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Sample records for methods exploratory factor

  1. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis with missing data: A simple method for SPSS users

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    Bruce Weaver

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Missing data is a frequent problem for researchers conducting exploratory factor analysis (EFA or reliability analysis. The SPSS FACTOR procedure allows users to select listwise deletion, pairwise deletion or mean substitution as a method for dealing with missing data. The shortcomings of these methods are well-known. Graham (2009 argues that a much better way to deal with missing data in this context is to use a matrix of expectation maximization (EM covariances(or correlations as input for the analysis. SPSS users who have the Missing Values Analysis add-on module can obtain vectors ofEM means and standard deviations plus EM correlation and covariance matrices via the MVA procedure. But unfortunately, MVA has no /MATRIX subcommand, and therefore cannot write the EM correlations directly to a matrix dataset of the type needed as input to the FACTOR and RELIABILITY procedures. We describe two macros that (in conjunction with an intervening MVA command carry out the data management steps needed to create two matrix datasets, one containing EM correlations and the other EM covariances. Either of those matrix datasets can then be used asinput to the FACTOR procedure, and the EM correlations can also be used as input to RELIABILITY. We provide an example that illustrates the use of the two macros to generate the matrix datasets and how to use those datasets as input to the FACTOR and RELIABILITY procedures. We hope that this simple method for handling missing data will prove useful to both students andresearchers who are conducting EFA or reliability analysis.

  2. The Infinitesimal Jackknife with Exploratory Factor Analysis

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    Zhang, Guangjian; Preacher, Kristopher J.; Jennrich, Robert I.

    2012-01-01

    The infinitesimal jackknife, a nonparametric method for estimating standard errors, has been used to obtain standard error estimates in covariance structure analysis. In this article, we adapt it for obtaining standard errors for rotated factor loadings and factor correlations in exploratory factor analysis with sample correlation matrices. Both…

  3. Trenching as an exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory trenching. Trenching is the most definitive of all subsurface exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safely and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography.Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  4. Trenching as a exploratory method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatheway, A.W.; Leighton, F.B.

    1979-01-01

    The critical nature of siting nuclear power plants has led to increased emphasis on exploratory methods; it permits inspection of a continuous geologic section by both geologists and regulatory authorities and makes possible the preparation of a graphic log that delineates both obvious and subtle geologic features. About one of every two nuclear plant licensing efforts utilizes exploratory trenching. Many geologic hazards, such as ''capable'' faults, can be detected from trench exposures; they may otherwise remain undetected. Trenches must be judiciously located, survey-controlled, excavated safetly and adequately shored, logged in detail, and properly diagnosed. Useful techniques of trench logging include thorough cleaning of the trench walls, teamwork between geologist and recorder, logging against a carefully surveyed baseline and vertical reference grid, and panoramic photography. Soils, including paleosols, and glacial and glaciofluvial deposits present some of the most difficult media to log. Trench logs must be thoroughly interpreted and correlated so that they document the geologic conditions governing suitability of the site. Age-determination techniques utilized in exploratory trenching include petrographic analyses, quartz inclusion studies, clay mineralogic analyses, and radiometric methods

  5. Factors affecting construction performance: exploratory factor analysis

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    Soewin, E.; Chinda, T.

    2018-04-01

    The present work attempts to develop a multidimensional performance evaluation framework for a construction company by considering all relevant measures of performance. Based on the previous studies, this study hypothesizes nine key factors, with a total of 57 associated items. The hypothesized factors, with their associated items, are then used to develop questionnaire survey to gather data. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to the collected data which gave rise 10 factors with 57 items affecting construction performance. The findings further reveal that the items constituting ten key performance factors (KPIs) namely; 1) Time, 2) Cost, 3) Quality, 4) Safety & Health, 5) Internal Stakeholder, 6) External Stakeholder, 7) Client Satisfaction, 8) Financial Performance, 9) Environment, and 10) Information, Technology & Innovation. The analysis helps to develop multi-dimensional performance evaluation framework for an effective measurement of the construction performance. The 10 key performance factors can be broadly categorized into economic aspect, social aspect, environmental aspect, and technology aspects. It is important to understand a multi-dimension performance evaluation framework by including all key factors affecting the construction performance of a company, so that the management level can effectively plan to implement an effective performance development plan to match with the mission and vision of the company.

  6. EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS (EFA IN CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING RESEARCH

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    Marcos Pascual Soler

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA is one of the most widely used statistical procedures in social research. The main objective of this work is to describe the most common practices used by researchers in the consumer behavior and marketing area. Through a literature review methodology the practices of AFE in five consumer behavior and marketing journals(2000-2010 were analyzed. Then, the choices made by the researchers concerning factor model, retention criteria, rotation, factors interpretation and other relevant issues to factor analysis were analized. The results suggest that researchers routinely conduct analyses using such questionable methods. Suggestions for improving the use of factor analysis and the reporting of results are presented and a checklist (Exploratory Factor Analysis Checklist, EFAC is provided to help editors, reviewers, and authors improve reporting exploratory factor analysis.

  7. Exploratory factor analysis in Rehabilitation Psychology: a content analysis.

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    Roberson, Richard B; Elliott, Timothy R; Chang, Jessica E; Hill, Jessica N

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to examine the use and quality of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in articles published in Rehabilitation Psychology. Trained raters examined 66 separate exploratory factor analyses in 47 articles published between 1999 and April 2014. The raters recorded the aim of the EFAs, the distributional statistics, sample size, factor retention method(s), extraction and rotation method(s), and whether the pattern coefficients, structure coefficients, and the matrix of association were reported. The primary use of the EFAs was scale development, but the most widely used extraction and rotation method was principle component analysis, with varimax rotation. When determining how many factors to retain, multiple methods (e.g., scree plot, parallel analysis) were used most often. Many articles did not report enough information to allow for the duplication of their results. EFA relies on authors' choices (e.g., factor retention rules extraction, rotation methods), and few articles adhered to all of the best practices. The current findings are compared to other empirical investigations into the use of EFA in published research. Recommendations for improving EFA reporting practices in rehabilitation psychology research are provided.

