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Sample records for methods identifying measurement

  1. Least-squares methods for identifying biochemical regulatory networks from noisy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heslop-Harrison Pat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of identifying the dynamic interactions in biochemical networks from noisy experimental data. Typically, approaches for solving this problem make use of an estimation algorithm such as the well-known linear Least-Squares (LS estimation technique. We demonstrate that when time-series measurements are corrupted by white noise and/or drift noise, more accurate and reliable identification of network interactions can be achieved by employing an estimation algorithm known as Constrained Total Least Squares (CTLS. The Total Least Squares (TLS technique is a generalised least squares method to solve an overdetermined set of equations whose coefficients are noisy. The CTLS is a natural extension of TLS to the case where the noise components of the coefficients are correlated, as is usually the case with time-series measurements of concentrations and expression profiles in gene networks. Results The superior performance of the CTLS method in identifying network interactions is demonstrated on three examples: a genetic network containing four genes, a network describing p53 activity and mdm2 messenger RNA interactions, and a recently proposed kinetic model for interleukin (IL-6 and (IL-12b messenger RNA expression as a function of ATF3 and NF-κB promoter binding. For the first example, the CTLS significantly reduces the errors in the estimation of the Jacobian for the gene network. For the second, the CTLS reduces the errors from the measurements that are corrupted by white noise and the effect of neglected kinetics. For the third, it allows the correct identification, from noisy data, of the negative regulation of (IL-6 and (IL-12b by ATF3. Conclusion The significant improvements in performance demonstrated by the CTLS method under the wide range of conditions tested here, including different levels and types of measurement noise and different numbers of data points, suggests that its application will enable

  2. Impedance measurement of irradiated potatoes: a method to identify radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastro, N.L. del; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The potato is firmly established in many parts of the world as a major staple food. Then, radiation processing of potato is approved in many countries for sprouting inhibition and extension of shelf life in a dose range from about 0.01 to 0.15 kGy of 60 Co. The use of electrical conductance methods for the detection of Salmonella, some virus or the action of herbicides on plant has been reported and differences have been observed between instruments in respect of the magnitude of conductance change or rates of change in conductance response. A reliable technique to identify potatoes or other food products has not been established so far, though several methods have been reported. Electrical impedance might thus serve for characterization of unirradiated and irradiated tissues and cells. In this work, potato tubers from an European variety, named Bintje, grown in Sao Paulo State were employed. Potatoes were punctured with steel electrodes and impedance measured at different frequencies (1 k Hz-100 k Hz) by passing 3-5 m A alternating current through it. The impedance ratio of 50 k Hz/5 k Hz calculated from ten replicate samples decreases with the increment of the dose when doses of O 0.75 and 0.15 kGy from a Gamma Cell 220 were utilized. The impedance measurement were slightly affected by the place of puncture. (author)

  3. A method to identify energy efficiency measures for factory systems based on qualitative modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Krones, Manuela

    2017-01-01

    Manuela Krones develops a method that supports factory planners in generating energy-efficient planning solutions. The method provides qualitative description concepts for factory planning tasks and energy efficiency knowledge as well as an algorithm-based linkage between these measures and the respective planning tasks. Its application is guided by a procedure model which allows a general applicability in the manufacturing sector. The results contain energy efficiency measures that are suitable for a specific planning task and reveal the roles of various actors for the measures’ implementation. Contents Driving Concerns for and Barriers against Energy Efficiency Approaches to Increase Energy Efficiency in Factories Socio-Technical Description of Factory Planning Tasks Description of Energy Efficiency Measures Case Studies on Welding Processes and Logistics Systems Target Groups Lecturers and Students of Industrial Engineering, Production Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Practi...

  4. Chemoluminescence measurement of 16 spices as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Boegl, W.

    1984-09-01

    This report is based on a series of experiments conducted with 16 spices to find out whether the chemiluminescence intensity measurements of the reaction to luminol solution is appropriate as an indicator of treatment with ionizing radiation. For this purpose the optimum conditions of reaction were first assessed for each spice in order to determine the dependence of the chemiluminescence intensity on the radiation dose and storage time after irradiation. Only in garlic the irradiation was not able to be identified any more after 3 days of storage time. In most of the spices it is possible to take proof of radiation exposure even after storage times of more than 2 months. (orig./PW) [de

  5. Methods and Measures: Growth Mixture Modeling--A Method for Identifying Differences in Longitudinal Change among Unobserved Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nilam; Grimm, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Growth mixture modeling (GMM) is a method for identifying multiple unobserved sub-populations, describing longitudinal change within each unobserved sub-population, and examining differences in change among unobserved sub-populations. We provide a practical primer that may be useful for researchers beginning to incorporate GMM analysis into their…

  6. Measurement of compartment elasticity using pressure related ultrasound: a method to identify patients with potential compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellei, R M; Hingmann, S J; Kobbe, P; Weber, C; Grice, J E; Zimmerman, F; Jeromin, S; Gansslen, A; Hildebrand, F; Pape, H C

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Decision-making in treatment of an acute compartment syndrome is based on clinical assessment, supported by invasive monitoring. Thus, evolving compartment syndrome may require repeated pressure measurements. In suspected cases of potential compartment syndromes clinical assessment alone seems to be unreliable. The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a non-invasive application estimating whole compartmental elasticity by ultrasound, which may improve accuracy of diagnostics. MATERIAL AND METHODS In an in-vitro model, using an artificial container simulating dimensions of the human anterior tibial compartment, intracompartmental pressures (p) were raised subsequently up to 80 mm Hg by infusion of saline solution. The compartmental depth (mm) in the cross-section view was measured before and after manual probe compression (100 mm Hg) upon the surface resulting in a linear compartmental displacement (Δd). This was repeated at rising compartmental pressures. The resulting displacements were related to the corresponding intra-compartmental pressures simulated in our model. A hypothesized relationship between pressures related compartmental displacement and the elasticity at elevated compartment pressures was investigated. RESULTS With rising compartmental pressures, a non-linear, reciprocal proportional relation between the displacement (mm) and the intra-compartmental pressure (mm Hg) occurred. The Pearson's coefficient showed a high correlation (r2 = -0.960). The intraobserver reliability value kappa resulted in a statistically high reliability (κ = 0.840). The inter-observer value indicated a fair reliability (κ = 0.640). CONCLUSIONS Our model reveals that a strong correlation between compartmental strain displacements assessed by ultrasound and the intra-compartmental pressure changes occurs. Further studies are required to prove whether this assessment is transferable to human muscle tissue. Determining the complete

  7. Coherence method of identifying signal noise model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavrin, J.

    1981-01-01

    The noise analysis method is discussed in identifying perturbance models and their parameters by a stochastic analysis of the noise model of variables measured on a reactor. The analysis of correlations is made in the frequency region using coherence analysis methods. In identifying an actual specific perturbance, its model should be determined and recognized in a compound model of the perturbance system using the results of observation. The determination of the optimum estimate of the perturbance system model is based on estimates of related spectral densities which are determined from the spectral density matrix of the measured variables. Partial and multiple coherence, partial transfers, the power spectral densities of the input and output variables of the noise model are determined from the related spectral densities. The possibilities of applying the coherence identification methods were tested on a simple case of a simulated stochastic system. Good agreement was found of the initial analytic frequency filters and the transfers identified. (B.S.)

  8. Identifying Teaching Methods that Engage Entrepreneurship Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Peter; Metcalfe, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Entrepreneurship education particularly requires student engagement because of the complexity of the entrepreneurship process. The purpose of this paper is to describe how an established measure of engagement can be used to identify relevant teaching methods that could be used to engage any group of entrepreneurship students.…

  9. Football refereeing: Identifying innovative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza MohammadKazemi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to identify the potentials innovation in football industry. Data were collected from 10 national and international referees, assistant referees and referees’ supervisors in Iran. In this study, technological innovations are identified that assist better refereeing performances. The analysis revealed a significant relationship between using new technologies and referees ‘performance. The results indicate that elite referees, assistant referees and supervisors agreed to use new technological innovations during the game. According to their comments, this kind of technology causes the referees’ performance development.

  10. Method of identifying features in indexed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Kristin H [Richland, WA; Daly, Don Simone [Richland, WA; Anderson, Kevin K [Richland, WA; Wahl, Karen L [Richland, WA

    2001-06-26

    The present invention is a method of identifying features in indexed data, especially useful for distinguishing signal from noise in data provided as a plurality of ordered pairs. Each of the plurality of ordered pairs has an index and a response. The method has the steps of: (a) providing an index window having a first window end located on a first index and extending across a plurality of indices to a second window end; (b) selecting responses corresponding to the plurality of indices within the index window and computing a measure of dispersion of the responses; and (c) comparing the measure of dispersion to a dispersion critical value. Advantages of the present invention include minimizing signal to noise ratio, signal drift, varying baseline signal and combinations thereof.

  11. MEthods of ASsessing blood pressUre: identifying thReshold and target valuEs (MeasureBP): a review & study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, Kimberly C; Farina, Sasha; Gomez, Yessica-Haydee; Campbell, Norm R C; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; Cloutier, Lyne; McKay, Donald W; Dawes, Martin; Tobe, Sheldon W; Bolli, Peter; Gelfer, Mark; McLean, Donna; Bartlett, Gillian; Joseph, Lawrence; Featherstone, Robin; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2015-04-01

    Despite progress in automated blood pressure measurement (BPM) technology, there is limited research linking hard outcomes to automated office BPM (OBPM) treatment targets and thresholds. Equivalences for automated BPM devices have been estimated from approximations of standardized manual measurements of 140/90 mmHg. Until outcome-driven targets and thresholds become available for automated measurement methods, deriving evidence-based equivalences between automated methods and standardized manual OBPM is the next best solution. The MeasureBP study group was initiated by the Canadian Hypertension Education Program to close this critical knowledge gap. MeasureBP aims to define evidence-based equivalent values between standardized manual OBPM and automated BPM methods by synthesizing available evidence using a systematic review and individual subject-level data meta-analyses. This manuscript provides a review of the literature and MeasureBP study protocol. These results will lay the evidenced-based foundation to resolve uncertainties within blood pressure guidelines which, in turn, will improve the management of hypertension.

  12. Evaluation of a Three-Dimensional Stereophotogrammetric Method to Identify and Measure the Palatal Surface Area in Children With Unilateral Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Menezes, Marcio; Cerón-Zapata, Ana Maria; López-Palacio, Ana Maria; Mapelli, Andrea; Pisoni, Luca; Sforza, Chiarella

    2016-01-01

    To assess a three-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetric method for area delimitation and evaluation of the dental arches of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). Obtained data were also used to assess the 3D changes occurring in the maxillary arch with the use of orthopedic therapy prior to rhinocheiloplasty and before the first year of life. Within the collaboration between the Università degli Studi di Milano (Italy) and the University CES of Medellin (Colombia), 96 palatal cast models obtained from neonatal patients with UCLP were analyzed using a 3D stereophotogrammetric imaging system. The area of the minor and greater cleft segments on the digital dental cast surface were delineated by the visualization tool of the stereophotogrammetric software and then examined. "Trueness" of the measurements, as well as systematic and random errors between operators' tracings ("precision") were calculated. The method gave area measurements close to true values (errors lower than 2%), without systematic measurement errors for tracings by both interoperators and intraoperators (P > .05). Statistically significant differences (P digital dental casts and area measurements by the 3D stereophotogrammetric system revealed an accurate (true and precise) method for evaluating the stone casts of newborn patients with UCLP.

  13. Measuring Health Information Dissemination and Identifying Target Interest Communities on Twitter: Methods Development and Case Study of the @SafetyMD Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandadai, Venk; Yang, Haodong; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Christopher C; Fleisher, Linda; Winston, Flaura Koplin

    2016-05-05

    Little is known about the ability of individual stakeholder groups to achieve health information dissemination goals through Twitter. This study aimed to develop and apply methods for the systematic evaluation and optimization of health information dissemination by stakeholders through Twitter. Tweet content from 1790 followers of @SafetyMD (July-November 2012) was examined. User emphasis, a new indicator of Twitter information dissemination, was defined and applied to retweets across two levels of retweeters originating from @SafetyMD. User interest clusters were identified based on principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of a random sample of 170 followers. User emphasis of keywords remained across levels but decreased by 9.5 percentage points. PCA and HCA identified 12 statistically unique clusters of followers within the @SafetyMD Twitter network. This study is one of the first to develop methods for use by stakeholders to evaluate and optimize their use of Twitter to disseminate health information. Our new methods provide preliminary evidence that individual stakeholders can evaluate the effectiveness of health information dissemination and create content-specific clusters for more specific targeted messaging.

  14. Chemoluminescence measurement of 16 spices as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment. Die Messung der Chemilumineszenz von 16 Gewuerzen als Nachweis einer Behandlung mit ionisierenden Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, L; Boegl, W

    1984-09-01

    This report is based on a series of experiments conducted with 16 spices to find out whether the chemiluminescence intensity measurements of the reaction to luminol solution is appropriate as an indicator of treatment with ionizing radiation. For this purpose the optimum conditions of reaction were first assessed for each spice in order to determine the dependence of the chemiluminescence intensity on the radiation dose and storage time after irradiation. Only in garlic the irradiation was not able to be identified any more after 3 days of storage time. In most of the spices it is possible to take proof of radiation exposure even after storage times of more than 2 months.

  15. Scientometric methods for identifying emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Schlicher, Bob G; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2015-11-03

    Provided is a method of generating a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain.

  16. Method for identifying particulate fluoride compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufts, B J

    1960-01-01

    A method is described for identifying particulates containing fluorides and other complex fluorine compounds such as fluorosilicate in samples collected on membrane filters. The filter is treated with lead chloride to precipitate lead chlorofluoride at each fluoride-containing spot. This microspot is identified by examination in a light microscope. Sulfate and phosphate, which also precipitate if present, can be distinguished and do not interfere. Calibrations are given for the fluorides and the more insoluble salts, relating the original particle size to the reaction site size. Thus, the mass of the particles can be calculated. Results of some field tests in an area of fluoride pollution are given, and compared with standard testing procedures.

  17. Analytical methods to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helle, N.; Schreiber, G.A.; Boegl, K.W.

    1992-01-01

    During the last years, three promising techniques for the identification of irradiated food were developed: - Studies of luminescence, mainly thermoluminescence measurements, of food containing mineral impurities like spices, dried vegetables: and fresh fuit and vegetables. This technique can probably be applied also to food with crystalline components like shells or bones. - Gaschromatographic/mass-spectrometric investigation of radiation-induced lipid changes. - Electron-spin-resonance measurements of dried products or of products containing dry components like bones, fish bones, shells or seeds. The thermoluminescence technique has been routinely applied for more than one year by several German Food Inspection Laboratories. The results suggest that there are scarcely any irradiated spices and dried vegetables in the German market. Gaschromatography/mass spectrometry of lipid components and electron-spin-resonance spectroscopy will be established in routine food inspections in Germany in the next two years. Further possibilities to identify irradiated food are the analysis of specific changes in amino acids, DNA and carbohydrates. Radiation-induced viscosity changes, and changes in electric properties (impedance) may be helpful in identifiying at least some irradiated products. Also microbiological and biological techniques as e.g. microbial flora shift or embryo development tests in citrus fruit have been considered. All activities concerning the development of identification techniques are now coordinated by the European Communities and by IAEA. (orig.) [de

  18. Identifying User Profiles from Statistical Grouping Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Kelsen de Oliveira

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to group users into subgroups according to their levels of knowledge about technology. Statistical hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods were studied, compared and used in the creations of the subgroups from the similarities of the skill levels with these users’ technology. The research sample consisted of teachers who answered online questionnaires about their skills with the use of software and hardware with educational bias. The statistical methods of grouping were performed and showed the possibilities of groupings of the users. The analyses of these groups allowed to identify the common characteristics among the individuals of each subgroup. Therefore, it was possible to define two subgroups of users, one with skill in technology and another with skill with technology, so that the partial results of the research showed two main algorithms for grouping with 92% similarity in the formation of groups of users with skill with technology and the other with little skill, confirming the accuracy of the techniques of discrimination against individuals.

  19. Methods for measuring shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...

  20. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of viscosity as a means to identify irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuernberger, E.; Heide, L.; Boegl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of viscosity is a simple method to identify previous irradiation of some kinds of spices and foods, at least in combination with other methods. A possible change of the soaking capacity was examined up to a storage period of 18 months after irradiation of black pepper, white pepper, cinnamon, ginger and onion powder with a radiation dose of 10 kGy each. After irradiation, either increased or decreased viscosity values were measured; the results showed, also after the 18-months-storage period, considerable differences of the viscosity behaviour in non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The time of storage had no effect to the individual viscosity values, so that this method could also be applied to the examined spices after a longer storage period. (orig.) With 51 figs., 25 tabs [de

  2. Automated methods of corrosion measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    to revise assumptions regarding the basis of the method, which sometimes leads to the discovery of as-yet unnoticed phenomena. The present selection of automated methods for corrosion measurements is not motivated simply by the fact that a certain measurement can be performed automatically. Automation...... is applied to nearly all types of measurements today....

  3. Channel box dimension measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Hirotake; Jo, Hiroto.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for measuring the entire length of a channel box of a fuel assembly of a BWR type reactor. Namely, four sensors are used as one set that generate ultrasonic waves from oblique upper portion, oblique lower portion, upper portion and lower portion of the channel box respectively. The distances between the four sensors and each of the portions of the channel box are measured respectively for both of a reference member and a member to be measured. The entire length of the channel box is measured by calculating the measured values and the angles of the obliquely disposed sensors according to a predetermined formula. According to the method of the present invention, the inclination of the channel box to be measured can be corrected. In addition, accuracy of the measurement is improved and the measuring time is saved as well as the measuring device and operation can be simplified. (I.S.)

  4. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: identifying extreme counts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available Accelerometers are designed to measure plausible human activity, however extremely high count values (EHCV have been recorded in large-scale studies. Using population data, we develop methodological principles for establishing an EHCV threshold, propose a threshold to define EHCV in the ActiGraph GT1M, determine occurrences of EHCV in a large-scale study, identify device-specific error values, and investigate the influence of varying EHCV thresholds on daily vigorous PA (VPA.We estimated quantiles to analyse the distribution of all accelerometer positive count values obtained from 9005 seven-year old children participating in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. A threshold to identify EHCV was derived by differentiating the quantile function. Data were screened for device-specific error count values and EHCV, and a sensitivity analysis conducted to compare daily VPA estimates using three approaches to accounting for EHCV.Using our proposed threshold of ≥ 11,715 counts/minute to identify EHCV, we found that only 0.7% of all non-zero counts measured in MCS children were EHCV; in 99.7% of these children, EHCV comprised < 1% of total non-zero counts. Only 11 MCS children (0.12% of sample returned accelerometers that contained negative counts; out of 237 such values, 211 counts were equal to -32,768 in one child. The medians of daily minutes spent in VPA obtained without excluding EHCV, and when using a higher threshold (≥19,442 counts/minute were, respectively, 6.2% and 4.6% higher than when using our threshold (6.5 minutes; p<0.0001.Quality control processes should be undertaken during accelerometer fieldwork and prior to analysing data to identify monitors recording error values and EHCV. The proposed threshold will improve the validity of VPA estimates in children's studies using the ActiGraph GT1M by ensuring only plausible data are analysed. These methods can be applied to define appropriate EHCV thresholds for different accelerometer models.

  5. Identifying Heterogeneities in Subsurface Environment using the Level Set Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Hongzhuan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lu, Zhiming [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-25

    These are slides from a presentation on identifying heterogeneities in subsurface environment using the level set method. The slides start with the motivation, then explain Level Set Method (LSM), the algorithms, some examples are given, and finally future work is explained.

  6. An Efficient Approach for Identifying Stable Lobes with Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for quick identification of chatter stability lobes with discretization method. Firstly, three different kinds of stability regions are defined: absolute stable region, valid region, and invalid region. Secondly, while identifying the chatter stability lobes, three different regions within the chatter stability lobes are identified with relatively large time intervals. Thirdly, stability boundary within the valid regions is finely calculated to get exact chatter stability lobes. The proposed method only needs to test a small portion of spindle speed and cutting depth set; about 89% computation time is savedcompared with full discretization method. It spends only about10 minutes to get exact chatter stability lobes. Since, based on discretization method, the proposed method can be used for different immersion cutting including low immersion cutting process, the proposed method can be directly implemented in the workshop to promote machining parameters selection efficiency.

  7. Spectrometric kidney depth measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Soussaline, F.; Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    The method proposed uses the single posterior surface measurement of the kidney radioactivity distribution. The ratio C/P of the number of scattered photons to the number of primary photons, which is a function of the tissue depth penetrated, is calculated for a given region. The parameters on which the C/P value depends are determined from studies on phantoms. On the basis of these results the kidney depth was measured on a series of 13 patients and a correlation was established between the value thus calculated and that obtained by the profile method. The reproducibility of the method is satisfactory [fr

  8. Methods for Human Dehydration Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenz, Florian; Weigel, Robert; Hagelauer, Amelie

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this article is to give a broad overview of current methods for the identification and quantification of the human dehydration level. Starting off from most common clinical setups, including vital parameters and general patients' appearance, more quantifiable results from chemical laboratory and electromagnetic measurement methods will be reviewed. Different analysis methods throughout the electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from direct current (DC) conductivity measurements up to neutron activation analysis (NAA), are discussed on the base of published results. Finally, promising technologies, which allow for an integration of a dehydration assessment system in a compact and portable way, will be spotted.

  9. Identifying Method of Drunk Driving Based on Driving Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Zhao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drunk driving is one of the leading causes contributing to traffic crashes. There are numerous issues that need to be resolved with the current method of identifying drunk driving. Driving behavior, with the characteristic of real-time, was extensively researched to identify impaired driving behaviors. In this paper, the drives with BACs above 0.05% were defined as drunk driving state. A detailed comparison was made between normal driving and drunk driving. The experiment in driving simulator was designed to collect the driving performance data of the groups. According to the characteristics analysis for the effect of alcohol on driving performance, seven significant indicators were extracted and the drunk driving was identified by the Fisher Discriminant Method. The discriminant function demonstrated a high accuracy of classification. The optimal critical score to differentiate normal from drinking state was found to be 0. The evaluation result verifies the accuracy of classification method.

  10. A preliminary approach to identify irradiated foods by thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Choonshik; Kim, Hyoung-Ook; Lim, Yoongho

    2012-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) is one of the physical methods for the identification of irradiated foods. Among the currently developed methods, TL is the most widely used method for the identification of irradiated foods. However, in order to use this method, silicate minerals should be isolated from food samples. The process for the isolation of silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. In this work, we have investigated the applicability of the TL method using iron-containing minerals instead of silicate minerals. In the TL analyses of dried spices, TL glow curves of iron-containing minerals showed maximum temperatures between 150 and 250 °C which were the same as those of silicate minerals. The process for the mineral separation of the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. Moreover, the analysis results including TL ratio have not shown significant differences compared with the silicate minerals method. As a result, the TL measurements using the iron-containing minerals could be an excellent method for the identification of the irradiated foods, including dried spices. - Highlights: ► A thermoluminescence method using iron-containing minerals is proposed. ► Current method using silicate minerals is time consuming and laborious. ► However, the proposed method is simple, fast, easy, and reliable. ► Analysis results are similar to those of the silicate minerals method.

  11. Statistical methods towards more efficient infiltration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T; Krebs, P

    2006-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge about the infiltration situation in a catchment is required for operation and maintenance. Due to the high expenditures, an optimisation of necessary measurement campaigns is essential. Methods based on multivariate statistics were developed to improve the information yield of measurements by identifying appropriate gauge locations. The methods have a high degree of freedom against data needs. They were successfully tested on real and artificial data. For suitable catchments, it is estimated that the optimisation potential amounts up to 30% accuracy improvement compared to nonoptimised gauge distributions. Beside this, a correlation between independent reach parameters and dependent infiltration rates could be identified, which is not dominated by the groundwater head.

  12. Measuring Industry Coagglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We construct a new coagglomeration index based purely on the location of firms. We...... underlying stories at work. We conclude that in conducting analyses of this kind giving consideration to the source of agglomeration economies, employees or entrepreneurs, and finding an appropriate measure for agglomeration, are both crucial to the process of identifying agglomerative forces....

  13. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, Linda; Bernaards, Claire M; Hildebrandt, Vincent H; de Vet, Henrica C W; van der Beek, Allard J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. This study was designed to (1) identify indicators for each dimension, (2) select the most relevant indicators, and (3) determine the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of work performance. IWP indicators were identified from multiple research disciplines, via literature, existing questionnaires, and expert interviews. Subsequently, experts selected the most relevant indicators per dimension and scored the relative weight of each dimension in ratings of IWP. In total, 128 unique indicators were identified. Twenty-three of these indicators were selected by experts as most relevant for measuring IWP. Task performance determined 36% of the work performance rating, while the other three dimensions respectively determined 22%, 20% and 21% of the rating. Notable consensus was found on relevant indicators of IWP, reducing the number from 128 to 23 relevant indicators. This provides an important step towards the development of a standardized, generic and short measurement instrument for assessing IWP.

  14. Radiation protection, measurements and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-06-01

    The introductory lectures discuss subjects such as radiation protection principles and appropriate measuring techniques; methods, quantities and units in radiation protection measurement; technical equipment; national and international radiation protection standards. The papers presented at the various sessions deal with: Dosimetry of external radiation (27 papers); Working environment monitoring and emission monitoring (21 contributions); Environmental monitoring (19 papers); Incorporation monitoring (9 papers); Detection limits (4 papers); Non-ionizing radiation, measurement of body dose and biological dosimetry (10 papers). All 94 contributions (lectures, compacts and posters) are retrievable as separate records. (HP) [de

  15. Issues in identifying germ tube positive yeasts by conventional methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Atta; Khaithir, Tzar Mohd Nizam

    2014-01-01

    Candida speciation is vital for epidemiology and management of candidiasis. Nonmolecular conventional methods often fail to identify closely related germ tube positive yeasts from clinical specimens. The present study was conducted to identify these yeasts and to highlight issues in conventional versus molecular methods of identification. A total of 98 germ tube positive yeasts from high vaginal swabs were studied over a 12-month period. Isolates were examined with various methods including growth at 42 °C and 45 °C on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), color development on CHROMagar Candida medium, chlamydospore production on corn meal agar at 25 °C, carbohydrate assimilation using ID 32C system, and polymerase chain reaction using a single pair of primers targeting the hyphal wall protein 1 (Hwp1) gene. Of all the isolates studied, 97 were molecularly confirmed as C. albicans and one isolate was identified as C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was detected in this study. The molecular method used in our study was an accurate and useful tool for discriminating C. albicans, C. dubliniensis, and C. africana. The conventional methods, however, were less accurate and riddled with many issues that will be discussed in further details. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Searching for Moral Dumbfounding: Identifying Measurable Indicators of Moral Dumbfounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian McHugh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Moral dumbfounding is defined as maintaining a moral judgement, without supporting reasons. The most cited demonstration of dumbfounding does not identify a specific measure of dumbfounding and has not been published in peer-review form, or directly replicated. Despite limited empirical examination, dumbfounding has been widely discussed in moral psychology. The present research examines the reliability with which dumbfounding can be elicited, and aims to identify measureable indicators of dumbfounding. Study 1 aimed at establishing the effect that is reported in the literature. Participants read four scenarios and judged the actions described. An Interviewer challenged participants’ stated reasons for judgements. Dumbfounding was evoked, as measured by two indicators, admissions of not having reasons (17%, unsupported declarations (9% with differences between scenarios. Study 2 measured dumbfounding as the selecting of an unsupported declaration as part of a computerised task. We observed high rates of dumbfounding across all scenarios. Studies 3a (college sample and 3b (MTurk sample, addressing limitations in Study 2, replaced the unsupported declaration with an admission of having no reason, and included open-ended responses that were coded for unsupported declarations. As predicted, lower rates of dumbfounding were observed (3a 20%; 3b 16%; or 3a 32%; 3b 24% including unsupported declarations in open-ended responses. Two measures provided evidence for dumbfounding across three studies; rates varied with task type (interview/computer task, and with the particular measure being employed (admissions of not having reasons/unsupported declarations. Possible cognitive processes underlying dumbfounding and limitations of methodologies used are discussed as a means to account for this variability.

  17. A method to identify aperiodic disturbances in the ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-S.; Chen, Z.; Huang, C.-M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, variations in the ionospheric F2 layer's critical frequency are decomposed into their periodic and aperiodic components. The latter include disturbances caused both by geophysical impacts on the ionosphere and random noise. The spectral whitening method (SWM), a signal-processing technique used in statistical estimation and/or detection, was used to identify aperiodic components in the ionosphere. The whitening algorithm adopted herein is used to divide the Fourier transform of the observed data series by a real envelope function. As a result, periodic components are suppressed and aperiodic components emerge as the dominant contributors. Application to a synthetic data set based on significant simulated periodic features of ionospheric observations containing artificial (and, hence, controllable) disturbances was used to validate the SWM for identification of aperiodic components. Although the random noise was somewhat enhanced by post-processing, the artificial disturbances could still be clearly identified. The SWM was then applied to real ionospheric observations. It was found to be more sensitive than the often-used monthly median method to identify geomagnetic effects. In addition, disturbances detected by the SWM were characterized by a Gaussian-type probability density function over all timescales, which further simplifies statistical analysis and suggests that the disturbances thus identified can be compared regardless of timescale.

  18. A New Method for Identifying Hazardous Road Locations Using GPS and Accelerometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner; Andersen, Camilla Sloth; Agerholm, Niels

    2016-01-01

    and validated through a case study of Aalborg city, where HRLs identified on the basis of accident statistics are compared to the HCLs identified with the new method on a dataset of more than 36.531 hours of driving tracked with accelerometer and GPS, containing 131 million GPS and 1.1 billion acceleration...... a new method relying on GPS data and accelerometer data. The method developed in this article is superior to previous methods since it utilizes acceleration measurements to identify both a deceleration and a significant drop in speed by integrating acceleration measurements over time in a moving time......-window. This calculation is combined with measurements of jerks to distinguish between planned decelerations and unplanned decelerations, which occurs when drivers react to hazardous situations. Finally, using GPS data, the unplanned decelerations identified are linked to specific locations. The method is tested...

  19. Identifying Emerging Trends of Financial Business Method Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Sang Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial technology has become an important part of the banking industry in recent times. This study attempts to propose a framework to identify emerging areas and trends using financial business method patents. Based on the abstracts of financial business method patents registered at the United States Patent and Trademark Office, this study first applies latent Dirichlet allocation to identify emerging topics. The probability of the annual occurrence of each topic is adjusted through the exponentially weighted moving average to reflect the importance of the recent probability of topics. Each topic is classified as “hot” or “cold” depending on whether the exponentially weighted moving average of the probabilities exceeds the threshold. We applied survival analysis to the time gap of recurrently becoming hot from a cold status with the associated factor of financial business method patents. The findings suggest that the topic with the short granted period and high forward citation is likely to become hot. In addition, the topic that is aged and specific in narrow areas is likely to continuously change into the hot or cold status. The approach proposed in this study contributes toward understanding topic emergence in the financial area and pursuing sustainable development.

  20. Methods to identify the unexplored diversity of microbial exopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Broder; Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are a structurally very diverse class of molecules. A number of them have found their application in rather diverging fields that extend from medicine, food, and cosmetics on the one side to construction, drilling, and chemical industry on the other side. The analysis of microbial strains for their competence in polysaccharide production has therefore been a major issue in the past, especially in the search for new polysaccharide variants among natural strain isolates. Concerning the fact that nearly all microbes carry the genetic equipment for the production of polysaccharides under specific conditions, the naturally provided EPS portfolio seems to be still massively underexplored. Therefore, there is a need for high throughput screening techniques capable of identifying novel variants of bacterial EPS with properties superior to the already described ones, or even totally new ones. A great variety of different techniques has been used in screening approaches for identifying microorganisms that are producing EPS in substantial amounts. Mucoid growth is often the method of choice for visual identification of EPS producing strains. Depending on the thickening characteristics of the polysaccharide, observation of viscosity in culture broth can also be an option to evaluate EPS production. Precipitation with different alcohols represents a common detection, isolation, and purification method for many EPS. A more quantitative approach is found in the total carbohydrate content analysis, normally determined, e.g., by phenol-sulfuric-acid-method. In addition, recently a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar substitutions has become available, which could give a first hint of the polymer structure of unknown EPS. This minireview will compare available methods and novel techniques and discuss their benefits and disadvantages.

  1. Methods to identify the unexplored diversity of microbial exopolysaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broder eRühmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS are a structurally very diverse class of molecules. A number of them have found their application in rather diverging fields that extend from medicine, food and cosmetics on the one side to construction, drilling and chemical industry on the other side. The analysis of microbial strains for their competence in polysaccharide production has therefore been a major issue in the past, especially in the search for new polysaccharide variants among natural strain isolates. Concerning the fact that nearly all microbes carry the genetic equipment for the production of polysaccharides under specific conditions, the naturally provided EPS portfolio seems to be still massively underexplored. Therefore, there is a need for high throughput screening techniques capable of identifying novel variants of bacterial exopolysaccharides with properties superior to the already described ones, or even totally new ones. A great variety of different techniques has been used in screening approaches for identifying microorganisms that are producing EPS in substantial amounts. Mucoid growth is often the method of choice for visual identification of EPS producing strains. Depending on the thickening characteristics of the polysaccharide, observation of viscosity in culture broth can also be an option to evaluate EPS production. Precipitation with different alcohols represents a common detection, isolation and purification method for many EPS. A more quantitative approach is found in the total carbohydrate content analysis, normally determined e.g. by phenol-sulfuric-acid-method. In addition, recently a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar substitutions has become available, which could give a first hint of the polymer structure of unknown EPS. This minireview will compare available methods and novel techniques and discuss their benefits and disadvantages.

  2. Terahertz spectral unmixing based method for identifying gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuqi; Huang, Pingjie; Li, Xian; Ge, Weiting; Hou, Dibo; Zhang, Guangxin

    2018-02-01

    At present, many researchers are exploring biological tissue inspection using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) techniques. In this study, based on a modified hard modeling factor analysis method, terahertz spectral unmixing was applied to investigate the relationships between the absorption spectra in THz-TDS and certain biomarkers of gastric cancer in order to systematically identify gastric cancer. A probability distribution and box plot were used to extract the distinctive peaks that indicate carcinogenesis, and the corresponding weight distributions were used to discriminate the tissue types. The results of this work indicate that terahertz techniques have the potential to detect different levels of cancer, including benign tumors and polyps.

  3. Methods To Identify Aptamers against Cell Surface Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Ducongé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are nucleic acid-based ligands identified through a process of molecular evolution named SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential enrichment. During the last 10-15 years, numerous aptamers have been developed specifically against targets present on or associated with the surface of human cells or infectious pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi or parasites. Several of the aptamers have been described as potent probes, rivalling antibodies, for use in flow cytometry or microscopy. Some have also been used as drugs by inhibiting or activating functions of their targets in a manner similar to neutralizing or agonistic antibodies. Additionally, it is straightforward to conjugate aptamers to other agents without losing their affinity and they have successfully been used in vitro and in vivo to deliver drugs, siRNA, nanoparticles or contrast agents to target cells. Hence, aptamers identified against cell surface biomarkers represent a promising class of ligands. This review presents the different strategies of SELEX that have been developed to identify aptamers for cell surface-associated proteins as well as some of the methods that are used to study their binding on living cells.

  4. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V. [Laboratory of Physics and Astronomy, IP and D/Universidade do Vale do Paraíba—UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, O. [Division of Space Geophysics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Calzadilla, A. [Department of Space Geophysics, Institute of Geophysics and Astronomy, Havana (Cuba); Domingues, M. O., E-mail: ojeda.gonzalez.a@gmail.com [Associate Laboratory of Applied Computing and Mathematics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-10

    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  5. Measuring Consumer Innovativeness: Identifying Innovators among Consumers of Modern Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Filová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods currently used in innovation marketing research are focused on the late phases of the innovation process and are usually methodologically complex. This limits their practical impact. The presented work aims to create a simple self-report scale applicable in the initial and late phases of the innovation process, highly modular and suitable for a wide range of research. The main battery of questions was inspired by the adopter categorization by Rogers. The questions determine both (1 general characteristics of innovation adopters and (2 their relationship to a specific innovation. The scale was tested during robust longitudinal online research, thematically focused on users of modern technologies. A representative sample of 4,000 Internet users in the Czech Republic took part in the survey from 2013 to 2015. The result is a new self-report scale measuring consumer innovativeness applicable for prototyping, strategic decisions and effective communication of innovations to consumers.

  6. Postural Response Signal Characteristics Identified by Method of Developed Statokinesigram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbolyas Boris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Human postural system is taken as complex biological system with specific input and output time characteristics, in this study. Evaluation of measured output characteristics is useful in medical diagnostics or in describing postural system disorders. System theory principle provide suitable basis for postural signals analysis. Participating volunteers were instructed to maintain quiet upright stance posture on firm support surface of stabilometric platform for 60s. Postural system actuation was realized by vibration stimuli applied bilaterally on Achilles tendons for 20s. Postural reaction signal, its time profile and static and dynamic characteristics were evaluated by Method of Developed Statokinesigram Trajectory (MDST.

  7. Identifying shortcomings in the measurement of service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, G; Catts, R; Forlin, C

    2000-01-01

    SERVPEFR, the performance component of the Service Quality Scale (SERVQUAL), has been shown to measure five underlying dimensions corresponding to Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance, and Empathy (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1988). This paper describes three separate studies employing SERVPERF in an Australian context. In the first of these studies (N = 113), a shortened 15-item version of the SERVPERF scale (SERVPERF-R) was found to be suitable for use in an Australian small business setting. A five-factor structure was identifiable but the factors were highly correlated, suggesting that they were not clearly distinct. The tendency for marked negative skewness observed by other researchers was also noted here. A follow-up study involving three other small businesses (N = 212) used Rasch analysis to test assumptions about the spread of items on the underlying continuum. These analyses indicated that there is an even, though narrow, spread of items across the continuum. The Rasch analysis suggested that the items in both SERVPERF and SERVPERF-R are too easy to rate highly and that more "difficult" items need to be added to the scale. The third study (N = 122) was conducted using a version of SERVPERF-R that included seven new items intended to extend the range of the scale. The new items, however, did not achieve this desirable outcome. The implications for service quality assessment are discussed.

  8. Renewable energy: Method and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsen, Trond Hartvedt

    2003-01-01

    The thesis presents various possibilities for renewable energy in Norway. The wind power would give a practical and economic alternative. The external costs for the wind power would be moderate. In chapter 3 the utility cost analysis for renewable alternatives are studied relative to the macroeconomic efficiency. Some methodical problems and how these analyses are used are reviewed. In the practical utility cost analyses wind power is studied relative to gas power which is the non-renewable alternative present in Norway today. A qualitative part is included. It is not possible to determine whether wind power is preferable to gas power in the macroeconomic perspective. Wind power would be the choice if high environmental and CO2 cleaning costs are expected. The first conclusion to be drawn is that it is difficult to decide whether wind power is the best solution based on cost benefit analysis. However, the alternative seems to be quite robust in the analysis. Due to the central position the energy supplies have in the society this business should be heavily regulated. The sector is also overtaxed as a reduction in consumption is desired. The analysis shows that the system does not function perfectly. The thesis surveys various measures for improving the renewable energy supply and focuses on the wind power. A model for and analysis of the measures are carried out and resulted in a second conclusion. The measures have various properties as to the influence on the market. A subsidy is a fine measure for stimulation production of green power while a tax reduces efficiently the production of black power. A system with green licenses in combination with a subsidy and a tax would be preferable as to increasing the part of renewable energy of the total production. It is therefore necessary to have clearly defined goals and use suitable measures for achieving them. The costs of wind power is falling and it would therefore soon be macroeconomic profitable. It is also

  9. Method of measuring surface density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregor, J.

    1982-01-01

    A method is described of measuring surface density or thickness, preferably of coating layers, using radiation emitted by a suitable radionuclide, e.g., 241 Am. The radiation impinges on the measured material, e.g., a copper foil and in dependence on its surface density or thickness part of the flux of impinging radiation is reflected and part penetrates through the material. The radiation which has penetrated through the material excites in a replaceable adjustable backing characteristic radiation of an energy close to that of the impinging radiation (within +-30 keV). Part of the flux of the characteristic radiation spreads back to the detector, penetrates through the material in which in dependence on surface density or thickness of the coating layer it is partly absorbed. The flux of the penetrated characteristic radiation impinging on the face of the detector is a function of surface density or thickness. Only that part of the energy is evaluated of the energy spectrum which corresponds to the energy of characteristic radiation. (B.S.)

  10. Seismic Methods of Identifying Explosions and Estimating Their Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W. R.; Ford, S. R.; Pasyanos, M.; Pyle, M. L.; Myers, S. C.; Mellors, R. J.; Pitarka, A.; Rodgers, A. J.; Hauk, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Seismology plays a key national security role in detecting, locating, identifying and determining the yield of explosions from a variety of causes, including accidents, terrorist attacks and nuclear testing treaty violations (e.g. Koper et al., 2003, 1999; Walter et al. 1995). A collection of mainly empirical forensic techniques has been successfully developed over many years to obtain source information on explosions from their seismic signatures (e.g. Bowers and Selby, 2009). However a lesson from the three DPRK declared nuclear explosions since 2006, is that our historic collection of data may not be representative of future nuclear test signatures (e.g. Selby et al., 2012). To have confidence in identifying future explosions amongst the background of other seismic signals, and accurately estimate their yield, we need to put our empirical methods on a firmer physical footing. Goals of current research are to improve our physical understanding of the mechanisms of explosion generation of S- and surface-waves, and to advance our ability to numerically model and predict them. As part of that process we are re-examining regional seismic data from a variety of nuclear test sites including the DPRK and the former Nevada Test Site (now the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS)). Newer relative location and amplitude techniques can be employed to better quantify differences between explosions and used to understand those differences in term of depth, media and other properties. We are also making use of the Source Physics Experiments (SPE) at NNSS. The SPE chemical explosions are explicitly designed to improve our understanding of emplacement and source material effects on the generation of shear and surface waves (e.g. Snelson et al., 2013). Finally we are also exploring the value of combining seismic information with other technologies including acoustic and InSAR techniques to better understand the source characteristics. Our goal is to improve our explosion models

  11. Development of a new method to identify aminoacylated RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ji

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A RT-PCR method is developed to isolate RNA aminoacylated on their 3’ end from large pools of RNA. The method is being applied in two separate projects. We are interested in isolating a new class of ribozymes that could successively catalyze the two chemical reactions leading to their own 3’ aminoacylation (ATP activation of an amino acid followed by 3' esterification of the RNA. The catalysis of each of the two reactions has independently been demonstrated for some RNA isolated with the SELEX methodology [1-2]. However, the coupling of both reactions on a same molecule has not been achieved yet. The identification of these still hypothetical ribozymes may help understand how the former translation system started in the absence of the aminoacyltRNA Synthetase, which catalyzes the above two reactions on tRNA in modern cells. In another project, we would like to identify the whole repertoire of aminoacylated RNA (the “aminoacylome” in cells. There are strong indications that other RNA besides tRNA and tmRNA may be aminoacylated for biological purposes [3-4].

  12. The variability of piezoelectric measurements. Material and measurement method contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.

    2002-01-01

    The variability of piezoelectric materials measurements has been investigated in order to separate the contributions from intrinsic instrumental variability, and the contributions from the variability in materials. The work has pinpointed several areas where weaknesses in the measurement methods result in high variability, and also show that good correlation between piezoelectric parameters allow simpler measurement methods to be used. The Berlincourt method has been shown to be unreliable when testing thin discs, however when testing thicker samples there is a good correlation between this and other methods. The high field permittivity and low field permittivity correlate well, so tolerances on low field measurements would predict high field performance. In trying to identify microstructural origins of samples that behave differently to others within a batch, no direct evidence was found to suggest that outliers originate from either differences in microstructure or crystallography. Some of the samples chosen as maximum outliers showed pin-holes, probably from electrical breakdown during poling, even though these defects would ordinarily be detrimental to piezoelectric output. (author)

  13. Automated Methods Of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Nielsen, Gregers; Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov; Reeve, John Ch

    1997-01-01

    The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell.......The chapter describes the following automated measurements: Corrosion Measurements by Titration, Imaging Corrosion by Scanning Probe Microscopy, Critical Pitting Temperature and Application of the Electrochemical Hydrogen Permeation Cell....

  14. Identifying customer-focused performance measures : final report 655.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) completed a comprehensive customer satisfaction : assessment in July 2009. ADOT commissioned the assessment to acquire statistically valid data from residents : and community leaders to help it identify...

  15. WP/084 Measuring Industry Agglomeration and Identifying the Driving Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howard, Emma; Tarp, Finn; Newman, Carol

    Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance of transp......Understanding industry agglomeration and its driving forces is critical for the formulation of industrial policy in developing countries. Crucial to this process is the definition and measurement of agglomeration. We propose a new measure and examine what it reveals about the importance...... of transport costs, labour market pooling, and technology transfer for agglomeration processes. We contrast this analysis with insights from existing measures in the literature and find very different underlying stories at work. An exceptionally rich set of data from Vietnam makes us confident that our measure...

  16. Methods for identifying 30 chronic conditions: application to administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Marcello; Wiebe, Natasha; Fortin, Martin; Guthrie, Bruce; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R; James, Matthew T; Klarenbach, Scott W; Lewanczuk, Richard; Manns, Braden J; Ronksley, Paul; Sargious, Peter; Straus, Sharon; Quan, Hude

    2015-04-17

    Multimorbidity is common and associated with poor clinical outcomes and high health care costs. Administrative data are a promising tool for studying the epidemiology of multimorbidity. Our goal was to derive and apply a new scheme for using administrative data to identify the presence of chronic conditions and multimorbidity. We identified validated algorithms that use ICD-9 CM/ICD-10 data to ascertain the presence or absence of 40 morbidities. Algorithms with both positive predictive value and sensitivity ≥70% were graded as "high validity"; those with positive predictive value ≥70% and sensitivity <70% were graded as "moderate validity". To show proof of concept, we applied identified algorithms with high to moderate validity to inpatient and outpatient claims and utilization data from 574,409 people residing in Edmonton, Canada during the 2008/2009 fiscal year. Of the 40 morbidities, we identified 30 that could be identified with high to moderate validity. Approximately one quarter of participants had identified multimorbidity (2 or more conditions), one quarter had a single identified morbidity and the remaining participants were not identified as having any of the 30 morbidities. We identified a panel of 30 chronic conditions that can be identified from administrative data using validated algorithms, facilitating the study and surveillance of multimorbidity. We encourage other groups to use this scheme, to facilitate comparisons between settings and jurisdictions.

