#### Sample records for methods including ordinary

1. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

Science.gov (United States)

Sidik, S. M.

1975-01-01

Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

2. Approximate analytical methods for solving ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

Approximate Analytical Methods for Solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is the first book to present all of the available approximate methods for solving ODEs, eliminating the need to wade through multiple books and articles. It covers both well-established techniques and recently developed procedures, including the classical series solution method, diverse perturbation methods, pioneering asymptotic methods, and the latest homotopy methods.The book is suitable not only for mathematicians and engineers but also for biologists, physicists, and economists. It gives a complete descripti

3. Nonlinear ordinary differential equations analytical approximation and numerical methods

CERN Document Server

Hermann, Martin

2016-01-01

The book discusses the solutions to nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using analytical and numerical approximation methods. Recently, analytical approximation methods have been largely used in solving linear and nonlinear lower-order ODEs. It also discusses using these methods to solve some strong nonlinear ODEs. There are two chapters devoted to solving nonlinear ODEs using numerical methods, as in practice high-dimensional systems of nonlinear ODEs that cannot be solved by analytical approximate methods are common. Moreover, it studies analytical and numerical techniques for the treatment of parameter-depending ODEs. The book explains various methods for solving nonlinear-oscillator and structural-system problems, including the energy balance method, harmonic balance method, amplitude frequency formulation, variational iteration method, homotopy perturbation method, iteration perturbation method, homotopy analysis method, simple and multiple shooting method, and the nonlinear stabilized march...

4. KRYSI, Ordinary Differential Equations Solver with Sdirk Krylov Method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hindmarsh, A.C.; Norsett, S.P.

2001-01-01

1 - Description of program or function: KRYSI is a set of FORTRAN subroutines for solving ordinary differential equations initial value problems. It is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. When solving the implicit stage equations in the stiff case, KRYSI uses a Krylov subspace iteration method called the SPIGMR (Scaled Preconditioned Incomplete Generalized Minimum Residual) method. No explicit Jacobian storage is required, except where used in pre- conditioning. A demonstration problem is included with a description of two pre-conditioners that are natural for its solution by KRYSI. 2 - Method of solution: KRYSI uses a three-stage, third-order singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (SDIRK) method. In the stiff case, a preconditioned Krylov subspace iteration within a (so-called) inexact Newton iteration is used to solve the system of nonlinear algebraic equations

5. Exponential function method for solving nonlinear ordinary ...

[14] introduced a new system of rational. 79 ..... Also, for k-power of function f (η), by induction, we have ..... reliability and efficiency of the method. .... electric field and the polarization effects are negligible and B(x) is assumed by Chaim [8] as.

6. Runge-Kutta Methods for Linear Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Zingg, David W.; Chisholm, Todd T.

1997-01-01

Three new Runge-Kutta methods are presented for numerical integration of systems of linear inhomogeneous ordinary differential equations (ODES) with constant coefficients. Such ODEs arise in the numerical solution of the partial differential equations governing linear wave phenomena. The restriction to linear ODEs with constant coefficients reduces the number of conditions which the coefficients of the Runge-Kutta method must satisfy. This freedom is used to develop methods which are more efficient than conventional Runge-Kutta methods. A fourth-order method is presented which uses only two memory locations per dependent variable, while the classical fourth-order Runge-Kutta method uses three. This method is an excellent choice for simulations of linear wave phenomena if memory is a primary concern. In addition, fifth- and sixth-order methods are presented which require five and six stages, respectively, one fewer than their conventional counterparts, and are therefore more efficient. These methods are an excellent option for use with high-order spatial discretizations.

7. An accurate scheme by block method for third order ordinary ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

problems of ordinary differential equations is presented in this paper. The approach of collocation approximation is adopted in the derivation of the scheme and then the scheme is applied as simultaneous integrator to special third order initial value problem of ordinary differential equations. This implementation strategy is ...

8. [Application of ordinary Kriging method in entomologic ecology].

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Runjie; Zhou, Qiang; Chen, Cuixian; Wang, Shousong

2003-01-01

Geostatistics is a statistic method based on regional variables and using the tool of variogram to analyze the spatial structure and the patterns of organism. In simulating the variogram within a great range, though optimal simulation cannot be obtained, the simulation method of a dialogue between human and computer can be used to optimize the parameters of the spherical models. In this paper, the method mentioned above and the weighted polynomial regression were utilized to simulate the one-step spherical model, the two-step spherical model and linear function model, and the available nearby samples were used to draw on the ordinary Kriging procedure, which provided a best linear unbiased estimate of the constraint of the unbiased estimation. The sum of square deviation between the estimating and measuring values of varying theory models were figured out, and the relative graphs were shown. It was showed that the simulation based on the two-step spherical model was the best simulation, and the one-step spherical model was better than the linear function model.

9. Numerical methods for the solution of ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Azeem, M.

1999-01-01

The ode 113 code solves non-stiff differential equations and is a fully variable step, variable order, PECE implementation in terms of modified divided differences of Adams-Bashforth-Moulton family of formulas of order 1-12. The main objectives of this project were to modify PECE mode of ode 113 into PEC mode, study the variable step size and variable order strategy of both the modes and finally, develop the switching strategy between both PECE and PEC modes to minimize the cost of solving the ordinary differential equations. Using some test problems (including stiff, mild stiff and non-stiff), it was found that the PEC mode was more efficient for non-stiff problems at crude and intermediate tolerances and the PECE mode for all problems at the stringent tolerance. An automatic switching strategy was developed using the results observed from the step size and order plots of all the test problems for both the modes and gave the optimum results. (author)

10. Workshop on Numerical Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Gear, Charles; Russo, Elvira

1989-01-01

Developments in numerical initial value ode methods were the focal topic of the meeting at L'Aquila which explord the connections between the classical background and new research areas such as differental-algebraic equations, delay integral and integro-differential equations, stability properties, continuous extensions (interpolants for Runge-Kutta methods and their applications, effective stepsize control, parallel algorithms for small- and large-scale parallel architectures). The resulting proceedings address many of these topics in both research and survey papers.

11. On method of solving third-order ordinary differential equations directly using Bernstein polynomials

Science.gov (United States)

Khataybeh, S. N.; Hashim, I.

2018-04-01

In this paper, we propose for the first time a method based on Bernstein polynomials for solving directly a class of third-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs). This method gives a numerical solution by converting the equation into a system of algebraic equations which is solved directly. Some numerical examples are given to show the applicability of the method.

12. A new power mapping method based on ordinary kriging and determination of optimal detector location strategy

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Peng, Xingjie; Wang, Kan; Li, Qing

2014-01-01

Highlights: • A new power mapping method based on Ordinary Kriging (OK) is proposed. • Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the OK method. • The OK method performs better than the CECOR method. • An optimal neutron detector location strategy based on ordinary kriging and simulated annealing is proposed. - Abstract: The Ordinary Kriging (OK) method is presented that is designed for a core power mapping calculation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Measurements from DayaBay Unit 1 PWR are used to verify the accuracy of the OK method. The root mean square (RMS) reconstruction errors are kept at less than 0.35%, and the maximum reconstruction relative errors (RE) are kept at less than 1.02% for the entire operating cycle. The reconstructed assembly power distribution results show that the OK method is fit for core power distribution monitoring. The quality of power distribution obtained by the OK method is partly determined by the neutron detector locations, and the OK method is also applied to solve the optimal neutron detector location problem. The spatially averaged ordinary kriging variance (AOKV) is minimized using simulated annealing, and then, the optimal in-core neutron detector locations are obtained. The result shows that the current neutron detector location of DayaBay Unit 1 reactor is near-optimal

13. A block Krylov subspace time-exact solution method for linear ordinary differential equation systems

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Bochev, Mikhail A.

2013-01-01

We propose a time-exact Krylov-subspace-based method for solving linear ordinary differential equation systems of the form $y'=-Ay+g(t)$ and $y"=-Ay+g(t)$, where $y(t)$ is the unknown function. The method consists of two stages. The first stage is an accurate piecewise polynomial approximation of

14. Ridge regression estimator: combining unbiased and ordinary ridge regression methods of estimation

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2009-10-01

Full Text Available Statistical literature has several methods for coping with multicollinearity. This paper introduces a new shrinkage estimator, called modified unbiased ridge (MUR. This estimator is obtained from unbiased ridge regression (URR in the same way that ordinary ridge regression (ORR is obtained from ordinary least squares (OLS. Properties of MUR are derived. Results on its matrix mean squared error (MMSE are obtained. MUR is compared with ORR and URR in terms of MMSE. These results are illustrated with an example based on data generated by Hoerl and Kennard (1975.

15. A Simple Method to Find out when an Ordinary Differential Equation Is Separable

Science.gov (United States)

Cid, Jose Angel

2009-01-01

We present an alternative method to that of Scott (D. Scott, "When is an ordinary differential equation separable?", "Amer. Math. Monthly" 92 (1985), pp. 422-423) to teach the students how to discover whether a differential equation y[prime] = f(x,y) is separable or not when the nonlinearity f(x, y) is not explicitly factorized. Our approach is…

16. Comparative numerical solutions of stiff Ordinary differential equations using magnus series expansion method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

SURE KÖME

2014-12-01

Full Text Available In this paper, we investigated the effect of Magnus Series Expansion Method on homogeneous stiff ordinary differential equations with different stiffness ratios. A Magnus type integrator is used to obtain numerical solutions of two different examples of stiff problems and exact and approximate results are tabulated. Furthermore, absolute error graphics are demonstrated in detail.

17. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

Science.gov (United States)

Camporesi, Roberto

2011-01-01

We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

18. Analysis of a renormalization group method and normal form theory for perturbed ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

DeVille, R. E. Lee; Harkin, Anthony; Holzer, Matt; Josić, Krešimir; Kaper, Tasso J.

2008-06-01

For singular perturbation problems, the renormalization group (RG) method of Chen, Goldenfeld, and Oono [Phys. Rev. E. 49 (1994) 4502-4511] has been shown to be an effective general approach for deriving reduced or amplitude equations that govern the long time dynamics of the system. It has been applied to a variety of problems traditionally analyzed using disparate methods, including the method of multiple scales, boundary layer theory, the WKBJ method, the Poincaré-Lindstedt method, the method of averaging, and others. In this article, we show how the RG method may be used to generate normal forms for large classes of ordinary differential equations. First, we apply the RG method to systems with autonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations generated by the RG method are equivalent to the classical Poincaré-Birkhoff normal forms for these systems up to and including terms of O(ɛ2), where ɛ is the perturbation parameter. This analysis establishes our approach and generalizes to higher order. Second, we apply the RG method to systems with nonautonomous perturbations, and we show that the reduced or amplitude equations so generated constitute time-asymptotic normal forms, which are based on KBM averages. Moreover, for both classes of problems, we show that the main coordinate changes are equivalent, up to translations between the spaces in which they are defined. In this manner, our results show that the RG method offers a new approach for deriving normal forms for nonautonomous systems, and it offers advantages since one can typically more readily identify resonant terms from naive perturbation expansions than from the nonautonomous vector fields themselves. Finally, we establish how well the solution to the RG equations approximates the solution of the original equations on time scales of O(1/ɛ).

19. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Rosenbaum, J. S.

1976-01-01

If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

20. The Analytical Solution of Some Fractional Ordinary Differential Equations by the Sumudu Transform Method

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Hasan Bulut

2013-01-01

Full Text Available We introduce the rudiments of fractional calculus and the consequent applications of the Sumudu transform on fractional derivatives. Once this connection is firmly established in the general setting, we turn to the application of the Sumudu transform method (STM to some interesting nonhomogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations (FODEs. Finally, we use the solutions to form two-dimensional (2D graphs, by using the symbolic algebra package Mathematica Program 7.

1. SIVA/DIVA- INITIAL VALUE ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SOLUTION VIA A VARIABLE ORDER ADAMS METHOD

Science.gov (United States)

Krogh, F. T.

1994-01-01

The SIVA/DIVA package is a collection of subroutines for the solution of ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single precision and double precision arithmetic. These solutions are applicable to stiff or nonstiff differential equations of first or second order. SIVA/DIVA requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable order Adams predictor-corrector methods. There is an option for the direct integration of second order equations which can make integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Other capabilities of SIVA/DIVA include: monitoring a user supplied function which can be separate from the derivative; dynamically controlling the step size; displaying or not displaying output at initial, final, and step size change points; saving the estimated local error; and reverse communication where subroutines return to the user for output or computation of derivatives instead of automatically performing calculations. The user must supply SIVA/DIVA with: 1) the number of equations; 2) initial values for the dependent and independent variables, integration stepsize, error tolerance, etc.; and 3) the driver program and operational parameters necessary for subroutine execution. SIVA/DIVA contains an extensive diagnostic message library should errors occur during execution. SIVA/DIVA is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and is machine independent. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 120K of 8 bit bytes. This program was developed in 1983 and last updated in 1987.

2. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

CERN Document Server

Camporesi, Roberto

2016-01-01

This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

3. Solving (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation by a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ka-Lin, Su; Yuan-Xi, Xie

2010-01-01

By introducing a more general auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE), a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method is presented for solving the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation. As a result, many explicit and exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation are derived in a simple manner by this technique. (general)

4. Uncertainty evaluation for ordinary least-square fitting with arbitrary order polynomial in joule balance method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

You, Qiang; Xu, JinXin; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Zhonghua

2016-01-01

The ordinary least-square fitting with polynomial is used in both the dynamic phase of the watt balance method and the weighting phase of joule balance method but few researches have been conducted to evaluate the uncertainty of the fitting data in the electrical balance methods. In this paper, a matrix-calculation method for evaluating the uncertainty of the polynomial fitting data is derived and the properties of this method are studied by simulation. Based on this, another two derived methods are proposed. One is used to find the optimal fitting order for the watt or joule balance methods. Accuracy and effective factors of this method are experimented with simulations. The other is used to evaluate the uncertainty of the integral of the fitting data for joule balance, which is demonstrated with an experiment from the NIM-1 joule balance. (paper)

5. Novel driver method to improve ordinary CCD frame rate for high-speed imaging diagnosis

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Luo, Tong-Ding, E-mail: snuohui@126.com; Li, Bin-Kang; Yang, Shao-Hua; Guo, Ming-An; Yan, Ming

2016-06-21

The use of ordinary Charge-coupled-Device (CCD) imagers for the analysis of fast physical phenomenon is restricted because of the low-speed performance resulting from their long output times. Even though the form of Intensified-CCD (ICCD), coupled with a gated image intensifier, has extended their use for high speed imaging, the deficiency remains to be solved that ICDD could record only one image in a single shot. This paper presents a novel driver method designed to significantly improve the ordinary interline CCD burst frame rate for high-speed photography. This method is based on the use of vertical registers as storage, so that a small number of additional frames comprised of reduced-spatial-resolution images obtained via a specific sampling operation can be buffered. Hence, the interval time of the received series of images is related to the exposure and vertical transfer times only and, thus, the burst frame rate can be increased significantly. A prototype camera based on this method is designed as part of this study, exhibiting a burst rate of up to 250,000 frames per second (fps) and a capacity to record three continuous images. This device exhibits a speed enhancement of approximately 16,000 times compared with the conventional speed, with a spatial resolution reduction of only 1/4.

6. Shooting method for third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations with application to magnetohydrodynamic boundary layer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Srivastava, A.C.; Hazarika, G.C.

1990-01-01

An algorithm based on the shooting method has been developed for the solution of a two-point boundary value problem consisting of a system of third order simultaneous ordinary differential equations. The Falkner-Skan equations for electrically conducting viscous fluid with applied magnetic field has been solved by using this algorithm for various values of the wedge angle and magnetic parameters. The shooting method seems to be well convergent for a system as the results are in good agreement with those obtained by other methods. It is observed that both viscous boundary layer and magnetic boundary layer decrease while velocity as well as magnetic field increase with the increase of the wedge angle. (author). 6 tabs., 7 refs

7. Introduction to ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Rabenstein, Albert L

1966-01-01

Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations is a 12-chapter text that describes useful elementary methods of finding solutions using ordinary differential equations. This book starts with an introduction to the properties and complex variable of linear differential equations. Considerable chapters covered topics that are of particular interest in applications, including Laplace transforms, eigenvalue problems, special functions, Fourier series, and boundary-value problems of mathematical physics. Other chapters are devoted to some topics that are not directly concerned with finding solutio

8. Diagonally Implicit Runge-Kutta Methods for Ordinary Differential Equations. A Review

Science.gov (United States)

Kennedy, Christopher A.; Carpenter, Mark H.

2016-01-01

A review of diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta (DIRK) methods applied to rst-order ordinary di erential equations (ODEs) is undertaken. The goal of this review is to summarize the characteristics, assess the potential, and then design several nearly optimal, general purpose, DIRK-type methods. Over 20 important aspects of DIRKtype methods are reviewed. A design study is then conducted on DIRK-type methods having from two to seven implicit stages. From this, 15 schemes are selected for general purpose application. Testing of the 15 chosen methods is done on three singular perturbation problems. Based on the review of method characteristics, these methods focus on having a stage order of two, sti accuracy, L-stability, high quality embedded and dense-output methods, small magnitudes of the algebraic stability matrix eigenvalues, small values of aii, and small or vanishing values of the internal stability function for large eigenvalues of the Jacobian. Among the 15 new methods, ESDIRK4(3)6L[2]SA is recommended as a good default method for solving sti problems at moderate error tolerances.

9. The crux of the method: assumptions in ordinary least squares and logistic regression.

Science.gov (United States)

Long, Rebecca G

2008-10-01

Logistic regression has increasingly become the tool of choice when analyzing data with a binary dependent variable. While resources relating to the technique are widely available, clear discussions of why logistic regression should be used in place of ordinary least squares regression are difficult to find. The current paper compares and contrasts the assumptions of ordinary least squares with those of logistic regression and explains why logistic regression's looser assumptions make it adept at handling violations of the more important assumptions in ordinary least squares.

10. A first course in ordinary differential equations analytical and numerical methods

CERN Document Server

Hermann, Martin

2014-01-01

This book presents a modern introduction to analytical and numerical techniques for solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs). Contrary to the traditional format—the theorem-and-proof format—the book is focusing on analytical and numerical methods. The book supplies a variety of problems and examples, ranging from the elementary to the advanced level, to introduce and study the mathematics of ODEs. The analytical part of the book deals with solution techniques for scalar first-order and second-order linear ODEs, and systems of linear ODEs—with a special focus on the Laplace transform, operator techniques and power series solutions. In the numerical part, theoretical and practical aspects of Runge-Kutta methods for solving initial-value problems and shooting methods for linear two-point boundary-value problems are considered. The book is intended as a primary text for courses on the theory of ODEs and numerical treatment of ODEs for advanced undergraduate and early graduate students. It is assumed t...

11. Tailored parameter optimization methods for ordinary differential equation models with steady-state constraints.

Science.gov (United States)

Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan

2016-08-22

Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the

12. Ordinary Least Squares and Quantile Regression: An Inquiry-Based Learning Approach to a Comparison of Regression Methods

Science.gov (United States)

Helmreich, James E.; Krog, K. Peter

2018-01-01

We present a short, inquiry-based learning course on concepts and methods underlying ordinary least squares (OLS), least absolute deviation (LAD), and quantile regression (QR). Students investigate squared, absolute, and weighted absolute distance functions (metrics) as location measures. Using differential calculus and properties of convex…

13. A Fresh Look at Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

Science.gov (United States)

Camporesi, Roberto

2016-01-01

We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as…

14. The Semianalytical Solutions for Stiff Systems of Ordinary Differential Equations by Using Variational Iteration Method and Modified Variational Iteration Method with Comparison to Exact Solutions

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Mehmet Tarik Atay

2013-01-01

Full Text Available The Variational Iteration Method (VIM and Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are used to find solutions of systems of stiff ordinary differential equations for both linear and nonlinear problems. Some examples are given to illustrate the accuracy and effectiveness of these methods. We compare our results with exact results. In some studies related to stiff ordinary differential equations, problems were solved by Adomian Decomposition Method and VIM and Homotopy Perturbation Method. Comparisons with exact solutions reveal that the Variational Iteration Method (VIM and the Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM are easier to implement. In fact, these methods are promising methods for various systems of linear and nonlinear stiff ordinary differential equations. Furthermore, VIM, or in some cases MVIM, is giving exact solutions in linear cases and very satisfactory solutions when compared to exact solutions for nonlinear cases depending on the stiffness ratio of the stiff system to be solved.

15. Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Krogh, F. T.

1987-01-01

Initial-value ordinary differential equation solution via variable order Adams method (SIVA/DIVA) package is collection of subroutines for solution of nonstiff ordinary differential equations. There are versions for single-precision and double-precision arithmetic. Requires fewer evaluations of derivatives than other variable-order Adams predictor/ corrector methods. Option for direct integration of second-order equations makes integration of trajectory problems significantly more efficient. Written in FORTRAN 77.

16. Collocation methods for the solution of eigenvalue problems for singular ordinary differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Winfried Auzinger

2006-01-01

Full Text Available We demonstrate that eigenvalue problems for ordinary differential equations can be recast in a formulation suitable for the solution by polynomial collocation. It is shown that the well-posedness of the two formulations is equivalent in the regular as well as in the singular case. Thus, a collocation code equipped with asymptotically correct error estimation and adaptive mesh selection can be successfully applied to compute the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions efficiently and with reliable control of the accuracy. Numerical examples illustrate this claim.

17. Mathematical Methods for Engineers and Scientists 2 Vector Analysis, Ordinary Differential Equations and Laplace Transforms

CERN Document Server

Tang, Kwong-Tin

2007-01-01

Pedagogical insights gained through 30 years of teaching applied mathematics led the author to write this set of student-oriented books. Topics such as complex analysis, matrix theory, vector and tensor analysis, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, ordinary and partial differential equations are presented in a discursive style that is readable and easy to follow. Numerous clearly stated, completely worked out examples together with carefully selected problem sets with answers are used to enhance students' understanding and manipulative skill. The goal is to make students comfortable and confident in using advanced mathematical tools in junior, senior, and beginning graduate courses.

18. The use of SEM/EDS method in mineralogical analysis of ordinary chondritic meteorite

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Breda Mirtič

2009-12-01

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersiveX-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS for determination of mineral phases according to their stoichiometry and assessment of mineral composition of ordinary chondritic meteorite. For the purposes of this study, H3 type ordinary chondritic meteorite Abbott was selected. SEM/EDS allows identification and characterisation of mineralphases, whose size is below the resolution of an optical microscope. Mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix were located in backscattered electron (BSE mode and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS analyses of mineral phases showed that Abbott meteorite is characterised by Fe-rich (Fe, Ni-alloy kamacite, Fe-sulphide troilite or pyrrhotite, chromite, Mg-rich olivine, orthopyroxene bronzite or hypersthene, clinopyroxene Al-diopside, acid plagioclase oligoclase, accessory mineral chlorapatite and secondary minerals Fe-hydroxides (goethite or lepidocrocite. Results of semi-quantitative analyses confirmed that most of analysed mineralphases conform well to stoichiometric minerals with minor deviations of oxygen from stoichiometric proportions. Comparison between mineral phases in chondrules and interstitial matrix was also performed, however it showed no significant differences in elemental composition.Differences in chemical composition between minerals in interstitial matrix and chondrules are sometimes too small to be discernedby the SEM/EDS, therefore knowledge of SEM/EDS capabilities is important for correct interpretation of chondrite formation.

19. Local linearization methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations: An overview

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Jimenez, J.C.

2009-06-01

Local Linearization (LL) methods conform a class of one-step explicit integrators for ODEs derived from the following primary and common strategy: the vector field of the differential equation is locally (piecewise) approximated through a first-order Taylor expansion at each time step, thus obtaining successive linear equations that are explicitly integrated. Hereafter, the LL approach may include some additional strategies to improve that basic affine approximation. Theoretical and practical results have shown that the LL integrators have a number of convenient properties. These include arbitrary order of convergence, A-stability, linearization preserving, regularity under quite general conditions, preservation of the dynamics of the exact solution around hyperbolic equilibrium points and periodic orbits, integration of stiff and high-dimensional equations, low computational cost, and others. In this paper, a review of the LL methods and their properties is presented. (author)

20. A fresh look at linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients. Revisiting the impulsive response method using factorization

Science.gov (United States)

Camporesi, Roberto

2016-01-01

We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations of any order based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The approach presented here can be used in a first course on differential equations for science and engineering majors.

1. Solution of linear ordinary differential equations by means of the method of variation of arbitrary constants

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mejlbro, Leif

1997-01-01

An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians.......An alternative formula for the solution of linear differential equations of order n is suggested. When applicable, the suggested method requires fewer and simpler computations than the well-known method using Wronskians....

2. Runge–Kutta type methods with special properties for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kalogiratou, Z.; Monovasilis, Th.; Psihoyios, G.; Simos, T.E.

2014-01-01

In this work we review single step methods of the Runge–Kutta type with special properties. Among them are methods specially tuned to integrate problems that exhibit a pronounced oscillatory character and such problems arise often in celestial mechanics and quantum mechanics. Symplectic methods, exponentially and trigonometrically fitted methods, minimum phase-lag and phase-fitted methods are presented. These are Runge–Kutta, Runge–Kutta–Nyström and Partitioned Runge–Kutta methods. The theory of constructing such methods is given as well as several specific methods. In order to present the performance of the methods we have tested 58 methods from all categories. We consider the two dimensional harmonic oscillator, the two body problem, the pendulum problem and the orbital problem studied by Stiefel and Bettis. Also we have tested the methods on the computation of the eigenvalues of the one dimensional time independent Schrödinger equation with the harmonic oscillator, the doubly anharmonic oscillator and the exponential potentials

3. A multiple-scale power series method for solving nonlinear ordinary differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Chein-Shan Liu

2016-02-01

Full Text Available The power series solution is a cheap and effective method to solve nonlinear problems, like the Duffing-van der Pol oscillator, the Volterra population model and the nonlinear boundary value problems. A novel power series method by considering the multiple scales $R_k$ in the power term $(t/R_k^k$ is developed, which are derived explicitly to reduce the ill-conditioned behavior in the data interpolation. In the method a huge value times a tiny value is avoided, such that we can decrease the numerical instability and which is the main reason to cause the failure of the conventional power series method. The multiple scales derived from an integral can be used in the power series expansion, which provide very accurate numerical solutions of the problems considered in this paper.

4. Improved Ordinary Measure and Image Entropy Theory based intelligent Copy Detection Method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Dengpan Ye

2011-10-01

Full Text Available Nowadays, more and more multimedia websites appear in social network. It brings some security problems, such as privacy, piracy, disclosure of sensitive contents and so on. Aiming at copyright protection, the copy detection technology of multimedia contents becomes a hot topic. In our previous work, a new computer-based copyright control system used to detect the media has been proposed. Based on this system, this paper proposes an improved media feature matching measure and an entropy based copy detection method. The Levenshtein Distance was used to enhance the matching degree when using for feature matching measure in copy detection. For entropy based copy detection, we make a fusion of the two features of entropy matrix of the entropy feature we extracted. Firstly,we extract the entropy matrix of the image and normalize it. Then, we make a fusion of the eigenvalue feature and the transfer matrix feature of the entropy matrix. The fused features will be used for image copy detection. The experiments show that compared to use these two kinds of features for image detection singly, using feature fusion matching method is apparent robustness and effectiveness. The fused feature has a high detection for copy images which have been received some attacks such as noise, compression, zoom, rotation and so on. Comparing with referred methods, the method proposed is more intelligent and can be achieved good performance.

5. Operational method of solution of linear non-integer ordinary and partial differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhukovsky, K V

2016-01-01

We propose operational method with recourse to generalized forms of orthogonal polynomials for solution of a variety of differential equations of mathematical physics. Operational definitions of generalized families of orthogonal polynomials are used in this context. Integral transforms and the operational exponent together with some special functions are also employed in the solutions. The examples of solution of physical problems, related to such problems as the heat propagation in various models, evolutional processes, Black-Scholes-like equations etc. are demonstrated by the operational technique.

6. Recruiting and Retaining LGBTQ-Identified Staff in Academic Libraries Through Ordinary Methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Elliott Kuecker

2017-03-01

Full Text Available In Brief While the American academic library field works hard to include all patrons and materials that represent less dominant populations, it should be more mindful of inclusivity in its own workforce. Particularly, the field does nothing to explicitly recruit or retain LGBTQ-identified librarians. The author proposes practical remedies to these problems that directly respond to workplace studies on interpersonal difficulties LGBTQ-identified librarians and others have cited as barriers to happiness in the workplace, and argues toward more inclusive LIS education and financial support.

7. Numerical discretization-based estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models via penalized spline smoothing with applications in biomedical research.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

2012-06-01

Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this article, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First, a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler's method, trapezoidal rule, and Runge-Kutta method. A higher-order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods t an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

8. Exponential-fitted methods for integrating stiff systems of ordinary differential equations: Applications to homogeneous gas-phase chemical kinetics

Science.gov (United States)

Pratt, D. T.

1984-01-01

Conventional algorithms for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are based on the use of polynomial functions as interpolants. However, the exact solutions of stiff ODEs behave like decaying exponential functions, which are poorly approximated by polynomials. An obvious choice of interpolant are the exponential functions themselves, or their low-order diagonal Pade (rational function) approximants. A number of explicit, A-stable, integration algorithms were derived from the use of a three-parameter exponential function as interpolant, and their relationship to low-order, polynomial-based and rational-function-based implicit and explicit methods were shown by examining their low-order diagonal Pade approximants. A robust implicit formula was derived by exponential fitting the trapezoidal rule. Application of these algorithms to integration of the ODEs governing homogenous, gas-phase chemical kinetics was demonstrated in a developmental code CREK1D, which compares favorably with the Gear-Hindmarsh code LSODE in spite of the use of a primitive stepsize control strategy.

9. New methods for the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations and their application to the equations of motion of spacecraft

Science.gov (United States)

Banyukevich, A.; Ziolkovski, K.

1975-01-01

A number of hybrid methods for solving Cauchy problems are described on the basis of an evaluation of advantages of single and multiple-point numerical integration methods. The selection criterion is the principle of minimizing computer time. The methods discussed include the Nordsieck method, the Bulirsch-Stoer extrapolation method, and the method of recursive Taylor-Steffensen power series.

10. Ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Miller, Richard K

1982-01-01

Ordinary Differential Equations is an outgrowth of courses taught for a number of years at Iowa State University in the mathematics and the electrical engineering departments. It is intended as a text for a first graduate course in differential equations for students in mathematics, engineering, and the sciences. Although differential equations is an old, traditional, and well-established subject, the diverse backgrounds and interests of the students in a typical modern-day course cause problems in the selection and method of presentation of material. In order to compensate for this diversity,

11. Ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Cox, William

1995-01-01

Building on introductory calculus courses, this text provides a sound foundation in the underlying principles of ordinary differential equations. Important concepts, including uniqueness and existence theorems, are worked through in detail and the student is encouraged to develop much of the routine material themselves, thus helping to ensure a solid understanding of the fundamentals required.The wide use of exercises, problems and self-assessment questions helps to promote a deeper understanding of the material and it is developed in such a way that it lays the groundwork for further

12. A practical tissue sampling method using ordinary paper for molecular detection of infectious bursal disease virus RNA by RT-PCR.

Science.gov (United States)

Maw, Min Thein; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Kasanga, Christopher J; Terasaki, Kaori; Fukushi, Hideto

2006-12-01

A practical sampling method for bursal tissue using ordinary paper for molecular diagnosis of infectious bursal disease (IBD) was established. IBD virus-infected bursa was directly smeared on chromatography paper, filter paper, or stationery copy paper and was then fixed with absolute ethanol, Tris-HCl-saturated phenol, or phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1). Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) card, which is designed for the collection of biological samples for molecular detection, was also used. After storage at 37 C for up to 30 days, total RNA directly extracted from the tissue fixed on the papers and FTA card were subjected to reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for detection of IBD virus (IBDV) RNA. In addition, the ability of each chemical used in the fixation and the FTA card to inactivate IBDV was evaluated. Regardless of the paper quality, storage period, and fixation method, IBDV RNA was consistently detected in all of the samples. IBDV in the bursal tissue was inactivated with phenol but not with ethanol or the unknown chemicals in FTA card. These results show that ordinary papers sustain the viral RNA, as does FTA card, but phenol fixation is superior to FTA card in inactivating IBDV. The new sampling method using ordinary paper with phenol fixation is safe, inexpensive, simple, and easy, and is thus suitable for conducting a global survey of IBD even where laboratory resources are limited. This practical method should contribute to the control of IBD worldwide.

13. A course in ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Swift, Randall J

2014-01-01

Praise for the First Edition:"A Course in Ordinary Differential Equations deserves to be on the MAA's Basic Library List … the book with its layout, is very student friendly-it is easy to read and understand; every chapter and explanations flow smoothly and coherently … the reviewer would recommend this book highly for undergraduate introductory differential equation courses." -Srabasti Dutta, College of Saint Elizabeth, MAA Online, July 2008"An important feature is that the exposition is richly accompanied by computer algebra code (equally distributed between MATLAB, Mathematica, and Maple). The major part of the book is devoted to classical theory (both for systems and higher order equations). The necessary material from linear algebra is also covered. More advanced topics include numerical methods, stability of equilibria, bifurcations, Laplace transforms, and the power series method."-EMS Newsletter, June 2007"This is a delightful textbook for a standard one-semester undergraduate course in ordinary d...

14. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

Science.gov (United States)

Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

2017-05-09

Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

15. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

Science.gov (United States)

Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

2014-04-22

Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

16. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

Science.gov (United States)

Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

2014-03-04

Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

17. Generalized Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

Science.gov (United States)

Miao, Hongyu; Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi

2014-10-01

Existing estimation methods for ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are not applicable to discrete data. The generalized ODE (GODE) model is therefore proposed and investigated for the first time. We develop the likelihood-based parameter estimation and inference methods for GODE models. We propose robust computing algorithms and rigorously investigate the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator by considering both measurement errors and numerical errors in solving ODEs. The simulation study and application of our methods to an influenza viral dynamics study suggest that the proposed methods have a superior performance in terms of accuracy over the existing ODE model estimation approach and the extended smoothing-based (ESB) method.

18. Numerical analysis of systems of ordinary and stochastic differential equations

CERN Document Server

Artemiev, S S

1997-01-01

This text deals with numerical analysis of systems of both ordinary and stochastic differential equations. It covers numerical solution problems of the Cauchy problem for stiff ordinary differential equations (ODE) systems by Rosenbrock-type methods (RTMs).

19. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

Van Zyl, Lourens H

2008-01-01

Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

20. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

2018-04-10

Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

1. Improved Riccati Transfer Matrix Method for Free Vibration of Non-Cylindrical Helical Springs Including Warping

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

A.M. Yu

2012-01-01

Full Text Available Free vibration equations for non-cylindrical (conical, barrel, and hyperboloidal types helical springs with noncircular cross-sections, which consist of 14 first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, are theoretically derived using spatially curved beam theory. In the formulation, the warping effect upon natural frequencies and vibrating mode shapes is first studied in addition to including the rotary inertia, the shear and axial deformation influences. The natural frequencies of the springs are determined by the use of improved Riccati transfer matrix method. The element transfer matrix used in the solution is calculated using the Scaling and Squaring method and Pad'e approximations. Three examples are presented for three types of springs with different cross-sectional shapes under clamped-clamped boundary condition. The accuracy of the proposed method has been compared with the FEM results using three-dimensional solid elements (Solid 45 in ANSYS code. Numerical results reveal that the warping effect is more pronounced in the case of non-cylindrical helical springs than that of cylindrical helical springs, which should be taken into consideration in the free vibration analysis of such springs.

2. Ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Greenberg, Michael D

2014-01-01

Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

3. Ordinary General Assembly

CERN Multimedia

Staff Association

2011-01-01

Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly ma...

4. Ordinary General Assembly

CERN Multimedia

Association du personnel

2010-01-01

Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Modifications to the statutes of the association Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda...

5. Ordinary General Assembly

CERN Multimedia

Staff Association

2011-01-01

Tuesday 12 April at 14.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 20 April 2010 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2010 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2010 Programme for 2011 Presentation and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2012 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may r...

6. Ordinary General Assembly

CERN Multimedia

Staff Association

2010-01-01

Tuesday 20 April at 10.00 Council Chamber, Bldg 503 In conformity with the Statutes of the Staff Association, an ordinary General Assembly is organized once a year (article IV.2.1). Agenda   Adoption of the Agenda Approval of the Draft Minutes of the Ordinary General Assembly of 12 May 2009 Presentation and approval of the Activity Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Financial Report 2009 Presentation and approval of the Auditors Report 2009 Programme for 2010 Presentation et and approval of the draft budget and subscription rate 2010 Election of the Election Committee Election of the Board of Auditors Miscellaneous We remind members of article IV.3.4 in the Statutes of the Association which reads: “After having dealt with all the items on the agenda, the members may, with the consent of the Assembly, have other matters discussed, but decisions may be taken only on the items listed on the agenda. Nevertheless, the Assembly may require t...

7. Ordinary and extraordinary means.

Science.gov (United States)

Gillon, R

1986-01-25

The Roman Catholic doctrine of ordinary and extraordinary means in patient care decisions is the subject of this essay in Gillon's series on medical ethics. He briefly traces the Church history of this doctrine, which holds that saving life is not obligatory if doing so would be excessively burdensome or disproportionate in relation to the expected benefits. The burdens and benefits are to be weighed in the context of "circumstances of persons, places, times, and cultures," and factors such as the costs and risks of undergoing a proposed treatment may be considered. Gillon also notes the disagreement among Roman Catholic commentators over whether it is ever permissible to discontinue feeding as a burdensome, extraordinary treatment. He concludes that, despite different weightings of harms and benefits, Roman Catholic and non-Catholic thinkers are in accord over the appropriate moral approach to deciding when treatment is not obligatory.

8. Aiming for the ordinary

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Offersen, Sara Marie Hebsgaard

that the Danes are encouraged to be alert to still earlier and vaguer bodily signs of potential cancer and seek care ‘in time’. With biomedical constructions such as ‘cancer awareness’ and ‘alarm symptoms of cancer’ and the retrospectively oriented definition of life before symptoms-based healthcare seeking...... and articulation of bodily sensations, and how decisions about healthcare seeking are established in this context. This dissertation aims to explore these matters from the perspective of the Danish middle class, mainly focusing on how sensations are ascribed meaning as symptoms and how they are evoked...... on a continuum between what is locally considered ordinary and extraordinary. Overall, the dissertation argues that inquiries into morality and potentiality provide valuable insights into healthcare seeking practices and the making and management of symptoms in everyday life. The dissertation is based on 18...

9. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

2008-01-01

The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

10. Numerical method for the eigenvalue problem and the singular equation by using the multi-grid method and application to ordinary differential equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kanki, Takashi; Uyama, Tadao; Tokuda, Shinji.

1995-07-01

In the numerical method to compute the matching data which are necessary for resistive MHD stability analyses, it is required to solve the eigenvalue problem and the associated singular equation. An iterative method is developed to solve the eigenvalue problem and the singular equation. In this method, the eigenvalue problem is replaced with an equivalent nonlinear equation and a singular equation is derived from Newton's method for the nonlinear equation. The multi-grid method (MGM), a high speed iterative method, can be applied to this method. The convergence of the eigenvalue and the eigenvector, and the CPU time in this method are investigated for a model equation. It is confirmed from the numerical results that this method is effective for solving the eigenvalue problem and the singular equation with numerical stability and high accuracy. It is shown by improving the MGM that the CPU time for this method is 50 times shorter than that of the direct method. (author)

11. Numerical integration of asymptotic solutions of ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Thurston, Gaylen A.

1989-01-01

Classical asymptotic analysis of ordinary differential equations derives approximate solutions that are numerically stable. However, the analysis also leads to tedious expansions in powers of the relevant parameter for a particular problem. The expansions are replaced with integrals that can be evaluated by numerical integration. The resulting numerical solutions retain the linear independence that is the main advantage of asymptotic solutions. Examples, including the Falkner-Skan equation from laminar boundary layer theory, illustrate the method of asymptotic analysis with numerical integration.

12. Ordinary differential equations principles and applications

CERN Document Server

Nandakumaran, A K; George, Raju K

2017-01-01

Written in a clear, logical and concise manner, this comprehensive resource allows students to quickly understand the key principles, techniques and applications of ordinary differential equations. Important topics including first and second order linear equations, initial value problems and qualitative theory are presented in separate chapters. The concepts of two point boundary value problems, physical models and first order partial differential equations are discussed in detail. The text uses tools of calculus and real analysis to get solutions in explicit form. While discussing first order linear systems, linear algebra techniques are used. The real-life applications are interspersed throughout the book to invoke reader's interest. The methods and tricks to solve numerous mathematical problems with sufficient derivations and explanation are provided. The proofs of theorems are explained for the benefit of the readers.

13. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

Science.gov (United States)

Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

2010-04-06

Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

14. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

1992-01-01

This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

15. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

KAUST Repository

Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Wei

2016-01-01

In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

16. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

KAUST Repository

Lai, Zhiping

2016-01-21

In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

17. Ordinary differential equations with applications in molecular biology.

Science.gov (United States)

Ilea, M; Turnea, M; Rotariu, M

2012-01-01

Differential equations are of basic importance in molecular biology mathematics because many biological laws and relations appear mathematically in the form of a differential equation. In this article we presented some applications of mathematical models represented by ordinary differential equations in molecular biology. The vast majority of quantitative models in cell and molecular biology are formulated in terms of ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of concentrations of molecular species. Assuming that the diffusion in the cell is high enough to make the spatial distribution of molecules homogenous, these equations describe systems with many participating molecules of each kind. We propose an original mathematical model with small parameter for biological phospholipid pathway. All the equations system includes small parameter epsilon. The smallness of epsilon is relative to the size of the solution domain. If we reduce the size of the solution region the same small epsilon will result in a different condition number. It is clear that the solution for a smaller region is less difficult. We introduce the mathematical technique known as boundary function method for singular perturbation system. In this system, the small parameter is an asymptotic variable, different from the independent variable. In general, the solutions of such equations exhibit multiscale phenomena. Singularly perturbed problems form a special class of problems containing a small parameter which may tend to zero. Many molecular biology processes can be quantitatively characterized by ordinary differential equations. Mathematical cell biology is a very active and fast growing interdisciplinary area in which mathematical concepts, techniques, and models are applied to a variety of problems in developmental medicine and bioengineering. Among the different modeling approaches, ordinary differential equations (ODE) are particularly important and have led to significant advances

18. Schwarz maps of algebraic linear ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Sanabria Malagón, Camilo

2017-12-01

A linear ordinary differential equation is called algebraic if all its solution are algebraic over its field of definition. In this paper we solve the problem of finding closed form solution to algebraic linear ordinary differential equations in terms of standard equations. Furthermore, we obtain a method to compute all algebraic linear ordinary differential equations with rational coefficients by studying their associated Schwarz map through the Picard-Vessiot Theory.

19. Test of numerical methods for the integration of kinetic equations in tropospheric chemistry; Confronto di metodi numerici per l'integrazione di sistemi di equazioni differenziali ordinarie di tipo STIFF inserite nel modello fotochimico Calgrid

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Lorenzini, R.; Passoni, L. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

1999-07-01

The integration of ordinary differential equations systems (ODEs) is of significant concern to tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry modelers. The solution of the ODEs requires a large computational effort because of their stiff nature; in a three-dimensional photochemical model the solution of the ODEs required at least 70% of the total CPU time. Several numerical integration techniques exist which attempt to provide accurate and computationally efficient solutions. In this work it is presented a comparison of some of the techniques in terms of solution accuracy and required computational time. It has been compared the Hybrid Solver (Young and Boris, 1977), the Quasi Steady-State Approximation method (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) and the Chemical Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (Aro, 1996), by using the CALGRID photochemical model. The accuracy is evaluated by comparing the results of every method with the solutions obtained by the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations (Hindmarsh, 1980). The comparison has been made varing the parameters of the error tolerances, and taking into account the trade-off between solution accuracy and computational efficiency. [Italian] L'integrazione di sistemi di equazioni differenziali ordinarie (ODEs), e' un problema significativo per i modellisti della chimica troposferica e stratosferica. A causa della loro natura stiff la soluzione degli ODEs richiese un notevole sforzo computazionale; in un modello fotochimico tridimensionale la soluzione degli ODEs richiede almeno il 70% del tempo totale di CPU. Esistono diverse tecniche di integrazione numerica che possono fornire soluzioni accurate e computazionalmente efficienti: in questo lavoro presentiamo un confronto fra alcune tecniche in termini di accuratezza della soluzione e tempo computazionale richiesto. Si sono confrontati il Solver Ibrido (Young and Boris, 1977), il metodo Quasi Steady-State Approximation (Hesstvedt et al., 1978) ed il Chemical

20. Monograph - The Numerical Integration of Ordinary Differential Equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Hull, T. E.

The materials presented in this monograph are intended to be included in a course on ordinary differential equations at the upper division level in a college mathematics program. These materials provide an introduction to the numerical integration of ordinary differential equations, and they can be used to supplement a regular text on this…

Science.gov (United States)

2001-01-01

Through Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding from NASA's Stennis Space Center, Geophex devised a new design for broadband electromagnetic sensors. Geophex developed a patented sensing technology, capable not only of coastal monitoring, but also a variety of other functions, including environmental pollution characterization, groundwater contamination detection, archaeological study, and mineral detection. The new technology is offered in several of the company's products the GEM-2, GEM-2A, and the GEM-3. The Geophex products consist of two primary electromagnetic coils, which are stimulated by alternating currents that generate a magnetic field in the object targeted for investigation. GEM-2 is a handheld, lightweight, programmable, digital device. GEM-2A is an airborne version of the sensor. Suspended from a helicopter, the GEM-2A is used to search for mineral deposits and to survey large tracts of land. The GEM-3 is capable of detecting buried landmines and other active munitions. GEM-3 identifies landmines by their brand names. Because each landmine has its own unique electromagnetic response to the broad frequency band emitted by the GEM-3, bomb identification and disposal strategies are made easier.

2. Description and use of LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

1993-01-01

LSODE, the Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations, is a package of FORTRAN subroutines designed for the numerical solution of the initial value problem for a system of ordinary differential equations. It is particularly well suited for 'stiff' differential systems, for which the backward differentiation formula method of orders 1 to 5 is provided. The code includes the Adams-Moulton method of orders 1 to 12, so it can be used for nonstiff problems as well. In addition, the user can easily switch methods to increase computational efficiency for problems that change character. For both methods a variety of corrector iteration techniques is included in the code. Also, to minimize computational work, both the step size and method order are varied dynamically. This report presents complete descriptions of the code and integration methods, including their implementation. It also provides a detailed guide to the use of the code, as well as an illustrative example problem.

3. Praying "Online": The Ordinary Theology of Prayer Intentions Posted on the Internet

Science.gov (United States)

ap Sion, Tania; Edwards, Owen

2012-01-01

Astley's construct of ordinary theology takes seriously listening to the religious expression and experience of ordinary people, both churched and unchurched. One method by which this has already been achieved is through the empirical analysis of the content of ordinary people's intercessory prayer requests left in hospitals and churches. Building…

4. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kaschek Daniel

2012-08-01

Full Text Available Abstract Background Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. Results The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. Conclusions The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

5. A variational approach to parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Kaschek, Daniel; Timmer, Jens

2012-08-14

Ordinary differential equations are widely-used in the field of systems biology and chemical engineering to model chemical reaction networks. Numerous techniques have been developed to estimate parameters like rate constants, initial conditions or steady state concentrations from time-resolved data. In contrast to this countable set of parameters, the estimation of entire courses of network components corresponds to an innumerable set of parameters. The approach presented in this work is able to deal with course estimation for extrinsic system inputs or intrinsic reactants, both not being constrained by the reaction network itself. Our method is based on variational calculus which is carried out analytically to derive an augmented system of differential equations including the unconstrained components as ordinary state variables. Finally, conventional parameter estimation is applied to the augmented system resulting in a combined estimation of courses and parameters. The combined estimation approach takes the uncertainty in input courses correctly into account. This leads to precise parameter estimates and correct confidence intervals. In particular this implies that small motifs of large reaction networks can be analysed independently of the rest. By the use of variational methods, elements from control theory and statistics are combined allowing for future transfer of methods between the two fields.

6. 3D Laser Scanning Assisted by Ordinary Plane Mirror for Non-direct Viewing Area

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

ZHANG Fan

2017-12-01

Full Text Available Terrestrial 3D laser scanning is one of principal methods to get the geometric information of object surface,and the integrity of the scanned object is a basic requirement in data acquisition. In order to solve the missing point cloud problem due to the scanning dead angle caused by confined working space,this paper proposes a method using ordinary plane mirror to obtain laser scanning data for non-direct viewing area according to the plane mirror reflection principle,analyzes the influence mechanism of the ordinary plane mirror on the propagation path and distance of laser beam,deduces the coordinate equation of the object point corresponding to the image point reflected by ordinary plane mirror in laser scanning. Given the laser scanning characteristic,this paper introduces a mirror reflection system included target balls and ordinary plane mirror,and expounds the system construction,system calibration and constructing method of system coordinate system. The feasibility and precision of the method are verified by experiments.

7. New Ideas: Ordinary is Extraordinary

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Antonio Jose

2004-06-01

Full Text Available Abstract With the initial issue of this journal, a new challenge has been offered tothe world of sports nutrition: initiate "team oriented" research and clinical trials in order to make dynamic progress in terms of understandingand applying nutrition principals to the field of competitive sports. It is our further challenge that these teams think "outside the box" in terms of their approach to elucidating new concepts through which nutritional interventions might play a role in the regulation of muscle growth and repair, athletic performance and endurance, and mental acuity. What was once thought of as extraordinary might now be approached as ordinary, if the correct composition of "teams" were formed.

8. VODE, Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) Solver

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Brown, P.N.; Hindmarsh, A.C.; Byrne, G.D.

2002-01-01

1 - Description of program or function: VODE is a package of subroutines for the numerical solution of the initial-value problem for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. The package can be used for either stiff or non-stiff systems. In the stiff case, the Jacobian matrix is treated as full or banded. An algorithm is included for saving and reusing the Jacobian matrix under certain conditions. If storage is limited, this option may be suppressed. 2 - Method of solution - VODE uses the variable-order, variable- coefficient Adams-Moulton method for non-stiff systems and the variable-order, fixed-leading-coefficient Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) method for stiff systems

9. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

Science.gov (United States)

Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

2013-01-22

Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

10. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

KAUST Repository

Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

2017-01-01

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

11. Differential equations a dynamical systems approach ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Hubbard, John H

1991-01-01

This is a corrected third printing of the first part of the text Differential Equations: A Dynamical Systems Approach written by John Hubbard and Beverly West. The authors' main emphasis in this book is on ordinary differential equations. The book is most appropriate for upper level undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of mathematics, engineering, and applied mathematics, as well as the life sciences, physics and economics. Traditional courses on differential equations focus on techniques leading to solutions. Yet most differential equations do not admit solutions which can be written in elementary terms. The authors have taken the view that a differential equations defines functions; the object of the theory is to understand the behavior of these functions. The tools the authors use include qualitative and numerical methods besides the traditional analytic methods. The companion software, MacMath, is designed to bring these notions to life.

12. Quantum States as Ordinary Information

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ken Wharton

2014-03-01

Full Text Available Despite various parallels between quantum states and ordinary information, quantum no-go-theorems have convinced many that there is no realistic framework that might underly quantum theory, no reality that quantum states can represent knowledge about. This paper develops the case that there is a plausible underlying reality: one actual spacetime-based history, although with behavior that appears strange when analyzed dynamically (one time-slice at a time. By using a simple model with no dynamical laws, it becomes evident that this behavior is actually quite natural when analyzed “all-at-once” (as in classical action principles. From this perspective, traditional quantum states would represent incomplete information about possible spacetime histories, conditional on the future measurement geometry. Without dynamical laws imposing additional restrictions, those histories can have a classical probability distribution, where exactly one history can be said to represent an underlying reality.

13. Equivariant ordinary homology and cohomology

CERN Document Server

Costenoble, Steven R

2016-01-01

Filling a gap in the literature, this book takes the reader to the frontiers of equivariant topology, the study of objects with specified symmetries. The discussion is motivated by reference to a list of instructive “toy” examples and calculations in what is a relatively unexplored field. The authors also provide a reading path for the first-time reader less interested in working through sophisticated machinery but still desiring a rigorous understanding of the main concepts. The subject’s classical counterparts, ordinary homology and cohomology, dating back to the work of Henri Poincaré in topology, are calculational and theoretical tools which are important in many parts of mathematics and theoretical physics, particularly in the study of manifolds. Similarly powerful tools have been lacking, however, in the context of equivariant topology. Aimed at advanced graduate students and researchers in algebraic topology and related fields, the book assumes knowledge of basic algebraic topology and group act...

14. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

2016-01-01

Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of

15. Ordinary differential equations basics and beyond

CERN Document Server

Schaeffer, David G

2016-01-01

This book develops the theory of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), starting from an introductory level (with no prior experience in ODEs assumed) through to a graduate-level treatment of the qualitative theory, including bifurcation theory (but not chaos). While proofs are rigorous, the exposition is reader-friendly, aiming for the informality of face-to-face interactions. A unique feature of this book is the integration of rigorous theory with numerous applications of scientific interest. Besides providing motivation, this synthesis clarifies the theory and enhances scientific literacy. Other features include: (i) a wealth of exercises at various levels, along with commentary that explains why they matter; (ii) figures with consistent color conventions to identify nullclines, periodic orbits, stable and unstable manifolds; and (iii) a dedicated website with software templates, problem solutions, and other resources supporting the text. Given its many applications, the book may be used comfortably in sc...

16. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

Science.gov (United States)

Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

2018-01-01

Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

17. A method for the computation of turbulent polymeric liquids including hydrodynamic interactions and chain entanglements

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kivotides, Demosthenes, E-mail: demosthenes.kivotides@strath.ac.uk

2017-02-12

An asymptotically exact method for the direct computation of turbulent polymeric liquids that includes (a) fully resolved, creeping microflow fields due to hydrodynamic interactions between chains, (b) exact account of (subfilter) residual stresses, (c) polymer Brownian motion, and (d) direct calculation of chain entanglements, is formulated. Although developed in the context of polymeric fluids, the method is equally applicable to turbulent colloidal dispersions and aerosols. - Highlights: • An asymptotically exact method for the computation of polymer and colloidal fluids is developed. • The method is valid for all flow inertia and all polymer volume fractions. • The method models entanglements and hydrodynamic interactions between polymer chains.

18. Development of calculation method for one-dimensional kinetic analysis in fission reactors, including feedback effects

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.

1986-01-01

The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt

19. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

KAUST Repository

Bakr, Osman M.

2017-03-02

Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

20. Ordinary differential equations introduction to the theory of ordinary differential equations in the real domain

CERN Document Server

Kurzweil, J

1986-01-01

The author, Professor Kurzweil, is one of the world's top experts in the area of ordinary differential equations - a fact fully reflected in this book. Unlike many classical texts which concentrate primarily on methods of integration of differential equations, this book pursues a modern approach: the topic is discussed in full generality which, at the same time, permits us to gain a deep insight into the theory and to develop a fruitful intuition. The basic framework of the theory is expanded by considering further important topics like stability, dependence of a solution on a parameter, Car

1. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

Science.gov (United States)

DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

2012-04-17

Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

2. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

Science.gov (United States)

Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

2013-09-17

Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

3. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

Science.gov (United States)

2012-01-01

Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

4. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

2002-02-01

Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

5. Sports for learners with physical disabilities in ordinary public ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

No adapted sport was offered specifically for these learners. Most learners wanted to participate in swimming. Fewer types of sports were offered in ordinary schools than in special schools. Barriers to participation included poor teacher preparation and inadequate financial support. The shortage of support from school staff, ...

6. Robust estimation for ordinary differential equation models.

Science.gov (United States)

Cao, J; Wang, L; Xu, J

2011-12-01

Applied scientists often like to use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to model complex dynamic processes that arise in biology, engineering, medicine, and many other areas. It is interesting but challenging to estimate ODE parameters from noisy data, especially when the data have some outliers. We propose a robust method to address this problem. The dynamic process is represented with a nonparametric function, which is a linear combination of basis functions. The nonparametric function is estimated by a robust penalized smoothing method. The penalty term is defined with the parametric ODE model, which controls the roughness of the nonparametric function and maintains the fidelity of the nonparametric function to the ODE model. The basis coefficients and ODE parameters are estimated in two nested levels of optimization. The coefficient estimates are treated as an implicit function of ODE parameters, which enables one to derive the analytic gradients for optimization using the implicit function theorem. Simulation studies show that the robust method gives satisfactory estimates for the ODE parameters from noisy data with outliers. The robust method is demonstrated by estimating a predator-prey ODE model from real ecological data. © 2011, The International Biometric Society.

7. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

Science.gov (United States)

van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

2016-02-01

Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

8. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

Science.gov (United States)

Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

2011-02-01

Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

9. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

Science.gov (United States)

Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

2012-04-30

Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

10. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

1980-01-01

A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

11. Do Wage Subsidies Reduce Ordinary Employment?

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Azhar, Hussain; Rasmussen, Martin

Applying administrative register data information for Danish firms in 1999, 2000, and 2001, this paper investigate how the employment of wage subsidized labour affects ordinary employment at the firm level. Descriptive statistics as well as econometric estimations are presented. Descriptive...

12. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

2013-01-01

the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms......The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

13. Topological Higgs mechanism with ordinary Higgs mechanism

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oda Ichiro; Yahikozawa Shigeaki.

1989-12-01

Topological Higgs mechanism in higher dimensions is analyzed when ordinary Higgs potential exists. It is shown that if one-form B-field becomes massive by the ordinary Higgs mechanism, another D-2 form C-field also becomes massive through topological term in addition to the topological mass generation by the topological Higgs mechanism. Moreover we investigate this mechanism in three dimensional theories, that is to say, Chern-Simons theory and more general theory. (author). 10 refs

14. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

1977-01-01

A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

15. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

Science.gov (United States)

Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

2014-05-01

Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

16. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

1977-01-01

A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

17. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Fox, L

1987-01-01

Nearly 20 years ago we produced a treatise (of about the same length as this book) entitled Computing methods for scientists and engineers. It was stated that most computation is performed by workers whose mathematical training stopped somewhere short of the 'professional' level, and that some books are therefore needed which use quite simple mathematics but which nevertheless communicate the essence of the 'numerical sense' which is exhibited by the real computing experts and which is surely needed, at least to some extent, by all who use modern computers and modern numerical software. In that book we treated, at no great length, a variety of computational problems in which the material on ordinary differential equations occupied about 50 pages. At that time it was quite common to find books on numerical analysis, with a little on each topic ofthat field, whereas today we are more likely to see similarly-sized books on each major topic: for example on numerical linear algebra, numerical approximation, numeri...

18. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

Science.gov (United States)

Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

2015-09-08

A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

19. Error estimation in the neural network solution of ordinary differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Filici, Cristian

2010-06-01

In this article a method of error estimation for the neural approximation of the solution of an Ordinary Differential Equation is presented. Some examples of the application of the method support the theory presented. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

20. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes method including acoustic damping by eddy viscosity using RANS

Science.gov (United States)

Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang

2015-06-01

In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.

1. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

1981-01-01

Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

2. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Isotalo, A.E.; Wieselquist, W.A.

2015-01-01

Highlights: • A method for handling external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM. • Source term can have polynomial or exponentially decaying time-dependence. • CRAM with source term and adjoint capability implemented to ORIGEN in SCALE. • The new solver is faster and more accurate than the original solver of ORIGEN. - Abstract: A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Furthermore, in most cases, the new solver is up to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one

3. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

2016-06-15

Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

4. Network Reconstruction From High-Dimensional Ordinary Differential Equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Chen, Shizhe; Shojaie, Ali; Witten, Daniela M

2017-01-01

We consider the task of learning a dynamical system from high-dimensional time-course data. For instance, we might wish to estimate a gene regulatory network from gene expression data measured at discrete time points. We model the dynamical system nonparametrically as a system of additive ordinary differential equations. Most existing methods for parameter estimation in ordinary differential equations estimate the derivatives from noisy observations. This is known to be challenging and inefficient. We propose a novel approach that does not involve derivative estimation. We show that the proposed method can consistently recover the true network structure even in high dimensions, and we demonstrate empirical improvement over competing approaches. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

5. A new numerical approximation of the fractal ordinary differential equation

Science.gov (United States)

Atangana, Abdon; Jain, Sonal

2018-02-01

The concept of fractal medium is present in several real-world problems, for instance, in the geological formation that constitutes the well-known subsurface water called aquifers. However, attention has not been quite devoted to modeling for instance, the flow of a fluid within these media. We deem it important to remind the reader that the concept of fractal derivative is not to represent the fractal sharps but to describe the movement of the fluid within these media. Since this class of ordinary differential equations is highly complex to solve analytically, we present a novel numerical scheme that allows to solve fractal ordinary differential equations. Error analysis of the method is also presented. Application of the method and numerical approximation are presented for fractal order differential equation. The stability and the convergence of the numerical schemes are investigated in detail. Also some exact solutions of fractal order differential equations are presented and finally some numerical simulations are presented.

6. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

Science.gov (United States)

Cowgill, Joel [White Lake, MI

2012-05-08

An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

7. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

Science.gov (United States)

Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

2013-03-26

A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

8. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

Science.gov (United States)

Mariani, Robert Dominick

2014-09-09

Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

9. Algebraic dynamics solutions and algebraic dynamics algorithm for nonlinear ordinary differential equations

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

WANG; Shunjin; ZHANG; Hua

2006-01-01

The problem of preserving fidelity in numerical computation of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is studied in terms of preserving local differential structure and approximating global integration structure of the dynamical system.The ordinary differential equations are lifted to the corresponding partial differential equations in the framework of algebraic dynamics,and a new algorithm-algebraic dynamics algorithm is proposed based on the exact analytical solutions of the ordinary differential equations by the algebraic dynamics method.In the new algorithm,the time evolution of the ordinary differential system is described locally by the time translation operator and globally by the time evolution operator.The exact analytical piece-like solution of the ordinary differential equations is expressd in terms of Taylor series with a local convergent radius,and its finite order truncation leads to the new numerical algorithm with a controllable precision better than Runge Kutta Algorithm and Symplectic Geometric Algorithm.

10. Numerical solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations in the frequency domain

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hazi, G.; Por, G.

1997-01-01

Numerical problems during the noise simulation in a nuclear power plant are discussed. The solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations are studied in the frequency domain. Numerical methods by the transfer function method are applied. It is shown that the correctness of the numerical methods is limited for ordinary differential equations in the frequency domain. To overcome the difficulties, step-size selection is suggested. (author)

11. Second-principles method for materials simulations including electron and lattice degrees of freedom

Science.gov (United States)

García-Fernández, Pablo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier

2016-05-01

We present a first-principles-based (second-principles) scheme that permits large-scale materials simulations including both atomic and electronic degrees of freedom on the same footing. The method is based on a predictive quantum-mechanical theory—e.g., density functional theory—and its accuracy can be systematically improved at a very modest computational cost. Our approach is based on dividing the electron density of the system into a reference part—typically corresponding to the system's neutral, geometry-dependent ground state—and a deformation part—defined as the difference between the actual and reference densities. We then take advantage of the fact that the bulk part of the system's energy depends on the reference density alone; this part can be efficiently and accurately described by a force field, thus avoiding explicit consideration of the electrons. Then, the effects associated to the difference density can be treated perturbatively with good precision by working in a suitably chosen Wannier function basis. Further, the electronic model can be restricted to the bands of interest. All these features combined yield a very flexible and computationally very efficient scheme. Here we present the basic formulation of this approach, as well as a practical strategy to compute model parameters for realistic materials. We illustrate the accuracy and scope of the proposed method with two case studies, namely, the relative stability of various spin arrangements in NiO (featuring complex magnetic interactions in a strongly-correlated oxide) and the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (featuring subtle electron-lattice couplings and screening effects). We conclude by discussing ways to overcome the limitations of the present approach (most notably, the assumption of a fixed bonding topology), as well as its many envisioned possibilities and future extensions.

12. AND DEVELOPMENT OF LETTUCE ON CHERNOZEM ORDINARY

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

N. V. Gromakova

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Lettuce is very popular in the Russian consumer market. Special conditions for its cultivation determine the need to select modern, inexpensive elements of agro-technology that promote high yields. At present biochar (bio-coal is considered as a promising organic fertilizer. Its main difference lies in the possibility of using any organic raw material in its production. In Russia, the study on the use of biochar is limited; there is no practice of applying it in the complex of agricultural techniques of various agricultural crops. In the conditions of vegetative experiment, the influence of various doses of biochar in ordinary chernozem on the growth and development of lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar was studied in accordance with the developed experiment scheme: control (without biochar, supplemented with 1, 2 and 5 % of biochar. In the experiment, biochar obtained from birch wood was used, by pyrolysis method in fraction of 0.5-5mm. The following observations and determinations were made: the timing of the onset of the phases of plant development, the length of the roots, the number of leaves, the length of the largest leaf, the height of plants, the diameter of the rosette, the mass of 10 plants. The use of biochar contributed to a reduction of beginning period technical ripeness in plants, particularly in variant with the addition of 2%. The increase in root length, the number of leaves of lettuce plants as compared with to control in variants with 2 and 5% of biocar has been observed. The length of the largest leaf, the height of plants and the diameter of the rosette of lettuce are characterized by a significant improvement, even in variant with 1%. Productivity of lettuce was highest in the variant with 2% of biochar applied to the soil.

13. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft

Science.gov (United States)

Ross, J. C.

1984-01-01

The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

14. Developing Concepts of Ordinary and Extraordinary Communication

Science.gov (United States)

Lane, Jonathan D.; Evans, E. Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A.; Wellman, Henry M.

2016-01-01

We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether…

15. A Unified Introduction to Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Lutzer, Carl V.

2006-01-01

This article describes how a presentation from the point of view of differential operators can be used to (partially) unify the myriad techniques in an introductory course in ordinary differential equations by providing students with a powerful, flexible paradigm that extends into (or from) linear algebra. (Contains 1 footnote.)

16. Symmetries, Integrals and Solutions of Ordinary Differential ...

Second-and third-order scalar ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in the traditional sense of point, respectively contact, symmetry are examined for the mappings they produce in solutions and fundamental first integrals. The properties of the exceptional symmetries', i.e. those not considered to be generic to ...

17. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

Science.gov (United States)

Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

2008-12-02

The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

18. Unconstrained snoring detection using a smartphone during ordinary sleep.

Science.gov (United States)

Shin, Hangsik; Cho, Jaegeol

2014-08-15

Snoring can be a representative symptom of a sleep disorder, and thus snoring detection is quite important to improving the quality of an individual's daily life. The purpose of this research is to develop an unconstrained snoring detection technique that can be integrated into a smartphone application. In contrast with previous studies, we developed a practical technique for snoring detection during ordinary sleep by using the built-in sound recording system of a smartphone, and the recording was carried out in a standard private bedroom. The experimental protocol was designed to include a variety of actions that frequently produce noise (including coughing, playing music, talking, rining an alarm, opening/closing doors, running a fan, playing the radio, and walking) in order to accurately recreate the actual circumstances during sleep. The sound data were recorded for 10 individuals during actual sleep. In total, 44 snoring data sets and 75 noise datasets were acquired. The algorithm uses formant analysis to examine sound features according to the frequency and magnitude. Then, a quadratic classifier is used to distinguish snoring from non-snoring noises. Ten-fold cross validation was used to evaluate the developed snoring detection methods, and validation was repeated 100 times randomly to improve statistical effectiveness. The overall results showed that the proposed method is competitive with those from previous research. The proposed method presented 95.07% accuracy, 98.58% sensitivity, 94.62% specificity, and 70.38% positive predictivity. Though there was a relatively high false positive rate, the results show the possibility for ubiquitous personal snoring detection through a smartphone application that takes into account data from normally occurring noises without training using preexisting data.

19. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

2014-01-01

The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...

20. Multiple and fast: The accretion of ordinary chondrite parent bodies

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vernazza, P.; Barge, P.; Zanda, B.; Hewins, R.; Binzel, R. P.; DeMeo, F. E.; Lockhart, M.; Hiroi, T.; Birlan, M.; Ricci, L.

2014-01-01

Although petrologic, chemical, and isotopic studies of ordinary chondrites and meteorites in general have largely helped establish a chronology of the earliest events of planetesimal formation and their evolution, there are several questions that cannot be resolved via laboratory measurements and/or experiments alone. Here, we propose the rationale for several new constraints on the formation and evolution of ordinary chondrite parent bodies (and, by extension, most planetesimals) from newly available spectral measurements and mineralogical analysis of main-belt S-type asteroids (83 objects) and unequilibrated ordinary chondrite meteorites (53 samples). Based on the latter, we suggest that spectral data may be used to distinguish whether an ordinary chondrite was formed near the surface or in the interior of its parent body. If these constraints are correct, the suggested implications include that: (1) large groups of compositionally similar asteroids are a natural outcome of planetesimal formation and, consequently, meteorites within a given class can originate from multiple parent bodies; (2) the surfaces of large (up to ∼200 km) S-type main-belt asteroids mostly expose the interiors of the primordial bodies, a likely consequence of impacts by small asteroids (D < 10 km) in the early solar system; (3) the duration of accretion of the H chondrite parent bodies was likely short (instantaneous or in less than ∼10 5 yr, but certainly not as long as 1 Myr); (4) LL-like bodies formed closer to the Sun than H-like bodies, a possible consequence of the radial mixing and size sorting of chondrules in the protoplanetary disk prior to accretion.