  8. Exploratory Factor Analysis With Small Samples and Missing Data.

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    McNeish, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is an extremely popular method for determining the underlying factor structure for a set of variables. Due to its exploratory nature, EFA is notorious for being conducted with small sample sizes, and recent reviews of psychological research have reported that between 40% and 60% of applied studies have 200 or fewer observations. Recent methodological studies have addressed small size requirements for EFA models; however, these models have only considered complete data, which are the exception rather than the rule in psychology. Furthermore, the extant literature on missing data techniques with small samples is scant, and nearly all existing studies focus on topics that are not of primary interest to EFA models. Therefore, this article presents a simulation to assess the performance of various missing data techniques for EFA models with both small samples and missing data. Results show that deletion methods do not extract the proper number of factors and estimate the factor loadings with severe bias, even when data are missing completely at random. Predictive mean matching is the best method overall when considering extracting the correct number of factors and estimating factor loadings without bias, although 2-stage estimation was a close second.

  9. Exploratory Bi-factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

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    Jennrich, Robert L.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford (1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler (2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor analysis that does not require one to provide an explicit bi-factor structure a priori. They use exploratory factor analysis and a bi-factor rotation criterion designed to produce a rotated loading mat...

  10. Exploratory Bi-Factor Analysis: The Oblique Case

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    Jennrich, Robert I.; Bentler, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Bi-factor analysis is a form of confirmatory factor analysis originally introduced by Holzinger and Swineford ("Psychometrika" 47:41-54, 1937). The bi-factor model has a general factor, a number of group factors, and an explicit bi-factor structure. Jennrich and Bentler ("Psychometrika" 76:537-549, 2011) introduced an exploratory form of bi-factor…

  11. Factors in Agile Methods Adoption

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    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that can affect the process of adopting Agile methods during software developing. This paper illustrates the critical factors in Agile methods adoption in software organizations. To present the success and failure factors, an exploratory study is carried out among the critical factors of success and failure from existing studies. Dimensions and Factors are introduced utilizing success and failure dimensions. The mind map was used to clarify these factors.

  12. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

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    Kok Gerjo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change (‘Bundling’ and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management (‘At’ or applied by the management (‘From’. Methods The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the ‘bundling’ of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed ‘at’ an organization (for instance, by a health promoter versus ‘from’ within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Results Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change. There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Conclusions Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual

  13. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study.

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    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Panne, Robert; Smerecnik, Chris

    2012-11-28

    While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how these are composed of methods for individual change ('Bundling') and how within one environmental level, organizations, methods differ when directed at the management ('At') or applied by the management ('From'). The first part of this online survey dealt with examining the 'bundling' of individual level methods to methods at the environmental level. The question asked was to what extent the use of an environmental level method would involve the use of certain individual level methods. In the second part of the survey the question was whether there are differences between applying methods directed 'at' an organization (for instance, by a health promoter) versus 'from' within an organization itself. All of the 20 respondents are experts in the field of health promotion. Methods at the individual level are frequently bundled together as part of a method at a higher ecological level. A number of individual level methods are popular as part of most of the environmental level methods, while others are not chosen very often. Interventions directed at environmental agents often have a strong focus on the motivational part of behavior change.There are different approaches targeting a level or being targeted from a level. The health promoter will use combinations of motivation and facilitation. The manager will use individual level change methods focusing on self-efficacy and skills. Respondents think that any method may be used under the right circumstances, although few endorsed coercive methods. Taxonomies of theoretical change methods for environmental change should include combinations of individual level methods that may be bundled and separate suggestions for methods targeting a level

  14. Methods for environmental change; an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nell Gottlieb; Robert Panne; Chris Smerecnik; Gerjo Kok

    2012-01-01

    Background: While the interest of health promotion researchers in change methods directed at the target population has a long tradition, interest in change methods directed at the environment is still developing. In this survey, the focus is on methods for environmental change; especially about how

  15. Improving Your Exploratory Factor Analysis for Ordinal Data: A Demonstration Using FACTOR

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    James Baglin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis (EFA methods are used extensively in the field of assessment and evaluation. Due to EFA's widespread use, common methods and practices have come under close scrutiny. A substantial body of literature has been compiled highlighting problems with many of the methods and practices used in EFA, and, in response, many guidelines have been proposed with the aim to improve application. Unfortunately, implementing recommended EFA practices has been restricted by the range of options available in commercial statistical packages and, perhaps, due to an absence of clear, practical - how-to' demonstrations. Consequently, this article describes the application of methods recommended to get the most out of your EFA. The article focuses on dealing with the common situation of analysing ordinal data as derived from Likert-type scales. These methods are demonstrated using the free, stand-alone, easy-to-use and powerful EFA package FACTOR (http://psico.fcep.urv.es/utilitats/factor/, Lorenzo-Seva & Ferrando, 2006. The demonstration applies the recommended techniques using an accompanying dataset, based on the Big 5 personality test. The outcomes obtained by the EFA using the recommended procedures through FACTOR are compared to the default techniques currently available in SPSS.

  16. A Beginner’s Guide to Factor Analysis: Focusing on Exploratory Factor Analysis

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    An Gie Yong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The following paper discusses exploratory factor analysis and gives an overview of the statistical technique and how it is used in various research designs and applications. A basic outline of how the technique works and its criteria, including its main assumptions are discussed as well as when it should be used. Mathematical theories are explored to enlighten students on how exploratory factor analysis works, an example of how to run an exploratory factor analysis on SPSS is given, and finally a section on how to write up the results is provided. This will allow readers to develop a better understanding of when to employ factor analysis and how to interpret the tables and graphs in the output.