  17. Identifying and correcting epigenetics measurements for systematic sources of variation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrier, Flavie; Novoloaca, Alexei; Ambatipudi, Srikant; Baglietto, Laura; Ghantous, Akram; Perduca, Vittorio; Barrdahl, Myrto; Harlid, Sophia; Ong, Ken K; Cardona, Alexia; Polidoro, Silvia; Nøst, Therese Haugdahl; Overvad, Kim; Omichessan, Hanane; Dollé, Martijn; Bamia, Christina; Huerta, José Marìa; Vineis, Paolo; Herceg, Zdenko; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro

    2018-01-01

    Methylation measures quantified by microarray techniques can be affected by systematic variation due to the technical processing of samples, which may compromise the accuracy of the measurement process and contribute to bias the estimate of the association under investigation. The quantification of

  18. Towards identifying programming expertise with the use of physiological measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogiorgos, Dimosthenis; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    In this position paper we propose means of measuring programming expertise on novice and expert programmers. Our approach is to measure the cognitive load of programmers while they assess Java/Python code in accordance with their experience in programming. Our hypothesis is that expert programmers...

  19. Identifying Children at Risk for Language Impairment or Dyslexia with Group-Administered Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Scoggins, Joanna; Brazendale, Allison; Babb, Spencer; Petscher, Yaacov

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to determine whether brief, group-administered screening measures can reliably identify second-grade children at risk for language impairment (LI) or dyslexia and to examine the degree to which parents of affected children were aware of their children's difficulties. Method: Participants (N = 381) completed screening tasks…

  20. The non-contact biometric identified bio signal measurement sensor and algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Il; Lee, Jong-Ha

    2018-04-25

    In these days, wearable devices have been developed for effectively measuring biological data. However, these devices have tissue allege and noise problem. To solve these problems, biometric measurement based on a non-contact method, such as face image sequencing is developed. This makes it possible to measure biometric data without any operation and side effects. However, it is impossible for a remote center to identify the person whose data are measured by the novel methods. In this paper, we propose the novel non-contact heart rate and blood pressure imaging system, Deep Health Eye. This system has authentication process at the same time as measuring bio signals, through non-contact method. In the future, this system can be convenient home bio signal monitoring system by combined with smart mirror.

  1. Chemiluminescence measurement of cinnamon-, curry-, red pepper- and milk powder as a method to identify ionizing radiation treatment. Die Messung der Chemilumineszenz von Zimt-, Curry-, Paprika- und Milchpulver als Nachweis einer Behandlung mit ionisierenden Strahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boegl, W; Heide, L

    1983-11-01

    The findings may be summarized as follows: significant differences in the dose response relationship of the different foodstuffs were found; the chemiluminescence intensity of different foodstuffs irradiated at equal dose levels may vary considerably; in some cases there might be evidence of radiation treatment even 2 months afterwards; after heating, the irradiated foodstuffs showed reduced chemiluminescence intensity. In some cases it is, however, possible to identify previous irradiation of a foodstuff; if irradiated foodstuffs are treated with water vapor, the radicals will react with the water so as to preclude the identification of previous irradiation; UV-irradiation will result in a drastic increase in luminescence intensity, at least in some cases and air oxidation may also increase the luminescence intensity, especially in fatty foodstuffs.

  2. Methods to Measure Map Readability

    OpenAIRE

    Harrie, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Creation of maps in real-time web services introduces challenges concerning map readability. Therefore we must introduce analytical measures controlling the readability. The aim of this study is to develop and evaluate analytical readability measures with the help of user tests.

  3. Measuring individual work performance: Identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; de Vet, H.C.W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions.

  4. Registrar wellness in Botswana: Measuring burnout and identifying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    limited settings where stressors are intensified. Burnout leads to decreased quality of life for doctors, poor job and patient satisfaction, and difficulty retaining doctors. Objectives. Primary: to measure burnout among registrars working at Princess ...

  5. Measuring individual work performance: identifying and selecting indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, L.; Bernaards, C.M.; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Vet, H.C de; Beek, A.J. van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Theoretically, individual work performance (IWP) can be divided into four dimensions: task performance, contextual performance, adaptive performance, and counterproductive work behavior. However, there is no consensus on the indicators used to measure these dimensions. OBJECTIVE: This

  6. The challenge of measuring investments and identifying investors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Hain, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    , there are several types of flaws and difficulties related to getting a statistical overview of investments in innovation in the energy sector; it is not just a matter of increasing the existing statistical efforts and precision, there are more generic difficulties. Obviously, activity indicators of energy...... innovation (cf. other chapters in this volume) are closely related to indicators of investments in energy innovation. Hence, a number of general measurement challenges, such as separating innovation and activities, apply to investment measurement as well. Furthermore, any kinds of outcome measures...... in the energy realm, and elsewhere, are by nature interdependent with investment activities. We will in this chapter focus on the challenges that are special to the investment activities and on the mapping of investors. The measurement challenges may be approached from a ‘receiver’ perspective, i...

  7. Measuring a leader's ability to identify and avert crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Brownlee-Turgeon

    2017-01-01

    Leaders often have influence over the impact of pending crises by either preventing or minimizing the crisis (Pearson and Mitroff, 1993; Bonvillian, 2013). With crisis looming just around the corner, a leader’s ability to identify, avert, and manage a crisis has become a fundamental element in organizational sustainability. Yet, most literature on crisis is focused in the field of communication or crisis management during the actual event. Wooten and James (2008) provide a conceptual model...

  8. A dissipation based method for identifying hererogeneous material properties using full-field measurements [Une approche en dissipation pour l'identification de proprié tés matériaux hétérogènes à partir de mesures de champs

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles; Florentin, É ric; Moussawi, Ali; Blaysat, Benoî t

    2012-01-01

    The full field measurement technique has become a popular technique for the quick identification of complex and/or heterogeneous-in-space material behaviors. Based on the rich available corpus of information, this technique makes possible to identify complex evolution laws using few highly heterogeneous testing. Multiple techniques have been proposed up to now. Here, we detail the application of the constitutive error relation to the identification of linear elastic material models.Then, the natural extension of the constitutive equation gap method through a dissipation gap method is discussed for the identification of material behaviors involving dissipation. 2D reference examples are provided for each method. © 2012 EDP Sciences.

  9. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, worldwide patents, news archives, and on-line mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  10. A Method to Identify Nucleolus-Associated Chromatin Domains (NADs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Marie-Christine; Picart-Picolo, Ariadna; Pontvianne, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    The nuclear context needs to be taken into consideration to better understand the mechanisms shaping the epigenome and its organization, and therefore its impact on gene expression. For example, in Arabidopsis, heterochromatin is preferentially localized at the nuclear and the nucleolar periphery. Although chromatin domains associating with the nuclear periphery remain to be identified in plant cells, Nucleolus Associated chromatin Domains (NADs) can be identified thanks to a protocol allowing the isolation of pure nucleoli. We describe here the protocol enabling the identification of NADs in Arabidopsis. Providing the transfer of a nucleolus marker as described here in other crop species, this protocol is broadly applicable.

  11. Method for identifying type I diabetes mellitus in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Thomas O [Kennewick, WA; Qian, Weijun [Richland, WA; Jacobs, Jon M [Pasco, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2011-04-12

    A method and system for classifying subject populations utilizing predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for type I diabetes mellitus. The method including determining the levels of a variety of markers within the serum or plasma of a target organism and correlating this level to general populations as a screen for predisposition or progressive monitoring of disease presence or predisposition.

  12. Low level TOC measurement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2001-01-01

    A method for the determination of total organic carbon in an aqueous sample by trapping the organic matter on a sorbent which is carbon free and analyzing the sorbent by combustion and determination of total CO.sub.2 by IR.

  13. Automated Methods of Corrosion Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Enevold Thaulov

    1997-01-01

    . Mechanical control, recording, and data processing must therefore be automated to a high level of precision and reliability. These general techniques and the apparatus involved have been described extensively. The automated methods of such high-resolution microscopy coordinated with computerized...

  14. Researchers Develop Method to Identify Sparticles in Big Bang Conditions

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Three Northeastern University researchers have proposed a new approach for the highly anticipated discovery of supersymmetric particles, often called sparticles. The methodology, which was published in the December 21 issue of the Physical Review Letters, is based on identifying the hierarchical mass patterns of sparticles, which are assumed to exist in a new class of particle physics theories beyond the Standard Model.

  15. Optimization method for identifying the source term in an inverse wave equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Deiveegan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate the inverse problem of identifying a space-wise dependent source term of wave equation from the measurement on the boundary. On the basis of the optimal control framework, the inverse problem is transformed into an optimization problem. The existence and necessary condition of the minimizer for the cost functional are obtained. The projected gradient method and two-parameter model function method are applied to the minimization problem and numerical results are illustrated.

  16. Identifying Reflectors in Seismic Images via Statistic and Syntactic Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Perez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In geologic interpretation of seismic reflection data, accurate identification of reflectors is the foremost step to ensure proper subsurface structural definition. Reflector information, along with other data sets, is a key factor to predict the presence of hydrocarbons. In this work, mathematic and pattern recognition theory was adapted to design two statistical and two syntactic algorithms which constitute a tool in semiautomatic reflector identification. The interpretive power of these four schemes was evaluated in terms of prediction accuracy and computational speed. Among these, the semblance method was confirmed to render the greatest accuracy and speed. Syntactic methods offer an interesting alternative due to their inherently structural search method.

  17. A new method for identifying the types of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Chunhan; Li Guodong

    1991-01-01

    A new method for dividing the types of organic matter according to V and Ni contents in soluble organic matter determined by NAA is introduced. The research site was an oil-gas field in northeastern China. The type of organic matter is an important parameter in evaluating an oil or a gas field. The conventional organic geochemistry methods will meet unsurmountable difficulties when the maturity of organic matter is high. The method described in this paper can solve the problem. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  18. The reflection seismology measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprecher, C.

    1987-01-01

    Even though data acquisition and data processing procedures have become more and more complex in recent decades, the end products of a reflection seismic survey have remained simple and illustrative. A seismic section resembles a geological cross-section and can be interpreted without in-depth knowledge provided that the basic principles behind the method are understood. This article attempts to convey some insight into the methodology without claiming to be scientifically exact or complete. (author)

  19. Method of detecting genetic deletions identified with chromosomal abnormalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe W; Pinkel, Daniel; Tkachuk, Douglas

    2013-11-26

    Methods and compositions for staining based upon nucleic acid sequence that employ nucleic acid probes are provided. Said methods produce staining patterns that can be tailored for specific cytogenetic analyzes. Said probes are appropriate for in situ hybridization and stain both interphase and metaphase chromosomal material with reliable signals. The nucleic acids probes are typically of a complexity greater tha 50 kb, the complexity depending upon the cytogenetic application. Methods and reagents are provided for the detection of genetic rearrangements. Probes and test kits are provided for use in detecting genetic rearrangements, particlularly for use in tumor cytogenetics, in the detection of disease related loci, specifically cancer, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and for biological dosimetry. Methods and reagents are described for cytogenetic research, for the differentiation of cytogenetically similar ut genetically different diseases, and for many prognostic and diagnostic applications.

  20. Measuring methods of matrix diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muurinen, A.; Valkiainen, M.

    1988-03-01

    In Finland the spent nuclear fuel is planned to be disposed of at large depths in crystalline bedrock. The radionuclides which are dissolved in the groundwater may be able to diffuse into the micropores of the porous rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the flowing water in the fractures. This phenomenon is called matrix diffusion. A review over matrix diffusion is presented in the study. The main interest is directed to the diffusion of non-sorbing species. The review covers diffusion experiments and measurements of porosity, pore size, specific surface area and water permeability

  1. Spectroscopy methods for identifying the country of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hondrogiannis, Ellen; Ehrlinger, Erin; Miziolek, Andrzej W.

    2013-05-01

    There is a need in many industries and government functions to identify the source of origin for various materials. For example, the food industry needs to ensure that the claimed source of some of the food products (e.g. coffee, spices) are in fact legitimate due to the variation of quality from different source locations world-wide. Another example is to identify the source country for imported commodities going through Customs so as to assess the correct tariff which varies depending on the source country. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) holds promise for being a field-portable tool for rapid identification of the country of origin of various materials. Recent research at Towson University has identified the elemental markers needed for discrimination of select spices back to their country of origin using wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF). The WDXRF device, however, is not particularly suitable for convenient and fast field analysis. We are extending this study to evaluate the potential of a benchtop commercial LIBS device that could be located at ports of entry and to compare its performance with WDXRF. Our initial study on the spice cumin has demonstrated that discriminant function models can not only be created with 100% separation between the 4 countries of origin (China, India, Syria, and Turkey), but also when tested they show 100% correct matching to the country of origin. This study adds to the growing number of publications that indicate the power of LIBS elemental fingerprinting for provenance determinations.

  2. Particle measurement systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Paul T [Livermore, CA

    2011-10-04

    A system according to one embodiment includes a light source for generating light fringes; a sampling mechanism for directing a particle through the light fringes; and at least one light detector for detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes. A method according to one embodiment includes generating light fringes using a light source; directing a particle through the light fringes; and detecting light scattered by the particle as the particle passes through the light fringes using at least one light detector.

  3. Progeny Clustering: A Method to Identify Biological Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chenyue W.; Kornblau, Steven M.; Slater, John H.; Qutub, Amina A.

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the optimal number of clusters is a major challenge in applying cluster analysis to any type of dataset, especially to biomedical datasets, which are high-dimensional and complex. Here, we introduce an improved method, Progeny Clustering, which is stability-based and exceptionally efficient in computing, to find the ideal number of clusters. The algorithm employs a novel Progeny Sampling method to reconstruct cluster identity, a co-occurrence probability matrix to assess the clustering stability, and a set of reference datasets to overcome inherent biases in the algorithm and data space. Our method was shown successful and robust when applied to two synthetic datasets (datasets of two-dimensions and ten-dimensions containing eight dimensions of pure noise), two standard biological datasets (the Iris dataset and Rat CNS dataset) and two biological datasets (a cell phenotype dataset and an acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reverse phase protein array (RPPA) dataset). Progeny Clustering outperformed some popular clustering evaluation methods in the ten-dimensional synthetic dataset as well as in the cell phenotype dataset, and it was the only method that successfully discovered clinically meaningful patient groupings in the AML RPPA dataset. PMID:26267476

  4. Methods for measurement of durability parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included.......Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included....

  5. Methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyyssola, A.; Heshof, R.; Haarmann, T.; Eidner, J.; Westerholm-Parvinen, A.; Langfelder, K.; Kruus, K.; Graaff, de L.H.; Buchert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. Both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. A positive result was also achieved using the beta-carotene bleaching

  6. A sibling method for identifying vQTLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Dalton; Johnson, Rebecca; Domingue, Ben; Dawes, Christopher; Boardman, Jason; Siegal, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The propensity of a trait to vary within a population may have evolutionary, ecological, or clinical significance. In the present study we deploy sibling models to offer a novel and unbiased way to ascertain loci associated with the extent to which phenotypes vary (variance-controlling quantitative trait loci, or vQTLs). Previous methods for vQTL-mapping either exclude genetically related individuals or treat genetic relatedness among individuals as a complicating factor addressed by adjusting estimates for non-independence in phenotypes. The present method uses genetic relatedness as a tool to obtain unbiased estimates of variance effects rather than as a nuisance. The family-based approach, which utilizes random variation between siblings in minor allele counts at a locus, also allows controls for parental genotype, mean effects, and non-linear (dominance) effects that may spuriously appear to generate variation. Simulations show that the approach performs equally well as two existing methods (squared Z-score and DGLM) in controlling type I error rates when there is no unobserved confounding, and performs significantly better than these methods in the presence of small degrees of confounding. Using height and BMI as empirical applications, we investigate SNPs that alter within-family variation in height and BMI, as well as pathways that appear to be enriched. One significant SNP for BMI variability, in the MAST4 gene, replicated. Pathway analysis revealed one gene set, encoding members of several signaling pathways related to gap junction function, which appears significantly enriched for associations with within-family height variation in both datasets (while not enriched in analysis of mean levels). We recommend approximating laboratory random assignment of genotype using family data and more careful attention to the possible conflation of mean and variance effects.

  7. A sibling method for identifying vQTLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingue, Ben; Dawes, Christopher; Boardman, Jason; Siegal, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The propensity of a trait to vary within a population may have evolutionary, ecological, or clinical significance. In the present study we deploy sibling models to offer a novel and unbiased way to ascertain loci associated with the extent to which phenotypes vary (variance-controlling quantitative trait loci, or vQTLs). Previous methods for vQTL-mapping either exclude genetically related individuals or treat genetic relatedness among individuals as a complicating factor addressed by adjusting estimates for non-independence in phenotypes. The present method uses genetic relatedness as a tool to obtain unbiased estimates of variance effects rather than as a nuisance. The family-based approach, which utilizes random variation between siblings in minor allele counts at a locus, also allows controls for parental genotype, mean effects, and non-linear (dominance) effects that may spuriously appear to generate variation. Simulations show that the approach performs equally well as two existing methods (squared Z-score and DGLM) in controlling type I error rates when there is no unobserved confounding, and performs significantly better than these methods in the presence of small degrees of confounding. Using height and BMI as empirical applications, we investigate SNPs that alter within-family variation in height and BMI, as well as pathways that appear to be enriched. One significant SNP for BMI variability, in the MAST4 gene, replicated. Pathway analysis revealed one gene set, encoding members of several signaling pathways related to gap junction function, which appears significantly enriched for associations with within-family height variation in both datasets (while not enriched in analysis of mean levels). We recommend approximating laboratory random assignment of genotype using family data and more careful attention to the possible conflation of mean and variance effects. PMID:29617452

  8. Betweenness-Based Method to Identify Critical Transmission Sectors for Supply Chain Environmental Pressure Mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Xu, Ming

    2016-02-02

    To develop industry-specific policies for mitigating environmental pressures, previous studies primarily focus on identifying sectors that directly generate large amounts of environmental pressures (a.k.a. production-based method) or indirectly drive large amounts of environmental pressures through supply chains (e.g., consumption-based method). In addition to those sectors as important environmental pressure producers or drivers, there exist sectors that are also important to environmental pressure mitigation as transmission centers. Economy-wide environmental pressure mitigation might be achieved by improving production efficiency of these key transmission sectors, that is, using less upstream inputs to produce unitary output. We develop a betweenness-based method to measure the importance of transmission sectors, borrowing the betweenness concept from network analysis. We quantify the betweenness of sectors by examining supply chain paths extracted from structural path analysis that pass through a particular sector. We take China as an example and find that those critical transmission sectors identified by betweenness-based method are not always identifiable by existing methods. This indicates that betweenness-based method can provide additional insights that cannot be obtained with existing methods on the roles individual sectors play in generating economy-wide environmental pressures. Betweenness-based method proposed here can therefore complement existing methods for guiding sector-level environmental pressure mitigation strategies.

  9. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  10. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  11. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Johanna M; Boehringer, Daniel; Deissler, Heidrun L; Faerber, Lothar; Goepfert, Jens C; Heiduschka, Peter; Kleeberger, Susannah M; Klettner, Alexa; Krohne, Tim U; Schneiderhan-Marra, Nicole; Ziemssen, Focke; Stahl, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements. Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center) twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD), cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal), type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle), time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes) and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array). Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model. The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes. VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  12. A Method to Identify Flight Obstacles on Digital Surface Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Min; LIN Xinggang; SUN Shouyu; WANG Youzhi

    2005-01-01

    In modern low-altitude terrain-following guidance, a constructing method of the digital surface model (DSM) is presented in the paper to reduce the threat to flying vehicles of tall surface features for safe flight. The relationship between an isolated obstacle size and the intervals of vertical- and cross-section in the DSM model is established. The definition and classification of isolated obstacles are proposed, and a method for determining such isolated obstacles in the DSM model is given. The simulation of a typical urban district shows that when the vertical- and cross-section DSM intervals are between 3 m and 25 m, the threat to terrain-following flight at low-altitude is reduced greatly, and the amount of data required by the DSM model for monitoring in real time a flying vehicle is also smaller. Experiments show that the optimal results are for an interval of 12.5 m in the vertical- and cross-sections in the DSM model, with a 1:10 000 DSM scale grade.

  13. Methods and systems for identifying ligand-protein binding sites

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2016-05-06

    The invention provides a novel integrated structure and system-based approach for drug target prediction that enables the large-scale discovery of new targets for existing drugs Novel computer-readable storage media and computer systems are also provided. Methods and systems of the invention use novel sequence order-independent structure alignment, hierarchical clustering, and probabilistic sequence similarity techniques to construct a probabilistic pocket ensemble (PPE) that captures even promiscuous structural features of different binding sites for a drug on known targets. The drug\\'s PPE is combined with an approximation of the drug delivery profile to facilitate large-scale prediction of novel drug- protein interactions with several applications to biological research and drug development.

  14. How to measure comorbidity. a critical review of available methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V.; Beckerman, H.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bouter, L.M.

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  15. How to measure comorbidity. A critical review of available methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, V; Beckerman, H; Lankhorst, G J; Bouter, L M

    2003-01-01

    The object of this article was to systematically review available methods to measure comorbidity and to assess their validity and reliability. A search was made in Medline and Embase, with the keywords comorbidity and multi-morbidity, to identify articles in which a method to measure comorbidity was

  16. Methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits of transportation research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, Louw

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide updated information by identifying and discussing methods, measures and indicators for evaluating benefits appropriate for transportation-related research facilities/programmes. The information has been...

  17. Natural experimentation is a challenging method for identifying headache triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Timothy T; Turner, Dana P

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we set out to determine whether individual headache sufferers can learn about the potency of their headache triggers (causes) using only natural experimentation. Headache patients naturally use the covariation of the presence-absence of triggers with headache attacks to assess the potency of triggers. The validity of this natural experimentation has never been investigated. A companion study has proposed 3 assumptions that are important for assigning causal status to triggers. This manuscript examines one of these assumptions, constancy in trigger presentation, using real-world conditions. The similarity of day-to-day weather conditions over 4 years, as well as the similarity of ovarian hormones and perceived stress over a median of 89 days in 9 regularly cycling headache sufferers, was examined using several available time series. An arbitrary threshold of 90% similarity using Gower's index identified similar days for comparison. The day-to-day variability in just these 3 headache triggers is substantial enough that finding 2 naturally similar days for which to contrast the effect of a fourth trigger (eg, drinking wine vs not drinking wine) will only infrequently occur. Fluctuations in weather patterns resulted in a median of 2.3 days each year that were similar (range 0-27.4). Considering fluctuations in stress patterns and ovarian hormones, only 1.5 days/month (95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) and 2.0 days/month (95% confidence interval 1.9-2.2), respectively, met our threshold for similarity. Although assessing the personal causes of headache is an age-old endeavor, the great many candidate triggers exhibit variability that may prevent sound conclusions without assistance from formal experimentation or statistical balancing. © 2013 American Headache Society.

  18. Novel Methods for Measuring LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrey, E.; Hayes, D. J.; Fraver, S.; Weiskittel, A.; Cook, B.; Kershaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of forest biometrics from airborne LiDAR data has become invaluable for quantifying forest carbon stocks, forest and wildlife ecology research, and sustainable forest management. The area-based approach is arguably the most common method for developing enhanced forest inventories from LiDAR. It involves taking a series of vertical height measurements of the point cloud, then using those measurements with field measured data to develop predictive models. Unfortunately, there is considerable variation in methodology for collecting point cloud data, which can vary in pulse density, seasonality, canopy penetrability, and instrument specifications. Today there exists a wealth of public LiDAR data, however the variation in acquisition parameters makes forest inventory prediction by traditional means unreliable across the different datasets. The goal of this project is to test a series of novel point cloud measurements developed along a conceptual spectrum of human interpretability, and then to use the best measurements to develop regional enhanced forest inventories on Northern New England's and Atlantic Canada's public LiDAR. Similarly to a field-based inventory, individual tree crowns are being segmented, and summary statistics are being used as covariates. Established competition and structural indices are being generated using each tree's relationship to one another, whilst existing allometric equations are being used to estimate diameter and biomass of each tree measured in the LiDAR. Novel metrics measuring light interception, clusteredness, and rugosity are also being measured as predictors. On the other end of the human interpretability spectrum, convolutional neural networks are being employed to directly measure both the canopy height model, and the point clouds by scanning each using two and three dimensional kernals trained to identify features useful for predicting biological attributes such as biomass. Predictive models will be trained and

  19. Emittance measurements by variable quadrupole method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toprek, D.

    2005-01-01

    The beam emittance is a measure of both the beam size and beam divergence, we cannot directly measure its value. If the beam size is measured at different locations or under different focusing conditions such that different parts of the phase space ellipse will be probed by the beam size monitor, the beam emittance can be determined. An emittance measurement can be performed by different methods. Here we will consider the varying quadrupole setting method.

  20. Seven methods to measure ground moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The correct irrigation methods are of great importance to the deciduous fruit grower. The article discusses seven methods for the measuring of ground humidity. These methods are based on gravimetry, electric resistance, gamma attenuation, neutron humidity measurement, tensiometers and a study of the correlation between ground humidity and water evaporation. At this stage, the last technique is regarded as the most practicle method. Neutron moisture gages might be used if adhered to the regulations of NUCOR

  1. A simple field method to identify foot strike pattern during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giandolini, Marlène; Poupard, Thibaut; Gimenez, Philippe; Horvais, Nicolas; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Samozino, Pierre

    2014-05-07

    Identifying foot strike patterns in running is an important issue for sport clinicians, coaches and footwear industrials. Current methods allow the monitoring of either many steps in laboratory conditions or only a few steps in the field. Because measuring running biomechanics during actual practice is critical, our purpose is to validate a method aiming at identifying foot strike patterns during continuous field measurements. Based on heel and metatarsal accelerations, this method requires two uniaxial accelerometers. The time between heel and metatarsal acceleration peaks (THM) was compared to the foot strike angle in the sagittal plane (αfoot) obtained by 2D video analysis for various conditions of speed, slope, footwear, foot strike and state of fatigue. Acceleration and kinematic measurements were performed at 1000Hz and 120Hz, respectively, during 2-min treadmill running bouts. Significant correlations were observed between THM and αfoot for 14 out of 15 conditions. The overall correlation coefficient was r=0.916 (Pstrike except for extreme forefoot strike during which the heel rarely or never strikes the ground, and for different footwears and states of fatigue. We proposed a classification based on THM: FFS<-5.49msmethod, it is reliable for distinguishing rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers in situ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Handbook of nuclear safeguards measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, D.R.

    1983-09-01

    This handbook is intended to be a guide to the selection of methods for meeting specific measurement requirements. The information was compiled from a survey of production facilities, the literature, and current exchange programs. The survey included bulk measurements, chemical assay, sampling techniques, isotopic measurements, passive NDA, and active NDA

  3. Measuring method for optical fibre sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A new measuring method for the signal amplitude in intensity modulating fibre optic sensors is described. A reference signal is generated in the time domain. The method is insensitive for the sensitivity fluctuations of the light transmitter and the light receiver. The method is experimentally

  4. Comparison of methods to identify crop productivity constraints in developing countries. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijvanger, R.G.M.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Veldkamp, T.

    2015-01-01

    Selecting a method for identifying actual crop productivity constraints is an important step for triggering innovation processes. Applied methods can be diverse and although such methods have consequences for the design of intervention strategies, documented comparisons between various methods are

  5. Iterative Outlier Removal: A Method for Identifying Outliers in Laboratory Recalibration Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Couper, David; Wruck, Lisa M; Li, Danni; Eckfeldt, John H; Selvin, Elizabeth; Coresh, Josef

    2016-07-01

    Extreme values that arise for any reason, including those through nonlaboratory measurement procedure-related processes (inadequate mixing, evaporation, mislabeling), lead to outliers and inflate errors in recalibration studies. We present an approach termed iterative outlier removal (IOR) for identifying such outliers. We previously identified substantial laboratory drift in uric acid measurements in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study over time. Serum uric acid was originally measured in 1990-1992 on a Coulter DACOS instrument using an uricase-based measurement procedure. To recalibrate previous measured concentrations to a newer enzymatic colorimetric measurement procedure, uric acid was remeasured in 200 participants from stored plasma in 2011-2013 on a Beckman Olympus 480 autoanalyzer. To conduct IOR, we excluded data points >3 SDs from the mean difference. We continued this process using the resulting data until no outliers remained. IOR detected more outliers and yielded greater precision in simulation. The original mean difference (SD) in uric acid was 1.25 (0.62) mg/dL. After 4 iterations, 9 outliers were excluded, and the mean difference (SD) was 1.23 (0.45) mg/dL. Conducting only one round of outlier removal (standard approach) would have excluded 4 outliers [mean difference (SD) = 1.22 (0.51) mg/dL]. Applying the recalibration (derived from Deming regression) from each approach to the original measurements, the prevalence of hyperuricemia (>7 mg/dL) was 28.5% before IOR and 8.5% after IOR. IOR is a useful method for removal of extreme outliers irrelevant to recalibrating laboratory measurements, and identifies more extraneous outliers than the standard approach. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  6. Methods of measuring residual stresses in components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, N.S.; Dassisti, M.; Benyounis, K.Y.; Olabi, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Defining the different methods of measuring residual stresses in manufactured components. ► Comprehensive study on the hole drilling, neutron diffraction and other techniques. ► Evaluating advantage and disadvantage of each method. ► Advising the reader with the appropriate method to use. -- Abstract: Residual stresses occur in many manufactured structures and components. Large number of investigations have been carried out to study this phenomenon and its effect on the mechanical characteristics of these components. Over the years, different methods have been developed to measure residual stress for different types of components in order to obtain reliable assessment. The various specific methods have evolved over several decades and their practical applications have greatly benefited from the development of complementary technologies, notably in material cutting, full-field deformation measurement techniques, numerical methods and computing power. These complementary technologies have stimulated advances not only in measurement accuracy and reliability, but also in range of application; much greater detail in residual stresses measurement is now available. This paper aims to classify the different residual stresses measurement methods and to provide an overview of some of the recent advances in this area to help researchers on selecting their techniques among destructive, semi destructive and non-destructive techniques depends on their application and the availabilities of those techniques. For each method scope, physical limitation, advantages and disadvantages are summarized. In the end this paper indicates some promising directions for future developments.

  7. Measuring methods for the TFR plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etievant, C.

    1975-02-01

    The measuring methods in operation or still under development for the diagnostics of the TFR plasma parameters (ion and electron temperatures, electron density, current density are reviewed, the diagnostics of the electrical behavior of the discharge, the neutral gas densities, the impurities and the parameters of the plasma turbulence being also investigated. Actual works are principally devoted to: improving ion temperature measurements by the possible use of the Doppler effect or infra-red incoherent scattering; improving n(e) and T(e) measurement by Thomson scattering; measuring the poloidal field and current density; measuring impurities by X and UV spectroscopy and measuring instabilities and turbulence [fr

  8. Photogrammetric methods of measurement in industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godding, R.; Groene, A.; Heinrich, G.; Schneider, C.T.

    1993-01-01

    Methods for 3D measurement are required for very varied applications in the industrial field. This includes tasks of quality assurance and plant monitoring, among others. It should be possible to apply the process flexibly it should require as short interruptions of production as possible and should meet the required accuracies. These requirements can be met by photogrammetric methods of measurement. The article introduces these methods and shows their capabilities from various selected examples (eg: the replacement of large components in a pressurized water reactor, and aircraft measurements (orig./DG) [de

  9. Residual gravimetric method to measure nebulizer output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecellio None, Laurent; Grimbert, Daniel; Bordenave, Joelle; Benoit, Guy; Furet, Yves; Fauroux, Brigitte; Boissinot, Eric; De Monte, Michele; Lemarié, Etienne; Diot, Patrice

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a residual gravimetric method based on weighing dry filters to measure the aerosol output of nebulizers. This residual gravimetric method was compared to assay methods based on spectrophotometric measurement of terbutaline (Bricanyl, Astra Zeneca, France), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) measurement of tobramycin (Tobi, Chiron, U.S.A.), and electrochemical measurements of NaF (as defined by the European standard). Two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers, one standard jet nebulizer, and one ultrasonic nebulizer were tested. Output produced by the residual gravimetric method was calculated by weighing the filters both before and after aerosol collection and by filter drying corrected by the proportion of drug contained in total solute mass. Output produced by the electrochemical, spectrophotometric, and HPLC methods was determined after assaying the drug extraction filter. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between the residual gravimetric method (x axis) and assay methods (y axis) in terms of drug mass output (y = 1.00 x -0.02, r(2) = 0.99, n = 27). We conclude that a residual gravimetric method based on dry filters, when validated for a particular agent, is an accurate way of measuring aerosol output.

  10. Measurement methods for several properties of scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fengqun; Ji Changsong

    1998-01-01

    The current paper describes the experimental measurement methods for the relative light output, the relative energy conversion efficiency, the intrinsic amplitude resolution and the detection efficiency of the scintillators and their temperature effects

  11. Absolute measurement method of environment radon content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong

    1989-11-01

    A portable environment radon content device with a 40 liter decay chamber based on the method of Thomas double filter radon content absolute measurement has been developed. The correctness of the method of Thomas double filter absolute measurement has been verified by the experiments to measure the sampling gas density of radon that the theoretical density has been known. In addition, the intrinsic uncertainty of this method is also determined in the experiments. The confidence of this device is about 95%, the sensitivity is better than 0.37 Bqm -3 and the intrinsic uncertainty is less than 10%. The results show that the selected measuring and structure parameters are reasonable and the experimental methods are acceptable. In this method, the influence on the measured values from the radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters, the ratio of combination daughters to the total daughters and the fraction of charged particles has been excluded in the theory and experimental methods. The formula of Thomas double filter absolute measuring radon is applicable to the cylinder decay chamber, and the applicability is also verified when the diameter of exit filter is much smaller than the diameter of inlet filter

  12. Noise thermometry - a new temperature measuring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Rittinghaus, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal Johnson-Niquist noise is the basis of noise thermometry. This temperature measuring method is, e.g., of interest insofar as the noise thermometer gives absolute values as a primary thermometer and is in principle extensively independent of environmental influences and material properties. The resistance values of the measuring probe are about 10 Ohm to a few kOhm. The demands of electronics are high, the self-noise of the measuring apparatus must be as small as possible; a comparative measuring method is advantageous. 1 to 2,500 K are given as a possible temperature range. An accuracy of 0.1% could be achieved in laboratory measurements. Temperature measurements to be used in operation in a few nuclear reactors are mentioned. (HP/LH) [de

  13. A new method to measure vaginal sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; Laan, E.; Vaart, C. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginal surgery may affect sexual function both positively and negatively. Possibly, negative consequences of surgical interventions on sexuality may be caused by reduced sensibility of the vaginal wall. To develop a new method to measure vaginal sensibility. We developed a technique to measure the

  14. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  15. Improved method of measurement for outer leak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Guang

    2012-01-01

    Pneumatic pipeline is installed for the airborne radioactivity measurement equipment, air tightness and outer leak rate are essential for the testing of the characteristics, both in the national criteria and ISO standards, an improved practical method is available for the measurement of the outer air leak rate based on the engineering experiences for the equipment acceptance and testing procedure. (authors)

  16. A New Method to Measure Vaginal Sensibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakeman, M. M. E.; Laan, E.; Vaart, C. H.; Roovers, J. P.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Vaginal surgery may affect sexual function both positively and negatively. Possibly, negative consequences of surgical interventions on sexuality may be caused by reduced sensibility of the vaginal wall. Aims: To develop a new method to measure vaginal sensibility. Methods: We

  17. Torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skab, I.; Smaga, I.; Savaryn, V.; Vasylkiv, Yu.; Vlokh, R. [Institute of Physical Optics, Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-01-15

    We develop and describe analytically a torsion method for measuring piezooptic coefficients associated with shear stresses. It is shown that the method enables to increase significantly the accuracy of determination of piezooptic coefficients. The method and the appropriate apparatus are verified experimentally on the example of LiNbO{sub 3} crystals. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Methods of radon measurement and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miles, J.

    2004-01-01

    The following topics and instrumentation are discussed: The quantity to be measured; Active measurement methods (scintillation cells, ionisation chambers, electrostatic collection of decay products); Passive measurement methods (charcoal detectors; electret ion chambers; etched track detectors); and Detector considerations for large-scale surveys ('always on' or 'switchable' detectors?; response to radon-220; avoidance of electrostatic effects; quality assurance for passive radon detectors; quality control within the laboratory; external quality assurance; detectors need to be easily deliverable). It is concluded that the ideal detector for large scale surveys of radon in houses is a small, closed detector in a conducting holder which excludes radon-220, supported by rigorous quality assurance procedures. (P.A.)

  19. Absolute method of measuring magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A.; Senftle, F.E.

    1959-01-01

    An absolute method of standardization and measurement of the magnetic susceptibility of small samples is presented which can be applied to most techniques based on the Faraday method. The fact that the susceptibility is a function of the area under the curve of sample displacement versus distance of the magnet from the sample, offers a simple method of measuring the susceptibility without recourse to a standard sample. Typical results on a few substances are compared with reported values, and an error of less than 2% can be achieved. ?? 1959 The American Institute of Physics.

  20. Method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Sun, Changku; Wang, Peng; Yang, Qian; Liu, Xintong

    2018-01-01

    In order to meet the aviation's and machinery manufacturing's pose measurement need of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range, and to resolve the contradiction between measurement range and resolution of vision sensor, this paper proposes an orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement method. This paper designs and realizes an orthogonally splitting imaging vision sensor and establishes a pose measurement system. The vision sensor consists of one imaging lens, a beam splitter prism, cylindrical lenses and dual linear CCD. Dual linear CCD respectively acquire one dimensional image coordinate data of the target point, and two data can restore the two dimensional image coordinates of the target point. According to the characteristics of imaging system, this paper establishes the nonlinear distortion model to correct distortion. Based on cross ratio invariability, polynomial equation is established and solved by the least square fitting method. After completing distortion correction, this paper establishes the measurement mathematical model of vision sensor, and determines intrinsic parameters to calibrate. An array of feature points for calibration is built by placing a planar target in any different positions for a few times. An terative optimization method is presented to solve the parameters of model. The experimental results show that the field angle is 52 °, the focus distance is 27.40 mm, image resolution is 5185×5117 pixels, displacement measurement error is less than 0.1mm, and rotation angle measurement error is less than 0.15°. The method of orthogonally splitting imaging pose measurement can satisfy the pose measurement requirement of high precision, fast speed and wide measurement range.

  1. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  2. Track detection methods of radium measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somogyi, G.

    1986-06-01

    The principles of tack formation and processing including the description of etching and etch-track evaluation for the preferably used plastic track detectors are discussed. Measuring methods to determine 226 Ra activity based either on the mapping of alpha-decaying elements in the complete U-Ra series by alpha-radiography, or on the measurement of uranium alone by neutron induced fissionography, or on the alpha-decay measurement of 222 Rn, the first daughter element of radium, and finally on the measurement of alpha-tracks originating from radium itself, which is separated from its parent nuclides are described in detail. (V.N.)

  3. Citation searches are more sensitive than keyword searches to identify studies using specific measurement instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Pratt, Gregory F; Saraykar, Smita S; Volk, Robert J

    2015-04-01

    To compare the effectiveness of two search methods in identifying studies that used the Control Preferences Scale (CPS), a health care decision-making instrument commonly used in clinical settings. We searched the literature using two methods: (1) keyword searching using variations of "Control Preferences Scale" and (2) cited reference searching using two seminal CPS publications. We searched three bibliographic databases [PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS)] and one full-text database (Google Scholar). We report precision and sensitivity as measures of effectiveness. Keyword searches in bibliographic databases yielded high average precision (90%) but low average sensitivity (16%). PubMed was the most precise, followed closely by Scopus and WOS. The Google Scholar keyword search had low precision (54%) but provided the highest sensitivity (70%). Cited reference searches in all databases yielded moderate sensitivity (45-54%), but precision ranged from 35% to 75% with Scopus being the most precise. Cited reference searches were more sensitive than keyword searches, making it a more comprehensive strategy to identify all studies that use a particular instrument. Keyword searches provide a quick way of finding some but not all relevant articles. Goals, time, and resources should dictate the combination of which methods and databases are used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical learning modeling method for space debris photometric measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenjing; Sun, Jinqiu; Zhang, Yanning; Li, Haisen

    2016-03-01

    Photometric measurement is an important way to identify the space debris, but the present methods of photometric measurement have many constraints on star image and need complex image processing. Aiming at the problems, a statistical learning modeling method for space debris photometric measurement is proposed based on the global consistency of the star image, and the statistical information of star images is used to eliminate the measurement noises. First, the known stars on the star image are divided into training stars and testing stars. Then, the training stars are selected as the least squares fitting parameters to construct the photometric measurement model, and the testing stars are used to calculate the measurement accuracy of the photometric measurement model. Experimental results show that, the accuracy of the proposed photometric measurement model is about 0.1 magnitudes.

  5. Methods of viscosity measurements in sealed ampoules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin

    1999-07-01

    Viscosity of semiconductors and metallic melts is usually measured by oscillating cup method. This method utilizes the melts contained in vacuum sealed silica ampoules, thus the problems related to volatility, contamination, and high temperature and pressure can be alleviate. In a typical design, the time required for a single measurement is of the order of one hour. In order to reduce this time to a minute range, a high resolution angular detection system is implemented in our design of the viscometer. Furthermore, an electromagnet generating a rotational magnetic field (RMF) is incorporated into the apparatus. This magnetic field can be used to remotely and nonintrusively measure the electrical conductivity of the melt. It can also be used to induce a well controlled rotational flow in the system. The transient behavior of this flow can potentially yield of the fluid. Based on RMF implementation, two novel viscometry methods are proposed in this work: a) the transient torque method, b) the resonance method. A unified theoretical approach to the three methods is presented along with the initial test result of the constructed apparatus. Advantages of each of the method are discussed.

  6. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  7. Methods and Devices used to Measure Friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeswiet, Jack; Arentoft, Mogens; Henningsen, Poul

    2004-01-01

    . To gain a good understanding of the mechanisms at the interface and to be able to verify the friction and tribology models that exist, friction sensors are needed. Designing sensors to measure friction-stress in metal working has been pursued by many researchers. This paper surveys methods, which have...... been tried in the past and discusses some of the recent sensor designs, which can now be used to measure Friction in both production situations and for research purposes....

  8. Three methods to measure RH bond energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkowitz, J.; Ellison, G.B.; Gutman, D.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors compare and contrast three powerful methods for experimentally measuring bond energies in polyatomic molecules. The methods are: radical kinetics; gas phase acidity cycles; and photoionization mass spectroscopy. The knowledge of the values of bond energies are a basic piece of information to a chemist. Chemical reactions involve the making and breaking of chemical bonds. It has been shown that comparable bonds in polyatomic molecules, compared to the same bonds in radicals, can be significantly different. These bond energies can be measured in terms of bond dissociation energies

  9. Methods for identifying surgical wound infection after discharge from hospital: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moore Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wound infections are a common complication of surgery that add significantly to the morbidity of patients and costs of treatment. The global trend towards reducing length of hospital stay post-surgery and the increase in day case surgery means that surgical site infections (SSI will increasingly occur after hospital discharge. Surveillance of SSIs is important because rates of SSI are viewed as a measure of hospital performance, however accurate detection of SSIs post-hospital discharge is not straightforward. Methods We conducted a systematic review of methods of post discharge surveillance for surgical wound infection and undertook a national audit of methods of post-discharge surveillance for surgical site infection currently used within United Kingdom NHS Trusts. Results Seven reports of six comparative studies which examined the validity of post-discharge surveillance methods were located; these involved different comparisons and some had methodological limitations, making it difficult to identify an optimal method. Several studies evaluated automated screening of electronic records and found this to be a useful strategy for the identification of SSIs that occurred post discharge. The audit identified a wide range of relevant post-discharge surveillance programmes in England, Scotland and Wales and Northern Ireland; however, these programmes used varying approaches for which there is little supporting evidence of validity and/or reliability. Conclusion In order to establish robust methods of surveillance for those surgical site infections that occur post discharge, there is a need to develop a method of case ascertainment that is valid and reliable post discharge. Existing research has not identified a valid and reliable method. A standardised definition of wound infection (e.g. that of the Centres for Disease Control should be used as a basis for developing a feasible, valid and reliable approach to defining post

  10. Ratio method of measuring W boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This dissertation describes an alternative method of measuring the W boson mass in DØ experiment. Instead of extracting MW from the fitting of W → ev fast Monte Carlo simulations to W → ev data as in the standard method, we make the direct fit of transverse mass between W → ev data and Z → ee data. One of the two electrons from Z boson is treated as a neutrino in the calculation of transverse mass. In ratio method, the best fitted scale factor corresponds to the ratio of W and Z boson mass (MW/MZ). Given the precisely measured Z boson mass, W mass is directly fitted from W → ev and Z → ee data. This dissertation demonstrates that ratio method is a plausible method of measuring the W boson mass. With the 1 fb-1 DØ Run IIa dataset, ratio method gives MW = 80435 ± 43(stat) ± 26(sys) MeV.

  11. Method of superconducting joint and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo Gon; Lee, Ho Jin; Hong, Gye Won

    1994-04-01

    The development of joint techniques for superconducting wires is essential to fabricate the high quality superconducting magnet. In this report, the various joining methods and their measuring techniques were reviewed. In order to fabricate a precise superconducting magnet, joining and measuring experiment by using the field decay technique carried out. The contact resistance of coupled specimens with joint was measured as 3.0 x 10 -15 ohm at 1 Tesla which is lower than that of the real operating condition of MRI magnet. It is expected that these data can be used to design and fabricate the superconducting magnets successfully. (Author) 12 refs., 20 figs., 2 tabs

  12. Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus O. Ogunyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA, have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs, and proportional hazard regression (PHREG methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject’s anticipation, and doctor’s proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.

  13. Measurement methods of building structures deflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wróblewska Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underground mining exploitation is leading to the occurrence of deformations manifested by, in particular, sloping terrain. The structures situated on the deforming subsoil are subject to uneven subsidence which is leading in consequence to their deflection. Before a building rectification process takes place by, e.g. uneven raising, the structure's deflection direction and value is determined so that the structure is restored to its vertical position as a result of the undertaken remedial measures. Deflection can be determined by applying classical as well as modern measurement techniques. The article presents examples of measurement methods used considering the measured elements of building structures’ constructions and field measurements. Moreover, for a given example of a mining area, the existing deflections of buildings were compared with mining terrain sloping.

  14. A Simple Method for Identifying the Acromioclavicular Joint During Arthroscopic Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Saqib; Heasley, Richard; Ravenscroft, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint excision is performed via an anterior portal and is technically demanding. We present a simple method for identifying the acromioclavicular joint during arthroscopic procedures.