1. FORSIM, Solution of Ordinary or Partial Differential Equation with Initial Conditions

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carver, M.B.

1985-01-01

1 - Description of problem or function: FORSIM is a FORTRAN oriented simulation program which automates the continuous transient solution of systems of ordinary and/or partial differential equations. The user writes his equations in a FORTRAN subroutine, following prescribed rules, and loads this routine along with the executive routines. The executive routines then read in initial data supplied by the user and proceed with the integration. 2 - Method of solution: Partial differential equations are converted to coupled ordinary differential equations by suitable discretization formulae. Integration is done by variable order, variable step-size error controlled algorithms. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maximum of: 1000 ordinary differential equations

2. A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.

Science.gov (United States)

Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

2012-01-01

Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.

3. Ordinary differential equation for local accumulation time.

Science.gov (United States)

Berezhkovskii, Alexander M

2011-08-21

Cell differentiation in a developing tissue is controlled by the concentration fields of signaling molecules called morphogens. Formation of these concentration fields can be described by the reaction-diffusion mechanism in which locally produced molecules diffuse through the patterned tissue and are degraded. The formation kinetics at a given point of the patterned tissue can be characterized by the local accumulation time, defined in terms of the local relaxation function. Here, we show that this time satisfies an ordinary differential equation. Using this equation one can straightforwardly determine the local accumulation time, i.e., without preliminary calculation of the relaxation function by solving the partial differential equation, as was done in previous studies. We derive this ordinary differential equation together with the accompanying boundary conditions and demonstrate that the earlier obtained results for the local accumulation time can be recovered by solving this equation. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

4. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

2004-01-01

it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

5. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

Science.gov (United States)

Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

2016-02-23

A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

6. Solutions manual to accompany Ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Greenberg, Michael D

2014-01-01

Features a balance between theory, proofs, and examples and provides applications across diverse fields of study Ordinary Differential Equations presents a thorough discussion of first-order differential equations and progresses to equations of higher order. The book transitions smoothly from first-order to higher-order equations, allowing readers to develop a complete understanding of the related theory. Featuring diverse and interesting applications from engineering, bioengineering, ecology, and biology, the book anticipates potential difficulties in understanding the various solution steps

7. Signs in Architecture: Beauty in the Ordinary

OpenAIRE

Suzuki, Akiko

2004-01-01

In Japan, the basics of living are described as three main elements; clothing, food, and shelter. These elements involve simple daily activities such as changing clothes in the morning, eating lunch, and sleeping at night. It may easily become a mundane topic since they are woven into our daily routines. Nevertheless, a moment in one's day may become joyful when we reconsider and play with the ordinary. The first trace of a dwelling in Japan is a pit shelter. People dug a circular ...

8. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Man Cheol

2004-02-01

Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

9. Developing concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication.

Science.gov (United States)

Lane, Jonathan D; Evans, E Margaret; Brink, Kimberly A; Wellman, Henry M

2016-01-01

We examine how understandings of ordinary and extraordinary communication develop. Three- to 10-year-old children and adults (N = 183) were given scenarios in which a protagonist wanted help from a human (their parent) or from God. Scenarios varied in whether protagonists expressed their desires aloud (by asking) or silently (by hoping), whether (for human scenarios) parents were nearby or far away, and whether (for God scenarios) protagonists expressed desires through ordinary means (asking or hoping) or more extraordinary means (praying). Following each scenario, participants were asked whether the recipient (either the parent or God) was aware of the protagonist's desire. Children as young as 3 to 4 years old understood that both loudness and distance limit the effectiveness of human communication, reporting that humans would most likely be aware of desires when they were expressed both aloud and nearby. As well, by this age children reported that God would more often be aware of desires than would humans, but children of all ages often reported that God (like humans) would be more aware of desires expressed aloud (rather than silently). These concepts of ordinary and extraordinary communication continued to be refined through middle childhood. Children's performance on standard theory-of-mind tasks and participants' religious background predicted whether they attributed awareness to God. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

10. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

1985-01-01

This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

11. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Petersen, Steffen

2008-01-01

Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

12. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

2013-01-01

Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

13. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

Science.gov (United States)

Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

2017-10-01

Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

14. Indication of Importance of Including Soil Microbial Characteristics into Biotope Valuation Method.

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Trögl, J.; Pavlorková, Jana; Packová, P.; Seják, J.; Kuráň, P.; Kuráň, J.; Popelka, J.; Pacina, J.

2016-01-01

Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 253. ISSN 2071-1050 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biotope assessment * biotope valuation method * soil microbial communities Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2016

15. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

Science.gov (United States)

Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

1977-03-08

A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

16. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

Science.gov (United States)

Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

2017-02-21

Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

17. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

Lapidus, Leon

1971-01-01

In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

18. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

Science.gov (United States)

Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

2007-10-23

A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

19. Ordinary Share Price Behaviour Around 'C' Share Issues by Investment Trusts

OpenAIRE

1995-01-01

This paper examines the "C" share issue, a method of issuing shares which is peculiar to the UK investment trust industry. In particular, we analyse abnormal returns and discount/premium to net asset value behaviour of the ordinary shares both before and after the announcement of "C" share issues. The research was conducted using event study methodology and an innovative approach to the analysis of discount/premium movements. The results suggest a tendency for the ordinary shares to outperfor...

20. Impact of Including Authentic Inquiry Experiences in Methods Courses for Pre-Service Secondary Teachers

Science.gov (United States)

Slater, T. F.; Elfring, L.; Novodvorsky, I.; Talanquer, V.; Quintenz, J.

2007-12-01

Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in the context of their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: prepare students to address real world complex problems; develop students' ability to use scientific methods; prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. However, it is unclear what the broader pre-service teacher preparation community is doing in preparing future teachers to promote, manage, and successful facilitate their own students in conducting authentic scientific inquiry. Surveys of undergraduates in secondary science education programs suggests that students have had almost no experiences themselves in conducting open scientific inquiry where they develop researchable questions, design strategies to pursue evidence, and communicate data-based conclusions. In response, the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Arizona requires all students enrolled in its various science teaching methods courses to complete an open inquiry research project and defend their findings at a specially designed inquiry science mini-conference at the end of the term. End-of-term surveys show that students enjoy their research experience and believe that this experience enhances their ability to facilitate their own future students in conducting open inquiry.

1. Use of the potentiometric titration method to investigate heterogeneous systems including phosphorylated complexones

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tereshin, G.S.; Kharitonova, L.K.; Kuznetsova, O.B.

1979-01-01

Heterogeneous systems Y(NO 3 ) 3 (YCl 3 )-Hsub(n)L-KNO 3 (KCl)-H 2 O are investigated by potentiometric titration (with coulomb-meter generation of oH - ions). Hsub(n)L is one of the following: oxyethylidendiphosphonic; aminobenzilidendiphosphonic; glycine-bis-methyl-phosphonic; nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (H 6 L) and ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acids. The range of the exsistence of YHsub(nL3)LxyH 2 O has been determined. The possibility of using potentiometric titration for investigating heterogeneous systems is demonstrated by the stUdy of the system Y(NO 3 ) 3 -H 6 L-KOH-H 2 o by the method of residual concentration. The two methods have shown that at pH 3 LxyH 2 O; at pH=6, KYH 2 Lxy'H 2 O, and at pH=7, K 2 YHLxy''H 2 O. The complete solubility products of nitrilotrimethylphosphonates are evaluated

2. A convolution method for predicting mean treatment dose including organ motion at imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Booth, J.T.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

2000-01-01

Full text: The random treatment delivery errors (organ motion and set-up error) can be incorporated into the treatment planning software using a convolution method. Mean treatment dose is computed as the convolution of a static dose distribution with a variation kernel. Typically this variation kernel is Gaussian with variance equal to the sum of the organ motion and set-up error variances. We propose a novel variation kernel for the convolution technique that additionally considers the position of the mobile organ in the planning CT image. The systematic error of organ position in the planning CT image can be considered random for each patient over a population. Thus the variance of the variation kernel will equal the sum of treatment delivery variance and organ motion variance at planning for the population of treatments. The kernel is extended to deal with multiple pre-treatment CT scans to improve tumour localisation for planning. Mean treatment doses calculated with the convolution technique are compared to benchmark Monte Carlo (MC) computations. Calculations of mean treatment dose using the convolution technique agreed with MC results for all cases to better than ± 1 Gy in the planning treatment volume for a prescribed 60 Gy treatment. Convolution provides a quick method of incorporating random organ motion (captured in the planning CT image and during treatment delivery) and random set-up errors directly into the dose distribution. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

3. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

2017-09-19

Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

4. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

Science.gov (United States)

Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

2017-07-11

Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

5. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

CERN Document Server

Milton, Kimball A

2006-01-01

This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

6. Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bejlin, V.A.; Vereshkov, G.M.; Kuksa, V.I.

1995-01-01

Non-diagonal processes of singlet and ordinary quark production are analyzed in the model where the down singlet quark mixes with the ordinary ones. The possibility of experimental selection of h-quark effects is demonstrated

7. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

OpenAIRE

Kalniņa Līga; Selga Guntars; Sauka Melita; Randoha Aija; Krasovska Eva; Lāriņš Viesturs

2017-01-01

The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea). Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calcul...

8. Decoding Facial Esthetics to Recreate an Esthetic Hairline: A Method Which Includes Forehead Curvature.

Science.gov (United States)

Garg, Anil K; Garg, Seema

2017-01-01

The evidence suggests that our perception of physical beauty is based on how closely the features of one's face reflect phi (the golden ratio) in their proportions. By that extension, it must certainly be possible to use a mathematical parameter to design an anterior hairline in all faces. To establish a user-friendly method to design an anterior hairline in cases of male pattern alopecia. We need a flexible measuring tape and skin marker. A reference point A (glabella) is taken in between eyebrows. Mark point E, near the lateral canthus, 8 cm horizontal on either side from the central point A. A mid-frontal point (point B) is marked 8 cm from point A on the forehead in a mid-vertical plane. The frontotemporal points (C and C') are marked on the frontotemporal area, 8 cm in a horizontal plane from point B and 8 cm in a vertical plane from point E. The temporal peak points (D and D') are marked on the line joining the frontotemporal point C to the lateral canthus point E, slightly more than halfway toward lateral canthus, usually 5 cm from the frontotemporal point C. This line makes an anterior border of the temporal triangle. We have conducted a study with 431 cases of male pattern alopecia. The average distance of the mid-frontal point from glabella was 7.9 cm. The patient satisfaction reported was 94.7%. Our method gives a skeletal frame of the anterior hairline with minimal criteria, with no need of visual imagination and experience of the surgeon. It automatically takes care of the curvature of the forehead and is easy to use for a novice surgeon.

9. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

Science.gov (United States)

Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

2015-05-01

Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

10. VCODE, Ordinary Differential Equation Solver for Stiff and Non-Stiff Problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cohen, Scott D.; Hindmarsh, Alan C.

2001-01-01

1 - Description of program or function: CVODE is a package written in ANSI standard C for solving initial value problems for ordinary differential equations. It solves both stiff and non stiff systems. In the stiff case, it includes a variety of options for treating the Jacobian of the system, including dense and band matrix solvers, and a preconditioned Krylov (iterative) solver. 2 - Method of solution: Integration is by Adams or BDF (Backward Differentiation Formula) methods, at user option. Corrector iteration is by functional iteration or Newton iteration. For the solution of linear systems within Newton iteration, users can select a dense solver, a band solver, a diagonal approximation, or a preconditioned Generalized Minimal Residual (GMRES) solver. In the dense and band cases, the user can supply a Jacobian approximation or let CVODE generate it internally. In the GMRES case, the pre-conditioner is user-supplied

11. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

2016-01-01

Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

12. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

Science.gov (United States)

Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

2016-09-01

Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

13. 7 CFR 28.406 - Strict Good Ordinary Color.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Color. 28.406 Section 28.406... for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.406 Strict Good Ordinary Color. Strict Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range represented by a set of samples in the custody of the...

14. 7 CFR 28.407 - Good Ordinary Color.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Good Ordinary Color. 28.407 Section 28.407 Agriculture..., TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Official Cotton Standards of the United States for the Color Grade of American Upland Cotton § 28.407 Good Ordinary Color. Good Ordinary Color is color which is within the range...

15. Ordinary Differential Equation Models for Adoptive Immunotherapy.

Science.gov (United States)

Talkington, Anne; Dantoin, Claudia; Durrett, Rick

2018-05-01

Modified T cells that have been engineered to recognize the CD19 surface marker have recently been shown to be very successful at treating acute lymphocytic leukemias. Here, we explore four previous approaches that have used ordinary differential equations to model this type of therapy, compare their properties, and modify the models to address their deficiencies. Although the four models treat the workings of the immune system in slightly different ways, they all predict that adoptive immunotherapy can be successful to move a patient from the large tumor fixed point to an equilibrium with little or no tumor.

16. The ethics of an ordinary medical technology.

Science.gov (United States)

van Manen, Michael A

2015-07-01

Some routinely applied hospital technologies may have unintended consequences for patients and their families. The neonatal cardiorespiratory monitor, a computer-like display used to show an infant's vital functions, is one such technology that may become part of a parent's day-to-day being with his or her hospitalized child. In this phenomenological study, I explored how the monitor may mediate parental sensibilities, reshaping the contact of parent and child. This exploration speaks to understanding the relational ethics of even the seemingly most ordinary of medical technologies in clinical contexts. © The Author(s) 2014.

17. SAHYB-2, Solution of Ordinary Differential Equation with User-Supplied Subroutine

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hoop, H. d'; Monterosso, R.

1967-01-01

1 - Nature of physical problem solved: SAHYB-2 is a general purpose programme for the solution of ordinary differential equations. These are written in a user-supplied subroutine called DER, which uses notations very close to mathematical formulas. Special mathematical functions are included in the programme, as: Function generation, delay generation, steps, ramps and pulses, as well as a simplified standard output procedure - boundary value problems or parametric optimisation may be handled by iterations adding a subroutine called REPEAT. 2 - Method of solution: Integration is carried out by constant step fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, or by a fixed or variable step Adams-Moulton predictor corrector method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum 150 differential equations of the first order. Maximum 30 tables for function generator or delay lines

18. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

2015-01-01

This book offers readers a primer on the theory and applications of Ordinary Differential Equations. The style used is simple, yet thorough and rigorous. Each chapter ends with a broad set of exercises that range from the routine to the more challenging and thought-provoking. Solutions to selected exercises can be found at the end of the book. The book contains many interesting examples on topics such as electric circuits, the pendulum equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, the Laplace Transform, etc., which introduce students to a number of interesting aspects of the theory and applications. The work is mainly intended for students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Computer Science and other areas of the natural and social sciences that use ordinary differential equations, and who have a firm grasp of Calculus and a minimal understanding of the basic concepts used in Linear Algebra. It also studies a few more advanced topics, such as Stability Theory and Boundary Value Problems, whic...

19. Stochastic Computational Approach for Complex Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Khan, Junaid Ali; Raja, Muhammad Asif Zahoor; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

2011-01-01

We present an evolutionary computational approach for the solution of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs). The mathematical modeling is performed by a feed-forward artificial neural network that defines an unsupervised error. The training of these networks is achieved by a hybrid intelligent algorithm, a combination of global search with genetic algorithm and local search by pattern search technique. The applicability of this approach ranges from single order NLODEs, to systems of coupled differential equations. We illustrate the method by solving a variety of model problems and present comparisons with solutions obtained by exact methods and classical numerical methods. The solution is provided on a continuous finite time interval unlike the other numerical techniques with comparable accuracy. With the advent of neuroprocessors and digital signal processors the method becomes particularly interesting due to the expected essential gains in the execution speed. (general)

20. Additivity methods for prediction of thermochemical properties. The Laidler method revisited. 2. Hydrocarbons including substituted cyclic compounds

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Santos, Rui C.; Leal, Joao P.; Martinho Simoes, Jose A.

2009-01-01

A revised parameterization of the extended Laidler method for predicting standard molar enthalpies of atomization and standard molar enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K for several families of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, cycloalkanes, substituted cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, substituted cycloalkenes, benzene derivatives, and bi and polyphenyls) is presented. Data for a total of 265 gas-phase and 242 liquid-phase compounds were used for the calculation of the parameters. Comparison of the experimental values with those obtained using the additive scheme led to an average absolute difference of 0.73 kJ . mol -1 for the gas-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation and 0.79 kJ . mol -1 for the liquid-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation. The database used to establish the parameters was carefully reviewed by using, whenever possible, the original publications. A worksheet to simplify the calculation of standard molar enthalpies of formation and standard molar enthalpies of atomization at T = 298.15 K based on the extended Laidler parameters defined in this paper is provided as supplementary material.

1. From ordinary to partial differential equations

CERN Document Server

Esposito, Giampiero

2017-01-01

This book is addressed to mathematics and physics students who want to develop an interdisciplinary view of mathematics, from the age of Riemann, Poincaré and Darboux to basic tools of modern mathematics. It enables them to acquire the sensibility necessary for the formulation and solution of difficult problems, with an emphasis on concepts, rigour and creativity. It consists of eight self-contained parts: ordinary differential equations; linear elliptic equations; calculus of variations; linear and non-linear hyperbolic equations; parabolic equations; Fuchsian functions and non-linear equations; the functional equations of number theory; pseudo-differential operators and pseudo-differential equations. The author leads readers through the original papers and introduces new concepts, with a selection of topics and examples that are of high pedagogical value.

2. A textbook on ordinary differential equations

CERN Document Server

2014-01-01

The book is a primer of the theory of Ordinary Differential Equations. Each chapter is completed by a broad set of exercises; the reader will also find a set of solutions of selected exercises. The book contains many interesting examples as well (like the equations for the electric circuits, the pendium equation, the logistic equation, the Lotka-Volterra system, and many other) which introduce the reader to some interesting aspects of the theory and its applications. The work is mainly addressed to students of Mathematics, Physics, Engineering, Statistics, Computer Sciences, with  knowledge of Calculus and Linear Algebra, and contains more advanced topics for further developments, such as Laplace transform; Stability theory and existence of solutions to Boundary Value problems. The authors are preparing a complete solutions manual, containing solutions to all the exercises published in the book. The manual will be available Summer 2014. Instructors who wish to adopt the book may request the manual by writing...

3. Ordinary differential equations a graduate text

CERN Document Server

Bhamra, K S

2015-01-01

ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: A Graduate Text presents a systematic and comprehensive introduction to ODEs for graduate and postgraduate students. The systematic organized text on differential inequalities, Gronwall's inequality, Nagumo's theorems, Osgood's criteria and applications of different equations of first order is dealt with in a greater depth. The book discusses qualitative and quantitative aspects of the Strum - Liouville problems, Green's function, integral equations, Laplace transform and is supported by a number of worked-out examples in each lesson to make the concepts clear. A lot of stress on stability theory is laid down, especially on Lyapunov and Poincare stability theory. A numerous figures in various lessons (in particular lessons dealing with stability theory) have been added to clarify the key concepts in DE theory. Nonlinear oscillation in conservative systems and Hamiltonian systems highlights basic nature of the systems considered. Perturbation techniques lesson deals in fairly d...

4. Universal formats for nonlinear ordinary differential systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kerner, E.H.

1981-01-01

It is shown that very general nonlinear ordinary differential systems (embracing all that arise in practice) may, first, be brought down to polynomial systems (where the nonlinearities occur only as polynomials in the dependent variables) by introducing suitable new variables into the original system; second, that polynomial systems are reducible to ''Riccati systems,'' where the nonlinearities are quadratic at most; third, that Riccati systems may be brought to elemental universal formats containing purely quadratic terms with simple arrays of coefficients that are all zero or unity. The elemental systems have representations as novel types of matrix Riccati equations. Different starting systems and their associated Riccati systems differ from one another, at the final elemental level, in order and in initial data, but not in format

5. ODEPACK, Initial Value Problems of Ordinary Differential Equation System

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hindmarsh, A.C.; Petzold, L.R.

2005-01-01

I - Description of program or function: ODEPACK is a collection of Fortran solvers for the initial value problem for ordinary differential equation systems. It consists of nine solvers, namely a basic solver called LSODE and eight variants of it -- LSODES, LSODA, LSODAR, LSODPK, LSODKR, LSODI, LSOIBT, and LSODIS. The collection is suitable for both stiff and non-stiff systems. It includes solvers for systems given in explicit form, dy/dt = f(t,y), and also solvers for systems given in linearly implicit form, A(t,y) dy/dt = g(t,y). Two of the solvers use general sparse matrix solvers for the linear systems that arise. Two others use iterative (preconditioned Krylov) methods instead of direct methods for these linear systems. The most recent addition is LSODIS, which solves implicit problems with general sparse treatment of all matrices involved. The ODEPACK solvers are written in standard Fortran 77, with a few exceptions, and with minimal machine dependencies. There are separate double and single precision versions of ODEPACK. The actual solver names are those given above with a prefix of D- or S- for the double or single precision version, respectively, i.e. DLSODE/SLSODE, etc. Each solver consists of a main driver subroutine having the same name as the solver and some number of subordinate routines. For each solver, there is also a demonstration program, which solves one or two simple problems in a somewhat self-checking manner. A. Solvers for explicitly given systems. For each of the following solvers, it is assumed that the ODEs are given explicitly, so that the system can be written in the form dy/dt = f(t,y), where y is the vector of dependent variables, and t is the independent variable. 1. LSODE (Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations) is the basic solver of the collection. It solves stiff and non-stiff systems of the form dy/dt = f. In the stiff case, it treats the Jacobian matrix df/dy as either a dense (full) or a banded matrix, and as

6. Rapid Classification of Ordinary Chondrites Using Raman Spectroscopy

Science.gov (United States)

Fries, M.; Welzenbach, L.

2014-01-01

Classification of ordinary chondrites is typically done through measurements of the composition of olivine and pyroxenes. Historically, this measurement has usually been performed via electron microprobe, oil immersion or other methods which can be costly through lost sample material during thin section preparation. Raman microscopy can perform the same measurements but considerably faster and with much less sample preparation allowing for faster classification. Raman spectroscopy can facilitate more rapid classification of large amounts of chondrites such as those retrieved from North Africa and potentially Antarctica, are present in large collections, or are submitted to a curation facility by the public. With development, this approach may provide a completely automated classification method of all chondrite types.

7. Numerical solution of stiff systems of ordinary differential equations with applications to electronic circuits

Science.gov (United States)

Rosenbaum, J. S.

1971-01-01

Systems of ordinary differential equations in which the magnitudes of the eigenvalues (or time constants) vary greatly are commonly called stiff. Such systems of equations arise in nuclear reactor kinetics, the flow of chemically reacting gas, dynamics, control theory, circuit analysis and other fields. The research reported develops an A-stable numerical integration technique for solving stiff systems of ordinary differential equations. The method, which is called the generalized trapezoidal rule, is a modification of the trapezoidal rule. However, the method is computationally more efficient than the trapezoidal rule when the solution of the almost-discontinuous segments is being calculated.

8. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Eila Jeronen

2016-12-01

Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

9. An algorithm for solving initial value problems of third order ordinary ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Abstract. We propose an implicit multi-step method for the solution of initial value problems (IVPs) of third order ordinary differential equations (ODE) which does not require reducing the ODE to first order before solving. The development of the method is based on collocation of the differential system and interpolation of the ...

10. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

Science.gov (United States)

Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

2017-01-01

There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

11. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities - Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer.

Science.gov (United States)

Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Holm, Peter E

2017-08-01

12. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models.

Science.gov (United States)

Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

2014-08-01

Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

13. Cause and cure of sloppiness in ordinary differential equation models

Science.gov (United States)

Tönsing, Christian; Timmer, Jens; Kreutz, Clemens

2014-08-01

Data-based mathematical modeling of biochemical reaction networks, e.g., by nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, has been successfully applied. In this context, parameter estimation and uncertainty analysis is a major task in order to assess the quality of the description of the system by the model. Recently, a broadened eigenvalue spectrum of the Hessian matrix of the objective function covering orders of magnitudes was observed and has been termed as sloppiness. In this work, we investigate the origin of sloppiness from structures in the sensitivity matrix arising from the properties of the model topology and the experimental design. Furthermore, we present strategies using optimal experimental design methods in order to circumvent the sloppiness issue and present nonsloppy designs for a benchmark model.

14. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

Science.gov (United States)

Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

2017-10-01

The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

15. Ordinary Social Interaction and the Main Effect Between Perceived Support and Affect.

Science.gov (United States)

Lakey, Brian; Vander Molen, Randy J; Fles, Elizabeth; Andrews, Justin

2016-10-01

Relational regulation theory hypothesizes that (a) the main effect between perceived support and mental health primarily reflects ordinary social interaction rather than conversations about stress and how to cope with it, and (b) the extent to which a provider regulates a recipient's mental health primarily reflects the recipient's personal taste (i.e., is relational), rather than the provider's objective supportiveness. In three round-robin studies, participants rated each other on supportiveness and the quality of ordinary social interaction, as well as their own affect when interacting with each other. Samples included marines about to deploy to Afghanistan (N = 100; 150 dyads), students sharing apartments (N = 64; 96 dyads), and strangers (N = 48; 72 dyads). Perceived support and ordinary social interaction were primarily relational, and most of perceived support's main effect on positive affect was redundant with ordinary social interaction. The main effect between perceived support and affect emerged among strangers after brief text conversations, and these links were partially verified by independent observers. Findings for negative affect were less consistent with theory. Ordinary social interaction appears to be able to explain much of the main effect between perceived support and positive affect. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

16. 7 CFR 28.426 - Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color. 28.426 Section 28.426 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Spotted Color. Strict Good Ordinary Spotted Color is color which is within the range represented by a set...

17. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

2017-02-01

For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

18. Ordinary least square regression, orthogonal regression, geometric mean regression and their applications in aerosol science

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Leng Ling; Zhang Tianyi; Kleinman, Lawrence; Zhu Wei

2007-01-01

Regression analysis, especially the ordinary least squares method which assumes that errors are confined to the dependent variable, has seen a fair share of its applications in aerosol science. The ordinary least squares approach, however, could be problematic due to the fact that atmospheric data often does not lend itself to calling one variable independent and the other dependent. Errors often exist for both measurements. In this work, we examine two regression approaches available to accommodate this situation. They are orthogonal regression and geometric mean regression. Comparisons are made theoretically as well as numerically through an aerosol study examining whether the ratio of organic aerosol to CO would change with age

19. Generation and Identification of Ordinary Differential Equations of Maximal Symmetry Algebra

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

J. C. Ndogmo

2016-01-01

Full Text Available An effective method for generating linear ordinary differential equations of maximal symmetry in their most general form is found, and an explicit expression for the point transformation reducing the equation to its canonical form is obtained. New expressions for the general solution are also found, as well as several identification and other results and a direct proof of the fact that a linear ordinary differential equation is iterative if and only if it is reducible to the canonical form by a point transformation. New classes of solvable equations parameterized by an arbitrary function are also found, together with simple algebraic expressions for the corresponding general solution.

20. Nanodiamonds and silicate minerals in ordinary chondrites as determined by micro-Raman spectroscopy

Science.gov (United States)

Saikia, Bhaskar J.; Parthasarathy, Gopalakrishnarao; Borah, Rashmi R.

2017-06-01

We present here the Raman spectroscopic study of silicate and carbonaceous minerals in three ordinary chondrites with the aim to improve our understanding the impact process including the peak metamorphic pressures present in carbon-bearing ordinary chondites. The characteristic Raman vibrational peaks of olivines, pyroxenes, and plagioclase have been determined on three ordinary chondrites from India, Dergaon (H5), Mahadevpur (H4/5), and Kamargaon (L6). The Raman spectra of these meteorite samples show the presence of nanodiamonds at 1334-1345 cm-1 and 1591-1619 cm-1. The full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of Raman peaks for Mahadevpur and Dergaon reflect the nature of shock metamorphism in these meteorites. The frequency shift in Raman spectra might be because of shock effects during the formation of the diamond/graphite grains.

1. Differential equation analysis in biomedical science and engineering ordinary differential equation applications with R

CERN Document Server

Schiesser, William E

2014-01-01

Features a solid foundation of mathematical and computational tools to formulate and solve real-world ODE problems across various fields With a step-by-step approach to solving ordinary differential equations (ODEs), Differential Equation Analysis in Biomedical Science and Engineering: Ordinary Differential Equation Applications with R successfully applies computational techniques for solving real-worldODE problems that are found in a variety of fields, including chemistry, physics, biology,and physiology. The book provides readers with the necessary knowledge to reproduce andextend the comp

2. Design of TIR collimating lens for ordinary differential equation of extended light source

Science.gov (United States)

Zhan, Qianjing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi

2017-10-01

The source of LED has been widely used in our daily life. The intensity angle distribution of single LED is lambert distribution, which does not satisfy the requirement of people. Therefore, we need to distribute light and change the LED's intensity angle distribution. The most commonly method to change its intensity angle distribution is the free surface. Generally, using ordinary differential equations to calculate free surface can only be applied in a point source, but it will lead to a big error for the expand light. This paper proposes a LED collimating lens based on the ordinary differential equation, combined with the LED's light distribution curve, and adopt the method of calculating the center gravity of the extended light to get the normal vector. According to the law of Snell, the ordinary differential equations are constructed. Using the runge-kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equation solution, the curve point coordinates are gotten. Meanwhile, the edge point data of lens are imported into the optical simulation software TracePro. Based on 1mm×1mm single lambert body for light conditions, The degrees of collimating light can be close to +/-3. Furthermore, the energy utilization rate is higher than 85%. In this paper, the point light source is used to calculate partial differential equation method and compared with the simulation of the lens, which improve the effect of 1 degree of collimation.

3. Finding higher order Darboux polynomials for a family of rational first order ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Avellar, J.; Claudino, A. L. G. C.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

2015-10-01

For the Darbouxian methods we are studying here, in order to solve first order rational ordinary differential equations (1ODEs), the most costly (computationally) step is the finding of the needed Darboux polynomials. This can be so grave that it can render the whole approach unpractical. Hereby we introduce a simple heuristics to speed up this process for a class of 1ODEs.

4. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

2015-01-01

We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

5. Exploring Students' Understanding of Ordinary Differential Equations Using Computer Algebraic System (CAS)

Science.gov (United States)

Maat, Siti Mistima; Zakaria, Effandi

2011-01-01

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are one of the important topics in engineering mathematics that lead to the understanding of technical concepts among students. This study was conducted to explore the students' understanding of ODEs when they solve ODE questions using a traditional method as well as a computer algebraic system, particularly…

6. Solving Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations without Using Complex Numbers

Science.gov (United States)

Kougias, Ioannis E.

2009-01-01

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is a subject with a wide range of applications and the need of introducing it to students often arises in the last year of high school, as well as in the early stages of tertiary education. The usual methods of solving second-order ODEs with constant coefficients, among others, rely upon the use of complex…

7. Influence of moisture condition on chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Zhang, Y.; Zhang, M.; Ye, G.

2018-01-01

Experiments have been carried out to study the influence of moisture condition, including moisture content and its distribution, on the chloride diffusion in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortar. The mortar samples with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6, cured for 1

8. TRANSAT-- method for detecting the conserved helices of functional RNA structures, including transient, pseudo-knotted and alternative structures.

Science.gov (United States)

Wiebe, Nicholas J P; Meyer, Irmtraud M

2010-06-24

The prediction of functional RNA structures has attracted increased interest, as it allows us to study the potential functional roles of many genes. RNA structure prediction methods, however, assume that there is a unique functional RNA structure and also do not predict functional features required for in vivo folding. In order to understand how functional RNA structures form in vivo, we require sophisticated experiments or reliable prediction methods. So far, there exist only a few, experimentally validated transient RNA structures. On the computational side, there exist several computer programs which aim to predict the co-transcriptional folding pathway in vivo, but these make a range of simplifying assumptions and do not capture all features known to influence RNA folding in vivo. We want to investigate if evolutionarily related RNA genes fold in a similar way in vivo. To this end, we have developed a new computational method, Transat, which detects conserved helices of high statistical significance. We introduce the method, present a comprehensive performance evaluation and show that Transat is able to predict the structural features of known reference structures including pseudo-knotted ones as well as those of known alternative structural configurations. Transat can also identify unstructured sub-sequences bound by other molecules and provides evidence for new helices which may define folding pathways, supporting the notion that homologous RNA sequence not only assume a similar reference RNA structure, but also fold similarly. Finally, we show that the structural features predicted by Transat differ from those assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Unlike the existing methods for predicting folding pathways, our method works in a comparative way. This has the disadvantage of not being able to predict features as function of time, but has the considerable advantage of highlighting conserved features and of not requiring a detailed knowledge of the cellular

9. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

Science.gov (United States)

Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

2017-01-10

An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

10. Dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations and applications

Science.gov (United States)

Bonotto, E. M.; Federson, M.; Santos, F. L.

2018-03-01

In this work we establish the theory of dichotomies for generalized ordinary differential equations, introducing the concepts of dichotomies for these equations, investigating their properties and proposing new results. We establish conditions for the existence of exponential dichotomies and bounded solutions. Using the correspondences between generalized ordinary differential equations and other equations, we translate our results to measure differential equations and impulsive differential equations. The fact that we work in the framework of generalized ordinary differential equations allows us to manage functions with many discontinuities and of unbounded variation.

11. Shear of ordinary and elongated granular mixtures

Science.gov (United States)

Hensley, Alexander; Kern, Matthew; Marschall, Theodore; Teitel, Stephen; Franklin, Scott

2015-03-01

We present an experimental and computational study of a mixture of discs and moderate aspect-ratio ellipses under two-dimensional annular planar Couette shear. Experimental particles are cut from acrylic sheet, are essentially incompressible, and constrained in the thin gap between two concentric cylinders. The annular radius of curvature is much larger than the particles, and so the experiment is quasi-2d and allows for arbitrarily large pure-shear strains. Synchronized video cameras and software identify all particles and track them as they move from the field of view of one camera to another. We are particularly interested in the global and local properties as the mixture ratio of discs to ellipses varies. Global quantities include average shear rate and distribution of particle species as functions of height, while locally we investigate the orientation of the ellipses and non-affine events that can be characterized as shear transformational zones or possess a quadrupole signature observed previously in systems of purely circular particles. Discrete Element Method simulations on mixtures of circles and spherocylinders extend the study to the dynamics of the force network and energy dissipated as the system evolves. Supported by NSF CBET #1243571 and PRF #51438-UR10.