  17. Workplace Innovation: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis for Construct Validation

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    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovation enables the development and improvement of products, processes and services leading simultaneously to improvement in organisational performance. This study has the purpose of examining the factor structure of workplace innovation. Survey data, extracted from the 2014 APS employee census, comprising 3,125 engineering professionals in the Commonwealth of Australia’s departments were analysed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 69.1% of the variance of the construct. CFA revealed that a two-factor structure was indicated as a validated model (GFI = 0.98, AGFI = 0.95, RMSEA = 0.08, RMR = 0.02, IFI = 0.98, NFI = 0.98, CFI = 0.98, and TLI = 0.96. Both factors showed good reliability of the scale (Individual creativity: α = 0.83, CR = 0.86, and AVE = 0.62; Team Innovation: α = 0.82, CR = 0.88, and AVE = 0.61. These results confirm that the two factors extracted for characterising workplace innovation included individual creativity and team innovation.

  18. Using exploratory regression to identify optimal driving factors for cellular automaton modeling of land use change.

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    Feng, Yongjiu; Tong, Xiaohua

    2017-09-22

    Defining transition rules is an important issue in cellular automaton (CA)-based land use modeling because these models incorporate highly correlated driving factors. Multicollinearity among correlated driving factors may produce negative effects that must be eliminated from the modeling. Using exploratory regression under pre-defined criteria, we identified all possible combinations of factors from the candidate factors affecting land use change. Three combinations that incorporate five driving factors meeting pre-defined criteria were assessed. With the selected combinations of factors, three logistic regression-based CA models were built to simulate dynamic land use change in Shanghai, China, from 2000 to 2015. For comparative purposes, a CA model with all candidate factors was also applied to simulate the land use change. Simulations using three CA models with multicollinearity eliminated performed better (with accuracy improvements about 3.6%) than the model incorporating all candidate factors. Our results showed that not all candidate factors are necessary for accurate CA modeling and the simulations were not sensitive to changes in statistically non-significant driving factors. We conclude that exploratory regression is an effective method to search for the optimal combinations of driving factors, leading to better land use change models that are devoid of multicollinearity. We suggest identification of dominant factors and elimination of multicollinearity before building land change models, making it possible to simulate more realistic outcomes.

  19. Exploratory factor structure of the neurological evaluation scale in black africans with first episode schizophrenia

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    Akin Ojagbemi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While the organization of neurological soft signs (NSS in schizophrenia into Sensory integration, Motor coordination, and Motor sequencing, is functionally ‘meaningful’, it has not been confirmed by empirical methods such as factor analysis. Data on the exploratory factor analysis of the Neurological Evaluation scale in Black Africans with first episode schizophrenia are presented in this report. Data on the confirmatory factor structure of NSS in this population as well as their interpretation can be found in the work by Ojagbemi et al. (2015 [7].

  20. Exploring leadership styles for innovation: an exploratory factor analysis

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    Wipulanusat Warit

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Leadership plays a vital role in building the process, structures, and climate for an organisation to become innovative and to motivate team expectations toward innovations. This study explores the leadership styles that engineers regard as significant for innovation in the public sector. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted to identify the principal leadership styles influencing innovation in the Australian Public Service (APS, using survey data extracted from the 2014 APS employee census comprising 3 125 engineering professionals in Commonwealth of Australia departments. EFA returned a two-factor structure explaining 77.6% of the variance of the leadership for innovation construct. In this study, the results from the EFA provided a clear estimation of the factor structure of the measures for leadership for innovation. From the results, the two factors extracted were transformational leadership and consideration leadership. In transformational leadership, a leader values organisational objectives, inspires subordinates to perform, and motivates followers beyond expected levels of work standards. Consideration leadership refers to the degree to which a leader shows concern and expressions of support for subordinates, takes care of their welfare, treats members as equals, and displays warmth and approachability. These findings highlight the role of leadership as the most critical predictor when considering the degree to which subordinates strive for creativity and innovation. Both transformational and consideration leadership styles are recommended to be incorporated into management training and development programs. This study also recommends that Commonwealth departments recruit supervisors who have both of these leadership styles before implementing innovative projects.

  1. What Factors Affect Nursing Students' Decisions of Whether to Take Rural Jobs: An Exploratory Interview Study in China

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    Tao, Yuexian; Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; Rodgers, Sheila E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore factors that effect nursing students' decisions of whether to take rural jobs in China. Methods: An exploratory interview study was conducted in China during May and June 2011. Eleven final year nursing students were purposively recruited from four nursing schools in one eastern area in China. The…

  2. Methodics of computing the results of monitoring the exploratory gallery

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    Krúpa Víazoslav

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available At building site of motorway tunnel Višòové-Dubná skala , the priority is given to driving of exploration galley that secures in detail: geologic, engineering geology, hydrogeology and geotechnics research. This research is based on gathering information for a supposed use of the full profile driving machine that would drive the motorway tunnel. From a part of the exploration gallery which is driven by the TBM method, a fulfilling information is gathered about the parameters of the driving process , those are gathered by a computer monitoring system. The system is mounted on a driving machine. This monitoring system is based on the industrial computer PC 104. It records 4 basic values of the driving process: the electromotor performance of the driving machine Voest-Alpine ATB 35HA, the speed of driving advance, the rotation speed of the disintegrating head TBM and the total head pressure. The pressure force is evaluated from the pressure in the hydraulic cylinders of the machine. Out of these values, the strength of rock mass, the angle of inner friction, etc. are mathematically calculated. These values characterize rock mass properties as their changes. To define the effectivity of the driving process, the value of specific energy and the working ability of driving head is used. The article defines the methodics of computing the gathered monitoring information, that is prepared for the driving machine Voest – Alpine ATB 35H at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS. It describes the input forms (protocols of the developed method created by an EXCEL program and shows selected samples of the graphical elaboration of the first monitoring results obtained from exploratory gallery driving process in the Višòové – Dubná skala motorway tunnel.

  3. The Hull Method for Selecting the Number of Common Factors

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    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Kiers, Henk A. L.