  15. Acoustic methods for measuring bullet velocity

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article describes two acoustic methods to measure bullet velocity with an accuracy of 1% or better. In one method, a microphone is placed within 0.1 m of the gun muzzle and a bullet is fired at a steel target 45 m away. The bullet's flight time is the recorded time between the muzzle blast and sound of hitting the target minus the time for the sound to return from the target to the microphone. In the other method, the microphone is placed equidistant from both the gun muzzle and the stee...

  16. Radiometric measuring method for egg shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forberg, S; Svaerdstroem, K

    1973-02-01

    A description is given of a fast nondestructive radiometric method for registration of the thickness of egg shells of the tawny owl, hen, osprey, and Canada goose. Certain errors are discussed. Measurement of the thickness of egg shells (mineral content per cm/sup 2/) with an accuracy better than 1% is possible in less than one minute under field conditions. (auth)

  17. Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples

  18. Identifying hotspots of coastal risk and evaluating DRR measures: results from the RISC-KIT project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongeren, A.; Ciavola, P.; Viavattene, C.; Dekleermaeker, S.; Martinez, G.; Ferreira, O.; Costa, C.

    2016-02-01

    High-impact storm events have demonstrated the vulnerability of coastal zones in Europe and beyond. These impacts are likely to increase due to predicted climate change and ongoing coastal development. In order to reduce impacts, disaster risk reduction (DRR) measures need to be taken, which prevent or mitigate the effects of storm events. To drive the DRR agenda, the UNISDR formulated the Sendai Framework for Action, and the EU has issued the Floods Directive. However, neither is specific about the methods to be used to develop actionable DRR measures in the coastal zone. Therefore, there is a need to develop methods, tools and approaches which make it possible to: identify and prioritize the coastal zones which are most at risk through a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, evaluate the effectiveness of DRR options for these coastal areas, using an Early Warning/Decision Support System, which can be used both in the planning and event-phase. This paper gives an overview of the products and results obtained in the FP7-funded project RISC-KIT, which aims to develop and apply a set of tools with which highly-vulnerable coastal areas (so-called "hotspots") can be identified. The identification is done using the Coastal Risk Assessment Framework, or CRAF, which computes the intensity from multi-hazards, the exposure and the vulnerability, all components of risk, including network and cascading effects. Based on this analysis hot spots of risk which warrant coastal protection investments are selected. For these hotspot areas, high-resolution Early Warning and Decision Support Tools are developed with which it is possible to compute in detail the effectiveness of Disaster Risk Reduction measures in storm event scenarios, which helps decide which measures to implement in the planning phase. The same systems, but now driven with real time data, can also be used for early warning systems. All tools are tested on eleven case study areas, at least one on each EU Regional Sea

  19. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-01-01

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a open-quotes black boxclose quotes mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments

  20. WMAXC: a weighted maximum clique method for identifying condition-specific sub-network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayarbaatar Amgalan

    Full Text Available Sub-networks can expose complex patterns in an entire bio-molecular network by extracting interactions that depend on temporal or condition-specific contexts. When genes interact with each other during cellular processes, they may form differential co-expression patterns with other genes across different cell states. The identification of condition-specific sub-networks is of great importance in investigating how a living cell adapts to environmental changes. In this work, we propose the weighted MAXimum clique (WMAXC method to identify a condition-specific sub-network. WMAXC first proposes scoring functions that jointly measure condition-specific changes to both individual genes and gene-gene co-expressions. It then employs a weaker formula of a general maximum clique problem and relates the maximum scored clique of a weighted graph to the optimization of a quadratic objective function under sparsity constraints. We combine a continuous genetic algorithm and a projection procedure to obtain a single optimal sub-network that maximizes the objective function (scoring function over the standard simplex (sparsity constraints. We applied the WMAXC method to both simulated data and real data sets of ovarian and prostate cancer. Compared with previous methods, WMAXC selected a large fraction of cancer-related genes, which were enriched in cancer-related pathways. The results demonstrated that our method efficiently captured a subset of genes relevant under the investigated condition.

  1. A side-effect free method for identifying cancer drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Md Izhar; Ong, Seng-Kai; Mujawar, Shama; Pawar, Shrikant; More, Pallavi; Paul, Somnath; Lahiri, Chandrajit

    2018-04-27

    Identifying effective drug targets, with little or no side effects, remains an ever challenging task. A potential pitfall of failing to uncover the correct drug targets, due to side effect of pleiotropic genes, might lead the potential drugs to be illicit and withdrawn. Simplifying disease complexity, for the investigation of the mechanistic aspects and identification of effective drug targets, have been done through several approaches of protein interactome analysis. Of these, centrality measures have always gained importance in identifying candidate drug targets. Here, we put forward an integrated method of analysing a complex network of cancer and depict the importance of k-core, functional connectivity and centrality (KFC) for identifying effective drug targets. Essentially, we have extracted the proteins involved in the pathways leading to cancer from the pathway databases which enlist real experimental datasets. The interactions between these proteins were mapped to build an interactome. Integrative analyses of the interactome enabled us to unearth plausible reasons for drugs being rendered withdrawn, thereby giving future scope to pharmaceutical industries to potentially avoid them (e.g. ESR1, HDAC2, F2, PLG, PPARA, RXRA, etc). Based upon our KFC criteria, we have shortlisted ten proteins (GRB2, FYN, PIK3R1, CBL, JAK2, LCK, LYN, SYK, JAK1 and SOCS3) as effective candidates for drug development.

  2. Automated back titration method to measure phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, J.; Tehrani, M.; Avdeef, A.; Ross, J. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Phosphate was measured in soda drinks and as an additive in flour, by a back titration method in which phosphate was precipitated with lanthanum, and the excess lanthanum was titrated with fluoride. All measurements were performed using the Orion fluoride electrode and the Orion 960 Autochemistry System. In most commercial automatic titrators, the inflection point of the titration curve, calculated from the first derivative of the curve, is used to find the equivalence polar of the titration. The inflection technique is compared with a technique based on Gran functions, which uses data collected after the end point and predicts the equivalence point accordingly

  3. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  4. Quantitative autoradiography - a method of radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years the autoradiography has been developed to a quantitative method of radioactivity measurement. Operating techniques of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated using special standard objects. Influences of irradiation quality, of backscattering in sample and detector materials, and of sensitivity and fading of the detectors are considered. Furthermore, questions of quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are dealt with, and measuring errors are discussed. Finally, some practical uses of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated by means of the estimation of activity distribution in radioactive foil samples. (author)

  5. An assessment of two methods for identifying undocumented levees using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Williams, Byron K.; Westman, Jack; LeClaire, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Many undocumented and commonly unmaintained levees exist in the landscape complicating flood forecasting, risk management, and emergency response. This report describes a pilot study completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to assess two methods to identify undocumented levees by using remotely sensed, high-resolution topographic data. For the first method, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers examined hillshades computed from a digital elevation model that was derived from light detection and ranging (lidar) to visually identify potential levees and then used detailed site visits to assess the validity of the identifications. For the second method, the U.S. Geological Survey applied a wavelet transform to a lidar-derived digital elevation model to identify potential levees. The hillshade method was applied to Delano, Minnesota, and the wavelet-transform method was applied to Delano and Springfield, Minnesota. Both methods were successful in identifying levees but also identified other features that required interpretation to differentiate from levees such as constructed barriers, high banks, and bluffs. Both methods are complementary to each other, and a potential conjunctive method for testing in the future includes (1) use of the wavelet-transform method to rapidly identify slope-break features in high-resolution topographic data, (2) further examination of topographic data using hillshades and aerial photographs to classify features and map potential levees, and (3) a verification check of each identified potential levee with local officials and field visits.

  6. A Novel Method to Identify Differential Pathways in Hippocampus Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun-Han; Liu, Lian

    2017-05-08

    BACKGROUND Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. The objective of this paper is to propose a novel method to identify differential pathways in hippocampus AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We proposed a combined method by merging existed methods. Firstly, pathways were identified by four known methods (DAVID, the neaGUI package, the pathway-based co-expressed method, and the pathway network approach), and differential pathways were evaluated through setting weight thresholds. Subsequently, we combined all pathways by a rank-based algorithm and called the method the combined method. Finally, common differential pathways across two or more of five methods were selected. RESULTS Pathways obtained from different methods were also different. The combined method obtained 1639 pathways and 596 differential pathways, which included all pathways gained from the four existing methods; hence, the novel method solved the problem of inconsistent results. Besides, a total of 13 common pathways were identified, such as metabolism, immune system, and cell cycle. CONCLUSIONS We have proposed a novel method by combining four existing methods based on a rank product algorithm, and identified 13 significant differential pathways based on it. These differential pathways might provide insight into treatment and diagnosis of hippocampus AD.

  7. Accurate color measurement methods for medical displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindita; Kelley, Edward F; Badano, Aldo

    2010-01-01

    The necessity for standard instrumentation and measurements of color that are repeatable and reproducible is the major motivation behind this work. Currently, different instrumentation and methods can yield very different results when measuring the same feature such as color uniformity or color difference. As color increasingly comes into play in medical imaging diagnostics, display color will have to be quantified in order to assess whether the display should be used for imaging purposes. The authors report on the characterization of three novel probes for measuring display color with minimal contamination from screen areas outside the measurement spot or from off-normal emissions. They compare three probe designs: A modified small-spot luminance probe and two conic probe designs based on black frusta. To compare the three color probe designs, spectral and luminance measurements were taken with specialized instrumentation to determine the luminance changes and color separation abilities of the probes. The probes were characterized with a scanning slit method, veiling glare, and a moving laser and LED arrangement. The scanning slit measurement was done using a black slit plate over a white line on an LCD monitor. The luminance was measured in 1 mm increments from the center of the slit to +/- 15 mm above and below the slit at different distances between the probe and the slit. The veiling glare setup consisted of measurements of the luminance of a black spot pattern with a white disk of radius of 100 mm as the black spot increases in 1 mm radius increments. The moving LED and laser method consisted of a red and green light orthogonal to the probe tip for the light to directly shine into the probe. The green light source was moved away from the red source in 1 cm increments to measure color stray-light contamination at different probe distances. The results of the color testing using the LED and laser methods suggest a better performance of one of the frusta probes

  8. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part I, sample preparation and measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R.A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    Recently, we completed a project on the comparison of macrostickies measurement methods. Based on the success of the project, we decided to embark on this new project on comparison of microstickies measurement methods. When we started this project, there were some concerns and doubts principally due to the lack of an accepted definition of microstickies. However, we...

  9. Method for traceable measurement of LTE signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Dash, Soumya; Pythoud, Frederic; Leuchtmann, Pascal; Leuthold, Juerg

    2018-04-01

    This contribution presents a reference setup to measure the power of the cell-specific resource elements present in downlink long term evolution (LTE) signals in a way that the measurements are traceable to the international system of units. This setup can be used to calibrate the LTE code-selective field probes that are used to measure the radiation of base stations for mobile telephony. It can also be used to calibrate LTE signal generators and receivers. The method is based on traceable scope measurements performed directly at the output of a measuring antenna. It implements offline digital signal processing demodulation algorithms that consider the digital down-conversion, timing synchronization, frequency synchronization, phase synchronization and robust LTE cell identification to produce the downlink time-frequency LTE grid. Experimental results on conducted test scenarios, both single-input-single-output and multiple-input-multiple-output antenna configuration, show promising results confirming measurement uncertainties of the order of 0.05 dB with a coverage factor of 2.

  10. Space Suit Joint Torque Measurement Method Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valish, Dana; Eversley, Karina

    2012-01-01

    In 2009 and early 2010, a test method was developed and performed to quantify the torque required to manipulate joints in several existing operational and prototype space suits. This was done in an effort to develop joint torque requirements appropriate for a new Constellation Program space suit system. The same test method was levied on the Constellation space suit contractors to verify that their suit design met the requirements. However, because the original test was set up and conducted by a single test operator there was some question as to whether this method was repeatable enough to be considered a standard verification method for Constellation or other future development programs. In order to validate the method itself, a representative subset of the previous test was repeated, using the same information that would be available to space suit contractors, but set up and conducted by someone not familiar with the previous test. The resultant data was compared using graphical and statistical analysis; the results indicated a significant variance in values reported for a subset of the re-tested joints. Potential variables that could have affected the data were identified and a third round of testing was conducted in an attempt to eliminate and/or quantify the effects of these variables. The results of the third test effort will be used to determine whether or not the proposed joint torque methodology can be applied to future space suit development contracts.

  11. Application of radiotracer methods in streamflow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincer, T.

    1967-01-01

    An attempt is made to evaluate methods using radiotracers in streamflow measurements. The basic principles of the tracer method are explained and background information given. Radiotracers used in stream discharge measurements are discussed and measurements made by different research workers are described. Problems such as adsorption of the tracer and the mixing length are discussed and the potential use of the radioisotopes as tracer in the routine stream-gauging work is evaluated. It is concluded that, at the present stage of development, radiotracer methods do not seem to be ready for routine use in stream-gauging work, and can only be used in some special cases. For gamma-emitting radioisotopes there are problems related to safety, transport and injection which should be solved. Tritium, though a very attractive tracer in some respects, has the disadvantages of having a relatively long half-life and of disturbing the natural tritium levels in the region. Finally, an attempt is made to define the objectives of the research in the field of application of radioisotopes in hydrometry. (author)

  12. The Usefulness of Appreciative Inquiry As a Method to Identify Mass Sports Program Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadine VAN GRAMBERG

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the relationship between good health and physical activity is well known. Despite the growth of public mass sports programs in many countries, few evaluate them to ensure they meet their targets. Measuring organizational effectiveness and program success in public sports organizations is difficult and cannot be done directly as it involves a number of complex dimensions involving both internal (organizational and external (customer factors. Recognizing this, the paper advances the Appreciative Inquiry approach as a culturally sensitive method to focus on the positives of human experience rather than finding faults or gaps and as a means of identifying the success factors of service delivery. The paper outlines the research strategy to investigate success in Malaysian mass sport programs.

  13. A dynamic method for magnetic torque measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. E.; Jou, H. L.

    1994-01-01

    In a magnetic suspension system, accurate force measurement will result in better control performance in the test section, especially when a wider range of operation is required. Although many useful methods were developed to obtain the desired model, however, significant error is inevitable since the magnetic field distribution of the large-gap magnetic suspension system is extremely nonlinear. This paper proposed an easy approach to measure the magnetic torque of a magnetic suspension system using an angular photo encoder. Through the measurement of the velocity change data, the magnetic torque is converted. The proposed idea is described and implemented to obtain the desired data. It is useful to the calculation of a magnetic force in the magnetic suspension system.

  14. Methods of measuring radioactivity in the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Mats

    In this thesis a variety of sampling methods have been utilised to assess the amount of deposited activity, mainly of 137Cs, from the Chernobyl accident and from the nuclear weapons tests. Starting with the Chernobyl accident in 1986 sampling of air and rain was used to determine the composition and amount of radioactive debris from this accident, brought to southern Sweden by the weather systems. The resulting deposition and its removal from urban areas was than studied through measurements on sewage sludge and water. The main part of the thesis considers methods of determining the amount of radiocaesium in the ground through soil sampling. In connection with soil sampling a method of optimising the sampling procedure has been developed and tested in the areas of Sweden which have a comparatively high amount of 137Cs from the Chernobyl accident. This method was then used in a survey of the activity in soil in Lund and Skane, divided between nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. By comparing the results from this survey with deposition calculated from precipitation measurements it was found possible to predict the deposition pattern over Skane for both nuclear weapons fallout and fallout from the Chernobyl accident. In addition, the vertical distribution of 137Cs has been modelled and the temporal variation of the depth distribution has been described.

  15. A systematic method for identifying vital areas at complex nuclear facilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, David Franklin; Hockert, John

    2005-05-01

    Identifying the areas to be protected is an important part of the development of measures for physical protection against sabotage at complex nuclear facilities. In June 1999, the International Atomic Energy Agency published INFCIRC/225/Rev.4, 'The Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and Nuclear Facilities.' This guidance recommends that 'Safety specialists, in close cooperation with physical protection specialists, should evaluate the consequences of malevolent acts, considered in the context of the State's design basis threat, to identify nuclear material, or the minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices to be protected against sabotage.' This report presents a structured, transparent approach for identifying the areas that contain this minimum complement of equipment, systems, and devices to be protected against sabotage that is applicable to complex nuclear facilities. The method builds upon safety analyses to develop sabotage fault trees that reflect sabotage scenarios that could cause unacceptable radiological consequences. The sabotage actions represented in the fault trees are linked to the areas from which they can be accomplished. The fault tree is then transformed (by negation) into its dual, the protection location tree, which reflects the sabotage actions that must be prevented in order to prevent unacceptable radiological consequences. The minimum path sets of this fault tree dual yield, through the area linkage, sets of areas, each of which contains nuclear material, or a minimum complement of equipment, systems or devices that, if protected, will prevent sabotage. This method also provides guidance for the selection of the minimum path set that permits optimization of the trade-offs among physical protection effectiveness, safety impact, cost and operational impact.

  16. Identifying an outcome measure to assess the impact of Mobility Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Suzie; Rewi, Dallas; Channon, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    Mobility Dogs® trains dogs to work with people with physical disabilities to increase independence, confidence, self-esteem and participation. Mobility Dogs® seeks to critically evaluate and improve its services as it grows. This study aimed to identify and implement a standardised outcome measure into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Based on the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research and guided by a steering group of key stakeholders, a three-phase approach was developed to identify and assess an outcome measure. The steering group highlighted the organisation's specific needs, selected participation as the assessment domain and identified core utility requirements of the measure. A comprehensive review of evidence was undertaken to identify and rank potential measures according to the specified needs. Of the seven participation outcome measures that met inclusion criteria, the three highest ranked measures were critically evaluated by the steering group to determine suitability against the organisation's needs. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy (IPA) was selected for implementation into practice at Mobility Dogs®. Use of the IPA is an important first step for Mobility Dogs® to test the benefits of trained service dogs. This process could be replicated by other service dog organisations to identify outcome measures to assess their own services. Implications for Rehabilitation Service dogs (such as Mobility Dogs® in New Zealand) assist people living with physical impairments by performing tasks, however there is limited evidence on outcomes. The process for selecting an appropriate outcome measure for Mobility Dogs® involving partnership between Mobility Dogs® personnel and academics was an effective way to steer the project by determining important properties of the measure, before a search of the literature was undertaken. While the IPA was selected as the most appropriate outcome measure for use at Mobility Dogs®, it was the process that

  17. Large subcriticality measurement by pulsed neutron method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Nishina, K.; Kobayashi, K.; Kanda, K.

    1985-01-01

    To establish the method determining large subcriticalities in the field of nuclear criticality safety, the authors performed pulsed neutron experiments using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) at Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University and the Cockcroft-Walton type accelerator attached to the assembly. The area-ratio method proposed by Sjoestrand was employed to evaluate subcriticalities from neutron decay curves measured. This method has the shortcomings that the neutron component due to a decay of delayed neutrons remarkably decreases as the subcriticality of an objective increases. To overcome the shortcoming, the authors increased the frequency of pulsed neutron generation. The integral-version of the area-ratio method proposed by Kosaly and Fisher was employed in addition in order to remove a contamination of spatial higher modes from the decay curve. The latter becomes significant as subcriticality increases. The largest subcriticality determined in the present experiments was 125.4 dollars, which was equal to 0.5111 in a multiplication factor. The calculational values evaluated by the computer code KENO-IV with 137 energy groups based on the Monte Carlo method agreed well with those experimental values

  18. A simple method for identifying parameter correlations in partially observed linear dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pu; Vu, Quoc Dong

    2015-12-14

    Parameter estimation represents one of the most significant challenges in systems biology. This is because biological models commonly contain a large number of parameters among which there may be functional interrelationships, thus leading to the problem of non-identifiability. Although identifiability analysis has been extensively studied by analytical as well as numerical approaches, systematic methods for remedying practically non-identifiable models have rarely been investigated. We propose a simple method for identifying pairwise correlations and higher order interrelationships of parameters in partially observed linear dynamic models. This is made by derivation of the output sensitivity matrix and analysis of the linear dependencies of its columns. Consequently, analytical relations between the identifiability of the model parameters and the initial conditions as well as the input functions can be achieved. In the case of structural non-identifiability, identifiable combinations can be obtained by solving the resulting homogenous linear equations. In the case of practical non-identifiability, experiment conditions (i.e. initial condition and constant control signals) can be provided which are necessary for remedying the non-identifiability and unique parameter estimation. It is noted that the approach does not consider noisy data. In this way, the practical non-identifiability issue, which is popular for linear biological models, can be remedied. Several linear compartment models including an insulin receptor dynamics model are taken to illustrate the application of the proposed approach. Both structural and practical identifiability of partially observed linear dynamic models can be clarified by the proposed method. The result of this method provides important information for experimental design to remedy the practical non-identifiability if applicable. The derivation of the method is straightforward and thus the algorithm can be easily implemented into a

  19. Application of spatial methods to identify areas with lime requirement in eastern Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogunović, Igor; Kisic, Ivica; Mesic, Milan; Zgorelec, Zeljka; Percin, Aleksandra; Pereira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    With more than 50% of acid soils in all agricultural land in Croatia, soil acidity is recognized as a big problem. Low soil pH leads to a series of negative phenomena in plant production and therefore as a compulsory measure for reclamation of acid soils is liming, recommended on the base of soil analysis. The need for liming is often erroneously determined only on the basis of the soil pH, because the determination of cation exchange capacity, the hydrolytic acidity and base saturation is a major cost to producers. Therefore, in Croatia, as well as some other countries, the amount of liming material needed to ameliorate acid soils is calculated by considering their hydrolytic acidity. For this research, several interpolation methods were tested to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity. The purpose of this study was to: test several interpolation methods to identify the best spatial predictor of hidrolitic acidity; and to determine the possibility of using multivariate geostatistics in order to reduce the number of needed samples for determination the hydrolytic acidity, all with an aim that the accuracy of the spatial distribution of liming requirement is not significantly reduced. Soil pH (in KCl) and hydrolytic acidity (Y1) is determined in the 1004 samples (from 0-30 cm) randomized collected in agricultural fields near Orahovica in eastern Croatia. This study tested 14 univariate interpolation models (part of ArcGIS software package) in order to provide most accurate spatial map of hydrolytic acidity on a base of: all samples (Y1 100%), and the datasets with 15% (Y1 85%), 30% (Y1 70%) and 50% fewer samples (Y1 50%). Parallel to univariate interpolation methods, the precision of the spatial distribution of the Y1 was tested by the co-kriging method with exchangeable acidity (pH in KCl) as a covariate. The soils at studied area had an average pH (KCl) 4,81, while the average Y1 10,52 cmol+ kg-1. These data suggest that liming is necessary

  20. Two methods to measure granular gas temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastaing, J.-Y.; Géminard, J.-C.; Naert, A.

    2017-07-01

    Grains are vibrated so as to achieve a granular gas, here regarded as an archetype of a dissipative non equilibrium steady state (NESS). We report on two distinct and concordant experimental measures of the system effective temperature. To do so, a blade fastened to the shaft of a small DC-motor, immersed in the grains, behaves as a driven 1D Brownian rotator, which is used as both actuator and sensor simultaneously. On the one hand, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem, which involves a measure of the asymmetry of the energy exchanges between the rotator and the NESS reservoir, provides a first effective temperature. On the other hand, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, which involves the relation between the spontaneous fluctuations and the response to a weak perturbation, defines a second, independent, effective temperature. Both methods, even though they are based on drastically different ideas, give nicely concordant results.

  1. Method for steam generator water level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a nuclear power plant, a method of controlling the steam generator water level, wherein the steam generator has an upper level tap corresponding to an upper level, a lower level, a riser positioned between the lower and upper taps, and level sensor means for indicating water level between a first range limit and a second range limit, the sensor means being connected to at least the lower tap. It comprises: calculating a measure of velocity head at about the lower level tap; calculating a measure of full water level as the upper level less the measure of velocity head; calibrating the level sensor means to provide an output at the first limit corresponding to an input thereto representative of the measure of full level; calculating a high level setpoint equal to the level of the riser less a bias amount which is a function of the position of the riser relative to the span between the taps; and controlling the water level when the sensor means indicates that the high level setpoint has been reached

  2. Faraday rotation measurement method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, M. H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and device for measuring Faraday rotation of a received RF signal is described. A simultaneous orthogonal polarization receiver compensates for a 3 db loss due to splitting of a received signal into left circular and right circular polarization channels. The compensation is achieved by RF and modulation arraying utilizing a specific receiver array which also detects and measures Faraday rotation in the presence or absence of spin stabilization effects on a linear polarization vector. Either up-link or down-link measurement of Faraday rotation is possible. Specifically, the Faraday measurement apparatus utilized in conjunction with the specific receiver array provides a means for comparing the phase of a reference signal in the receiver array to the phase of a tracking loop signal related to the incoming signal, and comparing the phase of the reference signal to the phase of the tracking signal shifted in phase by 90 degrees. The averaged and unaveraged signals, are compared, the phase changes between the two signals being related to Faraday rotation.

  3. A method for measuring the inertia properties of rigid bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobbi, M.; Mastinu, G.; Previati, G.

    2011-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the inertia properties of rigid bodies is presented. Given a rigid body and its mass, the method allows to measure (identify) the centre of gravity location and the inertia tensor during a single test. The proposed technique is based on the analysis of the free motion of a multi-cable pendulum to which the body under consideration is connected. The motion of the pendulum and the forces acting on the system are recorded and the inertia properties are identified by means of a proper mathematical procedure based on a least square estimation. After the body is positioned on the test rig, the full identification procedure takes less than 10 min. The natural frequencies of the pendulum and the accelerations involved are quite low, making this method suitable for many practical applications. In this paper, the proposed method is described and two test rigs are presented: the first is developed for bodies up to 3500 kg and the second for bodies up to 400 kg. A validation of the measurement method is performed with satisfactory results. The test rig holds a third part quality certificate according to an ISO 9001 standard and could be scaled up to measure the inertia properties of huge bodies, such as trucks, airplanes or even ships.

  4. Acoustic levitation methods for density measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Hsu, C. J.

    1986-01-01

    The capability of ultrasonic levitators operating in air to perform density measurements has been demonstrated. The remote determination of the density of ordinary liquids as well as low density solid metals can be carried out using levitated samples with size on the order of a few millimeters and at a frequency of 20 kHz. Two basic methods may be used. The first one is derived from a previously known technique developed for acoustic levitation in liquid media, and is based on the static equilibrium position of levitated samples in the earth's gravitational field. The second approach relies on the dynamic interaction between a levitated sample and the acoustic field. The first technique appears more accurate (1 percent uncertainty), but the latter method is directly applicable to a near gravity-free environment such as that found in space.

  5. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility methods, analysis, circuits, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2016-01-01

    Revised, updated, and expanded, Electromagnetic Compatibility: Methods, Analysis, Circuits, and Measurement, Third Edition provides comprehensive practical coverage of the design, problem solving, and testing of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in electrical and electronic equipment and systems. This new edition provides novel information on theory, applications, evaluations, electromagnetic computational programs, and prediction techniques available. With sixty-nine schematics providing examples for circuit level electromagnetic interference (EMI) hardening and cost effective EMI problem solving, this book also includes 1130 illustrations and tables. Including extensive data on components and their correct implementation, the myths, misapplication, misconceptions, and fallacies that are common when discussing EMC/EMI will also be addressed and corrected.

  7. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  8. A systematic literature search to identify performance measure outcomes used in clinical studies of racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, C E; Newton, J R

    2018-05-01

    Racing performance is often used as a measurable outcome variable in research studies investigating clinical diagnoses or interventions. However, the use of many different performance measures largely precludes conduct of meaningful comparative studies and, to date, those being used have not been collated. To systematically review the veterinary scientific literature for the use of racing performance as a measurable outcome variable in clinical studies of racehorses, collate and identify those most popular, and identify their advantages and disadvantages. Systematic literature search. The search criteria "((racing AND performance) AND (horses OR equidae))" were adapted for both MEDLINE and CAB Abstracts databases. Data were collected in standardised recording forms for binary, categorical and quantitative measures, and the use of performance indices. In total, 217 studies that described racing performance were identified, contributing 117 different performance measures. No one performance measure was used in all studies, despite 90.3% using more than one variable. Data regarding race starts and earnings were used most commonly, with 88.0% and 54.4% of studies including at least one measure of starts and earnings, respectively. Seventeen variables were used 10 times or more, with the top five comprising: 'return to racing', 'number of starts', 'days to first start', 'earnings per period of time' and 'earnings per start'. The search strategies may not have identified all relevant papers, introducing bias to the review. Performance indices have been developed to improve assessment of interventions; however, they are not widely adopted in the scientific literature. Use of the two most commonly identified measures, whether the horse returned to racing and number of starts over a defined period of time, would best facilitate future systematic reviews and meta-analyses in advance of the development of a gold-standard measure of race performance outcome. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Revivification of a method for identifying longleaf pine timber and its application to southern pine relicts in southeastern Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Philip M. Sheridan; Arvind A.R. Bhuta

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) cannot be distinguished from the other southern pines based on wood anatomy alone. A method that involves measuring pith and second annual ring diameters, reported by Arthur Koehler in 1932 (The Southern Lumberman, 145: 36–37), was revisited as an option for identifying longleaf pine timbers and stumps. Cross-section...

  10. THE USEFULNESS OF USER TESTING METHODS IN IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS ON UNIVERSITY WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Hasan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the usefulness of three user testing methods (observation, and using both quantitative and qualitative data from a post-test questionnaire in terms of their ability or inability to find specific usability problems on university websites. The results showed that observation was the best method, compared to the other two, in identifying large numbers of major and minor usability problems on university websites. The results also showed that employing qualitative data from a post-test questionnaire was a useful complementary method since this identified additional usability problems that were not identified by the observation method. However, the results showed that the quantitative data from the post-test questionnaire were inaccurate and ineffective in terms of identifying usability problems on such websites.

  11. Prospects for DNA methods to measure human heritable mutation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A workshop cosponsored by ICPEMC and the US Department of Energy was held in Alta, Utah, December 9-13, 1984 to examine the extent to which DNA-oriented methods might provide new approaches to the important but intractable problem of measuring mutation rates in control and exposed human populations. The workshop identified and analyzed six DNA methods for detection of human heritable mutation, including several created at the meeting, and concluded that none of the methods combine sufficient feasibility and efficiency to be recommended for general application. 8 refs

  12. A method for isolating identifying and culturing of rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Fengmei; Su Shibiao; Nie Jihua; Li Bingyan; Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a method for isolating identifying and culturing the rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells. Methods: The rat trachea-bronchia epithelial cells were isolated by digestion with pronase and brushing with cell brush, identified using confocul and cultured in entire F12 media with no serum. Results: With this method, cells in high purity and high viability could be obtained, and about 10 6 cells per rat. The cells grow well in entire F12 media with no serum. Conclusion: The method is useful for isolating rate trachea-bronchia epithelial cells and the entire F12 media with no serum is effective for culturing. (authors)

  13. A simple negative selection method to identify adenovirus recombinants using colony PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The negative selection method to identify AdEasy adenovirus recombinants by colony PCR can identify the recombined colony within a short time-period, and maximally avoid damage to the recombinant plasmid by limiting recombination time, resulting in improved adenovirus packaging.

  14. Identifying Creatively Gifted Students: Necessity of a Multi-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Laura; Machek, Greg R.

    2015-01-01

    The process of identifying students as creatively gifted provides numerous challenges for educators. Although many schools assess for creativity in identifying students for gifted and talented services, the relationship between creativity and giftedness is often not fully understood. This article reviews commonly used methods of creativity…

  15. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  16. Identifying and prioritizing the factors effective in customer satisfaction using the TOPSIS method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Forougozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Customer satisfaction has been suggested as one of the interesting and challenging issues of management in the new millennium. In addition, oral and dental health and the quality of the services the health centers delivered to the patients directly affect the customer satisfaction. Therefore, the present study aimed to identify, investigate, and rank the factors affecting the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Method: The present descriptive study was conducted on the specialists and patients of the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. The validity of the questionnaire utilized in the study was confirmed by expert professors and its reliability was approved using the Cronbach’s alpha formula. Finally, the study data were analyzed in SPSS statistical software (v. 16, using inferential statistics. Results: All the hypotheses were confirmed by the results of the statistical analyses and quality, services, and expenditures revealed to affect the customer satisfaction in the department of dentistry of Shiraz Farhangiyan health center. Moreover, these factors were ranked using the TOPSIS method and the results showed quality and expenditures as the most and the least effective factors in customer satisfaction, respectively. Conclusion: Since restoring and arranging the organization based on the customer needs is among the main priorities of designing an organization, managers are suggested to take measures for organizational reformation based on the customers’ priorities. Of course, conducting such programs is of utmost importance in health and treatment environments, leading to provision of better services and facilitation of learning, education, and research. Thus, identifying the effective factors in customer satisfaction and ranking them are highly important.

  17. Portable method of measuring gaseous acetone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Adam D; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Angelopoulos, Anastasios P

    2013-08-15

    Measurement of acetone in human breath samples has been previously shown to provide significant non-invasive diagnostic insight into the control of a patient's diabetic condition. In patients with diabetes mellitus, the body produces excess amounts of ketones such as acetone, which are then exhaled during respiration. Using various breath analysis methods has allowed for the accurate determination of acetone concentrations in exhaled breath. However, many of these methods require instrumentation and pre-concentration steps not suitable for point-of-care use. We have found that by immobilizing resorcinol reagent into a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer membrane, a controlled organic synthesis reaction occurs with acetone in a dry carrier gas. The immobilized, highly selective product of this reaction (a flavan) is found to produce a visible spectrum color change which could measure acetone concentrations to less than ppm. We here demonstrate how this approach can be used to produce a portable optical sensing device for real-time, non-invasive acetone analysis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. On-line method to identify control rod drops in Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, T.J.; Martinez, A.S.; Medeiros, J.A.C.C.; Palma, D.A.P.; Gonçalves, A.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • On-line method to identify control rod drops in PWR reactors. • Identification method based on the readings of the ex-core detector. • Recognition of the patterns in the ex-core detector responses. - Abstract: A control rod drop event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimise undesirable effects in such a scenario. The goal of this work is to develop an online method to identify control rod drops in PWR reactors. The method entails the construction of a tool based on ex-core detector responses. It proposes to recognize patterns in the neutron ex-core detectors responses and thus to make an online identification of a control rod drop in the core during the reactor operation. The results of the study, as well as the behaviour of the detector responses demonstrated the feasibility of this method

  19. A data analysis method for identifying deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems with colored noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patanarapeelert, K. [Faculty of Science, Department of Mathematics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Frank, T.D. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany)]. E-mail: tdfrank@uni-muenster.de; Friedrich, R. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Beek, P.J. [Faculty of Human Movement Sciences and Institute for Fundamental and Clinical Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Van der Boechorststraat 9, 1081 BT Amsterdam (Netherlands); Tang, I.M. [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Mahidol University, Rama VI Road, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand)

    2006-12-18

    A method is proposed to identify deterministic components of stable and unstable time-delayed systems subjected to noise sources with finite correlation times (colored noise). Both neutral and retarded delay systems are considered. For vanishing correlation times it is shown how to determine their noise amplitudes by minimizing appropriately defined Kullback measures. The method is illustrated by applying it to simulated data from stochastic time-delayed systems representing delay-induced bifurcations, postural sway and ship rolling.

  20. Method of measuring reactor water level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kaoru.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a water level measuring system so that a reactor water level detecting signal can be corrected in correspondence to a recirculation flow, thereby to carry out a correct water level detection in a wide range of the reactor. Method: According to the operation record of a precursor reactor, the ratio Δh of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow is lowered in proportion to the ratiowith respect to the rated differential pressure of the recirculation flow. Accordingly, the flow of recirculation pump is measured by an elbow differential pressure generator utilizing an elbow of a pipe, and the measured value is multiplied by a gain by a ratio setter, and therefter, an addition computation is carried out by an adder for correcting the signal from a water level detector. When the signal from the water level detector is corrected in this manner, the influence of the lowering of the water level due to the recirculation flow can be removed, and an interlocker predetermined in the defined water level can be actuated, thus the influence of the dynamic pressure due to the recirculation flow acting on the instrumental pipe line detecting the reactor water level can be removed effectively. (Yoshino, Y.)

  1. Array Manipulation And Matrix-Tree Method To Identify High Concentration Regions HCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachana Arora

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract-Sequence Alignment and Analysis is one of the most important applications of bioinformatics. It involves alignment a pair or more sequences with each other and identify a common pattern that would ultimately lead to conclusions of homology or dissimilarity. A number of algorithms that make use of dynamic programming to perform alignment between sequences are available. One of their main disadvantages is that they involve complicated computations and backtracking methods that are difficult to implement. This paper describes a much simpler method to identify common regions in 2 sequences and align them based on the density of common sequences identified.

  2. Express method and radon gas measurement detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khajdarov, R.A.; Khajdarov, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the activated charcoal adsorption method. The detector consisted of an electronic unit (200 mm x 180 mm x 80 mm) and a scintillation cell (a tube 200 mm long, 60 mm diam.). The electronic unit contained a power supply, amplifier, discriminator, timer, counter and indicator. The scintillation cell contained a zinc sulfide scintillator, photomultiplier, preamplifier, high voltage power supply and a 200 ml chamber above the scintillator. This chamber was intended to situate activated carbon fibrous absorber and air compressor. In this method, air is drawn through a filter to remove radon decay products and then through the activated carbon cloth by using a compressor. Sampling takes between 5 and 15 minutes. After the sampling, the cloth is heated for 5-10 sec up to 200-250 deg C by electric current passing through the fiber. Radon gas evaporates from the cloth and the device detects scintillation pulses. Owing to a high radon preconcentration factor (by adsorption of radon on the activated carbon cloth from 50-150 L of air of and evaporation into the small volume of the chamber), the detection limit of the method is 2-4 Bq/m 3 . Since the distance between the filter, cloth and scintillator is over 80 mm, the detector only measures radiation from radon without interference from the radon decay products, remaining in the filter and cloth

  3. Bridging the Gap: Identifying Perceptions of Effective Teaching Methods for Age 50+ Baby Boomer Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify effective teaching methods for age 50+ baby boomer learners. The study used a mixed methods research design. The qualitative paradigm used focus group sessions and the quantitative paradigm was completed through surveys. Fifteen age 50+ baby boomer learners and 11 faculty who teach them comprised the two…

  4. The Contribution of Qualitative Methods for Identifying the Educational Needs of Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boz, Hayat; Dagli, Yakup

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses the contribution of applying qualitative research methods for identifying the educational activities planned for adults. The paper is based on the experience gained during in-depth interviews with 39 elderly and 33 middle-aged participants, by purposive sampling method and maximum variation technique, within a needs analysis…

  5. Reducing uncertainty at minimal cost: a method to identify important input parameters and prioritize data collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uwizeye, U.A.; Groen, E.A.; Gerber, P.J.; Schulte, Rogier P.O.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to illustrate a method to identify important input parameters that explain most of the output variance ofenvironmental assessment models. The method is tested for the computation of life-cycle nitrogen (N) use efficiencyindicators among mixed dairy production systems in Rwanda. We

  6. Application of multi-locus analytical methods to identify interacting loci in case-control studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, S.; Heijer, M. den; Sham, P.; Knight, J.

    2007-01-01

    To identify interacting loci in genetic epidemiological studies the application of multi-locus methods of analysis is warranted. Several more advanced classification methods have been developed in the past years, including multiple logistic regression, sum statistics, logic regression, and the

  7. Registrar wellness in Botswana: Measuring burnout and identifying ways to improve wellness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D Westmoreland

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Burnout during registrar training is high, especially in resource-limited settings where stressors are intensified. Burnout leads to decreased quality of life for doctors, poor job and patient satisfaction, and difficulty retaining doctors. Objectives. Primary: to measure burnout among registrars working at Princess Marina Hospital in Gaborone, Botswana. Secondary: to determine factors contributing to burnout and identify potential wellness interventions. Methods. The validated Maslach Burnout Inventory was used to measure the degree of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Work-related difficulties and potential wellness interventions were explored through multiple-choice and open-ended questions. Results. Of 40 eligible registrars, 20 (50% completed the survey. High levels of burnout were reported for emotional exhaustion in 65% (13/20, depersonalisation in 45% (9/20, and personal accomplishment in 35% (7/20 of registrars. A high degree of burnout was reported by 75% (15/20 of registrars in one or more domains. In the previous 7 days, registrars worked an average of 77 hours, took 1.5 overnight calls, slept 5.7 hours per night, and 53% (10/19 had ≥1 of their patients die. Five (25% registrars considered leaving Botswana to work in another country, which correlated with those with the highest degree of burnout. The most common frustrations included insufficient salary and limited medical resources. Suggested interventions included improved mentorship and wellness lectures. Conclusions. There is a high degree of burnout, especially emotional exhaustion, among registrars. Encouragingly, most registrars have a desire to work in Botswana after training. Future research on improving registrar wellness in low-resource settings is urgently needed.

  8. Validation of a Consensus Method for Identifying Delirium from Hospital Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Elvira; Du, Xinyi; McGrath, Keith; Coveney, Sarah; O'Regan, Niamh; Richardson, Sarah; Teodorczuk, Andrew; Allan, Louise; Wilson, Dan; Inouye, Sharon K.; MacLullich, Alasdair M. J.; Meagher, David; Brayne, Carol; Timmons, Suzanne; Davis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Background Delirium is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of trajectories of cognitive decline. Therefore, analyses of existing cohort studies measuring cognitive outcomes could benefit from methods to ascertain a retrospective delirium diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate such a method for delirium detection using routine medical records in UK and Ireland. Methods A point prevalence study of delirium provided the reference-standard ratings for delirium diagnosis. Blinded to study results, clinical vignettes were compiled from participants' medical records in a standardised manner, describing any relevant delirium symptoms recorded in the whole case record for the period leading up to case-ascertainment. An expert panel rated each vignette as unlikely, possible, or probable delirium and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results From 95 case records, 424 vignettes were abstracted by 5 trained clinicians. There were 29 delirium cases according to the reference standard. Median age of subjects was 76.6 years (interquartile range 54.6 to 82.5). Against the original study DSM-IV diagnosis, the chart abstraction method gave a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 7.8 (95% CI 5.7–12.0) and the negative LR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.40–0.47) for probable delirium (sensitivity 0.58 (95% CI 0.53–0.62); specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.90–0.95); AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.82–0.89)). The method diagnosed possible delirium with positive LR 3.5 (95% CI 2.9–4.3) and negative LR 0.15 (95% CI 0.11–0.21) (sensitivity 0.89 (95% CI 0.85–0.91); specificity 0.75 (95% CI 0.71–0.79); AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.80–0.89)). Conclusions This chart abstraction method can retrospectively diagnose delirium in hospitalised patients with good accuracy. This has potential for retrospectively identifying delirium in cohort studies where routine medical records are available. This example of record linkage between hospitalisations and epidemiological data may lead to

  9. Measuring ambiguity in HLA typing methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Paunić

    Full Text Available In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched, but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure

  10. Measuring Ambiguity in HLA Typing Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madbouly, Abeer; Freeman, John; Maiers, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor selection is based primarily on matching donor and patient HLA genes. These genes are highly polymorphic and their typing can result in exact allele assignment at each gene (the resolution at which patients and donors are matched), but it can also result in a set of ambiguous assignments, depending on the typing methodology used. To facilitate rapid identification of matched donors, registries employ statistical algorithms to infer HLA alleles from ambiguous genotypes. Linkage disequilibrium information encapsulated in haplotype frequencies is used to facilitate prediction of the most likely haplotype assignment. An HLA typing with less ambiguity produces fewer high-probability haplotypes and a more reliable prediction. We estimated ambiguity for several HLA typing methods across four continental populations using an information theory-based measure, Shannon's entropy. We used allele and haplotype frequencies to calculate entropy for different sets of 1,000 subjects with simulated HLA typing. Using allele frequencies we calculated an average entropy in Caucasians of 1.65 for serology, 1.06 for allele family level, 0.49 for a 2002-era SSO kit, and 0.076 for single-pass SBT. When using haplotype frequencies in entropy calculations, we found average entropies of 0.72 for serology, 0.73 for allele family level, 0.05 for SSO, and 0.002 for single-pass SBT. Application of haplotype frequencies further reduces HLA typing ambiguity. We also estimated expected confirmatory typing mismatch rates for simulated subjects. In a hypothetical registry with all donors typed using the same method, the entropy values based on haplotype frequencies correspond to confirmatory typing mismatch rates of 1.31% for SSO versus only 0.08% for SBT. Intermediate-resolution single-pass SBT contains the least ambiguity of the methods we evaluated and therefore the most certainty in allele prediction. The presented measure objectively evaluates HLA

  11. Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuming; Li, Ruonan; Smith, Kate; Che, Han

    2016-04-15

    Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach. Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance (PE) based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method (MED) and linear prediction filter (LPF) method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation. This analysis revealed why the conventional MED and LPF methods failed to identify existence of contamination events. The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of visual and quantitative methods to identify interstitial lung abnormalities

    OpenAIRE

    Kliment, Corrine R.; Araki, Tetsuro; Doyle, Tracy J.; Gao, Wei; Dupuis, Jos?e; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Fernandez, Isis E.; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Ross, James C.; Est?par, Ra?l San Jos?; Diaz, Alejandro A.; Lederer, David J.; Schwartz, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that individuals with interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) on a chest computed tomogram (CT) may have an increased risk to develop a clinically significant interstitial lung disease (ILD). Although methods used to identify individuals with ILA on chest CT have included both automated quantitative and qualitative visual inspection methods, there has been not direct comparison between these two methods. To investigate this relationship, we created lung density met...

  13. Method of measuring blood flow by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildenberg, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A method of measuring relative blood flow through at least a part of the body using penetrating radiation comprises transmitting a plurality of rays at an initial angle or initial mean angle through a planar slice of the body to define a first set of rays, transmitting a plurality of further sets of rays at angles or mean angles different from each other and from the initial angle or initial mean angle through the same planar slice of the body to define by the intersection of all such rays a two-dimensional matrix of elements of the body in the slice, measuring for each ray emerging from the body a number of over the period of time at least equal to a pulse interval representing the momentary sum of the transmissions or absorptions of the element of the body intersected by the ray, determining from the momentary signals momentary signals a difference signal representing the maximum difference between the momentary signals for each ray over the period of time, deriving sets of discrete difference signals corresponding to the sets of rays, the difference signals being indicative of the transmission or absorption of blood flowing through each element of the body in the matrix, and calculating from the difference signals resultant signals representing the transmissions or absorptions due to blood flow in the elements of the matrix. These resultant signals may be visually depicted on a cathode ray tube display, as a digital print-out, or as a photograph. 30 claims, 8 figures

  14. The Integrative Method Based on the Module-Network for Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With advances in next-generation sequencing(NGS technologies, a large number of multiple types of high-throughput genomics data are available. A great challenge in exploring cancer progression is to identify the driver genes from the variant genes by analyzing and integrating multi-types genomics data. Breast cancer is known as a heterogeneous disease. The identification of subtype-specific driver genes is critical to guide the diagnosis, assessment of prognosis and treatment of breast cancer. We developed an integrated frame based on gene expression profiles and copy number variation (CNV data to identify breast cancer subtype-specific driver genes. In this frame, we employed statistical machine-learning method to select gene subsets and utilized an module-network analysis method to identify potential candidate driver genes. The final subtype-specific driver genes were acquired by paired-wise comparison in subtypes. To validate specificity of the driver genes, the gene expression data of these genes were applied to classify the patient samples with 10-fold cross validation and the enrichment analysis were also conducted on the identified driver genes. The experimental results show that the proposed integrative method can identify the potential driver genes and the classifier with these genes acquired better performance than with genes identified by other methods.