12. Quantifying uncertainty, variability and likelihood for ordinary differential equation models

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Weisse, Andrea Y

2010-10-28

Abstract Background In many applications, ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are subject to uncertainty or variability in initial conditions and parameters. Both, uncertainty and variability can be quantified in terms of a probability density function on the state and parameter space. Results The partial differential equation that describes the evolution of this probability density function has a form that is particularly amenable to application of the well-known method of characteristics. The value of the density at some point in time is directly accessible by the solution of the original ODE extended by a single extra dimension (for the value of the density). This leads to simple methods for studying uncertainty, variability and likelihood, with significant advantages over more traditional Monte Carlo and related approaches especially when studying regions with low probability. Conclusions While such approaches based on the method of characteristics are common practice in other disciplines, their advantages for the study of biological systems have so far remained unrecognized. Several examples illustrate performance and accuracy of the approach and its limitations.

13. Applications of the conjugate gradient FFT method in scattering and radiation including simulations with impedance boundary conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

1991-01-01

The theoretical and computational aspects related to the application of the Conjugate Gradient FFT (CGFFT) method in computational electromagnetics are examined. The advantages of applying the CGFFT method to a class of large scale scattering and radiation problems are outlined. The main advantages of the method stem from its iterative nature which eliminates a need to form the system matrix (thus reducing the computer memory allocation requirements) and guarantees convergence to the true solution in a finite number of steps. Results are presented for various radiators and scatterers including thin cylindrical dipole antennas, thin conductive and resistive strips and plates, as well as dielectric cylinders. Solutions of integral equations derived on the basis of generalized impedance boundary conditions (GIBC) are also examined. The boundary conditions can be used to replace the profile of a material coating by an impedance sheet or insert, thus, eliminating the need to introduce unknown polarization currents within the volume of the layer. A general full wave analysis of 2-D and 3-D rectangular grooves and cavities is presented which will also serve as a reference for future work.

14. Equations of motion for a rotor blade, including gravity, pitch action and rotor speed variations

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

2007-01-01

This paper extends Hodges-Dowell's partial differential equations of blade motion, by including the effects from gravity, pitch action and varying rotor speed. New equations describing the pitch action and rotor speeds are also derived. The physical interpretation of the individual terms...... in the equations is discussed. The partial differential equations of motion are approximated by ordinary differential equations of motion using an assumed mode method. The ordinary differential equations are used to simulate a sudden pitch change of a rotating blade. This work is a part of a project on pitch blade...

15. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

Science.gov (United States)

Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

2016-01-01

Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

16. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2016-08-01

Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

17. Stabilization of chromium salt in ordinary portland cement

Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) samples containing the chromium salt have been investigated using differential microcalorimetry, conductometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis. The effect of chromium on OPC hydration was evaluated by continuous observing of early hydration.

18. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kimihiko Nakano

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

19. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

Science.gov (United States)

Pinson, Paul A.

1998-01-01

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

20. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

Science.gov (United States)

Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

2013-01-01

1. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pinson, P.A.

1998-01-01

A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

2. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer.

Science.gov (United States)

Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe; Khalil, Azza Ahmed; Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Kandi, Maria; Hoffmann, Lone

2017-11-01

Minimizing the planning target volume (PTV) while ensuring sufficient target coverage during the entire respiratory cycle is essential for free-breathing radiotherapy of lung cancer. Different methods are used to incorporate the respiratory motion into the PTV. Fifteen patients were analyzed. Respiration can be included in the target delineation process creating a respiratory GTV, denoted iGTV. Alternatively, the respiratory amplitude (A) can be measured based on the 4D-CT and A can be incorporated in the margin expansion. The GTV expanded by A yielded GTV + resp, which was compared to iGTV in terms of overlap. Three methods for PTV generation were compared. PTV del (delineated iGTV expanded to CTV plus PTV margin), PTV σ (GTV expanded to CTV and A was included as a random uncertainty in the CTV to PTV margin) and PTV ∑ (GTV expanded to CTV, succeeded by CTV linear expansion by A to CTV + resp, which was finally expanded to PTV ∑ ). Deformation of tumor and lymph nodes during respiration resulted in volume changes between the respiratory phases. The overlap between iGTV and GTV + resp showed that on average 7% of iGTV was outside the GTV + resp implying that GTV + resp did not capture the tumor during the full deformable respiration cycle. A comparison of the PTV volumes showed that PTV σ was smallest and PTV Σ largest for all patients. PTV σ was in mean 14% (31 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV del , while PTV del was 7% (20 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV Σ . PTV σ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTV del ) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger treatment volumes. PTV Σ should not be used, since it incorporates the disadvantages of both PTV del and PTV σ .

3. The Impact of Teaching Academic Education Course of Children with Special Needs in the Ordinary Schools on Students' Attitudes toward Inclusion of Disabled Children

Science.gov (United States)

Salem, Abdelbaky Arafa

2013-01-01

The present study aimed at identifying the attitudes of the teacher student towards including students with special needs with the ordinary ones. Also, to determine whether there are statistically significant differences between students who have studied the academic education course of children with special needs in the ordinary schools and the…

4. The relationship among the solutions of two auxiliary ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Liu Xiaoping; Liu Chunping

2009-01-01

In a recent article [Phys. Lett. A 356 (2006) 124], Sirendaoreji extended their auxiliary equation method by introducing a new auxiliary ordinary differential equation (NAODE) and its 14 solutions. Then the author studied some nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs) and got more exact travelling wave solutions. In this paper, we will show that the 14 solutions of the NAODE are actually the same as the solutions obtained by original auxiliary equation method, and they are only different in the form.

5. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. For classical, relativistic and nano systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Greenspan, D.

2006-01-01

An up-to-date survey on numerical solutions with theory, intuition and applications. Ordinary differential equations (ODE) play a significant role in mathematics, physics and engineering sciences, and thus are part of relevant college and university courses. Many problems, however, both traditional and modern, do not possess exact solutions, and must be treated numerically. Usually this is done with software packages, but for this to be efficient requires a sound understanding of the mathematics involved. This work meets the need for an affordable textbook that helps in understanding numerical solutions of ODE. Carefully structured by an experienced textbook author, it provides a survey of ODE for various applications, both classical and modern, including such special applications as relativistic and nano systems. The examples are carefully explained and compiled into an algorithm, each of which is presented generically, independent of a specific programming language, while each chapter is rounded off with exercises. The text meets the demands of MA200 courses and of the newly created Numerical Solution of Differential Equations courses, making it ideal for both students and lecturers in physics, mathematics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, as well as for physicists, mathematicians, engineers, and electrical engineers. From the Contents - Euler's Method - Runge-Kutta Methods - The Method of Taylor Expansions - Large Second Order Systems with Application to Nano Systems - Completely Conservative, Covariant Numerical Methodology - Instability - Numerical Solution of Tridiagonal Linear Algebraic Systems and Related Nonlinear Systems - Approximate Solution of Boundary Value Problems - Special Relativistic Motion - Special Topics - Appendix: Basic Matrix Operations - Bibliography. (orig.) (orig.)

6. ORDINARY PERSON IN MEDIA: PUBLIC INTEREST AND PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCE

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sergey G. Korkonosenko

2016-04-01

Full Text Available This paper is based on the results of the research project “Media Discourses on Material and Ethnic Gaps. A comparative study in St Petersburg and Stockholm” financed by the Foundation for Baltic and East European Studies (Sweden. One of the main sections of the project was focused on ordinary persons’ portrayal in comparison with images of so-called celebrities in the regional media. Russian and Swedish scholars used a set of methods such as content analysis of newspapers and TV, expert in-depth interviews, and focus groups (2013, Spring - Summer. In fact, common men appeared rarely in TV excerpts and newspaper articles, especially in Russia. At the same time non-commons were shown in the majority of Russian TV and print media items while Swedish media give the opposite proportions. To explain gaps between Russian and Swedish findings one needs to take into account different social and mental traditions in these countries. The difference has been revealed within expert interviews and focus groups.

7. Selective Disparity of Ordinary Chondritic Precursors in Micrometeorite Flux

Science.gov (United States)

Rudraswami, N. G.; Fernandes, D.; Naik, A. K.; Shyam Prasad, M.; Carrillo-Sánchez, J. D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Taylor, S.

2018-01-01

All known extraterrestrial dust (micrometeoroids) entering the Earth’s atmosphere is anticipated to have a significant contribution from ordinary chondritic precursors, as seen in meteorites, but this is an apparent contradiction that needs to be addressed. Ordinary chondrites represent a minor contribution to the overall meteor influx compared to carbonaceous chondrites, which are largely dominated by CI and/or CM chondrites. However, the near-Earth asteroid population presents a scenario with sufficient scope for generation of dust-sized debris from ordinary chondritic sources. The bulk chemical composition of 3255 micrometeorites (MMs) collected from Antarctica and deep-sea sediments has shown Mg/Si largely dominated by carbonaceous chondrites, and less than 10% having ordinary chondritic precursors. The chemical ablation model is combined with different initial chondritic compositions (CI, CV, L, LL, H), and the results clearly indicate that high-density (≥2.8 g cm‑3) precursors, such as CV and ordinary chondrites in the size range 100–700 μm and zenith angle 0°–70°, ablate at much faster rates and lose their identity even before reaching the Earth’s surface and hence are under-represented in our collections. Moreover, their ability to survive as MMs remains grim for high-velocity micrometeoroids (>16 km s‑1). The elemental ratio for CV and ordinary chondrites are also similar to each other irrespective of the difference in the initial chemical composition. In conclusion, MMs belonging to ordinary chondritic precursors’ concentrations may not be insignificant in thermosphere, as they are found on Earth’s surface.

8. The Sound of a Small Whisper: Ordinary Religious Experience

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kugelmann Robert

2017-01-01

Full Text Available An ordinary religious experience does not entail an overwhelming sense of the Divine; it is not a “numinous” experience. It is instead easily ignored. In a phenomenological psychological inquiry into such a religious experience, both the noema, the “what” experienced, and the noesis, the mode of givenness of the experience, manifested themselves in distinctive ways. The paper examines a simple experience of having been guided in making a decision. The guidance was recognized only at the moment of realization. The realization revealed the decision to have been part of a larger drama that transcended the immediate experience. The “world” of this moment of realization included sensing that the sky above-as an “elemental”-was a dome, with allusions to the Noah story. Even at the time, this perception was not experienced as literal, but as symbolic. The social, historical, and theological contexts for the possibility of this experience receive attention. Theological as well as psychological reflection indicate such an experience continues to happen, in memory and thought, and even in action, long after the initial moment. Essential to the meaning of the experience is an admonition to transcend egocentricity.

9. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 15 January 2005

CERN Multimedia

2005-01-01

This meeting was devoted to the main topics summarised below. Follow-up from the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in December 2004 The Chairman welcomed two new SCC members representing the Staff Association: Véronique Paris and Gianni Deroma. Expressing their best wishes for the New Year, the members of the SCC took note of a report by the Chairman on the outcome of these Committee meetings and of the Director-General's staff meeting on 10 January 2005, and discussed a number of internal follow-up actions. Work planning of the SCC & TREF The SCC agreed its calendar of ordinary sessions and its draft work planning for the first half of 2005, subject to including a number of matters outstanding from 2004. The Committee discussed internal preparation for the next meeting of TREF on 4 & 5 April devoted to items concerning the current 5-Yearly Review. The SCC also took note of the provisional scheduling of TREF meetings from May to September, which will be settled by...

10. Criticality calculation of non-ordinary systems

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Kalugin, A. V., E-mail: Kalugin-AV@nrcki.ru; Tebin, V. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2016-12-15

The specific features of calculation of the effective multiplication factor using the Monte Carlo method for weakly coupled and non-asymptotic multiplying systems are discussed. Particular examples are considered and practical recommendations on detection and Monte Carlo calculation of systems typical in numerical substantiation of nuclear safety for VVER fuel management problems are given. In particular, the problems of the choice of parameters for the batch mode and the method for normalization of the neutron batch, as well as finding and interpretation of the eigenvalue spectrum for the integral fission matrix, are discussed.

11. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

Science.gov (United States)

Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

12. Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...

2015-10-21

Oct 21, 2015 ... These λ-symmetries can be derived by a well-defined algorithm which includes ... general reader can understand the advantages, disadvantages and ... urations of a spherical gas cloud acting under the mutual attraction of its ...

13. Inverse problems in ordinary differential equations and applications

CERN Document Server

Llibre, Jaume

2016-01-01

This book is dedicated to study the inverse problem of ordinary differential equations, that is it focuses in finding all ordinary differential equations that satisfy a given set of properties. The Nambu bracket is the central tool in developing this approach. The authors start characterizing the ordinary differential equations in R^N which have a given set of partial integrals or first integrals. The results obtained are applied first to planar polynomial differential systems with a given set of such integrals, second to solve the 16th Hilbert problem restricted to generic algebraic limit cycles, third for solving the inverse problem for constrained Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanical systems, fourth for studying the integrability of a constrained rigid body. Finally the authors conclude with an analysis on nonholonomic mechanics, a generalization of the Hamiltonian principle, and the statement an solution of the inverse problem in vakonomic mechanics.

14. Zoology of condensed matter: framids, ordinary stuff, extra-ordinary stuff

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Piazza, Federico [Physics Department and Institute for Strings, Cosmology, and Astroparticle Physics,Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Paris Center for Cosmological Physics and Laboratoire APC,Université Paris 7, 75205 Paris (France); CPT, Aix Marseille Université,UMR 7332, 13288 Marseille (France); Rattazzi, Riccardo [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques,EPFL Lausanne (Switzerland)

2015-06-23

We classify condensed matter systems in terms of the spacetime symmetries they spontaneously break. In particular, we characterize condensed matter itself as any state in a Poincaré-invariant theory that spontaneously breaks Lorentz boosts while preserving at large distances some form of spatial translations, time-translations, and possibly spatial rotations. Surprisingly, the simplest, most minimal system achieving this symmetry breaking pattern — the framid — does not seem to be realized in Nature. Instead, Nature usually adopts a more cumbersome strategy: that of introducing internal translational symmetries — and possibly rotational ones — and of spontaneously breaking them along with their space-time counterparts, while preserving unbroken diagonal subgroups. This symmetry breaking pattern describes the infrared dynamics of ordinary solids, fluids, superfluids, and — if they exist — supersolids. A third, “extra-ordinary”, possibility involves replacing these internal symmetries with other symmetries that do not commute with the Poincaré group, for instance the galileon symmetry, supersymmetry or gauge symmetries. Among these options, we pick the systems based on the galileon symmetry, the “galileids”, for a more detailed study. Despite some similarity, all different patterns produce truly distinct physical systems with different observable properties. For instance, the low-energy 2→2 scattering amplitudes for the Goldstone excitations in the cases of framids, solids and galileids scale respectively as E{sup 2}, E{sup 4}, and E{sup 6}. Similarly the energy momentum tensor in the ground state is “trivial' for framids (ρ+p=0), normal for solids (ρ+p>0) and even inhomogenous for galileids.

15. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Pires, Sara Monteiro

2013-01-01

on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

16. Analytical approaches for the approximate solution of a nonlinear fractional ordinary differential equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Basak, K C; Ray, P C; Bera, R K

2009-01-01

The aim of the present analysis is to apply the Adomian decomposition method and He's variational method for the approximate analytical solution of a nonlinear ordinary fractional differential equation. The solutions obtained by the above two methods have been numerically evaluated and presented in the form of tables and also compared with the exact solution. It was found that the results obtained by the above two methods are in excellent agreement with the exact solution. Finally, a surface plot of the approximate solutions of the fractional differential equation by the above two methods is drawn for 0≤t≤2 and 1<α≤2.

17. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE OCTOBER 1999 ORDINARY MEETING

CERN Document Server

1999-01-01

Original: FrenchThe meeting was mainly devoted to the examination of the items below, to which the Committee had allocated two meetings:Preparation for the meeting of TREF on 19 November 1999The SCC took note of the agenda for that meeting which includes additional information on the long-term care insurance project, a second report on staff recruitment and retention, a status report on the voluntary programmes (especially an assessment of the Progressive Retirement Programme), a proposal for the application of the cost-of-living index for 2000, an addendum to the technical amendments to be made to the Staff Rules and Regulations, a balance sheet of CERN's apprenticeship programmes and a status report with regard to guarantees for the pensions of members of the personnel in the event of the dissolution of the Organization.Long-term care: TREF would be given further information following the comments made when the Management's initial proposals were presented to the Forum at its September meeting. The informat...

18. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

KAUST Repository

Chen, Ye; Khashab, Niveen M.; Tao, Jing

2017-01-01

Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets

19. Ordinary kriging approach to predicting long-term particulate matter concentrations in seven major Korean cities

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Sun-Young Kim

2014-09-01

Full Text Available Objectives Cohort studies of associations between air pollution and health have used exposure prediction approaches to estimate individual-level concentrations. A common prediction method used in Korean cohort studies is ordinary kriging. In this study, performance of ordinary kriging models for long-term particulate matter less than or equal to 10 μm in diameter (PM10 concentrations in seven major Korean cities was investigated with a focus on spatial prediction ability. Methods We obtained hourly PM10 data for 2010 at 226 urban-ambient monitoring sites in South Korea and computed annual average PM10 concentrations at each site. Given the annual averages, we developed ordinary kriging prediction models for each of the seven major cities and for the entire country by using an exponential covariance reference model and a maximum likelihood estimation method. For model evaluation, cross-validation was performed and mean square error and R-squared (R2 statistics were computed. Results Mean annual average PM10 concentrations in the seven major cities ranged between 45.5 and 66.0 μg/m3 (standard deviation=2.40 and 9.51 μg/m3, respectively. Cross-validated R2 values in Seoul and Busan were 0.31 and 0.23, respectively, whereas the other five cities had R2 values of zero. The national model produced a higher crossvalidated R2 (0.36 than those for the city-specific models. Conclusions In general, the ordinary kriging models performed poorly for the seven major cities and the entire country of South Korea, but the model performance was better in the national model. To improve model performance, future studies should examine different prediction approaches that incorporate PM10 source characteristics.

20. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

2003-01-01

The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

1. A uniformly valid approximation algorithm for nonlinear ordinary singular perturbation problems with boundary layer solutions.

Science.gov (United States)

Cengizci, Süleyman; Atay, Mehmet Tarık; Eryılmaz, Aytekin

2016-01-01

This paper is concerned with two-point boundary value problems for singularly perturbed nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The case when the solution only has one boundary layer is examined. An efficient method so called Successive Complementary Expansion Method (SCEM) is used to obtain uniformly valid approximations to this kind of solutions. Four test problems are considered to check the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results are found in good agreement with exact and existing solutions in literature. The results confirm that SCEM has a superiority over other existing methods in terms of easy-applicability and effectiveness.

2. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

CERN Document Server

Guillemin, Ernst A

2013-01-01

An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

3. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

Science.gov (United States)

Crandall, David Lynn

2011-08-16

Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

4. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

KAUST Repository

Chen, Ye

2017-01-26

Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

5. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

CERN Multimedia

Staff Association

2018-01-01

In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Tuesday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of discus...

6. 24 April 2018: Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

CERN Multimedia

Staff Association

2018-01-01

In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 24 April 2018 from 14.00 to 16.00, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

7. Performance Evaluation of the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Nana Kwasi Peprah

1Deparment of Geomatic Engineering, University of Mines and Technology, ... precise, accurate and can be used to execute any engineering works due to ..... and Ordinary Least Squares Methods”, Journal of Geomatics and Planning, Vol ... Technology”, Unpublished BSc Project Report, University of Mines and Technology ...

8. Mix design proposal for structural concrete using messobo ordinary ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Hessebo Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Realizing the various factors contributing to the quality of concrete, 43 trial batches of different mix designs were investigated. Based on the test results, equations were derived to relate compressive strength to w/c and to predict the 28 days compressive strength from the 7 days ...

9. Generalized mechanics as a representation of the ordinary mechanics

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Knapecz, G.

1974-01-01

It is shown that the generalized mechanics of one masspoint may be interpreted as a special representation of the ordinary mechanics of a system of masspoints. The hormorphism of both representations is shown in the case of two masspoints coupled by a harmonic force. The new representation is applied in the special relativic meachanics of mass-points. (author)

10. Comparative study of the properties of ordinary portland cement ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The study explored metakaolin as alternative material to cement. It compares the properties of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and binary concrete containing metakaolin as partial replacement of OPC. Two set of concrete samples; one with 10% Metakaolin (MK) replacing OPC by weight, and the other without ...

11. Numerical Integration of Stiff System of Ordinary Differential ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

The goal of this work is to develop, analyse and implement a K-step Implicit Rational Runge-Kutta schemes for Integration of Stiff system of Ordinary differential Equations. Its development adopted Taylor and Binomial series expansion Techniques to generate its parameters. The analysis of its basic properties adopted ...

12. On oscillation of second-order linear ordinary differential equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lomtatidze, A.; Šremr, Jiří

2011-01-01

Roč. 54, - (2011), s. 69-81 ISSN 1512-0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : linear second-order ordinary differential equation * Kamenev theorem * oscillation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.rmi.ge/jeomj/memoirs/vol54/abs54-4.htm

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Scharre, D.L.

1980-05-01

Preliminary results from the Mark II and Crystal Ball experiments on radiative transitions from the psi to ordinary hadrons are presented. In additon to the previously observed transitions to the eta, eta'(958), and f(1270), both groups observe a transition to a state which is tentatively identified as the E(1420).

14. Insights on the Nature of Intelligence from Ordinary Discourse.

Science.gov (United States)

Derr, Richard L.

1989-01-01

The use of "intelligence" in ordinary discourse is analyzed to glean hypotheses that may resolve the debate among psychologists regarding the nature of intelligence. Intelligence is conceived as an innate intellectual capacity, and a sharp conceptual distinction is made between intelligence and intelligent behavior. (Author/TJH)

15. "Solid All the Way Through": Margaret Mahy's Ordinary Witches

Science.gov (United States)

Waller, Alison

2004-01-01

In "The Haunting," "The Changeover," and "The Tricksters," Margaret Mahy fuses supernatural iconography of witchcraft and magic with images of ordinary and domestic adolescence. This article argues that Mahy's "fantastic realism" illuminates aspects of female teenage experience through a blend of myth, fairy tale, folklore and history, as well as…

16. Learning to Compute: Computerization and Ordinary, Everyday Life

Science.gov (United States)

Sullivan, Joseph F.

2009-01-01

This study utilizes the basic framework of classical sociology as a foundation for examining the intersection of the structural history of the computer revolution with ordinary, everyday life. Just as the classical forefathers of modern sociology--Marx, Durkheim, and Weber--attempted to understand their eras of structural transformation, this…

17. Does antimatter fall with the same acceleration as ordinary matter?

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Adelberger, E.G.; Heckel, B.R.; Stubbs, C.W.; Su, Y.

1991-01-01

Equivalence-principle experiments with ordinary matter probe the gravivector acceleration of antimatter in the same way as do direct measurements of antimatter in free fall and set stringent upper limits on the gravivector acceleration of antimatter predicted by certain quantum-gravity models

18. Dimensional analysis to transform the differential equations in partial derivates in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diaz Sanchidrian, C.

1989-01-01

The present paper applies dimensional analysis with spatial discrimination to transform the differential equations in partial derivatives developed in the theory of heat transmission into ordinary ones. The effectivity of the method is comparable to that methods based in transformations of uni or multiparametric groups, with the advantage of being more direct and simple. (Author)

19. Computing ordinary least-squares parameter estimates for the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish

Science.gov (United States)

Donato, David I.

2013-01-01

A specialized technique is used to compute weighted ordinary least-squares (OLS) estimates of the parameters of the National Descriptive Model of Mercury in Fish (NDMMF) in less time using less computer memory than general methods. The characteristics of the NDMMF allow the two products X'X and X'y in the normal equations to be filled out in a second or two of computer time during a single pass through the N data observations. As a result, the matrix X does not have to be stored in computer memory and the computationally expensive matrix multiplications generally required to produce X'X and X'y do not have to be carried out. The normal equations may then be solved to determine the best-fit parameters in the OLS sense. The computational solution based on this specialized technique requires O(8p2+16p) bytes of computer memory for p parameters on a machine with 8-byte double-precision numbers. This publication includes a reference implementation of this technique and a Gaussian-elimination solver in preliminary custom software.

20. Conjecturing via analogical reasoning constructs ordinary students into like gifted student

Science.gov (United States)

Supratman; Ratnaningsih, N.; Ryane, S.

2017-12-01

The purpose of this study is to reveal the development of knowledge of ordinary students to be like gifted students in the classroom based on Piaget's theory. In exposing it, students are given an open problem of classical analogy. Researchers explore students who conjecture via analogical reasoning in problem solving. Of the 32 students, through the method of think out loud and the interview was completed: 25 students conjecture via analogical reasoning. Of the 25 students, all of them have almost the same character in problem solving/knowledge construction. For that, a student is taken to analyze the thinking process while solving the problem/construction of knowledge based on Piaget's theory. Based on Piaget's theory in the development of the same knowledge, gifted students and ordinary students have similar structures in final equilibrium. They begin processing: assimilation and accommodation of problem, strategies, and relationships.

1. Model Selection and Risk Estimation with Applications to Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Systems

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Mikkelsen, Frederik Vissing

eective computational tools for estimating unknown structures in dynamical systems, such as gene regulatory networks, which may be used to predict downstream eects of interventions in the system. A recommended algorithm based on the computational tools is presented and thoroughly tested in various......Broadly speaking, this thesis is devoted to model selection applied to ordinary dierential equations and risk estimation under model selection. A model selection framework was developed for modelling time course data by ordinary dierential equations. The framework is accompanied by the R software...... package, episode. This package incorporates a collection of sparsity inducing penalties into two types of loss functions: a squared loss function relying on numerically solving the equations and an approximate loss function based on inverse collocation methods. The goal of this framework is to provide...

2. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe

2017-01-01

: PTVσ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTVdel) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger...

3. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

Science.gov (United States)

Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

2015-04-01

The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications.

4. Causal structure of oscillations in gene regulatory networks: Boolean analysis of ordinary differential equation attractors.

Science.gov (United States)

Sun, Mengyang; Cheng, Xianrui; Socolar, Joshua E S

2013-06-01

A common approach to the modeling of gene regulatory networks is to represent activating or repressing interactions using ordinary differential equations for target gene concentrations that include Hill function dependences on regulator gene concentrations. An alternative formulation represents the same interactions using Boolean logic with time delays associated with each network link. We consider the attractors that emerge from the two types of models in the case of a simple but nontrivial network: a figure-8 network with one positive and one negative feedback loop. We show that the different modeling approaches give rise to the same qualitative set of attractors with the exception of a possible fixed point in the ordinary differential equation model in which concentrations sit at intermediate values. The properties of the attractors are most easily understood from the Boolean perspective, suggesting that time-delay Boolean modeling is a useful tool for understanding the logic of regulatory networks.

5. Preliminary study for the personal handheld device based snoring detection in ordinary sleep situation.

Science.gov (United States)

Shin, Hangsik; Choi, Wangrim; Kim, Yi-gon; Cho, Jaegeol

2014-01-01

Snoring is one of the representative phenomena of the sleep disorder and detection of snoring is quite important for improving quality of daily human life. The purpose of this research is to define the noises of the ordinary sleep situation and to find its characteristics as a preliminary research of snoring detection. Differently from previous snoring researches, we use a built-in sound recording system of Smartphone for practical use in ordinary sleep condition, and recording was carried out in a general private bedroom. Especially, we designed the experimental protocol, including the various noises could be frequently occurred during sleep such as cough, music, talking, alarm, door open/close, fan, radio and footstep to make closer to the actual sleep circumstance. The sound data set was recorded during actual sleep from 10 normal subjects. Totally 44 snoring data set and 75-noise dataset is acquired and analyzed.

6. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

2011-11-01

This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

7. A Quadrature Method of Moments for Polydisperse Flow in Bubble Columns Including Poly-Celerity, Breakup and Coalescence

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Thomas Acher

2014-12-01

Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.

8. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Guidelines for the documentation of radiation treatment methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cohen, M.

1984-01-01

A great deal of thought has been given in recent years to the documentation of individual patients and their diseases, especially since the computerization of registry sytems facilitates the storage and retrieval of large amounts of data, but the documentation of radiation treatment methods has received surprisingly little attention. The guidelines which follow are intended for use both internally (within radiotherapy centres) and externally when a treatment method is reported in the literature or transferred from one centre to another. The amount of detail reported externally will, of course, depend on the circumstances: for example, a published paper will usually mention only the most important of the radiation and physical parameters, but it is important for the department of origin to list all parameters in a separate document, available on request. These guidelines apply specifically to the documentation of treatment by external radiation beams, although many of the suggestions would also apply to treatment by small sealed sources (brachytherapy) and by unsealed radionuclides. Treatment techniques which involve a combination of external and internal sources (e.g. Ca. cervix uteri treatd by intracavitary sources plus external beam therapy) require particularly careful documentation to indicate the relationship bwtween dose distribution (in both space and time) achieved by the two modalities

9. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

Science.gov (United States)

2017-08-01

Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

10. Innovative Methods for Estimating Densities and Detection Probabilities of Secretive Reptiles Including Invasive Constrictors and Rare Upland Snakes

Science.gov (United States)

2018-01-30

home range  maintenance  or attraction to or avoidance of  landscape features, including  roads  (Morales et al. 2004, McClintock et al. 2012). For example...radiotelemetry and extensive road survey data are used to generate the first density estimates available for the species. The results show that southern...secretive snakes that combines behavioral observations of snake road crossing speed, systematic road survey data, and simulations of spatial

11. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

Science.gov (United States)

Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

2015-01-01

Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gupta, B.L.

2000-01-01

Our laboratory maintains standards for high doses in India. The glutamine powder dosimeter (spectrophotometric readout) is used for this purpose. Present studies show that 20 mg of unirradiated/irradiated glutamine dissolved in freshly prepared 10 ml of aerated aqueous acidic FX solution containing 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 ferrous ammonium sulphate and 10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange in 0.033 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is suitable for the dosimetry in the dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. Normally no corrections are required for the post-irradiation fading of the irradiated glutamine. The response of glutamine dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the range of about 23-30 deg. C and at other temperatures, a correction is necessary. The dose intercomparison results for photon, electron and bremsstrahlung radiations show that glutamine can be used as a reference standard dosimeter. The use of flat polyethylene bags containing glutamine powder has proved very successful for electron dosimetry of wide energies. Several other amino acids like alanine, valine and threonine can also be used to cover wide range of doses using spectrophotometric readout method. (author)

13. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

1978-01-01

Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

14. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

2012-01-01

The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

15. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

Science.gov (United States)

Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

2015-07-13

The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

16. Tribocorrosion Study of Ordinary and Laser-Melted Ti6Al4V Alloy

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Danillo P. Silva

2016-10-01

Full Text Available Titanium alloys are used in biomedical implants, as well as in other applications, due to the excellent combination of corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. However, the tribocorrosion resistance of titanium alloy is normally not satisfactory. Therefore, surface modification is a way to improve this specific performance. In the present paper, laser surface-modified samples were tested in corrosion and pin-on-disk tribocorrosion testing in 0.90% NaCl under an average Hertzian pressure of 410 MPa against an alumina sphere. Laser-modified samples of Ti6Al4V were compared with ordinary Ti6Al4V alloy. Electrochemical impedance showed higher modulus for laser-treated samples than for ordinary Ti6Al4V ones. Moreover, atomic force microscopy revealed that laser-treated surfaces presented less wear than ordinary alloy for the initial exposure. For a further exposure to wear, i.e., when the wear depth is beyond the initial laser-affected layer, both materials showed similar corrosion behavior. Microstructure analysis and finite element method simulations revealed that the different behavior between the initial and the extensive rubbing was related to a fine martensite-rich external layer developed on the irradiated surface of the fusion zone.

17. Optimal Control as a method for Diesel engine efficiency assessment including pressure and NO_x constraints

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Guardiola, Carlos; Climent, Héctor; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

2017-01-01

Highlights: • Optimal Control is applied for heat release shaping in internal combustion engines. • Optimal Control allows to assess the engine performance with a realistic reference. • The proposed method gives a target heat release law to define control strategies. - Abstract: The present paper studies the optimal heat release law in a Diesel engine to maximise the indicated efficiency subject to different constraints, namely: maximum cylinder pressure, maximum cylinder pressure derivative, and NO_x emission restrictions. With this objective, a simple but also representative model of the combustion process has been implemented. The model consists of a 0D energy balance model aimed to provide the pressure and temperature evolutions in the high pressure loop of the engine thermodynamic cycle from the gas conditions at the intake valve closing and the heat release law. The gas pressure and temperature evolutions allow to compute the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. The comparison between model and experimental results shows that despite the model simplicity, it is able to reproduce the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. After the model identification and validation, the optimal control problem is posed and solved by means of Dynamic Programming (DP). Also, if only pressure constraints are considered, the paper proposes a solution that reduces the computation cost of the DP strategy in two orders of magnitude for the case being analysed. The solution provides a target heat release law to define injection strategies but also a more realistic maximum efficiency boundary than the ideal thermodynamic cycles usually employed to estimate the maximum engine efficiency.

18. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method.

Science.gov (United States)

Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali

2014-03-01

The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

19. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

Science.gov (United States)

Parker, Sherwood

1995-01-01

A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

20. Comparison of Body Composition and Energy Intake of Young Female Ballet Dancers and Ordinary School Girls

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Kalniņa Līga

2017-12-01

Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess body fat level, energy and nutrient intake of adolescent ballet dancers and to compare these results with those of adolescents from ordinary school. Participants included 39 ballet dancers and 70 adolescents from ordinary school. Body composition was measured using a multi-frequency 8-polar bioelectrical impedance leg-to-hand analyser (X-Scan Plus II, Korea. Dietary intakes were assessed using a three-day estimated food record. Nutritional intake was calculated using the Nutri Survey software. Ballet dancers were slightly shorter, lighter, with less fat and fat-free mass compared to girls from ordinary school. 51.3% (95% CI 35.59 to 66.97 of ballet dancers and 4% (95% CI; 0.27 to 11.15 of ordinary school girls had a body fat level of 12% or less. The recommended amount of 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass for aesthetic sports was not reached by 42.1% (95% CI 27.61 to 50.65% of ballet dancers. No statistically significant difference was found in percent body fat between ballet dancers who consumed energy less than the recommended amount compared to those who ate normally, but fatfree mass (p < 0.05 was lower in those who consumed 35–45 kcal energy to kg fat-free mass or less compared to those who ate more. The investigated groups had an inadequate intake of minerals and vitamins during the winter period.

