11. University's Multi-Scale Initiatives for Redefining City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk, Natalia; Wagner, Iwona; Wolanska-Kaminska, Agnieszka; Jurczak, Tomasz; Zalewski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the varied roles played by the University of Lódz (UL) in maintaining and restoring the natural capital of a city as a driver for sustainable city development. The higher education institution can be perceived as visionary, originator and executor of natural capital projects.…

  12. Development and Initial Psychometrics of Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahram; Park, Eun Hye; Byeon, Eunji; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and psychometric properties of the Counseling Supervisor's Behavior Questionnaire, designed to assess the specific behaviors of supervisors, which can be observed by supervisees during supervision sessions. Factor structure, construct and concurrent validity, and internal consistency reliability of the…

  13. New initiative to further global sustainable development goals in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-03-17

    Mar 17, 2016 ... Representatives from some 60 think tanks met in November 2015 in Geneva to discuss how to further global objectives in health. ... Read the first submission, Accelerating achievement of the sustainable development goals, co-authored by the Graduate Institute, IDRC, the Harvard School of Public Health, ...

  14. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  15. Initial Public Offering Market: Ways of Development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladchuk Kseniia Nikolaevna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals preconditions for Ukrainian IPO market activization, as well as factors restraining its development at present. The history of Ukrainian IPOs on foreign stock exchanges was analyzed. As a result, key trends dominating the IPO market of Ukrainian companies abroad were specified. Practical guidelines of Ukrainian IPO market activization and the structural model of its functioning were suggested.

  16. Women's Participation in Development Initiatives and its Impact on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In Afghanistan, as in other parts of the world, participation in local politics, community organizing and development projects is seen as key to women's empowerment, both as individuals and as a group. This project will ... IDRC's Board of Governors congratulates Jean Lebel on his appointment as President and CEO.

  17. The Pediatric Obesity Initiative: development, implementation, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sample, Denise A; Carroll, Heather L; Barksdale, Debra J; Jessup, Ann

    2013-09-01

    Pediatric obesity rates have nearly tripled over the past three decades contributing to increased morbidity and mortality in the United States and around the world. Pediatric obesity is most prevalent in developed countries and affects all races, ethnicities, cultures, and age groups. To combat this epidemic locally, a team of dedicated providers developed a comprehensive evidenced-based toolkit and training program for clinical practices providing primary care services to children in a North Carolina county. The toolkit and training program were developed using the most current treatment guidelines for pediatric obesity and included resources developed by Healthy Carolinians. One unique feature of the training was a demonstration of motivational interviewing with additional resources included in the toolkit. Staff and providers in three pediatric practices and the local Health Department received the training. In a 3 months follow-up survey after the training, the providers indicated that the toolkit and training program were useful but that they still did not consistently use the guidelines or tools. Ensuring the use of available guidelines and resources by providers remains a challenge. Further study is needed on how to improve implementation of guidelines in primary care settings. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. Mapping Civil Society Initiatives toward the Development and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In addition to the mapping exercise, the project will result in an analytical paper on the nature, scope and scale of work being carried out, and an annotated directory of CSOs working on development issues with the Muslim community of India. The directory will be published and made available to the general public and ...

  19. "Initiate-build-operate-transfer"--a strategy for establishing sustainable telemedicine programs in developing countries: initial lessons from the balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Rifat; Merrell, Ronald C; Doarn, Charles R; Hadeed, George J; Bekteshi, Flamur; Lecaj, Ismet; Boucha, Kathe; Hajdari, Fatmir; Hoxha, Astrit; Koshi, Dashurije; de Leonni Stanonik, Mateja; Berisha, Blerim; Novoberdaliu, Kadri; Imeri, Arben; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2009-12-01

    Establishing sustainable telemedicine has become a goal of many developing countries around the world. Yet, despite initiatives from a select few individuals and on occasion from various governments, often these initiatives never mature to become sustainable programs. The introduction of telemedicine and e-learning in Kosova has been a pivotal step in advancing the quality and availability of medical services in a region whose infrastructure and resources have been decimated by wars, neglect, lack of funding, and poor management. The concept and establishment of the International Virtual e-Hospital (IVeH) has significantly impacted telemedicine and e-health services in the Balkans. The success of the IVeH in Kosova has led to the development of similar programs in other Balkan countries and other developing countries in the hope of modernizing and improving their healthcare infrastructure. A comprehensive, four-pronged strategy, "Initiate-Build-Operate-Transfer" (IBOT), may be a useful approach in establishing telemedicine and e-health educational services in developing countries. The development strategy, IBOT, used by the IVeH to establish and develop telemedicine programs, was discussed. IBOT includes assessment of healthcare needs of each country, the development of a curriculum and education program, the establishment of a nationwide telemedicine network, and the integration of the telemedicine program into the healthcare infrastructure. The endpoint is the transfer of a sustainable telehealth program to the nation involved. By applying IBOT, a sustainable telemedicine program of Kosova has been established as an effective prototype for telemedicine in the Balkans. Once fully matured, the program will be transitioned to the national Ministry of Health, which ensures the sustainability and ownership of the program. Similar programs are being established in Albania, Macedonia, and other countries around the world. The IBOT model has been effective in creating

  20. Application of the variational iteration method for system of initial value problems delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousef, Hamood. M.; Ismail, A. I. B. MD.

    2017-08-01

    Many attempts have been presented to solve the system of Delay Differential Equations (DDE) with Initial Value Problem. As a result, it has shown difficulties when getting the solution or cannot be solved. In this paper, a Variational Iteration Method is employed to find out an approximate solution for the system of DDE with initial value problems. The example illustrates convenient and an efficiency comparison with the exact solution.

  1. Supplier Value of Customer-Initiated Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    Increased market demand and shortened product life cycles generate industrial customer requests for collaborative product development. Manufacture-to-stock suppliers struggle to manage the request process to obtain profitability. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if request management...... is profitable for suppliers, and to examine possible relations between profitability of requests and the requesting customer. Through a case study, request management is identified as a profitable process due to long-term accumulated profit from developed products. Request profitability is not identified...... as related to profitability or turnover of existing customers, and thus profitability of requests cannot be predicted based on these customer data. Results from a coupled interview study indicate that request management has a large potential for future exploitation, and an outline of the supplier value...

  2. Development and Initial Testing of the Tiltrotor Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.; Sheikman, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    The NASA Tiltrotor Test Rig (TTR) is a new, large-scale proprotor test system, developed jointly with the U.S. Army and Air Force, to develop a new, large-scale proprotor test system for the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC). The TTR is designed to test advanced proprotors up to 26 feet in diameter at speeds up to 300 knots, and even larger rotors at lower airspeeds. This combination of size and speed is unprecedented and is necessary for research into 21st-century tiltrotors and other advanced rotorcraft concepts. The TTR will provide critical data for validation of state-of-the-art design and analysis tools.

  3. Methodology for developing new test methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Korobko

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the methodology for developing new test methods and forming solutions for the development of new test methods. The basis of the methodology for developing new test methods is the individual elements of the system and process approaches. They contribute to the development of an effective research strategy for the object, the study of interrelations, the synthesis of an adequate model of the test method. The effectiveness of the developed test method is determined by the correct choice of the set of concepts, their interrelations and mutual influence. This allows you to solve the tasks assigned to achieve the goal. The methodology is based on the use of fuzzy cognitive maps. The question of the choice of the method on the basis of which the model for the formation of solutions is based is considered. The methodology provides for recording a model for a new test method in the form of a finite set of objects. These objects are significant for the test method characteristics. Then a causal relationship is established between the objects. Further, the values of fitness indicators and the observability of the method and metrological tolerance for the indicator are established. The work is aimed at the overall goal of ensuring the quality of tests by improving the methodology for developing the test method.

  4. Quality Initiatives in the Commercial Development of Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    projected that if the cost-escalation proceeds at the same trends, the budget allotted for the EELV program will consume most of the $7.06 billion...became necessary. Furthermore, with the emergence of the industrial society came freedom of choice for the consumer . Manufacturers now had to compete... Toyota Production System (TPS) developed by the Toyota Motor Company, where the goal of the system was to increase production efficiency by reducing

  5. The SIESTA method; developments and applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artacho, Emilio; Anglada, E; Dieguez, O; Gale, J D; Garcia, A; Junquera, J; Martin, R M; Ordejon, P; Pruneda, J M; Sanchez-Portal, D; Soler, J M

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in and around the SIESTA method of first-principles simulation of condensed matter are described and reviewed, with emphasis on (i) the applicability of the method for large and varied systems (ii) efficient basis sets for the standards of accuracy of density-functional methods (iii) new implementations, and (iv) extensions beyond ground-state calculations

  6. Some problems on Monte Carlo method development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Lucheng

    1992-01-01

    This is a short paper on some problems of Monte Carlo method development. The content consists of deep-penetration problems, unbounded estimate problems, limitation of Mdtropolis' method, dependency problem in Metropolis' method, random error interference problems and random equations, intellectualisation and vectorization problems of general software

  7. Development and initial standardization of Ayurveda child personality inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchitra, S P; Jagan, Arati; Nagendra, H R

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda inventories for prakriti (constitution) have been developed and validated for adults. Children, however, require different categories of quarter and questions, for example, to assess the intelligence, the questions can be related to their scholastic performances. To develop and standardize an inventory to assess the prakriti of the children, and to compare with Child Personality Questionnaire (CPQ). A 135-item Ayurveda child personality inventory (ACPI) scale was developed on the basis of translation of Sanskrit verses describing vataja (A), pittaja (B), and kaphaja prakriti (C) characteristics and by taking the opinions of experts (ten Ayurveda experts and three psychologists). Study was carried out in Maxwell public school, Bangalore. The scale was administered on parents of children of the age group 6-12 years. CPQ was administered on children of the age group 8-12 years. The ACPI was associated with excellent internal consistency. The Cronbach's alpha for A, B, and C scales were 0.77, 0.55, and 0.84, respectively, and the Split-half reliability scores were 0.66.0.39 and 0.84, respectively. Factor validity coefficient scores on each items was above 0.5. Scores on vataja, pittaja and kaphaja scales were inversely correlated. Items of V, P, and K scales showed significant correlation (values ranging from 0.39 to 0.84) with subscales of CPQ, which indicates that Eastern and Western psychology concept have good correspondence. The prakrti of the children can be measured consistently by this instrument. Scores on V and P scale showed good correlation with the anxiety primary scale of CPQ.

  8. Orifice jet brazing process development, qualification, and initial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1971-05-01

    Experiments were carried out to develop acceptable procedures for brazing molybdenum alloy orifices to fuel element channel inlets of the NERVA R-1 reactor core. Results achieved with various procedures are described, and qualification tests of the selected process are documented. The recommended procedure includes preplacing of Au-Ni-Cr alloy washers and induction heating to 1600 0 F, holding two minutes, heating further to 2400 0 F, holding one minute, and allowing to cool. Inert atmosphere is used, and fixturing maintains proper positioning of the orifices. Leak testing of the joints has demonstrated reproducibly satisfactory sealing. Repair brazing is feasible if needed. (auth)

  9. The Initial Development of Object Knowledge by a Learning Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modayil, Joseph; Kuipers, Benjamin

    2008-11-30

    We describe how a robot can develop knowledge of the objects in its environment directly from unsupervised sensorimotor experience. The object knowledge consists of multiple integrated representations: trackers that form spatio-temporal clusters of sensory experience, percepts that represent properties for the tracked objects, classes that support efficient generalization from past experience, and actions that reliably change object percepts. We evaluate how well this intrinsically acquired object knowledge can be used to solve externally specified tasks including object recognition and achieving goals that require both planning and continuous control.

  10. Initial Development of a Quadcopter Simulation Environment for Auralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Andrew; Lawrence, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a recently created computer simulation of quadcopter flight dynamics for the NASA DELIVER project. The goal of this effort is to produce a simulation that includes a number of physical effects that are not usually found in other dynamics simulations (e.g., those used for flight controller development). These effects will be shown to have a significant impact on the fidelity of auralizations - entirely synthetic time-domain predictions of sound - based on this simulation when compared to a recording. High-fidelity auralizations are an important precursor to human subject tests that seek to understand the impact of vehicle configurations on noise and annoyance.

  11. Bringing the beneficiary closer: Explanations for volunteering time in Dutch private development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsbergen, S.; Tolsma, J.; Ruiter, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the Netherlands, charitable behavior for international development purposes is subject to important changes. Whereas established development organizations suffer from a declining support base, private development initiatives (PDIs) that execute concrete, small-scale projects within direct

  12. Calculation of noninformative prior of reliability parameter and initiating event frequency with Jeffreys method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jie; Zhang Binbin

    2013-01-01

    In the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plants, there are few historical records on some initiating event frequencies or component failures in industry. In order to determine the noninformative priors of such reliability parameters and initiating event frequencies, the Jeffreys method in Bayesian statistics was employed. The mathematical mechanism of the Jeffreys prior and the simplified constrained noninformative distribution (SCNID) were elaborated in this paper. The Jeffreys noninformative formulas and the credible intervals of the Gamma-Poisson and Beta-Binomial models were introduced. As an example, the small break loss-of-coolant accident (SLOCA) was employed to show the application of the Jeffreys prior in determining an initiating event frequency. The result shows that the Jeffreys method is an effective method for noninformative prior calculation. (authors)

  13. Relationship between sustainable development initiatives and improved company financial performance: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darelle Groenewald

    2016-05-01

    Research purpose: The study analysed the relationship between sustainability performance and FP in South African listed companies. Motivation for the study: Some South African listed companies acknowledge in their sustainability reports that there is a link between sustainability development and long-term shareholder value. This implies that FP is linked to sustainable development performance. This relationship has not been researched for South African listed companies and therefore needs to be investigated. Research design, approach and method: A similar research method was used as for an international study. Forty-five listed South African companies were selected as the sample. Their sustainable development reports were used for analysis. Data were analysed with the use of content and a canonical correlation analysis. Main findings: The results of the study revealed that an overall positive relationship exists between sustainability performance and FP. Practical implications: South African companies that have a high involvement and focus on specific sustainable development initiatives that are integrated into overall sustainable development strategy can deliver improved FP for the organisation and deliver long-term value to its shareholders. Contribution: Six sustainable development aspects were found to be significantly correlated with improved FP and if incorporated into a company’s sustainable development strategy can lead to increased successes.

  14. Determination of the number of radicals in the initial chain reactions by mathematical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Branko B.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the fact that the real mechanism in a chemical equation takes places through a certain number of radicals which participate in simultaneous reactions and initiate chain reactions according to a particular pattern, the aim of this study is to determine their number in the first couple of steps of the reaction. Based on this, the numbers of radicals were determined in the general case, in the form of linear difference equations, which, by certain mathematical transformations, were reduced to one equation that satisfies a particular numeric series, entirely defined if its first members are known. The equation obtained was solved by a common method developed in the theory of numeric series, in which its solutions represent the number of radicals in an arbitrary step of the reaction observed, in the analytical form. In the final part of the study, the method was tested and verified using two characteristic examples from general chemistry. The study also gives a suggestion of a more efficient procedure by reducing the difference equation to a lower order.

  15. Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale: Development and Initial Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Allen, G E Kawika; Stokes, Hannah I; Suh, Han Na

    2017-05-03

    In this study, the Perceived Perfectionism from God Scale (PPGS) was developed with Latter-day Saints (Mormons) across two samples. Sample 1 (N = 421) was used for EFA to select items for the Perceived Standards from God (5 items) and the Perceived Discrepancy from God (5 items) subscales. Sample 2 (N = 420) was used for CFA and cross-validated the 2-factor oblique model as well as a bifactor model. Perceived Standards from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .73 to .78, and Perceived Discrepancy from God scores had Cronbach alphas ranging from .82 to .84. Standards from God scores were positively correlated with positive affect, whereas Discrepancy from God scores was positively correlated with negative affect, shame and guilt. Moreover, these two PPGS subscale scores added significant incremental variances in predicting associated variables over and above corresponding personal perfectionism scores.

  16. INITIAL DEVELOPMENT OF AÇAÍ PLANTS UNDER SHADE GRADATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELEANDRO CANDIDO DAPONT

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the effect of different levels of shading on açai (Euterpe oleracea Mart. plants development, an experiment was conducted at the nursery of Floresta, Rio Branco, AC. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications of 25 plants, set as full sunlight and 18%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 80% shading. The evaluation occurred 125 days after transplantation and the variables were stem diameter, root length, length of the aerial part, total length, dry matter of root, dry matter of aerial part, and total dry matter. With exception of root length, there was significant difference between treatments for all variables. The production of açai plants should be performed using 40% shading.

  17. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Bronwyn; Glendon, A Ian; Creed, Peter A

    2007-01-01

    A need was identified for a consistent set of safety climate factors to provide a basis for aviation industry benchmarking. Six broad safety climate themes were identified from the literature and consultations with industry safety experts. Items representing each of the themes were prepared and administered to 940 Australian commercial pilots. Data from half of the sample (N=468) were used in an exploratory factor analysis that produced a 3-factor model of Management commitment and communication, Safety training and equipment, and Maintenance. A confirmatory factor analysis on the remaining half of the sample showed the 3-factor model to be an adequate fit to the data. The results of this study have produced a scale of safety climate for aviation that is both reliable and valid. This study developed a tool to assess the level of perceived safety climate, specifically of pilots, but may also, with minor modifications, be used to assess other groups' perceptions of safety climate.

  18. Initiating the Pathway to Increase the Region's Income by Developing Tourism Village of Panglipuran Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashori Imron

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The head of regencies and cities needs to develop their imagination and inspiration in order to present the goal of region development and deliver the positive economic growth for the public. Initiating the tourism village program for the potential area may serve as a creative alternative. The aim of this research is to develop the idea of tourism village to improve the income of the region. In depth participation in the community and intensive interview with the tourism stakeholders have been chosen as the method of this study. The result of the research shows that the tourism village of Penglipuran has seven potentials as the main attractions as represented by the traditional architecture, artistic spatial arrangement, the bamboo forest, heroes cemetery, the beauty of Pura Panataran, remarkable village landscape, and Karang Memadu. The participation of local government may contribute the positive impact for the economic growth and improve the income of local community.

  19. Prognostic aspects of imaging method development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhart, L.

    1987-01-01

    A survey is presented of X-ray diagnostic methods and techniques and possibilities of their further development. Promising methods include direct imaging using digital radiography. In connection with computer technology these methods achieve higher resolution. The storage of obtained images in the computer memory will allow automated processing and evaluation and the use of expert systems. Development is expected to take place especially in computerized tomography using magnetic resonance, and positron computed tomography and other non-radioactive diagnostic methods. (J.B.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 1 ref

  20. Developing and Implementing a Food Insecurity Screening Initiative for Adult Patients Living With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brittany; Fitzpatrick, Sandra; Sidani, Souraya; Gucciardi, Enza

    2018-06-01

    Routine food insecurity screening is recommended in diabetes care to inform more tailored interventions that better support diabetes self-management among food-insecure patients. This pilot study explored the acceptability and feasibility of a food insecurity screening initiative within a diabetes care setting in Toronto. A systematic literature review informed the development of a food insecurity screening initiative to help health-care providers tailor diabetes management plans and better support food-insecure patients with type 2 diabetes. Interviews with 10 patients and a focus group with 15 care providers elicited feedback on the relevance and acceptance of the food insecurity screening questions and a care algorithm. Subsequently, 5 care providers at 4 sites implemented the screening initiative over 2 weeks, screening 33 patients. After implementation, 7 patients and 5 care providers were interviewed to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the screening initiative. Our findings demonstrate that patients are willing to share their experiences of food insecurity, despite the sensitivity of this topic. Screening elicited information about how patients cope with food insecurity and how this affects their ability to self-manage diabetes. Care providers found this information helpful in directing their care and support for patients. Using a standardized, respectful method of assessing food insecurity can better equip health-care providers to support food-insecure patients with diabetes self-management. Further evaluation of this initiative is needed to determine how food insecurity screening can affect patients' self-management and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development and validation of analytical methods for dietary supplements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, Darryl; Crowley, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The expanding use of innovative botanical ingredients in dietary supplements and foods has resulted in a flurry of research aimed at the development and validation of analytical methods for accurate measurement of active ingredients. The pressing need for these methods is being met through an expansive collaborative initiative involving industry, government, and analytical organizations. This effort has resulted in the validation of several important assays as well as important advances in the method engineering procedures which have improved the efficiency of the process. The initiative has also allowed researchers to hurdle many of the barricades that have hindered accurate analysis such as the lack of reference standards and comparative data. As the availability for nutraceutical products continues to increase these methods will provide consumers and regulators with the scientific information needed to assure safety and dependable labeling

  2. Development of spectrophotometric fingerprinting method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of herbal formulations. A simple, rapid and validated fingerprint method has developed for estimation of piperine in 'Talisadi churna', a well known herbal formulation in India. The estimation was carried out in two ...

  3. Validated modified Lycopodium spore method development for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Validated modified lycopodium spore method has been developed for simple and rapid quantification of herbal powdered drugs. Lycopodium spore method was performed on ingredients of Shatavaryadi churna, an ayurvedic formulation used as immunomodulator, galactagogue, aphrodisiac and rejuvenator. Estimation of ...

  4. Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Three Methods for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Chlorpheniramine Maleate and Dexamethasone in the Presence of Parabens in ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Results: All the proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of raw materials and dosage form.

  5. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop an improved kinetic-spectrophotometric procedure for the determination of metronidazole (MNZ) in pharmaceutical formulations. Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of Fe(II) ions at pH 4.5 (acetate buffer). The reaction was monitored ...

  6. The Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD): a new dimension in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1990-04-01

    The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) promotes family planning (FP) throughout Thailand through a community-based approach. The Thai government actively supports rural development. In 1986, 80% of Thailand's people who lived below the poverty line were in rural areas. The poverty line in rural areas is an annual per capita income of 3823 baht, or US $153; in urban areas, it is more. Since 1984, Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by more than 50%. Per capita GDP has risen dramatically, also, with the success of FP efforts. This economic achievement, however, has not been shared by most of the Thai population. Incomes in the agriculture sector are far below those in the nonagricultural sector. The government and the nonprofit organizations, however, do not have skills. The corporate sector does have these skills. The Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) helps companies sponsor villages and aids them in developing business skills, whereupon income levels and local living standards are improved. Companies thus help in the employment transfer from agriculture to nonagriculture. There is a "one-company-one- village" formula. Company employees have the skills needed in the villages. They are directly involved. Since 1988, PDA has been working with companies in Thailand to help villages develop business skills. In Saraburi province, PDA and Volvo Swedish Motors have been aiding villagers to grow saplings and sell them to golf course and housing developers. In Ayutthaya Province, PDA and the same company are helping the residents with needlepoint and embroidery to supply a wedding dress manufacturing operation. These programs have succeeded. PDA wants to expand the program by September 1990, to include 50 companies. It is hoped that once the companies are comfortable with their relationship to the village, they will start associations with additional villages. PDA has established the "Ten Steps to Adopt a Village."

  7. Evolution of solar magnetic fields - A new approach to MHD initial-boundary value problems by the method of nearcharacteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method of analysis for the MHD initial-boundary problem is presented in which the model's formulation is based on the method of nearcharacteristics developed by Werner (1968) and modified by Shin and Kot (1978). With this method, the physical causality relationship can be traced from the perturbation to the response as in the method of characteristics, while achieving the advantage of a considerable reduction in mathematical procedures. The method offers the advantage of examining not only the evolution of nonforce free fields, but also the changes of physical conditions in the atmosphere accompanying the evolution of magnetic fields. The physical validity of the method is demonstrated with examples, and their significance in interpreting observations is discussed.

  8. Connecticut State University System Initiative for Nanotechnology-Related Equipment, Faculty Development and Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbridge, Christine C. [Southern Connecticut State University

    2013-03-28

    DOE grant used for partial fulfillment of necessary laboratory equipment for course enrichment and new graduate programs in nanotechnology at the four institutions of the Connecticut State University System (CSUS). Equipment in this initial phase included variable pressure scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy elemental analysis capability [at Southern Connecticut State University]; power x-ray diffractometer [at Central Connecticut State University]; a spectrophotometer and spectrofluorimeter [at Eastern Connecticut State University; and a Raman Spectrometer [at Western Connecticut State University]. DOE's funding was allocated for purchase and installation of this scientific equipment and instrumentation. Subsequently, DOE funding was allocated to fund the curriculum, faculty development and travel necessary to continue development and implementation of the System's Graduate Certificate in Nanotechnology (GCNT) program and the ConnSCU Nanotechnology Center (ConnSCU-NC) at Southern Connecticut State University. All of the established outcomes have been successfully achieved. The courses and structure of the GCNT program have been determined and the program will be completely implemented in the fall of 2013. The instrumentation has been purchased, installed and has been utilized at each campus for the implementation of the nanotechnology courses, CSUS GCNT and the ConnSCU-NC. Additional outcomes for this grant include curriculum development for non-majors as well as faculty and student research.

  9. Development of new HRA methods based upon operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, S.E.; Luckas, W.J.; Barriere, M.T.; Wreathall, J.

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), previously unaddressed human reliability issues are being investigated in order to support the development of human reliability analysis (HRA) methods for both low power and shutdown (LP and S) and full-power conditions. Actual operational experience, such as that reported in Licensee Event Reports (LERs), have been used to gain insights and provide a basis for the requirements of new HRA methods. In particular, operational experience has shown that new HRA methods for LP and S must address human-induced initiators, errors of commission, mistakes (vs. slips), dependencies, and the effects of multiple performance shaping factors (PSFs). (author)

  10. An Initialization Method Based on Hybrid Distance for k-Means Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Xiangfen; Li, Shunbao; Zhang, Yuping

    2017-11-01

    The traditional [Formula: see text]-means algorithm has been widely used as a simple and efficient clustering method. However, the performance of this algorithm is highly dependent on the selection of initial cluster centers. Therefore, the method adopted for choosing initial cluster centers is extremely important. In this letter, we redefine the density of points according to the number of its neighbors, as well as the distance between points and their neighbors. In addition, we define a new distance measure that considers both Euclidean distance and density. Based on that, we propose an algorithm for selecting initial cluster centers that can dynamically adjust the weighting parameter. Furthermore, we propose a new internal clustering validation measure, the clustering validation index based on the neighbors (CVN), which can be exploited to select the optimal result among multiple clustering results. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing initialization methods on real-world data sets and demonstrates the adaptability of the proposed algorithm to data sets with various characteristics.

  11. Evaluation of initial degradation in stress corrosion cracking by magnetic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaya, Shigeru; Suzuki, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Demachi, Kazuyuki; Uesaka, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    Two magnetic methods are proposed for the evaluation of initial degradations of type 304 stainless steel in stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The first one is the measurement of the distribution of chromium depletion by means of a magnetic force microscope (MFM). MFM observations are performed for some samples sensitized in various conditions, and the obtained results coincide with the expected ones from the chromium behavior. Moreover, the phase distributions in the solution-annealed and sensitized states are observed by electron backscatter pattern technique. The observation results show that the phase transformation from the austenite phase to the martensite phase occurred along grain boundaries where the chromium was depleted. The second one is the detection of initial SCC cracks by measurement of magnetic flux densities. In-situ measurement of magnetic flux density during the SCC test and MFM observation reveal the relation of initial SCC cracks and magnetic properties. (author)

  12. Pubertal development among girls with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Kulshreshtha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH provide us an opportunity to study the clinical effects of androgen excess in humans. We studied the sequence of pubertal development in girls with congenital adrenal hyperplasia initiated on treatment at different ages, to assess the effects of androgen exposure on the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Ovarian (HPO axis. Materials and Methods: Girls more than 18 years of age, with CAH, on follow-up at this hospital were the subjects for this study. Details of history, physical findings, laboratory evaluation, and medication were noted from their case records and verified from the patients and their / parents, in addition to assessment of their present health status. Result: We studied 24 patients of classical CAH (SW-2, SV-22, average age - 24.5 ± 6.6 years. All had varying degrees of genital ambiguity (Prader stage 3 (n = 13, Prader stage 2 (n = 10, Prader stage 1 (n = 1. Among them were13 girls, who were started on steroids after eight years of age. Girls who received treatment from infancy and early childhood had normal pubertal development (mean age at menarche 11.4 ± 1.7 years. Hirsutism was not a problem among them. Untreated children had progressive clitoral enlargement throughout childhood, developed pubic hair at around three to six years of age, and facial hair between nine and eleven years. Plasma testosterone ranged from 3 to 6 ng / ml prior to treatment. Six of the 13 untreated CAH girls had subtle breast development starting at ages 11 - 16 years and three had spontaneous infrequent vaginal bleeding starting at ages 11 - 17. Steroid supplementation initiated pubertal changes in older girls in two-to-six months′ time. Conclusion: There was a delay in HPO axis maturation (as evidenced by delayed pubertal development in the absence of treatment in girls with CAH. This could be corrected with steroid supplementation.

  13. Development of Methods of Innovative Projects’ Management in Developer Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papelniuk Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the author studies the conceptual scheme of life cycle of innovative developer project and offers methods of innovative projects' management according to the stages of its lifecycle. The author describes algorithm of the organization of management system of innovative projects in the developer organization representing set of stages and methods. The offered algorithm allows developer organizations achieve one of the main of their objectives, which is the creation of a special environment of comfortable accommodation with the emphasis on ecological compatibility and energy efficiency.

  14. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Marquita Elliott; Nicole Rhoades; Christina M. Jackson; B. Jean Mandernach

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities – and differences – in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An examination of interest, attendance and completion rates of faculty development initiatives targeting online faculty revealed no distinct preferences in...

  15. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors

  16. Development of transient initiating event frequencies for use in probabilistic risk assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackowiak, D.P.; Gentillon, C.D.; Smith, K.L.