  15. Validation of a consensus method for identifying delirium from hospital records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Kuhn

    Full Text Available Delirium is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of trajectories of cognitive decline. Therefore, analyses of existing cohort studies measuring cognitive outcomes could benefit from methods to ascertain a retrospective delirium diagnosis. This study aimed to develop and validate such a method for delirium detection using routine medical records in UK and Ireland.A point prevalence study of delirium provided the reference-standard ratings for delirium diagnosis. Blinded to study results, clinical vignettes were compiled from participants' medical records in a standardised manner, describing any relevant delirium symptoms recorded in the whole case record for the period leading up to case-ascertainment. An expert panel rated each vignette as unlikely, possible, or probable delirium and disagreements were resolved by consensus.From 95 case records, 424 vignettes were abstracted by 5 trained clinicians. There were 29 delirium cases according to the reference standard. Median age of subjects was 76.6 years (interquartile range 54.6 to 82.5. Against the original study DSM-IV diagnosis, the chart abstraction method gave a positive likelihood ratio (LR of 7.8 (95% CI 5.7-12.0 and the negative LR of 0.45 (95% CI 0.40-0.47 for probable delirium (sensitivity 0.58 (95% CI 0.53-0.62; specificity 0.93 (95% CI 0.90-0.95; AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.82-0.89. The method diagnosed possible delirium with positive LR 3.5 (95% CI 2.9-4.3 and negative LR 0.15 (95% CI 0.11-0.21 (sensitivity 0.89 (95% CI 0.85-0.91; specificity 0.75 (95% CI 0.71-0.79; AUC 0.86 (95% CI 0.80-0.89.This chart abstraction method can retrospectively diagnose delirium in hospitalised patients with good accuracy. This has potential for retrospectively identifying delirium in cohort studies where routine medical records are available. This example of record linkage between hospitalisations and epidemiological data may lead to further insights into the inter-relationship between acute

  16. Impact of Different Creatinine Measurement Methods on Liver Transplant Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Thorsten; Kinny-Köster, Benedict; Bartels, Michael; Parthaune, Tanja; Schmidt, Michael; Thiery, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score is used in many countries to prioritize organ allocation for the majority of patients who require orthotopic liver transplantation. This score is calculated based on the following laboratory parameters: creatinine, bilirubin and the international normalized ratio (INR). Consequently, high measurement accuracy is essential for equitable and fair organ allocation. For serum creatinine measurements, the Jaffé method and enzymatic detection are well-established routine diagnostic tests. Methods A total of 1,013 samples from 445 patients on the waiting list or in evaluation for liver transplantation were measured using both creatinine methods from November 2012 to September 2013 at the university hospital Leipzig, Germany. The measurements were performed in parallel according to the manufacturer’s instructions after the samples arrived at the institute of laboratory medicine. Patients who had required renal replacement therapy twice in the previous week were excluded from analyses. Results Despite the good correlation between the results of both creatinine quantification methods, relevant differences were observed, which led to different MELD scores. The Jaffé measurement led to greater MELD score in 163/1,013 (16.1%) samples with differences of up to 4 points in one patient, whereas differences of up to 2 points were identified in 15/1,013 (1.5%) samples using the enzymatic assay. Overall, 50/152 (32.9%) patients with MELD scores >20 had higher scores when the Jaffé method was used. Discussion Using the Jaffé method to measure creatinine levels in samples from patients who require liver transplantation may lead to a systematic preference in organ allocation. In this study, the differences were particularly pronounced in samples with MELD scores >20, which has clinical relevance in the context of urgency of transplantation. These data suggest that official recommendations are needed to determine which

  17. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  18. A Systematic Review to Identify the Use of Preference Elicitation Methods in Healthcare Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weernink, Marieke Geertruida Maria; Janus, Sarah; van Til, Janine Astrid; Raisch, Dennis; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; IJzerman, Maarten Joost

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Preference elicitation methods help to increase patient-centred medical decision making (MDM) by measuring benefit and value. Preferences can be applied in decisions regarding reimbursement, including health technology assessment (HTA); market access, including benefit–risk assessment

  19. Validation of MIMGO: a method to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a microarray dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Yoichi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO. MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO term are upregulated or downregulated. However, MIMGO has not yet been validated on a real microarray dataset using all available GO terms. Findings We combined Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA with MIMGO to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a yeast cell cycle microarray dataset. GSEA followed by MIMGO (GSEA + MIMGO correctly identified (p Conclusions MIMGO is a reliable method to identify differentially expressed GO terms comprehensively.

  20. Extending existing structural identifiability analysis methods to mixed-effects models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzén, David L I; Jirstrand, Mats; Chappell, Michael J; Evans, Neil D

    2018-01-01

    The concept of structural identifiability for state-space models is expanded to cover mixed-effects state-space models. Two methods applicable for the analytical study of the structural identifiability of mixed-effects models are presented. The two methods are based on previously established techniques for non-mixed-effects models; namely the Taylor series expansion and the input-output form approach. By generating an exhaustive summary, and by assuming an infinite number of subjects, functions of random variables can be derived which in turn determine the distribution of the system's observation function(s). By considering the uniqueness of the analytical statistical moments of the derived functions of the random variables, the structural identifiability of the corresponding mixed-effects model can be determined. The two methods are applied to a set of examples of mixed-effects models to illustrate how they work in practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement methods to build up the digital optical twin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnau, Marcel; Holzbrink, Michael; Wang, Wenxin; Holters, Martin; Stollenwerk, Jochen; Loosen, Peter

    2018-02-01

    The realization of the Digital Optical Twin (DOT), which is in short the digital representation of the physical state of an optical system, is particularly useful in the context of an automated assembly process of optical systems. During the assembly process, the physical system status of the optical system is continuously measured and compared with the digital model. In case of deviations between physical state and the digital model, the latter one is adapted to match the physical state. To reach the goal described above, in a first step measurement/characterization technologies concerning their suitability to generate a precise digital twin of an existing optical system have to be identified and evaluated. This paper gives an overview of possible characterization methods and, finally, shows first results of evaluated, compared methods (e.g. spot-radius, MTF, Zernike-polynomials), to create a DOT. The focus initially lies on the unequivocalness of the optimization results as well as on the computational time required for the optimization to reach the characterized system state. Possible sources of error are the measurement accuracy (to characterize the system) , execution time of the measurement, time needed to map the digital to the physical world (optimization step) as well as interface possibilities to integrate the measurement tool into an assembly cell. Moreover, it is to be discussed whether the used measurement methods are suitable for a `seamless' integration into an assembly cell.

  2. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J.

    2018-01-01

    A country’s total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup’s potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies. PMID:29425220

  3. Cervical Cord-Canal Mismatch: A New Method for Identifying Predisposition to Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Aria; Montejo, Julio; Sun, Xin; Virojanapa, Justin; Kolb, Luis E; Abbed, Khalid M; Cheng, Joseph S

    2017-12-01

    The risk for spinal cord injuries (SCIs) ranging from devastating traumatic injuries, compression because of degenerative pathology, and neurapraxia is increased in patients with congenital spinal stenosis. Classical diagnostic criteria include an absolute anteroposterior diameter of spinal cord, which varies across patients, independent of canal size. Recent large magnetic resonance imaging studies of population cohorts have allowed newer methods to emerge that account for both cord and canal size by measuring a spinal cord occupation ratio (SCOR). A SCOR defined as ≥70% on midsagittal imaging or ≥80% on axial imaging appears to be an effective method of identifying cord-canal mismatch, but requires further validation. Cord-canal size mismatch predisposes patients to SCI because of 1) less space within the canal lowering the amount of degenerative changes needed for cord compression, and 2) less cerebrospinal fluid surrounding the spinal cord decreasing the ability to absorb kinetic forces directed at the spine. Patients with cord-canal mismatch have been reported to be at a substantially higher risk of traumatic SCI, and present with degenerative cervical myelopathy at a younger age than patients without cord-canal mismatch. However, neurologic outcome after SCI has occurred does not appear to be different in patients with or without a cord-canal mismatch. Recognition that canal and cord size are both factors which predispose to SCI supports that cord-canal size mismatch rather than a narrow cervical canal in isolation should be viewed as the underlying mechanism predisposing to SCI. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Identifying deterministic signals in simulated gravitational wave data: algorithmic complexity and the surrogate data method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yi; Small, Michael; Coward, David; Howell, Eric; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David

    2006-01-01

    We describe the application of complexity estimation and the surrogate data method to identify deterministic dynamics in simulated gravitational wave (GW) data contaminated with white and coloured noises. The surrogate method uses algorithmic complexity as a discriminating statistic to decide if noisy data contain a statistically significant level of deterministic dynamics (the GW signal). The results illustrate that the complexity method is sensitive to a small amplitude simulated GW background (SNR down to 0.08 for white noise and 0.05 for coloured noise) and is also more robust than commonly used linear methods (autocorrelation or Fourier analysis)

  5. Identifying Structural Flow Defects in Disordered Solids Using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, E. D.; Schoenholz, S. S.; Rieser, J. M.; Malone, B. D.; Rottler, J.; Durian, D. J.; Kaxiras, E.; Liu, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    We use machine-learning methods on local structure to identify flow defects—or particles susceptible to rearrangement—in jammed and glassy systems. We apply this method successfully to two very different systems: a two-dimensional experimental realization of a granular pillar under compression and a Lennard-Jones glass in both two and three dimensions above and below its glass transition temperature. We also identify characteristics of flow defects that differentiate them from the rest of the sample. Our results show it is possible to discern subtle structural features responsible for heterogeneous dynamics observed across a broad range of disordered materials.

  6. The neutronic method for measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couchat, Ph.

    1967-01-01

    The three group diffusion theory being chosen as the most adequate method for determining the response of the neutron soil moisture probe, a mathematical model is worked out using a numerical calculation programme with Fortran IV coding. This model is fitted to the experimental conditions by determining the effect of different parameters of measuring device: channel, fast neutron source, detector, as also the soil behaviour under neutron irradiation: absorbers, chemical binding of elements. The adequacy of the model is tested by fitting a line through the image points corresponding to the couples of experimental and theoretical values, for seven media having different chemical composition: sand, alumina, line stone, dolomite, kaolin, sandy loam, calcareous clay. The model chosen gives a good expression of the dry density influence and allows α, β, γ and δ constants to be calculated for a definite soil according to the following relation which gives the count rate of the soil moisture probe: N = (α ρ s +β) H v +γ ρ s + δ. (author) [fr

  7. HIV-1 envelope sequence-based diversity measures for identifying recent infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Kafando

    Full Text Available Identifying recent HIV-1 infections is crucial for monitoring HIV-1 incidence and optimizing public health prevention efforts. To identify recent HIV-1 infections, we evaluated and compared the performance of 4 sequence-based diversity measures including percent diversity, percent complexity, Shannon entropy and number of haplotypes targeting 13 genetic segments within the env gene of HIV-1. A total of 597 diagnostic samples obtained in 2013 and 2015 from recently and chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were selected. From the selected samples, 249 (134 from recent versus 115 from chronic infections env coding regions, including V1-C5 of gp120 and the gp41 ectodomain of HIV-1, were successfully amplified and sequenced by next generation sequencing (NGS using the Illumina MiSeq platform. The ability of the four sequence-based diversity measures to correctly identify recent HIV infections was evaluated using the frequency distribution curves, median and interquartile range and area under the curve (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC. Comparing the median and interquartile range and evaluating the frequency distribution curves associated with the 4 sequence-based diversity measures, we observed that the percent diversity, number of haplotypes and Shannon entropy demonstrated significant potential to discriminate recent from chronic infections (p<0.0001. Using the AUC of ROC analysis, only the Shannon entropy measure within three HIV-1 env segments could accurately identify recent infections at a satisfactory level. The env segments were gp120 C2_1 (AUC = 0.806, gp120 C2_3 (AUC = 0.805 and gp120 V3 (AUC = 0.812. Our results clearly indicate that the Shannon entropy measure represents a useful tool for predicting HIV-1 infection recency.

  8. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases

    OpenAIRE

    Weycker Derek; Sofrygin Oleg; Seefeld Kim; Deeter Robert G; Legg Jason; Edelsberg John

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Methods Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classifie...

  9. Contemporary methods of body composition measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosbøl, Marie Ø; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    elements by in vivo neutron activation analysis, which are regarded as gold standard methods, are also summarized. The choice of a specific method or combination of methods for a particular study depends on various considerations including accuracy, precision, subject acceptability, convenience, cost...... and radiation exposure. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed with these considerations in mind....

  10. Identifying influential spreaders in complex networks based on kshell hybrid method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namtirtha, Amrita; Dutta, Animesh; Dutta, Biswanath

    2018-06-01

    Influential spreaders are the key players in maximizing or controlling the spreading in a complex network. Identifying the influential spreaders using kshell decomposition method has become very popular in the recent time. In the literature, the core nodes i.e. with the largest kshell index of a network are considered as the most influential spreaders. We have studied the kshell method and spreading dynamics of nodes using Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) epidemic model to understand the behavior of influential spreaders in terms of its topological location in the network. From the study, we have found that every node in the core area is not the most influential spreader. Even a strategically placed lower shell node can also be a most influential spreader. Moreover, the core area can also be situated at the periphery of the network. The existing indexing methods are only designed to identify the most influential spreaders from core nodes and not from lower shells. In this work, we propose a kshell hybrid method to identify highly influential spreaders not only from the core but also from lower shells. The proposed method comprises the parameters such as kshell power, node's degree, contact distance, and many levels of neighbors' influence potential. The proposed method is evaluated using nine real world network datasets. In terms of the spreading dynamics, the experimental results show the superiority of the proposed method over the other existing indexing methods such as the kshell method, the neighborhood coreness centrality, the mixed degree decomposition, etc. Furthermore, the proposed method can also be applied to large-scale networks by considering the three levels of neighbors' influence potential.

  11. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yulan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou (China); Li Baizhan [Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under the Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China); Yao Runming, E-mail: r.yao@reading.ac.u [School of Construction Management and Engineering, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment under Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing (China)

    2010-12-15

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: {yields}Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. {yields}The group AHP method for weighting indicators. {yields}Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  12. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan; Yao Runming

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: →Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. →The group AHP method for weighting indicators. →Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  13. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, P. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This guidance document was prepared using the input from the meeting summarized in the draft CSI Roadmap to provide Building America research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods.

  14. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  15. A method for identifying compromised clients based on DNS traffic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevanovic, Matija; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; D’Alconzo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    DNS is widely abused by Internet criminals in order to provide reliable communication within malicious network infrastructure as well as flexible and resilient hosting of malicious content. This paper presents a novel detection method that can be used for identifying potentially compromised clien...

  16. A Method for Identifying Contours in Processing Digital Images from Computer Tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, Şerban; Pater, Flavius; Costea, Dan; Munteanu, Mihnea; Roşu, Doina; Fratila, Mihaela

    2011-09-01

    The first step in digital processing of two-dimensional computed tomography images is to identify the contour of component elements. This paper deals with the collective work of specialists in medicine and applied mathematics in computer science on elaborating new algorithms and methods in medical 2D and 3D imagery.

  17. Common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance identified using the proxy-phenotype method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Rietveld (Niels); T. Esko (Tõnu); G. Davies (Gail); T.H. Pers (Tune); P. Turley (Patrick); B. Benyamin (Beben); C.F. Chabris (Christopher F.); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); J.J. Lee (James J.); C. de Leeuw (Christiaan); R.E. Marioni (Riccardo); S.E. Medland (Sarah Elizabeth); M. Miller (Mike); O. Rostapshova (Olga); S.J. van der Lee (Sven); A.A.E. Vinkhuyzen (Anna A.); N. Amin (Najaf); D. Conley (Dalton); J. Derringer; C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); R.S.N. Fehrmann (Rudolf); L. Franke (Lude); E.L. Glaeser (Edward L.); N.K. Hansell (Narelle); C. Hayward (Caroline); W.G. Iacono (William); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); J. Karjalainen (Juha); D. Laibson (David); P. Lichtenstein (Paul); D.C. Liewald (David C.); P.K. Magnusson (Patrik); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); M. McGue (Matt); G. Mcmahon (George); N.L. Pedersen (Nancy); S. Pinker (Steven); D.J. Porteous (David J.); D. Posthuma (Danielle); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.H. Smithk (Blair H.); J.M. Starr (John); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning); N.J. Timpsonm (Nicholas J.); M. Trzaskowskin (Maciej); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); M.E. Ward (Mary); M.J. Wright (Margaret); G.D. Smith; I.J. Deary (Ian J.); M. Johannesson (Magnus); R. Plomin (Robert); P.M. Visscher (Peter); D.J. Benjamin (Daniel J.); D. Cesarini (David); Ph.D. Koellinger (Philipp)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe identify common genetic variants associated with cognitive performance using a two-stage approach, which we call the proxyphenotype method. First, we conduct a genome-wide association study of educational attainment in a large sample (n = 106,736), which produces a set of 69

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR METHOD TO IDENTIFY HEPATITIS E VIRUS IN WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes an infectious form of hepatitis associated with contaminated water. By analyzing the sequence of several HEV isolates, a reverse transciption-polymerase chain reaction method was developed and optimized that should be able to identify all of the kn...

  19. Methods and Techniques of Sampling, Culturing and Identifying of Subsurface Bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Yeop; Baik, Min Hoon

    2010-11-01

    This report described sampling, culturing and identifying of KURT underground bacteria, which existed as iron-, manganese-, and sulfate-reducing bacteria. The methods of culturing and media preparation were different by bacteria species affecting bacteria growth-rates. It will be possible for the cultured bacteria to be used for various applied experiments and researches in the future

  20. Standard-Setting Methods as Measurement Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Paul; Twing, Jon; Mueller, Canda D.; O'Malley, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Some writers in the measurement literature have been skeptical of the meaningfulness of achievement standards and described the standard-setting process as blatantly arbitrary. We argue that standard setting is more appropriately conceived of as a measurement process similar to student assessment. The construct being measured is the panelists'…

  1. Simplified LCA and matrix methods in identifying the environmental aspects of a product system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Tak; Lee, Jiyong; Ryu, Jiyeon; Kwon, Eunsun

    2005-05-01

    In order to effectively integrate environmental attributes into the product design and development processes, it is crucial to identify the significant environmental aspects related to a product system within a relatively short period of time. In this study, the usefulness of life cycle assessment (LCA) and a matrix method as tools for identifying the key environmental issues of a product system were examined. For this, a simplified LCA (SLCA) method that can be applied to Electrical and Electronic Equipment (EEE) was developed to efficiently identify their significant environmental aspects for eco-design, since a full scale LCA study is usually very detailed, expensive and time-consuming. The environmentally responsible product assessment (ERPA) method, which is one of the matrix methods, was also analyzed. Then, the usefulness of each method in eco-design processes was evaluated and compared using the case studies of the cellular phone and vacuum cleaner systems. It was found that the SLCA and the ERPA methods provided different information but they complemented each other to some extent. The SLCA method generated more information on the inherent environmental characteristics of a product system so that it might be useful for new design/eco-innovation when developing a completely new product or method where environmental considerations play a major role from the beginning. On the other hand, the ERPA method gave more information on the potential for improving a product so that it could be effectively used in eco-redesign which intends to alleviate environmental impacts of an existing product or process.

  2. A comparison of statistical methods for identifying out-of-date systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porjai Pattanittum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews (SRs can provide accurate and reliable evidence, typically about the effectiveness of health interventions. Evidence is dynamic, and if SRs are out-of-date this information may not be useful; it may even be harmful. This study aimed to compare five statistical methods to identify out-of-date SRs. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of SRs registered in the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group (CPCG, published between 2008 and 2010, were considered for inclusion. For each eligible CPCG review, data were extracted and "3-years previous" meta-analyses were assessed for the need to update, given the data from the most recent 3 years. Each of the five statistical methods was used, with random effects analyses throughout the study. RESULTS: Eighty reviews were included in this study; most were in the area of induction of labour. The numbers of reviews identified as being out-of-date using the Ottawa, recursive cumulative meta-analysis (CMA, and Barrowman methods were 34, 7, and 7 respectively. No reviews were identified as being out-of-date using the simulation-based power method, or the CMA for sufficiency and stability method. The overall agreement among the three discriminating statistical methods was slight (Kappa = 0.14; 95% CI 0.05 to 0.23. The recursive cumulative meta-analysis, Ottawa, and Barrowman methods were practical according to the study criteria. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that three practical statistical methods could be applied to examine the need to update SRs.

  3. Rethinking traditional methods for measuring intellectual capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, John A

    2007-01-01

    Historically, approaches to measuring intellectual capital have included both conventional accounting-based measures, such as variants of the market-to-book ratio, and more progressive measures, such as the measurement of intangible assets found in approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard and Human Resource Accounting. As greater emphasis is placed on intellectual capital and its various aspects in the continually growing service and knowledge economy, the use of assessment instruments to inventory the alignment, balance, and variety of intellectual capacities and metrics that assess the effectiveness of succession planning may represent new directions in which organizations can head in the measurement of this important construct.

  4. Current lung water measurement methods in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basset, G.; Moreau, F.; Marsac, J.; Capitini, R.; Botter, F.

    1979-01-01

    Two kinds of tracer method are used to estimate the lung water pools differing by the tracer intake and the sector observed. Airborne intake gives an estimate of the tissues irrigated by the lung and bronchial circulation, whereas vascular intake only shows the sectors perfused by the lung flow. Either of these methods is suitable for a general or regional analysis. In general methods the tracer is followed at the lung exit on expired air for the first method, on peripheral arterial blood for the second. Regional methods imply partial or whole-lung external detection systems [fr

  5. Human immune responses to H. pylori HLA Class II epitopes identified by immunoinformatic methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhua Zhang

    Full Text Available H. pylori persists in the human stomach over decades and promotes several adverse clinical sequelae including gastritis, peptic ulcers and gastric cancer that are linked to the induction and subsequent evasion of chronic gastric inflammation. Emerging evidence indicates that H. pylori infection may also protect against asthma and some other immune-mediated conditions through regulatory T cell effects outside the stomach. To characterize the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response generated during H. pylori infection, computational methods were previously used to generate a panel of 90 predicted epitopes conserved among H. pylori genomes that broadly cover HLA Class II diversity for maximum population coverage. Here, these sequences were tested individually for their ability to induce in vitro responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by interferon-γ ELISpot assay. The average number of spot-forming cells/million PBMCs was significantly elevated in H. pylori-infected subjects over uninfected persons. Ten of the 90 peptides stimulated IFN-γ secretion in the H. pylori-infected group only, whereas two out of the 90 peptides elicited a detectable IFN-γ response in the H. pylori-uninfected subjects but no response in the H. pylori-infected group. Cytokine ELISA measurements performed using in vitro PBMC culture supernatants demonstrated significantly higher levels of TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and TGF-β1 in the H. pylori-infected subjects, whereas IL-17A expression was not related to the subjects H. pylori-infection status. Our results indicate that the human T cell responses to these 90 peptides are generally increased in actively H. pylori-infected, compared with H. pylori-naïve, subjects. This information will improve understanding of the complex immune response to H. pylori, aiding rational epitope-driven vaccine design as well as helping identify other H. pylori epitopes with potentially immunoregulatory effects.

  6. Shadow photography method for beam emittance measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashkovskij, V.V.; Lisin, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    Improved technique of shadow photography which allows to measure rather simply and accurately the angular distribution of electrons extracted from betatron is described. Measurement accuracy of particle flight angles is determined by setting of rods relatively to the plane of photographic paper sheet, their diameter and shadow trace length. Incidental angle deviation of rod axes contributes mainly into the error. Mean root-square error constituted 2-3% according to the results of several measurements of angles

  7. A novel method to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis based on differential pathway networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shi-Tong; Sun, Yong-Hua; Zong, Shi-Hua

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to identify hub pathways of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using a novel method based on differential pathway network (DPN) analysis. The present study proposed a DPN where protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network was integrated with pathway‑pathway interactions. Pathway data was obtained from background PPI network and the Reactome pathway database. Subsequently, pathway interactions were extracted from the pathway data by building randomized gene‑gene interactions and a weight value was assigned to each pathway interaction using Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC) to identify differential pathway interactions. Differential pathway interactions were visualized using Cytoscape to construct a DPN. Topological analysis was conducted to identify hub pathways that possessed the top 5% degree distribution of DPN. Modules of DPN were mined according to ClusterONE. A total of 855 pathways were selected to build pathway interactions. By filtrating pathway interactions of weight values >0.7, a DPN with 312 nodes and 791 edges was obtained. Topological degree analysis revealed 15 hub pathways, such as heparan sulfate/heparin‑glycosaminoglycan (HS‑GAG) degradation, HS‑GAG metabolism and keratan sulfate degradation for RA based on DPN. Furthermore, hub pathways were also important in modules, which validated the significance of hub pathways. In conclusion, the proposed method is a computationally efficient way to identify hub pathways of RA, which identified 15 hub pathways that may be potential biomarkers and provide insight to future investigation and treatment of RA.

  8. Identifying Time Measurement Tampering in the Traversal Time and Hop Count Analysis (TTHCA Wormhole Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonny Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traversal time and hop count analysis (TTHCA is a recent wormhole detection algorithm for mobile ad hoc networks (MANET which provides enhanced detection performance against all wormhole attack variants and network types. TTHCA involves each node measuring the processing time of routing packets during the route discovery process and then delivering the measurements to the source node. In a participation mode (PM wormhole where malicious nodes appear in the routing tables as legitimate nodes, the time measurements can potentially be altered so preventing TTHCA from successfully detecting the wormhole. This paper analyses the prevailing conditions for time tampering attacks to succeed for PM wormholes, before introducing an extension to the TTHCA detection algorithm called ∆T Vector which is designed to identify time tampering, while preserving low false positive rates. Simulation results confirm that the ∆T Vector extension is able to effectively detect time tampering attacks, thereby providing an important security enhancement to the TTHCA algorithm.

  9. Anterior temporal artery tap to identify systemic interference using short-separation NIRS measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sood, Mehak; Jindal, Utkarsh; Chowdhury, Shubhajit Roy

    2015-01-01

    that are also affected by tDCS. An approach may be to use short optode separations to measure systemic hemodynamic fluctuations occurring in the superficial layers which can then be used as regressors to remove the systemic contamination. Here, we demonstrate that temporal artery tap may be used to better...... of neural activity is possible with a measure of cerebral hemoglobin oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). In principal accordance, NIRS can capture the hemodynamic response to tDCS but the challenge remains in removing the systemic interference occurring in the superficial layers of the head...... identify systemic interference using this short-separation NIRS. Moreover, NIRS-EEG joint-imaging during anodal tDCS was used to measure changes in mean cerebral haemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2) along with changes in the log-transformed mean-power of EEG within 0.5 Hz-11.25 Hz. We found that percent...

  10. Superconducting property measuring system by magnetization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikisawa, K.; Mori, T.; Takasu, N.

    1988-01-01

    Superconducting property measuring system (CMS-370B) for high temperature oxide superconductor has been developed. This system adopts magnetization measurement. The superconducting properties are able to be measured automatically and continuously changing the temperature and external magnetic field. The critical current density as a function of temperature and magnetic field of high temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-y (YBCO) has been measured. This paper reports how it was confirmed that this system having the high performance and the accuracy gave the significant contribution to the superconducting material development

  11. Method of detecting system function by measuring frequency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John L.; Morrison, William H.; Christophersen, Jon P.; Motloch, Chester G.

    2013-01-08

    Methods of rapidly measuring an impedance spectrum of an energy storage device in-situ over a limited number of logarithmically distributed frequencies are described. An energy storage device is excited with a known input signal, and a response is measured to ascertain the impedance spectrum. An excitation signal is a limited time duration sum-of-sines consisting of a select number of frequencies. In one embodiment, magnitude and phase of each frequency of interest within the sum-of-sines is identified when the selected frequencies and sample rate are logarithmic integer steps greater than two. This technique requires a measurement with a duration of one period of the lowest frequency. In another embodiment, where selected frequencies are distributed in octave steps, the impedance spectrum can be determined using a captured time record that is reduced to a half-period of the lowest frequency.

  12. Direct measurement of tritium in urine by liquid scintillation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Caihong; Wen Qinghua; Chen Kefei; Li Huaixin

    1999-01-01

    The author introduces the method for direct measurement of tritium concentration in urine using liquid scintillation. Effects of sampling containers, store patterns and storage time are studied. Meanwhile, results of two methods are compared with direct measurement method and oxidation distillation method. The results shows that direct measurement method is a economic and simple method, which can meet the need of determination of urine tritium for NPP workers. There is no significant difference compared with the data obtained by oxidation distillation method

  13. Mapping Mixed Methods Research: Methods, Measures, and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how concept maps and mind maps can be used as data collection tools in mixed methods research to combine the clarity of quantitative counts with the nuance of qualitative reflections. Based on more traditional mixed methods approaches, this article details how the use of pre/post concept maps can be used to design qualitative…

  14. A Nondestructive Method to Identify POP Contamination Sources in Omnivorous Seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, Rosanne J; Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Parsons, John R; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2018-03-13

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. Conventional sampling methods applied when studying POP contamination are destructive and ethically undesired. The aim of this literature review was to evaluate the potential of using feathers as a nondestructive method to determine sources of POP contamination in individual gulls. The reviewed data showed that high concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs in feathers together with a large proportion of less bioaccumulative congeners may indicate that the contamination originates from landfills. Low PCB and PBDE concentrations in feathers and a large proportion of more bioaccumulative congeners could indicate that the contamination originates from marine prey. We propose a nondestructive approach to identify the source of contamination in individual gulls based on individual contamination levels and PCB and PBDE congener profiles in feathers. Despite some uncertainties that might be reduced by future research, we conclude that especially when integrated with other methods like GPS tracking and the analysis of stable isotopic signatures, identifying the source of POP contamination based on congener profiles in feathers could become a powerful nondestructive method.

  15. VIBRATIONS MEASUREMENT IN ORDER TO IDENTIFY THE FAULTS TO THE TABLES AND SUPPORTS ON WHICH THE EMBROIDERY MACHINES ARE PLACED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞUTEU Marius

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to accurately and quickly identify the faults of the tables and supports on which the embroidery machines are placed through vibrations measuring method. Vibrations measurements on Happy embroidery machine were performed at S.C. CONFIDEX S.R.L Oradea. A FFT spectrum analyzer Impaq was used, made by Benstone Instruments Inc –SUA. The measurements were performed in order to seek the role and importance of the rigidity of embroidery machine supports for a better and more efficient performance of the machine. Before performing these measurements was determined the optimal operating mode of the embroidery machine. The vibration measurements were performed in each measuring point, by installing a vibration sensor on the three directions of the Cartesian coordinates system: axial (X, horizontal (Y, vertical (Z. In the present paper is shown only the measuring direction Z (sensor mounting direction and advance of the material on x direction (the embroidery direction this is the most relevant direction, as on this part the embroidery is executed. After performing these vibration measurements on the HAPPY embroidery machine, previously mounted on a big table, after that mounted on a smaller table and a less rigid base. The same vibrations measurements were performed and it was noticed that it is mandatory to position the machine on a big table and a stable base because it will influence both the reliability and the working regime of the machine.

  16. Method of measuring distance between fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Megumu.

    1991-01-01

    The distance between fuel elements contained in a pool is measured in a contactless manner even for a narrow distance less than 1 mm. That is, the equipment for measuring the distance between spent fuel elements of a spent fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor comprises a optical fiber scope, a lens, an industrial TV camera and a monitor TV. The top end of the optical fiber scope is inserted between fuel elements to be measured. The state thereof is displayed on the TV screen to measure the distance between the fuel elements. The measured results are compared with a previously formed calibration curve to determine the value between the fuel elements. Then, the distance between the fuel elements can be determined in the pool of a power plant without dismantling the fuel assembly, to investigate the state of the bending and estimate the fuel working life. (I.S.)

  17. Use of stream water pH and specific conductance measurements to identify ground water discharges of fly ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Low pH and high specific conductance are typical chemical characteristics of coal fly ash leachate. Measurements of these parameters in streams adjacent to a fly ash facility were used to identify areas of ground water discharge into the streams. In-situ specific conductance and pH were determined at approximately 50 surface water stations from on-site and off-site streams. The results of the in-situ determinations were used to select twelve surface water stations for more detailed chemical analyses. The chemical character of the stream water affected by ground water discharges was similar to the water quality of sedimentation ponds which received drainage from the fly ash embankment. The results indicated that in-situ measurements of indicator parameters such as pH and specific conductance can be used as a screening method for identifying surface water quality impacts at fly ash facilities

  18. Method for early detection of infectious mononucleosis by identifying Inmono proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Karen E.

    1984-01-01

    Early detection of infectious mononucleosis is carried out using a sample of human blood by isolating and identifying the presence of Inmono proteins in the sample from a two-dimensional protein map with the proteins being characterized by having isoelectric banding as measured in urea of about -16 to -17 with respect to certain isoelectric point standards and molecular mass of about 70 to 75 K daltons as measured in the presence of sodium dodecylsulfate containing polyacrylamide gels, the presence of the Inmono proteins being correlated with the existence of infectious mononucleosis.

  19. The global equilibrium method and its hybrid implementation for identifying heterogeneous elastic material parameters

    KAUST Repository

    Lubineau, Gilles

    2011-04-01

    New identification strategies have to be developed in order to perform the identification quickly and at very-low cost. A popular class of approaches relies on full-field measurement obtained through digital image correlation. We propose here a global equilibrium approach. It is based on the virtual field method in case specific virtual fields are used. It can also be seen as a generalization of the equilibrium gap method. This approach is easy to implement and we prove that it provides better or comparable results to the constitutive equation gap method that is known to be a very accurate reference. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  20. An Iterative Regularization Method for Identifying the Source Term in a Second Order Differential Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Zouyed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the inverse problem of determining an unknown source in a second order differential equation from measured final data. This problem is ill-posed; that is, the solution (if it exists does not depend continuously on the data. In order to solve the considered problem, an iterative method is proposed. Using this method a regularized solution is constructed and an a priori error estimate between the exact solution and its regularized approximation is obtained. Moreover, numerical results are presented to illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of this method.

  1. Use of rank sum method in identifying high occupational dose jobs for ALARA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeong Ho; Kang, Chang Sun

    1998-01-01

    The cost-effective reduction of occupational radiation exposure (ORE) dose at a nuclear power plant could not be achieved without going through an extensive analysis of accumulated ORE dose data of existing plants. It is necessary to identify what are high ORE jobs for ALARA implementation. In this study, the Rank Sum Method (RSM) is used in identifying high ORE jobs. As a case study, the database of ORE-related maintenance and repair jobs for Kori Units 3 and 4 is used for assessment, and top twenty high ORE jobs are identified. The results are also verified and validated using the Friedman test, and RSM is found to be a very efficient way of analyzing the data. (author)

  2. New Method to Identify Field Joint Coating Failures Based on MFL In-Line Inspection Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianshuang Dai

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Above ground indirect detections and random excavations that have applied the past years for buried long distance oil and gas pipelines can only identify some damaged coating locations. Hence, large number of field joint coating (FJC failures happen unconsciously until they lead to failures of the pipelines. Based on the analysis of magnetic flux leakage (MFL in-line inspection (ILI signals, combined with the statistical results of 414 excavations from two different pipeline sections, a new method to identify the failed FJC is established. Though it can only identify FJC failures when there are signs of corrosion on pipe body, it is much more efficient and cost-saving. The concluded identification rule still needs more validations and improvements to be more applicable and accuracy.

  3. An Efficient, Noniterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2016-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we also provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. An Efficient, Non-iterative Method of Identifying the Cost-Effectiveness Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Sze-chuan; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis aims to identify treatments and policies that maximize benefits subject to resource constraints. However, the conventional process of identifying the efficient frontier (i.e., the set of potentially cost-effective options) can be algorithmically inefficient, especially when considering a policy problem with many alternative options or when performing an extensive suite of sensitivity analyses for which the efficient frontier must be found for each. Here, we describe an alternative one-pass algorithm that is conceptually simple, easier to implement, and potentially faster for situations that challenge the conventional approach. Our algorithm accomplishes this by exploiting the relationship between the net monetary benefit and the cost-effectiveness plane. To facilitate further evaluation and use of this approach, we additionally provide scripts in R and Matlab that implement our method and can be used to identify efficient frontiers for any decision problem. PMID:25926282

  5. A Systematic Review of Tools to Measure Respiratory Rate in Order to Identify Childhood Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Lenahan, Jennifer L; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Ansermino, J Mark

    2018-05-01

    Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide, with most deaths occurring in developing countries. Measuring respiratory rate is critical to the World Health Organization's guidelines for diagnosing childhood pneumonia in low-resource settings, yet it is difficult to accurately measure. We conducted a systematic review to landscape existing respiratory rate measurement technologies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Compendex for studies published through September 2017 assessing the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement technologies in children. We identified 16 studies: 2 describing manual devices and 14 describing automated devices. Although both studies describing manual devices took place in low-resource settings, all studies describing automated devices were conducted in well-resourced settings. Direct comparison between studies was complicated by small sample size, absence of a consistent reference standard, and variations in comparison methodology. There is an urgent need for affordable and appropriate innovations that can reliably measure a child's respiratory rate in low-resource settings. Accelerating development or scale-up of these technologies could have the potential to advance childhood pneumonia diagnosis worldwide.

  6. Arterial endothelial function measurement method and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maltz, Jonathan S; Budinger, Thomas F

    2014-03-04

    A "relaxoscope" (100) detects the degree of arterial endothelial function. Impairment of arterial endothelial function is an early event in atherosclerosis and correlates with the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An artery (115), such as the brachial artery (BA) is measured for diameter before and after several minutes of either vasoconstriction or vasorelaxation. The change in arterial diameter is a measure of flow-mediated vasomodification (FMVM). The relaxoscope induces an artificial pulse (128) at a superficial radial artery (115) via a linear actuator (120). An ultrasonic Doppler stethoscope (130) detects this pulse 10-20 cm proximal to the point of pulse induction (125). The delay between pulse application and detection provides the pulse transit time (PTT). By measuring PTT before (160) and after arterial diameter change (170), FMVM may be measured based on the changes in PTT caused by changes in vessel caliber, smooth muscle tone and wall thickness.

  7. A Novel Method for Short Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Garcia, C.F.; Rodigrido, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new, accurate and un expensive device for measuring short distances, intended for monitoring in LHC experiments is presented. Data taken with a very simple prototype are shown and performance is extracted. (Author) 4 refs

  8. What gets measured gets managed: A new method of measuring household food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, Efrat; Ayalon, Ofira; Ert, Eyal

    2018-03-22

    The quantification of household food waste is an essential part of setting policies and waste reduction goals, but it is very difficult to estimate. Current methods include either direct measurements (physical waste surveys) or measurements based on self-reports (diaries, interviews, and questionnaires). The main limitation of the first method is that it cannot always trace the waste source, i.e., an individual household, whereas the second method lacks objectivity. This article presents a new measurement method that offers a solution to these challenges by measuring daily produced food waste at the household level. This method is based on four main principles: (1) capturing waste as it enters the stream, (2) collecting waste samples at the doorstep, (3) using the individual household as the sampling unit, and (4) collecting and sorting waste daily. We tested the feasibility of the new method with an empirical study of 192 households, measuring the actual amounts of food waste from households as well as its composition. Household food waste accounted for 45% of total waste (573 g/day per capita), of which 54% was identified as avoidable. Approximately two thirds of avoidable waste consisted of vegetables and fruit. These results are similar to previous findings from waste surveys, yet the new method showed a higher level of accuracy. The feasibility test suggests that the proposed method provides a practical tool for policy makers for setting policy based on reliable empirical data and monitoring the effectiveness of different policies over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An extensible and successful method of identifying collaborators for National Library of Medicine informationist projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeff D; Rambo, Neil H

    2015-07-01

    The New York University (NYU) Health Sciences Library used a new method to arrange in-depth discussions with basic science researchers. The objective was to identify collaborators for a new National Library of Medicine administrative supplement. The research took place at the NYU Health Sciences Library. Using the National Institutes of Health (NIH) RePORTER, forty-four researchers were identified and later contacted through individualized emails. Nine researchers responded to the email followed by six in-person or phone discussions. At the conclusion of this process, two researchers submitted applications for supplemental funding, and both of these applications were successful. This method confirmed these users could benefit from the skills and knowledge of health sciences librarians, but they are largely unaware of this.

  10. Complementary methods of transverse emittance measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagel, James; Hu, Martin; Jansson, Andreas; Thurman-Keup, Randy; Yan, Ming-Jen; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    Several complementary transverse emittance monitors have been developed and used at the Fermilab accelerator complex. These include Ionization profile Monitors (IPM), Flying Wires, Schottky detectors and a Synchrotron Light Monitor (Synchlite). Mechanical scrapers have also been used for calibration purposes. This paper describes the various measurement devices by examining their basic features, calibration requirements, systematic uncertainties, and applications to collider operation. A comparison of results from different kinds of measurements is also presented.

  11. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, R.; Marinkovich, P.S.; Spadaro, P.R.; Stout, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution. 1 claim, 7 figures

  12. Dimension measuring method for channel box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hiroto.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns detection of a channel box for spent fuel assemblies of a BWR type reactor, which measures a cross sectional shape and dimension of the channel box to check deformation amount such as expansion. That is, a customary fuel exchanger and a dimension measuring device are used. The lower end of the channel box is measured by a distance sensor of the dimension measuring device when it is aligned with a position of the distance sensor. The channel box is lowered at the same time while detecting axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The position of the channel box in an axial direction is detected based on axial position data of the fuel exchanger. The lower end of the channel box can accurately be recognized by the detection of both of them. Subsequent deformation measurement for the channel box at accurate axial positions is enabled. In addition, since the axial position data of the fuel exchanger per se are detected, an axial profile of the channel box can be measured even if a lifting speed of the channel box is varied on every region. (I.S.)

  13. A New Measurement Method of Iimage Encryption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, X Y; Zhang, J; Ren, H E; Li, S; Zhang, X D

    2006-01-01

    Image scrambling transformation is applied widely in the digital watermarking and image encryption. Although more and more scrambling algorithms appear, they lack a method to evaluate the image scrambling degree. According to the relative differences of a point and adjacent point in scrambling front and back, a new method which judges the scrambling degree is proposed. Not only it can evaluate the change of each pixel's position, but also evaluate the change of adjacent pixel's value. Apply Matlab to the simulation experiment, the result indicated that this method can evaluate image scrambling degree well, and it accorded with people's vision too

  14. Systems and methods for automatically identifying and linking names in digital resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Charles T.; Lyons, Catherine M.; Roston, Gerald P.; Garrity, George M.

    2017-06-06

    The present invention provides systems and methods for automatically identifying name-like-strings in digital resources, matching these name-like-string against a set of names held in an expertly curated database, and for those name-like-strings found in said database, enhancing the content by associating additional matter with the name, wherein said matter includes information about the names that is held within said database and pointers to other digital resources which include the same name and it synonyms.

  15. Validation of MIMGO: a method to identify differentially expressed GO terms in a microarray dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Yamada, Yoichi; Sawada, Hiroki; Hirotani, Ken-ichi; Oshima, Masanobu; Satou, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We previously proposed an algorithm for the identification of GO terms that commonly annotate genes whose expression is upregulated or downregulated in some microarray data compared with in other microarray data. We call these “differentially expressed GO terms” and have named the algorithm “matrix-assisted identification method of differentially expressed GO terms” (MIMGO). MIMGO can also identify microarray data in which genes annotated with a differentially expressed GO...

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, J. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described in which the capacitance of a semiconductor junction subjected to an electromagnetic radiation field is utilized to indicate the intensity or strength of the radiation.

  17. Methods to measure stability of dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Digholkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implant treatment is an excellent option for prosthetic restoration that is associated with high success rates. Implant stability is essential for a good outcome. The clinical assessment of osseointegration is based on mechanical stability rather than histological criteria, considering primary stability (absence of mobility in bone bed after implant insertion and secondary stability (bone formation and remodeling at implant-bone interface. However, due to the invasive nature of the histological methods various other methods have been proposed: Radiographs, the surgeon′s perception, Insertion torque (cutting torque analysis, seating torque, reverse torque testing, percussion testing, impact hammer method, pulsed oscillation waveform, implant mobility checker, Periotest, resonance frequency analysis. This review focuses on the methods currently available for the evaluation of implant stability.

  18. Measuring the Electronic Properties of DNA-Specific Schottky Diodes Towards Detecting and Identifying Basidiomycetes DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periasamy, Vengadesh; Rizan, Nastaran; Al-Ta’ii, Hassan Maktuff Jaber; Tan, Yee Shin; Tajuddin, Hairul Annuar; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of semiconducting behavior of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has resulted in a large number of literatures in the study of DNA electronics. Sequence-specific electronic response provides a platform towards understanding charge transfer mechanism and therefore the electronic properties of DNA. It is possible to utilize these characteristic properties to identify/detect DNA. In this current work, we demonstrate a novel method of DNA-based identification of basidiomycetes using current-voltage (I-V) profiles obtained from DNA-specific Schottky barrier diodes. Electronic properties such as ideality factor, barrier height, shunt resistance, series resistance, turn-on voltage, knee-voltage, breakdown voltage and breakdown current were calculated and used to quantify the identification process as compared to morphological and molecular characterization techniques. The use of these techniques is necessary in order to study biodiversity, but sometimes it can be misleading and unreliable and is not sufficiently useful for the identification of fungi genera. Many of these methods have failed when it comes to identification of closely related species of certain genus like Pleurotus. Our electronics profiles, both in the negative and positive bias regions were however found to be highly characteristic according to the base-pair sequences. We believe that this simple, low-cost and practical method could be useful towards identifying and detecting DNA in biotechnology and pathology. PMID:27435636

  19. Methods of Identifying Limb Dominance in Adolescent Female Basketball Players: Implications for Clinical and Biomechanical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulrey, Colleen R; Shultz, Sandra J; Ford, Kevin R; Nguyen, Anh-Dung; Taylor, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-29

    To identify relationships between self-reported limb preferences and performance measures for determining limb dominance in adolescent female basketball players. Cross-sectional cohort study. Forty adolescent female basketball players. Participants provided self-reported preferred kicking and jumping limbs, then completed 3 trials of a single-limb countermovement hop (HOPVER) and unilateral triple hop for distance (HOPHOR) on each limb. Each test was used to independently define limb dominance by the limb that produced the largest maximum vertical height and horizontal distance, respectively. Chi-square tests for independence identified a significant relationship between self-reported preferred kicking and jumping legs (χ = 7.41, P = 0.006). However, no significant relationships were found when comparing self-reported preference to measures of performance during the HOPHOR (χ = 0.33, P = 0.57) or HOPVER (χ = 0.06, P = 0.80). In addition, the 2 performance measures did not consistently produce the same definition of limb dominance among individuals (χ = 1.52, P = 0.22). Self-selection of the dominant limb is unrelated to performance. Furthermore, limb dominance, as defined by vertical jump height, is unrelated to limb dominance defined by horizontal jump distance. The results of this study call into question the validity of consistently defining limb dominance by self-reported measures in adolescent female basketball players.