1. Uncertainty of pesticide residue concentration determined from ordinary and weighted linear regression curve.

Science.gov (United States)

Yolci Omeroglu, Perihan; Ambrus, Árpad; Boyacioglu, Dilek

2018-03-28

Determination of pesticide residues is based on calibration curves constructed for each batch of analysis. Calibration standard solutions are prepared from a known amount of reference material at different concentration levels covering the concentration range of the analyte in the analysed samples. In the scope of this study, the applicability of both ordinary linear and weighted linear regression (OLR and WLR) for pesticide residue analysis was investigated. We used 782 multipoint calibration curves obtained for 72 different analytical batches with high-pressure liquid chromatography equipped with an ultraviolet detector, and gas chromatography with electron capture, nitrogen phosphorus or mass spectrophotometer detectors. Quality criteria of the linear curves including regression coefficient, standard deviation of relative residuals and deviation of back calculated concentrations were calculated both for WLR and OLR methods. Moreover, the relative uncertainty of the predicted analyte concentration was estimated for both methods. It was concluded that calibration curve based on WLR complies with all the quality criteria set by international guidelines compared to those calculated with OLR. It means that all the data fit well with WLR for pesticide residue analysis. It was estimated that, regardless of the actual concentration range of the calibration, relative uncertainty at the lowest calibrated level ranged between 0.3% and 113.7% for OLR and between 0.2% and 22.1% for WLR. At or above 1/3 of the calibrated range, uncertainty of calibration curve ranged between 0.1% and 16.3% for OLR and 0% and 12.2% for WLR, and therefore, the two methods gave comparable results.

2. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

Science.gov (United States)

Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

1991-01-01

Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

3. Hojman's theorem of the third-order ordinary differential equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hong-Sheng, Lü; Hong-Bin, Zhang; Shu-Long, Gu

2009-01-01

This paper extends Hojman's conservation law to the third-order differential equation. A new conserved quantity is constructed based on the Lie group of transformation generators of the equations of motion. The generators contain variations of the time and generalized coordinates. Two independent non-trivial conserved quantities of the third-order ordinary differential equation are obtained. A simple example is presented to illustrate the applications of the results. (general)

4. Symmetries of th-Order Approximate Stochastic Ordinary Differential Equations

OpenAIRE

Fredericks, E.; Mahomed, F. M.

2012-01-01

Symmetries of $n$ th-order approximate stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODEs) are studied. The determining equations of these SODEs are derived in an Itô calculus context. These determining equations are not stochastic in nature. SODEs are normally used to model nature (e.g., earthquakes) or for testing the safety and reliability of models in construction engineering when looking at the impact of random perturbations.

5. Analysis of quantile regression as alternative to ordinary least squares

OpenAIRE

Ibrahim Abdullahi; Abubakar Yahaya

2015-01-01

In this article, an alternative to ordinary least squares (OLS) regression based on analytical solution in the Statgraphics software is considered, and this alternative is no other than quantile regression (QR) model. We also present goodness of fit statistic as well as approximate distributions of the associated test statistics for the parameters. Furthermore, we suggest a goodness of fit statistic called the least absolute deviation (LAD) coefficient of determination. The procedure is well ...

6. Ordinary Dark Matter versus Mysterious Dark Matter in Galactic Rotation

Science.gov (United States)

Gallo, C. F.; Feng, James

2008-04-01

To theoretically describe the measured rotational velocity curves of spiral galaxies, there are two different approaches and conclusions. (1) ORDINARY DARK MATTER. We assume Newtonian gravity/dynamics and successfully find (via computer) mass distributions in bulge/disk configurations that duplicate the measured rotational velocities. There is ordinary dark matter within the galactic disk towards the cooler periphery which has lower emissivity/opacity. There are no mysteries in this scenario based on verified physics. (2) MYSTERIOUS DARK MATTER. Others INaccurately assume the galactic mass distributions follow the measured light distributions, and then the measured rotational velocity curves are NOT duplicated. To alleviate this discrepancy, speculations are invoked re Massive Peripheral Spherical Halos of Mysterious Dark Matter.'' But NO matter has been detected in this UNtenable Halo configuration. Many UNverified Mysteries'' are invoked as necessary and convenient. CONCLUSION. The first approach utilizing Newtonian gravity/dynamics and searching for the ordinary mass distributions within the galactic disk simulates reality and agrees with data.

7. Stability and periodic solutions of ordinary and functional differential equations

CERN Document Server

Burton, T A

1985-01-01

In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

8. Particle Swarm Optimization Based on Local Attractors of Ordinary Differential Equation System

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Wenyu Yang

2014-01-01

Full Text Available Particle swarm optimization (PSO is inspired by sociological behavior. In this paper, we interpret PSO as a finite difference scheme for solving a system of stochastic ordinary differential equations (SODE. In this framework, the position points of the swarm converge to an equilibrium point of the SODE and the local attractors, which are easily defined by the present position points, also converge to the global attractor. Inspired by this observation, we propose a class of modified PSO iteration methods (MPSO based on local attractors of the SODE. The idea of MPSO is to choose the next update state near the present local attractor, rather than the present position point as in the original PSO, according to a given probability density function. In particular, the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization method turns out to be a special case of MPSO by taking a special probability density function. The MPSO methods with six different probability density functions are tested on a few benchmark problems. These MPSO methods behave differently for different problems. Thus, our framework not only gives an interpretation for the ordinary PSO but also, more importantly, provides a warehouse of PSO-like methods to choose from for solving different practical problems.

9. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

1997-08-01

Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

10. Time-course window estimator for ordinary differential equations linear in the parameters

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vujacic, Ivan; Dattner, Itai; Gonzalez, Javier; Wit, Ernst

In many applications obtaining ordinary differential equation descriptions of dynamic processes is scientifically important. In both, Bayesian and likelihood approaches for estimating parameters of ordinary differential equations, the speed and the convergence of the estimation procedure may

11. New results for exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tong Ping; Chen Shi-Hua

2017-01-01

This paper investigates the exponential synchronization of linearly coupled ordinary differential systems. The intrinsic nonlinear dynamics may not satisfy the QUAD condition or weak-QUAD condition. First, it gives a new method to analyze the exponential synchronization of the systems. Second, two theorems and their corollaries are proposed for the local or global exponential synchronization of the coupled systems. Finally, an application to the linearly coupled Hopfield neural networks and several simulations are provided for verifying the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (paper)

12. Blow up of solutions to ordinary differential equations arising in nonlinear dispersive problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Milena Dimova

2018-03-01

Full Text Available We study a new class of ordinary differential equations with blow up solutions. Necessary and sufficient conditions for finite blow up time are proved. Based on the new differential equation, a revised version of the concavity method of Levine is proposed. As an application we investigate the non-existence of global solutions to the Cauchy problem of Klein-Gordon, and to the double dispersive equations. We obtain necessary and sufficient condition for finite time blow up with arbitrary positive energy. A very general sufficient condition for blow up is also given.

13. (Ln-bar, g)-spaces. Ordinary and tensor differentials

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Manoff, S.; Dimitrov, B.

1998-01-01

Different types of differentials as special cases of differential operators acting on tensor fields over (L n bar, g)-spaces are considered. The ordinary differential, the covariant differential as a special case of the covariant differential operator, and the Lie differential as a special case of the Lie differential operator are investigated. The tensor differential and its special types (Covariant tensor differential, and Lie tensor differential) are determined and their properties are discussed. Covariant symmetric and antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials, Lie symmetric, and Lie antisymmetric (external) tensor differentials are determined and considered over (L n bar, g)-spaces

14. Textural variability of ordinary chondrite chondrules: Implications of their formation

Science.gov (United States)

Zinovieva, N. G.; Mitreikina, O. B.; Granovsky, L. B.

1994-01-01

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and microprobe examination of the Raguli H3-4, Saratov L3, and Fucbin L5-6 ordinary chondrites and the analysis of preexisted data on other meteorites have shown that the variety of textural types of chondrules depends on the chemical composition of the chondrules. The comparison of bulk-rock chemistries of the chondrules by major components demonstrates that they apparently fall, like basic-ultrabasic rock, into groups of dunitic and pyroxenitic composition. This separation is further validated by the character of zoning in chondrules of the intermediate, peridotitic type. The effect is vividly demonstrated by the 'chondrule-in-chondrule' structure.

15. Relaxations in spin glasses: Similarities and differences from ordinary glasses

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ngai, K.L.; Rajagopal, A.K.; Huang, C.Y.

1984-01-01

Relaxation phenomena have become a major concern in the physics of spin glasses. There are certain resemblances of these relaxation properties to those of ordinary glasses. In this work, we compare the relaxation properties of spin glasses near the freezing temperature with those of glasses near the glass transition temperature. There are similarities between the two types of glasses. Moreover, the relaxation properties of many glasses and spin glasses are in conformity with two coupled ''universality'' relations predicted by a recent model of relaxations in condensed matter

16. The qualitative theory of ordinary differential equations an introduction

CERN Document Server

Brauer, Fred

1989-01-01

""This is a very good book ... with many well-chosen examples and illustrations."" - American Mathematical MonthlyThis highly regarded text presents a self-contained introduction to some important aspects of modern qualitative theory for ordinary differential equations. It is accessible to any student of physical sciences, mathematics or engineering who has a good knowledge of calculus and of the elements of linear algebra. In addition, algebraic results are stated as needed; the less familiar ones are proved either in the text or in appendixes.The topics covered in the first three chapters a

17. A Bayesian approach to estimating hidden variables as well as missing and wrong molecular interactions in ordinary differential equation-based mathematical models.

Science.gov (United States)

Engelhardt, Benjamin; Kschischo, Maik; Fröhlich, Holger

2017-06-01

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a popular approach to quantitatively model molecular networks based on biological knowledge. However, such knowledge is typically restricted. Wrongly modelled biological mechanisms as well as relevant external influence factors that are not included into the model are likely to manifest in major discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. Finding the exact reasons for such observed discrepancies can be quite challenging in practice. In order to address this issue, we suggest a Bayesian approach to estimate hidden influences in ODE-based models. The method can distinguish between exogenous and endogenous hidden influences. Thus, we can detect wrongly specified as well as missed molecular interactions in the model. We demonstrate the performance of our Bayesian dynamic elastic-net with several ordinary differential equation models from the literature, such as human JAK-STAT signalling, information processing at the erythropoietin receptor, isomerization of liquid α -Pinene, G protein cycling in yeast and UV-B triggered signalling in plants. Moreover, we investigate a set of commonly known network motifs and a gene-regulatory network. Altogether our method supports the modeller in an algorithmic manner to identify possible sources of errors in ODE-based models on the basis of experimental data. © 2017 The Author(s).

18. On the Comparison of Interpersonal Sensitivity and Assertiveness between Drug-Dependent Persons and Ordinary People

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Babak Vojudi

2015-02-01

Full Text Available Objective: The present study was aimed at comparing interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness between drug-dependent persons and ordinary people. Method: The research method was causal-comparative. The statistical population of the study consisted of all narcotic addicts of Tabriz City who referred to Addiction Treatment Centers while the research was being conducted. The number of 30 addicted persons was selected through cluster sampling and 30 ordinary persons as control group through convenience sampling method. Gmbryl & Ritchie’s assertiveness questionnaire (1975 and Boyce & Parker’s Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure (IPSM 1989 were used for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between two groups in terms of interpersonal sensitivity and assertiveness. The addicts showed less assertiveness and more interpersonal sensitivity in comparison with their healthy counterparts. Conclusion: The findings show that people who are unable to express themselves and exert sensitivity in interpersonal relationships are more likely at high risk of substance dependence. However, it is possible to prevent these persons from turning to addiction by teaching them these skills.

19. Porting Ordinary Applications to Blue Gene/Q Supercomputers

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maheshwari, Ketan C.; Wozniak, Justin M.; Armstrong, Timothy; Katz, Daniel S.; Binkowski, T. Andrew; Zhong, Xiaoliang; Heinonen, Olle; Karpeyev, Dmitry; Wilde, Michael

2015-08-31

Efficiently porting ordinary applications to Blue Gene/Q supercomputers is a significant challenge. Codes are often originally developed without considering advanced architectures and related tool chains. Science needs frequently lead users to want to run large numbers of relatively small jobs (often called many-task computing, an ensemble, or a workflow), which can conflict with supercomputer configurations. In this paper, we discuss techniques developed to execute ordinary applications over leadership class supercomputers. We use the high-performance Swift parallel scripting framework and build two workflow execution techniques-sub-jobs and main-wrap. The sub-jobs technique, built on top of the IBM Blue Gene/Q resource manager Cobalt's sub-block jobs, lets users submit multiple, independent, repeated smaller jobs within a single larger resource block. The main-wrap technique is a scheme that enables C/C++ programs to be defined as functions that are wrapped by a high-performance Swift wrapper and that are invoked as a Swift script. We discuss the needs, benefits, technicalities, and current limitations of these techniques. We further discuss the real-world science enabled by these techniques and the results obtained.

20. Reflection and absorption of ordinary waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Croci, R.

1990-11-01

This study treats the system of Vlasov and Maxwell equations for the Fourier transform in space and time of a plasma referred to Cartesian coordinates with the coordinate z parallel to the uniform equilibrium magnetic field with the equilibrium plasma density dependent on ηx, where η is a parameter. The k y component of the wave vector is taken equal to zero, whereas k z is different from zero. When the interaction of ordinary and extraordinary waves is neglected, the Fourier transform of the electric field of the ordinary waves obeys a homogeneous integral equation with principal part integrals, which is solved in the case of weak absorption and sufficiently small η (essentially smaller than vacuum wave vector), but without limitations on the ratio of the wavelength to the Larmor radius (the usual approximation being limited to wavelengths much smaller than the Larmor radius). The reflection and transmission coefficients and the total energy absorption are given in this approximation, whereas the energy conservation theorem for the reflection and transmission coefficients in an absorption-free plasma are derived for every value of η without explicit knowledge of the solutions. Finally, a general and compact equation for the eigenvalues which does not require complex analysis and knowledge of all solutions of the dispersion relation is given. (orig.)

1. Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rutkowska Gabriela

2016-03-01

Full Text Available Influence of fly-ashes on properties of ordinary concretes. Care of the environment in accordance with the principles of sustainable development introduces the possibility and need for waste recycling. The construction and building materials industry has the greatest potential for reuse of waste. The article presents the results of investigations of selected properties (consistency, water absorbability, compressive strength and tensile strength after 28 and 56 days of curing, depth of penetration of ordinary concretes and concretes containing fly-ashes - calcareous and siliceous ash − in their composition. To make the samples, the Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R and natural aggregate with graining of 0-16 mm were used. The concrete with siliceous and calcareous admixtures was made in three lots where the ash was added in the quantity of 15, 20 and 30% of the cement mass. After the tests, it was stated that the fly-ash admixture does not increase the air content in the mix, it increases the compressive strength in time and the siliceous ash improves the splitting tensile strength.

2. Evaluation of semantic aspect of language in students of ordinary, integrated and special schools

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ali Ghorbani

2012-06-01

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Children with severe and profound hearing loss have difficulties in communicating with others and educating at school. Effects of learning environment on children's language skills have been recently focused and educating those students in ordinary schools has been proposed. According to this view, we compared perception of antonyms and synonyms as a semantic aspect of language in students of ordinary, integrated and special schools.Methods: It was an analytic cross-sectional study. Three groups of students were enrolled: normal-hearing students of ordinary schools and hearing-loss students of integrated and specials schools. Each group consisted of 25 students in fifth grade of elementary schools in Tehran city. Two written tests were used. Subjects wrote synonyms and antonyms for each word in the tests.Results: Results denoted significant differences between scores of normal-hearing and hearing-loss students and also between hearing-loss students of integrated schools and hearing-loss students of special schools (p<0.05. In all three groups of the students, perception of antonyms was better than antonyms (p<0.001. Speech processing rate in normal-hearing students were higher than both groups of hearing-loss students (p<0.001.Conclusion: The differences between normal-hearing and hearing-loss students shows that similar to other language skills, perception of synonyms and antonyms as a semantic aspect of speech is related to the hearing conditions and type of education. Moreover, the differences between two groups of hearing-loss students represent that speech stimulants and interaction with normal-hearing children could improve semantic aspect of speech in hearing-loss students.

3. Evaluation on ultrasonic examination methods applied to Ni-base alloy weld including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in BWR reactor internal

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Aoki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shinichi; Shimizu, Sadato

2005-01-01

A Ni-base alloy weld, including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in the reactor internal of the oldest BWR in Japan, Tsuruga unit 1, in 1999, was examined by three (3) types of UT method. After this examination, a depth of each crack was confirmed by carrying out a little excavation with a grinder and PT examination by turns until each crack disappeared. Then, the depth measured by the former method was compared with the one measured by the latter method. In this fashion, performances of the UT methods were verified. As a result, a combination of the three types of UT method was found to meet the acceptance criteria given by ASME Sec.XI Appendix VIII, Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems-Supplement 6. In this paper, the results of the UT examination described above and their evaluation are discussed. (author)

4. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

Science.gov (United States)

Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

2004-08-11

Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

5. Sparse Additive Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Modeling.

Science.gov (United States)

Wu, Hulin; Lu, Tao; Xue, Hongqi; Liang, Hua

2014-04-02

The gene regulation network (GRN) is a high-dimensional complex system, which can be represented by various mathematical or statistical models. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is one of the popular dynamic GRN models. High-dimensional linear ODE models have been proposed to identify GRNs, but with a limitation of the linear regulation effect assumption. In this article, we propose a sparse additive ODE (SA-ODE) model, coupled with ODE estimation methods and adaptive group LASSO techniques, to model dynamic GRNs that could flexibly deal with nonlinear regulation effects. The asymptotic properties of the proposed method are established and simulation studies are performed to validate the proposed approach. An application example for identifying the nonlinear dynamic GRN of T-cell activation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

6. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Zamboni-Rached, Michel [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DMO/FEEC/UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao. Dept. de Microondas e Optica; Recami, Erasmo, E-mail: recami@mi.infn.i [Universita Statale di Bergamo, Bergamo (Italy). Facolta di Ingegneria

2011-07-01

In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

7. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

Science.gov (United States)

Parker, M

1990-01-01

Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

8. Algorithmic Verification of Linearizability for Ordinary Differential Equations

KAUST Repository

Lyakhov, Dmitry A.

2017-07-19

For a nonlinear ordinary differential equation solved with respect to the highest order derivative and rational in the other derivatives and in the independent variable, we devise two algorithms to check if the equation can be reduced to a linear one by a point transformation of the dependent and independent variables. The first algorithm is based on a construction of the Lie point symmetry algebra and on the computation of its derived algebra. The second algorithm exploits the differential Thomas decomposition and allows not only to test the linearizability, but also to generate a system of nonlinear partial differential equations that determines the point transformation and the coefficients of the linearized equation. The implementation of both algorithms is discussed and their application is illustrated using several examples.

9. Searching fundamental information in ordinary differential equations. Nondimensionalization technique.

Science.gov (United States)

Sánchez Pérez, J F; Conesa, M; Alhama, I; Alhama, F; Cánovas, M

2017-01-01

Classical dimensional analysis and nondimensionalization are assumed to be two similar approaches in the search for dimensionless groups. Both techniques, simplify the study of many problems. The first approach does not need to know the mathematical model, being sufficient a deep understanding of the physical phenomenon involved, while the second one begins with the governing equations and reduces them to their dimensionless form by simple mathematical manipulations. In this work, a formal protocol is proposed for applying the nondimensionalization process to ordinary differential equations, linear or not, leading to dimensionless normalized equations from which the resulting dimensionless groups have two inherent properties: In one hand, they are physically interpreted as balances between counteracting quantities in the problem, and on the other hand, they are of the order of magnitude unity. The solutions provided by nondimensionalization are more precise in every case than those from dimensional analysis, as it is illustrated by the applications studied in this work.

10. Random ordinary differential equations and their numerical solution

CERN Document Server

Han, Xiaoying

2017-01-01

This book is intended to make recent results on the derivation of higher order numerical schemes for random ordinary differential equations (RODEs) available to a broader readership, and to familiarize readers with RODEs themselves as well as the closely associated theory of random dynamical systems. In addition, it demonstrates how RODEs are being used in the biological sciences, where non-Gaussian and bounded noise are often more realistic than the Gaussian white noise in stochastic differential equations (SODEs).   RODEs are used in many important applications and play a fundamental role in the theory of random dynamical systems.  They can be analyzed pathwise with deterministic calculus, but require further treatment beyond that of classical ODE theory due to the lack of smoothness in their time variable. Although classical numerical schemes for ODEs can be used pathwise for RODEs, they rarely attain their traditional order since the solutions of RODEs do not have sufficient smoothness to have Taylor ...

11. Soliton-like solutions to the ordinary Schroedinger equation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zamboni-Rached, Michel; Recami, Erasmo

2011-01-01

In recent times it has been paid attention to the fact that (linear) wave equations admit of soliton-like solutions, known as Localized Waves or Non-diffracting Waves, which propagate without distortion in one direction. Such Localized Solutions (existing also for K-G or Dirac equations) are a priori suitable, more than Gaussian's, for describing elementary particle motion. In this paper we show that, mutatis mutandis, Localized Solutions exist even for the ordinary Schroedinger equation within standard Quantum Mechanics; and we obtain both approximate and exact solutions, also setting forth for them particular examples. In the ideal case such solutions bear infinite energy, as well as plane or spherical waves: we show therefore how to obtain nite-energy solutions. At last, we briefly consider solutions for a particle moving in the presence of a potential. (author)

12. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

Science.gov (United States)

Parker, M

1990-03-01

Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

13. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

Science.gov (United States)

Hadi, F.; Yoon, P. H.; Qamar, A.

2015-02-01

The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

14. On the ordinary mode instability for low beta plasmas

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar (Pakistan); Bashir, M. F. [Department of Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Salam Chair in Physics, G. C. University, Lahore (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-2431 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- and Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)

2014-05-15

The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability, first discussed by Davidson and Wu [Phys. Fluids 13, 1407 (1970)], has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. In a series of papers, Ibscher, Schlickeiser, and their colleagues [Phys. Plasmas 19, 072116 (2012); ibid. 20, 012103 (2013); ibid. 20, 042121 (2013); ibid. 21, 022110 (2014)] revisited the O mode instability and extended it to the low-beta plasma regime by considering a counter-streaming bi-Maxwellian model. However, the O-mode instability is, thus, far discussed only on the basis of the marginal stability condition rather than actual numerical solutions of the dispersion relation. The present paper revisits the O-mode instability by considering the actual complex roots. The marginal stability condition as a function of the (electron) temperature anisotropy and beta naturally emerges in such a scheme.

15. Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2015-02-15

The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.

16. Nonchaoticity of Ordinary Differential Equations Describing Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuits

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Li Pengfei; Hu Gang; Chen Runsheng

2008-01-01

Gene transcriptional regulation (TR) processes are often described by coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). When the dimension of TR circuits is high (e.g. n ≥ 3) the motions of the corresponding ODEs may, very probably, show self-sustained oscillations and chaos. On the other hand, chaoticity may be harmful for the normal biological functions of TR processes. In this letter we numerically study the dynamics of 3-gene TR ODEs in great detail, and investigate many 4-, 5-, and 10-gene TR systems by randomly choosing figures and parameters in the conventionally accepted ranges. And we find that oscillations are very seldom and no chaotic motion is observed, even if the dimension of systems is sufficiently high (n ≥ 3). It is argued that the observation of nonchaoticity of these ODEs agrees with normal functions of actual TR processes

17. Classical mechanics including an introduction to the theory of elasticity

CERN Document Server

Hentschke, Reinhard

2017-01-01

This textbook teaches classical mechanics as one of the foundations of physics. It describes the mechanical stability and motion in physical systems ranging from the molecular to the galactic scale. Aside from the standard topics of mechanics in the physics curriculum, this book includes an introduction to the theory of elasticity and its use in selected modern engineering applications, e.g. dynamic mechanical analysis of viscoelastic materials. The text also covers many aspects of numerical mechanics, ranging from the solution of ordinary differential equations, including molecular dynamics simulation of many particle systems, to the finite element method. Attendant Mathematica programs or parts thereof are provided in conjunction with selected examples. Numerous links allow the reader to connect to related subjects and research topics. Among others this includes statistical mechanics (separate chapter), quantum mechanics, space flight, galactic dynamics, friction, and vibration spectroscopy. An introductory...

18. PSsolver: A Maple implementation to solve first order ordinary differential equations with Liouvillian solutions

Science.gov (United States)

Avellar, J.; Duarte, L. G. S.; da Mota, L. A. C. P.

2012-10-01

We present a set of software routines in Maple 14 for solving first order ordinary differential equations (FOODEs). The package implements the Prelle-Singer method in its original form together with its extension to include integrating factors in terms of elementary functions. The package also presents a theoretical extension to deal with all FOODEs presenting Liouvillian solutions. Applications to ODEs taken from standard references show that it solves ODEs which remain unsolved using Maple's standard ODE solution routines. New version program summary Program title: PSsolver Catalogue identifier: ADPR_v2_0 Program summary URL: http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADPR_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2302 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 31962 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Maple 14 (also tested using Maple 15 and 16). Computer: Intel Pentium Processor P6000, 1.86 GHz. Operating system: Windows 7. RAM: 4 GB DDR3 Memory Classification: 4.3. Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADPR_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 144 (2002) 46 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: Symbolic solution of first order differential equations via the Prelle-Singer method. Solution method: The method of solution is based on the standard Prelle-Singer method, with extensions for the cases when the FOODE contains elementary functions. Additionally, an extension of our own which solves FOODEs with Liouvillian solutions is included. Reasons for new version: The program was not running anymore due to changes in the latest versions of Maple. Additionally, we corrected/changed some bugs/details that were hampering the smoother functioning of the routines. Summary

19. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions.

Science.gov (United States)

Mielke, Steven L; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

2013-01-07

We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

20. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

2011-11-01

This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

1. Combining Ordinary Kriging with wind directions to identify sources of industrial odors in Portland, Oregon.

Science.gov (United States)

Eckmann, Ted C; Wright, Samantha G; Simpson, Logan K; Walker, Joe L; Kolmes, Steven A; Houck, James E; Velasquez, Sandra C

2018-01-01

This study combines Ordinary Kriging, odor monitoring, and wind direction data to demonstrate how these elements can be applied to identify the source of an industrial odor. The specific case study used as an example of how to address this issue was the University Park neighborhood of Portland, Oregon (USA) where residents frequently complain about industrial odors, and suspect the main source to be a nearby Daimler Trucks North America LLC manufacturing plant. We collected 19,665 odor observations plus 105,120 wind measurements, using an automated weather station to measure winds in the area at five-minute intervals, logging continuously from December 2014 through November 2015, while we also measured odors at 19 locations, three times per day, using methods from the American Society of the International Association for Testing and Materials. Our results quantify how winds vary with season and time of day when industrial odors were observed versus when they were not observed, while also mapping spatiotemporal patterns in these odors using Ordinary Kriging. Our analyses show that industrial odors were detected most frequently to the northwest of the Daimler plant, mostly when winds blew from the southeast, suggesting Daimler's facility is a likely source for much of this odor.

2. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

Science.gov (United States)

Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

1996-09-24

A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

3. A Numerical Scheme for Ordinary Differential Equations Having Time Varying and Nonlinear Coefficients Based on the State Transition Matrix

Science.gov (United States)

Bartels, Robert E.

2002-01-01

A variable order method of integrating initial value ordinary differential equations that is based on the state transition matrix has been developed. The method has been evaluated for linear time variant and nonlinear systems of equations. While it is more complex than most other methods, it produces exact solutions at arbitrary time step size when the time variation of the system can be modeled exactly by a polynomial. Solutions to several nonlinear problems exhibiting chaotic behavior have been computed. Accuracy of the method has been demonstrated by comparison with an exact solution and with solutions obtained by established methods.

4. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

Science.gov (United States)

Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

2016-09-01

A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS.

5. Ordinary Themes Presented with an Extra-ordinary Talent: An Overview of Emily Dickinson’s Notable Poems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yousef. A.N. Aldalabeeh

2018-05-01

Full Text Available As a poet with varied writing styles and extra-ordinary talent, Emily Dickinson occupied a very prestigious position in the field of American literature. Her poetry deals with a unique and large number of thematic expressions. This paper aims at introducing the unfolded, underlying and amazing thematic expressions of Emily Dickinson’s notable poetry. To unveil these themes of death, love, nature, immortality, pain and suffering from her widely recognized poetry, secondary source of data has been used. In this study, an effort also has been made to trace, examine, and explore the various themes with outstanding style of presentation of her poetry and their impact on readers and critics. Many researchers and critics have spent their great exertion to trace out these themes and they became successful in this regard. It is hoped that this study will also be a part in this line of contribution and serve the purpose for which it is designed.

6. Beyond Euler's Method: Implicit Finite Differences in an Introductory ODE Course

Science.gov (United States)

Kull, Trent C.

2011-01-01

A typical introductory course in ordinary differential equations (ODEs) exposes students to exact solution methods. However, many differential equations must be approximated with numerical methods. Textbooks commonly include explicit methods such as Euler's and Improved Euler's. Implicit methods are typically introduced in more advanced courses…

7. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

Science.gov (United States)

Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

2017-07-01

In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

8. Estimation of Ordinary Differential Equation Parameters Using Constrained Local Polynomial Regression.

Science.gov (United States)

2014-10-01

We propose a new method to use a constrained local polynomial regression to estimate the unknown parameters in ordinary differential equation models with a goal of improving the smoothing-based two-stage pseudo-least squares estimate. The equation constraints are derived from the differential equation model and are incorporated into the local polynomial regression in order to estimate the unknown parameters in the differential equation model. We also derive the asymptotic bias and variance of the proposed estimator. Our simulation studies show that our new estimator is clearly better than the pseudo-least squares estimator in estimation accuracy with a small price of computational cost. An application example on immune cell kinetics and trafficking for influenza infection further illustrates the benefits of the proposed new method.

9. Efficient solution of ordinary differential equations modeling electrical activity in cardiac cells.

Science.gov (United States)

Sundnes, J; Lines, G T; Tveito, A

2001-08-01

The contraction of the heart is preceded and caused by a cellular electro-chemical reaction, causing an electrical field to be generated. Performing realistic computer simulations of this process involves solving a set of partial differential equations, as well as a large number of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterizing the reactive behavior of the cardiac tissue. Experiments have shown that the solution of the ODEs contribute significantly to the total work of a simulation, and there is thus a strong need to utilize efficient solution methods for this part of the problem. This paper presents how an efficient implicit Runge-Kutta method may be adapted to solve a complicated cardiac cell model consisting of 31 ODEs, and how this solver may be coupled to a set of PDE solvers to provide complete simulations of the electrical activity.

10. On the structure of Selmer groups of $p$-ordinary modular forms over $\\mathbf{Z}_p$-extensions

OpenAIRE

Kidwell, Keenan

2016-01-01

We prove analogues of the major algebraic results of Greenberg-Vatsal for Selmer groups of $p$-ordinary newforms over $\\mathbf{Z}_p$-extensions which may be neither cyclotomic nor anticyclotomic, under a number of technical hypotheses, including a cotorsion assumption on the Selmer groups. The main complication which arises in our work is the possible presence of finite primes which can split completely in the $\\mathbf{Z}_p$-extension being considered, resulting in the local cohomology groups...

11. LSODE, 1. Order Stiff or Non-Stiff Ordinary Differential Equations System Initial Value Problems

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hindmarsh, A.C.; Petzold, L.R.

2005-01-01

1 - Description of program or function: LSODE (Livermore Solver for Ordinary Differential Equations) solves stiff and non-stiff systems of the form dy/dt = f. In the stiff case, it treats the Jacobian matrix df/dy as either a dense (full) or a banded matrix, and as either user-supplied or internally approximated by difference quotients. It uses Adams methods (predictor-corrector) in the non-stiff case, and Backward Differentiation Formula (BDF) methods (the Gear methods) in the stiff case. The linear systems that arise are solved by direct methods (LU factor/solve). The LSODE source is commented extensively to facilitate modification. Both a single-precision version and a double-precision version are available. 2 - Methods: It is assumed that the ODEs are given explicitly, so that the system can be written in the form dy/dt = f(t,y), where y is the vector of dependent variables, and t is the independent variable. LSODE contains two variable-order, variable- step (with interpolatory step-changing) integration methods. The first is the implicit Adams or non-stiff method, of orders one through twelve. The second is the backward differentiation or stiff method (or BDF method, or Gear's method), of orders one through five. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The differential equations must be given in explicit form, i.e., dy/dt = f(y,t). Problems with intermittent high-speed transients may cause inefficient or unstable performance

12. A Study on the quantification of hydration and the strength development mechanism of cementitious materials including amorphous phases by using XRD/Rietveld method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Yamada, Kazuo; Hoshino, Seiichi; Hirao, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Hiroki

2008-01-01

X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Rietveld method was applied to measure the phase composition of cement. The quantative analysis concerning the progress of hydration was accomplished in an error of about the maximum 2-3% in spite of including amorphous materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume and C-S-H. The influence of the compressive strength on the lime stone fine powder mixture material was studied from the hydration analysis by Rietveld method. The two stages were observed in the strength development mechanism of cement; the hydration promotion of C 3 S in the early stage and the filling of cavities by carbonate hydrate for the longer term. It is useful to use various mixture materials for the formation of the resource recycling society and the durability improvement of concrete. (author)

13. On Public Influence on People's Interactions with Ordinary Biodiversity.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Zina Skandrani

Full Text Available Besides direct impacts of urban biodiversity on local ecosystem services, the contact of city dwellers with urban nature in their everyday life could increase their awareness on conservation issues. In this paper, we focused on a particularly common animal urban species, the feral pigeon Columba livia. Through an observational approach, we examined behavioral interactions between city dwellers and this species in the Paris metropolis, France. We found that most people (mean: 81% do not interact with pigeons. Further, interactions (either positive or negative are context and age-dependent: children interact more than adults and the elderly, while people in tourist spots interact more than people in urban parks or in railway stations, a result that suggests that people interacting with pigeons are mostly tourists. We discuss these results in terms of public normative pressures on city dwellers' access to and reconnection with urban nature. We call for caution in how urban species are publically portrayed and managed, given the importance of interactions with ordinary biodiversity for the fate of nature conservation.