    1985-05-01

    Transient initiating event frequencies are an essential input to the analysis process of a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment. These frequencies describe events causing or requiring scrams. This report documents an effort to validate and update from other sources a computer-based data file developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) describing such events at 52 United States commercial nuclear power plants. Operating information from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission on 24 additional plants from their date of commercial operation has been combined with the EPRI data, and the entire data base has been updated to add 1980 through 1983 events for all 76 plants. The validity of the EPRI data and data analysis methodology and the adequacy of the EPRI transient categories are examined. New transient initiating event frequencies are derived from the expanded data base using the EPRI transient categories and data display methods. Upper bounds for these frequencies are also provided. Additional analyses explore changes in the dominant transients, changes in transient outage times and their impact on plant operation, and the effects of power level and scheduled scrams on transient event frequencies. A more rigorous data analysis methodology is developed to encourage further refinement of the transient initiating event frequencies derived herein. Updating the transient event data base resulted in approx.2400 events being added to EPRI's approx.3000-event data file. The resulting frequency estimates were in most cases lower than those reported by EPRI, but no significant order-of-magnitude changes were noted. The average number of transients per year for the combined data base is 8.5 for pressurized water reactors and 7.4 for boiling water reactors.

  17. Development of advanced MCR task analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, J. C.; Park, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, J. K.; Kim, E. S.; Cho, S. B.; Kang, J. S.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes task analysis methodology for advanced HSI designs. Task analyses was performed by using procedure-based hierarchical task analysis and task decomposition methods. The results from the task analysis were recorded in a database. Using the TA results, we developed static prototype of advanced HSI and human factors engineering verification and validation methods for an evaluation of the prototype. In addition to the procedure-based task analysis methods, workload estimation based on the analysis of task performance time and analyses for the design of information structure and interaction structures will be necessary

  18. Tumor scintigraphy by the method for subtracting the initial image with technetium-99m labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karube, Yoshiharu; Katsuno, Kentaro; Ito, Sanae; Matsunaga, Kazuhisa; Takata, Jiro; Kuroki, Masahide; Murakami, Masaaki; Matsuoka, Yuji

    1999-01-01

    The method for subtracting the initial image from the localization image was evaluated for radioimmunoscintigraphy of tumors with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) labeled antibodies. Monoclonal antibodies were parental mouse and mouse-human chimeric antibodies to carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), designated F11-39 and ChF11-39, respectively, both of which have been found to discriminate CEA in tumor tissues from the CEA-related antigens. After reduction of the intrinsic disulfide bonds, these antibodies were labeled with Tc-99m. In vivo studies were performed on athymic nude mice bearing the human CEA-producing gastric carcinoma xenografts. Though biodistribution results showed selective and progressive accumulation of Tc-99m labeled antibodies at the tumor site, high radioactivity in blood was inappropriate for scintigraphic visualization of the tumors within a few hours. We examined the subtraction of the initial Tc-99m image from the Tc-99m localization image after a few hours. Subtracted images of the same count reflected the in vivo behavior of the Tc-99m radioactivity. The subtracted scintigrams revealed excellent tumor images with no significant extrarenal background. Visualization of the tumor site was dependent on antigen-specific binding and nonspecific exudation. These results demonstrate that a method of subtraction of the initial image may serve as a potentially useful diagnostic method for an abnormal site for agents with a low pharmacokinetic value. (author)

  19. New method to determine initial surface water displacement at tsunami source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrentyev, Mikhail; Romanenko, Alexey; Tatarintsev, Pavel

    2013-04-01

    Friday, March 11, 2011 at 05:46:23 UTC, Japan was struck by an 8.9-magnitude earthquake near its Northeastern coast. This is one of the largest earthquakes that Japan has ever experienced. Tsunami waves swept away houses and cars and caused massive human losses. To predict tsunami wave parameters better and faster, we propose to improve data inversion scheme and achieve the performance gain of data processing. One of the reasons of inaccurate predictions of tsunami parameters is that very little information is available about the initial disturbance of the sea bed at tsunami source. In this paper, we suggest a new way of improving the quality of tsunami source parameters prediction. Modern computational technologies can accurately calculate tsunami wave propagation over the deep ocean provided that the initial displacement (perturbation of the sea bed at tsunami source) is known [4]. Direct geophysical measurements provide the location of an earthquake hypocenter and its magnitude (the released energy evaluation). Among the methods of determination of initial displacement the following ones should be considered. Calculation through the known fault structure and available seismic information. This method is widely used and provides useful information. However, even if the exact knowledge about rock blocks shifts is given, recalculation in terms of sea bed displacement is needed. This results in a certain number of errors. GPS data analysis. This method was developed after the December 2004 event in the Indian Ocean. A good correlation between dry land based GPS sensors and tsunami wave parameters was observed in the particular case of the West coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. This approach is very unique and can hardly been used in other geo locations. Satellite image analysis. The resolution of modern satellite images has dramatically improved. In the future, correct data of sea surface displacement will probably be available in real time, right after a tsunamigenic

  20. Adaptive wavelet collocation methods for initial value boundary problems of nonlinear PDE's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Wang, Jian-Zhong

    1993-01-01

    We have designed a cubic spline wavelet decomposition for the Sobolev space H(sup 2)(sub 0)(I) where I is a bounded interval. Based on a special 'point-wise orthogonality' of the wavelet basis functions, a fast Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is constructed. This DWT transform will map discrete samples of a function to its wavelet expansion coefficients in O(N log N) operations. Using this transform, we propose a collocation method for the initial value boundary problem of nonlinear PDE's. Then, we test the efficiency of the DWT transform and apply the collocation method to solve linear and nonlinear PDE's.

  1. Self-help initiatives and rural development in Ibesikpo community of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the impact of self-help initiatives on rural development in Ibesikpo community of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Self help initiatives were defined in terms of provision of employment, education and health-care. A sample size of 369 rural dwellers was drawn and data were analyzed using simple regression ...

  2. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of the Personal Growth Initiative Scale-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitschek, Christine; Ashton, Matthew W.; Spering, Cynthia C.; Geiger, Nathaniel; Byers, Danielle; Schotts, G. Christian; Thoen, Megan A.

    2012-01-01

    The original Personal Growth Initiative Scale (PGIS; Robitschek, 1998) was unidimensional, despite theory identifying multiple components (e.g., cognition and behavior) of personal growth initiative (PGI). The present research developed a multidimensional measure of the complex process of PGI, while retaining the brief and psychometrically sound…

  3. A method for automatically constructing the initial contour of the common carotid artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Omran

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a novel method to automatically set the initial contour that is used by the Active contours algorithm.The proposed method exploits the accumulative intensity profiles to locate the points on the arterial wall. The intensity profiles of sections that intersect the artery show distinguishable characterstics that make it possible to recognize them from the profiles of sections that do not intersect the artery walls. The proposed method is applied on ultrasound images of the transverse section of the common carotid artery, but it can be extended to be used on the images of the longitudinal section. The intensity profiles are classified using Support vector machine algorithm, and the results of different kernels are compared. The extracted features used for the classification are basically statistical features of the intensity profiles. The echogenicity of the arterial lumen, and gives the profiles that intersect the artery a special shape that helps recognizing these profiles from other general profiles.The outlining of the arterial walls may seem a classic task in image processing. However, most of the methods used to outline the artery start from a manual, or semi-automatic, initial contour.The proposed method is highly appreciated in automating the entire process of automatic artery detection and segmentation.

  4. Developing a TQM quality management method model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Zhihai

    1997-01-01

    From an extensive review of total quality management literature, the external and internal environment affecting an organization's quality performance and the eleven primary elements of TQM are identified. Based on the primary TQM elements, a TQM quality management method model is developed. This

  5. Usability Evaluation Method for Agile Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Masood Butt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agile methods are the best fit for tremendously growing software industry due to its flexible and dynamic nature. But the software developed using agile methods do meet the usability standards? To answer this question we can see that majority of agile software development projects currently involve interactive user interface designs, which can only be possible by following User Centered Design (UCD in agile methods. The question here is, how to integrate UCD with agile models. Both Agile models and UCD are iterative in nature but agile models focus on coding and development of software; whereas, UCD focuses on user interface of the software. Similarly, both of them have testing features where the agile model involves automated tested code while UCD involves an expert or a user to test the user interface. In this paper, a new agile usability model is proposed and the evaluation is of the proposed model is presented by practically implementing it in three real life projects. . Key results from these projects clearly show: the proposed agile model incorporates usability evaluation methods, improves the relationship between usability experts to work with agile software experts; in addition, allows agile developers to incorporate the result from UCD into subsequent interactions.

  6. A Framework for Teaching Software Development Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinsky, Yael; Hazzan, Orit

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a study that aims at constructing a teaching framework for software development methods in higher education. The research field is a capstone project-based course, offered by the Technion's Department of Computer Science, in which Extreme Programming is introduced. The research paradigm is an Action Research that involves…

  7. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel; Tekinerdogan, B.; van den Broek, P.M.; Saeki, M.; Hruby, P.; Sunye, G.

    2001-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  8. Automating Object-Oriented Software Development Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tekinerdogan, B.; Frohner, A´ kos; Saeki, Motoshi; Sunyé, Gerson; van den Broek, P.M.; Hruby, Pavel

    2002-01-01

    Current software projects have generally to deal with producing and managing large and complex software products. It is generally believed that applying software development methods are useful in coping with this complexity and for supporting quality. As such numerous object-oriented software

  9. Development of A 32P-Postlabeling Technic for Detection of the Initiation of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiawan

    2000-01-01

    It is well know that the interaction between exogenous and also endogenous subs-trances with macromolecular biology (Protein or DNA) in human with in sublethal or lethal level can lead to the initiation of cancer (Auerbach, 1946, Phillips, 1981). In the assessment of carcinogen exposure (exo genus or endo genus), bio markers are chosen based on a knowledge of the internal interactions of carcinogen molecules/metabolites with cellular macromolecules such as DNA, i.e. formation DNA adduct. The 32 P-postlabeling assay is most sensitive, fast and applicability methods to structurally diverse classes of chemical. It has been developed to detect DNA adduct (Randerath at. All, 1993, Reddy, 1986). The 32 P-Postlabeling technic has emerged as the method of choice for qualitative detection and quantitation of carcinogen-DNA adducts in human. The result of detection of the Adduct will lead the understand of the mechanism reaction of the substance in human organ. The assay of the 32 P-Postlabeling involves a stepwise sequence of biochemical reaction entailing: Isolation DNA and following with cleavage by enzymatic hydrolyzed of intact DNA (Nucleotide) with phosphate in 3 position. Attachment of a 32 P- label to the 5-hydroxyl end of DNA (Nucleotide) creating a 3,5-biphosphate; following by separation and detection of adducts by high-regulation TLC and autoradiography respectively and quantitation of adducts by measurement of radioactivity. The 32 P-Postlabeling was used to detection of DNA adduct of Polycyclic aromatic and alpha, beta unsaturated carbonyl compound such crotonaldehyde, which is in this paper to discussed. We have investigated and developed the 32 P-Postlabeling for detection of modified DNA of crotonaldehyde in vitro and in vivo as markers for initiation of cancer. From the result of study were found the adduct the adduct in several organs of F-344 rast after gavage and persisted to a certain extent (Eder dan Budiawan, 1997)

  10. PlasmaPy: initial development of a Python package for plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Nicholas; Leonard, Andrew J.; Stańczak, Dominik; Haggerty, Colby C.; Parashar, Tulasi N.; Huang, Yu-Min; PlasmaPy Community

    2017-10-01

    We report on initial development of PlasmaPy: an open source community-driven Python package for plasma physics. PlasmaPy seeks to provide core functionality that is needed for the formation of a fully open source Python ecosystem for plasma physics. PlasmaPy prioritizes code readability, consistency, and maintainability while using best practices for scientific computing such as version control, continuous integration testing, embedding documentation in code, and code review. We discuss our current and planned capabilities, including features presently under development. The development roadmap includes features such as fluid and particle simulation capabilities, a Grad-Shafranov solver, a dispersion relation solver, atomic data retrieval methods, and tools to analyze simulations and experiments. We describe several ways to contribute to PlasmaPy. PlasmaPy has a code of conduct and is being developed under a BSD license, with a version 0.1 release planned for 2018. The success of PlasmaPy depends on active community involvement, so anyone interested in contributing to this project should contact the authors. This work was partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  11. Order Reduction in High-Order Runge-Kutta Methods for Initial Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, Rodolfo Ruben; Seibold, Benjamin; Shirokoff, David; Zhou, Dong

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the order reduction phenomenon for initial-boundary-value problems that occurs with many Runge-Kutta time-stepping schemes. First, a geometric explanation of the mechanics of the phenomenon is provided: the approximation error develops boundary layers, induced by a mismatch between the approximation error in the interior and at the boundaries. Second, an analysis of the modes of the numerical scheme is conducted, which explains under which circumstances boundary layers pers...

  12. A method of recovering the initial vectors of globally coupled map lattices based on symbolic dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Li-Sha; Kang Xiao-Yun; Zhang Qiong; Lin Lan-Xin

    2011-01-01

    Based on symbolic dynamics, a novel computationally efficient algorithm is proposed to estimate the unknown initial vectors of globally coupled map lattices (CMLs). It is proved that not all inverse chaotic mapping functions are satisfied for contraction mapping. It is found that the values in phase space do not always converge on their initial values with respect to sufficient backward iteration of the symbolic vectors in terms of global convergence or divergence (CD). Both CD property and the coupling strength are directly related to the mapping function of the existing CML. Furthermore, the CD properties of Logistic, Bernoulli, and Tent chaotic mapping functions are investigated and compared. Various simulation results and the performances of the initial vector estimation with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are also provided to confirm the proposed algorithm. Finally, based on the spatiotemporal chaotic characteristics of the CML, the conditions of estimating the initial vectors using symbolic dynamics are discussed. The presented method provides both theoretical and experimental results for better understanding and characterizing the behaviours of spatiotemporal chaotic systems. (general)

  13. A method of recovering the initial vectors of globally coupled map lattices based on symbolic dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Sha; Kang, Xiao-Yun; Zhang, Qiong; Lin, Lan-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Based on symbolic dynamics, a novel computationally efficient algorithm is proposed to estimate the unknown initial vectors of globally coupled map lattices (CMLs). It is proved that not all inverse chaotic mapping functions are satisfied for contraction mapping. It is found that the values in phase space do not always converge on their initial values with respect to sufficient backward iteration of the symbolic vectors in terms of global convergence or divergence (CD). Both CD property and the coupling strength are directly related to the mapping function of the existing CML. Furthermore, the CD properties of Logistic, Bernoulli, and Tent chaotic mapping functions are investigated and compared. Various simulation results and the performances of the initial vector estimation with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are also provided to confirm the proposed algorithm. Finally, based on the spatiotemporal chaotic characteristics of the CML, the conditions of estimating the initial vectors using symbolic dynamics are discussed. The presented method provides both theoretical and experimental results for better understanding and characterizing the behaviours of spatiotemporal chaotic systems.

  14. Initial Development Work for the Cloud-Aerosol Multi-Angle Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Initiate development of a cost-effective off-nadir cloud-aerosol lidar instrument to enable data synergy with passive sensors (imagers, polarimeters) and models...

  15. Development of methods for body composition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Thomas, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  16. Development of methods for body composition studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren [Department of Radiation Physics, Lund University, Malmoe University Hospital, SE-205 02 Malmoe (Sweden); Thomas, Brian J [School of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia)

    2006-07-07

    This review is focused on experimental methods for determination of the composition of the human body, its organs and tissues. It summarizes the development and current status of fat determinations from body density, total body water determinations through the dilution technique, whole and partial body potassium measurements for body cell mass estimates, in vivo neutron activation analysis for body protein measurements, dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, fMRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) for body composition studies on tissue and organ levels, as well as single- and multiple-frequency bioimpedance (BIA) and anthropometry as simple easily available methods. Methods for trace element analysis in vivo are also described. Using this wide range of measurement methods, together with gradually improved body composition models, it is now possible to quantify a number of body components and follow their changes in health and disease. (review)

  17. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  18. Music therapy CD creation for initial pediatric radiation therapy: a mixed methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Philippa; O'Callaghan, Clare; Wheeler, Greg; Grocke, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods research design was used to investigate the effects of a music therapy CD (MTCD) creation intervention on pediatric oncology patients' distress and coping during their first radiation therapy treatment. The music therapy method involved children creating a music CD using interactive computer-based music software, which was "remixed" by the music therapist-researcher to extend the musical material. Eleven pediatric radiation therapy outpatients aged 6 to 13 years were randomly assigned to either an experimental group, in which they could create a music CD prior to their initial treatment to listen to during radiation therapy, or to a standard care group. Quantitative and qualitative analyses generated multiple perceptions from the pediatric patients, parents, radiation therapy staff, and music therapist-researcher. Ratings of distress during initial radiation therapy treatment were low for all children. The comparison between the two groups found that 67% of the children in the standard care group used social withdrawal as a coping strategy, compared to 0% of the children in the music therapy group; this trend approached significance (p = 0.076). MTCD creation was a fun, engaging, and developmentally appropriate intervention for pediatric patients, which offered a positive experience and aided their use of effective coping strategies to meet the demands of their initial radiation therapy treatment.

  19. A damage cumulation method for crack initiation prediction under non proportional loading and overloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taheri, S.

    1992-04-01

    For a sequence of constant amplitude cyclic loading containing overloads, we propose a method for damage cumulation in non proportional loading. This method uses as data cyclic stabilized states at non proportional loading and initiation or fatigue curve in uniaxial case. For that, we take into account the dependence of Cyclic Strain Stress Curves (C.S.S.C.) and mean cell size on prehardening and we define a stabilized uniaxial state cyclically equivalent to a non proportional stabilized state through a family of C.S.S.C. Although simple assumptions like linear damage function and linear cumulation is used we obtain a sequence effect for difficult cross slip materials as 316 stainless steel, but the Miner rule for easy cross-slip materials. We show then differences between a load-controlled test and a strain controlled test: for a 316 stainless steel in a load controlled test, the non proportional loading at each cycle is less damaging than the uniaxial one for the same equivalent stress, while the result is opposite in a strain controlled test. We show also that an overloading retards initiation in a load controlled test while it accelerates initiation in a strain controlled test. (author). 26 refs., 8 figs

  20. Enhancing the quality of aged latent fingerprints developed by superglue fuming: loss and replenishment of initiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargacki, Stephen P; Lewis, Linda A; Dadmun, Mark D

    2008-09-01

    The recovery and identification of latent fingerprints from a crime scene are crucial to many investigations. The cyanoacrylate (superglue) fuming method (CFM), which develops fingerprints by growing a polymer coating over the print residue, is a powerful method but encounters severe limitations when prints are aged or exposed to harsh environmental conditions. We examine the aging process and how the changes that occur to a fingerprint residue over time influence the growth of polymer during development. We identify loss of initiator by erosion and degradation that, when coupled with a loss of water from the print residue, result in a decreased ability to polymerize ethylcyanoacrylate. Then, we present a methodology by which the ability of aged latent fingerprints to polymerize ethylcyanoacrylate is recovered. Two print enhancement agents, acetic acid and ammonia, are demonstrated to improve the growth of polymer from the print ridges by over an order of magnitude, while retaining the integrity of the print structure. Comparison between the two enhancement agents indicate that the enhancement occurs due to ridge coating by the ammonia or acetic acid and pH control of the latent print.

  1. Application of quality-improvement methods in a community practice: the Sandhills Pediatrics Asthma Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroth, Thomas H; Boals, Joseph C

    2005-01-01

    leadership and support. The leaders of the practice saw beyond the usual metrics of patient visit counts and relative value units (RVUs) to embrace the concept of population health: the notion that practices are not only responsible for providing acute, episodic care in the office, but also for improving health outcomes in the community in which they serve. Other important factors included ensuring a basic agreement among providers on the need for improvement and frequent communication about the goals of the project. Although the champions of the project tried to minimize formal meeting time, there was frequent informal communication between team members. In the future, there is a need to develop other approaches to stimulate these endeavors in community practices, such as "pay for performance" programs, continuing education credit, and tying maintenance of board certification to quality improvement initiatives.

  2. A bootstrapping method for development of Treebank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, F.; Basirat, A.; Faili, H.; Mirain, M.

    2017-01-01

    Using statistical approaches beside the traditional methods of natural language processing could significantly improve both the quality and performance of several natural language processing (NLP) tasks. The effective usage of these approaches is subject to the availability of the informative, accurate and detailed corpora on which the learners are trained. This article introduces a bootstrapping method for developing annotated corpora based on a complex and rich linguistically motivated elementary structure called supertag. To this end, a hybrid method for supertagging is proposed that combines both of the generative and discriminative methods of supertagging. The method was applied on a subset of Wall Street Journal (WSJ) in order to annotate its sentences with a set of linguistically motivated elementary structures of the English XTAG grammar that is using a lexicalised tree-adjoining grammar formalism. The empirical results confirm that the bootstrapping method provides a satisfactory way for annotating the English sentences with the mentioned structures. The experiments show that the method could automatically annotate about 20% of WSJ with the accuracy of F-measure about 80% of which is particularly 12% higher than the F-measure of the XTAG Treebank automatically generated from the approach proposed by Basirat and Faili [(2013). Bridge the gap between statistical and hand-crafted grammars. Computer Speech and Language, 27, 1085-1104].

  3. Systematic Management of Change Is the Key to Successful Staff Development. An Initial Study of the Bloomfield Public Schools Staff Development Project. Teacher Essentials, Styles & Strategies (TESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celso, Nicholas; Morris, Harold

    Confronted by a maturing staff, lower teacher turnover rates, declining enrollments, and more sophisticated instructional methods, the Bloomfield (New Jersey) Public School District adopted an ambitious staff development initiative in 1983. This paper describes the planning and implementation strategies used to launch Bloomfield's Teaching…

  4. Healthy bread initiative: methods, findings, and theories--Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-03-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4 +/- 0.4 g% before study to 12 +/- 0.6 g% after the intervention (p bread decreased from 13 +/- 1.8 g% to 2 +/- 0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the longstanding problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model.

  5. ITPI: Initial Transcription Process-Based Identification Method of Bioactive Components in Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baixia Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of bioactive components is an important area of research in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM formula. The reported identification methods only consider the interaction between the components and the target proteins, which is not sufficient to explain the influence of TCM on the gene expression. Here, we propose the Initial Transcription Process-based Identification (ITPI method for the discovery of bioactive components that influence transcription factors (TFs. In this method, genome-wide chip detection technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs. The TFs of DEGs were derived from GeneCards. The components influencing the TFs were derived from STITCH. The bioactive components in the formula were identified by evaluating the molecular similarity between the components in formula and the components that influence the TF of DEGs. Using the formula of Tian-Zhu-San (TZS as an example, the reliability and limitation of ITPI were examined and 16 bioactive components that influence TFs were identified.

  6. Stochastic development regression using method of moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the estimation problem arising when inferring parameters in the stochastic development regression model for manifold valued non-linear data. Stochastic development regression captures the relation between manifold-valued response and Euclidean covariate variables using...... the stochastic development construction. It is thereby able to incorporate several covariate variables and random effects. The model is intrinsically defined using the connection of the manifold, and the use of stochastic development avoids linearizing the geometry. We propose to infer parameters using...... the Method of Moments procedure that matches known constraints on moments of the observations conditional on the latent variables. The performance of the model is investigated in a simulation example using data on finite dimensional landmark manifolds....

  7. Scientific methods for developing ultrastable structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, M.; Thompson, T.; Miller, W.

    1990-01-01

    Scientific methods used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory for developing an ultrastable structure for study of silicon-based elementary particle tracking systems are addressed. In particular, the design, analysis, and monitoring of this system are explored. The development methodology was based on a triad of analytical, computational, and experimental techniques. These were used to achieve a significant degree of mechanical stability (alignment accuracy >1 μrad) and yet allow dynamic manipulation of the system. Estimates of system thermal and vibratory stability and component performance are compared with experimental data collected using laser interferometry and accelerometers. 8 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  8. Initial development and testing of a novel foam-based pressure sensor for wearable sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyth Barry

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper provides an overview of initial research conducted in the development of pressure-sensitive foam and its application in wearable sensing. The foam sensor is composed of polypyrrole-coated polyurethane foam, which exhibits a piezo-resistive reaction when exposed to electrical current. The use of this polymer-coated foam is attractive for wearable sensing due to the sensor's retention of desirable mechanical properties similar to those exhibited by textile structures. Methods The development of the foam sensor is described, as well as the development of a prototype sensing garment with sensors in several areas on the torso to measure breathing, shoulder movement, neck movement, and scapula pressure. Sensor properties were characterized, and data from pilot tests was examined visually. Results The foam exhibits a positive linear conductance response to increased pressure. Torso tests show that it responds in a predictable and measurable manner to breathing, shoulder movement, neck movement, and scapula pressure. Conclusion The polypyrrole foam shows considerable promise as a sensor for medical, wearable, and ubiquitous computing applications. Further investigation of the foam's consistency of response, durability over time, and specificity of response is necessary.

  9. Development of a transient criticality evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, C.C.; Eaton, M.D.; Miles, B.; Ziver, A.K.; Gomes, J.L.M.A.; Umpleby, A.P.; Piggott, M.D.; Goddard, A.J.H.; Oliveira, C.R.E. de

    2005-01-01

    In developing a transient criticality evaluation method we model, in full spatial/temporal detail, the neutron fluxes and consequent power and the evolving material properties - their flows, energies, phase changes etc. These methods are embodied in the generic method FETCH code which is based as far as possible on basic principles and is capable of use in exploring safety-related situations somewhat beyond the range of experiment. FETCH is a general geometry code capable of addressing a range of criticality issues in fissile materials. The code embodies both transient radiation transport and transient fluid dynamics. Work on powders, granular materials, porous media and solutions is reviewed. The capability for modelling transient criticality for chemical plant, waste matrices and advanced reactors is also outlined. (author)

  10. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquita Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities – and differences – in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An examination of interest, attendance and completion rates of faculty development initiatives targeting online faculty revealed no distinct preferences in relation to the focus or format of programs offered. The authors recommend offering flexibility and diversity in faculty development initiatives to accommodate the disparate needs of a remote, heterogeneous faculty population; as such, a sample needs assessment is offered to help guide faculty development programming to support online teaching.

  11. Understanding the value of mixed methods research: the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; O'Brien, Kerth; Meckler, Garth; Chang, Anna Marie; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2016-07-01

    Mixed methods research has significant potential to broaden the scope of emergency care and specifically emergency medical services investigation. Mixed methods studies involve the coordinated use of qualitative and quantitative research approaches to gain a fuller understanding of practice. By combining what is learnt from multiple methods, these approaches can help to characterise complex healthcare systems, identify the mechanisms of complex problems such as medical errors and understand aspects of human interaction such as communication, behaviour and team performance. Mixed methods approaches may be particularly useful for out-of-hospital care researchers because care is provided in complex systems where equipment, interpersonal interactions, societal norms, environment and other factors influence patient outcomes. The overall objectives of this paper are to (1) introduce the fundamental concepts and approaches of mixed methods research and (2) describe the interrelation and complementary features of the quantitative and qualitative components of mixed methods studies using specific examples from the Children's Safety Initiative-Emergency Medical Services (CSI-EMS), a large National Institutes of Health-funded research project conducted in the USA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. The Breakthrough Series Collaborative on Service Integration: A Mixed Methods Study of a Strengths-Based Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia A. Lietz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Arizona’s Department of Economic Security (DES engaged in a strengths-based initiative to increase quality and integration of human services. Twenty teams including employees from state agencies, community leaders, and families were brought together to discuss and implement improvements to a variety of social services. A mixed methods study was conducted to explore the complex process of forming diverse teams to strengthen social services. Specifically, the research team conducted focus groups to collect qualitative data from a purposive sample of the teams to explore their experiences in greater depth. Analysis of the data led to the development of an online survey instrument that allowed all collaborative members an opportunity to participate in the study. Findings suggest that while the teams faced many challenges, a commitment to the process brought perseverance, communication, and creativity allowing this collaborative to initiate 105 activities to bring about positive changes in social services within their communities.

  13. Initial position estimation method for permanent magnet synchronous motor based on improved pulse voltage injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Lu, K.; Ye, Y.

    2011-01-01

    According to saliency of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), the information of rotor position is implied in performance of stator inductances due to the magnetic saturation effect. Researches focused on the initial rotor position estimation of PMSM by injecting modulated pulse voltage...... vectors. The relationship between the inductance variations and voltage vector positions was studied. The inductance variation effect on estimation accuracy was studied as well. An improved five-pulses injection method was proposed, to improve the estimation accuracy by choosing optimaized voltage vectors...

  14. Inculcating the ergonomic culture in developing countries: national healthy schoolbag initiative in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Kapila

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a survey on ergonomic factors of classroom environments of school children, their influence on health, and use of research outcomes to launch a healthy schoolbag initiative. Ergonomics have not yet well penetrated relevant fields in industrially developing countries, such as Sri Lanka. One of the crucial parameters of the school environment is ergonomics. Available evidence suggests ergonomic mismatches in classroom settings. Good practice examples in child ergonomic interventions are few in resource-poor contexts. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a district in Sri Lanka with a sample of 1,607 children in Grades 6 to 8 with the use of a stratified multistage cluster sampling method. Many children did experience discomfort related to substandard seating arrangements in the classroom. A significant proportion had to turn their necks to see the blackboard. For many children, seating locations were not changed. There were widespread incompatibilities of classroom furniture with anthropometric dimensions of children. A majority of children perceived discomfort contributed by mismatched classroom furniture. Carriage of school materials was not healthy. Deficiencies were noted in weight, model, ergonomic features, and carrying behavior of bags. Children experienced several negative effects, in part attributable to mismatched ergonomic factors. The schoolbag was considered a priority issue. Findings were disseminated to stakeholders and to media. Solutions were contemplated on bag weight reduction, healthy schoolbag introduction, and behavior change in a collaborative initiative with the Education Ministry. Political, administrative, and business stakeholders were successfully engaged to inculcate an ergonomic culture in an industrially developing country.