    2011-01-01

    A common problem in exploratory factor analysis is how many factors need to be extracted from a particular data set. We propose a new method for selecting the number of major common factors: the Hull method, which aims to find a model with an optimal balance between model fit and number of parameters. We examine the performance of the method in an…

  4. Using exploratory factor analysis in personality research: Best-practice recommendations

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    Sumaya Laher

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: This article presents more objective methods to determine the number of factors, most notably parallel analysis and Velicer’s minimum average partial (MAP. The benefits of rotation are also discussed. The article argues for more consistent use of Procrustes rotation and congruence coefficients in factor analytic studies. Motivation for the study: Exploratory factor analysis is often criticised for not being rigorous and objective enough in terms of the methods used to determine the number of factors, the rotations to be used and ultimately the validity of the factor structure. Research design, approach and method: The article adopts a theoretical stance to discuss the best-practice recommendations for factor analytic research in the field of psychology. Following this, an example located within personality assessment and using the NEO-PI-R specifically is presented. A total of 425 students at the University of the Witwatersrand completed the NEO-PI-R. These responses were subjected to a principal components analysis using varimax rotation. The rotated solution was subjected to a Procrustes rotation with Costa and McCrae’s (1992 matrix as the target matrix. Congruence coefficients were also computed. Main findings: The example indicates the use of the methods recommended in the article and demonstrates an objective way of determining the number of factors. It also provides an example of Procrustes rotation with coefficients of agreement as an indication of how factor analytic results may be presented more rigorously in local research. Practical/managerial implications: It is hoped that the recommendations in this article will have best-practice implications for both researchers and practitioners in the field who employ factor analysis regularly. Contribution/value-add: This article will prove useful to all researchers employing factor analysis and has the potential to set the trend for better use of factor analysis in the South African context.

  5. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the WISC-IV with Gifted Students

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    Rowe, Ellen W.; Dandridge, Jessica; Pawlush, Alexandra; Thompson, Dawna F.; Ferrier, David E.

    2014-01-01

    These 2 studies investigated the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-4th edition (WISC-IV; Wechsler, 2003a) with exploratory factor analysis (EFA; Study 1) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; Study 2) among 2 independent samples of gifted students. The EFA sample consisted of 225 children who were referred for a…

  6. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis

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    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Methods: Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. Results: A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. Conclusions: The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working. PMID:24421620

  7. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

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    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  8. Validation of the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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    Ang, Rebecca P.; Chong, Wan Har; Huan, Vivien S.; Yeo, Lay See

    2007-01-01

    This article reports the development and initial validation of scores obtained from the Adolescent Concerns Measure (ACM), a scale which assesses concerns of Asian adolescent students. In Study 1, findings from exploratory factor analysis using 619 adolescents suggested a 24-item scale with four correlated factors--Family Concerns (9 items), Peer…

  9. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

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    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  10. Entrepreneurship development policymaking factors: An exploratory survey of tourism in Iran

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    Saeed Jafari Moghaddam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Widespread presence of small and medium enterprise (SME and entrepreneurial businesses (EB as well as governments' key role in tourism sphere, especially in developing countries. As a result, the importance of policymaking in SME and EB has been growing through last decade. This study is trying to identify and prioritize the factors influencing SME and EB policy in Iran tourism scope. For this research, data were collected via exploratory mixed method in two steps. Firstly, qualitative techniques such as literature review has been done to find all scholarly work and then using qualitative content analysis, factors influencing SME policy in tourism has been identified. In second step, quantitative methods, namely survey and Statistical techniques were used for analysis. Population of this study comprised policymaking and tourism entrepreneurship experts of Iran. The survey results showed there were 40 variables into six factors under two main dimensions influence on SME and EB. Factors identified in this study can be used to formulate macro policies in the tourism industry and national policymakers can utilize these concepts for entrepreneurship and SME's development in tourism. This research contributes to the existing literature in the field of entrepreneurship policymaking by introduce a systematic framework. This new framework can provide better insights and inform thinking in the area of entrepreneurship policymaking.

  11. Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II in a Psychiatric Outpatient Population

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    2018-01-01

    Background To further understand the relationship between anxiety and depression, this study examined the factor structure of the combined items from two validated measures for anxiety and depression. Methods The participants were 406 patients with mixed psychiatric diagnoses including anxiety and depressive disorders from a psychiatric outpatient unit at a university-affiliated medical center. Responses of the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were analyzed. We conducted an exploratory factor analysis of 42 items from the BAI and BDI-II. Correlational analyses were performed between subscale scores of the SCL-90-R and factors derived from the factor analysis. Scores of individual items of the BAI and BDI-II were also compared between groups of anxiety disorder (n = 185) and depressive disorder (n = 123). Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed the following five factors explaining 56.2% of the total variance: somatic anxiety (factor 1), cognitive depression (factor 2), somatic depression (factor 3), subjective anxiety (factor 4), and autonomic anxiety (factor 5). The depression group had significantly higher scores for 12 items on the BDI while the anxiety group demonstrated higher scores for six items on the BAI. Conclusion Our results suggest that anxiety and depressive symptoms as measured by the BAI and BDI-II can be empirically differentiated and that particularly items of the cognitive domain in depression and those of physical domain in anxiety are noteworthy. PMID:29651821

  12. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

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    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  13. Exploratory Factor Analysis of SCL90-R Symptoms Relevant to Psychosis

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    Javad Amini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: Inconsistent results have been reported regarding the symptom dimensions relevant to psychosis in symptoms check list revised (SCL90-R, i.e., "psychoticism" and "paranoid ideation". Therefore, some studies have suggested different factor structures for questions of these two dimensions, and proposed two newly defined dimensions of "schizotypal signs" and "schizophrenia nuclear symptoms". We conducted an exploratory factor analysis on the items of these two dimensions in a general population sample in Iran. "nMethod: A total of 2158 subjects residing in Southern Tehran (capital of Iran were interviewed using the psychoticism and paranoid ideation questions in SCL90-R to assess severity of these symptom dimensions. Factor analysis was done through SAS 9.1.3 PROC FACTOR using Promax rotation (power=3 on the matrix of "polychoric correlations among variables" as the input data. "nResults: Two factors were retained by the proportion criterion. Considering loadings >= 0.5 as minimum criteria for factor loadings, 7 out of 10 questions  from psychoticism ,and 3 out of 6 questions from paranoid ideation were retained, and others were eliminated. The factor labels proposed by the questionnaire suited the extracted factors and were retained. Internal consistency for each of the dimensions was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha 0.7 and 0.74 for paranoid ideation and psychoticism respectively. Composite scores showed a half-normal distribution for both dimensions which is predictable for instruments that detect psychotic symptoms. "nConclusion: Results were in contrast with similar studies, and questioned them by suggesting a different factor structure obtained from a statistically large population. The population in a developing nation (Iran in this study and the socio-cultural differences in developed settings are the potential sources for discrepancies between this analysis and previous reports.