14. Ordinary Mathematical Models in Calculating the Aviation GTE Parameters

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

E. A. Khoreva

2017-01-01

Full Text Available The paper presents the analytical review results of the ordinary mathematical models of the operating process used to study aviation GTE parameters and characteristics at all stages of its creation and operation. Considers the mathematical models of the zero and the first level, which are mostly used when solving typical problems in calculating parameters and characteristics of engines.Presents a number of practical problems arising in designing aviation GTE for various applications.The application of mathematical models of the zero-level engine can be quite appropriate when the engine is considered as a component in the aircraft system to estimate its calculated individual flight performance or when modeling the flight cycle of the aircrafts of different purpose.The paper demonstrates that introduction of correction functions into the first-level mathematical models in solving typical problems (influence of the Reynolds number, characteristics deterioration of the units during the overhaul period of engine, as well as influence of the flow inhomogeneity at the inlet because of manufacturing tolerance, etc. enables providing a sufficient engineering estimate accuracy to reflect a realistic operating process in the engine and its elements.

15. Giant Pulse Studies of Ordinary and Recycled Pulsars with NICER

Science.gov (United States)

Lewandowska, Natalia; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Gendreau, Keith C.; Enoto, Teruaki; Harding, Alice; Lommen, Andrea; Ray, Paul S.; Deneva, Julia; Kerr, Matthew; Ransom, Scott M.; NICER Team

2018-01-01

Radio Giant Pulses are one of the earliest discovered form of anomalous single pulse emission from pulsars. Known for their non-periodical occurrence, restriction to certain phase ranges, power-law intensity distributions, pulse widths ranging from microseconds to nanoseconds and very high brightness temperatures, they stand out as an individual form of pulsar radio emission.Discovered originally in the case of the Crab pulsar, several other pulsars have been observed to emit radio giant pulses, the most promising being the recycled pulsar PSR B1937+21 and also the Vela pulsar.Although radio giant pulses are apparently the result of a coherent emission mechanism, recent studies of the Crab pulsar led to the discovery of an additional incoherent component at optical wavelengths. No such component has been identified for recycled pulsars, or Vela yet.To provide constraints on possible emission regions in their magnetospheres and to search for differences between giant pulses from ordinary and recycled pulsars, we present the progress of the correlation study of PSR B1937+21 and the Vela pulsar carried out with NICER and several radio observatories.

16. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

1999-01-01

Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...

17. Cement for oil well developed from ordinary cement: characterization physical, chemical and mineralogical

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Oliveira, D.N.S.; Neves, G. de A.; Chaves, A.C.; Mendonca, A.M.G.D.; Lima, M.S. de; Bezerra, U.T.

2012-01-01

This work aims to characterize a new type of cement produced from the mixture of ordinary Portland cement, which can be used as an option in the cementing of oil wells. To enable this work we used the method of lineal programming for the new cement composition, then conducted tests to characterize through particle size analysis by laser diffraction, chemical analysis by EDX, TGA, X-ray diffraction, time grip, resistance to compression. The overall result showed that the new cement had made low-C3A, takes more time to the CPP, thermal stability up to 500 ° C, the kinetics of hydration and low levels of major components consistent with the specifications of ABNT. (author)

18. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under the impact of different phytoameliorants

Science.gov (United States)

Dubovik, I. E.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Khasanova, R. F.; Shalygina, R. R.

2016-04-01

General ecological and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacterial-algal cenoses in ordinary chernozems under different ameliorative plants (phytoameliorants) were studied in the Trans-Ural region of the Republic of Bashkortostan. A comparative analysis of the taxa of studied cenoses in the soils under leguminous herbs and grasses was performed. The phytoameliorative effect of different herbs and their relationships with cyanobacterial-algal cenoses were examined. Overall, 134 cyanoprokaryotic and algal species belonging to 70 genera, 36 families, 15 orders, and 9 classes were identified. Cyanobacterial-algal cenoses included the divisions of Chlorophyta, Cyanoprokaryota, Xanthophyta, Bacillariophyta, and Euglenophyta. Representatives of Ch-, X-, CF-, and P-forms were the leading ecobiomorphs in the studied cenoses.

19. The geometric approach to sets of ordinary differential equations and Hamiltonian dynamics

Science.gov (United States)

Estabrook, F. B.; Wahlquist, H. D.

1975-01-01

The calculus of differential forms is used to discuss the local integration theory of a general set of autonomous first order ordinary differential equations. Geometrically, such a set is a vector field V in the space of dependent variables. Integration consists of seeking associated geometric structures invariant along V: scalar fields, forms, vectors, and integrals over subspaces. It is shown that to any field V can be associated a Hamiltonian structure of forms if, when dealing with an odd number of dependent variables, an arbitrary equation of constraint is also added. Families of integral invariants are an immediate consequence. Poisson brackets are isomorphic to Lie products of associated CT-generating vector fields. Hamilton's variational principle follows from the fact that the maximal regular integral manifolds of a closed set of forms must include the characteristics of the set.

20. A review of hot climate concreting, and the appropriate procedures for ordinary jobsites in developing countries

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Bella Nabil

2017-01-01

Full Text Available Hot weather concreting involves some procedures to reduce negative effects caused principally by excessive water evaporation from the concrete surface. Potential problems for fresh concrete are: increased demand for water, increased the tendency the rate of slump loss corresponding to add water on job-site, an increased in execution rate, increased tendency for plastic shrinkage cracking and increased difficulty in controlling occluded air. Potential problems for hardened concrete may include: reduction of resistance at 28 days and long-term resulting of higher water demand and/or higher temperature of concrete, decreased durability resulting from cracking. Most developing countries have hot climate, ordinary jobsites in developing countries are characterised by reduced of human resources, equipment and infrastructures. This paper briefly reviews hot climate concreting procedures, especially the latest research in developing countries, and discusses the most appropriate in developing countries.

1. Assessment of available integration algorithms for initial value ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Carver, M.B.; Stewart, D.G.

1979-11-01

There exists an extremely large number of algorithms designed for the ordinary differential equation initial value problem. The integration is normally done by a finite sum at time intervals which are chosen dynamically to satisfy an imposed error tolerance. This report describes the basic logistics of the integration process, identifies common areas of difficulty, and establishes a comprehensive test profile for integration algorithms. A number of algorithms are described, and selected published subroutines are evaluated using the test profile. It concludes that an effective library for general use need have only two such routines. The two selected are versions of the well-known Gear and Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithms. Full documentation and listings are included. (auth)

2. Prediction of DHF disease spreading patterns using inverse distances weighted (IDW), ordinary and universal kriging

Science.gov (United States)

Prasetiyowati, S. S.; Sibaroni, Y.

2018-03-01

Dengue hemorrhagic disease, is a disease caused by the Dengue virus of the Flavivirus genus Flaviviridae family. Indonesia is the country with the highest case of dengue in Southeast Asia. In addition to mosquitoes as vectors and humans as hosts, other environmental and social factors are also the cause of widespread dengue fever. To prevent the occurrence of the epidemic of the disease, fast and accurate action is required. Rapid and accurate action can be taken, if there is appropriate information support on the occurrence of the epidemic. Therefore, a complete and accurate information on the spread pattern of endemic areas is necessary, so that precautions can be done as early as possible. The information on dispersal patterns can be obtained by various methods, which are based on empirical and theoretical considerations. One of the methods used is based on the estimated number of infected patients in a region based on spatial and time. The first step of this research is conducted by predicting the number of DHF patients in 2016 until 2018 based on 2010 to 2015 data using GSTAR (1, 1). In the second phase, the distribution pattern prediction of dengue disease area is conducted. Furthermore, based on the characteristics of DHF epidemic trends, i.e. down, stable or rising, the analysis of distribution patterns of dengue fever distribution areas with IDW and Kriging (ordinary and universal Kriging) were conducted in this study. The difference between IDW and Kriging, is the initial process that underlies the prediction process. Based on the experimental results, it is known that the dispersion pattern of epidemic areas of dengue disease with IDW and Ordinary Kriging is similar in the period of time.

3. VNIR Reflectance and MIR Emissivity Spectra of Ordinary Chondrite Meteorites Under Simulated Asteroid Surface Conditions

Science.gov (United States)

Gemma, M.; Shirley, K.; Glotch, T. D.; Ebel, D. S. S.

2017-12-01

Recent missions have revealed much about the nature of many Near-Earth asteroids, including the NEAR-Shoemaker target 433 Eros and Hayabusa target 25142 Itokawa. Both asteroids appear to have mineralogy consistent with ordinary chondrite meteorites. Laboratory spectral analysis of well-constrained meteorite samples can be employed as a reference tool to characterize and constrain data from current and future asteroid studies. A sample set of ordinary chondrite meteorites was chosen from the collection at the American Museum of Natural History. Six meteorites, spanning groups H, L, and LL, were prepared at four different size fractions (25-63 μm, 63-90 μm, 90-125 μm, 125-250 μm) in an attempt to mimic regolith known to exist on asteroids such as 433 Eros and 25142 Itokawa. At the Center for Planetary Exploration at Stony Brook University, spectra of the ordinary chondrite material were measured under simulated asteroid surface conditions ( 10-6 mbar, 150 K chamber temperature, low intensity illumination). The samples were used in two experiments: one measuring visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra at a series of temperatures, and the other measuring mid-infrared (MIR) emissivity spectra. The emissivity measurements require accurate simulation of the thermal environment within asteroid regolith, achieved by inducing a thermal gradient within the sample that results in a surface brightness temperature around 323 K (similar to the surface of 25142 Itokawa). Mid-IR emissivity spectra were collected for each sample at a surface temperature of 323 K, and reflectance spectra were collected in increments of 10 K, over the range 283 K to 373 K. Preliminary VNIR spectra show spreads similar to those seen in Hinrichs and Lucey (2002). Preliminary MIR emissivity spectra suggest that under asteroid surface conditions, the position of the Christiansen feature shifts to shorter wavelengths and emissivity is lower in the Reststrahlen bands when compared to

4. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

Science.gov (United States)

Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

2016-01-01

Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

5. The effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in educable mental retarded boys

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

hamid reza Gheiji

2014-03-01

Full Text Available Background : Manipulative skills are one of the fundamental skills subtitles which is used in most of daily and sports activities. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of traditional games and ordinary games on manipulative skills development in 8-10 years old Gorgan boys with educable mental retardation. Materials and Methods: Personal information was evaluated by the researcher made questionnaire and children's intelligence by the Wechsler test. Also, manipulative skills were assessed by the Test of Gross Motor Development- edition 2 (TGMD-2 in pre-test. Then, participants were distributed into two groups traditional games (n=15 and ordinary games (n=15 randomly. Post-test of TGMD-2 were done from two groups after 8 weeks training (3 sessions per week and 45 min for each session. Data analyzes was done by independent t-test, paired t-test and variance analysis with repeated measurement in a significant rate (α= 0.05. Results: The two groups showed significant improvements in manipulation skills, but the improvement of traditional games group was significantly more than ordinary games group in all of measured manipulating skills (throwing, catching, kicking, striking, dribbling , rolling a ball (p<0.05. Conclusion: It can be said, selected traditional games could be an appropriate program for the manipulative skills development of children.

6. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

Science.gov (United States)

Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

2017-06-08

Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

7. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature.

Science.gov (United States)

2016-01-01

Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or "frosties," show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50-85%). We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

8. On Numerical Methods for Including the Effect of Capillary Pressure Forces on Two-phase, Immiscible Flow in a Layered Porous Medium

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ersland, B.G.

1996-05-01

This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

9. Derivatization method of free cyanide including cyanogen chloride for the sensitive analysis of cyanide in chlorinated drinking water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Science.gov (United States)

Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

2015-01-20

A novel derivatization method of free cyanide (HCN + CN(-)) including cyanogen chloride in chlorinated drinking water was developed with d-cysteine and hypochlorite. The optimum conditions (0.5 mM D-cysteine, 0.5 mM hypochlorite, pH 4.5, and a reaction time of 10 min at room temperature) were established by the variation of parameters. Cyanide (C(13)N(15)) was chosen as an internal standard. The formed β-thiocyanoalanine was directly injected into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer without any additional extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.07 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, and the interday relative standard deviation was less than 4% at concentrations of 4.0, 20.0, and 100.0 μg/L. The method was successfully applied to determine CN(-) in chlorinated water samples. The detected concentration range and detection frequency of CN(-) were 0.20-8.42 μg/L (14/24) in source drinking water and 0.21-1.03 μg/L (18/24) in chlorinated drinking water.

10. Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations

CERN Document Server

Geiser, Juergen

2011-01-01

Iterative Splitting Methods for Differential Equations explains how to solve evolution equations via novel iterative-based splitting methods that efficiently use computational and memory resources. It focuses on systems of parabolic and hyperbolic equations, including convection-diffusion-reaction equations, heat equations, and wave equations. In the theoretical part of the book, the author discusses the main theorems and results of the stability and consistency analysis for ordinary differential equations. He then presents extensions of the iterative splitting methods to partial differential

11. Biological monitoring of benzene exposure for process operators during ordinary activity in the upstream petroleum industry.

Science.gov (United States)

Bråtveit, Magne; Kirkeleit, Jorunn; Hollund, Bjørg Eli; Moen, Bente E

2007-07-01

This study characterized the exposure of crude oil process operators to benzene and related aromatics during ordinary activity and investigated whether the operators take up benzene at this level of exposure. We performed the study on a fixed, integrated oil and gas production facility on Norway's continental shelf. The study population included 12 operators and 9 referents. We measured personal exposure to benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene during three consecutive 12-h work shifts using organic vapour passive dosimeter badges. We sampled blood and urine before departure to the production facility (pre-shift), immediately after the work shift on Day 13 of the work period (post-shift) and immediately before the following work shift (pre-next shift). We also measured the exposure to hydrocarbons during short-term tasks by active sampling using Tenax tubes. The arithmetic mean exposure over the 3 days was 0.042 ppm for benzene (range ethylbenzene and 0.03 ppm for xylene. Full-shift personal exposure was significantly higher when the process operators performed flotation work during the shift versus other tasks. Work in the flotation area was associated with short-term (6-15 min) arithmetic mean exposure to benzene of 1.06 ppm (range 0.09-2.33 ppm). The concentrations of benzene in blood and urine did not differ between operators and referents at any time point. When we adjusted for current smoking in regression analysis, benzene exposure was significantly associated with the post-shift concentration of benzene in blood (P = 0.01) and urine (P = 0.03), respectively. Although these operators perform tasks with relatively high short-term exposure to benzene, the full-shift mean exposure is low during ordinary activity. Some evidence indicates benzene uptake within this range of exposure.

12. On the selection of ordinary differential equation models with application to predator-prey dynamical models.

Science.gov (United States)

Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

2015-03-01

We consider model selection and estimation in a context where there are competing ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, and all the models are special cases of a "full" model. We propose a computationally inexpensive approach that employs statistical estimation of the full model, followed by a combination of a least squares approximation (LSA) and the adaptive Lasso. We show the resulting method, here called the LSA method, to be an (asymptotically) oracle model selection method. The finite sample performance of the proposed LSA method is investigated with Monte Carlo simulations, in which we examine the percentage of selecting true ODE models, the efficiency of the parameter estimation compared to simply using the full and true models, and coverage probabilities of the estimated confidence intervals for ODE parameters, all of which have satisfactory performances. Our method is also demonstrated by selecting the best predator-prey ODE to model a lynx and hare population dynamical system among some well-known and biologically interpretable ODE models. © 2014, The International Biometric Society.

13. Penalized Nonlinear Least Squares Estimation of Time-Varying Parameters in Ordinary Differential Equations

KAUST Repository

Cao, Jiguo; Huang, Jianhua Z.; Wu, Hulin

2012-01-01

Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in biomedical research and other scientific areas to model complex dynamic systems. It is an important statistical problem to estimate parameters in ODEs from noisy observations. In this article we propose a method for estimating the time-varying coefficients in an ODE. Our method is a variation of the nonlinear least squares where penalized splines are used to model the functional parameters and the ODE solutions are approximated also using splines. We resort to the implicit function theorem to deal with the nonlinear least squares objective function that is only defined implicitly. The proposed penalized nonlinear least squares method is applied to estimate a HIV dynamic model from a real dataset. Monte Carlo simulations show that the new method can provide much more accurate estimates of functional parameters than the existing two-step local polynomial method which relies on estimation of the derivatives of the state function. Supplemental materials for the article are available online.

14. Radiation protection in the 2000s - Theory and practice. Nordic Society for Radiation Protection. Proceedings of the XIII ordinary meeting

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paile, W.

2003-06-01

The XIII ordinary meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection (NSFS) was held on August 25-29, 2002 in Turku (Aabo), Finland. The main topics included: protection of the environment, information and ethics, natural radiation, reactor safety and waste management, emergency preparedness, medical use of radiation, radiation in industrial use, education and certification, radiation biology and epidemiology, and radioecology and monitoring. The proceedings of the meeting includes all the papers of the oral presentations as well as the poster presentations. Papers presenting scientific results have been subject to a referee process with evaluation of independent experts

15. Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Coastal Bangladesh: AN Investigation with Ordinary Kriging Estimation

Science.gov (United States)

Hassan, M. M.; Ahamed, R.

2017-10-01

Spatial point pattern is one of the most suitable methods for analysing groundwater arsenic concentrations. Groundwater arsenic poisoning in Bangladesh has been one of the biggest environmental health disasters in recent times. About 85 million people are exposed to arsenic more than 50 μg/L in drinking water. The paper seeks to identify the existing suitable aquifers for arsenic-safe drinking water along with "spatial arsenic discontinuity" using GIS-based spatial geostatistical analysis in a small study site (12.69 km2) in the coastal belt of southwest Bangladesh (Dhopakhali union of Bagerhat district). The relevant spatial data were collected with Geographical Positioning Systems (GPS), arsenic data with field testing kits, tubewell attributes with observation and questionnaire survey. Geostatistics with kriging methods can design water quality monitoring in different aquifers with hydrochemical evaluation by spatial mapping. The paper presents the interpolation of the regional estimates of arsenic data for spatial discontinuity mapping with Ordinary Kriging (OK) method that overcomes the areal bias problem for administrative boundary. This paper also demonstrates the suitability of isopleth maps that is easier to read than choropleth maps. The OK method investigated that around 80 percent of the study site are contaminated following the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standards (BDWS) of 50 μg/L. The study identified a very few scattered "pockets" of arsenic-safe zone at the shallow aquifer.

16. Application of ordinary kriging for interpolation of micro-structured technical surfaces

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Raid, Indek; Kusnezowa, Tatjana; Seewig, Jörg

2013-01-01

Kriging is an interpolation technique used in geostatistics. In this paper we present kriging applied in the field of three-dimensional optical surface metrology. Technical surfaces are not always optically cooperative, meaning that measurements of technical surfaces contain invalid data points because of different effects. These data points need to be interpolated to obtain a complete area in order to fulfil further processing. We present an elementary type of kriging, known as ordinary kriging, and apply it to interpolate measurements of different technical surfaces containing different kinds of realistic defects. The result of the interpolation with kriging is compared to six common interpolation techniques: nearest neighbour, natural neighbour, inverse distance to a power, triangulation with linear interpolation, modified Shepard's method and radial basis function. In order to quantify the results of different interpolations, the topographies are compared to defect-free reference topographies. Kriging is derived from a stochastic model that suggests providing an unbiased, linear estimation with a minimized error variance. The estimation with kriging is based on a preceding statistical analysis of the spatial structure of the surface. This comprises the choice and adaptation of specific models of spatial continuity. In contrast to common methods, kriging furthermore considers specific anisotropy in the data and adopts the interpolation accordingly. The gained benefit requires some additional effort in preparation and makes the overall estimation more time-consuming than common methods. However, the adaptation to the data makes this method very flexible and accurate. (paper)

17. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

2014-07-01

Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

18. Technical meeting on lessons learned with respect to SAT implementation, including development of trainers and use of cost effective training methods

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2002-01-01

The past years have brought some significant changes in the world energy market, where the nuclear power plants and utilities are operating. Part of NPPs is privatised now; the electricity markets are liberalized and become more and more international. Due to the increase of competition, the power production costs are now monitored more closely than before. The opening of electricity markets has led the nuclear power plants to be under the serious economic pressure with a demand for continuous cost reduction. All these require from NPPs to make their personnel training more cost-effective. In addition, based on modern technology, a great amount of new training tools, aids and technologies have been introduced during the last 2-3 years, these new opportunities can be quite useful for training cost optimization. On the basis of experience gained worldwide in the application of the systematic approach to training (SAT), SAT based training is now a broad integrated approach emphasizing not only technical knowledge and skills but also human factor related knowledge, skills and attitudes. In this way, all competency requirements for attaining and maintaining personnel competence and qualification can be met, thus promoting and strengthening quality culture and safety culture, which should be fostered throughout the initial and continuing training programmes. The subject of the present technical meeting was suggested by the members of the Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of NPP Personnel (TWG-T and Q) and supported by a number of the IAEA meetings on NPP personnel training. The technical Meeting on 'Lessons Learned with Respect to SAT Implementation, Including Development of Trainers and Use of Cost Effective Training Methods' was organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Tecnatom A.S. and was held from 21 to 24 October 2002 in San Sebastian de los Reyes/ Madrid, Spain. The main objective of the meeting was to provide an international forum for

19. Math-Based Simulation Tools and Methods

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Arepally, Sudhakar

2007-01-01

.... The following methods are reviewed: matrix operations, ordinary and partial differential system of equations, Lagrangian operations, Fourier transforms, Taylor Series, Finite Difference Methods, implicit and explicit finite element...

20. Stanley Cavell, Classical Hollywood and the Constitution of the Ordinary (With Notes on Billy Wilder

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Tatjana Jukić

2016-04-01

Full Text Available When in his Tanner lectures Stanley Cavell sets out to define Ordinary Language Philosophy or – rather – to explain how it demarcates philosophy as such, he takes up psychoanalytic literary criticism in order to articulate the terms of this task. Yet the constitution of the ordinary, in Cavell, is never quite accessed from within psychoanalysis-cum-literature alone; instead, it takes another relation, that of psychoanalysis and literature to classical Hollywood, for Cavell to address the ordinary in terms of its constitution. I propose to discuss this complex using two films by Billy Wilder as a passageway to Cavell’s analytic procedure.

1. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETING OF 16 FEBRUARY 2000

CERN Multimedia

2000-01-01

Original: FrenchThe meeting was mainly devoted to the preparation of TREF's next meeting on 30 March, the adoption of two draft administrative circulars concerning compensation for long-term shift work and the assessment of MOAS training in 1999.1. Preparation of TREF's meeting on 30 March 2000The Committee took note of a draft agenda for TREF's next meeting, which includes, in particular, a summary of the long-term care issue and an initial cost-sharing proposal, and various items relating to the five-yearly remuneration review (in particular, the data collection exercise, the study of annual and five-yearly remuneration adjustment methods, the economic and social situation in the Member States and an initial discussion on the career structure).1.1. Draft document on long-term careA draft document for submission to TREF, comprising a summary of the situation and of the work done to date (definition of dependence and risks for the CERN health insurance scheme if no measures covering the long-term care risk ar...

2. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

Science.gov (United States)

van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

2015-04-10

Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

3. Comparing ordinary kriging and inverse distance weighting for soil as pollution in Beijing.

Science.gov (United States)

Qiao, Pengwei; Lei, Mei; Yang, Sucai; Yang, Jun; Guo, Guanghui; Zhou, Xiaoyong

2018-06-01

Spatial interpolation method is the basis of soil heavy metal pollution assessment and remediation. The existing evaluation index for interpolation accuracy did not combine with actual situation. The selection of interpolation methods needs to be based on specific research purposes and research object characteristics. In this paper, As pollution in soils of Beijing was taken as an example. The prediction accuracy of ordinary kriging (OK) and inverse distance weighted (IDW) were evaluated based on the cross validation results and spatial distribution characteristics of influencing factors. The results showed that, under the condition of specific spatial correlation, the cross validation results of OK and IDW for every soil point and the prediction accuracy of spatial distribution trend are similar. But the prediction accuracy of OK for the maximum and minimum is less than IDW, while the number of high pollution areas identified by OK are less than IDW. It is difficult to identify the high pollution areas fully by OK, which shows that the smoothing effect of OK is obvious. In addition, with increasing of the spatial correlation of As concentration, the cross validation error of OK and IDW decreases, and the high pollution area identified by OK is approaching the result of IDW, which can identify the high pollution areas more comprehensively. However, because the semivariogram constructed by OK interpolation method is more subjective and requires larger number of soil samples, IDW is more suitable for spatial prediction of heavy metal pollution in soils.

4. An analytical approximation scheme to two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boisseau, Bruno; Forgacs, Peter; Giacomini, Hector

2007-01-01

A new (algebraic) approximation scheme to find global solutions of two-point boundary value problems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is presented. The method is applicable for both linear and nonlinear (coupled) ODEs whose solutions are analytic near one of the boundary points. It is based on replacing the original ODEs by a sequence of auxiliary first-order polynomial ODEs with constant coefficients. The coefficients in the auxiliary ODEs are uniquely determined from the local behaviour of the solution in the neighbourhood of one of the boundary points. The problem of obtaining the parameters of the global (connecting) solutions, analytic at one of the boundary points, reduces to find the appropriate zeros of algebraic equations. The power of the method is illustrated by computing the approximate values of the 'connecting parameters' for a number of nonlinear ODEs arising in various problems in field theory. We treat in particular the static and rotationally symmetric global vortex, the skyrmion, the Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortex, as well as the 't Hooft-Polyakov magnetic monopole. The total energy of the skyrmion and of the monopole is also computed by the new method. We also consider some ODEs coming from the exact renormalization group. The ground-state energy level of the anharmonic oscillator is also computed for arbitrary coupling strengths with good precision. (fast track communication)

5. 76 FR 40451 - Agency Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review

Science.gov (United States)

2011-07-08

... reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value on the day before a policyholder's 65th and... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration...) of 1995 [[Page 40452

6. Antiperiodic Boundary Value Problems for Second-Order Impulsive Ordinary Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2009-02-01

Full Text Available We consider a second-order ordinary differential equation with antiperiodic boundary conditions and impulses. By using Schaefer's fixed-point theorem, some existence results are obtained.

7. Consistency of direct integral estimator for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Vujačić, Ivan; Dattner, Itai

In this paper we use the sieve framework to prove consistency of the ‘direct integral estimator’ of parameters for partially observed systems of ordinary differential equations, which are commonly used for modeling dynamic processes.

8. Contact symmetries of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations: letter to the editor

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Martini, Ruud; Kersten, P.H.M.

1983-01-01

Using 1-1 mappings, the complete symmetry groups of contact transformations of general linear second-order ordinary differential equations are determined from two independent solutions of those equations, and applied to the harmonic oscillator with and without damping.

9. An 57Fe Mössbauer study of three Australian L5 ordinary-chondrite meteorites: dating Kinclaven–001

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cadogan, J. M.; Rebbouh, L.; Mills, J. V. J.; Bland, P. A.

2013-01-01

Three L5-type ordinary chondrite meteorites recovered from the Nullarbor Region of Western Australia were studied by 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy: Kinclaven–001, Camel Donga–007 and Gunnadorah–002. The relative amounts of the various Fe-bearing phases including the primary minerals (Olivine, Pyroxene, Troilite and Fe-Ni metal) and the ferric alteration products (Goethite, Maghemite/Magnetite) were obtained to determine the percentage of iron converted to Fe 3 +  by weathering processes. These data allow us to estimate the terrestrial age of Kinclaven–001 at 1,700 ± 1,300 yrs

10. Ordinary risks and accepted fictions: how contrasting and competing priorities work in risk assessment and mental health care planning.

Science.gov (United States)

Coffey, Michael; Cohen, Rachel; Faulkner, Alison; Hannigan, Ben; Simpson, Alan; Barlow, Sally

2017-06-01

Communication and information sharing are considered crucial to recovery-focused mental health services. Effective mental health care planning and coordination includes assessment and management of risk and safety. Using data from our cross-national mixed-method study of care planning and coordination, we examined what patients, family members and workers say about risk assessment and management and explored the contents of care plans. Thematic analysis of qualitative research interviews (n = 117) with patients, family members and workers, across four English and two Welsh National Health Service sites. Care plans were reviewed (n = 33) using a structured template. Participants have contrasting priorities in relation to risk. Patients see benefit in discussions about risk, but cast the process as a worker priority that may lead to loss of liberty. Relationships with workers are key to family members and patients; however, worker claims of involving people in the care planning process do not extend to risk assessment and management procedures for fear of causing upset. Workers locate risk as coming from the person rather than social or environmental factors, are risk averse and appear to prioritize the procedural aspects of assessment. Despite limitations, risk assessment is treated as legitimate work by professionals. Risk assessment practice operates as a type of fiction in which poor predictive ability and fear of consequences are accepted in the interests of normative certainty by all parties. As a consequence, risk adverse options are encouraged by workers and patients steered away from opportunities for ordinary risks thereby hindering the mobilization of their strengths and abilities. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

11. Filtering informal learning in everyday life: invoking ordinariness and moving to civic engagement

OpenAIRE

Grummell, Bernie

2010-01-01

This article explores the role of informal learning from television as it is anchored within the ordinariness of daily life. It examines the consequences for pedagogy and civic engagement, questioning how informal learning from television can enhance civic engagement. For many, this learning was localized through personalized and interpersonal relations of everyday life. Learning was not viewed as a distant institutional force, but as an embedded part of an ordinary life. The invoking of ordi...

12. ODEion--a software module for structural identification of ordinary differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Gennemark, Peter; Wedelin, Dag

2014-02-01

In the systems biology field, algorithms for structural identification of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) have mainly focused on fixed model spaces like S-systems and/or on methods that require sufficiently good data so that derivatives can be accurately estimated. There is therefore a lack of methods and software that can handle more general models and realistic data. We present ODEion, a software module for structural identification of ODEs. Main characteristic features of the software are: • The model space is defined by arbitrary user-defined functions that can be nonlinear in both variables and parameters, such as for example chemical rate reactions. • ODEion implements computationally efficient algorithms that have been shown to efficiently handle sparse and noisy data. It can run a range of realistic problems that previously required a supercomputer. • ODEion is easy to use and provides SBML output. We describe the mathematical problem, the ODEion system itself, and provide several examples of how the system can be used. Available at: http://www.odeidentification.org.

13. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Gabano, J.

1983-03-01

An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

14. Theoretical Analysis of Fas Ligand-Induced Apoptosis with an Ordinary Differential Equation Model.

Science.gov (United States)

Shi, Zhimin; Li, Yan; Liu, Zhihai; Mi, Jun; Wang, Renxiao

2012-12-01

Upon the treatment of Fas ligand, different types of cells exhibit different apoptotic mechanisms, which are determined by a complex network of biological pathways. In order to derive a quantitative interpretation of the cell sensitivity and apoptosis pathways, we have developed an ordinary differential equation model. Our model is intended to include all of the known major components in apoptosis pathways mediated by Fas receptor. It is composed of 29 equations using a total of 49 rate constants and 13 protein concentrations. All parameters used in our model were derived through nonlinear fitting to experimentally measured concentrations of four selected proteins in Jurkat T-cells, including caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bid. Our model is able to correctly interpret the role of kinetic parameters and protein concentrations in cell sensitivity to FasL. It reveals the possible reasons for the transition between type-I and type-II pathways and also provides some interesting predictions, such as the more decisive role of Fas over Bax in apoptosis pathway and a possible feedback mechanism between type-I and type-II pathways. But our model failed in predicting FasL-induced apoptotic mechanism of NCI-60 cells from their gene-expression levels. Limitations in our model are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

15. Particle size distribution in soils and marine sediments by laser diffraction using Malvern Mastersizer 2000—method uncertainty including the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Callesen, Ingeborg; Keck, Hannes; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

2018-01-01

with less than 1% C and some marine sediments. Materials and methods: The method uncertainty for particle size analysis by the laser diffraction method using or not using H2O2 pretreatment followed by 2 min ultrasound and 1-mm sieving was determined for two soil samples and two aquatic sediments......Purpose: Methods for particle size distribution (PSD) determination by laser diffraction are not standardized and differ between disciplines and sectors. The effect of H2O2 pretreatment before a sonication treatment in laser diffraction analysis of soils and marine sediments was examined on soils...... pretreatment on the PSD was small and not significant. The standard deviation (std) in particle size fractions increased with particle size. PSDs and std for some samples were presented for future reference. Similar to other studies, the content of clay and silt (by sieving/hydrometer, SHM) was lower...

16. The Numerical Solution of an Abelian Ordinary Differential Equation ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

In this paper we present a relatively new technique call theNew Hybrid of Adomian decomposition method (ADM) for solution of an Abelian Differential equation. The numerical results of the equation have been obtained in terms of convergent series with easily computable component. These methods are applied to solve ...

17. 5 CFR 845.305 - Ordinary and necessary living expenses.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-01-01

... SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RETIREMENT SYSTEM-DEBT COLLECTION Standards for Waiver... necessary living expenses include rent, mortgage payments, utilities, maintenance, transportation, food...

18. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

2011-01-01

.... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

19. Radiating sterilization of fruits of the barberry ordinary berberis vulgaris L

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abilova, I.E.

2006-01-01

Full text: The riches of flora of Azerbaijan with its specific saturation represent a huge raw-material base for a farmaceutical industry. In territory of republic 3 kinds of a barberry wildly grow, a perspective kind is the barberry ordinary Berberis vulgaris L.In the medical purposes leaves, a root, stalks and fruits of a barberry are applied. Berries as water tincture are applied at rheumatism, a malaria, a diabetes [I.A.Damirov and etn-tilde 1988; Hofbauer F., Askeril M, 2002, etc.], at diseases of a gastroenteric path, easy, at diseases of a mouth [Ikram M, 1975]. Biochemical processes in the collected raw material during first time proceed, as in an alive plant, that is synthesis of biologi-cally active substances prevails. On a measure natural losing water in connection with the termination of receipt of a moisture and nutrients, processes of an exchange are shifted aside disintegration that results in decrease of biologically active substances in vegetative raw material. However in some cases the processes proceeding in drying raw material result on the contrary, in increase in the maintenance of working substances. Therefore improvement of ways of drying and processing of medicinal raw material by influence of small dozes ? - radiations c the purpose of reception of the high-quality raw material, connected with growing need of a global farmaceutical industry for herbs and phitopreparats is an actual problem. As a result of experimental researches conditions of radiating sterilization of fruits of a barberry ?-radiation are picked up at small dozes and at different values ionizating radiations. Fruits of a barberry were irradiated with ?-radiation on radioisotope installation 60n-tildei-circumflex at values of a doze of an irradiation in limits from 1.0 up to 1.5eGr at duration of an irradiation till 30 minutes. The qualitative control were carried out chromatografic (thin layer chromatography) and spectral (UV-VIS and IR) methods later 6, 12 and 24 months

20. Comparison of Ordinary Kriging and Multiple Indicator Kriging ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Michael O. Mensah

Multiple Indicator Kriging (MIK) is one of the popular non-linear methods that can handle skewed distribution such as that for gold ... historical deposits: Nkran, Adubia, Abore, and a ... information from the mine on the geology of the deposit.