  15. Healthy Bread Initiative: Methods, Findings, and Theories—Isfahan Healthy Heart Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Mohammad; Khaje, Mohammad-Reza; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sajjadi, Firoozeh; Alikhasi, Hasan; Maghroun, Maryam; Iraji, Farhad; Ehteshami, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    The scientific evidences show that the content, baking methods, and types of bread can make health impacts. Bread, as a major part of Iranian diet, demonstrates a significant potential to be targeted as health promotion subject. Healthy Food for Healthy Communities (HFHC) was a project of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), consisting of a wide variety of strategies, like Healthy Bread (HB) Initiative. The HB Initiative was designed to improve the behaviour of both producers and consumers, mainly aiming at making high-fibre, low-salt bread, eliminating the use of baking soda, providing enough rest time for dough before baking (at least one hour), and enough baking time (at least one minute in oven). A workshop was held for volunteer bakers, and a baker-to-baker training protocol under direct supervision was designed for future volunteers. Cereal Organization was persuaded to provide less refined flour that contained more bran. Health messages in support of new breads were disseminated by media and at bakeries by health professionals. Evaluation of the HB Initiative was done using before-after assessments and population surveys. While HB was baked in 1 (0.01%) bakery at baseline, 402 (41%) bakeries in the intervention area joined the HB Initiative in 2009. Soda was completely eliminated and fibre significantly increased from 4±0.4 g% before study to 12±0.6 g% after the intervention (p<0.001). The preparation and baking times remarkably increased. Wastage of bread decreased from 13±1.8 g% to 2±0.5 g% and was expressed as the most important advantage of this initiative by consumers. People who lived in Isfahan city consumed whole bread 6 times more than those who lived in reference area Arak (p<0.001). The HB Initiative managed to add new breads as a healthy choice that were compatible with local dishes and made a model to solve the long-standing problems of bread. It used various health promotion approaches but was best consistent with Beattie's model. PMID

  16. Development of a Comprehensive Hospital-Based Elder Abuse Intervention: An Initial Systematic Scoping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Mont, Janice; Macdonald, Sheila; Kosa, Daisy; Elliot, Shannon; Spencer, Charmaine; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review. Objectives Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation. Methods The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1) addressed a response (e.g., an intervention) to elder abuse, 2) contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3) were available in English. Analysis The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics. Results 649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser; Assessment: physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of

  17. Training initiatives for essential obstetric care in developing countries: a 'state of the art' review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penny, S; Murray, S F

    2000-12-01

    Increased international awareness of the need to provide accessible essential or emergency obstetric and newborn care in developing countries has resulted in the recognition of new training needs and in a number of new initiatives to meet those needs. This paper reviews experience in this area so far. The first section deals with some of the different educational approaches and teaching methods that have now been employed, ranging from the traditional untheorized 'chalk and talk', to competency-based training, to theories of adult learning, problem solving and transferable skills. The second section describes a range of different types of indicators and data sources (learner assessments, user and community assessments, trainer assessments and institutional data) that have been used in the assessment of the effectiveness of such training. The final section of the paper draws together some of the lessons. It considers evaluation design issues such as the inclusion of medium and long term evaluation, the importance of methods that allow for the detection of iatrogenic effects of training, and the roles of community randomized trials and 'before, during and after' studies. Issues identified for the future include comparative work, how to keep training affordable, and where training ought to lie on the continuum between straightforward technical skills acquisition and the more complex learning processes required for demanding professional work.

  18. Status on development and verification of reactivity initiated accident analysis code for PWR (NODAL3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Hong Liem; Surian Pinem; Tagor Malem Sembiring; Tran Hoai Nam

    2015-01-01

    A coupled neutronics thermal-hydraulics code NODAL3 has been developed based on the nodal few-group neutron diffusion theory in 3-dimensional Cartesian geometry for a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) static and transient analyses, especially for reactivity initiated accidents (RIA). The spatial variables are treated by using a polynomial nodal method (PNM) while for the neutron dynamic solver the adiabatic and improved quasi-static methods are adopted. A simple single channel thermal-hydraulics module and its steam table is implemented into the code. Verification works on static and transient benchmarks are being conducting to assess the accuracy of the code. For the static benchmark verification, the IAEA-2D, IAEA-3D, BIBLIS and KOEBERG light water reactor (LWR) benchmark problems were selected, while for the transient benchmark verification, the OECD NEACRP 3-D LWR Core Transient Benchmark and NEA-NSC 3-D/1-D PWR Core Transient Benchmark (Uncontrolled Withdrawal of Control Rods at Zero Power). Excellent agreement of the NODAL3 results with the reference solutions and other validated nodal codes was confirmed. (author)

  19. Methods for monitoring the initial load to critical in the fast test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.L.

    1975-08-01

    Conventional symmetric fuel loadings for the initial loading to critical of the Fast Test Reactor (FTR) are predicted to be more time consuming than asymmetric or trisector loadings. Potentially significant time savings can be realized by the latter, since adequate intermediate assessments of neutron multiplication can be made periodically without control rod reconnection in all trisectors. Experimental simulation of both loading schemes was carried out in the Reverse Approach to Critical (RAC) experiments in the Fast Test Reactor-Engineering Mockup Critical facility. Analyses of these experiments indicated that conventional source multiplication methods can be applied for monitoring either a symmetric or asymmetric fuel loading scheme equally well provided that detection efficiency corrections are employed. Methods for refining predictions of reactivity and count rates for the stages in a load to critical were also investigated. (auth)

  20. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorrec, Fabrice; Palmer, Colin M.; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony

    2011-01-01

    Pi sampling, derived from the incomplete factorial approach, is an effort to maximize the diversity of macromolecular crystallization conditions and to facilitate the preparation of 96-condition initial screens. The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample

  1. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  2. METHODS FOR OVERCOMING SEED DORMANCY AND THE INITIAL GROWTH OF Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. IN DIFFERENT SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSENARA DAIANE DE SOUZA COSTA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential and importance of biodiversity of the Caatinga biome, studies on endemic species are relevant to conservation of its natural resources. The objectives of this work was to evaluate seed viability and physical methods for overcoming seed dormancy in juazeiro (Ziziphus joazeiro Mart. and assess the influence of different types of soil on the initial growth of juazeiro plants. The experiments were conducted in three stages. In the first stage, the viability of seeds from different lots was evaluated using the tetrazolium test. The second stage was conducted in a plant nursery, evaluating the application of physical processes (scarification with sandpaper and hammer in overcoming seed dormancy, and the initial growth of the plants. In the third step, the chlorophyll a and b contents, gas exchange and dry matter accumulation were evaluated in young juazeiro plants in three types of soil (Oxisol, Entisol and Vertisol. The results indicate that the viability of juazeiro seeds is greatly influenced by differences between the progenitor plants and by storage conditions, which enable a longevity of two years when stored at 22°C and 16% of relative humidity. The scarification methods with sandpaper and hammer are not efficient to reduce the time and uniform seed germination. The juazeiro plants have high growth potential in different edaphic environments, adapting well to soils of different textures and chemical compositions.

  3. Transnational Higher Education and Sustainable Development: Current Initiatives and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehn, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary educational institutions increasingly are relied upon for sustainable development initiatives. This policy research note analyzes newly available data regarding seven key dimensions of 295 transnational sustainable development projects involving US universities. Comparative regional analysis of the projects profiled in the APLU/AAU…

  4. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marquita; Rhoades, Nicole; Jackson, Christina M.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities--and differences--in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An…

  5. 75 FR 64731 - Request for Information (RFI) for Consumer Health Initiative To Develop Collaborations That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Initiative To Develop Collaborations That Produce Evidence-Based Informatics Resources and Products\\1\\ \\1... health. The overarching goal is to promote transparency, stimulate original development and partnerships..., Collaboration, & Quality was convened. This federally sponsored summit aimed to: (1) Convene leaders across...

  6. Civic initiatives in urban development : self-governance versus self-organisation in planning practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, Ward

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses two distinct interpretations of self-organisation with regard to civic initiatives in urban development. One concerns urban developments in which citizens deliberately organise themselves in order to realise a collective ambition. This interpretation of self-organisation

  7. CSIR research, development and innovation initiatives for the medical device and diagnostic industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vilakazi, Busisiwe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This presentation is focused on development and innovation initiatives in the medical device and diagnostic industry. It is presented by Dr Busisiwe Vilakasi at The 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017...

  8. 7. Annual seminar of the scientific initiation of the Center for Development of Nuclear Technology. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This seminar presents the Scientific Initiation Program developed at the CDTN - Brazilian Center for the Development of Nuclear Technology and focuses on activities of the sectors of: radiopharmaceutical production; radiation applied to health; waste management; structural integrity; environment; nanotechnology and nuclear materials; reactor technology; mineral technology; reactor and analytical techniques

  9. Developing a Curriculum for Initial Teacher Education Using a Situated Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that the implications of the concept of situated learning are important when developing a curriculum for initial teacher education (ITE). It describes and analyses the use of a model of ITE designed to stimulate discussions promoting the development of professional craft knowledge situated mainly in schools and to connect these…

  10. Shielding methods development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynatt, F.R.

    1977-01-01

    A generalized shielding methodology has been developed in the U.S.A. that is adaptable to the shielding analyses of all reactor types. Thus far used primarily for liquid-metal fast breeder reactors, the methodology includes several component activities: (1) developing methods for calculating radiation transport through reactor-shield systems; (2) processing cross-section libraries; (3) performing design calculations for specific systems; (4) performing and analyzing pertinent integral experiments; (5) performing sensitivity studies on both the design calculations and the experimental analyses; and, finally, (6) calculating shield design parameters and their uncertainties. The criteria for the methodology are a 5 to 10 percent accuracy for responses at locations near the core and a factor of 2 accuracy for responses at distant locations. The methodology has been successfully adapted to most in-vessel and ex-vessel problems encountered in the shield analyses of the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor; however, improved techniques are needed for calculating regions in which radiation streaming is dominant. Areas of the methodology in which significant progress has recently been made are those involving the development of cross-section libraries, sensitivity analysis methods, and transport codes

  11. 40 CFR 63.9915 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin/furan emission limits? 63.9915 Section 63.9915....9915 What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin... limit for dioxins/furans in Table 1 to this subpart, you must follow the test methods and procedures...

  12. Initial Provincial Allocation and Equity Evaluation of China’s Carbon Emission Rights—Based on the Improved TOPSIS Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest carbon emitter, China considers carbon emissions trading to be an important measure in its national strategy for energy conservation and emissions reduction. The initial allocation of China’s carbon emissions rights at the provincial level is a core issue of carbon emissions trading. A scientific and reasonable distinction between the carbon emission rights of provinces is crucial for China to achieve emissions reduction targets. Based on the idea of multi-objective decision-making, this paper uses the improved Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method to allocate China’s initial carbon emission rights to the provinces and uses the Gini coefficient sub-group decomposition method to evaluate the fairness of the allocation results. First, the results of a theoretical distribution show that in the initial allocation of carbon emission rights, a large proportion of China’s provinces have large populations and high energy use, such as Shandong Province, Jiangsu Province, Hebei Province and Henan Province; the provinces with a small proportion of the initial allocation of carbon emissions consist of two municipalities, Beijing and Shanghai, as well as Hainan Province, which is dominated by tourism. Overall, the initial allocation of carbon emission rights in the northern and eastern regions constituted the largest proportion, with the south-central region and the northwest region being the second largest and the southwest region being the smallest. Second, the difference between the theoretical allocation and the actual allocation of carbon emission rights in China was clear. The energy consumption of large provinces and provinces dominated by industry generally had a negative difference (the theoretical allocation of carbon emissions was less than the actual value, while Qinghai, dominated by agriculture and animal husbandry, showed a positive balance (the theoretical allocation of

  13. Gender and Women Development Initiatives in Bangladesh: A Study of Rural Mother Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, K M Rabiul; Emmelin, Maria; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Women-focused development initiatives have become a controversial issue connected with women's health and welfare. Previous studies indicated that development initiatives might increase women's workload, family conflict, and marital violence. This study explored the gendered characteristics of a development initiative Rural Mother Center in Bangladesh. Data incorporated policy document and interviews of social workers working with the mother centers in two northwest subdistricts. The qualitative content analysis of data emerged a general theme of expanding women's responsibility while maintaining male privilege explaining gendered design and practice of the development initiative. The theme was supported by two gendered categories related to the design: (a) essentializing women's participation; (b) maintaining traditional gender, and four categories related to the practice; (c) inadequate gender knowledge and skills; (d) reinforcing traditional gender; (e) using women for improving office performance; and (f) upholding male privilege. The study suggests that though women-focused development initiatives need to be embraced with gender-redistributive policies, the social workers should be trained for attaining gender-transformative motivation and competencies.

  14. Structural reliability methods: Code development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millwater, Harry R.; Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Cruse, T. A.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Structures Analysis Method (PSAM) program integrates state of the art probabilistic algorithms with structural analysis methods in order to quantify the behavior of Space Shuttle Main Engine structures subject to uncertain loadings, boundary conditions, material parameters, and geometric conditions. An advanced, efficient probabilistic structural analysis software program, NESSUS (Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress) was developed as a deliverable. NESSUS contains a number of integrated software components to perform probabilistic analysis of complex structures. A nonlinear finite element module NESSUS/FEM is used to model the structure and obtain structural sensitivities. Some of the capabilities of NESSUS/FEM are shown. A Fast Probability Integration module NESSUS/FPI estimates the probability given the structural sensitivities. A driver module, PFEM, couples the FEM and FPI. NESSUS, version 5.0, addresses component reliability, resistance, and risk.

  15. Overview of Future of Probabilistic Methods and RMSL Technology and the Probabilistic Methods Education Initiative for the US Army at the SAE G-11 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Surendra N.

    2003-01-01

    The SAE G-11 RMSL Division and Probabilistic Methods Committee meeting sponsored by the Picatinny Arsenal during March 1-3, 2004 at Westin Morristown, will report progress on projects for probabilistic assessment of Army system and launch an initiative for probabilistic education. The meeting features several Army and industry Senior executives and Ivy League Professor to provide an industry/government/academia forum to review RMSL technology; reliability and probabilistic technology; reliability-based design methods; software reliability; and maintainability standards. With over 100 members including members with national/international standing, the mission of the G-11s Probabilistic Methods Committee is to enable/facilitate rapid deployment of probabilistic technology to enhance the competitiveness of our industries by better, faster, greener, smarter, affordable and reliable product development.

  16. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted

  17. Method of independent timesteps in the numerical solution of initial value problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, A.P.

    1976-07-21

    In the numerical solution of initial-value problems in several independent variables, the timestep is controlled, especially in the presence of shocks, by a small portion of the logical mesh, what one may call the crisis zone. One is frustrated by the necessity of doing in the whole mesh frequent calculations required by only a small part of the mesh. It is shown that it is possible to choose different timesteps natural to different parts of the mesh and to advance each zone in time only as often as is appropriate to that zone's own natural timestep. Prior work is reviewed and for the first time an investigation of the conditions for well-posedness, consistency and stability in independent timesteps is presented; a new method results. The prochronic and parachronic Cauchy surfaces are identified; and the reasons (well-posedness) for constraining the Cauchy surfaces to be prochronic (as distinct from the method of Grandey), that is, to lie prior to the time of the crisis zone (the zone of least timestep), are indicated. Stability (in the maximum norm) of parabolic equations and (in the L2 norm) of hyperbolic equations is reviewed, without restricting the treatment to linear equations or constant coefficients, and stability of the new method is proven in this framework. The details of the method of independent timesteps, the rules for choosing timesteps and for deciding when to update and when to skip zones, and the method of joining adjacent regions of differing timestep are described. The stability of independent timestep difference schemes is analyzed and exhibited. The economic advantages of the method, which often amount to an order-of-magnitude decrease in running time relative to conventional or implicit difference methods, are noted.

  18. Developments of an Interactive Sail Design Method

    OpenAIRE

    S. M. Malpede; M. Vezza

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new tool for performing the integrated design and analysis of a sail. The features of the system are the geometrical definition of a sail shape, using the Bezier surface method, the creation of a finite element model for the non-linear structural analysis and a fluid-dynamic model for the aerodynamic analysis. The system has been developed using MATLAB(r). Recent sail design efforts have been focused on solving the aeroelastic behavior of the sail. The pressure dis...

  19. Using containerless methods to develop amorphous pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J K R; Benmore, C J; Suthar, K J; Tamalonis, A J; Alderman, O L G; Sendelbach, S; Kondev, V; Yarger, J; Rey, C A; Byrn, S R

    2017-01-01

    Many pipeline drugs have low solubility in their crystalline state and require compounding in special dosage forms to increase bioavailability for oral administration. The use of amorphous formulations increases solubility and uptake of active pharmaceutical ingredients. These forms are rapidly gaining commercial importance for both pre-clinical and clinical use. Synthesis of amorphous drugs was performed using an acoustic levitation containerless processing method and spray drying. The structure of the products was investigated using in-situ high energy X-ray diffraction. Selected solvents for processing drugs were investigated using acoustic levitation. The stability of amorphous samples was measured using X-ray diffraction. Samples processed using both spray drying and containerless synthesis were compared. We review methods for making amorphous pharmaceuticals and present data on materials made by containerless processing and spray drying. It was shown that containerless processing using acoustic levitation can be used to make phase-pure forms of drugs that are known to be difficult to amorphize. The stability and structure of the materials was investigated in the context of developing and making clinically useful formulations. Amorphous compounds are emerging as an important component of drug development and for the oral delivery of drugs with low solubility. Containerless techniques can be used to efficiently synthesize small quantities of pure amorphous forms that are potentially useful in pre-clinical trials and for use in the optimization of clinical products. Developing new pharmaceutical products is an essential enterprise to improve patient outcomes. The development and application of amorphous pharmaceuticals to increase absorption is rapidly gaining importance and it provides opportunities for breakthrough research on new drugs. There is an urgent need to solve problems associated with making formulations that are both stable and that provide high

  20. Development of numerical methods for reactive transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouillard, N.

    2006-12-01

    When a radioactive waste is stored in deep geological disposals, it is expected that the waste package will be damaged under water action (concrete leaching, iron corrosion). Then, to understand these damaging processes, chemical reactions and solutes transport are modelled. Numerical simulations of reactive transport can be done sequentially by the coupling of several codes. This is the case of the software platform ALLIANCES which is developed jointly with CEA, ANDRA and EDF. Stiff reactions like precipitation-dissolution are crucial for the radioactive waste storage applications, but standard sequential iterative approaches like Picard's fail in solving rapidly reactive transport simulations with such stiff reactions. In the first part of this work, we focus on a simplified precipitation and dissolution process: a system made up with one solid species and two aqueous species moving by diffusion is studied mathematically. It is assumed that a precipitation dissolution reaction occurs in between them, and it is modelled by a discontinuous kinetics law of unknown sign. By using monotonicity properties, the convergence of a finite volume scheme on admissible mesh is proved. Existence of a weak solution is obtained as a by-product of the convergence of the scheme. The second part is dedicated to coupling algorithms which improve Picard's method and can be easily used in an existing coupling code. By extending previous works, we propose a general and adaptable framework to solve nonlinear systems. Indeed by selecting special options, we can either recover well known methods, like nonlinear conjugate gradient methods, or design specific method. This algorithm has two main steps, a preconditioning one and an acceleration one. This algorithm is tested on several examples, some of them being rather academical and others being more realistic. We test it on the 'three species model'' example. Other reactive transport simulations use an external chemical code CHESS. For a

  1. [Perioperative management of a patient with myotonic dystrophy developing the cardiac symptoms initially prior to the neuromuscular symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, M; Matsushita, M; Aono, H; Matsumoto, M; Kohri, Y

    1994-08-01

    The authors anesthetized a 48-year-old woman with endometrial cancer and a large ovarian cyst. She developed cardiac failure initially followed by the sick sinus syndrome and A-V block from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, prior to neuromuscular symptoms. Epidural anesthesia assisted by general anesthesia was carried out safely without intravenous administration of any muscle relaxants. From this experience, it is considered that epidural anesthesia assisted with some other proper methods is suitable for surgery of lower abdomen.

  2. Development of liner cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakmaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2005-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in cells and fuel storage pools of nuclear facilities. The effects of basic laser cutting parameters such as cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied applying a 1 kW Nd:YAG laser to mock up concrete specimens lined with 3 mm thick stainless steel sheets. These initial studies were followed by studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on methods of confining contamination during the cutting process. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. In addition to the above results, this paper describes the design outline of a laser cutting system for cutting stainless liners at site and evaluates its merit and cost performance. (author)

  3. Development of laser cutting method for stainless steel liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Satoshi; Takahata, Masato; Wignarajah, Sivakumaran; Kamata, Hirofumi

    2007-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to develop a laser cutting method for cutting and removing stainless steel liners from concrete walls and floors in nuclear facilities. The effect of basic laser cutting parameters such as energy, cutting speed, assist gas flow etc. were first studied through cutting experiments on mock-up concrete specimens lined with 3mm thick stainless steel sheets using a 1kW Nd:YAG laser. These initial studies were followed by further studies on the effect of unevenness of the liner surface and on a new method of confining contamination during the cutting process using a sliding evacuation hood attached to the laser cutting head. The results showed that laser cutting is superior to other conventional cutting methods from the point of view of safety from radioactivity and work efficiency when cutting contaminated stainless steel liners. (author)

  4. [Adverse events management. Methods and results of a development project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabøl, Louise Isager; Jensen, Elisabeth Brøgger; Hellebek, Annemarie H; Pedersen, Beth Lilja

    2006-11-27

    This article describes the methods and results of a project in the Copenhagen Hospital Corporation (H:S) on preventing adverse events. The aim of the project was to raise awareness about patients' safety, test a reporting system for adverse events, develop and test methods of analysis of events and propagate ideas about how to prevent adverse events. H:S developed an action plan and a reporting system for adverse events, founded an organization and developed an educational program on theories and methods of learning from adverse events for both leaders and employees. During the three-year period from 1 January 2002 to 31 December 2004, the H:S staff reported 6011 adverse events. In the same period, the organization completed 92 root cause analyses. More than half of these dealt with events that had been optional to report, the other half events that had been mandatory to report. The number of reports and the front-line staff's attitude towards reporting shows that the H:S succeeded in founding a safety culture. Future work should be centred on developing and testing methods that will prevent adverse events from happening. The objective is to suggest and complete preventive initiatives which will help increase patient safety.

  5. Development and analysis of finite volume methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, P.

    2010-05-01

    This document is a synthesis of a set of works concerning the development and the analysis of finite volume methods used for the numerical approximation of partial differential equations (PDEs) stemming from physics. In the first part, the document deals with co-localized Godunov type schemes for the Maxwell and wave equations, with a study on the loss of precision of this scheme at low Mach number. In the second part, discrete differential operators are built on fairly general, in particular very distorted or nonconforming, bidimensional meshes. These operators are used to approach the solutions of PDEs modelling diffusion, electro and magneto-statics and electromagnetism by the discrete duality finite volume method (DDFV) on staggered meshes. The third part presents the numerical analysis and some a priori as well as a posteriori error estimations for the discretization of the Laplace equation by the DDFV scheme. The last part is devoted to the order of convergence in the L2 norm of the finite volume approximation of the solution of the Laplace equation in one dimension and on meshes with orthogonality properties in two dimensions. Necessary and sufficient conditions, relatively to the mesh geometry and to the regularity of the data, are provided that ensure the second-order convergence of the method. (author)

  6. Method development for trace and ultratrace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Method development, that is, selection of a mode of chromatography and the right column and mobile-phase combination for trace and ultratrace analysis, requires several main considerations. The method should be useful for resolving various trace and ultratrace components present in the sample. If the nature of these components is known, the choice of method may be straightforward, that is, a selection can be made from the following modes of HPLC: (1) adsorption chromatography; (2) normal-phase chromatography; (3) reversed-phase chromatography; (4) ion-pair chromatography; (5) ion-exchange chromatography; (6) ion chromatography. Unfortunately, the nature of all of the components is frequently unknown. However, several intelligent judgments can be made on the nature of impurities. This chapter deals with some basic approaches to mobile-phase selection and optimization. More detailed information may be found in basic texts. Techniques for separation of high-molecular-weight compounds (macromolecules) and chiral compounds may be found elsewhere. Mainly compounds with molecular weight lower than 2,000 are discussed here. 123 refs

  7. High Frequency Voltage Injection Methods and Observer Design for Initial Position Detection of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xinhai; Ni, Ronggang; Chen, Wei

    2018-01-01

    The information of the initial rotor position is essential for smooth start up and robust control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs). RoTating Voltage Injection (RTVI) methods in the stationary reference frame have been commonly adopted to detect the initial rotor position at stands......The information of the initial rotor position is essential for smooth start up and robust control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSMs). RoTating Voltage Injection (RTVI) methods in the stationary reference frame have been commonly adopted to detect the initial rotor position...

  8. Development of a comprehensive hospital-based elder abuse intervention: an initial systematic scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Du Mont

    Full Text Available Elder abuse, a universal human rights problem, is associated with many negative consequences. In most jurisdictions, however, there are no comprehensive hospital-based interventions for elder abuse that address the totality of needs of abused older adults: psychological, physical, legal, and social. As the first step towards the development of such an intervention, we undertook a systematic scoping review.Our primary objective was to systematically extract and synthesize actionable and applicable recommendations for components of a multidisciplinary intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention. A secondary objective was to summarize the characteristics of the responses reviewed, including methods of development and validation.The grey and scholarly literatures were systematically searched, with two independent reviewers conducting the title, abstract and full text screening. Documents were considered eligible for inclusion if they: 1 addressed a response (e.g., an intervention to elder abuse, 2 contained recommendations for responding to abused older adults with potential relevance to a multidisciplinary and intersectoral hospital-based elder abuse intervention; and 3 were available in English.The extracted recommendations for care were collated, coded, categorized into themes, and further reviewed for relevancy to a comprehensive hospital-based response. Characteristics of the responses were summarized using descriptive statistics.649 recommendations were extracted from 68 distinct elder abuse responses, 149 of which were deemed relevant and were categorized into 5 themes: Initial contact; Capacity and consent; Interview with older adult, caregiver, collateral contacts, and/or suspected abuser;physical/forensic, mental, psychosocial, and environmental/functional; and care plan. Only 6 responses had been evaluated, suggesting a significant gap between development and implementation of recommendations.To address the lack of evidence to

  9. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-02-15

    A method of developing thick sloping coal formations in three inclined layers includes carrying out developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins development of the last one and extraction of layers. It is characterized in that in order to improve efficiency and safety of an operation of formation development there is first extraction of the upper layer and then slits in sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer and beneath protected objects. Then the lower layer is workedin thin strips in sequence from the floor of the formation to the roof of the lower layer. Next there is extraction of a slit at the roof of the middle layer and delivery of a plasticized hardening mixture into the worked out space of the indicated slot. The middle layer is worked in thin layers beneath the protection of the formed artificial roof in a sequence from the artificial roof to the floor of the middle layer. Workings of the middle layer are formed by joining of the combined workings of the upper and lower layers during extraction of pillars of coal between them. The layers are respectively worked following completion of roof advance in front of the working face of each subsequent extraction layer in alternating fashion.

  10. Corporate Initiatives and Strategies to Meet the Environmental Challenges – Contributions Towards a Green Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ogrean

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to emphasize, based on an interdisciplinary and multi-level approach, on the actual and potential contributions of businesses towards a green economic development - through the positive integration of the environmental challenges within their initiatives and strategies. The main objectives that the paper will target in order to accomplish this mission are: (1. to outline the general framework of the green economic development; (2. to identify the specific environmental challenges businesses could and have to address in order to support the green economic development; (3. to analyze particular initiatives and strategies which have been successfully developed by companies aiming at internalizing the environmental imperative - and to argue in favor of a new business model, able to end, through the green economic development, a virtuous circle of co-evolution between businesses and the environment.

  11. A simple method to calculate first-passage time densities with arbitrary initial conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Markus; Ambjörnsson, Tobias; Lizana, Ludvig

    2016-06-01

    Numerous applications all the way from biology and physics to economics depend on the density of first crossings over a boundary. Motivated by the lack of general purpose analytical tools for computing first-passage time densities (FPTDs) for complex problems, we propose a new simple method based on the independent interval approximation (IIA). We generalise previous formulations of the IIA to include arbitrary initial conditions as well as to deal with discrete time and non-smooth continuous time processes. We derive a closed form expression for the FPTD in z and Laplace-transform space to a boundary in one dimension. Two classes of problems are analysed in detail: discrete time symmetric random walks (Markovian) and continuous time Gaussian stationary processes (Markovian and non-Markovian). Our results are in good agreement with Langevin dynamics simulations.

  12. Monitoring of environmental cancer initiators through hemoglobin adducts by a modified Edman degradation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toernqvist, M.M.; Mowrer, J.; Jensen, S.; Ehrenberg, L.

    1986-01-01

    Tissue doses of cancer initiators/mutagens are suitably monitored through hemoglobin adducts formed in vivo, but the use of this method has been hampered by a lack of sufficiently simple and fast procedures. It was previously observed that when the N-terminal amino acid in hemoglobin, valine, is alkylated it is cleaved off by the Edman sequencing reagent, phenyl isothiocyanate, in the neutral-alkaline coupling medium, as opposed to the acidic medium required by normal amino acids. Based on this principle, conditions for a functioning procedure for gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) determination of N-terminal alkylvalines in hemoglobin were worked out. Derivatizing the protein in formamide solution with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate, using a 2 H-alkylated protein as internal standard, and applying on-column injection during analysis, permit reproducible determination of hydroxyethylvaline and other adducts down into the dose range where cancer risks may be considered acceptably low

  13. Analysis of the main characteristics of Initial Public Offerings in the Czech Republic and perspectives of their further development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Meluzín

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Funding development of the company through the “Initial Public Offering” has a high representation globally, the Czech Republic unlike, and belongs to traditional methods of raising funds necessary for development of business in the developed capital markets. In the United States of America, Japan and in the Western Europe countries the method of company funding through IPO has been applying for several decades already. The first public stock offerings began to be applied in these markets in higher volumes from the beginning of the 60th of the last century. From that period importance of IPO goes up globally and the initial public stock offerings begin to be applied more and more even in the Central and Eastern European countries. Since 2004, several companies that have opted for this form of financing can be found in the Czech Republic as well. The objective of the paper is to analyze the main characteristics of initial public offerings of shares effected on the Czech capital market between 2004 and 2008 and to outline the perspectives of further development in this area.