  20. Chemical Method of Urine Volume Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrack, P.

    1967-01-01

    A system has been developed and qualified as flight hardware for the measurement of micturition volumes voided by crewmen during Gemini missions. This Chemical Urine Volume Measurement System (CUVMS) is used for obtaining samples of each micturition for post-flight volume determination and laboratory analysis for chemical constituents of physiological interest. The system is versatile with respect to volumes measured, with a capacity beyond the largest micturition expected to be encountered, and with respect to mission duration of inherently indefinite length. The urine sample is used for the measurement of total micturition volume by a tracer dilution technique, in which a fixed, predetermined amount of tritiated water is introduced and mixed into the voided urine, and the resulting concentration of the tracer in the sample is determined with a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The tracer employed does not interfere with the analysis for the chemical constituents of the urine. The CUVMS hardware consists of a four-way selector valve in which an automatically operated tracer metering pump is incorporated, a collection/mixing bag, and tracer storage accumulators. The assembled system interfaces with a urine receiver at the selector valve inlet, sample bags which connect to the side of the selector valve, and a flexible hose which carries the excess urine to the overboard drain connection. Results of testing have demonstrated system volume measurement accuracy within the specification limits of +/-5%, and operating reliability suitable for system use aboard the GT-7 mission, in which it was first used.

  1. Refining Trait Resilience: Identifying Engineering, Ecological, and Adaptive Facets from Extant Measures of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hall, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    The current paper presents a new measure of trait resilience derived from three common mechanisms identified in ecological theory: Engineering, Ecological and Adaptive (EEA) resilience. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of five existing resilience scales suggest that the three trait resilience facets emerge, and can be reduced to a 12-item scale. The conceptualization and value of EEA resilience within the wider trait and well-being psychology is illustrated in terms of differing relationships with adaptive expressions of the traits of the five-factor personality model and the contribution to well-being after controlling for personality and coping, or over time. The current findings suggest that EEA resilience is a useful and parsimonious model and measure of trait resilience that can readily be placed within wider trait psychology and that is found to contribute to individual well-being. PMID:26132197

  2. A rapid and robust method of identifying transformed Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings following floral dip transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray John C

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The floral dip method of transformation by immersion of inflorescences in a suspension of Agrobacterium is the method of choice for Arabidopsis transformation. The presence of a marker, usually antibiotic- or herbicide-resistance, allows identification of transformed seedlings from untransformed seedlings. Seedling selection is a lengthy process which does not always lead to easily identifiable transformants. Selection for kanamycin-, phosphinothricin- and hygromycin B-resistance commonly takes 7–10 d and high seedling density and fungal contamination may result in failure to recover transformants. Results A method for identifying transformed seedlings in as little as 3.25 d has been developed. Arabidopsis T1 seeds obtained after floral dip transformation are plated on 1% agar containing MS medium and kanamycin, phosphinothricin or hygromycin B, as appropriate. After a 2-d stratification period, seeds are subjected to a regime of 4–6 h light, 48 h dark and 24 h light (3.25 d. Kanamycin-resistant and phosphinothricin-resistant seedlings are easily distinguished from non-resistant seedlings by green expanded cotyledons whereas non-resistant seedlings have pale unexpanded cotyledons. Seedlings grown on hygromycin B differ from those grown on kanamycin and phosphinothricin as both resistant and non-resistant seedlings are green. However, hygromycin B-resistant seedlings are easily identified as they have long hypocotyls (0.8–1.0 cm whereas non-resistant seedlings have short hypocotyls (0.2–0.4 cm. Conclusion The method presented here is an improvement on current selection methods as it allows quicker identification of transformed seedlings: transformed seedlings are easily discernable from non-transformants in as little as 3.25 d in comparison to the 7–10 d required for selection using current protocols.

  3. A general method for identifying major hybrid male sterility genes in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L W; Singh, R S

    1995-10-01

    The genes responsible for hybrid male sterility in species crosses are usually identified by introgressing chromosome segments, monitored by visible markers, between closely related species by continuous backcrosses. This commonly used method, however, suffers from two problems. First, it relies on the availability of markers to monitor the introgressed regions and so the portion of the genome examined is limited to the marked regions. Secondly, the introgressed regions are usually large and it is impossible to tell if the effects of the introgressed regions are the result of single (or few) major genes or many minor genes (polygenes). Here we introduce a simple and general method for identifying putative major hybrid male sterility genes which is free of these problems. In this method, the actual hybrid male sterility genes (rather than markers), or tightly linked gene complexes with large effects, are selectively introgressed from one species into the background of another species by repeated backcrosses. This is performed by selectively backcrossing heterozygous (for hybrid male sterility gene or genes) females producing fertile and sterile sons in roughly equal proportions to males of either parental species. As no marker gene is required for this procedure, this method can be used with any species pairs that produce unisexual sterility. With the application of this method, a small X chromosome region of Drosophila mauritiana which produces complete hybrid male sterility (aspermic testes) in the background of D. simulans was identified. Recombination analysis reveals that this region contains a second major hybrid male sterility gene linked to the forked locus located at either 62.7 +/- 0.66 map units or at the centromere region of the X chromosome of D. mauritiana.

  4. Advances in the Surface Renewal Flux Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapland, T. M.; McElrone, A.; Paw U, K. T.; Snyder, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The measurement of ecosystem-scale energy and mass fluxes between the planetary surface and the atmosphere is crucial for understanding geophysical processes. Surface renewal is a flux measurement technique based on analyzing the turbulent coherent structures that interact with the surface. It is a less expensive technique because it does not require fast-response velocity measurements, but only a fast-response scalar measurement. It is therefore also a useful tool for the study of the global cycling of trace gases. Currently, surface renewal requires calibration against another flux measurement technique, such as eddy covariance, to account for the linear bias of its measurements. We present two advances in the surface renewal theory and methodology that bring the technique closer to becoming a fully independent flux measurement method. The first advance develops the theory of turbulent coherent structure transport associated with the different scales of coherent structures. A novel method was developed for identifying the scalar change rate within structures at different scales. Our results suggest that for canopies less than one meter in height, the second smallest coherent structure scale dominates the energy and mass flux process. Using the method for resolving the scalar exchange rate of the second smallest coherent structure scale, calibration is unnecessary for surface renewal measurements over short canopies. This study forms the foundation for analysis over more complex surfaces. The second advance is a sensor frequency response correction for measuring the sensible heat flux via surface renewal. Inexpensive fine-wire thermocouples are frequently used to record high frequency temperature data in the surface renewal technique. The sensible heat flux is used in conjunction with net radiation and ground heat flux measurements to determine the latent heat flux as the energy balance residual. The robust thermocouples commonly used in field experiments

  5. A keyboard control method for loop measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Z.W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes a keyboard control mode based on the DEC VAX computer. The VAX Keyboard code can be found under running of a program was developed. During the loop measurement or multitask operation, it ables to be distinguished from a keyboard code to stop current operation or transfer to another operation while previous information can be held. The combining of this mode, the author successfully used one key control loop measurement for test Dual Input Memory module which is used in a rearrange Energy Trigger system for LEP 8 Bunch operation

  6. Methods for simultaneously identifying coherent local clusters with smooth global patterns in gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Yun-Shien

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical clustering tree (HCT with a dendrogram 1 and the singular value decomposition (SVD with a dimension-reduced representative map 2 are popular methods for two-way sorting the gene-by-array matrix map employed in gene expression profiling. While HCT dendrograms tend to optimize local coherent clustering patterns, SVD leading eigenvectors usually identify better global grouping and transitional structures. Results This study proposes a flipping mechanism for a conventional agglomerative HCT using a rank-two ellipse (R2E, an improved SVD algorithm for sorting purpose seriation by Chen 3 as an external reference. While HCTs always produce permutations with good local behaviour, the rank-two ellipse seriation gives the best global grouping patterns and smooth transitional trends. The resulting algorithm automatically integrates the desirable properties of each method so that users have access to a clustering and visualization environment for gene expression profiles that preserves coherent local clusters and identifies global grouping trends. Conclusion We demonstrate, through four examples, that the proposed method not only possesses better numerical and statistical properties, it also provides more meaningful biomedical insights than other sorting algorithms. We suggest that sorted proximity matrices for genes and arrays, in addition to the gene-by-array expression matrix, can greatly aid in the search for comprehensive understanding of gene expression structures. Software for the proposed methods can be obtained at http://gap.stat.sinica.edu.tw/Software/GAP.

  7. A scalable method for identifying frequent subtrees in sets of large phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramu, Avinash; Kahveci, Tamer; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2012-10-03

    We consider the problem of finding the maximum frequent agreement subtrees (MFASTs) in a collection of phylogenetic trees. Existing methods for this problem often do not scale beyond datasets with around 100 taxa. Our goal is to address this problem for datasets with over a thousand taxa and hundreds of trees. We develop a heuristic solution that aims to find MFASTs in sets of many, large phylogenetic trees. Our method works in multiple phases. In the first phase, it identifies small candidate subtrees from the set of input trees which serve as the seeds of larger subtrees. In the second phase, it combines these small seeds to build larger candidate MFASTs. In the final phase, it performs a post-processing step that ensures that we find a frequent agreement subtree that is not contained in a larger frequent agreement subtree. We demonstrate that this heuristic can easily handle data sets with 1000 taxa, greatly extending the estimation of MFASTs beyond current methods. Although this heuristic does not guarantee to find all MFASTs or the largest MFAST, it found the MFAST in all of our synthetic datasets where we could verify the correctness of the result. It also performed well on large empirical data sets. Its performance is robust to the number and size of the input trees. Overall, this method provides a simple and fast way to identify strongly supported subtrees within large phylogenetic hypotheses.

  8. msiDBN: A Method of Identifying Critical Proteins in Dynamic PPI Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of protein-protein interactions (PPIs reveals the recondite principles of biological processes inside a cell. Shown in a wealth of study, just a small group of proteins, rather than the majority, play more essential roles at crucial points of biological processes. This present work focuses on identifying these critical proteins exhibiting dramatic structural changes in dynamic PPI networks. First, a comprehensive way of modeling the dynamic PPIs is presented which simultaneously analyzes the activity of proteins and assembles the dynamic coregulation correlation between proteins at each time point. Second, a novel method is proposed, named msiDBN, which models a common representation of multiple PPI networks using a deep belief network framework and analyzes the reconstruction errors and the variabilities across the time courses in the biological process. Experiments were implemented on data of yeast cell cycles. We evaluated our network construction method by comparing the functional representations of the derived networks with two other traditional construction methods. The ranking results of critical proteins in msiDBN were compared with the results from the baseline methods. The results of comparison showed that msiDBN had better reconstruction rate and identified more proteins of critical value to yeast cell cycle process.

  9. LGscore: A method to identify disease-related genes using biological literature and Google data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongwoo; Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-04-01

    Since the genome project in 1990s, a number of studies associated with genes have been conducted and researchers have confirmed that genes are involved in disease. For this reason, the identification of the relationships between diseases and genes is important in biology. We propose a method called LGscore, which identifies disease-related genes using Google data and literature data. To implement this method, first, we construct a disease-related gene network using text-mining results. We then extract gene-gene interactions based on co-occurrences in abstract data obtained from PubMed, and calculate the weights of edges in the gene network by means of Z-scoring. The weights contain two values: the frequency and the Google search results. The frequency value is extracted from literature data, and the Google search result is obtained using Google. We assign a score to each gene through a network analysis. We assume that genes with a large number of links and numerous Google search results and frequency values are more likely to be involved in disease. For validation, we investigated the top 20 inferred genes for five different diseases using answer sets. The answer sets comprised six databases that contain information on disease-gene relationships. We identified a significant number of disease-related genes as well as candidate genes for Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, colon cancer, lung cancer, and prostate cancer. Our method was up to 40% more accurate than existing methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Combining measures of dispersal to identify conservation strategies in fragmented landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the way in which habitat fragmentation disrupts animal dispersal is key to identifying effective and efficient conservation strategies. To differentiate the potential effectiveness of 2 frequently used strategies for increasing the connectivity of populations in fragmented landscapes-corridors and stepping stones-we combined 3 complimentary methods: behavioral studies at habitat edges, mark-recapture, and genetic analyses. Each of these methods addresses different steps in the dispersal process that a single intensive study could not address. We applied the 3 methods to the case study of Atrytonopsis new species 1, a rare butterfly endemic to a partially urbanized stretch of barrier islands in North Carolina (U.S.A.). Results of behavioral analyses showed the butterfly flew into urban and forested areas, but not over open beach; mark-recapture showed that the butterfly dispersed successfully through short stretches of urban areas (5 km) were a dispersal barrier, but shorter stretches of urban areas (≤5 km) were not. Although results from all 3 methods indicated natural features in the landscape, not urbanization, were barriers to dispersal, when we combined the results we could determine where barriers might arise: forests restricted dispersal for the butterfly only when there were long stretches with no habitat. Therefore, urban areas have the potential to become a dispersal barrier if their extent increases, a finding that may have gone unnoticed if we had used a single approach. Protection of stepping stones should be sufficient to maintain connectivity for Atrytonopsis new species 1 at current levels of urbanization. Our research highlights how the use of complementary approaches for studying animal dispersal in fragmented landscapes can help identify conservation strategies. ©2011 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A; Gentillon, Cynthia A; Apel, William A

    2015-03-03

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  12. Identification of discriminant proteins through antibody profiling, methods and apparatus for identifying an individual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S; Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Gentillon, Cynthia A.

    2016-08-09

    A method for determining a plurality of proteins for discriminating and positively identifying an individual based from a biological sample. The method may include profiling a biological sample from a plurality of individuals against a protein array including a plurality of proteins. The protein array may include proteins attached to a support in a preselected pattern such that locations of the proteins are known. The biological sample may be contacted with the protein array such that a portion of antibodies in the biological sample reacts with and binds to the proteins forming immune complexes. A statistical analysis method, such as discriminant analysis, may be performed to determine discriminating proteins for distinguishing individuals. Proteins of interest may be used to form a protein array. Such a protein array may be used, for example, to compare a forensic sample from an unknown source with a sample from a known source.

  13. Persistent fatigue in young athletes: measuring the clinical course and identifying variables affecting clinical recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, S; Osborne, M; O'Rourke, P

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to measure the clinical course (months) in young athletes with persistent fatigue and to identify any covariates affecting the duration of recovery. This was a prospective longitudinal study of 68 athletes; 87% were elite (42 males, 26 females), aged 20.5±3.74 years (SD), who presented with the symptom of persistent fatigue. The collective duration to full clinical recovery was estimated using Kaplan-Meier product-limit curves, and covariates associated with prolonging recovery were identified from Cox proportional hazard models. The median recovery was 5 months (range 1-60 months). The range of presenting symptom duration was 0.5-36 months. The covariates identified were an increased duration of presenting symptoms [hazard ratio (HR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.02-1.12; P=0.005] and the response of serum cortisol concentration to a standard exercise challenge (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.09-3.38; P=0.03). Delay in recovery was not associated with categories of fatigue that included medical, training-related diagnoses, or other causes. In conclusion, the fatigued athlete represents a significant clinical problem with a median recovery of 5 months, whose collective clinical course to recovery can be estimated by Kaplan-Meier curves and appears to be a continuum. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Modeling strategy to identify patients with primary immunodeficiency utilizing risk management and outcome measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modell, Vicki; Quinn, Jessica; Ginsberg, Grant; Gladue, Ron; Orange, Jordan; Modell, Fred

    2017-06-01

    This study seeks to generate analytic insights into risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. The Jeffrey Modell Centers Network database, Jeffrey Modell Foundation's 10 Warning Signs, the 4 Stages of Testing Algorithm, physician-reported clinical outcomes, programs of physician education and public awareness, the SPIRIT® Analyzer, and newborn screening, taken together, generates P values of less than 0.05%. This indicates that the data results do not occur by chance, and that there is a better than 95% probability that the data are valid. The objectives are to improve patients' quality of life, while generating significant reduction of costs. The advances of the world's experts aligned with these JMF programs can generate analytic insights as to risk management and probability of an identifiable primary immunodeficiency defect. This strategy reduces the uncertainties related to primary immunodeficiency risks, as we can screen, test, identify, and treat undiagnosed patients. We can also address regional differences and prevalence, age, gender, treatment modalities, and sites of care, as well as economic benefits. These tools support high net benefits, substantial financial savings, and significant reduction of costs. All stakeholders, including patients, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies, third party payers, and government healthcare agencies, must address the earliest possible precise diagnosis, appropriate intervention and treatment, as well as stringent control of healthcare costs through risk assessment and outcome measurement. An affected patient is entitled to nothing less, and stakeholders are responsible to utilize tools currently available. Implementation offers a significant challenge to the entire primary immunodeficiency community.

  15. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad; Mohammed, Omar F.; Aly, Shawkat M.; Alarousu, Erkki

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  16. A Simulation Method Measuring Psychomotor Nursing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Helena; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The development of a simulation technique to evaluate performance of psychomotor skills in an undergraduate nursing program is described. This method is used as one admission requirement to an alternate route nursing program. With modifications, any health profession could use this technique where psychomotor skills performance is important.…

  17. Methods and systems for measuring anions

    KAUST Repository

    Masih, Dilshad

    2016-08-18

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for methods for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, systems for detecting the presence and/or concentration of anions in a solution, anion sensor systems, and the like.

  18. A method to identify differential expression profiles of time-course gene data with Fourier transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehee; Ogden, Robert Todd; Kim, Haseong

    2013-10-18

    Time course gene expression experiments are an increasingly popular method for exploring biological processes. Temporal gene expression profiles provide an important characterization of gene function, as biological systems are both developmental and dynamic. With such data it is possible to study gene expression changes over time and thereby to detect differential genes. Much of the early work on analyzing time series expression data relied on methods developed originally for static data and thus there is a need for improved methodology. Since time series expression is a temporal process, its unique features such as autocorrelation between successive points should be incorporated into the analysis. This work aims to identify genes that show different gene expression profiles across time. We propose a statistical procedure to discover gene groups with similar profiles using a nonparametric representation that accounts for the autocorrelation in the data. In particular, we first represent each profile in terms of a Fourier basis, and then we screen out genes that are not differentially expressed based on the Fourier coefficients. Finally, we cluster the remaining gene profiles using a model-based approach in the Fourier domain. We evaluate the screening results in terms of sensitivity, specificity, FDR and FNR, compare with the Gaussian process regression screening in a simulation study and illustrate the results by application to yeast cell-cycle microarray expression data with alpha-factor synchronization.The key elements of the proposed methodology: (i) representation of gene profiles in the Fourier domain; (ii) automatic screening of genes based on the Fourier coefficients and taking into account autocorrelation in the data, while controlling the false discovery rate (FDR); (iii) model-based clustering of the remaining gene profiles. Using this method, we identified a set of cell-cycle-regulated time-course yeast genes. The proposed method is general and can be

  19. Telerobotic system performance measurement - Motivation and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondraske, George V.; Khoury, George J.

    1992-01-01

    A systems performance-based strategy for modeling and conducting experiments relevant to the design and performance characterization of telerobotic systems is described. A developmental testbed consisting of a distributed telerobotics network and initial efforts to implement the strategy described is presented. Consideration is given to the general systems performance theory (GSPT) to tackle human performance problems as a basis for: measurement of overall telerobotic system (TRS) performance; task decomposition; development of a generic TRS model; and the characterization of performance of subsystems comprising the generic model. GSPT employs a resource construct to model performance and resource economic principles to govern the interface of systems to tasks. It provides a comprehensive modeling/measurement strategy applicable to complex systems including both human and artificial components. Application is presented within the framework of a distributed telerobotics network as a testbed. Insight into the design of test protocols which elicit application-independent data is described.

  20. Measurement methods on the complexity of network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Lin; DING Gang; CHEN Guo-song

    2010-01-01

    Based on the size of network and the number of paths in the network,we proposed a model of topology complexity of a network to measure the topology complexity of the network.Based on the analyses of the effects of the number of the equipment,the types of equipment and the processing time of the node on the complexity of the network with the equipment-constrained,a complexity model of equipment-constrained network was constructed to measure the integrated complexity of the equipment-constrained network.The algorithms for the two models were also developed.An automatic generator of the random single label network was developed to test the models.The results show that the models can correctly evaluate the topology complexity and the integrated complexity of the networks.

  1. Liquid temperature measuring method and device therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Fumi; Karasawa, Hirokazu

    1995-06-02

    In the present invention, temperature of liquid metal in coolants in an FBR type reactor can accurately be measured at rapid response time. Namely, ultrasonic waves are emitted from an ultrasonic wave sensor disposed in the air to a guide wave tube. Ultrasonic waves are reflected at reflection plates disposed at front and back or upper and lower portions of a small hole disposed to the wave guide tube. The reflected waves are received by the sensor described above. The difference of the reaching time of the reflected waves from the reflecting plates disposed at the front and the back or the upper and lower portions is measured. The speed of sounds in this case is determined based on the size of the small hole and the distance of the upper and the lower reflection plates. The speed of sounds is determined by the formula below: V(m/s) = 2500 - 0.52 T, where T: temperature. The temperature of the liquid can easily be calculated based on the formula. Accordingly, since the speed of the ultrasonic waves from their emission to the reception is msec order, and the processing of the signals are simple, the temperature can be measured at a response time of several msecs. In addition, since the ultrasonic wave sensor is disposed at the outside of the reactor, no special countermeasure for environmental circumstances is necessary, to improve maintenance ability. (I.S.).

  2. 3D scan line method for identifying void fabric of granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Alexandros I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other processes measuring the void phase of porous or fractured media, scan line approach is a simplified “graphical” method, mainly used in image processing related procedures. In soil mechanics, the application of scan line method is related to the soil fabric, which is important in characterizing the anisotropic mechanical response of soils. Void fabric is of particular interest, since graphical approaches are well defined experimentally and most of them can also be easily used in numerical experiments, like the scan line method. This is in contrast to the definition of fabric based on contact normal vectors that are extremely difficult to determine, especially considering physical experiments. The scan line method has been proposed by Oda et al [1] and implemented again by Ghedia and O’Sullivan [2]. A modified method based on DEM analysis instead of image measurements of fabric has been previously proposed and implemented by the authors in a 2D scheme [3-4]. In this work, a 3D extension of the modified scan line definition is presented using PFC 3D®. The results show clearly similar trends with the 2D case and the same behaviour of fabric anisotropy is presented.

  3. Optimization on Measurement Method for Neutron Moisture Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yalin; Wu Zhiqiang; Li Yanfeng; Wang Wei; Song Qingfeng; Liu Hui; Wei Xiaoyun; Zhao Zhonghua

    2010-01-01

    When the water in the measured material is nonuniformity, the measured results of the neutron moisture meter in the field may have errors, so the measured errors of the moisture meter associated with the water nonuniformity in material were simulated by Monte Carlo method. A new measurement method of moisture meter named 'transmission plus scatter' was put forward. The experiment results show that the new measurement method can reduce the error even if the water in the material is nonuniformity. (authors)

  4. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  5. Modelling methods for milk intake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coward, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    One component of the first Research Coordination Programme was a tutorial session on modelling in in-vivo tracer kinetic methods. This section describes the principles that are involved and how these can be translated into spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel and the SOLVER function to fit the model to the data. The purpose of this section is to describe the system developed within the RCM, and how it is used

  6. Structural identifiability of systems biology models: a critical comparison of methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Teodora Chis

    Full Text Available Analysing the properties of a biological system through in silico experimentation requires a satisfactory mathematical representation of the system including accurate values of the model parameters. Fortunately, modern experimental techniques allow obtaining time-series data of appropriate quality which may then be used to estimate unknown parameters. However, in many cases, a subset of those parameters may not be uniquely estimated, independently of the experimental data available or the numerical techniques used for estimation. This lack of identifiability is related to the structure of the model, i.e. the system dynamics plus the observation function. Despite the interest in knowing a priori whether there is any chance of uniquely estimating all model unknown parameters, the structural identifiability analysis for general non-linear dynamic models is still an open question. There is no method amenable to every model, thus at some point we have to face the selection of one of the possibilities. This work presents a critical comparison of the currently available techniques. To this end, we perform the structural identifiability analysis of a collection of biological models. The results reveal that the generating series approach, in combination with identifiability tableaus, offers the most advantageous compromise among range of applicability, computational complexity and information provided.

  7. The identification and repair of anomalous measurements in the measurement of big diameter based on rolling-wheel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiou; Yu, Xiaofen

    2011-05-01

    Rolling-wheel method is an effective way of measuring big diameter. After amending the temperature error and pressure error, the uncertainty of measurement can not be φ =5um/m stably because of the influence of skid. The traditional method of identifying skid loses sight of the influences of the unstable motor speed, the appearance form error and the eccentric of installation of the big axis and rolling wheel and so on, so the method has its limitation. In this paper, a new method of multiple identification and repair is introduced, namely n diameters are measured and Chauvenet standard is used for identifying the anomalous measurements one by one, and then the average value of the remaining data is used for repairing identified anomalous measurements, and the next round identification and repair is carried out until the accuracy requirement of the measurement is satisfied. The result of experiments indicates that the method can identify anomalous measurements whose offsets caused by the skid are greater than 0.2φ , and the uncertainty of measurement has improved substantially.

  8. IDENTIFYING ANTHROPOGENIC METALLIC POLLUTANTS USING FREQUENCY DEPENDENT MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY MEASUREMENTS IN ABUJA METROPOLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatto S. Solomon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil formed from lithological and weathering processes of parent rocks generally exhibit paramagnetic properties due to some minerals contained in the rocks and thus have significant value of magnetic susceptibility. This susceptibility arising from the influence of the parent rocks tend to mask anthropogenic grains pollutants released into the environment by human activities. Hence, it becomes difficult to identify the effect of the lithological and anthropogenic magnetic susceptibility in complex soil found in urban areas. The superparamagnetic effect of lithological soil, a single state domain and multi-domain state of anthropogenic grains can easily be investigated by frequency dependent measurements where readings between 0-2.0% indicates the absence of lithological influence, 2.0-8.0% indicates multi-domain grains or mixture of both single stage and multi-domian grains and 8.0-12% indicates the superparamagntic (SP grain from lithological origin. In this work frequency dependent measurements were carried out along 5 selected road networks within the 5 districts of Abuja phase 1. Measurements were also carried out in 379 random points at the surface and depth of 40.0cm to investigate the distribution of anthropogenic grains in Abuja metropolis using the Bartington susceptibility meter. Frequency dependent measurements along the selected road networks indicate0-3.0% immediately after the roads pavement to a distance of about 3.0m from the road, indicating that the magnetic susceptibility arise mostly form anthropogenic influence rather than lithological processes. At the distance of 3.0-8.0m, frequency dependent values of about 3.0-8.0% were recorded, indicating mixture of both superparamagnetic and multi-domain grains. Beyond the distance of 8.0m, the frequency dependent values are mostly above 8.0.0%, indicating virtually all SP grains. The spatial distribution frequency dependent surface map shows the presence of anthropogenic grains in

  9. Identifying and prioritizing customer requirements from tractor production by QFD method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Taghizadeh

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Discovering and understanding customer needs and expectations are considered as important factors on customer satisfaction and play vital role to maintain the current activity among its competitors, proceeding and obtaining customer satisfaction which are critical factors to design a successful production; thus the successful organizations must meet their needs containing the quality of the products or services to customers. Quality Function Deployment (QFD is a technique for studying demands and needs of customers which is going to give more emphasis to the customer's interests in this way. The QFD method in general implemented various tools and methods for reaching qualitative goals; but the most important and the main tool of this method is the house of quality diagrams. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP is a famous and common MADM method based on pair wise comparisons used for determining the priority of understudied factors in various studies until now. With considering effectiveness of QFD method to explicating customer's demands and obtaining customer satisfaction, generally, the researchers followed this question's suite and scientific answer: how can QFD explicate real demands and requirements of customers from tractor final production and what is the prioritization of these demands and requirements in view of customers. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the customer requirements of Massey Ferguson (MF 285 tractor production in Iran tractor manufacturing company with t- student statistical test, AHP and QFD methods. Materials and Methods Research method was descriptive and statistical population included all of the tractor customers of Tractor Manufacturing Company in Iran from March 2011 to March 2015. The statistical sample size was 171 which are determined with Cochran index. Moreover, 20 experts' opinion has been considered for determining product's technical requirements. Literature

  10. Identifiability analysis of rotational diffusion tensor and electronic transition moments measured in time-resolved fluorescence depolarization experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szubiakowski, Jacek P.

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is studies of the deterministic identifiability of molecular parameters, such as rotational diffusion tensor components and orientation of electronic transition moments, resulting from the time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy experiment. In the most general case considered, a pair of perpendicularly polarized emissions enables the unique determination of all the rotational diffusion tensor's principal components. The influence of the tensor's symmetry and the associated degeneration of its eigenvalues on the identifiability of the electronic transitions moments is systematically investigated. The analysis reveals that independently of the rotational diffusion tensor's symmetry, the transition moments involved in photoselection and emission processes cannot be uniquely identified without a priori information about their mutual orientation or their orientation with respect to the principal axes of the tensor. Moreover, it is shown that increasing the symmetry of the rotational diffusion tensor deteriorates the degree of the transition moments identifiability. To obtain these results analytically, a novel approach to solve bilinear system of equations for Markov parameters is applied. The effect of the additional information, obtained from fluorescence measurements for different molecular mobilities, to improve the identifiability at various levels of analysis is shown. The effectiveness and reliability of the target analysis method for experimental determination of the molecular parameters is also discussed

  11. Identifying plant cell-surface receptors: combining 'classical' techniques with novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uebler, Susanne; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    Cell-cell communication during development and reproduction in plants depends largely on a few phytohormones and many diverse classes of polymorphic secreted peptides. The peptide ligands are bound at the cell surface of target cells by their membranous interaction partners representing, in most cases, either receptor-like kinases or ion channels. Although knowledge of both the extracellular ligand and its corresponding receptor(s) is necessary to describe the downstream signalling pathway(s), to date only a few ligand-receptor pairs have been identified. Several methods, such as affinity purification and yeast two-hybrid screens, have been used very successfully to elucidate interactions between soluble proteins, but most of these methods cannot be applied to membranous proteins. Experimental obstacles such as low concentration and poor solubility of membrane receptors, as well as instable transient interactions, often hamper the use of these 'classical' approaches. However, over the last few years, a lot of progress has been made to overcome these problems by combining classical techniques with new methodologies. In the present article, we review the most promising recent methods in identifying cell-surface receptor interactions, with an emphasis on success stories outside the field of plant research.

  12. PCR-RFLP diagnostic method for identifying Globodera species in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasa ŠIRCA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Species identification within the genus Globodera is based on the morphological and morphometrical characters of the cysts and second stage juveniles, and these are included in the majority of identification keys. Morphometrical methods are fast and can be applied to most of samples but they demand a trained and experienced specialist. Furthermore, some morphometrical characters may overlap between populations and beetwen species, leading to inaccurate identification. To confirm and complement the morphometrical identification of Globodera species molecular methods have been developed. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2 of the rDNA gene cluster proved to be useful for identifying nematode species identification. A PCR-RFLP molecular method was used to identify Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae. Globodera rostochiensis, G. pallida, G. tabacum and G. achilleae can be distinguished with PCR-RFLP analysis of the rDNA ITS fragment using five restriction enzymes. The RFLP patterns of G. rostochiensis, G. tabacum and G. achilleae were species-specific, while those of G. pallida varied. South American populations of G. pallida differed from other populations as their RFLP patterns were demonstrated to be distinct by in silico restriction of the ITS sequences deposited at NCBI.

  13. The use of arithmetic average method in identifying critical success criteria for Homestay Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Shahidah Md; Ramli, Razamin; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Kayat, Kalsom; Razak, Rafidah Abd

    2015-12-01

    Malaysian Homestay is very unique. It is classified as Community Based Tourism (CBT). Homestay Programme which is a community events where a tourist stays together with a host family for a period of time and enjoying cultural exchange besides having new experiences. Homestay programme has booming the tourism industry since there is over 100 Homestay Programme currently being registered with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism Malaysia. However, only few Homestay Programme enjoying the benefits of success Homestay Programme. Hence, this article seeks to identify the critical success factors for a Homestay Programme in Malaysia. An Arithmetic Average method is utilized to further evaluate the identified success factors in a more meaningful way. The findings will help Homestay Programme function as a community development tool that manages tourism resources. Thus, help the community in improving local economy and creating job opportunities.

  14. Building America Guidance for Identifying and Overcoming Code, Standard, and Rating Method Barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Pamala C.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Building America program implemented a new Codes and Standards Innovation (CSI) Team in 2013. The Team’s mission is to assist Building America (BA) research teams and partners in identifying and resolving conflicts between Building America innovations and the various codes and standards that govern the construction of residences. A CSI Roadmap was completed in September, 2013. This guidance document was prepared using the information in the CSI Roadmap to provide BA research teams and partners with specific information and approaches to identifying and overcoming potential barriers to Building America (BA) innovations arising in and/or stemming from codes, standards, and rating methods. For more information on the BA CSI team, please email: CSITeam@pnnl.gov

  15. Assessing urban potential flooding risk and identifying effective risk-reduction measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, Frédéric; Belmeziti, Ali; Granger, Damien; Sourdril, Antoine; Le Gauffre, Pascal

    2015-05-01

    Flood protection is one of the traditional functions of any drainage system, and it remains a major issue in many cities because of economic and health impact. Heavy rain flooding has been well studied and existing simulation software can be used to predict and improve level of protection. However, simulating minor flooding remains highly complex, due to the numerous possible causes related to operational deficiencies or negligent behaviour. According to the literature, causes of blockages vary widely from one case to another: it is impossible to provide utility managers with effective recommendations on how to improve the level of protection. It is therefore vital to analyse each context in order to define an appropriate strategy. Here we propose a method to represent and assess the flooding risk, using GIS and data gathered during operation and maintenance. Our method also identifies potential management responses. The approach proposed aims to provide decision makers with clear and comprehensible information. Our method has been successfully applied to the Urban Community of Bordeaux (France) on 4895 interventions related to flooding recorded during the 2009-2011 period. Results have shown the relative importance of different issues, such as human behaviour (grease, etc.) or operational deficiencies (roots, etc.), and lead to identify corrective and proactive. This study also confirms that blockages are not always directly due to the network itself and its deterioration. Many causes depend on environmental and operating conditions on the network and often require collaboration between municipal departments in charge of roads, green spaces, etc. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Link-based quantitative methods to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhi-Qiang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differential coexpression analysis (DCEA is increasingly used for investigating the global transcriptional mechanisms underlying phenotypic changes. Current DCEA methods mostly adopt a gene connectivity-based strategy to estimate differential coexpression, which is characterized by comparing the numbers of gene neighbors in different coexpression networks. Although it simplifies the calculation, this strategy mixes up the identities of different coexpression neighbors of a gene, and fails to differentiate significant differential coexpression changes from those trivial ones. Especially, the correlation-reversal is easily missed although it probably indicates remarkable biological significance. Results We developed two link-based quantitative methods, DCp and DCe, to identify differentially coexpressed genes and gene pairs (links. Bearing the uniqueness of exploiting the quantitative coexpression change of each gene pair in the coexpression networks, both methods proved to be superior to currently popular methods in simulation studies. Re-mining of a publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D expression dataset from the perspective of differential coexpression analysis led to additional discoveries than those from differential expression analysis. Conclusions This work pointed out the critical weakness of current popular DCEA methods, and proposed two link-based DCEA algorithms that will make contribution to the development of DCEA and help extend it to a broader spectrum.

  17. Methods for identifying Neisseria meningitidis carriers: a multi-center study in the African meningitis belt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E Basta

    Full Text Available Detection of meningococcal carriers is key to understanding the epidemiology of Neisseria meningitidis, yet no gold standard has been established. Here, we directly compare two methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs to identify meningococcal carriers.We conducted cross-sectional surveys of schoolchildren at multiple sites in Africa to compare swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula (U to swabbing the posterior pharynx behind the uvula plus one tonsil (T. Swabs were cultured immediately and analyzed using molecular methods.One thousand and six paired swab samples collected from schoolchildren in four countries were analyzed. Prevalence of meningococcal carriage was 6.9% (95% CI: 5.4-8.6% based on the results from both swabs, but the observed prevalence was lower based on one swab type alone. Prevalence based on the T swab or the U swab alone was similar (5.2% (95% CI: 3.8-6.7% versus 4.9% (95% CI: 3.6-6.4% respectively (p=0.6. The concordance between the two methods was 96.3% and the kappa was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50-0.73, indicating good agreement.These two commonly used methods for collecting pharyngeal swabs provide consistent estimates of the prevalence of carriage, but both methods misclassified carriers to some degree, leading to underestimates of the prevalence.

  18. Development of nondestructive hybrid measuring method for three-dimensional residual stress distribution of thick welded joint. Hybrid measuring method of inherent strain method and neutron diffraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakacho, Keiji; Kasahara, Norifumi; Tamura, Ryota

    2012-01-01

    The measuring methods of the residual stress are classified into destructive one and nondestructive one. The inherent strain method (ISM) is destructive one. The neutron diffraction method (NDM) is nondestructive one. But the measurable depth is limited within about 20 mm and the method cannot measure the weld zone, without destruction of the object. So, in this study, the hybrid measuring method has been developed, by combining the ISM and the NDM. The theory of the hybrid method is the same as the ISM. In the analysis, the strains measured by the NDM without destruction are used. This hybrid measuring method is a true nondestructive measuring method for a thick welded joint. The applicability of the hybrid method has been verified by simulation, using a butt welded joint of thick pipes. In the simulation, the reliable order of the strains measured by the present NDM is very important, and was considered as 10 micro. The measurable regions by the present NDM were assumed. Under the above conditions, the data (the residual elastic strains assumed to be measured by the NDM) were made, and used in the ISM. As a result of such simulation, it has been cleared that the estimated residual stress has very high accuracy, if enough data are used. The required number of data is less than the ISM. (author)

  19. Ability of Different Measures of Adiposity to Identify High Metabolic Risk in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Moreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15–18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes, with exception of WHtR for boys. BMI, WC, and WHtR performed well in detecting high MRS, indicated by areas under the curve (AUC, with slightly greater AUC for BMI than for WC and WHtR in both sexes. Conclusion. All measures of adiposity were significantly associated with metabolic risk factors in a sample of Portuguese adolescents.

  20. Method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    A method of measuring the polarization of high momentum proton beams is proposed. This method utilizes the Primakoff effect and relates asymmetries at high energy to large asymmetries already measured at low energy. Such a new method is essential for the success of future experiments at energies where present methods are no longer feasible

  1. Detrital illite crystals identified from crystallite thickness measurements in siliciclastic sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldega, L.; Eberl, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    Illite crystals in siliciclastic sediments are heterogeneous assemblages of detrital material coming from various source rocks and, at paleotemperatures >70 ??C, of superimposed diagenetic modification in the parent sediment. We distinguished the relative proportions of 2M1 detrital illite and possible diagenetic 1Md + 1M illite by a combined analysis of crystal-size distribution and illite polytype quantification. We found that the proportions of 1Md + 1M and 2M1 illite could be determined from crystallite thickness measurements (BWA method, using the MudMaster program) by unmixing measured crystallite thickness distributions using theoretical and calculated log-normal and/or asymptotic distributions. The end-member components that we used to unmix the measured distributions were three asymptotic-shaped distributions (assumed to be the diagenetic component of the mixture, the 1Md + 1M polytypes) calculated using the Galoper program (Phase A was simulated using 500 crystals per cycle of nucleation and growth, Phase B = 333/cycle, and Phase C = 250/ cycle), and one theoretical log-normal distribution (Phase D, assumed to approximate the detrital 2M1 component of the mixture). In addition, quantitative polytype analysis was carried out using the RockJock software for comparison. The two techniques gave comparable results (r2 = 0.93), which indicates that the unmixing method permits one to calculate the proportion of illite polytypes and, therefore, the proportion of 2M1 detrital illite, from crystallite thickness measurements. The overall illite crystallite thicknesses in the samples were found to be a function of the relative proportions of thick 2M1 and thin 1Md + 1M illite. The percentage of illite layers in I-S mixed layers correlates with the mean crystallite thickness of the 1Md + 1M polytypes, indicating that these polytypes, rather than the 2M1 polytype, participate in I-S mixed layering.

  2. Surveillance of extreme hyperbilirubinaemia in Denmark. A method to identify the newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, J.V.; Petersen, Jes Reinholdt; Ebbesen, F.

    2008-01-01

    birth and the others after having been discharged. The maximum TSB was 485 (450-734) micromol/L (median [range]) and appeared latest amongst those infants admitted from home, but was not different from the maximum TSB of the nondischarged infants. Forty-three infants had symptoms of early-phase acute....... The observed incidence of extreme hyperbilirubinaemia is higher than previously reported in Denmark. This is mainly due to a very sensitive method of identifying the study group Udgivelsesdato: 2008/8...

  3. A novel data mining method to identify assay-specific signatures in functional genomic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guidarelli Jack W

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The highly dimensional data produced by functional genomic (FG studies makes it difficult to visualize relationships between gene products and experimental conditions (i.e., assays. Although dimensionality reduction methods such as principal component analysis (PCA have been very useful, their application to identify assay-specific signatures has been limited by the lack of appropriate methodologies. This article proposes a new and powerful PCA-based method for the identification of assay-specific gene signatures in FG studies. Results: The proposed method (PM is unique for several reasons. First, it is the only one, to our knowledge, that uses gene contribution, a product of the loading and expression level, to obtain assay signatures. The PM develops and exploits two types of assay-specific contribution plots, which are new to the application of PCA in the FG area. The first type plots the assay-specific gene contribution against the given order of the genes and reveals variations in distribution between assay-specific gene signatures as well as outliers within assay groups indicating the degree of importance of the most dominant genes. The second type plots the contribution of each gene in ascending or descending order against a constantly increasing index. This type of plots reveals assay-specific gene signatures defined by the inflection points in the curve. In addition, sharp regions within the signature define the genes that contribute the most to the signature. We proposed and used the curvature as an appropriate metric to characterize these sharp regions, thus identifying the subset of genes contributing the most to the signature. Finally, the PM uses the full dataset to determine the final gene signature, thus eliminating the chance of gene exclusion by poor screening in earlier steps. The strengths of the PM are demonstrated using a simulation study, and two studies of real DNA microarray data – a study of

  4. Measurement method of cardiac computed tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shigeru; Yamamoto, Hironori; Yumura, Yasuo; Yoshida, Hideo; Morooka, Nobuhiro

    1980-01-01

    The CT was carried out in 126 cases consisting of 31 normals, 17 cases of mitral stenosis (MS), 8 cases of mitral regurgitation (MR), 11 cases of aortic stenosis (AS), 9 cases of aortic regurgitation (AR), 20 cases of myocardial infarction (MI), 8 cases of atrial septal defect (ASD) and 22 hypertensives. The 20-second scans were performed every 1.5 cm from the 2nd intercostal space to the 5th or 6th intercostal space. The computed tomograms obtained were classified into 8 levels by cross-sectional anatomy; levels of (1) the aortic arch, (2) just beneath the aortic arch, (3) the pulmonary artery bifurcation, (4) the right atrial appendage or the upper right atrium, (5) the aortic root, (6) the upper left ventricle, (7) the mid left ventricle, and (8) the lower left ventricle. The diameter (anteroposterior and transverse) and cross-sectional area were measured about ascending aorta (Ao), descending aorta (AoD), superior vena cava (SVC), inferoir vena cava (IVC), pulmonary artery branch (PA), main pulmonary artery (mPA), left atrium (LA), right atrium (RA), and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) on each level where they were clearly distinguished. However, it was difficult to separate cardiac wall from cardiac cavity because there was little difference of X-ray attenuation coefficient between the myocardium and blood. Therefore, on mid ventricular level, diameter and area about total cardiac shadow were measured, and then cardiac ratios to the thorax were respectively calculated. The normal range of their values was shown in table, and abnormal characteristics in cardiac disease were exhibited in comparison with normal values. In MS, diameter and area in LA were significantly larger than normal. In MS and ASD, all the right cardiac system were larger than normal, especially, RA and SVC in MS, PA and RVOT in ASD. The diameter and area of the aortic root was larger in the order of AR, AS and HT than normal. (author)

  5. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  6. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  7. Identifying critical constraints for the maximum loadability of electric power systems - analysis via interior point method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)

  8. Control-based method to identify underlying delays of a nonlinear dynamical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dongchuan; Frasca, Mattia; Liu, Fang

    2008-10-01

    We suggest several stationary state control-based delay identification methods which do not require any structural information about the controlled systems and are applicable to systems described by delayed ordinary differential equations. This proposed technique includes three steps: (i) driving a system to a steady state; (ii) perturbing the control signal for shifting the steady state; and (iii) identifying all delays by detecting the time that the system is abruptly drawn out of stationarity. Some aspects especially important for applications are discussed as well, including interaction delay identification, stationary state convergence speed, performance comparison, and the influence of noise on delay identification. Several examples are presented to illustrate the reliability and robustness of all delay identification methods suggested.