1. Striking Graphite Bearing Clasts Found in Two Ordinary Chondrite Samples; NWA6169 and NWA8330

Science.gov (United States)

Johnson, Jessica M.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Chan, Queenie; Kring, David A.

2015-01-01

Meteorites play an integral role in understanding the history of the solar system. Not only can they contain some of the oldest material found in the solar system they also can contain material that is unique. Many lithologies are only found as foreign clasts within distinctly different host meteorites. In this investigation two foreign clasts within the meteorites, NWA6169 and NWA8330 were studied. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the mineralogy and petrography of the clasts within the samples. From there an identification and possible origin were to be inferred. NWA6169 is an unclassified ordinary chondrite that has a presumed petrologic type of L3. NWA8330 is a classified ordinary chondrite that has a petrologic type of LL3. Both meteorites were found to contain clasts that were similar; both modally were comprised of about 5% acicular graphite. Through SEM and Raman Spectroscopy it was found that they contained olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, Fe-Ni sulfides, graphite, and metals. They were found to portray an igneous texture with relationships that suggest concurrent growth. Analytical microprobe results for NWA6169 revealed mineral compositions of Fa31-34, Fs23-83, and Ab7-85. For NWA8330 these were Fa28-32, Fs10-24, and Ab4-83. Only one similar material has been reported, in the L3 chondrite Krymka (Semenenko & Girich, 1995). The clast they described exhibited similar mineralogies including the unusual graphite. Krymka data displayed compositional values of Fa28.5-35.0 and Fs9-25.9. These ranges are fairly similar to that of NWA6169 and NWA8330. These samples may all be melt clasts, probably of impact origin. Two possibilities are (1) impact of a C-type asteroid onto the L chondrite parent asteroid, and (2) a piece of proto-earth ejected from the moon-forming collision event. These possibilities present abundant questions, and can be tested. The measurement of oxygen isotope compositions from the clasts should reveal the original source of the

2. Conformable variational iteration method

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Omer Acan

2017-02-01

Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

3. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

S. Stoll

2011-01-01

Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

4. Exploring inductive linearization for pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems of nonlinear ordinary differential equations.

Science.gov (United States)

Hasegawa, Chihiro; Duffull, Stephen B

2018-02-01

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic systems are often expressed with nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs). While there are numerous methods to solve such ODEs these methods generally rely on time-stepping solutions (e.g. Runge-Kutta) which need to be matched to the characteristics of the problem at hand. The primary aim of this study was to explore the performance of an inductive approximation which iteratively converts nonlinear ODEs to linear time-varying systems which can then be solved algebraically or numerically. The inductive approximation is applied to three examples, a simple nonlinear pharmacokinetic model with Michaelis-Menten elimination (E1), an integrated glucose-insulin model and an HIV viral load model with recursive feedback systems (E2 and E3, respectively). The secondary aim of this study was to explore the potential advantages of analytically solving linearized ODEs with two examples, again E3 with stiff differential equations and a turnover model of luteinizing hormone with a surge function (E4). The inductive linearization coupled with a matrix exponential solution provided accurate predictions for all examples with comparable solution time to the matched time-stepping solutions for nonlinear ODEs. The time-stepping solutions however did not perform well for E4, particularly when the surge was approximated by a square wave. In circumstances when either a linear ODE is particularly desirable or the uncertainty in matching the integrator to the ODE system is of potential risk, then the inductive approximation method coupled with an analytical integration method would be an appropriate alternative.

5. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

Science.gov (United States)

Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

6. A combined DFT and restricted open-shell configuration interaction method including spin-orbit coupling: Application to transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

2013-05-28

A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S are obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row

7. Neural network error correction for solving coupled ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Shelton, R. O.; Darsey, J. A.; Sumpter, B. G.; Noid, D. W.

1992-01-01

A neural network is presented to learn errors generated by a numerical algorithm for solving coupled nonlinear differential equations. The method is based on using a neural network to correctly learn the error generated by, for example, Runge-Kutta on a model molecular dynamics (MD) problem. The neural network programs used in this study were developed by NASA. Comparisons are made for training the neural network using backpropagation and a new method which was found to converge with fewer iterations. The neural net programs, the MD model and the calculations are discussed.

8. A simple method to evaluate the fission gas release at fuel grain boundary including the grain growth both at constant and at transient power histories

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Paraschiv, M.; Paraschiv, A.

1991-01-01

A method to rewrite Fick's second law for a region with a moving boundary when the moving law in time of this boundary is known, has been proposed. This method was applied to Booth's sphere model for radioactive and stable fission product diffusion from the oxide fuel grain in order to take into account the grain growth. The solution of this new equation was presented in the mathematical formulation for power histories from ANS 5.4 model for the stable species. It is very simple to apply and very accurate. The results obtained with this solution for constant and transient temperatures show that the fission gas release (FGR) at grain boundary is strongly dependent on kinetics of grain growth. The utilization of two semiempirical grain growth laws, from published information, shows that the fuel microstructural properties need to be multicitly considered in the fission gas release for every manufacturer of fuel. (orig.)

9. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

Science.gov (United States)

Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

1999-01-01

A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

10. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

Science.gov (United States)

Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

2014-10-01

The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

11. New gaussian points for the solution of first order ordinary ...

African Journals Online (AJOL)

Numerical experiments carried out using the new Gaussian points revealed there efficiency on stiff differential equations. The results also reveal that methods using the new Gaussian points are more accurate than those using the standard Gaussian points on non-stiff initial value problems. Keywords: Gaussian points ...

12. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

2006-01-01

population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

13. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

1994-01-01

Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

14. Biology, Ordinary and Higher Grades, Syllabuses and Specimen Question Papers.

Science.gov (United States)

Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board, Edinburgh.

Included is the prescribed syllabus in biology for the Scottish Certificate of Education. In two separate sections, the syllabus topics and specimen questions for final examinations are explained. This syllabus is intended to present biology as knowledge about living organisms without making the conventional division between plants and animals.…

15. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

Science.gov (United States)

Pies, Ross E.

2016-03-29

A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

16. Efficacy and prospects for cryopreserved thyroid gland transplantation as a method for treatment of different forms of primary hypothyroidism including postradiation

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Lyakh, I.A.; Khasiev, V.V.

1999-01-01

It was established that auto-and allo transplantation of cryopreserved thyroid is a physiologically well grounded technique of treatment and can be an alternative to substitution hormonotherapy of hypothyroidism and can be a main method of treatment in cases when hormone treatment is not effective or is contraindicated.Talking into account the efficiency of cryopreserved thyroid transplantation in patients with primary hypothyroidism,it is possible to predict its positive effect for c postradiation hypothyroidism treatment,if substitution hormonotherapy is not effective

17. Effect of fast freeze-thaw cycles on mechanical properties of ordinary-air-entrained concrete.

Science.gov (United States)

Shang, Huai-shuai; Cao, Wei-qun; Wang, Bin

2014-01-01

Freezing-thawing resistance is a very significant characteristic for concrete in severe environment (such as cold region with the lowest temperature below 0°C). In this study, ordinary-air-entrained (O-A-E) concrete was produced in a laboratory environment; the compressive strength, cubic compressive strength of C50, C40, C30, C25, and C20 ordinary-air-entrained concrete, tensile strength, and cleavage strength of C30 ordinary-air-entrained concrete were measured after fast freeze-thaw cycles. The effects of fast freeze-thaw cycles on the mechanical properties (compressive strength and cleavage strength) of ordinary-air-entrained concrete materials are investigated on the basis of the experimental results. And the concise mathematical formula between mechanical behavior and number of fast freeze-thaw cycles was established. The experiment results can be used as a reference in design, maintenance, and life prediction of ordinary-air-entrained concrete structure (such as dam, offshore platform, etc.) in cold regions.

18. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 10 May 2007

CERN Multimedia

2007-01-01

At its meeting on 10 May 2007, the Standing Concertation Committee discussed the Management’s proposal for the revision of Annex A 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. Annex A 1 sets out the principles for future periodic reviews of the personnel’s financial and social conditions and the revision reflects the modifications to review methods decided by the CERN Council in December 2006. The aim is to simplify the processes involved and rationalize the use of resources. The data collection process will be outsourced to a greater extent. The new methods also aim to reduce the overall time required to complete future reviews. Details of procedure will be addressed in subsequent discussions. The Committee approved the document for submission to the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) at its meeting on 31 May and 1 June 2007.

19. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 10 May 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2007-01-01

At its meeting on 10 May 2007, the Standing Concertation Committee discussed the Management's proposal for the revision of Annex A 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations. Annex A 1 sets out the principles for future periodic reviews of the personnel's financial and social conditions and the revision reflects the modifications to review methods decided by the CERN Council in December 2006. The aim is to simplify the processes involved and rationalize the use of resources. The data collection process will be outsourced to a greater extent. The new methods also aim to reduce the overall time required to complete future reviews. Details of procedure will be addressed in subsequent discussions. The Committee approved the document for submission to the Tripartite Employment Conditions Forum (TREF) at its meeting on 31 May and 1 June 2007.

20. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

2004-01-01

As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

1. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals.

Science.gov (United States)

Naef, Rudolf; Acree, William E

2017-06-25

The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit ( Q ²) and the standard deviation (σ) of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol ( N = 3386 test molecules) for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol ( N = 1791) for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol ( N = 373) for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K ( N = 2637) for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K ( N = 2643) for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation coefficient R

2. Calculation of Five Thermodynamic Molecular Descriptors by Means of a General Computer Algorithm Based on the Group-Additivity Method: Standard Enthalpies of Vaporization, Sublimation and Solvation, and Entropy of Fusion of Ordinary Organic Molecules and Total Phase-Change Entropy of Liquid Crystals

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rudolf Naef

2017-06-01

Full Text Available The calculation of the standard enthalpies of vaporization, sublimation and solvation of organic molecules is presented using a common computer algorithm on the basis of a group-additivity method. The same algorithm is also shown to enable the calculation of their entropy of fusion as well as the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The present method is based on the complete breakdown of the molecules into their constituting atoms and their immediate neighbourhood; the respective calculations of the contribution of the atomic groups by means of the Gauss-Seidel fitting method is based on experimental data collected from literature. The feasibility of the calculations for each of the mentioned descriptors was verified by means of a 10-fold cross-validation procedure proving the good to high quality of the predicted values for the three mentioned enthalpies and for the entropy of fusion, whereas the predictive quality for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals was poor. The goodness of fit (Q2 and the standard deviation (σ of the cross-validation calculations for the five descriptors was as follows: 0.9641 and 4.56 kJ/mol (N = 3386 test molecules for the enthalpy of vaporization, 0.8657 and 11.39 kJ/mol (N = 1791 for the enthalpy of sublimation, 0.9546 and 4.34 kJ/mol (N = 373 for the enthalpy of solvation, 0.8727 and 17.93 J/mol/K (N = 2637 for the entropy of fusion and 0.5804 and 32.79 J/mol/K (N = 2643 for the total phase-change entropy of liquid crystals. The large discrepancy between the results of the two closely related entropies is discussed in detail. Molecules for which both the standard enthalpies of vaporization and sublimation were calculable, enabled the estimation of their standard enthalpy of fusion by simple subtraction of the former from the latter enthalpy. For 990 of them the experimental enthalpy-of-fusion values are also known, allowing their comparison with predictions, yielding a correlation

3. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

2012-01-01

Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

4. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

Science.gov (United States)

Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

2012-06-21

Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

5. Differential equations methods and applications

CERN Document Server

Said-Houari, Belkacem

2015-01-01

This book presents a variety of techniques for solving ordinary differential equations analytically and features a wealth of examples. Focusing on the modeling of real-world phenomena, it begins with a basic introduction to differential equations, followed by linear and nonlinear first order equations and a detailed treatment of the second order linear equations. After presenting solution methods for the Laplace transform and power series, it lastly presents systems of equations and offers an introduction to the stability theory. To help readers practice the theory covered, two types of exercises are provided: those that illustrate the general theory, and others designed to expand on the text material. Detailed solutions to all the exercises are included. The book is excellently suited for use as a textbook for an undergraduate class (of all disciplines) in ordinary differential equations. .

6. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2007-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines In the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled 'MARS Guidelines 2007' and the 'Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007'. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff member's retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement semi...

7. Standing Concertation Commmittee - Ordinary meeting on 27 March 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2007-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 27 March 2007 included: Merit Recognition Guidelines : in the context of the new Merit Appraisal and Recognition Scheme (MARS), the committee took note of the documents entitled MARS Guidelines 2007 and the Guidelines for Senior Staff Advancement 2007. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council meetings The Committee took note of the information provided by S. Lettow, the Director for Finance and Human Resources, including the possibility for a phased increase in Member State contributions from 2008. Registered partnerships It was agreed that staff members with registered partners should be reminded of the social cover available to their partners. Cover is limited to the CERN Health Insurance Scheme and partners may be covered by the Scheme only while the staff member is working. On the staff members retirement or other change in status, or death, partners are no longer eligible for CHIS cover. Retirement seminars It...

8. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

1993-03-01

This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

9. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.

1981-01-01

This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de

10. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

CERN Document Server

Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

2017-01-01

In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

11. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

2009-12-15

Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

12. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

2004-09-01

SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

13. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NONE

2004-09-01

SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

14. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

2004-09-01

SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

15. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

1994-01-01

This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

16. Communication: Surface-facilitated softening of ordinary and vapor-deposited glasses

Science.gov (United States)

2017-08-01

A common distinction between the ordinary glasses formed by melt cooling and the stable amorphous films formed by vapor deposition is the apparent mechanism of their devitrification. Using quasi-adiabatic, fast scanning calorimetry that is capable of heating rates in excess of 105 K s-1, we have investigated the softening kinetics of micrometer-scale, ordinary glass films of methylbenzene and 2-propanol. At the limit of high heating rates, the transformation mechanism of ordinary glasses is identical to that of their stable vapor-deposited counterparts. In both cases, softening is likely to begin at the sample surface and progress into its bulk via a transformation front. Furthermore, such a surface-facilitated mechanism complies with zero-order, Arrhenius rate law. The activation energy barriers for the softening transformation imply that the kinetics must be defined, at least in part, by the initial thermodynamic and structural state of the samples.

17. A comparison of flashbacks and ordinary autobiographical memories of trauma: content and language.

Science.gov (United States)

Hellawell, Steph J; Brewin, Chris R

2004-01-01

We investigated hypotheses derived from the dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder, which proposes that flashbacks and ordinary memories of trauma are supported by different types of representation. Sixty-two participants meeting diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder completed a detailed written trauma narrative, and afterwards identified those sections in the narrative that had been written in flashback and ordinary memory periods. As predicted, flashback periods were characterised by greater use of detail, particularly perceptual detail, by more mentions of death, more use of the present tense, and more mention of fear, helplessness, and horror. In contrast, ordinary memory sections were characterised by more mention of secondary emotions such as guilt and anger.

18. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

Science.gov (United States)

El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

2015-06-01

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

19. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

Science.gov (United States)

2018-03-01

In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

20. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETING ON 24 APRIL 2002

CERN Multimedia

2002-01-01

Original : English This meeting was mainly devoted to preparing the next meeting of TREF in May, including discussion of the Reports by Internal Task Forces 3 & 4, and to the revision of Administrative and Operational Circulars, as summarised below. 1. Preparation for TREF in May 2002 The SCC agreed on the content of the proposed Draft Agenda for the next meeting of TREF on 16 May. This will be devoted to informal discussion of the Reports by Internal Task Forces 3 & 4 (1) (see items 2 and 3 below), to a status report on the on-going study of guarantees for the pensions of the CERN personnel in the event of dissolution of the Organization - second phase, and to a presentation of personnel statistics 2001, including Equal Opportunities aspects. 2. Report by Internal Task Force 4 on Personnel Issues Taking account of a presentation by J. Ferguson, Convener of Task Force 4, and an informal discussion at the SCC on 10 April, the Committee agreed that the basis upon which the Management and the Sta...

1. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 4 December 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2008-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 4 December 2007 included: 2006 Medical Service Annual Report The Committee took note of the report by the head of the Medical Service, Dr V. Fassnacht, (see http://sc-me.web.cern.ch/sc-me/index.html) and of a number of points raised during the discussion, including the importance of further prevention measures. The Committee expressed its thanks to all members of the Medical Service for their work in 2006 and over the past year. Short-Term Saved leave Scheme As announced in Weekly Bulletins Nos. 28/2007 and 51/2007, the Saved Leave Scheme will be succeeded from 1 January 2008 by the Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme (see also https://hr-services.web.cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp). The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to adopt the relevant procedure. It was noted that staff could apply immediately to participate from 1 January 2008 and that applications to pa...

2. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 3 APRIL 2008

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2008-01-01

The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 3 April 2008 included: External mobility The Committee took note of a progress report on external mobility after a run-in period of about six months. Based on the experience gained, it was agreed to broaden the scope of the programme and in particular to extend eligibility conditions to include: All staff members whose limited duration contract will end in less than one year, as well as all those with indefinite contracts; Fellows who have been employed by CERN for more than 18 months; Doctoral students who have been in the CERN doctoral programme for more than 2.5 years; Apprentices in the final year of their apprenticeship; Ex-members of the personnel who are receiving CERN unemployment benefits. An article in the Weekly Bulletin will follow and the relevant web pages will be updated. LHC achievement awards The Committee took note of the outcome of discussions between the Management and t...

3. A Comparison of Two-Stage Approaches for Fitting Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Models with Mixed Effects.

Science.gov (United States)

Chow, Sy-Miin; Bendezú, Jason J; Cole, Pamela M; Ram, Nilam

2016-01-01

Several approaches exist for estimating the derivatives of observed data for model exploration purposes, including functional data analysis (FDA; Ramsay & Silverman, 2005 ), generalized local linear approximation (GLLA; Boker, Deboeck, Edler, & Peel, 2010 ), and generalized orthogonal local derivative approximation (GOLD; Deboeck, 2010 ). These derivative estimation procedures can be used in a two-stage process to fit mixed effects ordinary differential equation (ODE) models. While the performance and utility of these routines for estimating linear ODEs have been established, they have not yet been evaluated in the context of nonlinear ODEs with mixed effects. We compared properties of the GLLA and GOLD to an FDA-based two-stage approach denoted herein as functional ordinary differential equation with mixed effects (FODEmixed) in a Monte Carlo (MC) study using a nonlinear coupled oscillators model with mixed effects. Simulation results showed that overall, the FODEmixed outperformed both the GLLA and GOLD across all the embedding dimensions considered, but a novel use of a fourth-order GLLA approach combined with very high embedding dimensions yielded estimation results that almost paralleled those from the FODEmixed. We discuss the strengths and limitations of each approach and demonstrate how output from each stage of FODEmixed may be used to inform empirical modeling of young children's self-regulation.

4. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

Science.gov (United States)

Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

2016-01-01

Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

5. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

Science.gov (United States)

Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

2016-01-01

Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

6. A perturbative solution to metadynamics ordinary differential equation.

Science.gov (United States)

Tiwary, Pratyush; Dama, James F; Parrinello, Michele

2015-12-21

Metadynamics is a popular enhanced sampling scheme wherein by periodic application of a repulsive bias, one can surmount high free energy barriers and explore complex landscapes. Recently, metadynamics was shown to be mathematically well founded, in the sense that the biasing procedure is guaranteed to converge to the true free energy surface in the long time limit irrespective of the precise choice of biasing parameters. A differential equation governing the post-transient convergence behavior of metadynamics was also derived. In this short communication, we revisit this differential equation, expressing it in a convenient and elegant Riccati-like form. A perturbative solution scheme is then developed for solving this differential equation, which is valid for any generic biasing kernel. The solution clearly demonstrates the robustness of metadynamics to choice of biasing parameters and gives further confidence in the widely used method.

7. A perturbative solution to metadynamics ordinary differential equation

Science.gov (United States)

Tiwary, Pratyush; Dama, James F.; Parrinello, Michele

2015-12-01

Metadynamics is a popular enhanced sampling scheme wherein by periodic application of a repulsive bias, one can surmount high free energy barriers and explore complex landscapes. Recently, metadynamics was shown to be mathematically well founded, in the sense that the biasing procedure is guaranteed to converge to the true free energy surface in the long time limit irrespective of the precise choice of biasing parameters. A differential equation governing the post-transient convergence behavior of metadynamics was also derived. In this short communication, we revisit this differential equation, expressing it in a convenient and elegant Riccati-like form. A perturbative solution scheme is then developed for solving this differential equation, which is valid for any generic biasing kernel. The solution clearly demonstrates the robustness of metadynamics to choice of biasing parameters and gives further confidence in the widely used method.

8. A simple, generalizable method for measuring individual research productivity and its use in the long-term analysis of departmental performance, including between-country comparisons.

Science.gov (United States)

Wootton, Richard

2013-01-14

A simple, generalizable method for measuring research output would be useful in attempts to build research capacity, and in other contexts. A simple indicator of individual research output was developed, based on grant income, publications and numbers of PhD students supervised. The feasibility and utility of the indicator was examined by using it to calculate research output from two similarly-sized research groups in different countries. The same indicator can be used to assess the balance in the research "portfolio" of an individual researcher. Research output scores of 41 staff in Research Department A had a wide range, from zero to 8; the distribution of these scores was highly skewed. Only about 20% of the researchers had well-balanced research outputs, with approximately equal contributions from grants, papers and supervision. Over a five-year period, Department A's total research output rose, while the number of research staff decreased slightly, in other words research productivity (output per head) rose. Total research output from Research Department B, of approximately the same size as A, was similar, but slightly higher than Department A. The proposed indicator is feasible. The output score is dimensionless and can be used for comparisons within and between countries. Modeling can be used to explore the effect on research output of changing the size and composition of a research department. A sensitivity analysis shows that small increases in individual productivity result in relatively greater increases in overall departmental research output. The indicator appears to be potentially useful for capacity building, once the initial step of research priority setting has been completed.

9. Stream Kriging: Incremental and recursive ordinary Kriging over spatiotemporal data streams

Science.gov (United States)

Zhong, Xu; Kealy, Allison; Duckham, Matt

2016-05-01

Ordinary Kriging is widely used for geospatial interpolation and estimation. Due to the O (n3) time complexity of solving the system of linear equations, ordinary Kriging for a large set of source points is computationally intensive. Conducting real-time Kriging interpolation over continuously varying spatiotemporal data streams can therefore be especially challenging. This paper develops and tests two new strategies for improving the performance of an ordinary Kriging interpolator adapted to a stream-processing environment. These strategies rely on the expectation that, over time, source data points will frequently refer to the same spatial locations (for example, where static sensor nodes are generating repeated observations of a dynamic field). First, an incremental strategy improves efficiency in cases where a relatively small proportion of previously processed spatial locations are absent from the source points at any given iteration. Second, a recursive strategy improves efficiency in cases where there is substantial set overlap between the sets of spatial locations of source points at the current and previous iterations. These two strategies are evaluated in terms of their computational efficiency in comparison to ordinary Kriging algorithm. The results show that these two strategies can reduce the time taken to perform the interpolation by up to 90%, and approach average-case time complexity of O (n2) when most but not all source points refer to the same locations over time. By combining the approaches developed in this paper with existing heuristic ordinary Kriging algorithms, the conclusions indicate how further efficiency gains could potentially be accrued. The work ultimately contributes to the development of online ordinary Kriging interpolation algorithms, capable of real-time spatial interpolation with large streaming data sets.

10. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 26 JUNE 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2007-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 26 June 2007 included: Mutual Aid Fund The Committee took note of the annual report for 2006 by the Chairman of the Mutual Aid Fund and approved contributions to the Fund’s budget from the Management and the Staff Association and thanked the members of the Fund for their work. Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The Committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A entitled "Education Fees" to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited from 1st January 2007 and to staff who were recruited as Local Staff before that date. Further details of reimbursement of school fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. Administrative Circular No. 31 (Rev. 1) - International Indemnity and Non-Resident Allowance The Committee agreed to reco...

11. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 3 September 2008

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2008-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 3 September 2008 included: Education fees: Indexation of the amounts for accommodation and meals The Committee approved the indexation calculations for accommodation and meals for the academic year 2008-2009. With the indexation of the lump sum payments, accommodation costs for the academic year 2007-2008 will be reimbursed at 529 CHF per month (previously CHF 500). Meals will be reimbursed at 17.50 CHF per meal (unchanged). The ceiling for school transport has been increased from 600 CHF to 622 CHF. Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) The Committee took note of the modifications to Administrative Circular No. 26 (Rev. 8) ‘Recognition of merit of staff members’, concerning provision for the award of exceptional advancement outside the annual advancement exercise to recognize, for example, the completion of a major project. HR Survey The Committee took note of the Head of HR Department...

12. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 28 AUGUST 2007

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2007-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 28 August 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The Committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A, "Education Fees", to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited before 1 January 2007 (except for local staff). Administrative Circular No. 12 B applies to those recruited from 1 January 2007 and was examined by the Committee in June 2007. It was noted that, at the initiative of HR Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover, in particular, lump-sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Further details of payment of education fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. The Chairman thanked HR Department as well as "Team 7" members for init...

13. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMMITTEE - ORDINARY MEETING ON 28 AUGUST 2007

CERN Document Server

HR Department

2007-01-01

The main items discussed at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee on 28 August 2007 included: Administrative Circular No. 12 A (Rev. 1) - Education Fees The committee agreed to recommend Administrative Circular No. 12 A, Education Fees, to the Director-General for approval. The circular is applicable to staff, fellows and scientific associates recruited before 1 January 2007 (except for local staff). Administrative Circular No. 12 B applies to those recruited from 1 January 2007 and was considered by the committee in June 2007. It was noted that, at the initiative of HR Department, a number of important simplifications have been introduced. These cover in particular lump sum payments to compensate for accommodation, meals and journey expenses. Further details of payment of education fees will shortly be available in the form of Frequently Asked Questions on the HR Department website. The Chairman thanked HR Department as well as "Team 7" members for initiating these simp...

14. Lie group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations

Science.gov (United States)

Dorodnitsyn, Vladimir A.; Kozlov, Roman; Meleshko, Sergey V.; Winternitz, Pavel

2018-05-01

A group classification of first-order delay ordinary differential equations (DODEs) accompanied by an equation for the delay parameter (delay relation) is presented. A subset of such systems (delay ordinary differential systems or DODSs), which consists of linear DODEs and solution-independent delay relations, have infinite-dimensional symmetry algebras—as do nonlinear ones that are linearizable by an invertible transformation of variables. Genuinely nonlinear DODSs have symmetry algebras of dimension n, . It is shown how exact analytical solutions of invariant DODSs can be obtained using symmetry reduction.

15. Influence of oak planting on microelement composition (on example of Mn) of ordinary chernozem

OpenAIRE

Y. O. Tagunova

2011-01-01

Changes of Mn content in the ordinary chernozem of the forb-fescue-stipa steppeunder the influence of oak afforestation within the Prisamar’ya Dniprovske region were studied. The increase of the Mn content in the soil under the artificial oak plantation was noted. The average gross content of Mn in the root layer of the chernozem improved by forest was 541.2 mg/kg and 139.2 mg/kg in the ordinary chernozem. Average content of potentially available metal (mobile forms) in the root layer is 0.5 ...

16. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 2 August 2005

CERN Multimedia

2005-01-01

Original : English This meeting was devoted to the main items summarised below. New Contract Policy for staff members The SCC took note of Council's approval last June of the Management's proposal to introduce a new contract policy for staff members, on the understanding that the necessary amendments to the Staff Rules and Regulations would be submitted for approval this autumn with a view to their coming into effect at the beginning of 2006. The SCC then proceeded to examine detailed implementation measures and agreed that the Management would draw up the necessary documents on this basis, including provisions concerning transitional measures, for discussion at SCC as soon as possible. Pension Fund matters It has now been confirmed that the next meeting of TREF on 12 & 13 September will be devoted to matters concerning the Pension Fund. In preparation for that meeting, the SCC examined a document from the Governing Board of the Pension Fund concerning “Compensation to the Pension Fund for the r...

17. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary meeting on 25 June 2008

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2008-01-01

The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 25 June 2008 included: Mutual Aid Fund The committee took note of the annual report for 2007 by the chairman of the Mutual Aid Fund and approved contributions to the Fund’s 2008 budget from the Management and the Staff Association. Results of 2008 MARS exercise and LHC achievement awards The committee took note of the Head of HR Department’s presentation of the results of the 2008 MARS exercise and the distribution of LHC achievement awards. It was noted that these awards would be granted with effect from 1 October 2008 (see Bulletin 18&19). The results show agreement with the 2008 MARS guidelines (see Bulletin 10&11) for the advancement ceilings per career path, the number of awards for extraordinary service, as well as the distribution of steps for the recognition of merit as shown in the SCC of 27 February (see Bulletin 14&15). Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council...

18. Framework for Understanding LENR Processes, Using Ordinary Condensed Matter Physics

Science.gov (United States)

Chubb, Scott

2005-03-01

As I have emphasizedootnotetextS.R. Chubb, Proc. ICCF10 (in press). Also, http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf http://www.lenr-canr.org/acrobat/ChubbSRnutsandbol.pdf, S.R. Chubb, Trans. Amer. Nuc. Soc. 88 , 618 (2003)., in discussions of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions(LENRs), mainstream many-body physics ideas have been largely ignored. A key point is that in condensed matter, delocalized, wave-like effects can allow large amounts of momentum to be transferred instantly to distant locations, without any particular particle (or particles) acquiring high velocity through a Broken Gauge Symmetry. Explicit features in the electronic structure explain how this can occur^1 in finite size PdD crystals, with real boundaries. The essential physics^1 can be related to standard many-body techniquesootnotetextBurke,P.G. and K.A. Berrington, Atomic and Molecular Processes:an R matrix Approach (Bristol: IOP Publishing, 1993).. In the paper, I examine this relationship, the relationship of the theory^1 to other LENR theories, and the importance of certain features (for example, boundaries^1) that are not included in the other LENR theories.

19. STANDING CONCERTATION COMMITTEE ORDINARY MEETING ON 23 JUNE 1999

CERN Multimedia

1999-01-01

Original: EnglishThis meeting of the SCC was devoted to the follow-up of the meetings of the Finance Committee and Council in June, to discussion of the voluntary programmes - including news from the Director-General on four extra RSL posts, and to other main items indicated below :Follow-up of the meetings of Finance Committee and Council in JuneThe Committee took note of the Chairman's report on these meetings and discussed follow-up actions in preparation for the next meeting of TREF on 24 September.Report from FC and Council meetingsThe Management concluded that work would continue on the basis of the planning and scope of the 5-yearly review as presented to the Committees (document CERN/TREF/127/Rev.2), in order to launch the data collection enquiry in external organisations this autumn. Emphasis would be given to the study of the career structure and recruitment-related aspects, whilst limiting data collection work on some other issues which had been examined in depth at the previous review in 1994/95. ...

20. Standing Concertation Committee - Ordinary Meeting on 30 September 2008

CERN Multimedia

HR Department

2008-01-01

The main items discussed at the meetings of the Standing Concertation Committee on 30 September 2008 included: Part-time work as a pre-retirement measure The Committee agreed to recommend the Director-General to extend the scheme of part-time work as a pre-retirement measure by one year, i.e. until 31 December 2009. Preparation of TREF on 7 October 2008 The Committee took note that the TREF agenda would cover: Annual salary adjustment; Voluntary programmes; Five-yearly review of financial & social conditions of members of the personnel; Update on 2005 review; Preparation for 2010 review; TREF workplan 2009; Update on CHIS actuarial study. The proposals and presentations which the Management planned to present to TREF were discussed and some clarifications were agreed. Follow-up of Finance Committee and Council The Committee took note of a report by the Chairman of points related to personnel matters discussed in those committees. He mentioned in particular the annu...

1. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Nureev Rustem, M.

2015-09-01

advertisement for the sale of business than in 2013, in the Moscow region - 11.7 times, in St. Petersburg - 15.8 times, in Krasnodar Territory - 11.1 times (according to www.rbc.ru. The economic crisis has hit the tourism. The cost of trips abroad increased by 50% or more. Changed the main streams - greatly increased domestic tourism in general, and in the south of Russia in particular. The paper analyzes the changes in the overall macroeconomic performance of Russia in 2014-2015, illustrated by changes in the ADAS model. The paper discusses two nearest forecast scenario from the perspective of the average consumer: optimistic (reduced volume and intensity of sanctions and pessimistic (strengthening of sanctions, including a work stoppage of Visa and MasterCard in the Russian Federation, the Russian banking system off from SWIFT, etc..

2. Fast integration-based prediction bands for ordinary differential equation models.

Science.gov (United States)

Hass, Helge; Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

2016-04-15

3. An extension of PPLS-DA for classification and comparison to ordinary PLS-DA.

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Anna Telaar

Full Text Available Classification studies are widely applied, e.g. in biomedical research to classify objects/patients into predefined groups. The goal is to find a classification function/rule which assigns each object/patient to a unique group with the greatest possible accuracy (classification error. Especially in gene expression experiments often a lot of variables (genes are measured for only few objects/patients. A suitable approach is the well-known method PLS-DA, which searches for a transformation to a lower dimensional space. Resulting new components are linear combinations of the original variables. An advancement of PLS-DA leads to PPLS-DA, introducing a so called 'power parameter', which is maximized towards the correlation between the components and the group-membership. We introduce an extension of PPLS-DA for optimizing this power parameter towards the final aim, namely towards a minimal classification error. We compare this new extension with the original PPLS-DA and also with the ordinary PLS-DA using simulated and experimental datasets. For the investigated data sets with weak linear dependency between features/variables, no improvement is shown for PPLS-DA and for the extensions compared to PLS-DA. A very weak linear dependency, a low proportion of differentially expressed genes for simulated data, does not lead to an improvement of PPLS-DA over PLS-DA, but our extension shows a lower prediction error. On the contrary, for the data set with strong between-feature collinearity and a low proportion of differentially expressed genes and a large total number of genes, the prediction error of PPLS-DA and the extensions is clearly lower than for PLS-DA. Moreover we compare these prediction results with results of support vector machines with linear kernel and linear discriminant analysis.

4. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N. [Hopital Tenon, 75 - Paris (France). Services de Medecine Nucleaire; Wartski, M.; Zerbib, E. [Hopital Marie Lannelongue Le Plessis Robinson (France); Lumbroso, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy Villejuif (France)

1997-12-31

Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of {sup 18} F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physicians hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

5. FDG scan on an ordinary coincidence gamma camera (CDET) -preliminary data in pulmonary or colorectal cancer

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Montravers, F.; Grahek, D.; Ghazzar, N.; Younsi, N.; Kerrou, K.; Talbot, J.N.; Lumbroso, J.

1997-01-01

Full text. The purpose of this study to evaluate the impact of FDG scan performed on an ordinary CDET gamma camera on the therapeutic management of patients with pulmonary nodules or with suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma. Methods: two tomoscintigrams (thorax and abdomen) were acquired, using a PICKER Prism XP 2000 coincidence gamma camera, 45 m after i.v. injection of 100-150 MBq of 18 F-FDG in fasting patients. The 21 pts were explored in July or August 1997. Preliminary results: among 12 patients with pulmonary nodules, the planed surgery was replaced by chemotherapy after visualization of unknown metastases accumulating FDG in 3 patients. In another one, the high uptake of FDG by a lung nodule which has been known for 6 years, led to surgery and objectivation of an adenocarcinoma. In one case, the absence of FDG uptake corresponded to an abscess (true negative result). In the other 7 patients, the indication of surgery was confirmed but the procedure was modified in 2 cases. In case of suspicion of recurrent colorectal carcinoma (9 patients), the finding of a single focus of FDG uptake whereas CT scan was negative or inconclusive let do the decision of surgery in 3 patients. In one patient with pelvic pain without increase of tumor markers levels and with normal CT scan, a normal FDG scan confirmed the physician's hypothesis of pain due to the previous therapy but do not recurrence. In one patient, the finding of 3 foci of uptake of FDG whereas CT scan was inconclusive confirmed the indication of chemotherapy. In 2 patients with FDG abdominal foci without morphologic abnormalities, the therapeutic strategy is not yet decided in 2 patients, no foci could be found. In conclusion, these preliminary results show that FDG scan has provided a help to the physician indecision-making for therapeutic strategy in 8 patients on 21 (38%) and a help to the surgeon in 2 more cases (48% as a whole)

6. Health impact on Economy by Artificial Neural Network and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-10-01

Full Text Available Introduction: Achievement of economic growth, as one of the most important macroeconomic variables, depends on the precise understanding of potential routes and the factors affecting on it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health care sector’s effect on Iran Gross Domestic Product (GDP, as the status of economy. Method: Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS were performed according to Iran GDP as the output variable and the input variables of life expectancy at birth, under five mortality rates, public health expenditures, the number of doctors and hospital beds during 1961-2012 in Iran. Data were collected from the Statistical Center of Iran, the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the World Health Organization and the World Bank databases. Data management and analysis were performed using Eviewes 7, stata 11 and also Mathlab. MSE, MAE and R2 were calculated to assess and compare the models. Results: One percent reduction in deaths of children under 5-years could improve Iran GDP as much as 1.9%. Additionally, one percent increment in the number of doctors, hospital beds or health expenditure would increase GDP by 0.37%, 0.27% and 0.29%, respectively. Mean Absolute Error (MAE demonstrated the superiority of DOLS in the model estimation. Conclusion: The lack of sufficient considerations and excellent models in the health care sector is the main reason for underestimating the effect of this sector on economy. This limitation leads to neglecting the resource allocation to the health care sector, as the great potential motivation of the economic growth.

7. Examination of Multiple Lithologies Within the Primitive Ordinary Chondrite NWA 5717

Science.gov (United States)

Cato, M. J.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Morris, R. V.

2017-01-01

Northwest Africa 5717 is a primitive (subtype 3.05) ungrouped ordinary chondrite which contains two apparently distinct lithologies. In large cut meteorite slabs, the darker of these, lithology A, looks to host the second, much lighter in color, lithology B (upper left, Fig. 1). The nature of the boundary between the two is uncertain, ranging from abrupt to gradational and not always following particle boundaries. The distinction between the lithologies, beyond the obvious color differences, has been supported by a discrepancy in oxygen isotopes and an incongruity in the magnesium contents of chondrule olivine. Here, quantitative textural analysis and mineralogical methods have been used to investigate the two apparent lithologies within NWA 5717. Olivine grains contained in a thin section from NWA 7402, thought to be paired to 5717, were also measured to re-examine the distinct compositional range among the light and dark areas. Procedure: Particles from a high-resolution mosaic image of a roughly 13x15cm slice of NWA 5717 were traced in Adobe Photoshop. Due to the large size of the sample, visually representative regions of each lithology were chosen to be analyzed. The resulting layers of digitized particles were imported into ImageJ, which was used to measure their area, along with the axes, the angle from horizontal, and the centroid coordinates of ellipses fitted to each particle following the approach. Resulting 2D pixel areas were converted to spherical diameters employing the unfolding algorithm, which outputs a 3D particle size distribution based on digitized 2D size frequency data. Spatstat was used to create kernel density plots of the centroid coordinates for each region. X-ray compositional maps, microprobe analyses, and Mossbauer spectroscopy was conducted on a thin section of NWA 7402, tentatively paired to NWA 5717.

8. 29th June 2017 – Ordinary General Assembly of the Staff Association!

CERN Document Server

Staff Association

2017-01-01

In the first semester of each year, the Staff Association (SA) invites its members to attend and participate in the Ordinary General Assembly (OGA). This year the OGA will be held on Thursday, 29 June 2017 from 15.30 to 17.30, Main Auditorium, Meyrin (500-1-001). During the Ordinary General Assembly, the activity and financial reports of the SA are presented and submitted for approval to the members. This is the occasion to get a global view on the activities of the SA, its management, and an opportunity to express your opinion, particularly by taking part in votes. Other items are listed on the agenda, as proposed by the Staff Council. Who can vote? Ordinary members (MPE) of the SA can take part in all votes. Associated members (MPA) of the SA and/or affiliated pensioners have a right to vote on those topics that are of direct interest to them. Who can give their opinion, and how? The Ordinary General Assembly is also the opportunity for members of the SA to express themselves through the addition of disc...

9. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete a comparative study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P.K.

2002-01-01

Full text: In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of, concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

10. Experimental study of chloride diffusivity in unsaturated ordinary Portland cement mortar

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Santhanam, M.

2017-01-01

Experiments are carried out to investigate the chloride diffusivity in partially saturated ordinary Portland cement mortars with water-to-cement (w/c) ratios of 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6. Based on resistivity measurement and Nernst-Einstein equation, the chloride diffusivities of cement mortars at various

11. Crowdsourcing ideas : Involving ordinary users in the ideation phase of new product development

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Schemmann, Brita; Herrmann, Andrea M.; Chappin, Maryse M H; Heimeriks, Gaston J.

2016-01-01

The different roles of users in new product development (NPD) have been extensively described. Currently online idea crowdsourcing, via long-term open idea calls, is increasingly being used by companies to collect new product ideas from ordinary users. Such open idea calls can result in thousands of

12. 76 FR 24572 - Proposed Information Collection (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request

Science.gov (United States)

2011-05-02

... insurance. Modified Life insurance coverage is reduced automatically by one-half from its present face value... (Application for Ordinary Life Insurance) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...

13. Constructive Development of the Solutions of Linear Equations in Introductory Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Mallet, D. G.; McCue, S. W.

2009-01-01

The solution of linear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is commonly taught in first-year undergraduate mathematics classrooms, but the understanding of the concept of a solution is not always grasped by students until much later. Recognizing what it is to be a solution of a linear ODE and how to postulate such solutions, without resorting to…

14. On the coupling of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with ordinary differential equations

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M; Garavello, Mauro

2010-01-01

Motivated by applications to the piston problem, to a manhole model, to blood flow and to supply chain dynamics, this paper deals with a system of conservation laws coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations. The former is defined on a domain with boundary and the coupling is provided by the boundary condition. For each of the examples considered, numerical integrations are provided

15. Transmission of neutrons in serpentine mixed and ordinary concrete- a comparative study

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ravishankar, R.; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas; Sarkar, P. K.

2002-01-01

In particle accelerator facilities, for radiation shielding, concrete is commonly used for its effectiveness in attenuating neutrons in addition to its good structural and mechanical properties. Neutron attenuation depends largely on the water content in the concrete. Serpentine mixed concrete is reported to retain better water content than ordinary concrete. Experiments have been carried out to compare neutron attenuation properties of Serpentine mixed concrete slabs and ordinary concrete slabs of different thickness. Transmission of neutrons from a 185 GBq Pu-Be neutron source has been studied using NE-213 liquid scintillator detector, along with the associated electronics to discriminate neutron from gamma using pulse shape discrimination techniques. The energy differential neutron spectra transmitted through the concrete slabs and the corresponding dose have been obtained by unfolding the pulse height spectra using the FERDOR-U computer code and proper response matrix data of the NE-213 detector. The neutron transmission factors through both Serpentine and Ordinary concrete slabs have been studied. The results show serpentine mixed concrete slabs can attenuate more neutrons of varying energies compared to ordinary concrete slabs of equal dimensions. From the trend, it has been found out, with the increase in slab thickness, the gain in neutron attenuation increases. This is due to increase in quantity of serpentine with the increase in thickness of concrete. A Monte Carlo simulation carried out, for theoretical analysis of the results, has been found to be in order

16. [Review of: K.-S. Taussig Ordinary genomes: science, citizenship, and genetic identities

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Kato, M.

2010-01-01

Ordinary Genomes is an ethnography of clinical genetics practice in the Netherlands, written by US anthropologist Karen-Sue Taussig. By looking at the case of the Netherlands, this book aims to illuminate the way specific scientific knowledge - in this case genomics - which is generally presumed to

17. Identifying and Exploring Relationships between Contextual Situations and Ordinary Differential Equations

Science.gov (United States)

Camacho-Machín, M.; Guerrero-Ortiz, C.

2015-01-01

The aim of this paper is to present and discuss some of the evidence regarding the resources that students use when they establish relationships between a contextual situation and an ordinary differential equation (ODE). We present research results obtained from work by seven students in a graduate level course in mathematics education, where they…

18. On the multisummability of WKB solutions of certain singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Yoshitsugu Takei

2015-01-01

Full Text Available Using two concrete examples, we discuss the multisummability of WKB solutions of singularly perturbed linear ordinary differential equations. Integral representations of solutions and a criterion for the multisummability based on the Cauchy-Heine transform play an important role in the proof.

19. 26 CFR 1.1244(a)-1 - Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary loss.

Science.gov (United States)

2010-04-01

... transaction treated as a sale or exchange, such as worthlessness) of section 1244 stock which would otherwise... other hand, stock purchased by an investment firm and subsequently resold does not qualify as section... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Loss on small business stock treated as ordinary...

20. Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients.

Science.gov (United States)

Boyko, Vyacheslav M; Popovych, Roman O; Shapoval, Nataliya M

2013-01-01

Lie symmetries of systems of second-order linear ordinary differential equations with constant coefficients are exhaustively described over both the complex and real fields. The exact lower and upper bounds for the dimensions of the maximal Lie invariance algebras possessed by such systems are obtained using an effective algebraic approach.

1. The mixed BVP for second order nonlinear ordinary differential equation at resonance

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan

2017-01-01

Roč. 290, 2-3 (2017), s. 393-400 ISSN 0025-584X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : mixed problem at resonance * nonlinear ordinary differencial equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

2. Coming in from the Margin: Research Practices, Representation and the Ordinary

Science.gov (United States)

Greiner, Karen P.

2010-01-01

This essay explores issues of marginality and representation in research, which emerged during life history interviews with Tammi, an "ordinary" woman living in Appalachia. I examine how my research practices, namely my thirst for drama and marginality, nearly silenced the preferred stories of the woman who shared her life with me. I…

3. 75 FR 43840 - Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum Civil Monetary Penalties for...

Science.gov (United States)

2010-07-27

...-17530; Notice No. 2] RIN 2130-ZA03 Inflation Adjustment of the Ordinary Maximum and Aggravated Maximum... remains at \$250. These adjustments are required by the Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Federal Civil Penalties Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990...

4. Proceedings of the Nordic society for radiation protection 12. ordinary meeting

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The key themes of teh 12th ordinary general meeting of the Nordic Society for Radiation Protection were: RADIATION - ENVIRONMENT - INFORMATION. A number of outstanding international experts accepted to contribute on the meetings first day with invited presentations, which focussed on these themes...

5. From Ordinary Differential Equations to Structural Causal Models: the deterministic case

NARCIS (Netherlands)

Mooij, J.M.; Janzing, D.; Schölkopf, B.; Nicholson, A.; Smyth, P.

2013-01-01

We show how, and under which conditions, the equilibrium states of a first-order Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) system can be described with a deterministic Structural Causal Model (SCM). Our exposition sheds more light on the concept of causality as expressed within the framework of

6. Regression modeling methods, theory, and computation with SAS

CERN Document Server

Panik, Michael

2009-01-01

Regression Modeling: Methods, Theory, and Computation with SAS provides an introduction to a diverse assortment of regression techniques using SAS to solve a wide variety of regression problems. The author fully documents the SAS programs and thoroughly explains the output produced by the programs.The text presents the popular ordinary least squares (OLS) approach before introducing many alternative regression methods. It covers nonparametric regression, logistic regression (including Poisson regression), Bayesian regression, robust regression, fuzzy regression, random coefficients regression,

7. Simultaneous determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals in the visible and near-infrared regions from an interference spectrum

Science.gov (United States)

Ozaki, Ryotaro; Nishi, Koji; Kan, Takayuki; Kadowaki, Kazunori

2016-10-01

An improved interference method is proposed to determine ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of nematic liquid crystals (LCs). In this method, an LC cell coated with a thin metal layer is used as a Fabry-Perot interferometer, which shows us a sharp transmission fringe. To ensure high reliability, the wavelength dispersion of the refractive index of the metal is taken into account in fitting calculation. In spite of measuring ordinary and extraordinary components, the LC cell, polarizers, and other equipment are not rotated during the experiment. The index evaluation from a single spectrum avoids errors depending on the measurement position owing to non-uniformities of molecular orientation and cell thickness because we can obtain the two indices at exactly the same position. This system can adapt to a wide frequency range and does not require any specific wavelength light source or laser. We demonstrate the determination of ordinary and extraordinary refractive index dispersions of a nematic liquid crystal in the visible and near-infrared regions. Furthermore, we quantitatively reproduce the measured spectrum by calculation using the measured refractive indices.

8. The Effect of Crop Insurance on Technical Efficiency of Wheat Farmers in Kermanshah Province: A Corrected Ordinary Least Square Approach

Science.gov (United States)

Agahi, Hossein; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Behjat, Amir-Mohsen

The purpose of this study was to describe the effect of crop insurance on agricultural production among dry wheat farmers in Kermanshah province. The population of this study consisted of dry wheat farmers. Data used in this study was collected using stratified multi-stage cluster sampling method and face to face interview with 251 farmers in three different climate regions: tropical, temperate and cold during 2003-2004 crop years. The procedures used for determining farmers' technical efficiency was Corrected Ordinary Least Square (COLS). Findings revealed that crop insurance has positive effect on temperate and tropical regions. However, the production difference between insured and uninsured farmers in cold region was non-significant. It is therefore concluded that technical efficiency of agricultural production in Kermanshah province is a function of crop insurance as well as other variables such as crop management practices, personal characteristics and fair distribution of agricultural inputs.

9. Phased-Resolved Strain Measuremetns in Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement Using Synchrotron x-Rays (Prop. 2003-033)

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Biernacki, Joseph J.; Watkins, Thomas R.; Parnham, C.J.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Bai, J.

2006-01-01

X-ray diffraction methods developed for the determination of residual stress states in crystalline materials have been applied to study residual strains and strains because of mechanical loading of ordinary portland cement paste. Synchrotron X-rays were used to make in situ measurements of interplanar spacings in the calcium hydroxide (CH) phase of hydrated neat portland cement under uniaxial compression. The results indicate that strains on the order of 1/100 000 can be resolved providing an essentially new technique by which to measure the phase-resolved meso-scale mechanical behavior of cement under different loading conditions. Evaluation of these strain data in view of published elastic parameters for CH suggests that the CH carries a large fraction of the applied stress and that plastic interactions with the matrix are notable.

10. Transforming Ordinary Buildings into Smart Buildings via Low-Cost, Self-Powering Wireless Sensors & Sensor Networks

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Feng, Philip [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

2017-06-09

The research objective of this project is to design and demonstrate a low-cost, compact, easy-to-deploy, maintenance-free sensor node technology, and a network of such sensors, which enable the monitoring of multiphysical parameters and can transform today’s ordinary buildings into smart buildings with environmental awareness. We develop the sensor node and network via engineering and integration of existing technologies, including high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting, and ultralow-power integrated circuits (ICs) for sensing and wireless communication. Through integration and innovative power management via specifically designed low-power control circuits for wireless sensing applications, and tailoring energy-harvesting components to indoor applications, the target products will have smaller volume, higher efficiency, and much lower cost (in both manufacturing and maintenance) than the baseline technology. Our development and commercialization objective is to create prototypes for our target products under the CWRU-Intwine collaboration.

11. Numerical methods for differential equations and applications

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ixaru, L.G.

1984-01-01

This book is addressed to persons who, without being professionals in applied mathematics, are often faced with the problem of numerically solving differential equations. In each of the first three chapters a definite class of methods is discussed for the solution of the initial value problem for ordinary differential equations: multistep methods; one-step methods; and piecewise perturbation methods. The fourth chapter is mainly focussed on the boundary value problems for linear second-order equations, with a section devoted to the Schroedinger equation. In the fifth chapter the eigenvalue problem for the radial Schroedinger equation is solved in several ways, with computer programs included. (Auth.)

12. EXISTENCE OF POSITIVE SOLUTION TO TWO-POINT BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEM FOR A SYSTEM OF SECOND ORDER ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

2009-01-01

In this paper, we consider a two-point boundary value problem for a system of second order ordinary differential equations. Under some conditions, we show the existence of positive solution to the system of second order ordinary differential equa-tions.

13. The Relationship between Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning with the Effectiveness of Ordinary and Smart Secondary School Principals

Science.gov (United States)

2013-01-01

This study aimed to investigate the relationship between knowledge management and organizational learning with the effectiveness of ordinary and smart high school principals in Zahedan Pre-province. The statistical community of this research is 1350 male and female teachers teaching in ordinary and smart students of high schools in that 300 ones…

14. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

Science.gov (United States)

Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

1992-01-01

A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

15. Effects of fibers on expansive shotcrete mixtures consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement, ordinary Portland cement, and calcium sulfate

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

H. Yu

2018-04-01

Full Text Available The mining industry often uses shotcrete for ground stabilization. However, cracking within shotcrete is commonly observed, which delays production schedules and increases maintenance costs. A possible crack reduction method is using expansive shotcrete mixture consisting of calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, ordinary Portland cement (OPC, and calcium sulfate (CS to reduce shrinkage. Furthermore, fibers can be added to the mixture to restrain expansion and impede cracking. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of nylon fiber, glass fiber, and steel fiber on an expansive shotcrete mixture that can better resist cracking. In this study, parameters such as density, water absorption, volume of permeable voids, unconfined compressive strength (UCS, splitting tensile strength (STS, and volume change of fiber-added expansive mixtures were determined at different time periods (i.e. the strengths on the 28th day, and the volume changes on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days. The results show that addition of fibers can improve mixture durability, in the form of decreased water absorption and reduced permeable pore space content. Moreover, the expansion of the CSA-OPC-CS mixture was restrained up to 50% by glass fiber, up to 43% by nylon fiber, and up to 28% by steel fiber. The results show that the STS was improved by 57% with glass fiber addition, 43% with steel fiber addition, and 38% with nylon fiber addition. The UCS was also increased by 31% after steel fiber addition, 26% after nylon fiber addition, and 16% after glass fiber addition. These results suggest that fiber additions to the expansive shotcrete mixtures can improve durability and strengths while controlling expansion. Keywords: Shotcrete, Restrained expansion, Fibers, Calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA, Ordinary Portland cement (OPC, Calcium sulfate (CS

16. Penetration of an ordinary wave into a weakly inhomogeneous magnetoplasma at oblique incidence

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Preinhaelter, J.

1973-12-01

The propagation was studied of high-frequency electromagnetic waves in a plane-stratified weakly inhomogeneous plasma. The density gradient was assumed to be perpendicular to the external magnetic field and the wave vector was not considered to be generally parallel to the plane given by the two former vectors. The analysis shows that an ordinary wave may penetrate the plasma resonance region if the orientation of the vacuum wave vector is appropriately chosen. Analytical expressions for the reflexion and transmission coefficients were obtained and their dependence on the direction cosines of the wave vector of the incident wave was studied. It is also briefly shown that after the transmission through plasma resonance the ordinary wave was transformed into an extraordinary wave and the latter was reflected back to the region of hybrid resonance. In this region the extraordinary wave was fully transformed into the Bernstein modes. (author)

17. Real-effectiveness medicine--pursuing the best effectiveness in the ordinary care of patients.

Science.gov (United States)

Malmivaara, Antti

2013-03-01

Clinical know-how and skills as well as up-to-date scientific evidence are cornerstones for providing effective treatment for patients. However, in order to improve the effectiveness of treatment in ordinary practice, also appropriate documentation of care at the health care units and benchmarking based on this documentation are needed. This article presents the new concept of real-effectiveness medicine (REM) which pursues the best effectiveness of patient care in the real-world setting. In order to reach the goal, four layers of information are utilized: 1) good medical know-how and skills combined with the patient view, 2) up-to-date scientific evidence, 3) continuous documentation of performance in ordinary settings, and 4) benchmarking between providers. The new framework is suggested for clinicians, organizations, policy-makers, and researchers.

18. Heat generation and temperature-rise in ordinary concrete due to capture of thermal neutrons

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abdo, E.A.; Amin, E.

1997-01-01

The aim of this work is the evaluation of the heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete as a biological shield due to capture of total thermal and reactor thermal neutrons. The total thermal neutron fluxes were measured and calculated. The channel number 2 of the ETRR-1 reactor was used in the measurements as a neutron source. Computer code ANISN (VAX version) and neutron multigroup cross-section library EURLiB-4 was used in the calculations. The heat generation and temperature-rise in local ordinary concrete were evaluated and calculated. The results were displayed in curves to show the distribution of thermal neutron fluxes and heat generation as well as temperature-rise with the shield thickness. The results showed that, the heat generation as well as the temperature-rise have their maximum values in the first layers of the shield thickness. 4 figs., 12 refs

19. Low Dimensional Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie Algebras of Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Rutwig Campoamor-Stursberg

2016-03-01

Full Text Available A direct approach to non-linear second-order ordinary differential equations admitting a superposition principle is developed by means of Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebras of a dimension not exceeding three. This procedure allows us to describe generic types of second-order ordinary differential equations subjected to some constraints and admitting a given Lie algebra as Vessiot-Guldberg-Lie algebra. In particular, well-known types, such as the Milne-Pinney or Kummer-Schwarz equations, are recovered as special cases of this classification. The analogous problem for systems of second-order differential equations in the real plane is considered for a special case that enlarges the generalized Ermakov systems.

20. Evaluation of ilmenite serpentine concrete and ordinary concrete as nuclear reactor shielding

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Abulfaraj, W.H.; Kamal, S.M.

1994-01-01

The present study involves adapting a formal decision methodology to the selection of alternative nuclear reactor concrete shielding. Multiattribute utility theory is selected to accommodate decision maker's preferences. Multiattribute utility theory (MAU) is here employed to evaluate two appropriate nuclear reactor shielding concretes in terms of effectiveness to determine the optimal choice in order to meet the radiation protection regulations. These concretes are Ordinary concrete (O.C.) and Illmenite Serpentile concrete (I.S.C.). These are normal weight concrete and heavy weight heat resistive concrete, respectively. The effectiveness objective of the nuclear reactor shielding is defined and structured into definite attributes and subattributes to evaluate the best alternative. Factors affecting the decision are dose received by reactor's workers, the material properties as well as cost of concrete shield. A computer program is employed to assist in performing utility analysis. Based upon data, the result shows the superiority of Ordinary concrete over Illmenite Serpentine concrete. (Author)

1. The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling for Ordinary High Water Mark Delineation

Science.gov (United States)

2016-02-01

between two cross sections, the HEC-RAS model will not show it. If there is a sudden drop in the channel, such as a waterfall or steep rapids, the...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 1 Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling for Ordinary...client/default. Wetland Regulatory Assistance Program (WRAP) ERDC/CRREL TR-16-1 February 2016 The Benefits and Limitations of Hydraulic Modeling

2. Experimental research on the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concretes after fire

OpenAIRE

Santos, C.C.; Rodrigues, J.P.

2015-01-01

This paper summarizes the results of an experimental research to assess the residual mechanical properties of an ordinary concrete after fire. It was studied the influence of the cooling process, the maximum temperature that the concrete was subjected to and the loading level on the residual mechanical properties of calcareous and granite aggregate concretes. The properties studied were the residual compressive, tensile, splitting and flexural strengths and modulus of elasticit...

3. Influence of Temperature on Workability and Compressive Strength of Ordinary Concrete with High Calcium Fly Ash

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Gołaszewski Jacek

2017-06-01

Full Text Available The rheological properties of fresh ordinary concrete are closely affected by temperature and time. The paper presents the study of consistency of fresh concrete mixtures made with Portland cement and cement with calcareous fly ash. Two types of admixtures were used. It was proven that the temperature has a clear effect on workability and compressive strength concrete. Influence on workability can be reduced by selecting the appropriate superplasticizer and cement.

4. On periodic bounded and unbounded solutions of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lomtatidze, Alexander

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 241-263 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlinear ordinary differential equations * periodic boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2017-0009/gmj-2017-0009.xml

5. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077.xml

6. Using trees to compute approximate solutions to ordinary differential equations exactly

Science.gov (United States)

Grossman, Robert

1991-01-01

Some recent work is reviewed which relates families of trees to symbolic algorithms for the exact computation of series which approximate solutions of ordinary differential equations. It turns out that the vector space whose basis is the set of finite, rooted trees carries a natural multiplication related to the composition of differential operators, making the space of trees an algebra. This algebraic structure can be exploited to yield a variety of algorithms for manipulating vector fields and the series and algebras they generate.

7. On one two-point BVP for the fourth order linear ordinary differential equation

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Mukhigulashvili, Sulkhan; Manjikashvili, M.

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 265-275 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : fourth order linear ordinary differential equations * two-point boundary value problems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2016-0077/gmj-2016-0077. xml

8. On periodic bounded and unbounded solutions of second order nonlinear ordinary differential equations

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Lomtatidze, Alexander

2017-01-01

Roč. 24, č. 2 (2017), s. 241-263 ISSN 1072-947X Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nonlinear ordinary differential equations * periodic boundary value problem * solvability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Applied mathematics Impact factor: 0.290, year: 2016 https://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gmj.2017.24.issue-2/gmj-2017-0009/gmj-2017-0009. xml

9. Probabilistic assessment of steel moment frames incremental collapse (ordinary, intermediate and special under earthquake

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

2017-11-01

Full Text Available Building collapse is a level of the structure performance in which the amount of financial and life loss is maximized, so this event could be the worst incident in the construction. Regarding to the possibility of destructive earthquakes in different parts of the world, detailed assessment of the structure's collapse has been one of the major challenges of the structural engineering. In this regard, offering models based on laboratory studies, considering the effective parameters and appropriate earthquakes could be a step towards achieving this goal. In this research, a five-story steel structure with a system of ordinary, intermediate and special moment frame (low, intermediate and high ductility has been designed based on the local regulations. In this study, the effect of resistance and stiffness deterioration of the structural elements based on the results of the laboratory models have been considered and the ductility role in the collapse capacity of steel moment frames has been investigated as probabilistic matter. For this purpose, incremental dynamic analysis has been done under 50 pairs of earthquake records proposing FEMA P695 instruction and fragility curves of various performance levels are developed. Results showed higher collapse capacity of special moment steel frame than the intermediate and ordinary moment frames. In the 50 percent probability level, the collapse capacity of special moment frame increased 34 % compared to the intermediate moment frame and 66 % to the ordinary moment frame. Also, the results showed that for different collapse spectral accelerations, the use of special moment frame instead of intermediate and ordinary moment frames reduces the collapse probability to 30 and 50 % respectively.

10. Pod systems: an equivariant ordinary differential equation approach to dynamical systems on a spatial domain

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Elmhirst, Toby; Stewart, Ian; Doebeli, Michael

2008-01-01

We present a class of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs), which we call 'pod systems', that offers a new perspective on dynamical systems defined on a spatial domain. Such systems are typically studied as partial differential equations, but pod systems bring the analytic techniques of ODE theory to bear on the problems, and are thus able to study behaviours and bifurcations that are not easily accessible to the standard methods. In particular, pod systems are specifically designed to study spatial dynamical systems that exhibit multi-modal solutions. A pod system is essentially a linear combination of parametrized functions in which the coefficients and parameters are variables whose dynamics are specified by a system of ODEs. That is, pod systems are concerned with the dynamics of functions of the form Ψ(s, t) = y 1 (t) φ(s; x 1 (t)) + ··· + y N (t) φ(s; x N (t)), where s in R n is the spatial variable and φ: R n × R d → R. The parameters x i in R d and coefficients y i in R are dynamic variables which evolve according to some system of ODEs, x-dot i = G i (x, y) and y-dot i = H i (x, y), for i = 1, ..., N. The dynamics of Ψ in function space can then be studied through the dynamics of the x and y in finite dimensions. A vital feature of pod systems is that the ODEs that specify the dynamics of the x and y variables are not arbitrary; restrictions on G i and H i are required to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ in function space are well defined (that is, that trajectories are unique). One important restriction is symmetry in the ODEs which arises because Ψ is invariant under permutations of the indices of the (x i , y i ) pairs. However, this is not the whole story, and the primary goal of this paper is to determine the necessary structure of the ODEs explicitly to guarantee that the dynamics of Ψ are well defined

11. Comparison of SISEC code simulations with earthquake data of ordinary and base-isolated buildings

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

1991-01-01

At Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), a 3-D computer program SISEC (Seismic Isolation System Evaluation Code) is being developed for simulating the system response of isolated and ordinary structures (Wang et al. 1991). This paper describes comparison of SISEC code simulations with building response data of actual earthquakes. To ensure the accuracy of analytical simulations, recorded data of full-size reinforced concrete structures located in Sendai, Japan are used in this benchmark comparison. The test structures consist of two three-story buildings, one base-isolated and the other one ordinary founded. They were constructed side by side to investigate the effect of base isolation on the acceleration response. Among 20 earthquakes observed since April 1989, complete records of three representative earthquakes, no.2, no.6, and no.17, are used for the code validation presented in this paper. Correlations of observed and calculated accelerations at all instrument locations are made. Also, relative response characteristics of ordinary and isolated building structures are investigated. (J.P.N.)

12. Folio Assessment or External Examinations? An Investigation into Alternative Means of Assessing SCE Ordinary Grade English. Report to the Scottish Certificate of Education Examination Board from the Scottish Council for Research in Education.

Science.gov (United States)

Spencer, Ernest

From 1974 through 1978, three methods of assessing Scottish high school students' (O level) English achievement were studied: (1) Ordinary (O level) examinations; (2) assessment of writing skills (folio assessment); and (3) criterion referenced tests developed by the Scottish Council for Research in Education (SCRE) to measure the objectives of…

13. In silico ordinary differential equation/partial differential equation hemodialysis model estimates methadone removal during dialysis

Science.gov (United States)

Linares, Oscar A; Schiesser, William E; Fudin, Jeffrey; Pham, Thien C; Bettinger, Jeffrey J; Mathew, Roy O; Daly, Annemarie L

2015-01-01

14. In silico ordinary differential equation/partial differential equation hemodialysis model estimates methadone removal during dialysis.

Science.gov (United States)

Linares, Oscar A; Schiesser, William E; Fudin, Jeffrey; Pham, Thien C; Bettinger, Jeffrey J; Mathew, Roy O; Daly, Annemarie L

2015-01-01

15. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

2008-01-15

We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

16. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

2008-01-01

We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

17. Deformation of Ordinary Chondrite Under Very Reducing Conditons: Implications for Liquid Metal Compositions, HSE Partitioning and Enstatite Chondrites

Science.gov (United States)

Rushmer, T.; Corgne, A.

2008-12-01

One important method in which to gain insight into metallic liquid compositions and their ability to control HSE (highly siderophile element) distribution is through experimentation. Deformation experiments can additionally provide information into mechanisms and chemical consequences of dynamic liquid metal segregation under a variety of conditions. We report results on metallic liquid HSE compositions and their distribution from a set of deformation experiments on a natural H6 ordinary chondrite, performed under very reducing conditions and a series of phase equilibria experiments focused on HSE partitioning between Si-rich and S-rich Fe molten alloys. The deformation experiments were conducted at temperatures between 925°C and 950°C, at 1.3 GPa confining pressure with a strain rate of 10-4/s. Major element analyses of both silicate and metal phases show that they are considerably reduced and the typically lithophile elements are behaving like siderophiles. Fe-Ni-Si compositions are found in the shear zones produced during the deformation experiment. Metallic compositions also include (Mg,Fe,Ca)S, Fe-Ni-Si, FeP, and Fe-Ni-S quench metal. Silicate phases include forsterite (Fo92-96) and enstatite (En98). Highly siderophile element (HSE) concentrations have been measured in the sulphide ((Fe,Mg,Ca)S) and metal (Fe- Ni-Si) phases by LA-ICPMS and compared with results from an earlier set of experiments on the same material but which were not performed under reducing conditions. The partitioning of the PGE is modified by the changing conditions with elements such as Ir and Os having higher DMetal/Sulphide values under reducing conditions. Partitioning experiments between molten FeS and Ni-, Si-bearing molten Fe were performed at 1.5-5.0 GPa and 1500-1750° to further investigate this observation. The starting material is synthetic, doped with a range of trace and HSE elements. The results confirm the preference of the HSE for the metallic phase with DMetal

18. New seismograph includes filters

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

1979-11-02

The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

19. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

Science.gov (United States)

He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

2012-08-09

Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

20. A Hartman–Nagumo inequality for the vector ordinary -Laplacian and applications to nonlinear boundary value problems

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Ureña Antonio J

2002-01-01

Full Text Available A generalization of the well-known Hartman–Nagumo inequality to the case of the vector ordinary -Laplacian and classical degree theory provide existence results for some associated nonlinear boundary value problems.