  14. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Barbara; Harvey, Jean; Di Ruggiero, Erica; Potvin, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Population health intervention research (PHIR) is a relatively new research field that studies interventions that can improve health and health equity at a population level. Competencies are one way to give legitimacy and definition to a field. An initial set of PHIR competencies was developed with leadership from a multi-sector group in Canada. This paper describes the development process for these competencies and their possible uses. Methods to develop the competencies included key informant interviews; a targeted review of scientific and gray literature; a 2-round, online adapted Delphi study with a 24-member panel; and a focus group with 9 international PHIR experts. The resulting competencies consist of 25 items grouped into 6 categories. They include principles of good science applicable though not exclusive to PHIR, and more suitable for PHIR teams rather than individuals. This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions.

  15. Developing the "120 by 20" goal for the Global FP2020 Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Win; Druce, Nel; Bunting, Julia; Radloff, Scott; Koroma, Desmond; Gupta, Srishti; Siems, Brian; Kerrigan, Monica; Kress, Dan; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the purpose for developing a quantitative goal for the London Summit on Family Planning held in July 2012, the methodology behind its formulation, and the lessons learned in the process. The London Summit has evolved into the global initiative known as FP2020, and the goal has become "120 by 20," or reaching 120 million additional users of modern contraceptive methods by 2020 in the world's poorest countries. The success of FP2020 will first be evaluated on the basis of quantitative verification to determine that the "120 by 20" goal was reached. More important, however, is the extent to which the goal today serves as a global rallying cry to mobilize resources and leadership around current family planning programs, with a focus on voluntary family planning and quality of care, and with an emphasis on meeting girls' and women's unmet needs and their right to practice contraception. We hope this article provides greater transparency and understanding of the FP2020 goal, and that the global goal spurs annual monitoring of progress toward national goals in the world's poorest countries. © 2014 The Population Council, Inc.

  16. Genetic resources as initial material for developing new soft winter wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Кір’ян

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To estimate genetic resources collection of soft winter wheat plants (new collection accessions of Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production and select initial material for breeding of adaptive, productive and qualitative soft winter wheat varieties. Methods. Field experiment, laboratory testing. Results. The authors pre- sented results of study of over 1000 samples of gene pool of soft winter wheat from 25 countries during 2001–2005 in Ustymivka Experimental Station for Plant Production of Plant Production Institute nd. a. V. Ya. Yuriev, NAAS of Ukraine for a complex of economic traits. More than 400 new sources with high adaptive properties were selected that combine traits of high productivity and high quality of grain, early ripening, resistance to biotic and abiotic fac- tors (the assessment of samples for 16 valuable traits is given. The selected material comes from various agro-cli- matic zones, including zones of unsustainable agriculture. Conclusions. Recommended sources of traits that have breeding value will allow to enrich high-quality assortment of wheat and considerably accelerate breeding process du- ring development of new soft winter wheat varieties.

  17. A web-based application for initial screening of living kidney donors: development, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D R; Feurer, I D; Zavala, E Y; Shaffer, D; Karp, S; Hoy, H; Moore, D E

    2013-02-01

    Most centers utilize phone or written surveys to screen candidates who self-refer to be living kidney donors. To increase efficiency and reduce resource utilization, we developed a web-based application to screen kidney donor candidates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this web-based application. Method and time of referral were tabulated and descriptive statistics summarized demographic characteristics. Time series analyses evaluated use over time. Between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012, 1200 candidates self-referred to be living kidney donors at our center. Eight hundred one candidates (67%) completed the web-based survey and 399 (33%) completed a phone survey. Thirty-nine percent of donors accessed the application on nights and weekends. Postimplementation of the web-based application, there was a statistically significant increase (p web-based application as opposed to telephone contact. Also, there was a significant increase (p = 0.025) in the total number of self-referrals post-implementation from 61 to 116 per month. An interactive web-based application is an effective strategy for the initial screening of donor candidates. The web-based application increased the ability to interface with donors, process them efficiently and ultimately increased donor self-referral at our center. © Copyright 2012 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  18. XRSW method, its application and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheludeva, S I; Kovalchuk, M V [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Crystallography, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    X-Ray Standing Waves (XRSW) may be obtained under dynamical diffraction in periodic structures or under total external reflection conditions (TR) is stratified medium. As the incident angle varies, XRSW nodes and antinodes move in the direction perpendicular to the reflecting planes, leading to drastic variation of photoelectron interaction of X-ray with matter and resulting in specific angular dependencies of secondary radiation yields (photoelectrons, fluorescence, internal photoeffect, photoluminescence, Compton and thermal diffuse scattering). The structural information - the position of investigated atoms in the direction of XRSW movement (coherent position), the distribution of atoms about this position (coherent fraction) - is obtained with the accuracy about several percents from XRSW period D. The objects under investigation are: semiconductor surface layers, heterostructure, multicomponent crystals, interfaces, adsorbed layers. Besides the development of XRSW method allow to obtain structure, geometrical and optical parameters of ultrathin films (crystalline and disordered, organic and inorganic) and nanostructures on their base.

  19. Effects of ocean initial perturbation on developing phase of ENSO in a coupled seasonal prediction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Chul; Kumar, Arun; Wang, Wanqiu

    2018-03-01

    Coupled prediction systems for seasonal and inter-annual variability in the tropical Pacific are initialized from ocean analyses. In ocean initial states, small scale perturbations are inevitably smoothed or distorted by the observational limits and data assimilation procedures, which tends to induce potential ocean initial errors for the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction. Here, the evolution and effects of ocean initial errors from the small scale perturbation on the developing phase of ENSO are investigated by an ensemble of coupled model predictions. Results show that the ocean initial errors at the thermocline in the western tropical Pacific grow rapidly to project on the first mode of equatorial Kelvin wave and propagate to the east along the thermocline. In boreal spring when the surface buoyancy flux weakens in the eastern tropical Pacific, the subsurface errors influence sea surface temperature variability and would account for the seasonal dependence of prediction skill in the NINO3 region. It is concluded that the ENSO prediction in the eastern tropical Pacific after boreal spring can be improved by increasing the observational accuracy of subsurface ocean initial states in the western tropical Pacific.

  20. The Ties that Bind: Presidential Involvement with the Development of NCAA Division I Initial Eligibility Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Dan; Barr, Carol A.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a chronology of college presidential efforts to deal with conflicts related to reconciliation of academic mission and athletic success through development of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) initial eligibility academic legislation. Analyzes these efforts in terms of maintaining congruence within the constituency-based…

  1. Development and Initial Examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Celeste M.; Briggs, Candyce; Ricks, Elizabeth; Middleton, Kyndra; Fisher, Sycarah; Connell, James

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the initial development and examination of the School Psychology Multicultural Competence Scale (SPMCS), a 45-item self-report measure for evaluating school psychologists' multicultural competence in the primary domains of school psychology practice (i.e., assessment, consultation, intervention). A sample of 312 school…

  2. 78 FR 58546 - State System Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single-Case Deviation From Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health... and quality data that is timely. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Intended Recipient of the Award...

  3. Developing Effluent Analysis Technologies to Support Nonproliferation Initiatives, Arms Control and Nonproliferation Technologies, Third quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, S A; Staehle, G; Alonzo, G M [eds.

    1995-01-01

    This issue provides an overview of the Effluent Research Program of the DOE Office of Research and Development, highlighting a number of representative projects within this program in support of nonproliferation initiatives. Technologies reported include portable instruments for on-site inspections, standoff detectors, fieldable, real-time instruments, field collection techniques, and ultrasensitive laboratory techniques.

  4. The Adolescent-Parent Career Congruence Scale: Development and Initial Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawitri, Dian R.; Creed, Peter A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2013-01-01

    Although there is a growing interest in the discrepancy between parents and their adolescent children in relation to career expectations, there is no existing, psychometrically sound scale that directly measures adolescent-parent career congruence or incongruence. This study reports the development and initial validation of the Adolescent-Parent…

  5. Biofuel Development Initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, biofuels have emerged as a suitable alternative to hydrocarbon fuel due to their foreseen potential of being a future energy resource. Biofuel development initiatives have been successfully implemented in countries like Brazil, United States of America, European Union, Canada, Australia, and Japan. However, such programmes have been stagnant in Africa due to various constraints, such as financial barriers, technical expertise, land availability, and government policies. Nonetheless, some countries within the continent have realized the potential of biofuels and have started to introduce similar programmes and initiatives for their development. These include the bioethanol production initiatives and the plantation of jatropha oil seeds in most Sub-Saharan African countries for biodiesel production. Therefore, this paper examines the biofuel development initiatives that have been implemented in several countries across Sub-Saharan Africa over the past few years. It also discusses the opportunities and challenges of having biofuel industries in the continent. Finally, it proposes some recommendations that could be applied to accelerate their development in these Sub-Saharan African countries.

  6. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was…

  7. Social capital, agricultural innovation and the evaluation of agricultural development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van F.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration

  8. 75 FR 37756 - Request for Public Comment To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... with financing, and in general by pursuing a government-wide approach to export advocacy abroad, among other steps. General information concerning the NEI and government programs that help U.S. businesses... To Inform Development of National Export Initiative Plan AGENCY: International Trade Administration...

  9. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The report for long-term evaluation of active faults was published by the Headquarters for Earthquake Research Promotion on Nov. 2010. After occurrence of the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake, the safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site was revised by the Nuclear Safety Commission on Mar. 2012 with scientific knowledges of the earthquake. The Nuclear Regulation Authority established on Sep. 2012 is newly planning the New Safety Design Standard related to Earthquakes and Tsunamis of Light Water Nuclear Power Reactor Facilities. With respect to those guides and standards, our investigations for developing the methods of evaluating active faults are as follows; (1) For better evaluation on activities of offshore fault, we proposed a work flow to date marine terrace (indicator for offshore fault activity) during the last 400,000 years. We also developed the analysis of fault-related fold for evaluating of blind fault. (2) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (3) To reduce uncertainties of fault activities and frequency of earthquakes, we compiled the survey data and possible errors. (4) For improving seismic hazard analysis, we compiled the fault activities of the Yunotake and Itozawa faults, induced by the 2011 Tohoku-oki earthquake. (author)

  10. The development of interdepartmental audit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thwaites, D.I.; Allahverdi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The UK Radiotherapy Physics Audit Network is now well-established, with seven network groups and co-ordinated by the IPSM. It is based on visits, using ion chambers as the measurement method, and auditing at least machine calibration, single field parameters and simple multi-field planned irradiations. In addition procedural audit of dosimetry and quality control procedures, and records is incorporated. The general approach has been to use interdepartmental audit involving mutual co-operation with peer professionals from other centres. The different groups have evolved at different paces and in rather different directions. However the IPSM coordinating role ensures a basic common minimum to the system. The Scottish+ group has developed a semi-anatomical phantom to use in audit stages following on from the basic single field and geometric phantom dosimetry audit levels. This has been evaluated experimentally in one department before wider use. The Scottish+ audit system is briefly described. Results from levels 1 and 2 are summarised and the design and testing of the semi-anatomical phantom are discussed. The current and future development of the audit system is presented

  11. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-04-25

    A method is patented for developing thick sloping coal formations in 3 inclined layers. It includes conducting developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins the last one and extraction of the layers. In order to improve effectivess and extraction operation safety one first carried out preliminary development of a formation in thin strips beneath protected objects when extracting formation which contain alot of gas. Then one removes the gas of a formation through boreholes that have been drilled into the formation from the indicated workings. Then one works the upper layer in thin strips in a sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer. The one strengthens roof rock of the formation by pumping in a quickly hardening solution into the boreholes which have been drilled into the roof of the formation after processing the upper layer. The middle layer is worked in thin strips in the sequence from the roof to the ground of the middle layer, then the lower layer of the formation is strengthened by pumping in quickly hardening solution into the formation along degasified boreholes and it is worked in thin strips in sequence from the ground of the lower to its roof. Workings are shaped respectively for the middle and lower layers by deepening workings of the upper and middle layers. The layers are worked respectively after finishing displacement of the roof in front of the extraction face of each subsequent extraction of a layer in alternating fashion.

  12. Software Development Initiatives to Identify and Mitigate Security Threats - Two Systematic Mapping Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Silva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Software Security and development experts have addressed the problem of building secure software systems. There are several processes and initiatives to achieve secure software systems. However, most of these lack empirical evidence of its application and impact in building secure software systems. Two systematic mapping studies (SM have been conducted to cover the existent initiatives for identification and mitigation of security threats. The SMs created were executed in two steps, first in 2015 July, and complemented through a backward snowballing in 2016 July. Integrated results of these two SM studies show a total of 30 relevant sources were identified; 17 different initiatives covering threats identification and 14 covering the mitigation of threats were found. All the initiatives were associated to at least one activity of the Software Development Lifecycle (SDLC; while 6 showed signs of being applied in industrial settings, only 3 initiatives presented experimental evidence of its results through controlled experiments, some of the other selected studies presented case studies or proposals.

  13. Market development of organic products in Europe: conditions and role of Organic Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Schmit, Otto; Fontguyon, Guy de; Sans, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The contribution presents some of the main results of a European program of investigation (titled Organic Marketing Initiatives – OMIs – and Rural Development). Firstly, consumer behavior, as well as attitudes, expectations, motives and buying barriers concerning organic food are explored. Then, authors give a brief overview of the organic market analysis of 18 European countries, based on a Delphi inquiry. Finally, the third part highlights the role of OMIs in the organic market development ...

  14. Mixed Finite Element Method for Static and Dynamic Contact Problems with Friction and Initial Gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanhao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel mixed finite element method is proposed for static and dynamic contact problems with friction and initial gaps. Based on the characteristic of local nonlinearity for the problem, the system of forces acting on the contactor is divided into two parts: external forces and contact forces. The displacement of structure is chosen as the basic variable and the nodal contact force in contact region under local coordinate system is selected as the iteration variable to confine the nonlinear iteration process in the potential contact surface which is more numerically efficient. In this way, the sophisticated contact nonlinearity is revealed by the variety of the contact forces which are determined by the external load and the contact state stick, slip, or separation. Moreover, in the case of multibody contact problem, the flexibility matrix is symmetric and sparse; thus, the iterative procedure becomes easily carried out and much more economical. In the paper, both the finite element formulations and the iteration process are given in detail for static and dynamic contact problems. Four examples are included to demonstrate the accuracy and applicability of the presented method.

  15. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Z J; Powell, L L; Hulting, K J

    2013-02-01

    To assess gastric trocarization and orogastric tubing as a means of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective review of 116 gastric dilatation-volvulus cases from June 2001 to October 2009. Decompression was performed via orogastric tubing in 31 dogs, gastric trocarization in 39 dogs and a combination of both in 46 dogs. Tubing was successful in 59 (75·5%) dogs and unsuccessful in 18 (23·4%) dogs. Trocarization was successful in 73 (86%) dogs and unsuccessful in 12 (14%) dogs. No evidence of gastric perforation was noted at surgery in dogs undergoing either technique. One dog that underwent trocarization had a splenic laceration identified at surgery that did not require treatment. Oesophageal rupture or aspiration pneumonia was not identified in any dog during hospitalization. No statistical difference was found between the method of gastric decompression and gastric compromise requiring surgical intervention or survival to discharge. Orogastric tubing and gastric trocarization are associated with low complication and high success rates. Either technique is an acceptable method for gastric decompression in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. Developing students' qualitative muscles in an introductory methods course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SmithBattle, Lee

    2014-08-30

    The exponential growth of qualitative research (QR) has coincided with methodological innovations, the proliferation of qualitative textbooks and journals, and the greater availability of qualitative methods courses. In spite of these advances, the pedagogy for teaching qualitative methods has received little attention. This paper provides a philosophical foundation for teaching QR with active learning strategies and shows how active learning is fully integrated into a one-semester course. The course initiates students into qualitative dispositions and skills as students develop study aims and procedures; enter the field to gather data; analyze the full set of student-generated data; and write results in a final report. Conducting a study in one semester is challenging but has proven feasible and disabuses students of the view that QR is simple, unscientific, or non-rigorous. Student reflections on course assignments are integrated into the paper. The strengths and limitations of this pedagogical approach are also described.

  17. Method for solving the problem of nonlinear heating a cylindrical body with unknown initial temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaparova, N.

    2017-10-01

    We consider the problem of heating a cylindrical body with an internal thermal source when the main characteristics of the material such as specific heat, thermal conductivity and material density depend on the temperature at each point of the body. We can control the surface temperature and the heat flow from the surface inside the cylinder, but it is impossible to measure the temperature on axis and the initial temperature in the entire body. This problem is associated with the temperature measurement challenge and appears in non-destructive testing, in thermal monitoring of heat treatment and technical diagnostics of operating equipment. The mathematical model of heating is represented as nonlinear parabolic PDE with the unknown initial condition. In this problem, both the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are given and it is required to calculate the temperature values at the internal points of the body. To solve this problem, we propose the numerical method based on using of finite-difference equations and a regularization technique. The computational scheme involves solving the problem at each spatial step. As a result, we obtain the temperature function at each internal point of the cylinder beginning from the surface down to the axis. The application of the regularization technique ensures the stability of the scheme and allows us to significantly simplify the computational procedure. We investigate the stability of the computational scheme and prove the dependence of the stability on the discretization steps and error level of the measurement results. To obtain the experimental temperature error estimates, computational experiments were carried out. The computational results are consistent with the theoretical error estimates and confirm the efficiency and reliability of the proposed computational scheme.

  18. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong, E-mail: suthisuthi@gmail.com [Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Dong-A University, 37 Nakdong-Daero 550 beon-gil Saha-gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Wong, Ming Hung [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow.

  19. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: Initiatives, practices, and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-01-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. - Highlights: ► Much e-waste, expensive to process safely, illegally goes to developing countries. ► E-waste processing in developing countries pollutes with heavy metals and dioxins. ► Well-conceived developing world waste regulations lack enforceability. ► Crude e-waste processing cannot recover several rare materials. ► The amount of e-waste unsafely processed will continue to grow

  20. Criteria for evaluating programme theory diagrams in quality improvement initiatives: a structured method for appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issen, Laurel; Woodcock, Thomas; McNicholas, Christopher; Lennox, Laura; Reed, Julie E

    2018-04-09

    Despite criticisms that many quality improvement (QI) initiatives fail due to incomplete programme theory, there is no defined way to evaluate how programme theory has been articulated. The objective of this research was to develop, and assess the usability and reliability of scoring criteria to evaluate programme theory diagrams. Criteria development was informed by published literature and QI experts. Inter-rater reliability was tested between two evaluators. About 63 programme theory diagrams (42 driver diagrams and 21 action-effect diagrams) were reviewed to establish whether the criteria could support comparative analysis of different approaches to constructing diagrams. Components of the scoring criteria include: assessment of overall aim, logical overview, clarity of components, cause-effect relationships, evidence and measurement. Independent reviewers had 78% inter-rater reliability. Scoring enabled direct comparison of different approaches to developing programme theory; action-effect diagrams were found to have had a statistically significant but moderate improvement in programme theory quality over driver diagrams; no significant differences were observed based on the setting in which driver diagrams were developed. The scoring criteria summarise the necessary components of programme theory that are thought to contribute to successful QI projects. The viability of the scoring criteria for practical application was demonstrated. Future uses include assessment of individual programme theory diagrams and comparison of different approaches (e.g. methodological, teaching or other QI support) to produce programme theory. The criteria can be used as a tool to guide the production of better programme theory diagrams, and also highlights where additional support for QI teams could be needed.

  1. Optimal Error Estimates of Two Mixed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Integro-Differential Equations with Nonsmooth Initial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Deepjyoti; Pani, Amiya K.; Yadav, Sangita

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this article, a new mixed method is proposed and analyzed for parabolic integro-differential equations (PIDE) with nonsmooth initial data. Compared to the standard mixed method for PIDE, the present method does not bank on a

  2. Developing a statewide public health initiative to reduce infant mortality in Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, Suzanna; Patrick, Paul; Lincoln, Alicia; Cline, Janette

    2014-01-01

    The Preparing for a Lifetime, It's Everyone's Responsibility initiative was developed to improve the health and well- being of Oklahoma's mothers and infants. The development phase included systematic data collection, extensive data analysis, and multi-disciplinary partnership development. In total, seven issues (preconception/interconception health, tobacco use, postpartum depression, breastfeeding, infant safe sleep, preterm birth, and infant injury prevention) were identified as crucial to addressing infant mortality in Oklahoma. Workgroups were created to focus on each issue. Data and media communications workgroups were added to further partner commitment and support for policy and programmatic changes across multiple agencies and programs. Leadership support, partnership, evaluation, and celebrating small successes were important factors that lead to large scale adoption and support for the state-wide initiative to reduce infant mortality.

  3. Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security (EPIRS) Reseach and Development Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rick Meeker; L. Baldwin; Steinar Dale; Alexander Domijan; Davild Larbalestier; Hui Li; Peter McLaren; Sastry Pamidi; Horatio Rodrigo; Michael Steurer

    2010-03-31

    Power systems have become increasingly complex and face unprecedented challenges posed by population growth, climate change, national security issues, foreign energy dependence and an aging power infrastructure. Increased demand combined with increased economic and environmental constraints is forcing state, regional and national power grids to expand supply without the large safety and stability margins in generation and transmission capacity that have been the rule in the past. Deregulation, distributed generation, natural and man-made catastrophes and other causes serve to further challenge and complicate management of the electric power grid. To meet the challenges of the 21st century while also maintaining system reliability, the electric power grid must effectively integrate new and advanced technologies both in the actual equipment for energy conversion, transfer and use, and in the command, control, and communication systems by which effective and efficient operation of the system is orchestrated - in essence, the 'smart grid'. This evolution calls for advances in development, integration, analysis, and deployment approaches that ultimately seek to take into account, every step of the way, the dynamic behavior of the system, capturing critical effects due to interdependencies and interaction. This approach is necessary to better mitigate the risk of blackouts and other disruptions and to improve the flexibility and capacity of the grid. Building on prior Navy and Department of Energy investments in infrastructure and resources for electric power systems research, testing, modeling, and simulation at the Florida State University (FSU) Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS), this project has continued an initiative aimed at assuring reliable and secure grid operation through a more complete understanding and characterization of some of the key technologies that will be important in a modern electric system, while also fulfilling an education and

  4. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  5. Handling e-waste in developed and developing countries: initiatives, practices, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Wong, Ming Hung

    2013-10-01

    Discarded electronic goods contain a range of toxic materials requiring special handling. Developed countries have conventions, directives, and laws to regulate their disposal, most based on extended producer responsibility. Manufacturers take back items collected by retailers and local governments for safe destruction or recovery of materials. Compliance, however, is difficult to assure, and frequently runs against economic incentives. The expense of proper disposal leads to the shipment of large amounts of e-waste to China, India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and other developing countries. Shipment is often through middlemen, and under tariff classifications that make quantities difficult to assess. There, despite the intents of national regulations and hazardous waste laws, most e-waste is treated as general refuse, or crudely processed, often by burning or acid baths, with recovery of only a few materials of value. As dioxins, furans, and heavy metals are released, harm to the environment, workers, and area residents is inevitable. The faster growth of e-waste generated in the developing than in the developed world presages continued expansion of a pervasive and inexpensive informal processing sector, efficient in its own way, but inherently hazard-ridden. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Simplified Analytical Method for Optimized Initial Shape Analysis of Self-Anchored Suspension Bridges and Its Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myung-Rag Jung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A simplified analytical method providing accurate unstrained lengths of all structural elements is proposed to find the optimized initial state of self-anchored suspension bridges under dead loads. For this, equilibrium equations of the main girder and the main cable system are derived and solved by evaluating the self-weights of cable members using unstrained cable lengths and iteratively updating both the horizontal tension component and the vertical profile of the main cable. Furthermore, to demonstrate the validity of the simplified analytical method, the unstrained element length method (ULM is applied to suspension bridge models based on the unstressed lengths of both cable and frame members calculated from the analytical method. Through numerical examples, it is demonstrated that the proposed analytical method can indeed provide an optimized initial solution by showing that both the simplified method and the nonlinear FE procedure lead to practically identical initial configurations with only localized small bending moment distributions.

  7. Lean and leadership practices: development of an initial realist program theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Donna; Westhorp, Gill; Rotter, Thomas; Dobson, Roy; Bath, Brenna

    2015-09-07

    Lean as a management system has been increasingly adopted in health care settings in an effort to enhance quality, capacity and safety, while simultaneously containing or reducing costs. The Ministry of Health in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada has made a multi-million dollar investment in Lean initiatives to create "better health, better value, better care, and better teams", affording a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the way in which Lean philosophy, principles and tools work in health care. In order to address the questions, "What changes in leadership practices are associated with the implementation of Lean?" and "When leadership practices change, how do the changed practices contribute to subsequent outcomes?", we used a qualitative, multi-stage approach to work towards developing an initial realist program theory. We describe the implications of realist assumptions for evaluation of this Lean initiative. Formal theories including Normalization Process Theory, Theories of Double Loop and Organization Leaning and the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance help understand this initial rough program theory. Data collection included: key informant consultation; a stakeholder workshop; documentary review; 26 audiotaped and transcribed interviews with health region personnel; and team discussions. A set of seven initial hypotheses regarding the manner in which Lean changes leadership practices were developed from our data. We hypothesized that Lean, as implemented in this particular setting, changes leadership practices in the following ways. Lean: a) aligns the aims and objectives of health regions; b) authorizes attention and resources to quality improvement and change management c) provides an integrated set of tools for particular tasks; d) changes leaders' attitudes or beliefs about appropriate leadership and management styles and behaviors; e) demands increased levels of expertise, accountability and commitment from leaders; f) measures and

  8. Development of methods for evaluating active faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    The HERP report for long-term evaluation of active faults and the NSC safety review guide with regard to geology and ground of site were published on Nov. 2010 and on Dec. 2010, respectively. With respect to those reports, our investigation is as follows; (1) For assessment of seismic hazard, we estimated seismic sources around NPPs based on information of tectonic geomorphology, earthquake distribution and subsurface geology. (2) For evaluation on the activity of blind fault, we calculated the slip rate on the 2008 Iwate-Miyagi Nairiku Earthquake fault, using information on late Quaternary fluvial terraces. (3) To evaluate the magnitude of earthquakes whose sources are difficult to identify, we proposed a new method for calculation of the seismogenic layer thickness. (4) To clarify the activities of active faults without superstratum, we carried out the color analysis of fault gouge and divided the activities into thousand of years and tens of thousands. (5) For improving chronology of sediments, we detected new widespread cryptotephras using mineral chemistry and developed late Quaternary cryptotephrostratigraphy around NPPs. (author)

  9. Developments of an Interactive Sail Design Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Malpede

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new tool for performing the integrated design and analysis of a sail. The features of the system are the geometrical definition of a sail shape, using the Bezier surface method, the creation of a finite element model for the non-linear structural analysis and a fluid-dynamic model for the aerodynamic analysis. The system has been developed using MATLAB(r. Recent sail design efforts have been focused on solving the aeroelastic behavior of the sail. The pressure distribution on a sail changes continuously, by virtue of cloth stretch and flexing. The sail shape determines the pressure distribution and, at the same time, the pressure distribution on the sail stretches and flexes the sail material determining its shape. This characteristic non-linear behavior requires iterative solution strategies to obtain the equilibrium configuration and evaluate the forces involved. The aeroelastic problem is tackled by combining structural with aerodynamic analysis. Firstly, pressure loads for a known sail-shape are computed (aerodynamic analysis. Secondly, the sail-shape is analyzed for the obtained external loads (structural analysis. The final solution is obtained by using an iterative analysis process, which involves both aerodynamic and the structural analysis. When the solution converges, it is possible to make design modifications.

  10. The Depression Inventory Development Workgroup: A Collaborative, Empirically Driven Initiative to Develop a New Assessment Tool for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarino, Anthony L; Evans, Kenneth R; Kalali, Amir H; Kennedy, Sidney H; Engelhardt, Nina; Frey, Benicio N; Greist, John H; Kobak, Kenneth A; Lam, Raymond W; MacQueen, Glenda; Milev, Roumen; Placenza, Franca M; Ravindran, Arun V; Sheehan, David V; Sills, Terrence; Williams, Janet B W

    2016-01-01

    The Depression Inventory Development project is an initiative of the International Society for CNS Drug Development whose goal is to develop a comprehensive and psychometrically sound measurement tool to be utilized as a primary endpoint in clinical trials for major depressive disorder. Using an iterative process between field testing and psychometric analysis and drawing upon expertise of international researchers in depression, the Depression Inventory Development team has established an empirically driven and collaborative protocol for the creation of items to assess symptoms in major depressive disorder. Depression-relevant symptom clusters were identified based on expert clinical and patient input. In addition, as an aid for symptom identification and item construction, the psychometric properties of existing clinical scales (assessing depression and related indications) were evaluated using blinded datasets from pharmaceutical antidepressant drug trials. A series of field tests in patients with major depressive disorder provided the team with data to inform the iterative process of scale development. We report here an overview of the Depression Inventory Development initiative, including results of the third iteration of items assessing symptoms related to anhedonia, cognition, fatigue, general malaise, motivation, anxiety, negative thinking, pain and appetite. The strategies adopted from the Depression Inventory Development program, as an empirically driven and collaborative process for scale development, have provided the foundation to develop and validate measurement tools in other therapeutic areas as well.