  14. Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children with Epilepsy: Confirmatory and Exploratory Factor Analysis

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    Şerife Tutar Güven

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In the past few years, the concept of self-efficacy in children with epilepsy has become increasingly important. This study aimed to analyze the psychometric aspects of the Turkish version of the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional survey. The study data were collected using the Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children and Child Introduction Form. The study sample included 166 children who were between 9 and 17 years of age. The authors assessed the reliability and construct validity of the study data using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. Results: The original model was not confirmed by the CFA. The analysis tool included 15 items in two factors. Reliability analysis showed that the two factors were acceptable and valid. The tool was valid and reliable for measuring the self-efficacy of epileptic children. The factor structure was derived from and confirmed by the original tool. It was found that the Turkish version of the modified Seizure Self-Efficacy Scale for Children had excellent satisfactory psychometric aspects for a Turkish population. Conclusion: Health professionals can present a more effective drug process and nursing care by identifying and assessing seizure self-efficacy levels in children with epilepsy, and they can make a positive contribution to disease management and the way the child deals with the disease.

  15. The Relationship of Bureaucratic Structure to School Climate: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This researcher examined the relationship of bureaucratic structure to school climate by means of an exploratory factor analysis of a measure of bureaucracy developed by Hoy and Sweetland (2000) and the four dimensional measure of climate developed by Hoy, Smith, and Sweetland (2002). Since there had been no other empirical studies whose authors…

  16. High-Dimensional Exploratory Item Factor Analysis by a Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li

    2010-01-01

    A Metropolis-Hastings Robbins-Monro (MH-RM) algorithm for high-dimensional maximum marginal likelihood exploratory item factor analysis is proposed. The sequence of estimates from the MH-RM algorithm converges with probability one to the maximum likelihood solution. Details on the computer implementation of this algorithm are provided. The…

  17. An Exploratory Factor Analysis and Reliability Analysis of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Taeho; Richardson, Jennifer C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an effective instrument to measure student readiness in online learning with reliable predictors of online learning success factors such as learning outcomes and learner satisfaction. The validity and reliability of the Student Online Learning Readiness (SOLR) instrument were tested using exploratory factor…

  18. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale: Examining the Variable of Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Shainna; Lambie, Glenn; Bloom, Zachary D.

    2017-01-01

    The Sexual Orientation Counselor Competency Scale (SOCCS), developed by Bidell in 2005, measures counselors' levels of skills, awareness, and knowledge in assisting lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) clients. In an effort to gain an increased understanding of the construct validity of the SOCCS, researchers performed an exploratory factor analysis on…

  19. Environmental Factors of Distance Learning: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Tim; Changchit, Chuleeporn

    2014-01-01

    The widespread use of the Internet has opened new avenues for learning in higher education. Distance education through the Internet has had a large increase over the last decade. This study focuses on examining factors of the online course environment that affect student satisfaction. The results identify factors that affect students' satisfaction…

  20. The Self-Report Family Inventory: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Selig, James P.; Trahan, Don P., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of the Self-Report Family Inventory with a sample of heterosexual parents who have a son or daughter who self-identifies as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Results suggest that a two-factor solution is appropriate. Research and clinical implications are offered. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  1. Development of a Body Image Concern Scale using both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in Chinese university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He W

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Wenxin He, Qiming Zheng, Yutian Ji, Chanchan Shen, Qisha Zhu, Wei Wang Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, School of Public Health, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: The body dysmorphic disorder is prevalent in general population and in psychiatric, dermatological, and plastic-surgery patients, but there lacks a structure-validated, comprehensive self-report measure of body image concerns, which is established through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Methods: We have composed a 34-item matrix targeting the body image concerns and trialed it in 328 male and 365 female Chinese university students. Answers to the matrix dealt with treatments including exploratory factor analyses, reserve of qualified items, and confirmatory factor analyses of latent structures. Results: Six latent factors, namely the Social Avoidance, Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, Perceived Distress/Discrimination, Defect Hiding, and Embarrassment in Public, were identified. The factors and their respective items have composed a 24-item questionnaire named as the Body Image Concern Scale. Each factor earned a satisfactory internal reliability, and the intercorrelations between these factors were in a median level. Women scored significantly higher than men did on the Appearance Dissatisfaction, Preoccupation with Reassurance, and Defect Hiding. Conclusion: The Body Image Concern Scale has displayed its structure validation and gender preponderance in Chinese university students. Keywords: body dysmorphic disorder, body image, factor analysis, questionnaire development

  2. Metabolic syndrome in the rural population of Wardha, Central India: An exploratory factor analysis

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    Pradeep R Deshmukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Metabolic syndrome - a plausible precondition for type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases is also on rise. To understand the mechanistic complexity of metabolic syndrome it is imperative to study the specific contribution of the determinants of metabolic syndrome. Such study can help to identify the most significant factor which may be of use in early detection as well as prevention efforts. Such information is scarcely available from India and especially from rural India. Hence, the present study was undertaken to explore for such factor which might be considered crucial for development of such pathogenesis particularly in rural population of Wardha. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising of 300 subjects was carried out in rural area of Primary Health Center, attached to medical college with approximate 31,000 populations. The anthropometric parameters such as height, weight, waist circumference were measured. Overnight fasting samples were collected for lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoproteins, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins and fasting blood glucose levels. The National Cholesterol Education Programme Adult Treatment Panel, ATP-III guidelines were used to categorize the study subjects. As many of the variables are highly intercorrelated, exploratory factor analysis was carried out to reduce the data to a smaller number of independent factors that accounts for the most of the variances in the data. Principal component analysis was used as a method of extraction. Results: For both sexes, three factors were extracted accounting for about 71% variance in the measured variables. An adiposity factor which accounted for highest explained variance (28%, was the initial factor extracted. It was loaded positively by waist circumference, triglyceride, and very low density lipoprotein and negatively loaded by high density lipoprotein. Second factor extracted