  9. Comparing hair-morphology and molecular methods to identify fecal samples from Neotropical felids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos C Alberts

    Full Text Available To avoid certain problems encountered with more-traditional and invasive methods in behavioral-ecology studies of mammalian predators, such as felids, molecular approaches have been employed to identify feces found in the field. However, this method requires a complete molecular biology laboratory, and usually also requires very fresh fecal samples to avoid DNA degradation. Both conditions are normally absent in the field. To address these difficulties, identification based on morphological characters (length, color, banding, scales and medullar patterns of hairs found in feces could be employed as an alternative. In this study we constructed a morphological identification key for guard hairs of eight Neotropical felids (jaguar, oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, margay, ocelot, Pampas cat, puma and jaguarundi and compared its efficiency to that of a molecular identification method, using the ATP6 region as a marker. For this molecular approach, we simulated some field conditions by postponing sample-conservation procedures. A blind test of the identification key obtained a nearly 70% overall success rate, which we considered equivalent to or better than the results of some molecular methods (probably due to DNA degradation found in other studies. The jaguar, puma and jaguarundi could be unequivocally discriminated from any other Neotropical felid. On a scale ranging from inadequate to excellent, the key proved poor only for the margay, with only 30% of its hairs successfully identified using this key; and have intermediate success rates for the remaining species, the oncilla, Geoffroy's cat, ocelot and Pampas cat, were intermediate. Complementary information about the known distributions of felid populations may be necessary to substantially improve the results obtained with the key. Our own molecular results were even better, since all blind-tested samples were correctly identified. Part of these identifications were made from samples kept in suboptimal

  10. BIBLIOGRAPHIC STUDY IN RISK MANAGEMENT AIMED TO IDENTIFY MORE REFERENCED TOOLS, METHODS AND RELATIONSHIPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamir Costa Louro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to identify and discuss trends in tools and methods used in project risk management and its relationship to other matters, using current scientific articles. The focus isn´t in understanding how they work in technical terms, but think about the possibilities of deepening in academic studies, including making several suggestions for future research. Adjacent to the article there is a discussion about an alleged "one best way" imperative normativity approach. It was answered the following research questions: what subjects and theories are related to project risk management tools and methods? The first contribution is related to the importance of the academic Chris Chapman as an author who has more published and also more referenced in the survey. There are several contributions on various subjects such as: the perception of the existence of many conceptual papers; papers about construction industry, problematization of contracts according to agency theory, IT and ERPs issues. Other contributions came from the bibliometric method that brings lot of consolidated information about terms, topics, authors, references, periods and, of course, methods and tools about Project Risk Management.

  11. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  12. Network-Based Method for Identifying Co- Regeneration Genes in Bone, Dentin, Nerve and Vessel Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Pan, Hongying; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Feng, Kaiyan; Kong, XiangYin; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2017-10-02

    Bone and dental diseases are serious public health problems. Most current clinical treatments for these diseases can produce side effects. Regeneration is a promising therapy for bone and dental diseases, yielding natural tissue recovery with few side effects. Because soft tissues inside the bone and dentin are densely populated with nerves and vessels, the study of bone and dentin regeneration should also consider the co-regeneration of nerves and vessels. In this study, a network-based method to identify co-regeneration genes for bone, dentin, nerve and vessel was constructed based on an extensive network of protein-protein interactions. Three procedures were applied in the network-based method. The first procedure, searching, sought the shortest paths connecting regeneration genes of one tissue type with regeneration genes of other tissues, thereby extracting possible co-regeneration genes. The second procedure, testing, employed a permutation test to evaluate whether possible genes were false discoveries; these genes were excluded by the testing procedure. The last procedure, screening, employed two rules, the betweenness ratio rule and interaction score rule, to select the most essential genes. A total of seventeen genes were inferred by the method, which were deemed to contribute to co-regeneration of at least two tissues. All these seventeen genes were extensively discussed to validate the utility of the method.

  13. A simple method to identify areas of environmental risk due to manure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Héctor; Arumí, José Luis; Rivera, Diego; Lagos, L Octavio

    2012-06-01

    The management of swine manure is becoming an important environmental issue in Chile. One option for the final disposal of manure is to use it as a biofertilizer, but this practice could impact the surrounding environment. To assess the potential environmental impacts of the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer, we propose a method to identify zones of environmental risk through indices. The method considers two processes: nutrient runoff and solute leaching, and uses available information about soils, crops and management practices (irrigation, fertilization, and rotation). We applied the method to qualitatively assess the environmental risk associated with the use of swine manure as a biofertilizer in an 8,000-pig farm located in Central Chile. Results showed that the farm has a moderate environmental risk, but some specific locations have high environmental risks, especially those associated with impacts on areas surrounding water resources. This information could assist the definition of better farm-level management practices, as well as the preservation of riparian vegetation acting as buffer strips. The main advantage of our approach is that it combines qualitative and quantitative information, including particular situations or field features based on expert knowledge. The method is flexible, simple, and can be easily extended or adapted to other processes.

  14. A universal meteorological method to identify potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Středová Hana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The climate of Central Europe, mainly winter seasons with no snow cover at lower altitudes and a spring drought as well, might cause erosion events on heavy-textured soils. The aim of this paper is to define a universal method to identify the potential risk of wind erosion on heavy-textured soils. The categorization of potential wind erosion risk due to meteorological conditions is based on: (i an evaluation of the number of freeze-thaw episodes forming bare soil surfaces during the cold period of year; and (ii, an evaluation of the number of days with wet soil surfaces during the cold period of year. In the period 2001–2012 (from November to March, episodes with temperature changes from positive to negative and vice versa (thaw-freeze and freeze-thaw cycles and the effects of wet soil surfaces in connection with aggregate disintegration, are identified. The data are spatially interpolated by GIS tools for areas in the Czech Republic with heavy-textured soils. Blending critical categories is used to locate potential risks. The level of risk is divided into six classes. Those areas identified as potentially most vulnerable are the same localities where the highest number of erosive episodes on heavy-textured soils was documented.

  15. A method to identify dependencies between organizational factors using statistical independence test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, C.H.; Kim, C.; Jae, M.; Jung, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on organizational factors in nuclear power plants have been made especially in recent years, most of which have assumed organizational factors to be independent. However, since organizational factors characterize the organization in terms of safety and efficiency etc. and there would be some factors that have close relations between them. Therefore, from whatever point of view, if we want to identify the characteristics of an organization, the dependence relationships should be considered to get an accurate result. In this study the organization of a reference nuclear power plant in Korea was analyzed for the trip cases of that plant using 20 organizational factors that Jacobs and Haber had suggested: 1) coordination of work, 2) formalization, 3) organizational knowledge, 4) roles and responsibilities, 5) external communication, 6) inter-department communications, 7) intra-departmental communications, 8) organizational culture, 9) ownership, 10) safety culture, 11) time urgency, 12) centralization, 13) goal prioritization, 14) organizational learning, 15) problem identification, 16) resource allocation, 17) performance evaluation, 18) personnel selection, 19) technical knowledge, and 20) training. By utilizing the results of the analysis, a method to identify the dependence relationships between organizational factors is presented. The statistical independence test for the analysis result of the trip cases is adopted to reveal dependencies. This method is geared to the needs to utilize many kinds of data that has been obtained as the operating years of nuclear power plants increase, and more reliable dependence relations may be obtained by using these abundant data

  16. BDA: A novel method for identifying defects in body-centered cubic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Johannes J; Bitzek, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The accurate and fast identification of crystallographic defects plays a key role for the analysis of atomistic simulation output data. For face-centered cubic (fcc) metals, most existing structure analysis tools allow for the direct distinction of common defects, such as stacking faults or certain low-index surfaces. For body-centered cubic (bcc) metals, on the other hand, a robust way to identify such defects is currently not easily available. We therefore introduce a new method for analyzing atomistic configurations of bcc metals, the BCC Defect Analysis (BDA). It uses existing structure analysis algorithms and combines their results to uniquely distinguish between typical defects in bcc metals. In essence, the BDA method offers the following features:•Identification of typical defect structures in bcc metals.•Reduction of erroneously identified defects by iterative comparison to the defects in the atom's neighborhood.•Availability as ready-to-use Python script for the widespread visualization tool OVITO [http://ovito.org].

  17. Identifying biological landmarks using a novel cell measuring image analysis tool: Cell-o-Tape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    French Andrew P

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to quantify the geometry of plant organs at the cellular scale can provide novel insights into their structural organization. Hitherto manual methods of measurement provide only very low throughput and subjective solutions, and often quantitative measurements are neglected in favour of a simple cell count. Results We present a tool to count and measure individual neighbouring cells along a defined file in confocal laser scanning microscope images. The tool allows the user to extract this generic information in a flexible and intuitive manner, and builds on the raw data to detect a significant change in cell length along the file. This facility can be used, for example, to provide an estimate of the position of transition into the elongation zone of an Arabidopsis root, traditionally a location sensitive to the subjectivity of the experimenter. Conclusions Cell-o-tape is shown to locate cell walls with a high degree of accuracy and estimate the location of the transition feature point in good agreement with human experts. The tool is an open source ImageJ/Fiji macro and is available online.

  18. Efficacy of anthropometric measures for identifying cardiovascular disease risk in adolescents: review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenauer, Michael; Wheatley, Sean D; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Duncan, Michael J; Cobayashi, Fernanda; Berg, Gabriela; Musso, Carla; Graffigna, Mabel; Soutelo, Jimena; Bovet, Pascal; Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S; Grammatikos, Evangelos; Griffiths, Claire; Ingle, Lee; Jung, Christian

    2018-04-12

    To compare the ability of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) to estimate cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk levels in adolescents. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed after a database search for relevant literature (Cochrane, Centre for Review and Dissemination, PubMed, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, BIOSIS citation index, ChildData, metaRegister). 117 records representing 96 studies with 994,595 participants were included in the systematic review, 14 of which (13 studies, n=14,610) were eligible for the meta-analysis. The results of the meta-analysis showed that BMI was a strong indicator of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and insulin; but not total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein or glucose. Few studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis considering WC or WHtR (n≤2). The narrative synthesis found measures of central adiposity to be consistently valid indicators of the same risk factors as BMI. BMI was an indicator of CVD risk. WC and WHtR were efficacious for indicating the same risk factors BMI performed strongly for, though there was insufficient evidence to judge the relative strength of each measure possibly due to heterogeneity in the methods for measuring and classifying WC.

  19. Identifying essential genes in bacterial metabolic networks with machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Identifying essential genes in bacteria supports to identify potential drug targets and an understanding of minimal requirements for a synthetic cell. However, experimentally assaying the essentiality of their coding genes is resource intensive and not feasible for all bacterial organisms, in particular if they are infective. Results We developed a machine learning technique to identify essential genes using the experimental data of genome-wide knock-out screens from one bacterial organism to infer essential genes of another related bacterial organism. We used a broad variety of topological features, sequence characteristics and co-expression properties potentially associated with essentiality, such as flux deviations, centrality, codon frequencies of the sequences, co-regulation and phyletic retention. An organism-wise cross-validation on bacterial species yielded reliable results with good accuracies (area under the receiver-operator-curve of 75% - 81%). Finally, it was applied to drug target predictions for Salmonella typhimurium. We compared our predictions to the viability of experimental knock-outs of S. typhimurium and identified 35 enzymes, which are highly relevant to be considered as potential drug targets. Specifically, we detected promising drug targets in the non-mevalonate pathway. Conclusions Using elaborated features characterizing network topology, sequence information and microarray data enables to predict essential genes from a bacterial reference organism to a related query organism without any knowledge about the essentiality of genes of the query organism. In general, such a method is beneficial for inferring drug targets when experimental data about genome-wide knockout screens is not available for the investigated organism. PMID:20438628

  20. Identifying strategies to assist final semester nursing students to develop numeracy skills: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjan, Lucie M; Stewart, Lyn; Salamonson, Yenna; Morris, Maureen M; Armstrong, Lyn; Sanchez, Paula; Flannery, Liz

    2014-03-01

    It remains a grave concern that many nursing students within tertiary institutions continue to experience difficulties with achieving medication calculation competency. In addition, universities have a moral responsibility to prepare proficient clinicians for graduate practice. This requires risk management strategies to reduce adverse medication errors post registration. To identify strategies and potential predictors that may assist nurse academics to tailor their drug calculation teaching and assessment methods. This project builds on previous experience and explores students' perceptions of newly implemented interventions designed to increase confidence and competence in medication calculation. This mixed method study surveyed students (n=405) enrolled in their final semester of study at a large, metropolitan university in Sydney, Australia. Tailored, contextualised interventions included online practice quizzes, simulated medication calculation scenarios developed for clinical practice classes, contextualised 'pen and paper' tests, visually enhanced didactic remediation and 'hands-on' contextualised workshops. Surveys were administered to students to determine their perceptions of interventions and to identify whether these interventions assisted with calculation competence. Test scores were analysed using SPSS v. 20 for correlations between students' perceptions and actual performance. Qualitative open-ended survey questions were analysed manually and thematically. The study reinforced that nursing students preferred a 'hands-on,' contextualised approach to learning that was 'authentic' and aligned with clinical practice. Our interventions assisted with supporting students' learning and improvement of calculation confidence. Qualitative data provided further insight into students' awareness of their calculation errors and preferred learning styles. Some of the strongest predictors for numeracy skill performance included (1) being an international student, (2

  1. Identifying Industry-Specific Components of Product Liability Response System Using Delphi-AHP Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo JunHyeok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PL (product liability response system is an enterprise-wide system that prevents company’s financial loss due to PL-related accidents. Existing researches on PL response system are mainly focused on preventive and/or defense strategies for the companies. Also, it is obvious that each industry has their original characteristics related on PL issues. It means industry-specific characteristics should be considered to adopt PL response strategies. Thus, this paper aims to discuss industry-specific PL response system and their components. Based on prior researches, we tried to reveal the possibility of its application to manufacturing companies of existing PL response strategies using Delphi method with PL experts. Based on first round results, we tried to classify existing PL strategies of manufacturing companies into several categories. To validate our suggestion for essential components of PL response system, second round Delphi method are applied. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP technique will be applied to identify a prioritized list of each components and strategies. Existing PL response strategies could be categorized with six components – strategy, technology, investment, training, awareness, and organization. Among six components, Technology – it represents the technology needed for improving the safety of all products – is the most important components to prepare PL accidents. The limitation of this paper is on the size of survey and variety of examples. However, the future study will enhance the potential of the proposed method. Regardless of rich research efforts to identify PL response strategies, there is no effort to categorize these strategies and prioritized them. Well-coordinated and actionable PL response strategies and their priorities could help small-and-medium sized enterprise (SME to develop their own PL response system with their limited resources.

  2. 30 CFR 75.1719-3 - Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being measured and a sufficient distance from the surface to allow the light sensing element in the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Methods of measurement; light measuring... § 75.1719-3 Methods of measurement; light measuring instruments. (a) Compliance with § 75.1719-1(d...

  3. An in-situ measuring method for planar straightness error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Fu, Luhua; Yang, Tongyu; Sun, Changku; Wang, Zhong; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Changjie

    2018-01-01

    According to some current problems in the course of measuring the plane shape error of workpiece, an in-situ measuring method based on laser triangulation is presented in this paper. The method avoids the inefficiency of traditional methods like knife straightedge as well as the time and cost requirements of coordinate measuring machine(CMM). A laser-based measuring head is designed and installed on the spindle of a numerical control(NC) machine. The measuring head moves in the path planning to measure measuring points. The spatial coordinates of the measuring points are obtained by the combination of the laser triangulation displacement sensor and the coordinate system of the NC machine, which could make the indicators of measurement come true. The method to evaluate planar straightness error adopts particle swarm optimization(PSO). To verify the feasibility and accuracy of the measuring method, simulation experiments were implemented with a CMM. Comparing the measurement results of measuring head with the corresponding measured values obtained by composite measuring machine, it is verified that the method can realize high-precise and automatic measurement of the planar straightness error of the workpiece.

  4. Comparison of electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpinen, L.; Kuisti, H.; Tarao, H.; Paeaekkoenen, R.; Elovaara, J.

    2014-01-01

    The object of the study was to investigate extremely low frequency (ELF) electric field exposure measurement methods under power lines. The authors compared two different methods under power lines: in Method A, the sensor was placed on a tripod; and Method B required the measurer to hold the meter horizontally so that the distance from him/her was at least 1.5 m. The study includes 20 measurements in three places under 400 kV power lines. The authors used two commercial three-axis meters, EFA-3 and EFA-300. In statistical analyses, they did not find significant differences between Methods A and B. However, in the future, it is important to take into account that measurement methods can, in some cases, influence ELF electric field measurement results, and it is important to report the methods used so that it is possible to repeat the measurements. (authors)

  5. A new method to identify the foot of continental slope based on an integrated profile analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Li, Jiabiao; Li, Shoujun; Shang, Jihong; Jin, Xiaobin

    2017-06-01

    A new method is proposed to identify automatically the foot of the continental slope (FOS) based on the integrated analysis of topographic profiles. Based on the extremum points of the second derivative and the Douglas-Peucker algorithm, it simplifies the topographic profiles, then calculates the second derivative of the original profiles and the D-P profiles. Seven steps are proposed to simplify the original profiles. Meanwhile, multiple identification methods are proposed to determine the FOS points, including gradient, water depth and second derivative values of data points, as well as the concave and convex, continuity and segmentation of the topographic profiles. This method can comprehensively and intelligently analyze the topographic profiles and their derived slopes, second derivatives and D-P profiles, based on which, it is capable to analyze the essential properties of every single data point in the profile. Furthermore, it is proposed to remove the concave points of the curve and in addition, to implement six FOS judgment criteria.

  6. Using mixed methods to identify and answer clinically relevant research questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneerson, Catherine L; Gale, Nicola K

    2015-06-01

    The need for mixed methods research in answering health care questions is becoming increasingly recognized because of the complexity of factors that affect health outcomes. In this article, we argue for the value of using a qualitatively driven mixed method approach for identifying and answering clinically relevant research questions. This argument is illustrated by findings from a study on the self-management practices of cancer survivors and the exploration of one particular clinically relevant finding about higher uptake of self-management in cancer survivors who had received chemotherapy treatment compared with those who have not. A cross-sectional study generated findings that formed the basis for the qualitative study, by informing the purposive sampling strategy and generating new qualitative research questions. Using a quantitative research component to supplement a qualitative study can enhance the generalizability and clinical relevance of the findings and produce detailed, contextualized, and rich answers to research questions that would be unachievable through quantitative or qualitative methods alone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. PCR-RFLP Method to Identify Salmonid Species of Economic Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of different fish species by molecular methods has become necessary to avoid both the incorrect labelling of individuals involved in repopulation programmes and the commercial frauds on the fish market. Different fish species of great economical importance, like the salmonids, which are very much requested for their meat, can be identified using molecular techniques such as PCR-RFLP. The method is based on the amplification of a target region from the genome by PCR reaction followed by endonucleases digestion to detect the polymorphism of restriction fragments. In our study we analysed the following salmonid species from Romania: Salmo trutta fario, Salmo labrax, Salvelinus fontinalis, Onchorhynchus mykiss, Thymallus thymallus and Hucho hucho. In order to discriminate between the analysed species we amplified a fragment of mitochondrial genome comprising tRNAGlu/ cytochrome b/ tRNAThr/ tRNAPro/ D-loop/ tRNAPhe, followed by digestion with a specific restriction enzyme. The direct digestion of unpurified PCR products generated species-specific restriction patterns and proved to be a simple, reliable, inexpensive and fast method. Thus, it may be successfully utilized in specialized laboratories for the correct identification of the fish species for multiple purposes, including the traceability of fish food products.

  8. A Bayesian method for identifying missing enzymes in predicted metabolic pathway databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Peter D

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PathoLogic program constructs Pathway/Genome databases by using a genome's annotation to predict the set of metabolic pathways present in an organism. PathoLogic determines the set of reactions composing those pathways from the enzymes annotated in the organism's genome. Most annotation efforts fail to assign function to 40–60% of sequences. In addition, large numbers of sequences may have non-specific annotations (e.g., thiolase family protein. Pathway holes occur when a genome appears to lack the enzymes needed to catalyze reactions in a pathway. If a protein has not been assigned a specific function during the annotation process, any reaction catalyzed by that protein will appear as a missing enzyme or pathway hole in a Pathway/Genome database. Results We have developed a method that efficiently combines homology and pathway-based evidence to identify candidates for filling pathway holes in Pathway/Genome databases. Our program not only identifies potential candidate sequences for pathway holes, but combines data from multiple, heterogeneous sources to assess the likelihood that a candidate has the required function. Our algorithm emulates the manual sequence annotation process, considering not only evidence from homology searches, but also considering evidence from genomic context (i.e., is the gene part of an operon? and functional context (e.g., are there functionally-related genes nearby in the genome? to determine the posterior belief that a candidate has the required function. The method can be applied across an entire metabolic pathway network and is generally applicable to any pathway database. The program uses a set of sequences encoding the required activity in other genomes to identify candidate proteins in the genome of interest, and then evaluates each candidate by using a simple Bayes classifier to determine the probability that the candidate has the desired function. We achieved 71% precision at a

  9. Lymphatic filariasis: a method to identify subclinical lower limb change in PNG adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-07-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity.

  10. Lymphatic Filariasis: A Method to Identify Subclinical Lower Limb Change in PNG Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan; Melrose, Wayne; Warner, Jeffrey; Buttner, Petra; Ward, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    Lymphedema related to lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a disabling condition that commonly manifests in adolescence. Fifty-three adolescents, 25 LF infected and 28 LF non-infected, in age and sex-matched groups, using the Binax ICT rapid card test for filarial antigen were recruited to the study. None of the participants had overt signs of lymphedema. Lymphedema assessment measures were used to assess lower limb tissue compressibility (tonometry), limb circumference (tape measure), intra- and extra-cellular fluid distribution (bioimpedance) and joint range of motion (goniometry). The mean tonometric measurements from the left, right, and dominant posterior thighs were significantly larger in participants with LF compared to participants who had tested negative for LF (p = 0.005, p = 0.004, and p = 0.003, respectively) indicating increased tissue compressibility in those adolescents with LF. ROC curve analysis to define optimal cut-off of the tonometry measurements indicated that at 3.5, sensitivity of this potential screening test is 100% (95%-CI = 86.3%, 100%) and specificity is 21.4% (95%-CI = 8.3%, 41.0%). It is proposed that this cut-off can be used to indicate tissue change characteristic of LF in an at-risk population of PNG adolescents. Further longitudinal research is required to establish if all those with tissue change subsequently develop lymphedema. However, thigh tonometry to identify early tissue change in LF positive adolescents may enable early intervention to minimize progression of lymphedema and prioritization of limited resources to those at greatest risk of developing lifetime morbidity. PMID:21811644

  11. PHASE GRADIENT METHOD OF MAGNETIC FIELD MEASUREMENTS IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Ptitsyna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of electric and hybrid vehicles demands real time magnetic field control, for instance, for fire and electromagnetic safety. The article deals with a method of magnetic field measurements onboard electric cars taking into account peculiar features of these fields. The method is based on differential methods of measurements, and minimizes the quantity of magnetic sensors.

  12. A condensed water method for measuring the atmospheric radon

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Xin; Pan Xiao Qing; Yu Yi Ling

    1998-01-01

    The author summarizes the present situation of atmospheric Radon measurement, and introduces the working principle, working method and advantage and disadvantage of condensed water method in detail. The structure and function of the instrument used for this method, and the measuring result are discussed. The direction of further work is pointed out from now on

  13. Utilizing a Photo-Analysis Software for Content Identifying Method (CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejad Nasim Sahraei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Content Identifying Methodology or (CIM was developed to measure public preferences in order to reveal the common characteristics of landscapes and aspects of underlying perceptions including the individual's reactions to content and spatial configuration, therefore, it can assist with the identification of factors that influenced preference. Regarding the analysis of landscape photographs through CIM, there are several studies utilizing image analysis software, such as Adobe Photoshop, in order to identify the physical contents in the scenes. This study attempts to evaluate public’s ‘preferences for aesthetic qualities of pedestrian bridges in urban areas through a photo-questionnaire survey, in which respondents evaluated images of pedestrian bridges in urban areas. Two groups of images were evaluated as the most and least preferred scenes that concern the highest and lowest mean scores respectively. These two groups were analyzed by CIM and also evaluated based on the respondent’s description of each group to reveal the pattern of preferences and the factors that may affect them. Digimizer Software was employed to triangulate the two approaches and to determine the role of these factors on people’s preferences. This study attempts to introduce the useful software for image analysis which can measure the physical contents and also their spatial organization in the scenes. According to the findings, it is revealed that Digimizer could be a useful tool in CIM approaches through preference studies that utilizes photographs in place of the actual landscape in order to determine the most important factors in public preferences for pedestrian bridges in urban areas.

  14. Method for the measurement of media player use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Graham

    There has been ongoing concern that prolonged use of MP3 players can lead to noise-induced hearing loss. Acoustic exposure is the product of intensity and duration of exposure. Previous work has utilised measurements of maximum headphone output and output during listening tests to determine acoustic intensity; whilst duration of use is currently assessed with questionnaires and interviews. The subjective nature of these latter methods has led to a wide variation in figures for device use, restricting the scope of media player risk assessment. A need was therefore identified for an improved method of acquiring data of users' listening habits. This need was addressed with the design of a new data-logging device that discretely measures voltage output from the media player, whilst in use. A calibration method is proposed to implement the headphone transfer function into the data-logger, to relate output voltage to exposed pressure. It is proposed that the headphone transfer function is measured using an acoustic manikin, representative of the population of interest. The real ear measurement is put forward as an appropriate tool for validating results gained using this approach. A data-logger was designed and a proof of concept has been demonstrated in a software program written for this purpose. The proposed method has the advantages that an objective measurement can be made of the user's natural listening habits, over a long period of time, with a resolution comparable to personal acoustic dosimetry. A number of practical steps are required to further this work before data can be collected. A software graphic equaliser was used to implement the transfer function, but the chosen filter topology gave an unsatisfactory response, an investigation is required for further work. The device requires migration to hardware and the experimental calibration and validation of the system are also required. The worldwide population of MP3 player users is in the region of hundreds

  15. An Ambulatory Method of Identifying Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructed Gait Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R. Patterson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of inertial sensors to characterize pathological gait has traditionally been based on the calculation of temporal and spatial gait variables from inertial sensor data. This approach has proved successful in the identification of gait deviations in populations where substantial differences from normal gait patterns exist; such as in Parkinsonian gait. However, it is not currently clear if this approach could identify more subtle gait deviations, such as those associated with musculoskeletal injury. This study investigates whether additional analysis of inertial sensor data, based on quantification of gyroscope features of interest, would provide further discriminant capability in this regard. The tested cohort consisted of a group of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed (ACL-R females and a group of non-injured female controls, each performed ten walking trials. Gait performance was measured simultaneously using inertial sensors and an optoelectronic marker based system. The ACL-R group displayed kinematic and kinetic deviations from the control group, but no temporal or spatial deviations. This study demonstrates that quantification of gyroscope features can successfully identify changes associated with ACL-R gait, which was not possible using spatial or temporal variables. This finding may also have a role in other clinical applications where small gait deviations exist.

  16. What Faces Reveal: A Novel Method to Identify Patients at Risk of Deterioration Using Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrigal-Garcia, Maria Isabel; Rodrigues, Marcos; Shenfield, Alex; Singer, Mervyn; Moreno-Cuesta, Jeronimo

    2018-07-01

    To identify facial expressions occurring in patients at risk of deterioration in hospital wards. Prospective observational feasibility study. General ward patients in a London Community Hospital, United Kingdom. Thirty-four patients at risk of clinical deterioration. A 5-minute video (25 frames/s; 7,500 images) was recorded, encrypted, and subsequently analyzed for action units by a trained facial action coding system psychologist blinded to outcome. Action units of the upper face, head position, eyes position, lips and jaw position, and lower face were analyzed in conjunction with clinical measures collected within the National Early Warning Score. The most frequently detected action units were action unit 43 (73%) for upper face, action unit 51 (11.7%) for head position, action unit 62 (5.8%) for eyes position, action unit 25 (44.1%) for lips and jaw, and action unit 15 (67.6%) for lower face. The presence of certain combined face displays was increased in patients requiring admission to intensive care, namely, action units 43 + 15 + 25 (face display 1, p facial expressions can be identified in deteriorating general ward patients. This tool may potentially augment risk prediction of current scoring systems.

  17. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish [Los Gatos Research, 67 East Evelyn Avenue, Suite 3, Mountain View, California 94041-1518 (United States); Liebson, Lindsay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  18. The investigation of identifying method on grass fire by FY-3 VIRR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youyan; Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Grassland fire has the characteristics of fierce fire and rapid spreading, and many fires occur in sparsely populated places. Satellite remote sensing has the characteristics of fast imaging period and wide coverage, and plays an important role in the rapid monitoring and evaluation of grassland fire. FY-3 satellite has been widely used since its launch in September 2008, and this paper uses the fire information of Gansu grassland from 2011 to 2016, based on the more mature MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR fire identification method. The results show that the accuracy of FY-3/VIRR satellite data fire detection are higher than that of NOAA-AVHRR satellite, and the accuracy of FY-3/VIRR satellite data is described. There is a greater improvement, the ability to identify slightly worse than the MODIS satellite, the region is relatively large fire detection accuracy is higher.

  19. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weycker, Derek; Sofrygin, Oleg; Seefeld, Kim; Deeter, Robert G; Legg, Jason; Edelsberg, John

    2013-02-13

    Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classified into subgroups based on whether or not they were hospitalized for FN per the presumptive "gold standard" (ANC based definition (diagnosis codes for neutropenia, fever, and/or infection). Accuracy was evaluated principally based on positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity. Among 357 study subjects, 82 (23%) met the gold standard for hospitalized FN. For the claims-based definition including diagnosis codes for neutropenia plus fever in any position (n=28), PPV was 100% and sensitivity was 34% (95% CI: 24-45). For the definition including neutropenia in the primary position (n=54), PPV was 87% (78-95) and sensitivity was 57% (46-68). For the definition including neutropenia in any position (n=71), PPV was 77% (68-87) and sensitivity was 67% (56-77). Patients hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced FN can be identified in healthcare claims databases--with an acceptable level of mis-classification--using diagnosis codes for neutropenia, or neutropenia plus fever.

  20. Identifying barriers to chronic disease reporting in Chicago Public Schools: a mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkina, Victoria; Tapke, David E; Cardenas, Lilliana D; Harvey-Gintoft, Blair; Whyte, Stephanie A; Gupta, Ruchi S

    2014-12-06

    Chronic disease among school-aged children is a public health concern, particularly for asthma and food allergy. In Chicago Public Schools (CPS), rates of asthma and food allergy among students are underreported. The aim of this study was to determine the barriers to chronic disease reporting as experienced by CPS parents and school nurses. A mixed-methods approach included focus groups and key informant interviews with parents and school nurses, and a cross-sectional survey was completed by parents. Qualitative data analysis was performed and survey data were analyzed to determine the significant demographic and knowledge variables associated with successfully completing the reporting process. The three main barriers identified were 1) a lack of parental process knowledge; 2) limited communication from schools; and 3) insufficient availability of school nurses. Parents were significantly more likely to successfully complete the reporting process if they knew about special accommodations for chronic diseases, understood the need for physician verification, and/or knew the school nurse. These findings suggest that increasing parental knowledge of the reporting process will allow schools to better identify and manage their students' chronic conditions. A parent-focused intervention informed by these results has been completed.

  1. Unsupervised Scalable Statistical Method for Identifying Influential Users in Online Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcorra, A; Chiroque, L F; Cuevas, R; Fernández Anta, A; Laniado, H; Lillo, R E; Romo, J; Sguera, C

    2018-05-03

    Billions of users interact intensively every day via Online Social Networks (OSNs) such as Facebook, Twitter, or Google+. This makes OSNs an invaluable source of information, and channel of actuation, for sectors like advertising, marketing, or politics. To get the most of OSNs, analysts need to identify influential users that can be leveraged for promoting products, distributing messages, or improving the image of companies. In this report we propose a new unsupervised method, Massive Unsupervised Outlier Detection (MUOD), based on outliers detection, for providing support in the identification of influential users. MUOD is scalable, and can hence be used in large OSNs. Moreover, it labels the outliers as of shape, magnitude, or amplitude, depending of their features. This allows classifying the outlier users in multiple different classes, which are likely to include different types of influential users. Applying MUOD to a subset of roughly 400 million Google+ users, it has allowed identifying and discriminating automatically sets of outlier users, which present features associated to different definitions of influential users, like capacity to attract engagement, capacity to attract a large number of followers, or high infection capacity.

  2. Technical evaluation of methods for identifying chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia in healthcare claims databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weycker Derek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare claims databases have been used in several studies to characterize the risk and burden of chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN and effectiveness of colony-stimulating factors against FN. The accuracy of methods previously used to identify FN in such databases has not been formally evaluated. Methods Data comprised linked electronic medical records from Geisinger Health System and healthcare claims data from Geisinger Health Plan. Subjects were classified into subgroups based on whether or not they were hospitalized for FN per the presumptive “gold standard” (ANC 9/L, and body temperature ≥38.3°C or receipt of antibiotics and claims-based definition (diagnosis codes for neutropenia, fever, and/or infection. Accuracy was evaluated principally based on positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity. Results Among 357 study subjects, 82 (23% met the gold standard for hospitalized FN. For the claims-based definition including diagnosis codes for neutropenia plus fever in any position (n=28, PPV was 100% and sensitivity was 34% (95% CI: 24–45. For the definition including neutropenia in the primary position (n=54, PPV was 87% (78–95 and sensitivity was 57% (46–68. For the definition including neutropenia in any position (n=71, PPV was 77% (68–87 and sensitivity was 67% (56–77. Conclusions Patients hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced FN can be identified in healthcare claims databases--with an acceptable level of mis-classification--using diagnosis codes for neutropenia, or neutropenia plus fever.

  3. A method of identifying social structures in siting regions for deep geological repositories in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brander, Simone

    2010-09-01

    Acceptance is a key element in the site selection process for deep geological repositories for high-level and low and intermediate-level radioactive waste in Switzerland. Participation requirements such as comprehensive negotiation issues and adequate resources have thus been defined by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). In 2008, on the basis of technical criteria Nagra (National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste) proposed several potential areas for deep geological repositories. The number of potential areas will be narrowed down within the next few years. All municipalities within the planning perimeter (the area in which surface facilities can be realised) are affected and form the siting region. In order to ensure that the local population have their say in the forthcoming discussions, regional participation bodies including all municipalities within a siting region are being set up by the SFOE. Regional participation ensures that local interests, needs and values are taken into account in the site selection process. Assembling the regional participation bodies is therefore of great importance. Before such bodies can be formed, however, the various interests, needs and values have to be identified, and special attention has to be paid to long-term interests of future generations, as well as to non-organised and under-represented interests. According to the concept of proportional representation, the interests, needs and values that are identified and weighted by the local population are to be represented in the regional participation procedure. The aim of this study is to share a method of mapping existing social structures in a defined geographical area. This involves a combination of an analysis of socio-economic statistical data and qualitative and quantitative social research methods

  4. A structured elicitation method to identify key direct risk factors for the management of natural resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Smith

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The high level of uncertainty inherent in natural resource management requires planners to apply comprehensive risk analyses, often in situations where there are few resources. In this paper, we demonstrate a broadly applicable, novel and structured elicitation approach to identify important direct risk factors. This new approach combines expert calibration and fuzzy based mathematics to capture and aggregate subjective expert estimates of the likelihood that a set of direct risk factors will cause management failure. A specific case study is used to demonstrate the approach; however, the described methods are widely applicable in risk analysis. For the case study, the management target was to retain all species that characterise a set of natural biological elements. The analysis was bounded by the spatial distribution of the biological elements under consideration and a 20-year time frame. Fourteen biological elements were expected to be at risk. Eleven important direct risk factors were identified that related to surrounding land use practices, climate change, problem species (e.g., feral predators, fire and hydrological change. In terms of their overall influence, the two most important risk factors were salinisation and a lack of water which together pose a considerable threat to the survival of nine biological elements. The described approach successfully overcame two concerns arising from previous risk analysis work: (1 the lack of an intuitive, yet comprehensive scoring method enabling the detection and clarification of expert agreement and associated levels of uncertainty; and (2 the ease with which results can be interpreted and communicated while preserving a rich level of detail essential for informed decision making.

  5. GSHSite: exploiting an iteratively statistical method to identify s-glutathionylation sites with substrate specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available S-glutathionylation, the covalent attachment of a glutathione (GSH to the sulfur atom of cysteine, is a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification (PTM that regulates protein activity, localization, and stability. Despite its implication in the regulation of protein functions and cell signaling, the substrate specificity of cysteine S-glutathionylation remains unknown. Based on a total of 1783 experimentally identified S-glutathionylation sites from mouse macrophages, this work presents an informatics investigation on S-glutathionylation sites including structural factors such as the flanking amino acids composition and the accessible surface area (ASA. TwoSampleLogo presents that positively charged amino acids flanking the S-glutathionylated cysteine may influence the formation of S-glutathionylation in closed three-dimensional environment. A statistical method is further applied to iteratively detect the conserved substrate motifs with statistical significance. Support vector machine (SVM is then applied to generate predictive model considering the substrate motifs. According to five-fold cross-validation, the SVMs trained with substrate motifs could achieve an enhanced sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, and provides a promising performance in an independent test set. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by the correct identification of previously reported S-glutathionylation sites of mouse thioredoxin (TXN and human protein tyrosine phosphatase 1b (PTP1B. Finally, the constructed models are adopted to implement an effective web-based tool, named GSHSite (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/GSHSite/, for identifying uncharacterized GSH substrate sites on the protein sequences.

  6. Childhood executive function inventory (CHEXI): a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorell, Lisa B; Eninger, Lilianne; Brocki, Karin C; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the Childhood Executive Function Inventory (CHEXI) can discriminate between young children fulfilling the diagnostic criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and normally developing children. Unlike other executive function rating instruments, the CHEXI focuses specifically on inhibitory control and working memory, without including items that overlap with the diagnostic criteria of ADHD. The CHEXI was found to discriminate very well between children fulfilling the criteria for ADHD and normally developing children, also when controlling for the effect of IQ and socioeconomic status (SES). Both sensitivity and specificity of the two CHEXI subscales were shown to be high using either parent or teacher ratings. The highest overall classification rate was found for parent ratings on the inhibition subscale, with sensitivity and specificity reaching 93.3. To summarize, the CHEXI should be considered a promising measure for identifying young children with ADHD, although it is for future research to determine whether the CHEXI can be successfully used to also discriminate between different psychopathological groups.

  7. Magnetic signature of overbank sediment in industry impacted floodplains identified by data mining methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudaničová, Monika; Hutchinson, Simon M.

    2016-11-01

    Our study attempts to identify a characteristic magnetic signature of overbank sediments exhibiting anthropogenically induced magnetic enhancement and thereby to distinguish them from unenhanced sediments with weak magnetic background values, using a novel approach based on data mining methods, thus providing a mean of rapid pollution determination. Data were obtained from 539 bulk samples from vertical profiles through overbank sediment, collected on seven rivers in the eastern Czech Republic and three rivers in northwest England. k-Means clustering and hierarchical clustering methods, paired group (UPGMA) and Ward's method, were used to divide the samples to natural groups according to their attributes. Interparametric ratios: SIRM/χ; SIRM/ARM; and S-0.1T were chosen as attributes for analyses making the resultant model more widely applicable as magnetic concentration values can differ by two orders. Division into three clusters appeared to be optimal and corresponded to inherent clusters in the data scatter. Clustering managed to separate samples with relatively weak anthropogenically induced enhancement, relatively strong anthropogenically induced enhancement and samples lacking enhancement. To describe the clusters explicitly and thus obtain a discrete magnetic signature, classification rules (JRip method) and decision trees (J4.8 and Simple Cart methods) were used. Samples lacking anthropogenic enhancement typically exhibited an S-0.1T 0.5. Samples with relatively stronger anthropogenic enhancement were unequivocally distinguished from the samples with weaker enhancement by an SIRM/ARM > c. 150. Samples with SIRM/ARM in a range c. 126-150 were classified as relatively strongly enhanced when their SIRM/χ > 18 000 A m-1 and relatively less enhanced when their SIRM/χ 6 per cent from anthropogenically enhanced clusters as samples with natural magnetic enhancement. The characteristics of the clusters resulted mainly from the relationship between SIRM/ARM and

  8. Methods for analysing cardiovascular studies with repeated measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, T. J.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Ouwerkerk, B. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background. Repeated measurements in a single subject are generally more similar than unrepeated measurements in different subjects. Unrepeated analyses of repeated data cause underestimation of the treatment effects. Objective. To review methods adequate for the analysis of cardiovascular studies

  9. Calibration and uncertainty in electromagnetic fields measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglesio, L.; Crotti, G.; Borsero, M.; Vizio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Calibration and reliability in electromagnetic field measuring methods are assured by calibration of measuring instruments. In this work are illustrated systems for generation of electromagnetic fields at low and high frequency, calibration standard and accuracy [it

  10. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  11. CAPABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MEASURING EQUIPMENT USING STATISTIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel POLÁK

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Capability assessment of the measurement device is one of the methods of process quality control. Only in case the measurement device is capable, the capability of the measurement and consequently production process can be assessed. This paper deals with assessment of the capability of the measuring device using indices Cg and Cgk.

  12. Rock stress measurements using the LUT-Gauge overcoring method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leijon, B.

    1988-04-01

    With overcoring techniques, rock stresses are determined indirectly from measurements of the dimensional changes of a borehole, occurring when the rock volume surrounding the hole is isolated from the stresses in the host rock. This thesis describes the development and application of an overcoring technique. The key-component of the instrumentation that has been developed is a triaxial borehole strain cell, referred to as the LUT-Gauge. Laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate the performance of the instrumentation. Special emphasis was given to determining temperature sensitivity of the measuring system since this was identified as a potential source of measurement error. Results indicated good instrument reliability and that the measurement error due to temperature variations typically experienced under field conditions is ± 1 MPa or less. The technique was also evaluated by a series of field tests. Comparison of the results obtained by the different methods showed satisfactory agreement. Analysis of the comprehensive field data collected showed that the confidence that can be attached to an overcoring test is largely governed by the mechanical characteristics of the overcored specimen. Expressed as the standard deviation of the mean stress magnitude, the scatter obtained from repeated testing within a borehole section of about 10 m in length, is found to be ± 4 MPa or less. Rock engineering investigations typically refer to a scale of hundreds of metres or more. This study has demonstrated the existence of significant variations of the stress field on this scale. These variations thus impose difficulties in the application of stress data to the analysis of problems in rock engineering, since the pointwise results obtained from stress measurements cannot be extrapolated with good confidence. (30 refs.) (author)

  13. Comparison of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frail older persons in primary care: diagnostic and prognostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutorius, Fleur L; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Prins, Bernard A H; van Hout, Hein P J

    2016-08-03

    Many instruments have been developed to identify frail older adults in primary care. A direct comparison of the accuracy and prevalence of identification methods is rare and most studies ignore the stepped selection typically employed in routine care practice. Also it is unclear whether the various methods select persons with different characteristics. We aimed to estimate the accuracy of 10 single and stepped methods to identify frailty in older adults and to predict adverse health outcomes. In addition, the methods were compared on their prevalence of the identified frail persons and on the characteristics of persons identified. The Groningen Frailty Indicator (GFI), the PRISMA-7, polypharmacy, the clinical judgment of the general practitioner (GP), the self-rated health of the older adult, the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS), the Identification Seniors At Risk Primary Care (ISAR PC), the Frailty Index (FI), the InterRAI screener and gait speed were compared to three measures: two reference standards (the clinical judgment of a multidisciplinary expert panel and Fried's frailty criteria) and 6-years mortality or long term care admission. Data were used from the Dutch Identification of Frail Elderly Study, consisting of 102 people aged 65 and over from a primary care practice in Amsterdam. Frail older adults were oversampled. The accuracy of each instrument and several stepped strategies was estimated by calculating the area under the ROC-curve. Prevalence rates of frailty ranged from 14.8 to 52.9 %. The accuracy for recommended cut off values ranged from poor (AUC = 0.556 ISAR-PC) to good (AUC = 0.865 gait speed). PRISMA-7 performed best over two reference standards, GP predicted adversities best. Stepped strategies resulted in lower prevalence rates and accuracy. Persons selected by the different instruments varied greatly in age, IADL dependency, receiving homecare and mood. We found huge differences between methods to identify frail persons in prevalence

  14. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  15. Identifying a Computer Forensics Expert: A Study to Measure the Characteristics of Forensic Computer Examiners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory H. Carlton

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The usage of digital evidence from electronic devices has been rapidly expanding within litigation, and along with this increased usage, the reliance upon forensic computer examiners to acquire, analyze, and report upon this evidence is also rapidly growing. This growing demand for forensic computer examiners raises questions concerning the selection of individuals qualified to perform this work. While courts have mechanisms for qualifying witnesses that provide testimony based on scientific data, such as digital data, the qualifying criteria covers a wide variety of characteristics including, education, experience, training, professional certifications, or other special skills. In this study, we compare task performance responses from forensic computer examiners with an expert review panel and measure the relationship with the characteristics of the examiners to their quality responses. The results of this analysis provide insight into identifying forensic computer examiners that provide high-quality responses. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  16. Research On The Measure Method Of Oblique Pinhole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many special advantages in measuring the diameter of blind and deep holes with a capacitive probe, there are still some challenges for the measurement of a oblique pinhole parameters because the measuring device is inconvenient to stretch into the oblique pinhole exactly. A five-dimensional measurement system was adopted in the paper which included a capacitive sensor probe and a three-coordinate measuring machine to accomplish the measurement for oblique pinholes. With the help of the three-dimensional coordinates measured from the pinhole axis, we put forward a comprehensive method of combining the projection method and the least squares method together for fitting spatial straight line to obtain the optimal equation of the spacial axis. Finally, a reliable and entire measurement system was set up.

  17. A chemometric method to identify enzymatic reactions leading to the transition from glycolytic oscillations to waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimányi, László; Khoroshyy, Petro; Mair, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    In the present work we demonstrate that FTIR-spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the time resolved and noninvasive measurement of multi-substrate/product interactions in complex metabolic networks as exemplified by the oscillating glycolysis in a yeast extract. Based on a spectral library constructed from the pure glycolytic intermediates, chemometric analysis of the complex spectra allowed us the identification of many of these intermediates. Singular value decomposition and multiple level wavelet decomposition were used to separate drifting substances from oscillating ones. This enabled us to identify slow and fast variables of glycolytic oscillations. Most importantly, we can attribute a qualitative change in the positive feedback regulation of the autocatalytic reaction to the transition from homogeneous oscillations to travelling waves. During the oscillatory phase the enzyme phosphofructokinase is mainly activated by its own product ADP, whereas the transition to waves is accompanied with a shift of the positive feedback from ADP to AMP. This indicates that the overall energetic state of the yeast extract determines the transition between spatially homogeneous oscillations and travelling waves.

  18. Accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumada, M.; Sakai, I.; Someya, H.; Sasaki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We present an accurate method of the magnetic field measurement of the quadrupole magnet. The method of obtaining the information of the field gradient and the effective focussing length is given. A new scheme to obtain the information of the skew field components is also proposed. The relative accuracy of the measurement was 1 x 10 -4 or less. (author)

  19. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyaev, A.; Gaponov, I.; Kazennov, A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90 Sr detection are considered

  20. Methods for production of UNK SC-dipoles magnetic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, N.L.

    1991-01-01

    Many SC-dipoles for UNK will require from the chosen magnetic measurement methods high accuracy and efficiency. The brief of using methods, their possibilities and analysis of their errors are given. The measurements results for a full-scale model of SC-dipole SPDM1 are presented. 5 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  1. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  2. Instructions for applying inverse method for reactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    1988-11-01

    This report is a brief description of the completed method for reactivity measurement. It contains description of the experimental procedure needed instrumentation and computer code IM for determining reactivity. The objective of this instructions manual is to enable experiments and reactivity measurement on any critical system according to the methods adopted at the RB reactor

  3. Testing and Validation of the Dynamic Interia Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alexander; Herrera, Claudia; Spivey, Natalie; Fladung, William; Cloutier, David

    2015-01-01

    This presentation describes the DIM method and how it measures the inertia properties of an object by analyzing the frequency response functions measured during a ground vibration test (GVT). The DIM method has been in development at the University of Cincinnati and has shown success on a variety of small scale test articles. The NASA AFRC version was modified for larger applications.