  11. Assessing personal initiative among vocational training students: development and validation of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balluerka, Nekane; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Ulacia, Imanol

    2014-11-14

    Personal initiative characterizes people who are proactive, persistent and self-starting when facing the difficulties that arise in achieving goals. Despite its importance in the educational field there is a scarcity of measures to assess students' personal initiative. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a questionnaire to assess this variable in the academic environment and to validate it for adolescents and young adults. The sample comprised 244 vocational training students. The questionnaire showed a factor structure including three factors (Proactivity-Prosocial behavior, Persistence and Self-Starting) with acceptable indices of internal consistency (ranging between α = .57 and α =.73) and good convergent validity with respect to the Self-Reported Initiative scale. Evidence of external validity was also obtained based on the relationships between personal initiative and variables such as self-efficacy, enterprising attitude, responsibility and control aspirations, conscientiousness, and academic achievement. The results indicate that this new measure is very useful for assessing personal initiative among vocational training students.

  12. TOWARDS DEVELOPING A SUSTAINABLE FACULTY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM: An Initiative of an American Medical School in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahal, Boushra; Mansour, Nabil; Zaatari, Ghazi

    2015-01-01

    The American University of Beirut Faculty of Medicine (AUB-FM) strategy is to develop faculty members (fm) skills by sponsoring local and international scientific activities has been in place for over three decades, and remains dependent on individuals' efforts. In 2011-2012, Faculty Development Program (FDP) was introduced to develop faculty leadership, business skills in medicine, fulfill personal and professional goals, followed by a five-year plan to cover five themes: Management/Leadership, Marketing, Finance, Strategic Planning and Communications with the purpose of integrating these themes in medical practice. A survey was sent to all departments at AUB-FM in 2011 to assess needs and determine themes. Nine workshops were conducted, followed by post-workshop evaluation. 117 fm responded to needs assessment surveys. Respondents had on average 15 years in clinical practice, 50% with extensive to moderate administrative experience; 71% assumed administrative responsibilities at least once, 56% in leadership positions. Faculty attendance dropped midway from 69 to 19, although workshops were rated very good to excellent. Although faculty were interested in FDP, the drop in attendance might be attributed to: challenges to achieve personal and professional goals while struggling to fulfill their roles, satisfy promotion requirements and generate their income. FDP has to be aligned with FM strategic goals and faculty objectives, be complimentary to a faculty mentoring program, provide rewards, and be supported by a faculty progression tool.

  13. Developability studies before initiation of process development: improving manufacturability of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Wei; Dukleska, Svetlana; Benchaar, Sabrina; Mengisen, Selina; Antochshuk, Valentyn; Cheung, Jason; Mann, Leslie; Babadjanova, Zulfia; Rowand, Jason; Gunawan, Rico; McCampbell, Alexander; Beaumont, Maribel; Meininger, David; Richardson, Daisy; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies constitute a robust class of therapeutic proteins. Their stability, resistance to stress conditions and high solubility have allowed the successful development and commercialization of over 40 antibody-based drugs. Although mAbs enjoy a relatively high probability of success compared with other therapeutic proteins, examples of projects that are suspended due to the instability of the molecule are not uncommon. Developability assessment studies have therefore been devised to identify early during process development problems associated with stability, solubility that is insufficient to meet expected dosing or sensitivity to stress. This set of experiments includes short-term stability studies at 2-8 þC, 25 þC and 40 þC, freeze-thaw studies, limited forced degradation studies and determination of the viscosity of high concentration samples. We present here three case studies reflecting three typical outcomes: (1) no major or unexpected degradation is found and the study results are used to inform early identification of degradation pathways and potential critical quality attributes within the Quality by Design framework defined by US Food and Drug Administration guidance documents; (2) identification of specific degradation pathway(s) that do not affect potency of the molecule, with subsequent definition of proper process control and formulation strategies; and (3) identification of degradation that affects potency, resulting in program termination and reallocation of resources.

  14. Application of the principle of Open Initiatives in developing Trakai tourism infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Nazelskis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to identify the principle of open initiatives, launched by Trakai resort municipality, which is focused on infrastructure development in order to open the way for widespread participation of natural and legal persons in infrastructure projects and to define the strategic directions in tourism development and infrastructure projects that apply this principle. In addition, it aims to assess the effectiveness of this principle as well as its practical benefits to the expansion of tourism infrastructure and the development of new tourism products.

  15. “Aid for Trade” initiative in order to achieve the development objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Popa

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the “aid for trade” initiative as a key source of economic growth and prosperity, so necessary in developing countries and especially, least developed ones. Based on a deductive analysis, the research purpose is to observe, as much as possible, the involvement of international organizations to support this foreign aid and its effects on poor nations.Assuming that developing countries need foreign aid to get out of poverty and to fully benefit from the advantages of international trade, but not only, the paper shows that from the XXI century, donor countries have considerably increased the amounts allocated for this purpose.

  16. Development of power change maneuvering method for BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzaki, Takaharu; Yamada, Naoyuki; Kiguchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Mikio.

    1985-01-01

    A power change maneuvering method for BWR has been proposed to generate an optimal power control maneuver, which realizes the power change operation closest to a power change demand pattern under operating constraints. The method searches for the maneuver as an optimization problem, where the variables are thermal power levels sampled from the demand pattern, the performance index is defined to express the power mismatch between demand and feasible patterns, and the constraints are limit lines on the thermal power-core flow rate map and limits on keeping fuel integrity. The usable feasible direction method is utilized as the optimization algorithm, with newly developed techniques for initial value generation and step length determination, which apply one-dimensional search and inverse-interpolation methods, respectively, to realize the effective search of the optimal solution. Simulation results show that a typical computing time is about 5 min by a general purpose computer and the method has been verified to be practical even for on-line use. (author)

  17. Content-related interactions and methods of reasoning within self-initiated organic chemistry study groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Karen Jeanne

    2011-12-01

    Students often use study groups to prepare for class or exams; yet to date, we know very little about how these groups actually function. This study looked at the ways in which undergraduate organic chemistry students prepared for exams through self-initiated study groups. We sought to characterize the methods of social regulation, levels of content processing, and types of reasoning processes used by students within their groups. Our analysis showed that groups engaged in predominantly three types of interactions when discussing chemistry content: co-construction, teaching, and tutoring. Although each group engaged in each of these types of interactions at some point, their prevalence varied between groups and group members. Our analysis suggests that the types of interactions that were most common depended on the relative content knowledge of the group members as well as on the difficulty of the tasks in which they were engaged. Additionally, we were interested in characterizing the reasoning methods used by students within their study groups. We found that students used a combination of three content-relevant methods of reasoning: model-based reasoning, case-based reasoning, or rule-based reasoning, in conjunction with one chemically-irrelevant method of reasoning: symbol-based reasoning. The most common way for groups to reason was to use rules, whereas the least common way was for students to work from a model. In general, student reasoning correlated strongly to the subject matter to which students were paying attention, and was only weakly related to student interactions. Overall, results from this study may help instructors to construct appropriate tasks to guide what and how students study outside of the classroom. We found that students had a decidedly strategic approach in their study groups, relying heavily on material provided by their instructors, and using the reasoning strategies that resulted in the lowest levels of content processing. We suggest

  18. Stability and convergence analysis of the quasi-dynamics method for the initial pebble packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Ji, W.

    2012-01-01

    The simulation for the pebble flow recirculation within Pebble Bed Reactors (PBRs) requires an efficient algorithm to generate an initial overlap-free pebble configuration within the reactor core. In the previous work, a dynamics-based approach, the Quasi-Dynamics Method (QDM), has been proposed to generate densely distributed pebbles in PBRs with cylindrical and annular core geometries. However, the stability and the efficiency of the QDM were not fully addressed. In this work, the algorithm is reformulated with two control parameters and the impact of these parameters on the algorithm performance is investigated. Firstly, the theoretical analysis for a 1-D packing system is conducted and the range of the parameter in which the algorithm is convergent is estimated. Then, this estimation is verified numerically for a 3-D packing system. Finally, the algorithm is applied to modeling the PBR fuel loading configuration and the convergence performance at different packing fractions is presented. Results show that the QDM is efficient in packing pebbles within the realistic range of the packing fraction in PBRs, and it is capable in handling cylindrical geometry with packing fractions up to 63.5%. (authors)

  19. Targeting the eIF4F translation initiation complex: a critical nexus for cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jerry; Graff, Jeremy; Ruggero, Davide; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2015-01-15

    Elevated protein synthesis is an important feature of many cancer cells and often arises as a consequence of increased signaling flux channeled to eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), the key regulator of the mRNA-ribosome recruitment phase of translation initiation. In many cellular and preclinical models of cancer, eIF4F deregulation results in changes in translational efficiency of specific mRNA classes. Importantly, many of these mRNAs code for proteins that potently regulate critical cellular processes, such as cell growth and proliferation, enhanced cell survival and cell migration that ultimately impinge on several hallmarks of cancer, including increased angiogenesis, deregulated growth control, enhanced cellular survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. By being positioned as the molecular nexus downstream of key oncogenic signaling pathways (e.g., Ras, PI3K/AKT/TOR, and MYC), eIF4F serves as a direct link between important steps in cancer development and translation initiation. Identification of mRNAs particularly responsive to elevated eIF4F activity that typifies tumorigenesis underscores the critical role of eIF4F in cancer and raises the exciting possibility of developing new-in-class small molecules targeting translation initiation as antineoplastic agents. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Men’s Perceptions of Women’s Participation in Development Initiatives in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rabiul; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah; Emmelin, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Without taking masculine issues into account, women’s participation in development initiatives does not always guarantee their empowerment, health, and welfare in a male-dominated society. This study aimed to explore men’s perceptions of women’s participation in development (WPD) in rural Bangladesh. In adopting a qualitative approach, the study examined 48 purposively selected married and unmarried men aged 20–76 years in three northwest villages. Data collection was accomplished through four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 43 men clustered into four groups and through individual interviews with five other men. A qualitative content analysis of the data revealed an overall theme of “feeling challenged by fears and hopes,” indicating variations in men’s views on women’s participation in development initiatives as represented by three main categories: (a) fearing the loss of male authority, (b) recognizing women’s roles in enhancing family welfare, and (c) valuing women’s independence. In the context of dominant patriarchal traditions in Bangladesh, these findings provide new insight into dynamics and variations of men’s views, suggesting a need to better engage men during different stages of women-focused development initiatives. PMID:29025358

  1. Men's Perceptions of Women's Participation in Development Initiatives in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Rabiul; Lindberg, Lene; Wamala, Sarah; Emmelin, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Without taking masculine issues into account, women's participation in development initiatives does not always guarantee their empowerment, health, and welfare in a male-dominated society. This study aimed to explore men's perceptions of women's participation in development (WPD) in rural Bangladesh. In adopting a qualitative approach, the study examined 48 purposively selected married and unmarried men aged 20-76 years in three northwest villages. Data collection was accomplished through four focus group discussions (FGDs) with 43 men clustered into four groups and through individual interviews with five other men. A qualitative content analysis of the data revealed an overall theme of "feeling challenged by fears and hopes," indicating variations in men's views on women's participation in development initiatives as represented by three main categories: (a) fearing the loss of male authority, (b) recognizing women's roles in enhancing family welfare, and (c) valuing women's independence. In the context of dominant patriarchal traditions in Bangladesh, these findings provide new insight into dynamics and variations of men's views, suggesting a need to better engage men during different stages of women-focused development initiatives.

  2. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Pedro R.; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1–5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings. PMID:28582387

  3. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazo-Sayavera, Javier; Olivares, Pedro R; Andronikos, Georgios; Martindale, Russell J J

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305) = 499.64, pTalent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.

  4. Reactor kinetics methods development. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.F.; Henry, A.F.

    1978-01-01

    This report is a qualitative summary of research conducted at MIT from 1967 to 1977 in the area of reactor kinetics methods. The objectives of the research were to find methods of integration of various mathematical models of nuclear reactor transients. From the beginning the work was aimed at numerical integration methods. Specific areas of research, discussed in more detail following, included: integration of multigroup diffusion theory models by finite difference and finite element methods; response matrix and nodal methods; coarse-mesh homogenization; and special treatment of boundary conditions

  5. Polio eradication initiative in Africa: influence on other infectious disease surveillance development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochi Stephen

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO and partners are collaborating to eradicate poliomyelitis. To monitor progress, countries perform surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP. The WHO African Regional Office (WHO-AFRO and the U.S Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are also involved in strengthening infectious disease surveillance and response in Africa. We assessed whether polio-eradication initiative resources are used in the surveillance for and response to other infectious diseases in Africa. Methods During October 1999-March 2000, we developed and administered a survey questionnaire to at least one key informant from the 38 countries that regularly report on polio activities to WHO. The key informants included WHO-AFRO staff assigned to the countries and Ministry of Health personnel. Results We obtained responses from 32 (84% of the 38 countries. Thirty-one (97% of the 32 countries had designated surveillance officers for AFP surveillance, and 25 (78% used the AFP resources for the surveillance and response to other infectious diseases. In 28 (87% countries, AFP program staff combined detection for AFP and other infectious diseases. Fourteen countries (44% had used the AFP laboratory specimen transportation system to transport specimens to confirm other infectious disease outbreaks. The majority of the countries that performed AFP surveillance adequately (i.e., non polio AFP rate = 1/100,000 children aged Conclusions Despite concerns regarding the targeted nature of AFP surveillance, it is partially integrated into existing surveillance and response systems in multiple African countries. Resources provided for polio eradication should be used to improve surveillance for and response to other priority infectious diseases in Africa.

  6. Initial radioiodine remnant ablation success rates compared by diagnostic scan methods: I123 versus I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W.; Choi, E.; Yoo, I.; Kim, S.; Han, E.; Lee, S.; Lee, W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: to see if diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) performed with I-131 prior diminishes the success rate of initial radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) compared to I-123 DxWBS in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Material and methods: consecutive thyroid cancer patients who received total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and then high dose RRA (either 100 mCi or 150 mCi) within 6 months were included. DxWBSs were performed with I-123 or with I-131. Prior to the DxWBSs, all patients followed strict low iodine diet for 2 weeks and withdrew hormone to stimulate TSH above 30 mIU/l. Patients with extra-thyroidal extension of tumor, lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis were excluded. The initial RRA was defined as successful if the next DxWBS done 6 months to 1 year later was negative and stimulated thyroglobulin level was below 2 ng/ml. Results: of 71 patients who had I-123 DxWBSs, 31 patients went on to receive RRA with 100 mCi and 40 patients received 150 mCi. Of 73 patients who had I-131 DxWBSs, 66 received 100 mCi and 7 patients received 150 mCi. The overall success rate was 79% for patients who had I-123 DxWBS prior to RRA (68% for 100 mCi and 86% for 150 mCi), and 68% for patient who had I-131 DxWBSs (68% for 100 mCi and 71% for 150 mCi). Conclusion: for patients who received 100 mCi, the RRA success rate was the same for I-123 DxWBS and I-131 DxWBS. For patients treated with 150 mCi, the success rate may be lower in patients who receive RRA following DxWBS with I-131 compared to DxWBS with I-123. (authors)

  7. Implications of human trafficking in Asia: a scoping review of aftercare initiatives centered on economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Meghan A; Barner, John R; Okech, David

    2018-01-01

    The trafficking of persons is one of the most egregious violations of human rights in modern society. Given the disproportionate effects across demographic categories of age and gender, as well as concentrated impacts within the developing world, there is a strong need for research and literature on program effectiveness and appropriate aftercare efforts for those persons whose lives and livelihoods have been impacted by trafficking. The purpose of this article is to provide a scoping review of what is known about effectively helping survivors of human trafficking experiencing lack of economic opportunity and the implications for practice and future research regarding the absence of literature. From over 14,000 initial search results, this article focuses on those initiatives (N = 16) that support economic development of the individual or family after being trafficked. Implications arising from the review for trafficking policy, areas for further research, and implications for practitioners are highlighted and discussed.

  8. A new funding model for nursing education through business development initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, Marion E; Bowersox, Dave; Relf, Michael

    Public and private higher education funding models are shifting from traditional funding of schools and departments to a model in which schools increasingly rely on revenue other than tuition to fulfill and supplement activities related to their core missions. In this paper we discuss what nursing deans need to know about non tuition funding in this contemporary paradigm. We focus on how the Duke University School of Nursing created a Business Development Initiative (BDI) that provides additional revenue to help meets the financial needs of its' programs while nurturing the entrepreneurial spirit of faculty and staff. This BDI holds promise as a model that can be adapted by other schools seeking to support education, research and professional development initiatives without relying solely on tuition, tax dollars, endowments and/or grants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Addressing Gaps in Mental Health and Addictions Nursing Leadership: An Innovative Professional Development Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrs, Margaret; Strudwick, Gillian; Ling, Sara; Reisdorfer, Emilene; Cleverley, Kristin

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and addictions services are integral to Canada's healthcare system, and yet it is difficult to recruit experienced nurse leaders with advanced practice, management or clinical informatics expertise in this field. Master's-level graduates, aspiring to be mental health nurse leaders, often lack the confidence and experience required to lead quality improvement, advancements in clinical care, service design and technology innovations for improved patient care. This paper describes an initiative that develops nursing leaders through a unique scholarship, internship and mentorship model, which aims to foster confidence, critical thinking and leadership competency development in the mental health and addictions context. The "Mutual Benefits Model" framework was applied in the design and evaluation of the initiative. It outlines how mentee, mentor and organizational needs can drive strategic planning of resource investment, mentorship networks and relevant leadership competency-based learning plans to optimize outcomes. Five-year individual and organizational outcomes are described. © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  10. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pepper, Susan E. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  11. Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Kujala, Jouni

    2005-01-01

    Kujala J, Kristensen NH, (2005): Organic marketing initiatives and rural development - lessons learned for the organic industry. Article in "Organic farming for a new millennium - status and future challenges". Published by Nordic Association of Agricultural Scientists (NJF). Swedish University...... of Agricultural Sciences Alnarp, Sweden. NJF-Seminar 369, June 15-17, 2005. Electronic version available at www.njf.nu. ISSN 1653-2015...

  12. Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    pp. 201–215, 2003. 2. K. Crowston, K. Wei, J. Howison, and A. Wiggins, “Free/ libre open-source software devel- opment: What we know and what we do not...Understanding the process of participating in open source communities,” in International Workshop on Emerging Trends in Free/ Libre /Open Source Software ...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Developer Initiation and Social Interactions in OSS: A Case Study of the Apache Software

  13. Initiatives driving accelerated access to medicines in Europe: Review of recent concepts and developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Gannedahl

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving timely patient access to new medicines, particularly in areas with high unmet need, has been a healthcare priority during the past 5–10 years, with several new regulatory initiatives from the European Medicines Agency, as well as on national level within the European Union. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that medicines going through these regulatory initiatives experience variable reimbursement outcomes due to uncertainties in the clinical or economic evidence base. New initiatives, including the adaptive pathways concept, have therefore been introduced that embrace a holistic view of a medicine’s route to patient access. These involve expanded clusters of stakeholders working together to prospectively influence and design evidence generation strategies, including use of real-world evidence, to ensure that development plans meet the needs of multiple stakeholders including regulatory agencies and health technology assessment bodies. Multi-stakeholder dialogues, provided through scientific advice, are already available for medicines in Europe in various forms and are important tools for regulators, health technology assessment bodies and pharmaceutical companies to develop evidence generation plans optimised to support decision-making on marketing authorisation and reimbursement of new medicines. Multiple stakeholder groups have been actively engaged in advancing developments of initiatives driving timely access and it is likely to continue due to the need to balance this with affordability. The aim of this article is to provide a review of the latest, as well as a future perspective on, developments with respect to accelerated access of medicines in the European Union with a particular focus on procedures for formal scientific advice.

  14. A New Method of High-Precision Positioning for an Indoor Pseudolite without Using the Known Point Initialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinzhi; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Jiming; Li, Xin; Wang, Jinling; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xinzhe

    2018-06-20

    Due to the great influence of multipath effect, noise, clock and error on pseudorange, the carrier phase double difference equation is widely used in high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning. The initial position is determined mostly by the known point initialization (KPI) method, and then the ambiguities can be fixed with the LAMBDA method. In this paper, a new method without using the KPI to achieve high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning is proposed. The initial coordinates can be quickly obtained to meet the accuracy requirement of the indoor LAMBDA method. The detailed processes of the method follows: Aiming at the low-cost single-frequency pseudolite system, the static differential pseudolite system (DPL) method is used to obtain the low-accuracy positioning coordinates of the rover station quickly. Then, the ambiguity function method (AFM) is used to search for the coordinates in the corresponding epoch. The real coordinates obtained by AFM can meet the initial accuracy requirement of the LAMBDA method, so that the double difference carrier phase ambiguities can be correctly fixed. Following the above steps, high-precision indoor pseudolite positioning can be realized. Several experiments, including static and dynamic tests, are conducted to verify the feasibility of the new method. According to the results of the experiments, the initial coordinates with the accuracy of decimeter level through the DPL can be obtained. For the AFM part, both a one-meter search scope and two-centimeter or four-centimeter search steps are used to ensure the precision at the centimeter level and high search efficiency. After dealing with the problem of multiple peaks caused by the ambiguity cosine function, the coordinate information of the maximum ambiguity function value (AFV) is taken as the initial value of the LAMBDA, and the ambiguities can be fixed quickly. The new method provides accuracies at the centimeter level for dynamic experiments and at the millimeter

  15. Track treeing mechanism and plastic zone in solid Part 1: Initial development of plastic zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Boyang

    2008-01-01

    After neutron exposure and chemical etching in advance, latent tracks of recoil nucleon develop into pits on CR39 surface. During electrochemical etching, plastic zone is formed at top of pits. Some pits develop into tree cracks in the initial stage of plastic zone development. Physical and mathematical model of crack and plastic zone is proposed; parameter of development free path of plastic zone is presented. Based on integration of elementary theories the stress analysis is build up; based on analyses of measured parameters, a set of common relations between parameters is obtained. Integrate parameter analysis and stress analysis, depth of plastic zone development, law and phenomenon in experimental data can be interpreted completely

  16. Numerical doubly-periodic solution of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial conditions by the variational iteration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inc, Mustafa

    2007-01-01

    In this Letter, a scheme is developed to study numerical doubly-periodic solutions of the (2+1)-dimensional Boussinesq equation with initial condition by the variational iteration method. As a result, the approximate and exact doubly-periodic solutions are obtained. For different modulus m, comparison between the approximate solution and the exact solution is made graphically, revealing that the variational iteration method is a powerful and effective tool to non-linear problems

  17. Development on Vulnerability Assessment Methods of PPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIAO; Qiang; ZHANG; Wen-liang; BU; Li-xin; YIN; Hong-he; LI; Xin-jun; FANG; Xin

    2013-01-01

    Through investigating information from domestic and abroad,joint the domestic assessment experience,we present a set of physical protection system(PPS)vulnerability assessment methods for on-operating nuclear power plants and for on-designing nuclear facilities.The methods will help to strengthen and upgrade the security measures of the nuclear facilities,improve the effectiveness and

  18. Development and Application of Kinetic Spectrophotometric Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Methods: The method is based on oxidation reaction of MNZ by hydrogen peroxide ... optimum operating conditions for reagent concentrations and temperature were ... 1-yl) ethanol] is an amebicide, antiprotozoal and .... The dependence of reaction rate on concentration of.

  19. Development and Initial Validation of the Five-Factor Model Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (FFM-APQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Mary E; Glendon, A Ian

    2018-01-01

    This research reports on the 4-phase development of the 25-item Five-Factor Model Adolescent Personality Questionnaire (FFM-APQ). The purpose was to develop and determine initial evidence for validity of a brief adolescent personality inventory using a vocabulary that could be understood by adolescents up to 18 years old. Phase 1 (N = 48) consisted of item generation and expert (N = 5) review of items; Phase 2 (N = 179) involved item analyses; in Phase 3 (N = 496) exploratory factor analysis assessed the underlying structure; in Phase 4 (N = 405) confirmatory factor analyses resulted in a 25-item inventory with 5 subscales.

  20. Methods for external event screening quantification: Risk Methods Integration and Evaluation Program (RMIEP) methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, M.K.; Banon, H.

    1992-07-01

    In this report, the scoping quantification procedures for external events in probabilistic risk assessments of nuclear power plants are described. External event analysis in a PRA has three important goals; (1) the analysis should be complete in that all events are considered; (2) by following some selected screening criteria, the more significant events are identified for detailed analysis; (3) the selected events are analyzed in depth by taking into account the unique features of the events: hazard, fragility of structures and equipment, external-event initiated accident sequences, etc. Based on the above goals, external event analysis may be considered as a three-stage process: Stage I: Identification and Initial Screening of External Events; Stage II: Bounding Analysis; Stage III: Detailed Risk Analysis. In the present report, first, a review of published PRAs is given to focus on the significance and treatment of external events in full-scope PRAs. Except for seismic, flooding, fire, and extreme wind events, the contributions of other external events to plant risk have been found to be negligible. Second, scoping methods for external events not covered in detail in the NRC's PRA Procedures Guide are provided. For this purpose, bounding analyses for transportation accidents, extreme winds and tornadoes, aircraft impacts, turbine missiles, and chemical release are described

  1. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and Galaxies survey (SLUGGS): sample definition, methods, and initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Jennings, Zachary G.; Pota, Vincenzo; Kader, Justin; Roediger, Joel C.; Villaume, Alexa; Arnold, Jacob A.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Pastorello, Nicola; Usher, Christopher; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Foster, Caroline; Spitler, Lee R., E-mail: jbrodie@ucsc.edu [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW 1670 (Australia)

    2014-11-20

    We introduce and provide the scientific motivation for a wide-field photometric and spectroscopic chemodynamical survey of nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs) and their globular cluster (GC) systems. The SAGES Legacy Unifying Globulars and GalaxieS (SLUGGS) survey is being carried out primarily with Subaru/Suprime-Cam and Keck/DEIMOS. The former provides deep gri imaging over a 900 arcmin{sup 2} field-of-view to characterize GC and host galaxy colors and spatial distributions, and to identify spectroscopic targets. The NIR Ca II triplet provides GC line-of-sight velocities and metallicities out to typically ∼8 R {sub e}, and to ∼15 R {sub e} in some cases. New techniques to extract integrated stellar kinematics and metallicities to large radii (∼2-3 R {sub e}) are used in concert with GC data to create two-dimensional (2D) velocity and metallicity maps for comparison with simulations of galaxy formation. The advantages of SLUGGS compared with other, complementary, 2D-chemodynamical surveys are its superior velocity resolution, radial extent, and multiple halo tracers. We describe the sample of 25 nearby ETGs, the selection criteria for galaxies and GCs, the observing strategies, the data reduction techniques, and modeling methods. The survey observations are nearly complete and more than 30 papers have so far been published using SLUGGS data. Here we summarize some initial results, including signatures of two-phase galaxy assembly, evidence for GC metallicity bimodality, and a novel framework for the formation of extended star clusters and ultracompact dwarfs. An integrated overview of current chemodynamical constraints on GC systems points to separate, in situ formation modes at high redshifts for metal-poor and metal-rich GCs.

  2. Application of the Variational Iteration Method to the Initial Value Problems of Q-difference Equations-Some Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiang Zeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The q-difference equations are a class of important models both in q-calculus and applied sciences. The variational iteration method is extended to approximately solve the initial value problems of q-difference equations. A q-analogue of the Lagrange multiplier is presented and three examples are illustrated to show the method's efficiency.

  3. INL Human Resource Development and the Next-Generation Safeguards Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouveia, Fernando; Metcalf, Richard Royce Madison

    2010-07-01

    It is the stated goal of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) to promote the development of a strengthened nuclear safeguards base, one with the potential to advance the secure and peaceful implementation of nuclear energy world-wide. To meet this goal, the initiative, among other things, has sought to develop a revitalized effort to ensure the continued availability of next generation safeguards professionals. Accordingly, this paper serves to outline the human capital building strategies taken by Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in line with the NGSI. Various components are presented in detail, including INL’s efforts directed at university outreach, in particular the laboratory’s summer internship program, along with the development of various innovative training programs and long-term oriented strategies for student professional development. Special highlights include a video training series, developed by INL in cooperation with LLNL and other laboratories, which sought to expose students and entry-level professionals to the concept and practice of international nuclear safeguards.

  4. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  5. Features of development of coordination abilities features of athletes in sports aerobics in initial training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Bodrenkova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to develop theoretically and experimentally justify the methodology of development of coordination abilities of athletes aged 7-9 years involved in sports aerobics. Material : the study involved 20 participants (7-9 years. 8 athletes performed the test tasks. The choice of tests carried out on the basis of the analysis of the dominant motor mode competition exercises. Results : It was found that the coordination abilities are necessary in the development of speed, density, and the number of running technical elements. With more than a significant increase in performance test tasks that characterize: musicality, coordination, dynamic balance. The basic tools, methods, techniques, and requirements for the exercises. The level of development of coordination abilities. Conclusions : the author's method of development of coordination abilities include: rational choice of means and methods of training impact on their similarities and differences with the target competitive activity.

  6. Development of Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method for Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Method for Analysis of Lornoxicam in Solid Dosage. Forms. Sunit Kumar Sahoo ... testing. Mean recovery was 100.82 % for tablets. Low values of % RSD indicate .... Saharty E, Refaat YS, Khateeb ME. Stability-. Indicating. Spectrophotometric.

  7. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gorbunova A. V.; Maximova O. N.; Ekova V. A.

    2017-01-01

    The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding eva...

  8. Bayesian methods for proteomic biomarker development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Hernández

    2015-12-01

    In this review we provide an introduction to Bayesian inference and demonstrate some of the advantages of using a Bayesian framework. We summarize how Bayesian methods have been used previously in proteomics and other areas of bioinformatics. Finally, we describe some popular and emerging Bayesian models from the statistical literature and provide a worked tutorial including code snippets to show how these methods may be applied for the evaluation of proteomic biomarkers.