  3. Evaluation of a modified 16-item Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS): Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Jowsey, Tanisha; Henning, Marcus

    2018-04-18

    The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%). The intervention was a two-day simulation-based IPE course focused on managing unplanned acute medical problems in hospital wards ("ward calls"). Immediately prior to the course, 288 RIPLS were collected and immediately afterwards, 322 (response rates 80% and 89%, respectively). Exploratory factor analysis involving principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation method was conducted using pre-course data. The scree plot suggested a three-factor solution over two- and four-factor solutions. Subsequent confirmatory factor analysis performed using post-course data demonstrated partial goodness-of-fit for this suggested three-factor model. Based on these findings, further robust psychometric testing of the RIPLS or modified versions of it is recommended before embarking on its use in evaluative research in various healthcare education settings.

  4. Sexual Opinion Survey: An Exploratory Factor Analysis with Helping Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Zachary D.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2015-01-01

    Counselors and marriage and family therapists work with individuals, couples, and families on issues related to sexuality. However, clinicians may be underserving their clients by "not" having adequate training and preparation to work with clients with these presenting issues. One mitigating factor in the treatment of sexual problems is…

  5. Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Demo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Given the strategic relevance of Human Resources Management (HRM in organizations and the lack of scientific instruments to measure employees’ perceptions about policies and practices of HRM, this study aimed to validate the Human Resources Management Policies and Practices Scale (HRMPPS through exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis using the maximum likelihood method. The study has a quantitative design, but also included qualitative analysis required for the development of a scale. Employees from various organizations composed a sample of 632 people. Scale reliability was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha and Jöreskog’s rho. A sixfactor model was generated showing high-reliability and good fit. Construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The factors were consistent with the literature review and explained about 58% of the construct’s total variance. This study contributes to the scientific production in the area of Human Resources Management since HRMPPS can be used not only in relational studies but also as an evaluation instrument by managers who wish to improve their employees’ well-being as well as organizational outcomes.

  6. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

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    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  7. Model Correction Factor Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus; Randrup-Thomsen, Søren; Morsing Johannesen, Johannes

    1997-01-01

    The model correction factor method is proposed as an alternative to traditional polynomial based response surface techniques in structural reliability considering a computationally time consuming limit state procedure as a 'black box'. The class of polynomial functions is replaced by a limit...... of the model correction factor method, is that in simpler form not using gradient information on the original limit state function or only using this information once, a drastic reduction of the number of limit state evaluation is obtained together with good approximations on the reliability. Methods...

  8. Retrieving relevant factors with exploratory SEM and principal-covariate regression: A comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloet, Marlies; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Ceulemans, Eva

    2018-02-12

    Behavioral researchers often linearly regress a criterion on multiple predictors, aiming to gain insight into the relations between the criterion and predictors. Obtaining this insight from the ordinary least squares (OLS) regression solution may be troublesome, because OLS regression weights show only the effect of a predictor on top of the effects of other predictors. Moreover, when the number of predictors grows larger, it becomes likely that the predictors will be highly collinear, which makes the regression weights' estimates unstable (i.e., the "bouncing beta" problem). Among other procedures, dimension-reduction-based methods have been proposed for dealing with these problems. These methods yield insight into the data by reducing the predictors to a smaller number of summarizing variables and regressing the criterion on these summarizing variables. Two promising methods are principal-covariate regression (PCovR) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Both simultaneously optimize reduction and prediction, but they are based on different frameworks. The resulting solutions have not yet been compared; it is thus unclear what the strengths and weaknesses are of both methods. In this article, we focus on the extents to which PCovR and ESEM are able to extract the factors that truly underlie the predictor scores and can predict a single criterion. The results of two simulation studies showed that for a typical behavioral dataset, ESEM (using the BIC for model selection) in this regard is successful more often than PCovR. Yet, in 93% of the datasets PCovR performed equally well, and in the case of 48 predictors, 100 observations, and large differences in the strengths of the factors, PCovR even outperformed ESEM.

  9. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT (CRM SUCCESS FACTORS: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed ALAMGIR

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Customer relationship management (CRM can improve organization’s performance through applying customer knowledge and maintaining relationships with customers. Literature on CRM in an integrative fashion is sparse, rather issues are presented in isolation mostly focusing on technology ignoring other extra-organizational issues like social rapport and customer knowledge. Likewise, CRM success is poorly sketched and social rapport as a facilitator of knowledge generation has received little attention in the previous literature. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is to investigate the role of CRM, customer knowledge and social rapport on CRM success. The present study considers the Resource-based view in developing CRM success framework. A Qualitative research approach has been taken in this study where ten customer-service managers of different telecom operators of Bangladesh have been interviewed. To identify the factors along with their associated variables and also to further develop a research model a content analysis technique has been utilized. The results of the interviews identified three factors affecting CRM success. This paper also highlights the research and managerial implications of the model.  