  4. Measurement System Analyses - Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepova, Lenka; Kovacikova, Andrea; Cep, Robert; Klaput, Pavel; Mizera, Ondrej

    2018-02-01

    The submitted article focuses on a detailed explanation of the average and range method (Automotive Industry Action Group, Measurement System Analysis approach) and of the honest Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility method (Evaluating the Measurement Process approach). The measured data (thickness of plastic parts) were evaluated by both methods and their results were compared on the basis of numerical evaluation. Both methods were additionally compared and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. One difference between both methods is the calculation of variation components. The AIAG method calculates the variation components based on standard deviation (then a sum of variation components does not give 100 %) and the honest GRR study calculates the variation components based on variance, where the sum of all variation components (part to part variation, EV & AV) gives the total variation of 100 %. Acceptance of both methods among the professional society, future use, and acceptance by manufacturing industry were also discussed. Nowadays, the AIAG is the leading method in the industry.

  5. Topological Constraints on Identifying Additive Link Metrics via End-to-end Paths Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    identifiable if and only ifR in (1) has full column rank, i.e., rank(R) = n. In other words, to uniquely determine w, there must be n linearly...be identified from paths traversing l1; similar argument applies to l2. Moreover, similar analysis as in the proof of this lemma shows that none of

  6. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  7. Identifying Students at Risk: An Examination of Computer-Adaptive Measures and Latent Class Growth Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena; McQuillin, Samuel D.; Castañeda, Juan Javier; Ochs, Sarah; Jones, John H.

    2018-01-01

    Multitiered systems of support depend on screening technology to identify students at risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of a computer-adaptive test and latent class growth analysis (LCGA) to identify students at risk in reading with focus on the use of this methodology to characterize student performance in screening.…

  8. Integration of experimental and computational methods for identifying geometric, thermal and diffusive properties of biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weres, Jerzy; Kujawa, Sebastian; Olek, Wiesław; Czajkowski, Łukasz

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of physical properties of biomaterials is important in understanding and designing agri-food and wood processing industries. In the study presented in this paper computational methods were developed and combined with experiments to enhance identification of agri-food and forest product properties, and to predict heat and water transport in such products. They were based on the finite element model of heat and water transport and supplemented with experimental data. Algorithms were proposed for image processing, geometry meshing, and inverse/direct finite element modelling. The resulting software system was composed of integrated subsystems for 3D geometry data acquisition and mesh generation, for 3D geometry modelling and visualization, and for inverse/direct problem computations for the heat and water transport processes. Auxiliary packages were developed to assess performance, accuracy and unification of data access. The software was validated by identifying selected properties and using the estimated values to predict the examined processes, and then comparing predictions to experimental data. The geometry, thermal conductivity, specific heat, coefficient of water diffusion, equilibrium water content and convective heat and water transfer coefficients in the boundary layer were analysed. The estimated values, used as an input for simulation of the examined processes, enabled reduction in the uncertainty associated with predictions.

  9. A comparison of coronal mass ejections identified by manual and automatic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yashiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections (CMEs are related to many phenomena (e.g. flares, solar energetic particles, geomagnetic storms, thus compiling of event catalogs is important for a global understanding these phenomena. CMEs have been identified manually for a long time, but in the SOHO era, automatic identification methods are being developed. In order to clarify the advantage and disadvantage of the manual and automatic CME catalogs, we examined the distributions of CME properties listed in the CDAW (manual and CACTus (automatic catalogs. Both catalogs have a good agreement on the wide CMEs (width>120° in their properties, while there is a significant discrepancy on the narrow CMEs (width≤30°: CACTus has a larger number of narrow CMEs than CDAW. We carried out an event-by-event examination of a sample of events and found that the CDAW catalog have missed many narrow CMEs during the solar maximum. Another significant discrepancy was found on the fast CMEs (speed>1000 km/s: the majority of the fast CDAW CMEs are wide and originate from low latitudes, while the fast CACTus CMEs are narrow and originate from all latitudes. Event-by-event examination of a sample of events suggests that CACTus has a problem on the detection of the fast CMEs.

  10. A molecular method to detect and identify the native species of southwestern Atlantic Crassostrea (Mollusca: Ostreidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ludwig

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Among oysters, species of Crassostrea (Sacco, 1897 are the most attractive to aquaculture. In Brazil, the genus is represented by C. rhizophorae (Guilding, 1828 and C. brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819. Because the maturation and breeding technology is not well developed for these species, aquaculturists need a reliable method to decide the correct time to place spat collectors in the field, and to identify both species, which are morphologically similar. In this study a specific Multiplex PCR protocol was developed, using one pair of universal primers from 18S rDNA as a positive control and a pair of specific primers for each target species. The sensitivity and specificity of the protocol was evaluated. It detected C. rhizophorae DNA in low concentrations, and C. brasiliana DNA in even lower concentrations. Further, the Multiplex PCR proved efficient in detecting DNA in concentrations equivalent to that of a single larva of each species, either separated or combined, when mixed with total DNA extract of a plankton sample representing 1000 L of filtered water. Field tests confirmed the applicability of the protocol, which holds the promise to become an important tool for aquaculture or conservation programs, allowing for the continuous monitoring of the life cycle of C. brasiliana and C. rhizophorae, by detecting the right periods of larval release and settlement.

  11. Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing.

  12. Identifying Mental Health Elements among Technical University Students Using Fuzzy Delphi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, P. K.; Lai, C. S.; Lee, M. F.

    2017-08-01

    Mental health is a part of our daily life that is often experienced. As a student, mental health issue often encounters a variety of difficult challenges at the higher education institution. A student with good mental health can handle and cope the normal stress of life, capable work productivity, enhance academic performance and able to make contribute to the community. However, rapidly transformation and changing of society have been impacted on students’ mental health, and it will be deteriorated and negatively impact on students if it absence of preventive controlled. This study aimed to identify the element of mental health among the technical university students. A total of 11 experts were selected to analyze the fuzziness consensus of experts. All collected data was analyzed by using the fuzzy Delphi method and the result shows that there are 4 elements of 8 elements that fulfill the requirement consensus of experts, which threshold value is equal and less than 0.2, the percentage of the expert group is more than 75%. The four elements were depression, anxiety, stress, and fear are often experienced by technical university students. In conclusion, precocious actions have to be taken by university and counseling center, parents and non-government organization in order to mitigate the mental health problem faced by students to improve the quality lifestyle students at the university.

  13. Measuring electric conductivity in liquid metals by eddy current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuravlev, S.P.; Ostrovskij, O.I.; Grigoryan, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    Technique permitting to apply the method of vertiginous currents for investigation of electric conductivity of metal melts in the high temperature range is presented. Interferences affecting accuracy of measurements are specified and ways of their removing are pointed out. Scheme of measuring and design of the facility are described. Results of measuring electric resistance of liquid Fe, Co, Ni obtained for the first time by this method are presented. The data obtained agree with the results of measurements conducted by the method of the rotating magnetic field. Difference in absolute values of electric resistance in parallel experiments for each metal does not exceed 4%

  14. Measurement of integrated healthcare delivery: a systematic review of methods and future research directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Strandberg-Larsen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Integrated healthcare delivery is a policy goal of healthcare systems. There is no consensus on how to measure the concept, which makes it difficult to monitor progress. Purpose: To identify the different types of methods used to measure integrated healthcare delivery with emphasis on structural, cultural and process aspects. Methods: Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, WHOLIS, and conventional internet search engines were systematically searched for methods to measure integrated healthcare delivery (published – April 2008. Results: Twenty-four published scientific papers and documents met the inclusion criteria. In the 24 references we identified 24 different measurement methods; however, 5 methods shared theoretical framework. The methods can be categorized according to type of data source: a questionnaire survey data, b automated register data, or c mixed data sources. The variety of concepts measured reflects the significant conceptual diversity within the field, and most methods lack information regarding validity and reliability. Conclusion: Several methods have been developed to measure integrated healthcare delivery; 24 methods are available and some are highly developed. The objective governs the method best used. Criteria for sound measures are suggested and further developments should be based on an explicit conceptual framework and focus on simplifying and validating existing methods.

  15. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  16. A method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile measurement transmitter for shipbuilding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yongjie; Guo, Yin

    2017-01-01

    The workshop Measurement Position System (wMPS) is a distributed measurement system which is suitable for the large-scale metrology. However, there are some inevitable measurement problems in the shipbuilding industry, such as the restriction by obstacles and limited measurement range. To deal with these factors, this paper presents a method of reconstructing the spatial measurement network by mobile transmitter. A high-precision coordinate control network with more than six target points is established. The mobile measuring transmitter can be added into the measurement network using this coordinate control network with the spatial resection method. This method reconstructs the measurement network and broadens the measurement scope efficiently. To verify this method, two comparison experiments are designed with the laser tracker as the reference. The results demonstrate that the accuracy of point-to-point length is better than 0.4mm and the accuracy of coordinate measurement is better than 0.6mm. (paper)

  17. Carbon dioxide titration method for soil respiration measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This thesis was commissioned by Tampere University of Applied Sciences, which was interested in studying and developing a titration measurement method for soil respiration and biodegradability. Some experiments were carried out measuring soil respiration for testing the method and others adding some biodegradable material like polylactic acid compressed material and 100% biodegradable plastic bags to test its biodegradability and the possibility to measure it via titration. The thesi...

  18. Gravimetric method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre; Nilsen, Jon K; Tronstad, Christian; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hongsig; Shin, Kunsoo; Naderi, Majid; Thielmann, Frank

    2008-02-01

    A novel method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements is presented. The method combines gravimetric and electrical measurements and reveals an exponential dependency of measured electrical susceptance to absolute water content in the epidermal stratum corneum. The results also show that absorption of water into the stratum corneum exhibits three different phases with significant differences in absorption time constant. These phases probably correspond to bound, loosely bound, and bulk water.

  19. Advanced Measuring (Instrumentation Methods for Nuclear Installations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiu-kuan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear technology has been widely used in the world. The research of measurement in nuclear installations involves many aspects, such as nuclear reactors, nuclear fuel cycle, safety and security, nuclear accident, after action, analysis, and environmental applications. In last decades, many advanced measuring devices and techniques have been widely applied in nuclear installations. This paper mainly introduces the development of the measuring (instrumentation methods for nuclear installations and the applications of these instruments and methods.

  20. Methods for Identifying Specific Language Impairment in Bilingual Populations in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Hamann

    2017-10-01

    children are classified with 100% accuracy. Crucially, both our tasks distinguish BiTDs from MoSLIs and BiTDs from BiSLIs. The NWRT shows high accuracy and only minimal influence of language dominance. The SRT can be scored as “identical repetition” or as “target structure,” the latter aiming for scoring the mastery of a syntactic structure, ignoring lexical and specific case or gender errors. Focusing on the latter measure, we examine individual cases of BiTDs with unexpected, low scores. We identify first-language dominance as a factor influencing performance but crucially find that testing in the home language in a heritage context might lead to unreliable classifications and that our procedure for determining the clinical group of bilinguals missed cases of selective impairments such as syntactic SLI.

  1. The ability of clinical balance measures to identify falls risk in multiple sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gillian; Comber, Laura; Galvin, Rose; Coote, Susan

    2018-05-01

    To determine the ability of clinical measures of balance to distinguish fallers from non-fallers and to determine their predictive validity in identifying those at risk of falls. AMED, CINAHL, Medline, Scopus, PubMed Central and Google Scholar. First search: July 2015. Final search: October 2017. Inclusion criteria were studies of adults with a definite multiple sclerosis diagnosis, a clinical balance assessment and method of falls recording. Data were extracted independently by two reviewers. Study quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 scale and the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Statistical analysis was conducted for the cross-sectional studies using Review Manager 5. The mean difference with 95% confidence interval in balance outcomes between fallers and non-fallers was used as the mode of analysis. We included 33 studies (19 cross-sectional, 5 randomised controlled trials, 9 prospective) with a total of 3901 participants, of which 1917 (49%) were classified as fallers. The balance measures most commonly reported were the Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go and Falls Efficacy Scale International. Meta-analysis demonstrated fallers perform significantly worse than non-fallers on all measures analysed except the Timed Up and Go Cognitive ( p Balance Confidence Scale had the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (0.92), but without reporting corresponding measures of clinical utility. Clinical measures of balance differ significantly between fallers and non-fallers but have poor predictive ability for falls risk in people with multiple sclerosis.

  2. Radon/radon-daughter measurement methods and instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rock, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    Radon-daughter measurement equipment and techniques have been continuously improved over the last 25 years. Improvements have been in the areas of accuracy, time and convenience. We now have miniaturized scalers and detectors available for measuring the alpha particle count rates from aerosol samples collected on filter papers. We also have small lightweight efficient pumps for conveniently collecting samples and we have various counting methods which allow us to choose between making very precise measurements or nominal measurements. Radon-daughter measurement methods used in uranium mines and mills are discussed including a personal radon-daughter-exposure integrating device which can be worn by miners

  3. Measurement of complex permittivity of composite materials using waveguide method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Complex dielectric permittivity of 4 different composite materials has been measured using the transmissionline method. A waveguide fixture in L, S, C and X band was used for the measurements. Measurement accuracy is influenced by air gaps between test fixtures and the materials tested. One of the

  4. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dančová, P.; Sitek, P.; Vít, T.

    2014-03-01

    This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC) is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  5. Measurement of heat transfer coefficient using termoanemometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dančová P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with a measurement of heat transfer from a heated flat plate on which a synthetic jet impacts perpendicularly. Measurement of a heat transfer coefficient (HTC is carried out using the hot wire anemometry method with glue film probe Dantec 55M47. The paper brings also results of velocity profiles measurements and turbulence intensity calculations.

  6. Measurement Methods to Determine Air Leakage Between Adjacent Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Erin L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dickerhoff, Darryl J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Phillip N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Air leakage between adjacent zones of a building can lead to indoor air quality and energy efficiency concerns, however there is no existing standard for measuring inter-zonal leakage. In this study, synthesized data and field measurements are analyzed in order to explore the uncertainty associated with different methods for collecting and analyzing fan pressurization measurements to calculate interzone leakage.

  7. Principle of coincidence method and application in activity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mou; Dai Yihua; Ni Jianzhong

    2008-01-01

    The basic principle of coincidence method was discussed. The basic principle was generalized by analysing the actual example, and the condition in theory of coincidence method was brought forward. The cause of variation of efficiency curve and the effect of dead-time in activity measurement were explained using the above principle and condition. This principle of coincidence method provides the foundation in theory for activity measurement. (authors)

  8. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  9. The validity of the family history method for identifying Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Aryan, M; Silverman, J M; Haroutunian, V; Perl, D P; Birstein, S; Lantz, M; Marin, D B; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1997-05-01

    To examine the validity of the family history method for identifying Alzheimer disease (AD) by comparing family history and neuropathological diagnoses. Seventy-seven former residents of the Jewish Home and Hospital for the Aged, New York, NY, with neuropathological evaluations on record were blindly assessed for the presence of dementia and, if present, the type of dementia through family informants by telephone interviews. The Alzheimer's Disease Risk Questionnaire was used to collect demographic information and screen for possible dementia. If dementia was suspected, the Dementia Questionnaire was administered to assess the course and type of dementia, i.e., primary progressive dementia (PPD, likely AD), multiple infarct dementia, mixed dementia (i.e., PPD and multiple infarct dementia), and other dementias based on the modified Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, criteria. Sixty (77.9%) of 77 elderly subjects were classified as having dementia and 17 (22.1%) were without dementia by family history evaluation. Of the 60 elderly subjects with dementia, 57 (95%) were found at autopsy to have had neuropathological changes related to dementia. The sensitivity of the family history diagnosis for dementia with related neuropathological change was 0.84 (57 of 68) and the specificity was 0.67 (6 of 9). Using family history information to differentiate the type of dementia, the sensitivity for definite or probable AD (with or without another condition) was 0.69 (36 of 51) and the specificity was 0.73 (19 of 26). The majority (9 of 15) of patients testing false negative for PPD had a history of stroke associated with onset of memory changes, excluding a diagnosis of PPD. Identifying dementia, in general, and AD, in particular, has an acceptable sensitivity and specificity. As is true for direct clinical diagnosis, the major issue associated with misclassifying AD in a family history assessment is the masking effects of a coexisting non

  10. Identifying the candidate genes involved in the calyx abscission process of 'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu) by digital transcript abundance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lifen; Li, Leiting; Cao, Yufen; Tian, Luming; Dong, Xingguang; Zhang, Shaoling

    2013-10-23

    'Kuerlexiangli' (Pyrus sinkiangensis Yu), a native pear of Xinjiang, China, is an important agricultural fruit and primary export to the international market. However, fruit with persistent calyxes affect fruit shape and quality. Although several studies have looked into the physiological aspects of the calyx abscission process, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. In order to better understand the molecular basis of the process of calyx abscission, materials at three critical stages of regulation, with 6000 × Flusilazole plus 300 × PBO treatment (calyx abscising treatment) and 50 mg.L-1GA3 treatment (calyx persisting treatment), were collected and cDNA fragments were sequenced using digital transcript abundance measurements to identify candidate genes. Digital transcript abundance measurements was performed using high-throughput Illumina GAII sequencing on seven samples that were collected at three important stages of the calyx abscission process with chemical agent treatments promoting calyx abscission and persistence. Altogether more than 251,123,845 high quality reads were obtained with approximately 8.0 M raw data for each library. The values of 69.85%-71.90% of clean data in the digital transcript abundance measurements could be mapped to the pear genome database. There were 12,054 differentially expressed genes having Gene Ontology (GO) terms and associating with 251 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) defined pathways. The differentially expressed genes correlated with calyx abscission were mainly involved in photosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, cell wall modification, transcriptional regulation, and carbohydrate metabolism. Furthermore, candidate calyx abscission-specific genes, e.g. Inflorescence deficient in abscission gene, were identified. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to confirm the digital transcript abundance measurements results. We identified candidate genes that showed highly dynamic changes in

  11. Measurement of subcriticality by a pulsing α-method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jitarev, V.E.; Kachanov, V.M.; Kuzmin, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    The report presents results of a pulsing α-method [1] for determination of the WWER system subcriticality. The pulsing α-method permits to conduct measurements of system subcriticality in conditions of subcritical state and large neutron background. Therefore this method can be used for the control of a subcriticality of storehouses of a burn up nuclear fuel and stopped reactor. (Authors)

  12. Simple measuring rod method for the coaxiality of serial holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Yang, Tongyu; Wang, Zhong; Ji, Yuchen; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua

    2017-11-01

    Aiming at the rapid coaxiality measurement of serial hole part with a small diameter, a coaxiality measuring rod for each layer hole with a single LDS (laser displacement sensor) is proposed. This method does not require the rotation angle information of the rod, and the coaxiality of serial holes can be calculated from the measured values of LDSs after randomly rotating the measuring rod several times. With the mathematical model of the coaxiality measuring rod, each factor affecting the accuracy of coaxiality measurement is analyzed by simulation, and the installation accuracy requirements of the measuring rod and LDSs are presented. In the tolerance of a certain installation error of the measuring rod, the relative center of the hole is calculated by setting the over-determined nonlinear equations of the fitting circles of the multi-layer holes. In experiment, coaxiality measurement accuracy is realized by a 16 μm precision LDS, and the validity of the measurement method is verified. The manufacture and measurement requirements of the coaxiality measuring rod are low, by changing the position of LDSs in the measuring rod, the serial holes with different sizes and numbers can be measured. The rapid coaxiality measurement of parts can be easily implemented in industrial sites.

  13. Feasibility of flotation concentration of fungal spores as a method to identify toxigenic mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzle LJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lisa J Bazzle,1 Marc A Cubeta,2 Steven L Marks,1 David C Dorman3 1Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, 2Department of Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Center for Integrated Fungal Research, 3Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC, USA Purpose: Mushroom poisoning is a recurring and challenging problem in veterinary medicine. Diagnosis of mushroom exposure in animals is hampered by the lack of rapid diagnostic tests. Our study evaluated the feasibility of using flotation concentration and microscopic evaluation of spores for mushroom identification. Evaluation of this method in living animals exposed to toxigenic mushrooms is limited by ethical constraints; therefore, we relied upon the use of an in vitro model that mimics the oral and gastric phases of digestion. Methods: In our study, mycologist-identified toxigenic (poisonous and nontoxigenic fresh mushrooms were collected in North Carolina, USA. In phase 1, quantitative spore recovery rates were determined following magnesium sulfate, modified Sheather's sugar solution, and zinc sulfate flotation (n=16 fungal species. In phase 2, mushrooms (n=40 fungal species were macerated and digested for up to 2 hours in a salivary and gastric juice simulant. The partially digested material was acid neutralized, filtered, and spores concentrated using zinc sulfate flotation followed by microscopic evaluation of spore morphology. Results: Mean spore recovery rates for the three flotation fluids ranged from 32.5% to 41.0% (P=0.82. Mean (± standard error of the mean Amanita spp. spore recovery rates were 38.1%±3.4%, 36.9%±8.6%, and 74.5%±1.6% (P=0.0012 for the magnesium sulfate, Sheather's sugar, and zinc sulfate solutions, respectively. Zinc sulfate flotation following in vitro acid digestion (phase 2 yielded spore numbers adequate for microscopic visualization in

  14. An interlaboratory comparison of methods for measuring rock matrix porosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Hellmuth, K.H.; Kivekaes, L.; Ruskeeniemi, T.; Melamed, A.; Siitari-Kauppi, M.

    1996-09-01

    An interlaboratory comparison study was conducted for the available Finnish methods of rock matrix porosity measurements. The aim was first to compare different experimental methods for future applications, and second to obtain quality assured data for the needs of matrix diffusion modelling. Three different versions of water immersion techniques, a tracer elution method, a helium gas through-diffusion method, and a C-14-PMMA method were tested. All methods selected for this study were established experimental tools in the respective laboratories, and they had already been individually tested. Rock samples for the study were obtained from a homogeneous granitic drill core section from the natural analogue site at Palmottu. The drill core section was cut into slabs that were expected to be practically identical. The subsamples were then circulated between the different laboratories using a round robin approach. The circulation was possible because all methods were non-destructive, except the C-14-PMMA method, which was always the last method to be applied. The possible effect of drying temperature on the measured porosity was also preliminarily tested. These measurements were done in the order of increasing drying temperature. Based on the study, it can be concluded that all methods are comparable in their accuracy. The selection of methods for future applications can therefore be based on practical considerations. Drying temperature seemed to have very little effect on the measured porosity, but a more detailed study is needed for definite conclusions. (author) (4 refs.)

  15. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Jan [Geo Innova AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Kukkonen, Ilmo [Geological Survey of Finland, Helsinki (Finland); Haelldahl, Lars [Hot Disk AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2003-04-01

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  16. Comparison of Thermal Properties Measured by Different Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundberg, Jan; Kukkonen, Ilmo; Haelldahl, Lars

    2003-04-01

    A strategy for a thermal site descriptive model of bedrock is under development at SKB. In the model different kinds of uncertainties exist. Some of these uncertainties are related to the potential errors in the methods used for determining thermal properties of rock. In two earlier investigations thermal properties of rock samples were analysed according to the TPS method (transient plane source). Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the TPS method. For a comparison, the same samples have been measured at the Geological Survey of Finland (GSF), using different laboratory methods. In this later investigation, the thermal conductivity was determined using the divided-bar method and the specific heat capacity using a calorimetric method. The mean differences between the results of different methods are relatively low but the results of individual samples show large variations. The thermal conductivity measured by the divided bar method gives for most samples slightly higher values, in average about 3%, than the TPS method. The specific heat capacity measured by the calorimetric method gives lower values, in average about 2%, than the TPS method. Consequently, the thermal diffusivity calculated from thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity gives higher values, in average about 6%, than the TPS method. Reasons for the differences are estimated mainly to be dependent on differences between the samples, errors in the temperature dependence of specific heat and in the transformation from volumetric to specific heat. The TPS measurements are performed using two pieces (sub-samples) of rock. Only one of these two sub-samples was measured using the divided bar method and the calorimetric method. Further, sample preparation involved changes in the size of some of the samples. The mean differences between the results of different methods are within the margins of error reported by the measuring laboratories. However, systematic errors in

  17. A method and instruments to identify the torque, the power and the efficiency of an internal combustion engine of a wheeled vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. V.; Kozlov, K. E.; Belogusev, V. N.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method and instruments to identify the torque, the power, and the efficiency of internal combustion engines in transient conditions. This method, in contrast to the commonly used non-demounting methods based on inertia and strain gauge dynamometers, allows controlling the main performance parameters of internal combustion engines in transient conditions without inaccuracy connected with the torque loss due to its transfer to the driving wheels, on which the torque is measured with existing methods. In addition, the proposed method is easy to create, and it does not use strain measurement instruments, the application of which does not allow identifying the variable values of the measured parameters with high measurement rate; and therefore the use of them leads to the impossibility of taking into account the actual parameters when engineering the wheeled vehicles. Thus the use of this method can greatly improve the measurement accuracy and reduce costs and laboriousness during testing of internal combustion engines. The results of experiments showed the applicability of the proposed method for identification of the internal combustion engines performance parameters. In this paper, it was determined the most preferred transmission ratio when using the proposed method.

  18. Identifying Usability and Productivity Dimensions for Measuring the Success of Mobile Business Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiju Vuolle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews existing measures used for evaluating the usability of information systems and those used for evaluating the level of the productivity of a company. We discuss the usefulness of the existing measures in the mobile business context, where both mobility and work-context pose specific demands for the mobile business services. The review showed that the existing measures rarely consider the great contextual variation caused by the mobility of the services and the demands this poses on usability; which, in turn, affects productivity. To build a measurement tool that better meets the requirements of mobile business services, we completed case studies on two mobile business services, one used in passenger transport and the other in construction sites. Based on the understanding gained from the case studies, we propose a list of dimensions and items addressing both usability and productivity aspects that work as the basis for a multidisciplinary measurement tool.

  19. The Policy Delphi: A Method for Identifying Intended and Unintended Consequences of Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, R. Adam

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a rarely utilized but effective technique for identifying intended and unintended consequences of past or current policy or policy change. The author guides the reader through the process of identifying potential participants, contacting participants, developing the policy Delphi instrument, and analyzing the findings by…

  20. Identifying thematic roles from neural representations measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Yang, Ying; Chang, Kai-Min Kevin; Vargas, Robert; Diana, Nicholas; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-01-01

    The generativity and complexity of human thought stem in large part from the ability to represent relations among concepts and form propositions. The current study reveals how a given object such as rabbit is neurally encoded differently and identifiably depending on whether it is an agent ("the rabbit punches the monkey") or a patient ("the monkey punches the rabbit"). Machine-learning classifiers were trained on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data evoked by a set of short videos that conveyed agent-verb-patient propositions. When tested on a held-out video, the classifiers were able to reliably identify the thematic role of an object from its associated fMRI activation pattern. Moreover, when trained on one subset of the study participants, classifiers reliably identified the thematic roles in the data of a left-out participant (mean accuracy = .66), indicating that the neural representations of thematic roles were common across individuals.

  1. Analogue particle identifier and test unit for automatic measuring of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boden, A.; Lauch, J.

    1979-04-01

    A high accuracy analogue particle identifier is described. The unit is used for particle identification or data correction of experimental based errors in magnetic spectrometers. Signals which are proportional to the energy, the time-of-flight or the position of absorption of the particles are supplied to an analogue computation circuit (multifunction converter). Three computation functions are available for different applications. The output of the identifier produces correction signals or pulses whose amplitudes are proportional to the mass of the particles. Particle identification and data correction can be optimized by the adjustment of variable parameters. An automatic test unit has been developed for adjustment and routine checking of particle identifiers. The computation functions can be tested by this unit with an accuracy of 1%. (orig.) [de

  2. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Enterprise Ukrmetrteststandard, 4, Metrologichna Str., 03680, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Velychko, O; UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" data-affiliation=" (State Scientific Institution UkrNDIspirtbioprod, 3, Babushkina Lane, 03190, Kyiv (Ukraine))" >Gordiyenko, T

    2015-01-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed

  3. The estimation of the measurement results with using statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velychko, O.; Gordiyenko, T.

    2015-02-01

    The row of international standards and guides describe various statistical methods that apply for a management, control and improvement of processes with the purpose of realization of analysis of the technical measurement results. The analysis of international standards and guides on statistical methods estimation of the measurement results recommendations for those applications in laboratories is described. For realization of analysis of standards and guides the cause-and-effect Ishikawa diagrams concerting to application of statistical methods for estimation of the measurement results are constructed.

  4. Laser triangulation method for measuring the size of parking claw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Ming; Pang, Ying

    2017-10-01

    With the development of science and technology and the maturity of measurement technology, the 3D profile measurement technology has been developed rapidly. Three dimensional measurement technology is widely used in mold manufacturing, industrial inspection, automatic processing and manufacturing, etc. There are many kinds of situations in scientific research and industrial production. It is necessary to transform the original mechanical parts into the 3D data model on the computer quickly and accurately. At present, many methods have been developed to measure the contour size, laser triangulation is one of the most widely used methods.

  5. Characteristics and correlation of various radiation measuring methods in spatial radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kazuhiro; Tonouchi, Shigemasa

    1992-01-01

    When the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution was carried out, for the purpose of examining the useful measuring method, the comparison of the γ-ray dose rate calculated from survey meter method, in-situ measuring method and the measuring method by sampling soil was carried out. Between the in-situ measuring method and the survey meter method, the correlation Y=0.986X+5.73, r=0.903, n=18, P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation having the inclination of nearly 1 was shown. Between the survey meter method and the measuring method by sampling soil, the correlation Y=1.297X-10.30, r=0.966, n=20 P<0.01 was obtained, and the high correlation was shown, but as for the dose rate contribution, the disparities of 36% in U series, 6% in Th series and 20% in K-40 were observed. For the survey of the state of natural radiation distribution, the method of using in combination the survey meter method and the in-situ measuring method or the measuring method by sampling soil is suitable. (author)

  6. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  7. Single-cell quantitative HER2 measurement identifies heterogeneity and distinct subgroups within traditionally defined HER2-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsum, Matthew D; Geretti, Elena; Paragas, Violette; Kudla, Arthur J; Moulis, Sharon P; Luus, Lia; Wickham, Thomas J; McDonagh, Charlotte F; MacBeath, Gavin; Hendriks, Bart S

    2013-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is an important biomarker for breast and gastric cancer prognosis and patient treatment decisions. HER2 positivity, as defined by IHC or fluorescent in situ hybridization testing, remains an imprecise predictor of patient response to HER2-targeted therapies. Challenges to correct HER2 assessment and patient stratification include intratumoral heterogeneity, lack of quantitative and/or objective assays, and differences between measuring HER2 amplification at the protein versus gene level. We developed a novel immunofluorescence method for quantitation of HER2 protein expression at the single-cell level on FFPE patient samples. Our assay uses automated image analysis to identify and classify tumor versus non-tumor cells, as well as quantitate the HER2 staining for each tumor cell. The HER2 staining level is converted to HER2 protein expression using a standard cell pellet array stained in parallel with the tissue sample. This approach allows assessment of HER2 expression and heterogeneity within a tissue section at the single-cell level. By using this assay, we identified distinct subgroups of HER2 heterogeneity within traditional definitions of HER2 positivity in both breast and gastric cancers. Quantitative assessment of intratumoral HER2 heterogeneity may offer an opportunity to improve the identification of patients likely to respond to HER2-targeted therapies. The broad applicability of the assay was demonstrated by measuring HER2 expression profiles on multiple tumor types, and on normal and diseased heart tissues. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Radon in indoor air. Health risk, measurement methods and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.

    1996-02-01

    Radon in indoor air is the main source of ionizing radiation in Norway. The booklet contains a presentation of radon sources, measurement methods, indoor radon concentrations, action levels, health risk and remedial measures

  9. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  10. Separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Siti Munirah; Idrus, Bahari; Mukhtar, Muriati

    2014-06-01

    Quantum computers have the potentials to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. In quantum computer, entanglement is one of the elements beside superposition. Recently, with the advent of quantum information theory, entanglement has become an important resource for Quantum Information and Computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement. This paper is aimed at viewing the method that has been proposed in previous works in bipartite and multipartite entanglement. The outcome of this paper is to classify the different method that used to measure entanglement for bipartite and multipartite cases including the advantage and disadvantage of each method.

  11. Separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohd, Siti Munirah; Idrus, Bahari; Mukhtar, Muriati [Industrial Computing Research Group, Faculty of Information Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    Quantum computers have the potentials to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. In quantum computer, entanglement is one of the elements beside superposition. Recently, with the advent of quantum information theory, entanglement has become an important resource for Quantum Information and Computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement. This paper is aimed at viewing the method that has been proposed in previous works in bipartite and multipartite entanglement. The outcome of this paper is to classify the different method that used to measure entanglement for bipartite and multipartite cases including the advantage and disadvantage of each method.

  12. Separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd, Siti Munirah; Idrus, Bahari; Mukhtar, Muriati

    2014-01-01

    Quantum computers have the potentials to solve certain problems faster than classical computers. In quantum computer, entanglement is one of the elements beside superposition. Recently, with the advent of quantum information theory, entanglement has become an important resource for Quantum Information and Computation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the separability criteria and method of measurement for entanglement. This paper is aimed at viewing the method that has been proposed in previous works in bipartite and multipartite entanglement. The outcome of this paper is to classify the different method that used to measure entanglement for bipartite and multipartite cases including the advantage and disadvantage of each method

  13. L-C Measurement Acquisition Method for Aerospace Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E.; Taylor, B. Douglas; Shams, Qamar A.; Fox, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a measurement acquisition method for aerospace systems that eliminates the need for sensors to have physical connection to a power source (i.e., no lead wires) or to data acquisition equipment. Furthermore, the method does not require the sensors to be in proximity to any form of acquisition hardware. Multiple sensors can be interrogated using this method. The sensors consist of a capacitor, C(p), whose capacitance changes with changes to a physical property, p, electrically connected to an inductor, L. The method uses an antenna to broadcast electromagnetic energy that electrically excites one or more inductive-capacitive sensors via Faraday induction. This method facilitates measurements that were not previously possible because there was no practical means of providing power and data acquisition electrical connections to a sensor. Unlike traditional sensors, which measure only a single physical property, the manner in which the sensing element is interrogated simultaneously allows measurement of at least two unrelated physical properties (e.g., displacement rate and fluid level) by using each constituent of the L-C element. The key to using the method for aerospace applications is to increase the distance between the L-C elements and interrogating antenna; develop all key components to be non-obtrusive and to develop sensing elements that can easily be implemented. Techniques that have resulted in increased distance between antenna and sensor will be presented. Fluid-level measurements and pressure measurements using the acquisition method are demonstrated in the paper.

  14. The Ulam Index: Methods of Theoretical Computer Science Help in Identifying Chemical Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Adriana; Salvador, James

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we show how methods developed for solving a theoretical computer problem of graph isomorphism are used in structural chemistry. We also discuss potential applications of these methods to exobiology: the search for life outside Earth.

  15. New technique of identifying the hierarchy of dynamic domains in proteins using a method of molecular dynamics simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesylevskyy S. O.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite a large number of existing domain identification techniques there is no universally accepted method, which identifies the hierarchy of dynamic domains using the data of molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The goal of this work is to develop such technique. Methods. The dynamic domains are identified by eliminating systematic motions from MD trajectories recursively in a model-free manner. Results. The technique called the Hierarchical Domain-Wise Alignment (HDWA to identify hierarchically organized dynamic domains in proteins using the MD trajectories has been developed. Conclusion. A new method of domain identification in proteins is proposed

  16. Evolution of Self-Reporting Methods for Identifying Discrete Emotions in Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Hudson, Peter; Bellocchi, Alberto; Henderson, Senka; King, Donna; Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Emotion researchers have grappled with challenging methodological issues in capturing emotions of participants in naturalistic settings such as school or university classrooms. Self-reporting methods have been used frequently, yet these methods are inadequate when used alone. We argue that the self-reporting methods of emotion diaries and…

  17. Measuring methods, registration and signal processing for magnetic field research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagiello, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Some measuring methods and signal processing systems based on analogue and digital technics, which have been applied in magnetic field research using magnetometers with ferromagnetic transducers, are presented. (author)

  18. Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardiyono, Bb.; Kamadi, J.; Suparmono, M.; Indarto.

    1980-01-01

    Several cases of electronics and the measuring methods, covering electric conductivity and electric potential of analog systems, electric current, electric conductivity and electric potential of semiconductor diodes, and characteristics of transistors are described. (SMN)

  19. Measuring trace elements in semiconductors: methods and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, R M

    1980-02-01

    Some of the principles which govern the analytic methods available for the detection and quantitative measurement of impurity concentrations in semiconductors are described. Ways of assuring the quality of analytical data are suggested. (SPH)

  20. Validation of Standing Wave Liner Impedance Measurement Method, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hersh Acoustical Engineering, Inc. proposes to establish the feasibility and practicality of using the Standing Wave Method (SWM) to measure the impedance of...

  1. Multivariate Methods Based Soft Measurement for Wine Quality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Yin

    2014-01-01

    a decision. However, since the physicochemical indexes of wine can to some extent reflect the quality of wine, the multivariate statistical methods based soft measure can help the oenologist in wine evaluation.

  2. Development of measure methods of radon in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaginuma, L.T.; Pela, C.A.; Navas, E.A.; Ghilardi, A.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The development of some conventional measuring methods, aiming obtain an estimation of radon concentration in air, mainly in indoor air is described, including the charcoal absorption collector, Lucas cell and thermoluminescent dosemeters. (C.G.C)

  3. ONKALO EDZ-measurements using ground penetrating radar (GPR) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvast, M.; Wiljanen, B. (Roadscanners Oy, Rovaniemi (Finland))

    2008-09-15

    This report presents pilot project results from various Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) tests performed on bedrock in ONKALO, the research tunnel system being built for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel (in Finland). In recent years the GPR technology for structure inspection has improved to faster systems and higher frequencies. Processing and interpretation software has been developed for better visualization of processed data. GPR is a powerful non-destructive testing method with major advantages such as fast measurement speed and continuous survey lines. The purpose of the tests was to determine the capacity of GPR in identifying the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ). Topics included comparison of different types of GPR systems and antennas in select locations in the tunnel system and data presentation. High quality GPR data was obtained from all systems that were used on surfaces without concrete or steel reinforcement. Data processed using Geo Doctor software, which enables integrated analysis of available datasets on a single screen, provided promising results. (orig.)

  4. ONKALO EDZ-measurements using ground penetrating radar (GPR) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvast, M.; Wiljanen, B.

    2008-09-01

    This report presents pilot project results from various Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) tests performed on bedrock in ONKALO, the research tunnel system being built for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel (in Finland). In recent years the GPR technology for structure inspection has improved to faster systems and higher frequencies. Processing and interpretation software has been developed for better visualization of processed data. GPR is a powerful non-destructive testing method with major advantages such as fast measurement speed and continuous survey lines. The purpose of the tests was to determine the capacity of GPR in identifying the Excavation Damaged or Disturbed Zone (EDZ). Topics included comparison of different types of GPR systems and antennas in select locations in the tunnel system and data presentation. High quality GPR data was obtained from all systems that were used on surfaces without concrete or steel reinforcement. Data processed using Geo Doctor software, which enables integrated analysis of available datasets on a single screen, provided promising results. (orig.)

  5. The Comparison of Biochemical and Sequencing 16S rDNA Gene Methods to Identify Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafipour1, M.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The identification of Mycobacteria in the species level has great medical importance. Biochemical tests are laborious and time-consuming, so new techniques could be used to identify the species. This research aimed to the comparison of biochemical and sequencing 16S rDNA gene methods to identify nontuberculous Mycobacteria in patients suspected to tuberculosis in Golestan province which is the most prevalent region of tuberculosis in Iran. Among 3336 patients suspected to tuberculosis referred to hospitals and health care centres in Golestan province during 2010-2011, 319 (9.56% culture positive cases were collected. Identification of species by using biochemical tests was done. On the samples recognized as nontuberculous Mycobacteria, after DNA extraction by boiling, 16S rDNA PCR was done and their sequencing were identified by NCBI BLAST. Of the 319 positive samples in Golestan Province, 300 cases were M.tuberculosis and 19 cases (5.01% were identified as nontuberculous Mycobacteria by biochemical tests. 15 out of 19 nontuberculous Mycobacteria were identified by PCR and sequencing method as similar by biochemical methods (similarity rate: 78.9%. But after PCR, 1 case known as M.simiae by biochemical test was identified as M. lentiflavum and 3 other cases were identified as Nocardia. Biochemical methods corresponded to the 16S rDNA PCR and sequencing in 78.9% of cases. However, in identification of M. lentiflavum and Nocaria sp. the molecular method is better than biochemical methods.

  6. A Fast and Robust Method for Measuring Optical Channel Gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, Anders La-Cour; Stoustrup, Jakob; Villemoes, L.F.

    2000-01-01

    We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions......We present a numerically stable and computational simple method for fast and robust measurement of optical channel gain. By transmitting adaptively designed signals through the channel, good accuracy is possible even in severe noise conditions...

  7. Measurement of ion energy by a calorimetric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuhashi, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Bunak, Suwat

    1996-12-01

    In calorimetric method, ion energy is determined based on the temperature changes during radiation of an absorbing material, radiation current and heat capacity of the calorimeter. This method is convenient and its measuring procedures are simple as well as the measuring apparatus. Here, the temperature changes of the calorimeter during {sup 14}N ion beam radiation were determined. The temperature increased linearly when irradiated with {sup 14}N{sup 3+}, 8.3 MeV or {sup 14}N{sup 2+}, 6 MeV, but not linearly for {sup 14}N{sup 1+}, 3.6 MeV, resulting in a comparatively large error. Thus, the measurement of ion energy by calorimetric method was found available as a convenient method for an accelerator having an energy stability less than 10{sup -3}. Especially this method seems to be useful for low-energy ion accelerator or ion injecting apparatus. (M.N.)

  8. Wettability measurements of irregular shapes with Wilhelmy plate method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaehyung; Pasaogullari, Ugur; Bonville, Leonard

    2018-01-01

    One of the most accurate methods for measuring the dynamic contact angle of liquids on solid surfaces is the Wilhelmy plate method. This method generally requires the use of rectangular samples having a constant perimeter in the liquid during advancing and receding cycles. A new formulation based on the Wilhelmy force balance equation to determine the contact angle for plate samples with irregular shapes has been developed. This method employs a profile plot obtained from an optical image to determine the perimeter (i.e. wetted length) of the sample as a function of the immersion depth. The raw force data measured by the force tensiometer is manipulated using the profile plot and the Wilhelmy equation to determine the wetting force and consequently advancing and the receding contact angle. This method is verified with both triangular and irregular PTFE samples in water, and measured contact angles are in good agreement with results from conventional regular shaped samples with a constant perimeter.

  9. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leszczynski, K

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.).

  10. Measurement of unattached radon progeny based in electrostatic deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canoba, A.C.; Lopez, F.O.

    1999-01-01

    A method for the measurement of unattached radon progeny based on its electrostatic deposition onto wire screens, using only one pump, has been implemented and calibrated. The importance of being able of making use of this method is related with the special radiological significance that has the unattached fraction of the short-lived radon progeny. Because of this, the assessment of exposure could be directly related to dose with far greater accuracy than before. The advantages of this method are its simplicity, even with the tools needed for the sample collection, as well as the measurement instruments used. Also, the suitability of this method is enhanced by the fact that it can effectively be used with a simple measuring procedure such as the Kusnetz method. (author)

  11. Interval sampling methods and measurement error: a computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Oliver; Slaven, James; Taylor, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to provide a more thorough account of measurement error associated with interval sampling methods. A computer program simulated the application of momentary time sampling, partial-interval recording, and whole-interval recording methods on target events randomly distributed across an observation period. The simulation yielded measures of error for multiple combinations of observation period, interval duration, event duration, and cumulative event duration. The simulations were conducted up to 100 times to yield measures of error variability. Although the present simulation confirmed some previously reported characteristics of interval sampling methods, it also revealed many new findings that pertain to each method's inherent strengths and weaknesses. The analysis and resulting error tables can help guide the selection of the most appropriate sampling method for observation-based behavioral assessments. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  12. Assessment and comparison of methods for solar ultraviolet radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leszczynski, K.

    1995-06-01

    In the study, the different methods to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation are compared. The methods included are spectroradiometric, erythemally weighted broadband and multi-channel measurements. The comparison of the different methods is based on a literature review and assessments of optical characteristics of the spectroradiometer Optronic 742 of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) and of the erythemally weighted Robertson-Berger type broadband radiometers Solar Light models 500 and 501 of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and STUK. An introduction to the sources of error in solar UV measurements, to methods for radiometric characterization of UV radiometers together with methods for error reduction are presented. Reviews on experiences from world-wide UV monitoring efforts and instrumentation as well as on the results from international UV radiometer intercomparisons are also presented. (62 refs.)

  13. Identifying experimental methods to determine the effect of pain on attention: a review of pain, caffeine, alcohol and nicotine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    To review published studies of the effects that pain and common psychopharmacological substances have on the attentional performance of healthy adults. To identify which attentional tasks have the greatest potential to investigate the effect of pain on attention and provide recommendations for future research. A search was conducted for reports of experimental studies of attention in the context of pain. This was supplemented with studies on attention and caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. Studies were included if they used a healthy adult sample, used experimental or quasi-experimental methods, were relevant to the study of attention or interruption of pain and/or examined the acute effects of a substance on attention. Thirty-two papers, with 49 different experimental studies were identified (12 pain, 21 nicotine, 7 caffeine, 9 alcohol). Fourteen different tasks were reviewed across six domains of attention. The most promising measures of attention were the continuous performance task, flanker task, endogenous pre-cuing task, n-back task, inhibition task and dual task. There are reliable tasks that could be used to determine the effects of pain on attention. Future research is required that develops the utility of these tasks to improve our understanding of the effects pain and analgesia have on attentional performance. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A new centrality measure for identifying influential nodes in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Delel; Ben Romdhane, Lotfi

    2018-04-01

    The identification of central nodes has been a key problem in the field of social network analysis. In fact, it is a measure that accounts the popularity or the visibility of an actor within a network. In order to capture this concept, various measures, either sample or more elaborate, has been developed. Nevertheless, many of "traditional" measures are not designed to be applicable to huge data. This paper sets out a new node centrality index suitable for large social network. It uses the amount of the neighbors of a node and connections between them to characterize a "pivot" node in the graph. We presented experimental results on real data sets which show the efficiency of our proposal.