  9. Development and validation of the measure of initial attraction- Short Interest Scale (MIA-I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral initial attraction (UIA is a positive affective reaction following a unilateral perception of an unknown target, defining the first stage in developing a new interpersonal relationship. Although little attention is given to this construct, literature suggests it has a physiological activation component as well as an interpersonal interest component. However, this interest component emerges as necessary to willingly approach another person and eventually initiate interaction. Based on these evidences, we developed and validated the Measure of Initial Attraction - Interest Short Scale (MIA-I in a sample of Portuguese-speaking individuals (Study 1, N = 544. Results suggest the MIA-I is a valid and reliable instrument (Study 1; Study 2a, and show its capacity to discriminate UIA across different relationships (Study 1 and to differentiate UIA from passion and love (Study 1. Towards an unknown target, the MIA-I also distinguished UIA from liking (Study 2b. These results show that the MIA-I assesses a specific construct, differentiated from liking, passion and love, and suggest its importance to understand the UIA phenomenon.

  10. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. An important element of the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program is devoted to the investigation and evaluation of these proposals. This paper presents the technological bases and fracture-margin assessment objectives for some of the recently proposed crack-initiation and arrest-technology developments. The HSST Program approach to the evaluation of the proposals is described and the results and conclusions obtained to date are presented

  11. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability…

  12. Developing a service improvement initiative for people with learning disabilities in hospice settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springall, Fiona

    2018-03-21

    People with learning disabilities are often marginalised in healthcare, including in hospice settings, and as a result may not receive effective end of life care. Research in hospice settings has identified that many staff lack confidence, skills and knowledge in caring for people with learning disabilities, which can have a negative effect on the care these individuals receive. To address these issues, the author has proposed a service improvement initiative, which she developed as part of her learning disability nursing degree programme. This proposed initiative aimed to enhance end of life care for people with learning disabilities through the implementation of a community learning disability link nurse in the hospice setting. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.

  13. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program: Recent developments in crack initiation and arrest research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennell, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    Technology for the analysis of crack initiation and arrest is central to the reactor pressure vessel fracture-margin-assessment process. Regulatory procedures for nuclear plants utilize this technology to assure the retention of adequate fracture-prevention margins throughout the plant operating license period. As nuclear plants age and regulatory procedures dictate that fracture-margin assessments be performed, interest in the fracture-mechanics technology incorporated into those procedures has heightened. This has led to proposals from a number of sources for development and refinement of the underlying crack-initiation and arrest-analysis technology. This paper presents an overview of ongoing Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program research aimed at refining the fracture toughness data used in the analysis of fracture margins under pressurized-thermal-shock loading conditions. 33 refs., 13 figs

  14. Influence of gametal release method and larval initial density in the culture of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia C. Gonçalves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The gonads of sea urchins have increased interest for human consumption, as a culinary delicacy worldwide. In Europe, the species Paracentrotus lividus was identified as an ideal candidate to meet the growing demand for this product, due to its high gonadosomatic index and easy access. However, the current commercial model, based on the exploitation its natural populations, may be unsustainable. Therefore, its production in aquaculture would be beneficial to avoid depletion of natural stocks of these organisms. The present study sought to develop a culture system for Paracentrotus lividus in aquaculture, which would allow maintaining the early embryonic and larval stages of this animal. A trial was set using 3 gametal release methods (due to stress induced by capture and by injecting 0.125M and 0.250M of potassium chloride and 3 densities of sea urchin embryos (530 embryos/L, 1000 embryos/L and 2000 embryos/L, using 5 replicate individual culture tanks for each combined factor. The embryos were obtained by adding gametes to sea water, in a proportion 1 egg : 100 spermatozoids, and by discarding unfertilized floating eggs by decantation. Afterwards, the embryos were transferred to a culture system composed by cylindrical-conical plastic tanks of 2L. These were decontaminated and filled with 0.750L of sea water, continuously aerated through a sterile pipette of 3mL. These tanks were placed on metal shelves, artificially illuminated with daylight fluorescent lamps (18w/765, 400Lux and maintained at 22°C. The larvae were fed each 2 days, with a mixture of microalgae Tetraselmis chuii, Phaeodactylum tricornumtum and Thalassiosira weliflogii at a concentration of 800-1000 microalgae/mL, adding 15µL, 50µL and 30µL to each individual tank, respectively for each of the initial larval densities introduced. There was an influence of the factor initial larval density in the mortality rate, wherein the number of larvae that died during the trial was much

  15. Development and initial feedback about a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine comic book for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Oldach, Benjamin R; Goodwin, Jennifer; Reiter, Paul L; Ruffin, Mack T; Paskett, Electra D

    2014-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates do not meet the Healthy People 2020 objective of 80% coverage among adolescent females. We describe the development and initial feedback about an HPV vaccine comic book for young adolescents. The comic book is one component of a multilevel intervention to improve HPV vaccination rates among adolescents. Parents suggested and provided input into the development of a HPV vaccine comic book. Following the development of the comic book, we conducted a pilot study to obtain initial feedback about the comic book among parents (n = 20) and their adolescents ages 9 to 14 (n = 17) recruited from a community-based organization. Parents completed a pre-post test including items addressing HPV knowledge, HPV vaccine attitudes, and about the content of the comic book. Adolescents completed a brief interview after reading the comic book. After reading the comic book, HPV knowledge improved (2.7 to 4.6 correct answers on a 0-5 scale; p book's content was acceptable and adolescents liked the story, found it easy to read, and thought the comic book was a good way to learn about being healthy. Parents provided valuable information in the development of a theoretically-based comic book and the comic book appears to be an acceptable format for providing HPV vaccine information to adolescents. Future research will include the comic book in an intervention study to improve HPV vaccination rates.

  16. Development of the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment: Selection of play materials and administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dender, Alma; Stagnitti, Karen

    2011-02-01

    There is a need for culturally appropriate assessments for Australian Indigenous children. This article reports the selection of culturally appropriate and gender-neutral play materials, and changes in administration identified to develop further the Indigenous Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (I-ChIPPA). Twenty-three typically developing children aged four to six years from the Pilbara region in Western Australia participated in the study. Children were presented with four sets of play materials and frequency counts were recorded for each time the child used one of the play materials in a pretend play action. Twelve of the 23 children came to play in pairs. Both boys and girls used the Pilbara toy set including the dark coloured dolls and Pilbara region animals, more frequently than the standardised play materials from the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment (ChIPPA). This study reports the first steps in the development of the I-ChIPPA. Future development will include the refinement of the administration and scoring with pairs of children, and then validity testing the assessment. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  17. [Evaluation of disease management programmes--assessing methods and initial outcomes from a health economic perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Dana Sophie; Braun, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Evaluation represents a substantial component of the concept of Disease Management Programmes. This and the fact that the implementation of Disease Management Programmes constitutes a major change in the German healthcare system require that the criteria established by the German Federal Social Insurance Authority (Bundesversicherungsamt) be carefully reviewed. The present paper focuses on the evaluation method and the economic data. The pre-/-post study design used in the evaluation is known to be vulnerable to threats to internal validity. The objective of this paper is to analyze whether these threats to internal validity which have been known theoretically are confirmed by the results of the final reports. A review of the final reports of health insurance companies like the AOK, Barmer and a group of the BKK in Westfalen-Lippe shows that this question can be answered in the affirmative. The pre-/-post design without control groups is unable to recognize the failure or success of the Disease Management concept. The reasons include a high drop-out rate as well as the lack of consideration of the characteristics of chronic disease. Hence the evaluation method has failed to prove the quality of Disease Management Programmes in Germany. This is why consistent further development is needed.

  18. Initial Development and Pilot Study Design of Interactive Lecture Demonstrations for ASTRO 101

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwortz, Andria C.; French, D. A; Gutierrez, Joseph V; Sanchez, Richard L; Slater, Timothy F.; Tatge, Coty

    2014-06-01

    Interactive lecture demonstrations (ILDs) have repeatedly shown to be effective tools for improving student achievement in the context of learning physics. As a first step toward systematic development of interactive lecture demonstrations in ASTRO 101, the introductory astronomy survey course, a systematic review of education research, describing educational computer simulations (ECSs) reveals that initial development requires a targeted study of how ASTRO 101 students respond to ECSs in the non-science majoring undergraduate lecture setting. In this project we have adopted the process by which ILDs were designed, pilot-tested, and successfully implemented in the context of physics teaching (Sokoloff & Thornton, 1997; Sokoloff & Thornton, 2004). We have designed the initial pilot-test set of ASTRO 101 ILD instructional materials relying heavily on ECSs. Both an instructor’s manual and a preliminary classroom-ready student workbook have been developed, and we are implementing a pilot study to explore their effectiveness in communicating scientific content, and the extent to which they might enhance students’ knowledge of and perception about astronomy and science in general. The study design uses a pre-/post-test quasi-experimental study design measuring students’ normalized gain scores, calculated as per Hake (1998) and Prather (2009), using a slightly modified version of S. Slater’s (2011) Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST combined with other instruments. The results of this initial study will guide the iterative development of ASTRO 101 ILDs that are intended to both be effective at enhancing student achievement and easy for instructors to successfully implement.

  19. Development of nondestructive method for prediction of crack instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.L.; Eylon, D.; Shell, E.B.; Matikas, T.E.

    2000-01-01

    A method to characterize the deformation zone at a crack tip and predict upcoming fracture under load using white light interference microscopy was developed and studied. Cracks were initiated in notched Ti-6Al-4V specimens through fatigue loading. Following crack initiation, specimens were subjected to static loading during in-situ observation of the deformation area ahead of the crack. Nondestructive in-situ observations were performed using white light interference microscopy. Profilometer measurements quantified the area, volume, and shape of the deformation ahead of the crack front. Results showed an exponential relationship between the area and volume of deformation and the stress intensity factor of the cracked alloy. These findings also indicate that it is possible to determine a critical rate of change in deformation versus the stress intensity factor that can predict oncoming catastrophic failure. In addition, crack front deformation zones were measured as a function of time under sustained load, and crack tip deformation zone enlargement over time was observed

  20. Characterization of Developer Application Methods Used in Fluorescent Penetrant Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasche, L. J. H.; Lopez, R.; Eisenmann, D.

    2006-03-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is the most widely used inspection method for aviation components seeing use for production as well as an inservice inspection applications. FPI is a multiple step process requiring attention to the process parameters for each step in order to enable a successful inspection. A multiyear program is underway to evaluate the most important factors affecting the performance of FPI, to determine whether existing industry specifications adequately address control of the process parameters, and to provide the needed engineering data to the public domain. The final step prior to the inspection is the application of developer with typical aviation inspections involving the use of dry powder (form d) usually applied using either a pressure wand or dust storm chamber. Results from several typical dust storm chambers and wand applications have shown less than optimal performance. Measurements of indication brightness and recording of the UVA image, and in some cases, formal probability of detection (POD) studies were used to assess the developer application methods. Key conclusions and initial recommendations are provided.

  1. Developing methods for detecting radioactive scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellian, J.G.; Johnston, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    During the last 10 years, there have been major developments in radiation detection systems used for catching shielded radioactive sources in scrap metal. The original testing required to determine the extent of the problem and the preliminary designs of the first instruments will be discussed. Present systems available today will be described listing their advantages and disadvantages. In conclusion, the newest developments and state of the art equipment will also be included describing the limits and most appropriate locations for the systems

  2. Agile Service Development: A Rule-Based Method Engineering Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Martijn Zoet; Stijn Hoppenbrouwers; Inge van de Weerd; Johan Versendaal

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development has evolved into an increasingly mature software development approach and has been applied successfully in many software vendors’ development departments. In this position paper, we address the broader agile service development. Based on method engineering principles we

  3. Development of New Bituminous Pavement Design Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per

    The report and work of COST Action 333 sets in place the foundation for a coherent, cost-effective and harmonised European pavement design method. In order to do this, the work programme focused on information gathering, identification of requirements and the selection of the necessary design...

  4. Development of an indirect spectrophotometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple and rapid indirect spectrophotometric method for determination of ... of the colored product was measured at 405 nm and pH 3 against a reagent blank. ... The limit of detection and quantification were found to be 0.20±0.03 and ...

  5. Development of Quantification Method for Bioluminescence Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyeon Sik; Min, Jung Joon; Lee, Byeong Il; Choi, Eun Seo; Tak, Yoon O; Choi, Heung Kook; Lee, Ju Young

    2009-01-01

    Optical molecular luminescence imaging is widely used for detection and imaging of bio-photons emitted by luminescent luciferase activation. The measured photons in this method provide the degree of molecular alteration or cell numbers with the advantage of high signal-to-noise ratio. To extract useful information from the measured results, the analysis based on a proper quantification method is necessary. In this research, we propose a quantification method presenting linear response of measured light signal to measurement time. We detected the luminescence signal by using lab-made optical imaging equipment of animal light imaging system (ALIS) and different two kinds of light sources. One is three bacterial light-emitting sources containing different number of bacteria. The other is three different non-bacterial light sources emitting very weak light. By using the concept of the candela and the flux, we could derive simplified linear quantification formula. After experimentally measuring light intensity, the data was processed with the proposed quantification function. We could obtain linear response of photon counts to measurement time by applying the pre-determined quantification function. The ratio of the re-calculated photon counts and measurement time present a constant value although different light source was applied. The quantification function for linear response could be applicable to the standard quantification process. The proposed method could be used for the exact quantitative analysis in various light imaging equipment with presenting linear response behavior of constant light emitting sources to measurement time

  6. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukiharu, Ohga; Hiroshi, Seki; Setsuo, Arita [Power and Industrial Systems R and D Div., Hitachi, Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators` demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators` demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs.

  7. Development of alarm handling methods for boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohga Yukiharu; Seki Hiroshi; Arita Setsuo

    1997-01-01

    A method was developed to select important alarms in two steps: first, selection is based on the physical relationship between the alarms, and second, selection is according to the initial event. An approach combining a neural network and knowledge processing was proposed to identify the event rapidly. A prototype system was evaluated in the Kashiwazaki/Kariwa-4 Nuclear Power Plant during the startup test. The evaluation test confirmed that about 30% of the alarms are selected from among the many activated alarms. The second method, dealing with presentation, supports operators in their selection and confirmation of the required information for plant operation. The method selects and offers plant information in response to plant status changes and operators' demands. The selection procedure is based on the knowledge and data as structured by the plant functional structure; i.e. a means-ends abstraction hierarchy model. A prototype system was evaluated using a BWR simulator. The results showed that appropriate information items are automatically selected according to plant status changes and information on generated alarms is presented to operators together with the related trend graph and system diagram. Answers are generated in reply to the operators' demands and operators can confirm the generated alarms on each plant function, such as systems and components. 8 refs, 10 figs, 2 tabs

  8. Learning service and development of emotional competencies in initial teacher training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayka García García

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This work has as main objective to make visible and analyze awareness of the emotional development of students Grade Early Childhood Education at the University of Cádiz, which are involved in Service Leaning experiences done within a pathway chasing curriculum institutionalization of it. For it, we use a qualitative methodology approach, where the personal accounts of students –as tools for gathering information– were analyzed through a previous category system. The results show, illustrated through the voice of the students, develop their emotional skills, which allows us to conclude that the scaffold ApS allows this dimension in the context of initial teacher favoring their intrapersonal and interpersonal development.

  9. Initiative Optimization Operation Strategy and Multi-objective Energy Management Method for Combined Cooling Heating and Power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Zhao; Chenghui Zhang; Bo Sun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposed an initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method for combined cooling heating and power(CCHP) with storage systems.Initially,the initiative optimization operation strategy of CCHP system in the cooling season,the heating season and the transition season was formulated.The energy management of CCHP system was optimized by the multi-objective optimization model with maximum daily energy efficiency,minimum daily carbon emissions and minimum daily operation cost based on the proposed initiative optimization operation strategy.Furthermore,the pareto optimal solution set was solved by using the niche particle swarm multi-objective optimization algorithm.Ultimately,the most satisfactory energy management scheme was obtained by using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution(TOPSIS) method.A case study of CCHP system used in a hospital in the north of China validated the effectiveness of this method.The results showed that the satisfactory energy management scheme of CCHP system was obtained based on this initiative optimization operation strategy and multi-objective energy management method.The CCHP system has achieved better energy efficiency,environmental protection and economic benefits.

  10. A Method for SINS Alignment with Large Initial Misalignment Angles Based on Kalman Filter with Parameters Resetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixiang Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial alignment process of strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS, large initial misalignment angles always bring nonlinear problem, which causes alignment failure when the classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used. In this paper, the problem of large misalignment angles in SINS initial alignment is investigated, and the key reason for alignment failure is given as the state covariance from Kalman filter cannot represent the true one during the steady filtering process. According to the analysis, an alignment method for SINS based on multiresetting the state covariance matrix of Kalman filter is designed to deal with large initial misalignment angles, in which classical linear error model and standard Kalman filter are used, but the state covariance matrix should be multireset before the steady process until large misalignment angles are decreased to small ones. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by simulation and car test, and the results indicate that the proposed method can fulfill initial alignment with large misalignment angles effectively and the alignment accuracy of the proposed method is as precise as that of alignment with small misalignment angles.

  11. Initial closed operation of the CELSS Test Facility Engineering Development Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliss, M.; Blackwell, C.; Zografos, A.; Drews, M.; MacElroy, R.; McKenna, R.; Heyenga, A. G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the NASA Advanced Life Support Flight Program, a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Test Facility Engineering Development Unit has been constructed and is undergoing initial operational testing at NASA Ames Research Center. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU) is a tightly closed, stringently controlled, ground-based testbed which provides a broad range of environmental conditions under which a variety of CELSS higher plant crops can be grown. Although the EDU was developed primarily to provide near-term engineering data and a realistic determination of the subsystem and system requirements necessary for the fabrication of a comparable flight unit, the EDU has also provided a means to evaluate plant crop productivity and physiology under controlled conditions. This paper describes the initial closed operational testing of the EDU, with emphasis on the hardware performance capabilities. Measured performance data during a 28-day closed operation period are compared with the specified functional requirements, and an example of inferring crop growth parameters from the test data is presented. Plans for future science and technology testing are also discussed. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Development and initial evaluation of Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT) for veterans with affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Daniel F

    2014-12-15

    Considerable attention has focused on the growing need for evidence-based psychotherapy for veterans with affective disorders within the Department of Veteran Affairs. Despite, and possibly due to, the large number of evidence-based protocols available, several obstacles remain in their widespread delivery within Veterans Affairs Medical Centers. In part as an effort to address these concerns, newer transdiagnostic approaches to psychotherapy have been developed to provide a single treatment that is capable of addressing several, related disorders. The goal of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a transdiagnostic psychotherapy, Transdiagnostic Behavior Therapy (TBT), in veterans with affective disorders. Study 1 provided initial support for transdiagnostic presentation of evidence-based psychotherapy components in veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=15). These findings were used to inform the development of the TBT protocol. In Study 2, an initial evaluation of TBT was completed in a second sample of veterans with principal diagnoses of affective disorders (n=29). The findings of Study 2 demonstrated significant improvements in symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, posttraumatic stress, and related impairment across participants with various principal diagnoses. Together, the investigation provided preliminary support for effectiveness of TBT in veterans with affective disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. The development of the Teaching Professional Identity in the initial training of secondary teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío SERRANO RODRÍGUEZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a study that aims to know how the students of the Master’s Degree in Secondary Teacher Training begin to build their Teaching Professional Identity, as well as what the main implications of this identification process are, in order to improve their training. Through an open questionnaire, a total of 355 opinions of students from the University of Córdoba have been analysed. The conclusions obtained highlight: a the students show a professional identity that is significantly less developed than in other professional groups; b it is important to develop activities to reflect on the nature of the teaching profession by improving the identification of students with the characteristics of the teaching profession. Some of the implications from this research point to the need to take into consideration the results obtained when designing the process of initial training of future secondary teachers. Particularly, it would be necessary to include the issue of Teaching Professional Identity more specifically in the curriculum of the new model of initial training. This, moreover, should be linked to the pedagogical knowledge of the contents and the acquisition of real teaching skills according to the development of the educational curriculum for each subject. 

  14. Developing and initiating a public engagement process for a nuclear decommissioning and waste management program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badke, C.; Johnson, C.; Brooks, S.; MacCafferty, M.

    2011-01-01

    Public consultation is key to any major nuclear initiative, but how do you engage the public in a complex multi-site nuclear decommissioning and environmental restoration program that will last 70 years? A clear message of sound environmental stewardship throughout the process is critical to building the trust required to attract public interest and support. The Nuclear Legacy Liabilities Program (NLLP) manages Canada's nuclear legacy liabilities at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) sites and is funded by the Government of Canada through Natural Resources Canada (NRCan). The objective of the NLLP is to safely and cost-effectively reduce the federal legacy liabilities and associated risks, based on sound waste management and environmental principles, in the best interest of Canadians. An important area of focus for the NLLP in both the short- and long-term is to inform the public, stakeholders and Aboriginal people about the Program, and to gather input on the long-term strategy for site restoration and waste management. This paper describes progress made to date on developing and initiating a public engagement process for the NLLP in the initial phase of the Program. Furthermore, it examines general best practices for public participation, specific challenges and opportunities which have been identified, as well as the next steps for communications activities related to the Program. (author)

  15. Current status of fluoride volatility method development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlir, J.; Marecek, M.; Skarohlid, J. [UJV - Nuclear Research Institute, Research Centre Rez, CZ-250 68 Husinec - Rez 130 (Czech Republic)

    2013-07-01

    The Fluoride Volatility Method is based on a separation process, which comes out from the specific property of uranium, neptunium and plutonium to form volatile hexafluorides whereas most of fission products (mainly lanthanides) and higher transplutonium elements (americium, curium) present in irradiated fuel form nonvolatile tri-fluorides. Fluoride Volatility Method itself is based on direct fluorination of the spent fuel, but before the fluorination step, the removal of cladding material and subsequent transformation of the fuel into a powdered form with a suitable grain size have to be done. The fluorination is made with fluorine gas in a flame fluorination reactor, where the volatile fluorides (mostly UF{sub 6}) are separated from the non-volatile ones (trivalent minor actinides and majority of fission products). The subsequent operations necessary for partitioning of volatile fluorides are the condensation and evaporation of volatile fluorides, the thermal decomposition of PuF{sub 6} and the finally distillation and sorption used for the purification of uranium product. The Fluoride Volatility Method is considered to be a promising advanced pyrochemical reprocessing technology, which can mainly be used for the reprocessing of oxide spent fuels coming from future GEN IV fast reactors.

  16. Developing methods of controlling quality costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunova A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines issues of managing quality costs, problems of applying economic methods of quality control, implementation of progressive methods of quality costs management in enterprises with the view of improving the efficiency of their evaluation and analysis. With the aim of increasing the effectiveness of the cost management mechanism, authors introduce controlling as a tool of deviation analysis from the standpoint of the process approach. A list of processes and corresponding evaluation criteria in the quality management system of enterprises is introduced. Authors also introduce the method of controlling quality costs and propose it for the practical application, which allows them to determine useful and unnecessary costs at the existing operating plant. Implementing the proposed recommendations in the system of cost management at an enterprise will allow to improve productivity of processes operating and reduce wasted expense on the quality of the process on the basis of determining values of useful and useless costs of quality according to criteria of processes functioning in the system of quality management.

  17. Advances in Small Particle Handling of Astromaterials in Preparation for OSIRIS-REx and Hayabusa2: Initial Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, C. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.

    2018-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation office at NASA Johnson Space Center has established an Advanced Curation program that is tasked with developing procedures, technologies, and data sets necessary for the curation of future astromaterials collections as envisioned by NASA exploration goals. One particular objective of the Advanced Curation program is the development of new methods for the collection, storage, handling and characterization of small (less than 100 micrometer) particles. Astromaterials Curation currently maintains four small particle collections: Cosmic Dust that has been collected in Earth's stratosphere by ER2 and WB-57 aircraft, Comet 81P/Wild 2 dust returned by NASA's Stardust spacecraft, interstellar dust that was returned by Stardust, and asteroid Itokawa particles that were returned by the JAXA's Hayabusa spacecraft. NASA Curation is currently preparing for the anticipated return of two new astromaterials collections - asteroid Ryugu regolith to be collected by Hayabusa2 spacecraft in 2021 (samples will be provided by JAXA as part of an international agreement), and asteroid Bennu regolith to be collected by the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft and returned in 2023. A substantial portion of these returned samples are expected to consist of small particle components, and mission requirements necessitate the development of new processing tools and methods in order to maximize the scientific yield from these valuable acquisitions. Here we describe initial progress towards the development of applicable sample handling methods for the successful curation of future small particle collections.

  18. Child Development in Developing Countries: Introduction and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Britto, Pia Rebello; Nonoyama-Tarumi, Yuko; Ota, Yumiko; Petrovic, Oliver; Putnick, Diane L.

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative, internationally comparable household survey implemented to examine protective and risk factors of child development in developing countries around the world. This introduction describes the conceptual framework, nature of the MICS3, and general analytic plan of articles…

  19. Development of standard testing methods for nuclear-waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Nelson, R.D.

    1981-11-01

    Standard test methods for waste package component development and design, safety analyses, and licensing are being developed for the Nuclear Waste Materials Handbook. This paper describes mainly the testing methods for obtaining waste form materials data

  20. Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of a high performance liquid chromatography method for simultaneous ... Purpose: To develop and validate a new low-cost high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for ..... Several papers have reported the use of ...

  1. Parental Guidance and Children’s Development of Collaborative Initiative: Cultural Contexts of Children’s Prosocial Development

    OpenAIRE

    Coppens, Andrew Dee

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined how mothers of 2- to 3-year-olds and 6- to 7-year-olds from a US Mexican-heritage community and a middle-class European American community support children’s prosocial helping and development of collaborative initiative in work at home. Together, the studies aim to explain a ‘developmental puzzle’ suggested by taking into account separate literatures on young children’s household work contributions: Toddlers in many communities seem to be interested in helping and taking ...

  2. Variable order one-step methods for initial value problems I ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A class of variable order one-step integrators is proposed for Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). It is based on a rational interpolant. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics Vol. 10 2006: pp. 91-96 ...

  3. Robust method for determining steady state initial values for MSS plant models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringham, M.R.; Carlson, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP 2504-3 amend i) demonstrated that the methodology embodied in the existing System Performance and Analysis Code (SPANC) can be employed to provide initial values for MSS plant models. An EASY5 version of the TMI plant two loop approximation with primary coolant flow recirculation through a failed pump was selected for demonstration purposes. The project entailed replacing the 1967 ASME steam properties in SPANC with the simplified MSS functions. The MSS component models were then recast into equivalent steady state models compatible with the SPANC executive system. A special input routine was written to modify the MSS data to the SPANC data format. The accuracy of the obtained initial values was approximately four significant figures, sufficient to converge on the EASY5 steady state algorithms. Convergence is relatively insensitive to the initial guess in SPANC and are obtained at a computer cost of approximately two minutes on the UNIVAC 1100/60. Since plant configuration is established by data input in SPANC, it can easily be altered to provide initial values for an MMS simulation of all TMI type plants

  4. Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Brazo-Sayavera

    Full Text Available This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low factor loading, the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had robust statistical support for its factor structure (χ2 (df = 305 = 499.64, p<0.01, CFI = 0.90, RMSEA = 0.045, SRMR = 0.055. It also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity. While the internal reliability was lower than in previous studies, it revealed acceptable levels. Specifically the overall 27 item Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 had a Cronbach α score of .877, and the reliability scores for individual factors 1-5 were .622; .761; .658; .605; .602 respectively. As such, it is recommended that the Spanish Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 can be used with confidence in Spain in both applied and research settings.

  5. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  6. Feedback of reactor operating data to nuclear methods development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, R.L.; Kang, C.M.; Parkos, G.R.; Wolters, R.A.

    1978-01-01

    The problems in obtaining power reactor data for reliable nuclear methods development and the major sources of power reactor data for this purpose are reviewed. Specific examples of the use of power reactor data in nuclear methods development are discussed. The paper concludes with recommendations on the key elements of an effective program to use power reactor data in nuclear methods development

  7. Challenges and Changes: Developing Teachers' and Initial Teacher Education Students' Understandings of the Nature of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Gillian; Haigh, Mavis

    2017-12-01

    Teachers need an understanding of the nature of science (NOS) to enable them to incorporate NOS into their teaching of science. The current study examines the usefulness of a strategy for challenging or changing teachers' understandings of NOS. The teachers who participated in this study were 10 initial teacher education chemistry students and six experienced teachers from secondary and primary schools who were introduced to an explicit and reflective activity, a dramatic reading about a historical scientific development. Concept maps were used before and after the activity to assess teachers' knowledge of NOS. The participants also took part in a focus group interview to establish whether they perceived the activity as useful in developing their own understanding of NOS. Initial analysis led us to ask another group, comprising seven initial teacher education chemistry students, to take part in a modified study. These participants not only completed the same tasks as the previous participants but also completed a written reflection commenting on whether the activity and focus group discussion enhanced their understanding of NOS. Both Lederman et al.'s (Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(6), 497-521, 2002) concepts of NOS and notions of "naive" and "informed" understandings of NOS and Hay's (Studies in Higher Education, 32(1), 39-57, 2007) notions of "surface" and "deep" learning were used as frameworks to examine the participants' specific understandings of NOS and the depth of their learning. The ways in which participants' understandings of NOS were broadened or changed by taking part in the dramatic reading are presented. The impact of the data-gathering tools on the participants' professional learning is also discussed.

  8. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative: Unconventional Fuel Development Issues, Impacts, and Management Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Hagood, M.; Pasqualini, D.; Wood, T.; Wilson, C.; Witkowski, M.; Levitt, D.; Pawar, R.; Keating, G.; Ziock, H.