  10. Multiple factors influence compliance with colorectal cancer staging recommendations: an exploratory study

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    Khalifa Mahmoud A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For patients with colorectal cancer (CRC retrieval by surgeons, and assessment by pathologists of at least 12 lymph nodes (LNs predicts the need for adjuvant treatment and improved survival. Different interventions (educational presentation, engaging clinical opinion leaders, performance data sent to hospital executives to improve compliance with this practice had variable results. This exploratory study examined factors hypothesized to have influenced the outcome of those interventions. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 surgeons and pathologists at eleven hospitals. Clinicians were identified by intervention organizers, public licensing body database, and referral from interviewees. An interview guide incorporating open-ended questions was pilot-tested on one surgeon and pathologist. A single investigator conducted all interviews by phone. Transcripts were analyzed independently by two investigators using a grounded approach,ho then compared findings to resolve differences. Results Improvements in LN staging practice may have occurred largely due to educational presentations that created awareness, and self-initiated changes undertaken by pathologists. Executives that received performance data may not have shared this with staff, and opinion leaders engaged to promote compliance may not have fulfilled their roles. Barriers to change that are potentially amenable to quality improvement included perceptions about the practice (perceived lack of evidence for the need to examine at least 12 LNs and associated responsibilities (blaming other profession, technical issues (need for pathology assistants, better clearing solutions and laboratory facilities, and a lack of organizational support for multidisciplinary interaction (little communication between surgeons and pathologists or quality improvement (no change leaders or capacity for monitoring. Conclusion Use of an exploratory approach provided an in

  11. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos,Bernardo; Joia,Luiz Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. T...

  12. Online revenue models in the media sector: an exploratory study on their success factors and adoption

    OpenAIRE

    Stienstra, Martin R.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Boerrigter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Especially for companies in the media sector such as publishers, the Internet has created new strategic and commercial opportunities. However, many companies in the media sector are struggling with how to adapt their business and revenue model for doing profitable business online. This exploratory study goes into the success factors and the level of adoption of online revenue models by media sector companies. We use Chaffey (2002) in determining online revenue models in which we included Oste...

  13. Conceptualizing age-friendly community characteristics in a sample of urban elders: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Accurate conceptualization and measurement of age-friendly community characteristics would help to reduce barriers to documenting the effects on elders of interventions to create such communities. This article contributes to the measurement of age-friendly communities through an exploratory factor analysis of items reflecting an existing US Environmental Protection Agency policy framework. From a sample of urban elders (n = 1,376), we identified 6 factors associated with demographic and health characteristics: access to business and leisure, social interaction, access to health care, neighborhood problems, social support, and community engagement. Future research should explore the effects of these factors across contexts and populations.

  14. Exploratory Factor Analysis of NRG Oncology's University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire – RTOG Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Stephanie L.; Wyatt, Gwen; Wong, Raimond K. W.; Sagar, Stephen M.; Yueh, Bevan; Singh, Anurag K.; Yao, Min; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Francis S.; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, D. Ian; Krempl, Greg A.; Chavez, Ariel; Yeh, Alexander M.; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Context The 15-item University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire – Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) modification (UW-QOL-RTOG modification) has been used in several trials of head and neck cancer conducted by NRG Oncology such as RTOG 9709, RTOG 9901, RTOG 0244, and RTOG 0537. Objectives This study is an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish validity and reliability of the instrument subscales. Methods EFA on the UW-QOL - RTOG modification was conducted using baseline data from NRG Oncology's RTOG 0537, a trial of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to measure reliability; correlation with the University of Michigan Xerostomia Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) was used to evaluate concurrent validity; and correlations between consecutive time points were used to assess test-retest reliability. Results The 15-item EFA of the modified tool resulted in 11 items split into 4 factors: mucus, eating, pain, and activities. Cronbach's α ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 for the factors and total score, consisting of all 11 items. There were strong correlations (ρ≥0.60) between consecutive time points and between total score and the XeQOLS total score (ρ>0.65). Conclusion The UW-QOL-RTOG modification is a valid tool that can be used to assess symptom burden of head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or those who have recently completed radiation. The modified tool has acceptable reliability, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability in this patient population, as well as the advantage of having being shortened from 15 to 11 items. PMID:27899312

  15. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  16. Challenges in Exploratory Methods for Tuberculosis Research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Helen; Abney, Kate; Abrams, Amber; Truyts, Carina

    2016-07-01

    Haunted by a legacy of apartheid governance that left millions in material poverty, South Africa has among the highest tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality rates in the world. Our Social Markers of TB research project shared a vision of working with ethnographic research methods to understand TB-infected persons, their families, care providers, and social networks. We argue that felt and enacted TB stigma and the related HIV-TB stigma impaired our ability to collect the necessary data for a full portrait of TB-infected persons and their lived conditions. To circumvent this limitation, each researcher improvised and augmented conventional anthropological methods with more creative, directed, and at times destabilizing methods. We present three case studies as useful illustrations of the complexities and challenges we encountered in our attempts to conduct ethically sound TB research. We discuss the implications of our call for "improvisation" for the politics of research and ethical oversight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. QUANTIFYING SUPPLIERS’ PRODUCT QUALITY: AN EXPLORATORY PRODUCT AUDIT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Avakh Darestani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT:The quality of the raw material and supplied product from suppliers plays a critical role in the quality of the final product. It has become the norm that vehicle manufacturers require their suppliers to measure product quality and service with a product audit method. Measuring quality of product is emphasised by QS9000 VDA6.5 and ISO/TS16949. From a competitive standpoint, and also to see continuous improvement in business, companies need to monitor their suppliers’ performance. Quality and delivery are two very important indicators of supplier performance. This paper presents a statistical method for measuring the quality of supplied product. This method allocates different weights to variables and attributes characteristics. Moreover, following normal distribution, the tolerance zone is divided to three regions with different scores. Therefore, the quality of suppliers’ products can be monitored based on the Product Quality Audit Score (PQAS. However, this method may be employed for organisations to monitor their raw material, work-in-process parts, and final product. It can be an indicator to monitor supplier quality behaviour.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die gehalte van grondstowwe en produkte/komponente wat deur leweransiers verskaf word, speel ‘n kritiese rol in die gehalte van die finale produk. Dit het die norm geword in die motorvervaardigingsbedryf dat daar van leweransiers verwag word om hulle produkkwaliteit en –diens te meet by wyse van ‘n produkouditmetode. Die meting van produkkwaliteit word benadruk deur QS9000 VDA6.5 en ISO/TS16949. Uit ‘n mededingingshoek en ook om kontinue verbetering te monitor, is dit noodsaaklik dat leweransiers se verrigting gemeet word. Gehalte en aflewering is twee van die belangrikste indikatore van leweransiersverrigting. In hierdie artikel word ‘n statistiese model voorgehou vir die meting van die kwaliteit van die gelewerde produk. Die metode ken verskillende