  15. Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program methods and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, J.; Hoornbeek, J.; Jalbert, P.; Sensintaffar, E.; Hopper, R.

    1991-01-01

    The US EPA developed the voluntary Radon Measurement Proficiency Program in 1986 in response to a Federal and State need for measurement services firms to demonstrate their proficiency with radon measurement methods and devices. Since that time, the program has set basic standards for the radon measurement industry. The program has grown dramatically since its inception. In 1986, fewer than 50 companies participated in the program. By 1989, more than 5,000 companies were participating. Participants represent firms with an analytical capability as well as firms that rely upon another firm for analysis service. Since the beginning of the RMP Program, the Agency has learned a great deal about radon measurement methods and devices. This paper reviews the measurement devices used in the program and what the EPA has learned about them since the program's inception. Performance data from the RMP Program are used to highlight relevant findings

  16. A method for quantitative measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Samir Chreiteh, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of agreement studies relevant for measuring changes over time in lumbar intervertebral disc structures. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a method for measurement of intervertebral disc height, anterior and posterior disc material and dural sac diameter using MR...

  17. A radiographic method for measurement of leg length inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friberg, O; Koivisto, E; Wegelius, C

    1985-01-01

    An accurate and simple radiographic method for the measurement of weight-bearing leg length inequality with a minimum of radiated body area is described. The measurement can be made in a conventional chest X-ray unit without other extra equipment than a gonad shield described here.

  18. A four-probe thermal transport measurement method for nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Sellan, Daniel P.; Shi, Li, E-mail: lishi@mail.utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Several experimental techniques reported in recent years have enabled the measurement of thermal transport properties of nanostructures. However, eliminating the contact thermal resistance error from the measurement results has remained a critical challenge. Here, we report a different four-probe measurement method that can separately obtain both the intrinsic thermal conductance and the contact thermal resistance of individual nanostructures. The measurement device consists of four microfabricated, suspended metal lines that act as resistive heaters and thermometers, across which the nanostructure sample is assembled. The method takes advantage of the variation in the heat flow along the suspended nanostructure and across its contacts to the four suspended heater and thermometer lines, and uses sixteen sets of temperature and heat flow measurements to obtain nine of the thermal resistances in the measurement device and the nanostructure sample, including the intrinsic thermal resistance and the two contact thermal resistances to the middle suspended segment of the nanostructure. Two single crystalline Si nanowires with different cross sections are measured in this work to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This four-probe thermal transport measurement method can lead to future discoveries of unique size-dependent thermal transport phenomena in nanostructures and low-dimensional materials, in addition to providing reliable experimental data for calibrating theoretical models.

  19. Social Capital in Western and Eastern Europe: Method of Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, L.; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a standard method of measurement for social capital. Various authors have investigated the influence of social capital on economic growth but still social capital has not been measured in any satisfactory way. So far, each survey has used its own ad hoc met...

  20. Cavitation, subcooled boiling and a measuring method developed at ENEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    A brief description of cavitation and subcooled boiling is reported; their effects, measuring methods, operating limits and prescribed standards are described. The whole, to better clarify the usefulness and the importance of a measuring instrument developed at ENEA, to study the above phenomena

  1. Method of measuring the degree of fluid pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortensen, A.; Hammer, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    The invention relates to an method and device for measuring the degree of pollution from particulates in fluids. The device consists of an emitter sending out green and red light in succession through the fluid to a light recorder. The recorder itself includes a unit designed for comparing the measured intensity of light with the values of known pollution degree in fluids. 2 figs

  2. A four-probe thermal transport measurement method for nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehyun; Ou, Eric; Sellan, Daniel P.; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Several experimental techniques reported in recent years have enabled the measurement of thermal transport properties of nanostructures. However, eliminating the contact thermal resistance error from the measurement results has remained a critical challenge. Here, we report a different four-probe measurement method that can separately obtain both the intrinsic thermal conductance and the contact thermal resistance of individual nanostructures. The measurement device consists of four microfabricated, suspended metal lines that act as resistive heaters and thermometers, across which the nanostructure sample is assembled. The method takes advantage of the variation in the heat flow along the suspended nanostructure and across its contacts to the four suspended heater and thermometer lines, and uses sixteen sets of temperature and heat flow measurements to obtain nine of the thermal resistances in the measurement device and the nanostructure sample, including the intrinsic thermal resistance and the two contact thermal resistances to the middle suspended segment of the nanostructure. Two single crystalline Si nanowires with different cross sections are measured in this work to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. This four-probe thermal transport measurement method can lead to future discoveries of unique size-dependent thermal transport phenomena in nanostructures and low-dimensional materials, in addition to providing reliable experimental data for calibrating theoretical models

  3. Recursive expectation-maximization clustering: A method for identifying buffering mechanisms composed of phenomic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jingyu; Tian, Dehua; McKinney, Brett A.; Hartman, John L.

    2010-06-01

    Interactions between genetic and/or environmental factors are ubiquitous, affecting the phenotypes of organisms in complex ways. Knowledge about such interactions is becoming rate-limiting for our understanding of human disease and other biological phenomena. Phenomics refers to the integrative analysis of how all genes contribute to phenotype variation, entailing genome and organism level information. A systems biology view of gene interactions is critical for phenomics. Unfortunately the problem is intractable in humans; however, it can be addressed in simpler genetic model systems. Our research group has focused on the concept of genetic buffering of phenotypic variation, in studies employing the single-cell eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We have developed a methodology, quantitative high throughput cellular phenotyping (Q-HTCP), for high-resolution measurements of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale. Q-HTCP is being applied to the complete set of S. cerevisiae gene deletion strains, a unique resource for systematically mapping gene interactions. Genetic buffering is the idea that comprehensive and quantitative knowledge about how genes interact with respect to phenotypes will lead to an appreciation of how genes and pathways are functionally connected at a systems level to maintain homeostasis. However, extracting biologically useful information from Q-HTCP data is challenging, due to the multidimensional and nonlinear nature of gene interactions, together with a relative lack of prior biological information. Here we describe a new approach for mining quantitative genetic interaction data called recursive expectation-maximization clustering (REMc). We developed REMc to help discover phenomic modules, defined as sets of genes with similar patterns of interaction across a series of genetic or environmental perturbations. Such modules are reflective of buffering mechanisms, i.e., genes that play a related role in the maintenance

  4. Stress measurement and bolt tensioning by ultrasonic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.F.; Greiner, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to approx. 1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability

  5. Stress Measurement and Bolt Tensioning by Ultrasonic Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. F.; Greiner, John D.

    1980-07-01

    In the past decade, a new technique has been developed for measuring tensile stresses in solids. This ultrasonic technique has been used thus far primarily for measuring fastener tension. The precision of measurement is routinely to 2-3% and, with special care, to ˜1%. The method is insensitive to the frictional losses which plague tensioning by torque wrench. Though the approach is relatively new, it promises a wide range of applicability.

  6. Machine Learning Methods for Identifying Composition of Uranium Deposits in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuchin Yan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores geophysical methods of wells survey, as well as their role in the development of Kazakhstan’s uranium deposit mining efforts. An analysis of the existing methods for solving the problem of interpreting geophysical data using machine learning in petroleum geophysics is made. The requirements and possible applications of machine learning methods in regard to uranium deposits of Kazakhstan are formulated in the paper.

  7. Features of the diagnostic methods to identify the sheep subclinical mastitis in according to infectious etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Vale Tanaka

    2012-12-01

    value of 300 000 cells/ml of milk to the screening of the positive and negative samples. A total of 125 samples were negative in the microbiological examination, of which 102 were presented as CMT-negative and 23 were positive to the CMT. Among the positive samples for microbiological analyzes, 12 were negative to the CMT. Thirty-four samples were positive for mastitis after the SCC, from a total of 118. SCC showed greater sensitivity than the CMT for identifying cases of ovine mastitis to the most classes of micro-organisms (67.0% vs. 50.0% for CPS; 80.0% vs. 71.4 % for CNS; and 87.5% vs. 55.6% for other micro-organisms, except for coliforms (85.7% vs. 90.0%, probably by the least amount of results for SCC when compared to CMT. The CMT was more efficient in the diagnosis of mastitis for all classes of micro-organisms (80.0% vs. 79.9% for CPS, 82.0% vs. 71.5% for CNS, 82.2% vs. 72.0 % for coliforms, and 80.0% vs. 72.2% for other micro-organisms due to greater specificity when compared with SCC (81.6% vs. 71.2%. It is concluded that the test SCC offered so far, better diagnostic sensitivity for detection of ovine mastitis for most micro-organisms, providing greater security for the screening of cases in the herd which, in the future, may facilitate the effectiveness of disease control measures.

  8. Extrapolation of model tests measurements of whipping to identify the dimensioning sea states for container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storhaug, Gaute; Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent

    2015-01-01

    to small storms. Model tests of three container ships have been carried out in different sea states under realistic assumptions. Preliminary extrapolation of the measured data suggested that moderate storms are dimensioning when whipping is included due to higher maximum speed in moderate storms...

  9. Toward a Research-Based Assessment of Dyslexia: Using Cognitive Measures To Identify Reading Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sherry Mee; McCallum, R. Steve; Cox, Elizabeth A.

    2003-01-01

    Elementary and middle school children (n=105) completed measures of reading achievement and cognitive abilities. Factor analysis produced three empirically and theoretically derived factors, auditory processing, visual processing/speed, and memory. Together the three factors combined predicted 61 to 85% of the variance associated with different…

  10. Comparison of different methods for thoron progeny measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Lei; Zhu Li; Shang Bing; Cui Hongxing; Zhang Qingzhao

    2009-01-01

    Four popular methods for thoron progeny measurement were discussed, including the aspects of detector,principle, precondition, calculation advantages and disadvantages. Comparison experiments were made in mine and houses with high background in Yunnan Province. Since indoor thoron progeny changes with time obviously and with no rule, α track method is recommended in the area of radiation protection for environmental detection and assessment. (authors)

  11. A Simple and Accurate Method for Measuring Enzyme Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Din-Yan

    1997-01-01

    Presents methods commonly used for investigating enzyme activity using catalase and presents a new method for measuring catalase activity that is more reliable and accurate. Provides results that are readily reproduced and quantified. Can also be used for investigations of enzyme properties such as the effects of temperature, pH, inhibitors,…

  12. New method of measuring electric dipole moments in storage rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farley, FJM; Jungmann, K; Miller, JP; Morse, WM; Orlov, YF; Roberts, BL; Semertzidis, YK; Silenko, A; Stephenson, EJ

    2004-01-01

    A new highly sensitive method of looking for electric dipole moments of charged particles in storage rings is described. The major systematic errors inherent in the method are addressed and ways to minimize them are suggested. It seems possible to measure the muon EDM to levels that test speculative

  13. A Study of Scientometric Methods to Identify Emerging Technologies via Modeling of Milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Udoeyop, Akaninyene W [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This work examines a scientometric model that tracks the emergence of an identified technology from initial discovery (via original scientific and conference literature), through critical discoveries (via original scientific, conference literature and patents), transitioning through Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) and ultimately on to commercial application. During the period of innovation and technology transfer, the impact of scholarly works, patents and on-line web news sources are identified. As trends develop, currency of citations, collaboration indicators, and on-line news patterns are identified. The combinations of four distinct and separate searchable on-line networked sources (i.e., scholarly publications and citation, patents, news archives, and online mapping networks) are assembled to become one collective network (a dataset for analysis of relations). This established network becomes the basis from which to quickly analyze the temporal flow of activity (searchable events) for the example subject domain we investigated.

  14. Using a measure of person-perception skills to identify outstanding home care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, Kerry; Medvene, Louis; Walker, Diane

    2011-01-01

    This study involved university-community collaboration with an international home care company for the purpose of developing a tool to identify talented caregivers. Tested was the hypothesis that workers' ability to provide care in person-centered ways would be positively associated with their ability to describe others in complex ways--that is, their person-perception skills. Company coordinators functioning as supervisors used an innovative 10-item instrument to screen 554 home health aides for their person centeredness. The most and least person-centered workers were evaluated for their person-perception skills. Person centeredness was positively associated with the complexity of home care workers' descriptions of others.

  15. Recruiting and Retaining LGBTQ-Identified Staff in Academic Libraries Through Ordinary Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Kuecker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Brief While the American academic library field works hard to include all patrons and materials that represent less dominant populations, it should be more mindful of inclusivity in its own workforce. Particularly, the field does nothing to explicitly recruit or retain LGBTQ-identified librarians. The author proposes practical remedies to these problems that directly respond to workplace studies on interpersonal difficulties LGBTQ-identified librarians and others have cited as barriers to happiness in the workplace, and argues toward more inclusive LIS education and financial support.

  16. New radiocarbon measurement methods in the Hertelendi Laboratory, Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janovics, Róbert; Major, István; Rinyu, László; Veres, Mihály; Molnár, Mihály

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present two very different and novel methods for C-14 measurement from dissolved inorganic carbonate (DIC) of water samples. A new LSC sample preparation method for liquid scintillation C-14 measurements was implemented in the ATOMKI. The first method uses direct absorption into a special absorbent (Carbosorb E®) and a following liquid scintillation measurement. Typical sample size is 20-40 litre of water. The developed CO2 absorption method is fast, and simple. The C-14 activities is measured by an ultra low background LSC (TRI-CARB 3170 TR/SL, Perkin Elmer) including quenching parameter (tSIE).The corresponding limit of C-14 dating is 31200 year. Several tests were executed with old borehole CO2 gas without significant content of C-14 and also performed on samples of known C-14 activities between 29 and 7000 pMC, previously measured by GPC. The combined uncertainty of the described determination is about 2 % in the case of recent carbon. It is a very cost-effective and easy to use method based on a novel and simple static absorption process for the CO2 extracted from groundwater. The other very sensitive method is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using gas ion source. This method does not require graphite generation and a small volume of water sample (1-20mL) is enough for the radiocarbon measurement. The procedure is very similar to pre-treatment of carbonate contained sample preparation for stable isotope measurement with gasbench technique. We applied a MICADAS type accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with gas ion source for C-14 analysis. The radiocarbon content of water was sat free with phosphoric acid and then the headspace gas was rinsed vials. The whole measurement needs only 20 min of each sample. The precision of measurement is better than 1% for modern samples. The preparation is vastly reduced compared to the other AMS methods and principally allows fully automated measurements of groundwater samples with an auto

  17. Impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushpil, V.V.; Kushpil, S.A.; Petracek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A new impulse method of temperature measurement based on switching characteristic of the P-N junction is described. Temperature of silicon detector can be determined, due to the strong temperature dependence of minority carrier lifetime, from the charge registered during the switching-off process. The method has been tested in temperature range 25 - 60 deg C. Advantages, drawbacks and precision of this method are discussed

  18. Measuring method of liquid flow behavior using visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serizawa, Akimi; Kamei, Takashi; Takahashi, Osamu; Kawara, Zensaku

    1994-01-01

    It is important for the safety of nuclear reactor to understand the behavior of gas-liquid two-phase flow. For that analysis, we have to understand its time and spatial dependence. But most of the measuring methods applied to two-phase flow experiments are not enough for this purpose, because they consider the time averaged value, and they are put on the local position in test sections. Standing on such a point of view, we have been developing a measuring method using fluorescence. And from those pictures gotten by video camera, after processed by computer, we measure liquid film thickness. (author)

  19. Measurement of subcritical multiplication by the interval distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, G.W.

    1985-01-01

    The prompt decay constant or the subcritical neutron multiplication may be determined by measuring the distribution of the time intervals between successive neutron counts. The distribution data is analyzed by least-squares fitting to a theoretical distribution function derived from a point reactor probability model. Published results of measurements with one- and two-detector systems are discussed. Data collection times are shorter, and statistical errors are smaller the nearer the system is to delayed critical. Several of the measurements indicate that a shorter data collection time and higher accuracy are possible with the interval distribution method than with the Feynman variance method

  20. Planting sentinel European trees in eastern Asia as a novel method to identify potential insect pest invaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Alain; Fan, Jian-Ting; Courtial, Béatrice; Zhang, Yan-Zhuo; Yart, Annie; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Denux, Olivier; Kenis, Marc; Baker, Richard; Sun, Jiang-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Quarantine measures to prevent insect invasions tend to focus on well-known pests but a large proportion of the recent invaders were not known to cause significant damage in their native range, or were not even known to science before their introduction. A novel method is proposed to detect new potential pests of woody plants in their region of origin before they are introduced to a new continent. Since Asia is currently considered to be the main supplier of insect invaders to Europe, sentinel trees were planted in China during 2007-2011 as an early warning tool to identify the potential for additional Asian insect species to colonize European trees. Seedlings (1-1.5 m tall) of five broadleaved (Quercus petraea, Q. suber, Q. ilex, Fagus sylvatica, and Carpinus betulus) and two conifer species (Abies alba and Cupressus sempervirens) were planted in blocks of 100 seedlings at two widely separated sites (one in a nursery near Beijing and the other in a forest environment near Fuyang in eastern China), and then regularly surveyed for colonization by insects. A total of 104 insect species, mostly defoliators, were observed on these new hosts, and at least six species were capable of larval development. Although a number of the insects observed were probably incidental feeders, 38 species had more than five colonization events, mostly infesting Q. petraea, and could be considered as being capable of switching to European trees if introduced to Europe. Three years was shown to be an appropriate duration for the experiment, since the rate of colonization then tended to plateau. A majority of the identified species appeared to have switched from agricultural crops and fruit trees rather than from forest trees. Although these results are promising, the method is not appropriate for xylophagous pests and other groups developing on larger trees. Apart from the logistical problems, the identification to species level of the specimens collected was a major difficulty. This

  1. A new method for measurement of granular velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg Andersen, B.

    1984-01-01

    A new, supplementary method to measure granular velocities is presented. The method utilizes the Doppler shift caused by the line of sight component of the solar rotation to cause a wavelength shift through spectral lines as function of heliocentric angle. By measuring the center-to-limb variation of the granular intensity fluctations at different wavelength positions in the lines, the velocities are found. To do this, assumptions regarding the geometrical structure of the velocity and intensity fields have to be made. Preliminary application of the method results in a steep velocity gradient suggesting zero velocity at a hight of 200 km above tau 500 = 1. Possible causes are discussed

  2. Neutron spectrum measurement using rise-time discrimination method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Zhiping; Suzuki, C.; Kosako, T.; Ma Jizeng

    2009-01-01

    PSD method can be used to measure the fast neutron spectrum in n/γ mixed field. A set of assemblies for measuring the pulse height distribution of neutrons is built up,based on a large volume NE213 liquid scintillator and standard NIM circuits,through the rise-time discrimination method. After that,the response matrix is calculated using Monte Carlo method. The energy calibration of the pulse height distribution is accomplished using 60 Co radioisotope. The neutron spectrum of the mono-energetic accelerator neutron source is achieved by unfolding process. Suggestions for further improvement of the system are presented at last. (authors)

  3. Methods for measuring of fuel can deformation under radiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelenchuk, A.V.; Fetisov, B.V.; Lakin, Yu.G.; Tonkov, V.Yu.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for measuring fuel can deformation under radiation conditions by means of the acoustic method and tensoresistors is considered. The construction and operation of the in-pile facility for measuring creep of the fuel can specimen loaded by the internal pressure is described. The data on neutron radiation effect on changes in creep rate for zirconium fuel can are presented. The results obtained with tensoresistors are in a good agreement with those obtained by the acoustic method, which enables to recommend the use of both methods for the irradiation creep investigation of the fuel element cans

  4. Identifying measures to balance the risk profile of the Tihange 2 NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eer, A.M.; Monniez, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, each Nuclear Power Plant is subject to a periodic safety reassessment. In this context, it was found to be desirable to perform a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) in support of the ten yearly back-fitting process. The Tihange 2 NPP is a 3-loop PWR having a thermal capacity of 2905 MW. Analysis of the plant's risk profile shows that implementing feasible measures for improvement of the shutdown risk, would be beneficial. This is because a configuration leading to significant risk, namely cold pressurization when the residual heat removal system is lost during reduced primary inventory, thus can be avoided. As a result the risk between reactor shutdown and power operation will be balanced. The presentation describes the lessons learnt regarding the Tihange 2 shutdown PSA model and the expected benefits following implementation of one of the proposed measures. (author)

  5. Quantifying the measurement uncertainty of results from environmental analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, J; Wegscheider, W; Sperka-Gottlieb, C

    2001-07-01

    The Eurachem-CITAC Guide Quantifying Uncertainty in Analytical Measurement was put into practice in a public laboratory devoted to environmental analytical measurements. In doing so due regard was given to the provisions of ISO 17025 and an attempt was made to base the entire estimation of measurement uncertainty on available data from the literature or from previously performed validation studies. Most environmental analytical procedures laid down in national or international standards are the result of cooperative efforts and put into effect as part of a compromise between all parties involved, public and private, that also encompasses environmental standards and statutory limits. Central to many procedures is the focus on the measurement of environmental effects rather than on individual chemical species. In this situation it is particularly important to understand the measurement process well enough to produce a realistic uncertainty statement. Environmental analytical methods will be examined as far as necessary, but reference will also be made to analytical methods in general and to physical measurement methods where appropriate. This paper describes ways and means of quantifying uncertainty for frequently practised methods of environmental analysis. It will be shown that operationally defined measurands are no obstacle to the estimation process as described in the Eurachem/CITAC Guide if it is accepted that the dominating component of uncertainty comes from the actual practice of the method as a reproducibility standard deviation.

  6. A gamma-source method of measuring soil moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Jeboori, M.A.; Ameen, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Water content in soil column was measured using NaI scintillation detector 5 mci Cs-137 as a gamma source. The measurements were done with a back scatter gauge, restricted with scattering angle less to than /2 overcome the effect of soil type. A 3 cm air gap was maintained between the front of the detector and the wall of the soil container in order to increase the counting rate. The distance between the center of the source and the center of the back scattering detector was 14 cm. The accuracy of the measurements was 0.63. For comparision, a direct rays method was used to measure the soil moisture. The results gave an error of 0.65. Results of the two methods were compared with the gravimetric method which gave an error of 0.18 g/g and 0.17 g/g for direct and back method respectively. The quick direct method was used to determine the gravimetric and volumetric percentage constants, and were found to be 1.62 and 0.865 respectively. The method then used to measure the water content in the layers of soil column.(6 tabs., 4 figs., 12 refs.)

  7. Accuracy of a Rationally Derived Method for Identifying Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Matthew J.; Bybee, Taige S.; Lambert, Michael J.; Burlingame, Gary M.; Wells, M. Gawain; Poppleton, Landon E.

    2005-01-01

    Psychotherapy outcome can be enhanced by early identification of potential treatment failures before they leave treatment. In adults, compelling data are emerging that provide evidence that an early warning system that identifies potential treatment failures can be developed and applied to enhance outcome. The present study reports an analysis of…

  8. Stable isotope fingerprinting: a novel method for identifying plant, fungal, or bacterial origins of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Larsen; D. Lee Taylor; Mary Beth Leigh; Diane M. O' Brien

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids play an important role in ecology as essential nutrients for animals and as currencies in symbiotic associations. Here we present a new approach to tracing the origins of amino acids by identifying unique patterns of carbon isotope signatures generated by amino acid synthesis in plants, fungi, and bacteria ("13C fingerprints...

  9. A comparative survey of chemistry-driven in silico methods to identify hazardous substances under REACH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nendza, M.; Gabbert, S.G.M.; Kühne, R.; Lombardo, A.; Roncaglioni, A.; Benfenati, E.; Benigi, R.; Bossa, C.; Strempel, S.; Scheringer, M.; Fernandez, A.; Rallo, R.; Giralt, F.; Dimitrov, S.; Mekenyan, O.; Bringezu, F.; Schüürmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an inventory of in silico screening tools to identify substance properties of concern under the European chemicals’ legislation REACH. The objective is to support the selection and implementation of appropriate tools as building blocks within integrated testing strategies (ITS).

  10. Capturing conflict experiences : Five methods for identifying intra-personal concern conflicts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ozkaramanli, D.; Ozcan Vieira, E.; Desmet, P.M.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts from the proposition that concern conflicts can be powerful starting points for user-centered design processes. Our focus is on the challenge to identify conflicting concerns that are both inspiring and relevant in the context of use, or in the user’s general context of life.

  11. Identifying the Factors Affecting Science and Mathematics Achievement Using Data Mining Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiray, S. Ahmet; Gok, Bilge; Bozkir, A. Selman

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the order of significance of the variables that affect science and mathematics achievement in middle school students. For this aim, the study deals with the relationship between science and math in terms of different angles using the perspectives of multiple causes-single effect and of multiple…

  12. Measurement of airborne droplets by the magnesium oxide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, K R

    1950-01-01

    A complete calibration has been made for the first time of the method of detecting and measuring airborne droplets whereby the permanent impressions made when they strike a layer of magnesium oxide smoked on a glass slide are measured microscopically. A size range of 200 to 10 microns and a wide range of liquids and impact velocities were investigated, and it was found that the ratio of true drop size to impression size is constant at 0.86 for droplets greater than 20 microns of any liquid. The method fails below 10 microns. The calibration was made against an absolute method of droplet measurement, also against the so-called focal-length method. Droplets of any desired size were generated by a uniform spray apparatus.

  13. The method for measuring residual stress in stainless steel pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimov, Georgy; Rozenbaum, Mikhail; Serebryakov, Alexandr; Serebryakov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    The main reason of appearance and growth of corrosion damages of the nuclear steam generator heat exchanger tubes is the process of stress-corrosion cracking of metal under the influence of residual tensile stress. Methods used in the production for estimating residual stresses (such as a method of ring samples) allow measuring only the average tangential stress of the pipe wall. The method of ring samples does not allow to assess the level of residual stress in the surface layer of the pipe. This paper describes an experimental method for measuring the residual stresses on the pipe surface by etching a thin surface layer of the metal. The construction and working principle of a trial installation are described. The residual stresses in the wall of the tubes 16 × 1.5 mm (steel AISI 321) for nuclear steam generators is calculated. Keywords: heat exchange pipes, stress corrosion cracking, residual stresses, stress distribution, stress measurement.

  14. Measurement for the Leak Rate enhanced by a Improved Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang-Hoon; Choi, Young-San; Kim, Young-Ki; Lee, Yong-Sub; Jung, Hoan-Sung

    2007-01-01

    The leak rate measurement of the HANARO such as a research reactor that adopts a confinement concept for a reactor hall is very important one during a period inspection. This test verifies whether the reactor building could maintain the negative pressure or not when radiation is perceived by abnormal accidents. Of course, this may not cause a problem in a reactor operation only if it can satisfy the design requirement, but it is necessary to have some margin of a limitation value because a reactor hall should be managed more conservatively than the design reference. To meet the requirements of this strict design condition, previous method was changed to a new type of test with more stable and robust measuring method. The new leak rate measurement method is briefly introduced and the merits of this proposed method are shown through the data analyzed for last 3 years

  15. SABER: a computational method for identifying active sites for new reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosrati, Geoffrey R; Houk, K N

    2012-05-01

    A software suite, SABER (Selection of Active/Binding sites for Enzyme Redesign), has been developed for the analysis of atomic geometries in protein structures, using a geometric hashing algorithm (Barker and Thornton, Bioinformatics 2003;19:1644-1649). SABER is used to explore the Protein Data Bank (PDB) to locate proteins with a specific 3D arrangement of catalytic groups to identify active sites that might be redesigned to catalyze new reactions. As a proof-of-principle test, SABER was used to identify enzymes that have the same catalytic group arrangement present in o-succinyl benzoate synthase (OSBS). Among the highest-scoring scaffolds identified by the SABER search for enzymes with the same catalytic group arrangement as OSBS were L-Ala D/L-Glu epimerase (AEE) and muconate lactonizing enzyme II (MLE), both of which have been redesigned to become effective OSBS catalysts, demonstrated by experiments. Next, we used SABER to search for naturally existing active sites in the PDB with catalytic groups similar to those present in the designed Kemp elimination enzyme KE07. From over 2000 geometric matches to the KE07 active site, SABER identified 23 matches that corresponded to residues from known active sites. The best of these matches, with a 0.28 Å catalytic atom RMSD to KE07, was then redesigned to be compatible with the Kemp elimination using RosettaDesign. We also used SABER to search for potential Kemp eliminases using a theozyme predicted to provide a greater rate acceleration than the active site of KE07, and used Rosetta to create a design based on the proteins identified. Copyright © 2012 The Protein Society.

  16. Identifying Students Struggling in Courses by Analyzing Exam Grades, Self-reported Measures and Study Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Bemman, Brian; Knoche, Hendrik

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we present a set of instrument`s designed to identify at-risk undergraduate students in a Problem-based Learning (PBL) university, using an introductory programming course between two campus locations as a case study. Collectively, these instruments form the basis of a proposed learning ecosystem...... in the prediction model. Results of a multiple linear regression model found several significant assessment predictors related to how often students attempted self-guided course assignments and their self-reported programming experience, among others.......Technical educations often experience poor student performance and consequently high rates of attrition. Providing students with early feedback on their learning progress can assist students in self-study activities or in their decision-making process regarding a change in educational direction...

  17. Image based method for aberration measurement of lithographic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shuang; Tao, Bo; Guo, Yongxing; Li, Gongfa

    2018-01-01

    Information of lens aberration of lithographic tools is important as it directly affects the intensity distribution in the image plane. Zernike polynomials are commonly used for a mathematical description of lens aberrations. Due to the advantage of lower cost and easier implementation of tools, image based measurement techniques have been widely used. Lithographic tools are typically partially coherent systems that can be described by a bilinear model, which entails time consuming calculations and does not lend a simple and intuitive relationship between lens aberrations and the resulted images. Previous methods for retrieving lens aberrations in such partially coherent systems involve through-focus image measurements and time-consuming iterative algorithms. In this work, we propose a method for aberration measurement in lithographic tools, which only requires measuring two images of intensity distribution. Two linear formulations are derived in matrix forms that directly relate the measured images to the unknown Zernike coefficients. Consequently, an efficient non-iterative solution is obtained.

  18. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  19. Method for Detection of Airborne UEs based on LTE Radio Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigard, Jeroen; Amorim, Rafhael Medeiros de; Nguyen, Huan Cong

    2017-01-01

    management can be optimized for UAVs separately from terrestrial UEs. In this paper, we present a classification algorithm using existing LTE UE radio measurements to identify whether a UE is airborne or terrestrial. The method is verified with LTE measurements made in a rural area at different heights......, including terrestrial measurements and it is shown that the method in 3 out of the 4 different measurement cases can detect a UE to be airborne with 99% likelihood, while the fourth case still can classify a UE correctly in 95% of the cases. The right classification can further be improved by taking...

  20. Method for Measuring Small Nonlinearities of Electric Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom; Meyer, Niels I; Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    1965-01-01

    A method is described for measuring very small deviations from linearity in electric characteristics. The measurement is based on the harmonics generated by the nonlinear element when subjected to a sine wave signal. A special bridge circuit is used to balance out the undesired harmonics...... of the signal generator together with the first harmonic frequency. The set-up measures the small-signal value and the first and second derivative with respect to voltage. The detailed circuits are given for measuring nonlinearities in Ohmic and capacitive components. In the Ohmic case, a sensitivity...

  1. A measurement model of perinatal stressors: identifying risk for postnatal emotional distress in mothers of high-risk infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMier, R L; Hynan, M T; Hatfield, R F; Varner, M W; Harris, H B; Manniello, R L

    2000-01-01

    A measurement model of perinatal stressors was first evaluated for reliability and then used to identify risk factors for postnatal emotional distress in high-risk mothers. In Study 1, six measures (gestational age of the baby, birthweight, length of the baby's hospitalization, a postnatal complications rating for the infant, and Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min) were obtained from chart reviews of preterm births at two different hospitals. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the six measures could be accounted for by three factors: (a) Infant Maturity, (b) Apgar Ratings, and (c) Complications. In Study 2, a modified measurement model indicated that Infant Maturity and Complications were significant predictors of postnatal emotional distress in an additional sample of mothers. This measurement model may also be useful in predicting (a) other measures of psychological distress in parents, and (b) measures of cognitive and motor development in infants.

  2. An improved method to identify grain boundary creep cavitation in 316H austenitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B., E-mail: b.chen@bristol.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Flewitt, P.E.J. [Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, 121 St. Michael' s Hill, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Jones, C.P. [Interface Analysis Centre, University of Bristol, 121 St. Michael' s Hill, Bristol BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Inter-granular creep cavitation damage has been observed in an ex-service 316H austenitic stainless steel thick section weldment. Focused ion beam cross-section milling combined with ion channelling contrast imaging is used to identify the cavitation damage, which is usually associated with the grain boundary carbide precipitates in this material. The results demonstrate that this technique can identify, in particular, the early stage of grain boundary creep cavitation unambiguously in materials with complex phase constituents. -- Research highlights: {yields} FIB milling plus ion channelling contrast optimise the observation of cavity. {yields} Identification of the creep cavities unambiguously, using an FIB technique. {yields} The FIB technique can retain the polyhedral shape of cavity. {yields} Various stages of creep cavitation can be observed, using the FIB technique.

  3. Architectural Measures of the Cancellous Bone of the Mandibular Condyle Identified by Principal Components Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giese, E.B.; Ding, M.; Dalstra, M.

    2003-01-01

    embalmed mandibular condyles; the angle of the first principal direction and the axis of the specimen, expressing the orientation of the trabeculae, ranged from 10 degrees to 87 degrees. Morphological parameters were determined by a method based on Archimedes' principle and by micro-CT scanning......-like trabeculae, and not with more or thicker trabeculae. The trabecular orientation was most determinative (about 50%) in explaining stiffness, strength, and failure energy. The amount of bone was second most determinative and increased the explained variance to about 72%. These results suggest that trabecular...

  4. Novel asymmetrically localizing components of human centrosomes identified by complementary proteomics methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lis; Vanselow, Katja; Skogs, Marie

    2011-01-01

    by identifying a novel set of five proteins preferentially associated with mother or daughter centrioles, comprising genes implicated in cell polarity. Pulsed labelling demonstrates a remarkable variation in the stability of centrosomal protein complexes. These spatiotemporal proteomics data provide leads......Centrosomes in animal cells are dynamic organelles with a proteinaceous matrix of pericentriolar material assembled around a pair of centrioles. They organize the microtubule cytoskeleton and the mitotic spindle apparatus. Mature centrioles are essential for biogenesis of primary cilia that mediate...

  5. Morphological and molecular methods to identify butternut (Juglans cinerea) and butternut hybrids: relevance to butternut conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Davis, Amy; Huang, Zhonglian; McKenna, James; Ostry, Michael; Woeste, Keith

    2008-07-01

    Butternut (Juglans cinerea L.) is a native, cold-tolerant, hard-mast species formerly valued for its nuts and wood, which is now endangered. The most immediate threat to butternut restoration is the spread of butternut canker disease, caused by the exotic fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum Nair, Kostichka & Kuntz. Other threats include the hybridization of butternut with the exotic Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia Carr.) and poor regeneration. The hybrids, known as buartnuts, are vegetatively vigorous, highly fecund, more resistant than butternut to butternut canker disease and difficult to identify. We review the vegetative and reproductive morphological traits that distinguish butternut from hybrids and identify those that can be used by field biologists to separate the taxa. No single trait was sufficient to separate butternut from hybrids, but pith color, lenticel size, shape and abundance, and the presence or absence of a notch in the upper margin of leaf scars, can be used in combination with other traits to identify butternuts and exclude most hybrids. In at least one butternut population, reduced symptoms of butternut canker disease were significantly associated with a dark barked phenotype. We also describe two randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers that differentiate butternuts from hybrids based on DNA polymorphism. Together, these results should assist in the identification and testing of non-hybrid butternut for breeding and reintroduction of the species to its former habitats.

  6. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications.

  7. Development and Investigation of Reactivity Measurement Methods in Subcritical Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, Johanna

    2005-05-01

    Subcriticality measurements during core loading and in future accelerator driven systems have a clear safety relevance. In this thesis two subcriticality methods are treated: the Feynman-alpha and the source modulation method. The Feynman-alpha method is a technique to determine the reactivity from the relative variance of the detector counts during a measurement period. The period length is varied to get the full time dependence of the variance-to-mean. The corresponding theoretical formula was known only with stationary sources. In this thesis, due to its relevance for novel reactivity measurement methods, the Feynman-alpha formulae for pulsed sources for both the stochastic and the deterministic cases are treated. Formulae neglecting as well as including the delayed neutrons are derived. The formulae neglecting delayed neutrons are experimentally verified with quite good agreement. The second reactivity measurement technique investigated in this thesis is the so-called source modulation technique. The theory of the method was elaborated on the assumption of point kinetics, but in practice the method will be applied by using the signal from a single local neutron detector. Applicability of the method therefore assumes point kinetic behaviour of the core. Hence, first the conditions of the point kinetic behaviour of subcritical cores was investigated. After that the performance of the source modulation technique in the general case as well as and in the limit of exact point kinetic behaviour was examined. We obtained the unexpected result that the method has a finite, non-negligible error even in the limit of point kinetic behaviour, and a substantial error in the operation range of future accelerator driven subcritical reactors (ADS). In practice therefore the method needs to be calibrated by some other method for on-line applications

  8. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A [Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y, E-mail: hosokawa@mech.kobe-u.ac.j [Panasonic Electric Works Co., Ltd., 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  9. Measurement of micro Bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, S; Tanaka, K; Tomiyama, A; Maeda, Y; Yamaguchi, S; Ito, Y

    2009-01-01

    Diameters of micro-bubbles are apt to range from about one mm to several-hundred mm, and therefore, it is difficult to measure a correct diameter distribution using a single measurement method. In this study, diameters of bubbles generated by a pressurized dissolution method are measured by using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and an image processing method, which is based on the Sobel filter and Hough transform. The diameter distribution and the Sauter mean diameter of micro bubbles are evaluated based on the diameters measured by both methods. Experiments are conducted for several mass flow rates of dissolved gas and of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle to examine effects of the entrained bubbles on bubble diameter. As a result, the following conclusions are obtained: (1) Diameter distribution of micro bubbles can be accurately measured for a wide range of diameter by using PDA and the image processing method. (2) The mean diameter of micro-bubbles generated by gasification of dissolved gas is smaller than that generated by breakup of air bubbles entrained in the upstream of the decompression nozzle. (3) The mean bubble diameter increases with the entrainment of air bubbles in the upstream of the decompression nozzle at a constant mass flow rate of dissolved gas.

  10. The role of geriatric assessment tests and anthropometric measurements in identifying the risk of falls in elderly nursing home residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aran, Sinan N.; Ozkaya, Ismail; Aksoy, Sevki M.; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Y.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the relation among the risk of falls, geriatric assessment, and anthropometric measurements, including the mini mental state examination, geriatric depression scale, handgrip test, and key pinch test. Methods: This prospective study included 89 residents hospitalized between May 2014 and September 2015 in the geriatric care unit of the Istanbul Balikli Rum Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey. Patients were followed-up for one year, and their falls were recorded. Medical records of the included patients were retrieved and analyzed. Results: A total of 89 patients, comprising 37 men and 52 women with an average age of 75.8 ± 8.2 years were included in the study. The residents’ annual falling averages were 1.0 ± 1.5. The most significant factors were identified to be predicted muscle mass, skeletal muscle index, whole body bioimpedance, dominant arm muscle strength, dominant arm bioimpedance, and free fat mass. Conclusions: The mini mental test, geriatric depression scale and lawton-brody scale combined with the handgrip, 6-meters walking, and bioimpedance tests are favorable for detecting the risk of falls and recurrent falls in vulnerable elderly nursing home residents. PMID:27652361

  11. A mixing method for traceable air velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sillanpää, S; Heinonen, M

    2008-01-01

    A novel and quite simple method to establish a traceability link between air velocity and the national standards of mass and time is presented in this paper. The method is based on the humidification of flowing air before the blower of a wind tunnel with a known mass flow of water. Then air velocity can be calculated as a function of humidification water flow. The method is compared against a Pitot-tube-based velocity measurement in a wind tunnel at the MIKES. The results of these two different methods agreed well, with a maximum difference of 0.7%

  12. Identifying Effective and Sustainable Measures for Community-Based Environmental Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ariana J.; Johnson, Chris J.

    2017-09-01

    Resource development projects typically result in monitoring programs that fail to fully consider the values and participation of surrounding communities. Also, monitoring protocols for single environmental values can be insufficient for addressing the cumulative impacts of resource development. Community-based environmental monitoring (CBEM) has emerged as a way to meaningfully include local citizens in the decision-making process and assessment of the development of natural resources. Our research explored how to develop effective and sustainable CBEM. Interviews were conducted with staff from 15 CBEM programs established across Canada to identify criteria of what constitutes effective CBEM. Results demonstrate that CBEM offers an effective, locally adapted, and culturally applicable approach to facilitate community participation in natural resource management and to track environmental change. Benefits of CBEM include: locally relevant monitoring protocols, inclusion of cumulative impacts, better informed decision-making, and increased awareness and collaboration amongst community, governments, and proponents. Challenges associated with CBEM are cost, capacity, longevity, distribution of results, and establishing credibility. This research validates the use of CBEM for improving resource management.

  13. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters.

  14. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  15. Knowns and unknowns in metabolomics identified by multidimensional NMR and hybrid MS/NMR methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingol, Kerem; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2017-02-01

    Metabolomics continues to make rapid progress through the development of new and better methods and their applications to gain insight into the metabolism of a wide range of different biological systems from a systems biology perspective. Customization of NMR databases and search tools allows the faster and more accurate identification of known metabolites, whereas the identification of unknowns, without a need for extensive purification, requires new strategies to integrate NMR with mass spectrometry, cheminformatics, and computational methods. For some applications, the use of covalent and non-covalent attachments in the form of labeled tags or nanoparticles can significantly reduce the complexity of these tasks.

  16. An alternative method to achieve metrological confirmation in measurement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeta, M.; Rubio, E. M.; Sanz, A.; Sevilla, L.

    2012-04-01

    Metrological confirmation process must be designed and implemented to ensure that metrological characteristics of the measurement system meet metrological requirements of the measurement process. The aim of this paper is to present an alternative method to the traditional metrological requirements about the relationship between tolerance and measurement uncertainty, to develop such confirmation processes. The proposed way to metrological confirmation considers a given inspection task of the measurement process into the manufacturing system, and it is based on the Index of Contamination of the Capability, ICC. Metrological confirmation process is then developed taking into account the producer risks and economic considerations on this index. As a consequence, depending on the capability of the manufacturing process, the measurement system will be or will not be in adequate state of metrological confirmation for the measurement process.

  17. A method for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditmars, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative approach for evaluating the effectiveness of site characterization measurement activities is developed and illustrated with an example application to hypothetical measurement schemes at a potential geologic repository site for radioactive waste. The method is a general one and could also be applied at sites for underground disposal of hazardous chemicals. The approach presumes that measurements will be undertaken to support predictions of the performance of some aspect of a constructed facility or natural system. It requires a quantitative performance objective, such as groundwater travel time or contaminant concentration, against which to compare predictions of performance. The approach recognizes that such predictions are uncertain because the measurements upon which they are based are uncertain. The effectiveness of measurement activities is quantified by a confidence index, β, that reflects the number of standard deviations separating the best estimate of performance from the predetermined performance objective. Measurements that reduce the uncertainty in predictions lead to increased values of β. 5 refs., 4 figs

  18. Tensile and shear methods for measuring strength of bilayer tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shao-Yu; Li, Jian-Xin; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2017-05-15

    Both shear and tensile measurement methods have been used to quantify interfacial bonding strength of bilayer tablets. The shear method is more convenient to perform, but reproducible strength data requires careful control of the placement of tablet and contact point for shear force application. Moreover, data obtained from the shear method depend on the orientation of the bilayer tablet. Although more time-consuming to perform, the tensile method yields data that are straightforward to interpret. Thus, the tensile method is preferred in fundamental bilayer tableting research to minimize ambiguity in data interpretation. Using both shear and tensile methods, we measured the mechanical strength of bilayer tablets made of several different layer combinations of lactose and microcrystalline cellulose. We observed a good correlation between strength obtained by the tensile method and carefully conducted shear method. This suggests that the shear method may be used for routine quality test of bilayer tablets during manufacturing because of its speed and convenience, provided a protocol for careful control of the placement of the tablet interface, tablet orientation, and blade is implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring Awareness and Identifying Misconceptions About Genetic Counseling Services and Utilizing Television to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Dena

    Understanding awareness and perceptions of genetic counseling (GC) is important in identifying and overcoming potential barriers to GC services. However, there are relatively few empirical data regarding these factors among US-based populations. To address this, we attended various community events for the general public, disability community, and new parents and recruited participants for a survey-based study comprising demographic questions, closed-ended knowledge-based and awareness questions, and open text sections. We applied descriptive statistics to responses about demographics, awareness of GC, purposes of GC, and perceptions of GC practice. In total, 320 individuals participated, including 69 from the general public, 209 from the disability community, and 42 from the new parent community. Slightly more than half of respondents (n =173, 54%) had heard of GC. Risk assessment and counseling were among the most frequently cited activities attributed to genetic counselors; a few felt that GC was related to eugenics. Respondents thought that GC aims to prevent genetic disorders (n=82, 74%), helps people find their ethnic origins and understand their ancestry (n=176, 55%), advises people whether to have children (n=140, 44%), and helps couples have children with desirable characteristics (n=126, 39%). Our data showed the majority of participants preferred to watch a medical thriller involving genetic counseling, followed by documentary series; comedy was rated the lowest. These data revealed gaps in awareness of GC and misperceptions about its purpose and can be useful in devising targeted interventions by developing entertainment-based education to improve public knowledge of genetic health and the roles of GCs.

  20. Sodium flow rate measurement method of annular linear induction pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araseki, Hideo; Kirillov, Igor R.; Preslitsky, Gennady V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found a new method of flow rate monitoring of electromagnetic pump. ► The method is very simple and does not require a large space. ► The method was verified with an experiment and a numerical analysis. ► The experimental data and the numerical results are in good agreement. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a method for measuring sodium flow rate of annular linear induction pumps. The feature of the method lies in measuring the leaked magnetic field with measuring coils near the stator end on the outlet side and in correlating it with the sodium flow rate. This method is verified through an experiment and a numerical analysis. The data obtained in the experiment reveals that the correlation between the leaked magnetic field and the sodium flow rate is almost linear. The result of the numerical analysis agrees with the experimental data. The present method will be particularly effective to sodium flow rate monitoring of each one of plural annular linear induction pumps arranged in parallel in a vessel which forms a large-scale pump unit.