    2008-12-01

    The United States is increasingly dependent on imported oil and gas; commodities for which other nations are competing and for which future supply may be inadequate to support our transportation fuel needs. Therefore, a renewed interest in 'harder-to-get' unconventional fuels has emerged in both industry and government with directed focus on world class hydrocarbon resources within a corridor extending from Canada southward through the Rocky Mountain States. Within this Western Energy Corridor, co-located with significant conventional hydrocarbon and renewable energy resources, lie some of the world's richest unconventional hydrocarbon resources in oil shales, oil sands and coal for coal-to-liquid conversion. However, development of these resources poses substantial environmental concerns as well as increasing competition for limited resources of water and habitat. With large-scale energy development in the predominantly rural region, local communities, infrastructures, and economies will face increasing demands for roads, electricity, law enforcement, labor, and other support services. The Western Energy Corridor Initiative (WECI) seeks to develop an integrated assessment of the impacts of unconventional fuel development, the interrelationships of planned energy developments in different basins, and the resultant demands placed on the region. This initial WECI study focuses on two of the most important current issues for industry, regulators, and stakeholders -- the assessment of carbon and water resources issues, impacts, and management strategies. Through scenario analyses using coupled systems and process level models, this study investigates the viability of integrated development of multiple energy resources in a carbon neutral and environmentally acceptable manner, and the interrelationships of various energy resource development plans. The modeling framework is designed to extend to include infrastructure, employment, training, fiscal and economic demands

  9. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can....../design activities of development projects. In contrast, the CESD approach is characterized by its focus on: active user involvement throughout the entire development process; prototyping experiments closely coupled to work-situations and use-scenarios; transforming results from early cooperative analysis...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis...

  10. NATIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL INITIATIVE AS THE STRATEGIC DIRECTION OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Sibirskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Russia, having lost a significant part of a high-tech industrial complex during the reforms (1993–2000, sharply reducing the state support of scientific research and development, has turned into a power dependent on the conjuncture in the hydrocarbon energy market and from foreign sup-plies of technologies, consumption goods, including those necessary for life support, thus being on the "technological needle". The main factor of development was the resource-producing complex. This situation had a negative impact on the pace of the country's development, on its defense capability and created real prerequisites for the loss of technological, economic, and, in the long run, political sovereignty and disintegration of the state. Nevertheless, the availability of natural resources along with human capi-tal and geographic location is a global competitive advantage of theRussian Federation, and the task is to use this advantage maximally as one of the first echelon countries in the emerging world order. One of the most important tasks was the search for such a direction of technological devel-opment that allows, on the one hand, to preserve Russia's position in the world market of traditional products; on the other – to strengthen positions in the markets of products with a higher degree of processing of Russian raw materials (oil and gas complex and agro-industrial complex; and finally – to master new "growth points" (services, new markets, talents, technologies in the world market of high-tech products and services. The set tasks assume several solutions. First, scientific and technological development should be based on the strategy of scientific and technological development of theRussian Federationand the national technological initiative, as it sets both resource constraints and priorities in the needs of the economy in new products and new technological solutions. Secondly,Russiashould take into account existing and emerging trends in the

  11. Status and development of uranium prospection methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthel, F.

    1978-01-01

    In radiometric prospection, gamma measuring equipment is widely used. Simple instruments, so-called scintillometers, can only measure total radiation while spectrometers permit separate measurements of uranium, thorium, or calcium via daughter products of their decay chains. Depending on the target investigated, airborne, carborne, or footborne methods are employed. In radon prospection the gaseous decay product radon is measured as a sign of hidden uranium enrichment in ground air or water from springs. Due to its high solubility, uranium is well suited for geochemical prospection where uranium concentrations in bodies of water, river sediments, soil and rock types are determined. There is a trend in uranium prospection towards the discovery of hidden orifications. Novel techniques, e.g. airborne geochemistry, isotope chemistry, tracer element measurement, etc. are being tested with a view to their suitability for uranium prospection. (orig./HP) 891 HP/orig.- 892 MKO [de

  12. Description and evaluation of an initiative to develop advanced practice nurses in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Peng, Gangyi; Kan, Eva C; Li, Yajie; Lau, Ada T; Zhang, Liying; Leung, Annie F; Liu, Xueqin; Leung, Vilna O; Chen, Weiju; Li, Ming

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes an initiative to develop Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs) in mainland China and evaluation of the outcomes of the described programme. The pioneer project was an APN postgraduate programme involving 38 students conducted in Guangzhou, China during 2004-2005. Data related to curriculum content and process, student performance, self-reported competence and programme effects were collected. Quantitative data such as demographic data, student performance were analysed using descriptive statistics and the pre and post self-reported practice of competence was compared using chi-square test. Qualitative data such as case reports and interviews were examined using thematic analyses. Reflective journals and case studies revealed the attributes of APNs in managing clinical cases at advanced level, applying theory into practice and exercising evidence-based practice. The relatively modest self-reported practice of competence suggested that the graduates were novice APNs and needed continued development after the completion of the programme. This study reports the experience of an initiative in China and suggests a useful curriculum framework for educating APNs. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Teachers’ dialogue in a learner centered professional development initiative In a us urban high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Alvarez Gutiérrez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using paradigms emerging from Learner Centered Professional Development (LCPD, dialogic education and Transformative Pedagogical Practices (TPPs, this research study examined pedagogies that ignited a revitalization of shared values as a community of learners, challenged assumptions about learning while invigorating professional identities and cultivating possibilities for transforming praxis of a group of female teachers and female administrators in an urban high school. The LCPD initiative engaged teachers (13 and administrators (3 in dialogue, self-examination, and reflection, while also chipping away dearth perceptions of Latina/o student as learners and nourish possibilities for their successes. The data for this study is part of a larger corpus of data exploring teacher professional development initiatives in a large urban city in the southwestern region of Texas. Narrative analysis was the methodological tool used to code and analyze the data. The authors highlight the pedagogies that served to renew teachers and administrators’ sense of community, professional identities and modifications of teachers’ attitudes and pedagogies regarding themselves and Latina/o students. Our research findings underscore the urgency of educational reform to include on-going LCPD in order to transform and encourage professional enrichment, teacher agency and revive pedagogies that support all students’ academic and social successes.

  14. LOCAL INITIATIVES FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN RURAL HOKKAIDO: A CASE STUDY OF SAMANI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devon Dublin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a field investigation about sustainable development of Samani town—a rural area in Hidaka region, Hokkaido, Japan. Local activities, business, environmental, social and economic challenges that affect the town as well as the advantages were investigated. The research was done by means of field visits, questionnaires and interviews involving the local people and government. The main economic sectors: olivine industry, fishery, agriculture and tourism were targeted as well as the government sector and the local high school with a particular focus on rural-urban migration. Samani has quite unique natural features on hand but a few strong comprehensive challenges on the other hand. The authors focused on the citizens opinions and positions which were based on the uniqueness of Samani and their own local activities and initiatives for the sustainable development of the town in the future which can be replicated in other rural communities around the world.

  15. Diaspora-led development through the corporate social responsibility initiatives of talented migrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, Juan Enrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the idea that talented migrants can assist in the development andgrowth of their economies of origin through brain-circulation dynamics, linking the developedworld where they live and developing homelands they (or their ancestors in the case of latergenerationdiasporans left behind. Depending on the roles these talented people play in theorganizational (and institutional environment at both ends of the migratory trail, differentalternatives of diaspora-led initiatives are available to them. When these roles are attached tothe private sector, the introduction of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR initiativespiggybacking preexisting diaspora tools (such as talent networks, open migration chains,diaspora-oriented institutions, etc. might be the more appropriate and efficient channels.

  16. Health behavior in persons with spinal cord injury: development and initial validation of an outcome measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, S D; Wahlgren, D R; Epping-Jordan, J E; Rossi, A L

    1998-10-01

    To describe the development and initial psychometric properties of a new outcome measure for health behaviors that delay or prevent secondary impairments associated with spinal cord injury (SCI). Persons with SCI were surveyed during routine annual physical evaluations. Veterans Affairs Medical Center Spinal Cord Injury Unit, which specializes in primary care for persons with SCI. Forty-nine persons with SCI, aged 19-73 years, 1-50 years post-SCI. The newly developed Spinal Cord Injury Lifestyle Scale (SCILS). Internal consistency is high (alpha = 0.81). Correlations between clinicians' ratings of participants' health behavior and the new SCILS provide preliminary support for construct validity. The SCILS is a brief, self-report measure of health-related behavior in persons with SCI. It is a promising new outcome measure to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical and educational efforts for health maintenance and prevention of secondary impairments associated with SCI.

  17. Initial operating experience and recent development on the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmor, P.W.; Law, W.M.; Levy, C.D.P.; McDonald, M.

    1988-01-01

    A polarized H - ion source using optical pumping techniques has been developed at TRIUMF. This source was used to demonstrate (on an ion source test stand) the feasibility of producing 10- μA of ∼ 60% polarized H - ion beam in a dc mode suitable for injection into the TRIUMF cyclotron. The source has been installed in a 300 kV high voltage terminal connected to the cyclotron via a recently constructed beam transport line. A polarization of 80% is anticipated near the end of 1988 after the installation of a superconducting solenoid to the source. In this paper the authors describe the initial operating experience, recent developments, and the future plans for the TRIUMF optically pumped polarized ion source

  18. Development and initial validation of an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubayi, Alliance; Toriola, Abel; Didymus, Faye

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this series of studies was to develop and initially validate an instrument to assess stressors among South African sports coaches. In study one, a preliminary pool of 45 items was developed based on existing literature and an expert panel was employed to assess the content validity and applicability of these items. In study two, the 32 items that were retained after study one were analysed using principal component analysis (PCA). The resultant factorial structure comprised four components: environmental stressors, performance stressors, task-related stressors, and athlete stressors. These four components were made up of 26 items and, together, the components and items comprised the provisional Stressors in Sports Coaching Questionnaire (SSCQ). The results show that the SSCQ demonstrates acceptable internal consistency (.73-.89). The findings provide preliminary evidence that SSCQ is a valid tool to assess stressors among South African sports coaches.

  19. Initial Development and Validation of the BullyHARM: The Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and preliminary validation of the Bullying, Harassment, and Aggression Receipt Measure (BullyHARM). The development of the BullyHARM involved a number of steps and methods, including a literature review, expert review, cognitive testing, readability testing, data collection from a large sample, reliability testing, and confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of 275 middle school students was used to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure...

  20. A Legendre Wavelet Spectral Collocation Method for Solving Oscillatory Initial Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karimi Dizicheh

    2013-01-01

    wavelet suitable for large intervals, and then the Legendre-Guass collocation points of the Legendre wavelet are derived. Using this strategy, the iterative spectral method converts the differential equation to a set of algebraic equations. Solving these algebraic equations yields an approximate solution for the differential equation. The proposed method is illustrated by some numerical examples, and the result is compared with the exponentially fitted Runge-Kutta method. Our proposed method is simple and highly accurate.

  1. Comparison differential transformation technique with Adomian decomposition method for linear and nonlinear initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Halim Hassan, I.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will compare the differential transformation method DTM and Adomian decomposition method ADM to solve partial differential equations (PDEs). The definition and operations of differential transform method was introduced by Zhou [Zhou JK. Differential transformation and its application for electrical circuits. Wuuhahn, China: Huarjung University Press; 1986 [in Chinese

  2. Development and participant assessment of a practical quality improvement educational initiative for surgical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Morgan M; Hanson, Kristi; Schuller, Mary; Sherman, Karen; Kelz, Rachel R; Fryer, Jonathan; DaRosa, Debra; Bilimoria, Karl Y

    2013-06-01

    As patient-safety and quality efforts spread throughout health care, the need for physician involvement is critical, yet structured training programs during surgical residency are still uncommon. Our objective was to develop an extended quality-improvement curriculum for surgical residents that included formal didactics and structured practical experience. Surgical trainees completed an 8-hour didactic program in quality-improvement methodology at the start of PGY3. Small teams developed practical quality-improvement projects based on needs identified during clinical experience. With the assistance of the hospital's process-improvement team and surgical faculty, residents worked through their selected projects during the following year. Residents were anonymously surveyed after their participation to assess the experience. During the first 3 years of the program, 17 residents participated, with 100% survey completion. Seven quality-improvement projects were developed, with 57% completing all DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) phases. Initial projects involved issues of clinical efficiency and later projects increasingly focused on clinical care questions. Residents found the experience educationally important (65%) and believed they were well equipped to lead similar initiatives in the future (70%). Based on feedback, the timeline was expanded from 12 to 24 months and changed to start in PGY2. Developing an extended curriculum using both didactic sessions and applied projects to teach residents the theory and implementation of quality improvement is possible and effective. It addresses the ACGME competencies of practice-based improvement and learning and systems-based practice. Our iterative experience during the past 3 years can serve as a guide for other programs. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reassembling the Information Technology Innovation Process: An Actor Network Theory Method for Managing the Initiation, Production, and Diffusion of Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendejas, Gerardo; Chiasson, Mike

    This paper will propose and explore a method to enhance focal actors' abilities to enroll and control the many social and technical components interacting during the initiation, production, and diffusion of innovations. The reassembling and stabilizing of such components is the challenging goal of the focal actors involved in these processes. To address this possibility, a healthcare project involving the initiation, production, and diffusion of an IT-based innovation will be influenced by the researcher, using concepts from actor network theory (ANT), within an action research methodology (ARM). The experiences using this method, and the nature of enrolment and translation during its use, will highlight if and how ANT can provide a problem-solving method to help assemble the social and technical actants involved in the diffusion of an innovation. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges and benefits of implementing such methods to attain widespread diffusion.

  4. Hungarian Economic Development Prospects – in the Light of the One Belt and One Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Novák

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to delineate the most important aspects of the historical Hungarian economic development path, while shedding light on long-term Chinese investment and trade opportunities in Hungary. In order to make the One Belt and One Road Initiative a success, China needs proper knowledge of the Central European countries’ long-term development needs and goals. This analysis delivers a first assessment of the basic long-term questions of Hungarian economic development. The paper reviews milestones of economic progress after 1990 until the present, and shortly looks into the effects of the economic transformation of the 90s, and the main repercussions of the Global Financial Crisis (2008-2009. At the end of the paper a short glimpse is given on how the Hungarian economy could develop, and what are the possible development models to be utilized by Hungarian decision-makers. At the same time, it will be clear where Hungarian and Chinese need can intersect each other.

  5. An energy-saving development initiative increases birth rate and childhood malnutrition in rural Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mhairi A Gibson

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary life history theory predicts that, in the absence of contraception, any enhancement of maternal condition can increase human fertility. Energetic trade-offs are likely to be resolved in favour of maximizing reproductive success rather than health or longevity. Here we find support for the hypothesis that development initiatives designed to improve maternal and child welfare may also incur costs associated with increased family sizes if they do not include a family planning component.Demographic and anthropometric data were collected in a rural Ethiopian community benefiting from a recent labour-saving development technology that reduces women's energetic expenditure (n = 1,976 households. Using logistic hazards models and general linear modelling techniques, we found that whilst infant mortality has declined, the birth rate has increased, causing greater scarcity of resources within households.This study is, to our knowledge, the first to demonstrate a link between a technological development intervention and an increase in both birth rate and childhood malnutrition. Women's nutritional status was not improved by the energy-saving technology, because energy was diverted into higher birth rates. We argue that the contribution of biological processes to increased birth rates in areas of the developing world without access to modern contraception has been overlooked. This highlights the continued need for development programmes to be multisectoral, including access to and promotion of contraception.

  6. Development methods for VLSI-processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horninger, K.; Sandweg, G.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this project, which was originally planed for 3 years, was the development of modern system and circuit concepts, for VLSI-processors having a 32 bit wide data path. The result of this first years work is the concept of a general purpose processor. This processor is not only logically but also physically (on the chip) divided into four functional units: a microprogrammable instruction unit, an execution unit in slice technique, a fully associative cache memory and an I/O unit. For the ALU of the execution unit circuits in PLA and slice techniques have been realized. On the basis of regularity, area consumption and achievable performance the slice technique has been prefered. The designs utilize selftesting circuitry. (orig.) [de

  7. Methods and Protocols for Developing Prion Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniuk, Kristen; Taschuk, Ryan; Napper, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Prion diseases denote a distinct form of infectivity that is based in the misfolding of a self-protein (PrP(C)) into a pathological, infectious conformation (PrP(Sc)). Efforts to develop vaccines for prion diseases have been complicated by the potential dangers that are associated with induction of immune responses against a self-protein. As a consequence, there is considerable appeal for vaccines that specifically target the misfolded prion conformation. Such conformation-specific immunotherapy is made possible through the identification of vaccine targets (epitopes) that are exclusively presented as a consequence of misfolding. An immune response directed against these targets, termed disease-specific epitopes (DSEs), has the potential to spare the function of the native form of the protein while clearing, or neutralizing, the infectious isomer. Although identification of DSEs represents a critical first step in the induction of conformation-specific immune responses, substantial efforts are required to translate these targets into functional vaccines. Due to the poor immunogenicity that is inherent to self-proteins, and that is often associated with short peptides, substantial efforts are required to overcome tolerance-to-self and maximize the resultant immune response following DSE-based immunization. This often includes optimization of target sequences in terms of immunogenicity and development of effective formulation and delivery strategies for the associated peptides. Further, these vaccines must satisfy additional criteria from perspectives of specificity (PrP(C) vs. PrP(Sc)) and safety (antibody-induced template-driven misfolding of PrP(C)). The emphasis of this report is on the steps required to translate DSEs into prion vaccines and subsequent evaluation of the resulting immune responses.

  8. Developing and implementing a data acquisition strategy for global agricultural monitoring: an inter-agency initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, C. O.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Killough, B.

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, in response to global food crises, the G20 Agricultural Ministers launched a satellite-based global agricultural monitoring initiative to develop the Group on Earth Observations Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEOGLAM) system. The GEO is aimed at enhancing the availability and use of both satellite and in situ data for societal benefit. This initiative builds on the observation requirements developed by the GEO Agricultural Community of Practice, the understanding that no one satellite system can currently provide all the data needed for agricultural monitoring and the resulting recommendation for improved acquisition and availability of data by the World's space agencies. Implicit in this recommendation is the fact that certain regions of the Earth are imagery rich while others are imagery poor, leaving knowledge gaps about agricultural processes and food supply for certain areas of the World. In order to respond to these knowledge gaps and to strengthen national, regional, and global agricultural monitoring networks, GEOGLAM is working with the Committee on Earth Observations (CEOS), the space arm of GEO, to develop a coordinated global acquisition strategy. A key component of GEOGLAM is an effort to articulate the temporal and spatial Earth Observation (EO) requirements for monitoring; second, the identification of current and planned missions which are capable of fulfilling these EO requirements; and third, the development of a multi-agency, multi-mission image acquisition strategy for agricultural monitoring. CEOS engineers and GEOGLAM scientists have been collaborating on the EO requirements since 2012, and are now beginning the first implementation phase of the acquisition strategy. The goal is to put in place an operational system of systems using a virtual constellation of satellite-based sensors acquiring data to meet the needs for monitoring and early warning of shortfalls in agricultural production, a goal that was articulated in the 1970's

  9. Assessing College Student-Athletes' Life Stress: Initial Measurement Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Chan, Yuan-Shuo; Cheen, Jang-Rong; Kao, Kuei-Tsu

    2012-01-01

    College student-athletes have unique life stress that warrants close attention. The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement assessing college student-athletes' life stress. In Study 1, a focus group discussion and Delphi method produced a questionnaire draft, termed the College Student-Athletes' Life Stress Scale. In…

  10. Providing Authentic Leadership Opportunities through Collaboratively Developed Internships: A University-School District Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havard, Timothy S.; Morgan, Joyce; Patrick, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    Programs designed to develop future educational leaders must include practical learning experiences that connect the theoretical content of university coursework with the realities of the K-12 workplace. Internships, which offer a common method of providing these experiences, have been generally lacking in the degree to which aspiring leaders…

  11. Developing methods for establishing improved plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Lapides, M.E.; Johnson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The current average capacity factor for nuclear electric generating facilities is approximately 60 percent, virtually the same as that for large, modern fossil-fired units. There is a clear cost advantage for nuclear electrical generation in comparison to coal-fired units at a common performance level. Because of the accelerated increase in capital and fuel costs of coal-fired units, the nuclear units will usually exhibit a cost advantage even when operating at lower capacity factor values. The incentives for improvement follow from the utility objectives to provide electricity at the most economical rates possible and are reflected in reduced system fuel costs and capital requirements. These objectives require maximizing the productivity of existing or planned investments in nuclear generation. The requirements are to: (1) achieve and sustain the highest capacity factor consistent with each utility's electric transmission system configuration and demand; (2) accelerate the rate of attainment of operational ''maturity'' of new generation; and (3) avoid low-probability but large-consequence forced-outage events. Nuclear unit productivity improvement involves utilities, regulatory agencies and industrial and government research and development organizations; the efforts appropriate to each organization were identified in a previous study. Since no foreseeable set of warranties begins to cover the consequential costs of low performance, the greatest incentive for improvement rests with each individual utility. The paper addresses the methodology and information sources for productivity actions by utilities during unit procurement and design phases

  12. Initiatives and strategies for development of nanotechnology in nations: a lesson for Africa and other least developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezema, Ikechukwu C.; Ogbobe, Peter O.; Omah, Augustine D.

    2014-03-01

    It is a known fact that the progress and development of different nations of the world is strongly connected with the type of materials under their use. This paper highlighted the development of nanotechnology in some selected countries of the world through a careful review of their road maps by way of public and private initiatives, funding/investment profile, human resources development, industrial potentials, and focus in order to draw inferences. The peculiar challenges and opportunities for some African nations and other least developed countries (LDC) were drawn for their economic and technological developments. This investigation was simply based on open access literatures. The review showed that although nanotechnology is new globally, most countries of the world have had growing public and private investments aimed at bringing about new materials and systems that can impact positively on their economy and ensure their global competitiveness and sustainability. The global scenario suggests the crucial role of cooperation in a multidisciplinary collaboration/partnership between government ministries, agencies, institutions, and private sector/donor agencies in order to pool enough resource capital required for activities in nanotechnology.

  13. Initiatives and strategies for development of nanotechnology in nations: a lesson for Africa and other least developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    It is a known fact that the progress and development of different nations of the world is strongly connected with the type of materials under their use. This paper highlighted the development of nanotechnology in some selected countries of the world through a careful review of their road maps by way of public and private initiatives, funding/investment profile, human resources development, industrial potentials, and focus in order to draw inferences. The peculiar challenges and opportunities for some African nations and other least developed countries (LDC) were drawn for their economic and technological developments. This investigation was simply based on open access literatures. The review showed that although nanotechnology is new globally, most countries of the world have had growing public and private investments aimed at bringing about new materials and systems that can impact positively on their economy and ensure their global competitiveness and sustainability. The global scenario suggests the crucial role of cooperation in a multidisciplinary collaboration/partnership between government ministries, agencies, institutions, and private sector/donor agencies in order to pool enough resource capital required for activities in nanotechnology. PMID:24650295

  14. Epsilon topological accelerating algorithms for difference method for initial-value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristea, V.; Posirca, M.

    1992-01-01

    Linear and nonlinear parabolic equations can be solved by discretization methods which lead to linear and nonlinear algebraic systems. The iterative methods (e.g. Gauss - Seidel) show a very slow convergence and instability in the case of nonlinear equations. This paper proposes an ε topological algorithm for accelerating slow iterative methods used in the thermohydraulic code COBRA and the dynamic code ADEP. The results show an executing time approximately ten times lower than original algorithms. (Author)

  15. Climate Change Professional Development: Design, Implementation, and Initial Outcomes on Teacher Learning, Practice, and Student Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Nicole A.; Mouza, Chrystalla; Drewes, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we present the design, implementation, and initial outcomes of the Climate Academy, a hybrid professional development program delivered through a combination of face-to-face and online interactions, intended to prepare formal and informal science teachers (grades 5-16) in teaching about climate change. The Climate Academy was designed around core elements of successful environmental professional development programs and aligned with practices advocated in benchmarked science standards. Data were collected from multiple sources including observations of professional development events, participants' reflections on their learning, and collection of instructional units designed during the Academy. Data were also collected from a focal case study teacher in a middle school setting. Case study data included classroom observations, teacher interviews, and student beliefs toward climate change. Results indicated that the Climate Academy fostered increased learning among participants of both climate science content and pedagogical strategies for teaching about climate change. Additionally, results indicated that participants applied their new learning in the design of climate change instructional units. Finally, results from the case study indicated positive impacts on student beliefs and greater awareness about climate change. Results have implications for the design of professional development programs on climate change, a topic included for the first time in national standards.

  16. California's tobacco tax initiative: the development and passage of Proposition 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, M P; Glantz, S A

    1996-01-01

    In this case study, we describe and analyze the development and passage of California's tobacco tax initiative, Proposition 99, the Tobacco Tax and Health Promotion Act of 1988. We gathered information from published reports, public documents, personal correspondence, internal memorandums, polling data, and interviews with representatives from organizations that participated in the Proposition 99 campaign. Proposition 99 passed as a result of the efforts of a coalition of voluntary health agencies, medical organizations, and environmental groups. They organized a long-term effort by conducting essential polling, planning strategies, gaining media exposure, developing a coalition, and running a successful campaign to enact the tax by shifting the venue from legislative to initiative politics. To build the coalition that was needed to pass Proposition 99, public health proponents enlisted the help of medical organizations in exchange for additional revenue to be allocated to medical services. By shifting the venue from the legislature to the general public, advocates capitalized on public concern about tobacco and for youth and took advantage of the tobacco industry's low credibility. The passage of Proposition 99, despite a massive campaign against it by the tobacco industry, represents a milestone in the tobacco control and public health fields. From its passage in 1988 through 1993, tobacco use in California declined by 27 percent, which is three times faster than the United States average. As a result, Proposition 99 has served as a national model for other states and the federal government. Although allocation of tobacco tax revenues specifically to health education and prevention was a primary goal during the development and passage of Proposition 99, when the venue shifted back to the legislature for implementation, medical organizations successfully advocated illegal diversions of Proposition 99 tobacco control and research funds to medical services

  17. Patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe: A mixed methods approach by the LINNEAUS collaboration on patient safety in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Esmail, Aneez; Dovey, Susan; Wensing, Michel; Parker, Dianne; Kowalczyk, Anna; Błaszczyk, Honorata; Kosiek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Despite patient safety being recognized as an important healthcare issue in the European Union, there has been variable implementation of patient safety initiatives in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE). Objective: To assess the status of patient safety initiatives in countries in CEE; to describe a process of engagement in Poland, which can serve as a template for the implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care. Methods: A mixed methods design was used. We conducted a review of literature focusing on publications from CEE, an inventory of patient safety initiatives in CEE countries, interviews with key informants, international survey, review of national reporting systems, and pilot demonstrator project in Poland with implementation of patient safety toolkits assessment. Results: There was no published patient safety research from Albania, Belarus, Greece, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, or Russia. Nine papers were found from Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia, and Slovenia. In most of the CEE countries, patient safety had been addressed at the policy level although the focus was mainly in hospital care. There was a dearth of activity in primary care. The use of patient improvement strategies was low. Conclusion: International cooperation as exemplified in the demonstrator project can help in the development and implementation of patient safety initiatives in primary care in changing the emphasis away from a blame culture to one where greater emphasis is placed on improvement and learning. PMID:26339839

  18. Milestones in the Development of Iterative Solution Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owe Axelsson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iterative solution methods to solve linear systems of equations were originally formulated as basic iteration methods of defect-correction type, commonly referred to as Richardson's iteration method. These methods developed further into various versions of splitting methods, including the successive overrelaxation (SOR method. Later, immensely important developments included convergence acceleration methods, such as the Chebyshev and conjugate gradient iteration methods and preconditioning methods of various forms. A major strive has been to find methods with a total computational complexity of optimal order, that is, proportional to the degrees of freedom involved in the equation. Methods that have turned out to have been particularly important for the further developments of linear equation solvers are surveyed. Some of them are presented in greater detail.

  19. Factors affecting the initial literacy development of urban and rural learners in the Iganga district, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banda, Felix

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The initial motivation for the study was data from the Ministry of Education in Uganda that suggests that in terms of academic performance, urban learners continually outperform rural schools at primary and secondary school levels (Ministry of Education 2002. At present all government examinations are written in English. However, the language in education policy in Uganda differentially stipulates the use English as medium of instruction in urban schools and the use of the mother tongue in rural schools (cf. Kyeyune 2004. Other factors which mitigate against rural learners’ successful academic performance are untrained educators, poor infrastructure and school management practices in rural schools, poverty, lack of supportive academic discourse practices, and a general lack of enthusiasm among rural parents (most of whom have very little formal education for their children’s education. Using data from observations of selected urban and rural homes and schools in The Iganga district and field notes in the form of diary entries, the study draws on New Literacy Studies (NLS particularly the notion of literacy as social practice (Street 2001; Gee 2000; Baynham 2000, 2001, to explore the differential effect of urban and rural-based acculturation processes on the initial literacy development of learners. Finally, since 88% of Ugandans live in rural areas (Uganda Bureau of Statistics 2002, the pedagogical implications for primary schools are discussed and suggestions are made on how to establish an inclusive education system.

  20. Illinois Cleantech Ecosystem Consortium (ICE) for the Department of Energy Innovation Ecosystem Development Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielke, Jason [Clean Energy Trust, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-01-31

    The DoE Innovation Ecosystem Initiative was a gamechanger for Clean Energy Trust. The grant accelerated our development from a concept to a real company in 2010, seeding us with the capital to begin our mission to “accelerate the growth of clean energy businesses in the Midwest”. Now three years later, we have scores and scores of partners which fund us through sponsorship donations to our programs, and we have played a key role in launching several new companies, and helping them acquire funding and reach their milestones. In three years we have grown from two people to nine, now with an annual budget of over $3M. We started with the following simple plan (verbatim from our original submission): “The short-term objective of ICE is to fortify and enhance the platform for collaboration necessary to create a robust ecosystem for clean energy innovation. This includes launching a number of initiatives designed to source, evaluate, and launch new clean energy businesses derived from university research.

  1. STATE CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS: INITIAL STAGE OF ORGANIZATION AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sakovich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available  The paper considers  the initial stage of organization and development of the first State control organ of the independent Belarus – Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of scientific grounds of control theory of economic systems. Scientific and methodologically considered organizational and coordination approaches to the activity of the Control Chamber have promoted to  higher intensity and efficiency of financial and economic control in the initial period of the activity of new control organ and  the activity of all control organs of the Republic has taken systemized and perfectly oriented character. Such approaches have made it possible to stabilize macro-economic situation in the Republic and strengthen its economic security. The Control Chamber through highly-qualified personal, created and practically introduced methodological principles of control activity, international cooperation experience and finally high efficiency of practical control activity has made its historical contribution in formation of fundamentals of  the State Control in Belarus.13th of March 1992 is the day when the Law “About Control Chamber of the Republic of Belarus” has been enacted by the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus and this day is to considered as the Day of State Control foundation in the Republic of Belarus.  

  2. Design and initial validation of the Raster method for telecom service availability risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, E.; Wieringa, R.J.; Etalle, S.; Rothkrantz, L.; Ristvej, J.; Franco, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Crisis organisations depend on telecommunication services; unavailability of these services reduces the effectiveness of crisis response. Crisis organisations should therefore be aware of availability risks, and need a suitable risk assessment method. Such a method needs to be aware of the

  3. 40 CFR 63.1365 - Test methods and initial compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permit limit applicable to the process vent. (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering... concentration, temperature, and the reaction kinetics of the constituents with the scrubbing liquid. The design... procedures specified in Method 8260 or 8270 in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical...

  4. Method of estimating the sensitivity of a calculated nuclide vector to deviations in initial data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1998-12-01

    The application of perturbation theory algorithms in modelling of nuclides transmutation is considered. The perturbation theory is used to construct the analytical technique of sensitivity analysis. It is shown that such algorithms have to be used in modelling of lifetime performance of nuclear power installations with the Monte Carlo method. The present approach differs from others by consistent use of analytical methods. (author)

  5. Design and initial validation of the Raster method for telecom service availability risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, E.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Etalle, Sandro; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Ristvej, J.; Franco, Z.

    Crisis organisations depend on telecommunication services; unavailability of these services reduces the effectiveness of crisis response. Crisis organisations should therefore be aware of availability risks, and need a suitable risk assessment method. Such a method needs to be aware of the

  6. Mathematics and computational methods development in U.S. department of energy-sponsored research (nuclear energy research initiative and nuclear engineering education research). 5. Analysis of Angular V-Cycle Multigrid Formulation for Three-Dimensional Discrete Ordinates Shielding Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukboyaci, Vefa; Haghighat, Alireza

    2001-01-01

    We have developed new angular multigrid formulations, including the Simplified Angular Multigrid (SAM), Nested Iteration (NI), and V-Cycle schemes, that are compatible with the parallel environment and the adaptive differencing strategy of the PENTRAN three-dimensional parallel S N code. Using the Fourier analysis method for an infinite, homogenous medium, we have investigated the effectiveness of the V-Cycle scheme for different problem parameters including scattering ratio, spatial differencing weights, quadrature order, and mesh size. We have further investigated the effectiveness of the new schemes for practical shielding applications such as the Kobayashi benchmark problem and the boiling water reactor core shroud problem. In this paper, we summarize the angular V-Cycle scheme implemented in the PENTRAN code, the Fourier Analysis of the V-Cycle scheme, and results of convergence analysis of the V-Cycle scheme using different problem parameters. The theoretical analysis reveals that the V-Cycle scheme is effective for a large range of scattering ratios and is insensitive to mesh size. Besides the theoretical analysis, we have applied the new angular multigrid schemes to shielding problems. In comparison to the standard PCR formulation, combinations of the new angular multigrid schemes and PCR (e.g., SAM+V-Cycle+PCR) have proved to be very effective for scattering ratios in a range of 0.6 to 0.9. (authors)

  7. The development and initial validation of a clinical tool for patients' preferences on patient participation--The 4Ps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldh, Ann Catrine; Luhr, Kristina; Ehnfors, Margareta

    2015-12-01

    To report on the development and initial testing of a clinical tool, The Patient Preferences for Patient Participation tool (The 4Ps), which will allow patients to depict, prioritize, and evaluate their participation in health care. While patient participation is vital for high quality health care, a common definition incorporating all stakeholders' experience is pending. In order to support participation in health care, a tool for determining patients' preferences on participation is proposed, including opportunities to evaluate participation while considering patient preferences. Exploratory mixed methods studies informed the development of the tool, and descriptive design guided its initial testing. The 4Ps tool was tested with 21 Swedish researcher experts (REs) and patient experts (PEs) with experience of patient participation. Individual Think Aloud interviews were employed to capture experiences of content, response process, and acceptability. 'The 4Ps' included three sections for the patient to depict, prioritize, and evaluate participation using 12 items corresponding to 'Having Dialogue', 'Sharing Knowledge', 'Planning', and 'Managing Self-care'. The REs and PEs considered 'The 4Ps' comprehensible, and that all items corresponded to the concept of patient participation. The tool was perceived to facilitate patient participation whilst requiring amendments to content and layout. A tool like The 4Ps provides opportunities for patients to depict participation, and thus supports communication and collaboration. Further patient evaluation is needed to understand the conditions for patient participation. While The 4Ps is promising, revision and testing in clinical practice is required. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A Survey of Formal Methods in Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2012-01-01

    The use of formal methods and formal techniques in industry is steadily growing. In this survey we shall characterise what we mean by software development and by a formal method; briefly overview a history of formal specification languages - some of which are: VDM (Vienna Development Method, 1974...... need for multi-language formalisation (Petri Nets, MSC, StateChart, Temporal Logics); the sociology of university and industry acceptance of formal methods; the inevitability of the use of formal software development methods; while referring to seminal monographs and textbooks on formal methods....

  9. Communication Ambassadors-an Australian Social Media Initiative to Develop Communication Skills in Early Career Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jack T H; Power, Cheryl J; Kahler, Charlene M; Lyras, Dena; Young, Paul R; Iredell, Jonathan; Robins-Browne, Roy

    2018-01-01

    Science communication is a skill set to be developed through ongoing interactions with different stakeholders across a variety of platforms. Opportunities to engage the general public are typically reserved for senior scientists, but the use of social media in science communication allows all scientists to instantaneously disseminate their findings and interact with online users. The Communication Ambassador program is a social media initiative launched by the Australian Society for Microbiology to expand the online presence and science communication portfolios of early-career scientists. Through their participation in the program, a rotating roster of Australian microbiologists have broadened the online reach of the Society's social media channels as well as their own professional networks by attending and live-tweeting microbiology events throughout the year. We present the Communication Ambassador program as a case study of coordinated social media activity in science communication to the general public, and describe the potential for its applications in science education and training.

  10. The development and initial validation of a new measure of male body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochner, Christopher N; Gray, James A; Brickner, Katrina

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, and establish the initial psychometric properties of, the Male Body Dissatisfaction Scale (MBDS). Ninety-five male students were recruited over three phases. An item-remainder analysis was performed in phase I, convergent and discriminant validity assessed in phase II, and test-retest reliability and factor structure assessed in phase III. The MBDS achieved an alpha level of 0.93 and was inversely related to body esteem (p=0.02) and self-esteem (p=0.03), and positively related to how much participants' opinion of themselves was based on their body shape and weight (pbody shape and weight concerns (pbody dissatisfaction that allows men to weight particular aspects of their body image according to personal importance.

  11. Pore Formation and Mobility Investigation (PFMI): Concept, Hardware Development and Initial Analysis of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, Richard N.

    2004-01-01

    Porosity in the form of "bubbles and pipes" can occur during controlled directional solidification processing of metal alloys. This is a consequence that 1) precludes obtaining any meaningful scientific results and 2) is detrimental to desired material properties. Unfortunately, several Microgravity experiments have been compromised by porosity. The intent of the PFMI investigation is to conduct a systematic effort directed towards understanding porosity formation and mobility during controlled directional solidification (DS) in a microgravity environment. PFMI uses a pure transparent material, succinonitrile (SCN), as well as SCN "alloyed" with water, in conjunction with a translating temperature gradient stage so that direct observation and recording of pore generation and mobility can be made. PFMI is investigating the role of thermocapillary forces and temperature gradients in affecting bubble dynamics as well as other solidification processes in a microgravity Environment. This presentation will cover the concept, hardware development, operations, and the initial results from experiments conducted aboard the International Space Station. .

  12. Initial color development in radiochromic dye films after a short intense pulse of accelerated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uribe, R.M.; Barcelo, M.; Rios, J.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Buenfil, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation response of different dye precursors in several host plastics has been investigated after a single short-pulse irradiation with 2.5-MeV electrons. It was observed that in most films the radiation-initiated color development proceeds mainly during the first 300 seconds, after such high dose-rate irradiation (∼ 10 12 Gy/s). Absorption spectra show that the main absorption band increases at the expense of a shorter-wavelength precursor absorption band, showing an isosbestic point approximately midway bwetwen the two absorption bands. It was found that a certain combination of dye precursor and host plastic (namely a polyamide containing an aromatic group) constitutes a film which shows a very fast increase in optical density of the main absorption band, making it suitable for immediate dosimetric analysis in very high dose-rate installations. (author)

  13. Development and initial validation of the ibadan knee/hip osteoarthritis outcome measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Akinpelu

    2007-01-01

    was developed from other measures found in literature, as well as complaints of attending patients. Forty nine patients with pain from knee and/or hip osteoarthritis, the OA group (OAG and 49 individuals without knee or hip pain, the pain-free group (PFG were assessed, using the IKHOAM. The OAG was assessed on IKHOAM and the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS before and after a 6-week physiotherapy programme. Results: Significant differences between IKHOAM scores of the OAG and PFG and between IKHOAM scores of OAG pre and post 6-week physiotherapy programme, as well as the significant negative correlations between changes in IKHOAM and VAS scores of OAG before and after the 6-week physiotherapy programme were demonstrated. Conclusion: IKHOAM demonstrated initial criteria towards validity and responsiveness and may be used in a Nigerian population of OA knee/hip individuals and similar environments.

  14. Method of preparing initial multilayer radioactive pellets in production of planar radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stopek, K.; Satorie, Z.

    1982-01-01

    A compact radioactive foil is placed into a press mould on a thin surface layer of compacted or powder metal and is covered with powder metal. In order to achieve the required dimension and activity the radioactive foil is cut from a large sheet. The multilayer pellet is compacted and rolled using routine methods applied in powder metallurgy. This method excludes the possibility of destroying the active pellet during handling, improves its mechanical properties and is seven times less time demanding than methods used so far. (M.D.)

  15. Radiation protection survey of research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident. Review report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The compilation of research and development activities in the various fields of radiation protection in OECD Member countries which have been undertaken or planned specifically to address open questions arising from the Chernobyl reactor accident experience shows a potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes. Both the preliminary review of the answers, which only cover a part of the relevant activities in OECD Member countries, and a computerized literature search indicate that the multidisciplinarity of the research area under consideration will call for special efforts to efficiently implement new models and new quantitative findings from the different fields of activity to provide an improved basis for emergency management and risk assessment. Further improvements could also be achieved by efforts to initiate new activities to close gaps in the programmes under way, to enhance international cooperation, and to coordinate the evaluation of the results. This preliminary review of the answers of 17 Member countries to the questionnaire on research and development activities initiated after the Chernobyl accident is not sufficient as a basis for a balanced decision on those research areas most in need for international cooperation and coordination. It may however serve as a guide for the exploration of the potential for international cooperative arrangements and/or coordination between national programmes by the CRPPH. Even at this preliminary stage, several specific activities are proposed to the NEA/OECD by Member countries. Whole body counting and the intercomparison of national data bases on the behaviour of radionuclides in the environment did attract most calls for international cooperation sponsored by the NEA

  16. Building the field of population health intervention research: The development and use of an initial set of competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riley

    2015-01-01

    This initial set of competencies, released in 2013, may be used to develop graduate student curriculum, recruit trainees and faculty to academic institutions, plan non-degree professional development, and develop job descriptions for PHIR-related research and professional positions. The competencies provide some initial guideposts for the field and will need to be adapted as the PHIR field matures and to meet unique needs of different jurisdictions.

  17. Physiotherapy in hip and knee osteoarthritis: development of a practice guideline concerning initial assessment, treatment and evaluation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter, W.F.H.; Jansen, M.J.; Hurkmans, E.J.; Bloo, H.; Dekker-Bakker, L.M.M.C.J.; Dilling, R.G.; Hilberdink, W.K.H.A.; Kersten-Smit, C.; Rooij, M. de; Veenhof, C.; Vermeulen, H.M.; Vos, R.J. de; Schoones, J.W.; Vliet Vlieland, T.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An update of a Dutch physiotherapy practice guideline in Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis (HKOA) was made, based on current evidence and best practice. METHODS: A guideline steering committee, comprising 10 expert physiotherapists, selected topics concerning the guideline chapters: initial

  18. Leading Communities: Community-led Development in England’s Small Towns: the Market Towns Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Morris

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Market Towns Initiative (MTI, a UK community-led development programme, operated throughout rural England from 2000 until 2005/6. It was designed to help local people, with professional support, identify – and then capitalize on – the economic, environmental and social strengths and weaknesses of small country towns. This paper explains the origins and ways of working of the MTI. Examples of the topics explored and participants’ views are given, and conclusions drawn. The opportunity is also taken to explain how interest in the roles of England’s small country towns grew in the years following the Second World War, and how this led to the development of the MTI. Evidence suggests that the programme worked well. It demonstrated that local people have the enthusiasm, skills and knowledge to take a lead in the development of the places in which they live; something which, until local government reforms changed roles and structures, was largely taken for granted.

  19. Initial vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal development of slender wheatgrass on two amended mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zak, J.C.; Parkinson, D. (University of Calgary, Calgary, AB (Canada). Dept. of Biology)

    1982-01-01

    The initial vesicular-arbuscular (VA) mycorrhizal development of slender wheatgrass on extracted oil-sands and subalpine coal-mine spoils, amended with either fertilizer, peat, or liquid sewage sludge, was examined. Plants were sampled at 2,6 and 10 weeks after plant emergence and the level of infection was expressed as length of mycorrhizal root per plant and length of root which contained arbuscules, vesicles, or only hyphae. Mycorrhizal infection of slender wheatgrass on the oil sands was limited to plants on the peat-amended spoil. Infection of plants on the peat-amended oil-sands spoil was detected by 2 weeks. Plants on the subalpine spoil were infected at 2 weeks only on the peat-amended spoil. While slender wheatgrass on the control and fertilizer-amended spoil developed mycorrhizae by 6 weeks, infection was not observed in plants on the sewage-amended spoil until 10 weeks. At 10 weeks, there were no significant differences in lengths of mycorrhizal root per plant among the amendments. Increased P levels in the fertilizer- and sewage-amended subalpine spoil did not suppress VA mycorrhizal development. 43 refs., 6 tabs.

  20. Merkel Cell Polyomavirus Small T Antigen Initiates Merkel Cell Carcinoma-like Tumor Development in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Monique E; Mangelberger, Doris; Harms, Paul W; Eberl, Markus; Wilbert, Dawn M; Meireles, Julia; Bichakjian, Christopher K; Saunders, Thomas L; Wong, Sunny Y; Dlugosz, Andrzej A

    2017-06-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor cells express several markers detected in normal Merkel cells, a nonproliferative population of neuroendocrine cells that arise from epidermis. MCCs frequently contain Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) DNA and express viral transforming antigens, sT and tLT, but the role of these putative oncogenes in MCC development, and this tumor's cell of origin, are unknown. Using a panel of preterm transgenic mice, we show that epidermis-targeted coexpression of sT and the cell fate-determinant atonal bHLH transcription factor 1 (ATOH1) leads to development of widespread cellular aggregates, with histology and marker expression mimicking that of human intraepidermal MCC. The MCC-like tumor phenotype was dependent on the FBXW7-binding domain of sT, but not the sT-PP2A binding domain. Coexpression of MCPyV tLT did not appreciably alter the phenotype driven by either sT or sT combined with ATOH1. MCPyV sT, when coexpressed with ATOH1, is thus sufficient to initiate development of epidermis-derived MCC-like tumors in mice. Cancer Res; 77(12); 3151-7. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. From Family Based to Industrial Based Production: Local Economic Development Initiatives and the HELIX Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartjan W Pennink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To build a strong local economy, good practice tells us that each community should undertake a collaborative, strategically planned process to understand and then act upon its own strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. From this perspective we start with the local communities but how is this related to the perspective from the Helix model in which three actors are explicitly introduced: the Government, the Industry and the Universities? The purpose of local economic development (LED is to build up the economic capacity of a local area to improve its economic future and the quality of life for all. To support  the Local Economic Development in remote areas,   a program  has been developed based on the LED frame work of the world bank. This approach and  the experiences over  the past years with this program are  described in the first part.  In the second part of the paper, We analyse work done with that program with the help of the social capital concept and the triple helix model.  In all cases it is important to pay attention to who is taken the initiative after the first move (and it is not always the governance as actor and for the triple helix we suggest  that the concepts of (national Government, Industry and University need a translation to Local Governance Agency, Cooperation or other ways of cooperation of local communities and Local Universities. Although a push from outside might help  a local region in development the endogenous factors are  also needed. Keywords: Triple Helix model, Local Economic Development, Local Actors, Double Triangle within the Helix Model

  2. Preliminary Tests For Development Of A Non-Pertechnetate Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    The objective of this task was to develop a non-pertechnetate analysis method that 222-S lab could easily implement. The initial scope involved working with 222-S laboratory personnel to adapt the existing Tc analytical method to fractionate the non-pertechnetate and pertechnetate. SRNL then developed and tested a method using commercial sorbents containing Aliquat® 336 to extract the pertechnetate (thereby separating it from non-pertechnetate), followed by oxidation, extraction, and stripping steps, and finally analysis by beta counting and Mass Spectroscopy. Several additional items were partially investigated, including impacts of a 137Cs removal step. The method was initially tested on SRS tank waste samples to determine its viability. Although SRS tank waste does not contain non-pertechnetate, testing with it was useful to investigate the compatibility, separation efficiency, interference removal efficacy, and method sensitivity.

  3. The importance of male partner involvement for women's acceptability and adherence to female-initiated HIV prevention methods in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Elizabeth T; van der Straten, Ariane; Chidanyika, Agnes; Chipato, Tsungai; Jaffar, Shabbar; Padian, Nancy

    2011-07-01

    Enlisting male partner involvement is perceived as an important component of women's successful uptake of female-initiated HIV prevention methods. We conducted a longitudinal study among a cohort of 955 Zimbabwean women participating in a clinical trial of the effectiveness of a female-initiated HIV prevention method (the diaphragm and lubricant gel) to: (a) describe the extent to which women involved their male partners in the decision to use the study products, and (b) measure the effect perceived male partner support had on their acceptability and consistent use of these methods. Reported levels of male partner involvement in discussions and decisions regarding: joining the study, study activities, the outcome of HIV/STI test results, and product use were very high. In multivariate analyses, regular disclosure of study product use and partner approval for the diaphragm and gel were significantly associated with women's acceptability and consistent use of the products; an essential component for determining efficacy of investigational prevention methods. These results support the need for more sophisticated measurement of how couples interact to make decisions that impact study participation and investigational product use as well as more rigorous adaptations and evaluations of existing strategies to involve male partners in female-initiated HIV prevention trials.

  4. Optimal Error Estimates of Two Mixed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Integro-Differential Equations with Nonsmooth Initial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Deepjyoti

    2013-05-01

    In the first part of this article, a new mixed method is proposed and analyzed for parabolic integro-differential equations (PIDE) with nonsmooth initial data. Compared to the standard mixed method for PIDE, the present method does not bank on a reformulation using a resolvent operator. Based on energy arguments combined with a repeated use of an integral operator and without using parabolic type duality technique, optimal L2 L2-error estimates are derived for semidiscrete approximations, when the initial condition is in L2 L2. Due to the presence of the integral term, it is, further, observed that a negative norm estimate plays a crucial role in our error analysis. Moreover, the proposed analysis follows the spirit of the proof techniques used in deriving optimal error estimates for finite element approximations to PIDE with smooth data and therefore, it unifies both the theories, i.e., one for smooth data and other for nonsmooth data. Finally, we extend the proposed analysis to the standard mixed method for PIDE with rough initial data and provide an optimal error estimate in L2, L 2, which improves upon the results available in the literature. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  5. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  6. Development of Reverse-Phase HPLC Method for Simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Purpose: To develop a simple, sensitive and rapid reverse phase HPLC method for the simultaneous analysis of metoprolol succinate and hydrochlorothiazide in a solid dosage form. Methods: The .... Extraction was carried out three times with.

  7. developed algorithm for the application of british method of concret

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    t-iyke

    Most of the methods of concrete mix design developed over the years were geared towards manual approach. ... Key words: Concrete mix design; British method; Manual Approach; Algorithm. ..... Statistics for Science and Engineering.

  8. System Identification Methods for Aircraft Flight Control Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, : from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. This paper : discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the : development and ...

  9. Development and validation of a spectroscopic method for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and validation of a spectroscopic method for the simultaneous analysis of ... advanced analytical methods such as high pressure liquid ..... equipment. DECLARATIONS ... high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr.

  10. Development of CCD Imaging System Using Thermoelectric Cooling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsik Park

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed low light CCD imaging system using thermoelectric cooling method collaboration with a company to design a commercial model. It consists of Kodak KAF-0401E (768x512 pixels CCD chip,thermoelectric module manufactured by Thermotek. This TEC system can reach an operative temperature of -25deg. We employed an Uniblitz VS25S shutter and it has capability a minimum exposure time 80ms. The system components are an interface card using a Korea Astronomy Observatory (hereafter KAO ISA bus controller, image acquisition with AD9816 chip, that is 12bit video processor. The performance test with this imaging system showed good operation within the initial specification of our design. It shows a dark current less than 0.4e-/pixel/sec at a temperature of -10deg, a linearity 99.9+/-0.1%, gain 4.24e-adu, and system noise is 25.3e- (rms. For low temperature CCD operation, we designed a TEC, which uses a one-stage peltier module and forced air heat exchanger. This TEC imaging system enables accurate photometry (+/-0.01mag even though the CCD is not at 'conventional' cryogenic temperatures (140K. The system can be a useful instrument for any other imaging applications. Finally, with this system, we obtained several images of astronomical objects for system performance tests.

  11. Development of fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Wakai, Eichi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Itoh, Takamoto; Hasegawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    For developing the fatigue life evaluation method using small specimen, the effect of specimen size and shape on the fatigue life of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels (F82H-IEA, F82H-BA07 and JLF-1) was investigated by the fatigue test at room temperature in air using round-bar and hourglass specimens with various specimen sizes (test section diameter: 0.85–10 mm). The round-bar specimen showed no specimen size and no specimen shape effects on the fatigue life, whereas the hourglass specimen showed no specimen size effect and obvious specimen shape effect on it. The shorter fatigue life of the hourglass specimen observed under low strain ranges could be attributed to the shorter micro-crack initiation life induced by the stress concentration dependent on the specimen shape. On the basis of this study, the small round-bar specimen was an acceptable candidate for evaluating the fatigue life using small specimen

  12. University of Idaho Water of the West Initiative: Development of a sustainable, interdisciplinary water resources program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, J.; Cosens, B.; Fiedler, F.; Link, T.; Wilson, P.; Harris, C.; Tuller, M.; Johnson, G.; Kennedy, B.

    2006-12-01

    Recently, an interdisciplinary group of faculty from the University of Idaho was awarded a major internal grant for their project "Water of the West (WoW)" to launch an interdisciplinary Water Resources Graduate Education Program. This Water Resources program will facilitate research and education to influence both the scientific understanding of the resource and how it is managed, and advance the decision-making processes that are the means to address competing societal values. By educating students to integrate environmental sciences, socio-economic, and political issues, the WoW project advances the University's land grant mission to promote economic and social development in the state of Idaho. This will be accomplished through novel experiential interdisciplinary education activities; creation of interdisciplinary research efforts among water resources faculty; and focusing on urgent regional problems with an approach that will involve and provide information to local communities. The Water Resources Program will integrate physical and biological sciences, social science, law, policy and engineering to address problems associated with stewardship of our scarce water resources. As part of the WoW project, faculty will: (1) develop an integrative problem-solving framework; (2) develop activities to broaden WR education; (3) collaborate with the College of Law to offer a concurrent J.D. degree, (4) develop a virtual system of watersheds for teaching and research, and (5) attract graduate students for team-based education. The new program involves 50 faculty from six colleges and thirteen departments across the university. This university-wide initiative is strengthened by collaboration with the Idaho Water Resources Research Institute, and participation from off-campus Centers in Idaho Falls, Boise, Twin Falls, and Coeur d'Alene. We hope this presentation will attract university faculty, water resources professionals, and others for stimulating discussions on

  13. Method of teaching reading of map of orientation-sportsmen's on the stage of initial preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furman Yu.N.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Directions of development and perfection of major skill are rotined in the system of technical preparation of sportsman - to reading of map. Basic exercises are resulted on teaching of beginnings sportsmen. Exercises are directed on development of memory, attention, operative thought of young sportsmen. Tasks are presented on locality and in a class. Basic tasks are selected creatively going of trainer near the work. Experience trainers and system of the individual going is grounded near teaching of sportsman.

  14. A Trigonometrically Fitted Block Method for Solving Oscillatory Second-Order Initial Value Problems and Hamiltonian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. F. Ngwane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a block hybrid trigonometrically fitted Runge-Kutta-Nyström method (BHTRKNM, whose coefficients are functions of the frequency and the step-size for directly solving general second-order initial value problems (IVPs, including Hamiltonian systems such as the energy conserving equations and systems arising from the semidiscretization of partial differential equations (PDEs. Four discrete hybrid formulas used to formulate the BHTRKNM are provided by a continuous one-step hybrid trigonometrically fitted method with an off-grid point. We implement BHTRKNM in a block-by-block fashion; in this way, the method does not suffer from the disadvantages of requiring starting values and predictors which are inherent in predictor-corrector methods. The stability property of the BHTRKNM is discussed and the performance of the method is demonstrated on some numerical examples to show accuracy and efficiency advantages.

  15. The Healthy Migrant Families Initiative: development of a culturally competent obesity prevention intervention for African migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Halliday, Jennifer A; Mellor, David; Green, Julie

    2015-03-19

    Although obesity among immigrants remains an important area of study given the increasing migrant population in Australia and other developed countries, research on factors amenable to intervention is sparse. The aim of the study was to develop a culturally-competent obesity prevention program for sub-Saharan African (SSA) families with children aged 12-17 years using a community-partnered participatory approach. A community-partnered participatory approach that allowed the intervention to be developed in collaborative partnership with communities was used. Three pilot studies were carried out in 2008 and 2009 which included focus groups, interviews, and workshops with SSA parents, teenagers and health professionals, and emerging themes were used to inform the intervention content. A cultural competence framework containing 10 strategies was developed to inform the development of the program. Using findings from our scoping research, together with community consultations through the African Review Panel, a draft program outline (skeleton) was developed and presented in two separate community forums with SSA community members and health professionals working with SSA communities in Melbourne. The 'Healthy Migrant Families Initiative (HMFI): Challenges and Choices' program was developed and designed to assist African families in their transition to life in a new country. The program consists of nine sessions, each approximately 1 1/2 hours in length, which are divided into two modules based on the topic. The first module 'Healthy lifestyles in a new culture' (5 sessions) focuses on healthy eating, active living and healthy body weight. The second module 'Healthy families in a new culture' (4 sessions) focuses on parenting, communication and problem solving. The sessions are designed for a group setting (6-12 people per group), as many of the program activities are discussion-based, supported by session materials and program resources. Strong partnerships and

  16. Advanced Aqueous Phase Catalyst Development using Combinatorial Methods, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Combinatorial methods are proposed to develop advanced Aqueous Oxidation Catalysts (AOCs) with the capability to mineralize organic contaminants present in effluents...

  17. Initiating Self-Assessment Strategies in Novice Physiotherapy Students: A Method Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Student self- and peer-assessment strategies ideally are instigated early in programmes for health professionals. This study presents an innovative method of stimulating critical evaluation of clinical skills learned in the practical class setting for first year physiotherapy students. Twice in the semester (beginning and end) students assessed…

  18. General procedure to initialize the cyclic soil water balance by the Thornthwaite and Mather method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourado-Neto, D.; Lier, van Q.D.; Metselaar, K.; Reichardt, K.; Nielsen, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The original Thornthwaite and Mather method, proposed in 1955 to calculate a climatic monthly cyclic soil water balance, is frequently used as an iterative procedure due to its low input requirements and coherent estimates of water balance components. Using long term data sets to establish a

  19. 40 CFR 63.705 - Performance test methods and procedures to determine initial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per gram-mole. 24.055 = Ideal gas molar volume at 293° Kelvin and 760 millimeters of mercury, liters... consideration of the potential presence of interfering gases. Except as indicated in paragraphs (b)(3) (i) and... used for velocity and volumetric flow rates. (6) EPA Method 3 of appendix A of part 60 is used for gas...

  20. Features of tennis methods of teaching 5-6 years old children in the initial stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Kurmaeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : theoretical and methodological justification for the existing teaching methods tennis of 5-6 years old children. Material : 17 special analysis and scientific and methodological sources. Results : the features of the existing methods of teaching children at an early stage of training. The main theses of the existing methods: 1 the training process is carried out in the form of games; 2 the level of general physical preparedness level exceeds special; 3 The first two years of the children do not participate in official competitions; 4 education of children begins with " School Ball ", with a gradual transition to employment with racket and ball; 5 training is built on two levels: theoretical - each " part" in the form of pre- formation of a mental model of rational behavior, and practical - the formation of the ability to perform motor actions. Conclusions : it was found that the existing methods of constructing the training process for children 5-6 years do not account for their physiological characteristics, therefore proposed to use computer technology and animation, that will shorten the formation of motor skills of children.