  18. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  19. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of Delirium Symptoms in a Sample of Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Patience; Huang, Ting-Ying; Simoni-Wastila, Linda; Harrington, Donna

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the latent constructs of delirium symptoms among nursing home (NH) residents in the United States. Cross-sectional NH assessment data (Minimum Data Set 2.0) from the 2009 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. Data from two independent, randomly selected subsamples of residents ≥65 years were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). There were 367 and 366 individuals in the EFA and CFA, respectively. Assessment of multiple model fit statistics in CFA indicated that the two-factor structure provided better fit for the data than a one-factor solution. The two factors represented cognitive and behavioral latent constructs as suggested by the related literature. A correlation of .72 between these constructs suggested moderate discriminant validity. This finding emphasizes the importance of health care providers to be attentive to both cognitive and behavioral symptoms when diagnosing, treating, and managing delirium.

  20. Using exploratory factor analysis of FFQ data to identify dietary patterns among Yup'ik people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryman, Tove K; Austin, Melissa A; Hopkins, Scarlett; Philip, Jacques; O'Brien, Diane; Thummel, Kenneth; Boyer, Bert B

    2014-03-01

    An FFQ developed by the Center for Alaska Native Health Research for studies in Yup'ik people includes market foods and subsistence foods such as moose, seal, waterfowl and salmon that may be related to disease risk. Because the FFQ contains >100 food items, we sought to characterize dietary patterns more simply for use in ongoing pharmacogenomics studies. Exploratory factor analysis was used to derive a small number of 'factors' that explain a substantial amount of the variation in the Yup'ik diet. We estimated factor scores and measured associations with demographic characteristics and biomarkers. South-west Alaska, USA. Yup'ik people (n 358) aged ≥18 years. We identified three factors that each accounted for ≥10 % of the common variance: the first characterized by 'processed foods' (e.g. salty snacks, sweetened cereals); the second by 'fruits and vegetables' (e.g. fresh citrus, potato salad); and the third by 'subsistence foods' (seal or walrus soup, non-oily fish). Participants from coastal communities had higher values for the 'subsistence' factor, whereas participants from inland communities had higher values for the 'fruits and vegetables' factor. A biomarker of marine intake, δ 15N, was correlated with the 'subsistence' factor, whereas a biomarker of corn- and sugarcane-based market food intake, δ 13C, was correlated with 'processed foods'. The exploratory factor analysis identified three factors that appeared to reflect dietary patterns among Yup'ik based on associations with participant characteristics and biomarkers. These factors will be useful for chronic disease studies in this population.

  1. Attitudes Expressed in Online Comments about Environmental Factors in the Tourism Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The object of this exploratory study is to identify the positive, neutral and negative environment factors that affect users who visit Spanish hotels in order to help the hotel managers decide how to improve the quality of the services provided. To carry out the research a Sentiment Analysis was initially performed, grouping the sample of tweets (n = 14459) according to the feelings shown and then a textual analysis was used to identify the key environment factors in these feelings using the qualitative analysis software Nvivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). The results of the exploratory study present the key environment factors that affect the users experience when visiting hotels in Spain, such as actions that support local traditions and products, the maintenance of rural areas respecting the local environment and nature, or respecting air quality in the areas where hotels have facilities and offer services. The conclusions of the research can help hotels improve their services and the impact on the environment, as well as improving the visitors experience based on the positive, neutral and negative environment factors which the visitors themselves identified. PMID:29562724

  2. Attitudes Expressed in Online Comments about Environmental Factors in the Tourism Sector: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura, Jose Ramon; Palos-Sanchez, Pedro; Rios Martin, Miguel Angel

    2018-03-19

    The object of this exploratory study is to identify the positive, neutral and negative environment factors that affect users who visit Spanish hotels in order to help the hotel managers decide how to improve the quality of the services provided. To carry out the research a Sentiment Analysis was initially performed, grouping the sample of tweets ( n = 14459) according to the feelings shown and then a textual analysis was used to identify the key environment factors in these feelings using the qualitative analysis software Nvivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia). The results of the exploratory study present the key environment factors that affect the users experience when visiting hotels in Spain, such as actions that support local traditions and products, the maintenance of rural areas respecting the local environment and nature, or respecting air quality in the areas where hotels have facilities and offer services. The conclusions of the research can help hotels improve their services and the impact on the environment, as well as improving the visitors experience based on the positive, neutral and negative environment factors which the visitors themselves identified.

  3. Attitudes Expressed in Online Comments about Environmental Factors in the Tourism Sector: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Ramon Saura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of this exploratory study is to identify the positive, neutral and negative environment factors that affect users who visit Spanish hotels in order to help the hotel managers decide how to improve the quality of the services provided. To carry out the research a Sentiment Analysis was initially performed, grouping the sample of tweets (n = 14459 according to the feelings shown and then a textual analysis was used to identify the key environment factors in these feelings using the qualitative analysis software Nvivo (QSR International, Melbourne, Australia. The results of the exploratory study present the key environment factors that affect the users experience when visiting hotels in Spain, such as actions that support local traditions and products, the maintenance of rural areas respecting the local environment and nature, or respecting air quality in the areas where hotels have facilities and offer services. The conclusions of the research can help hotels improve their services and the impact on the environment, as well as improving the visitors experience based on the positive, neutral and negative environment factors which the visitors themselves identified.

  4. Validating the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ): An exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navidpour, Fariba; Dolatian, Mahrokh; Shishehgar, Sara; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Majd, Hamid Alavi; Hashemi, Seyed Saeed

    2016-10-01

    Biological, environmental, inter- and intrapersonal changes during the antenatal period can result in anxiety and stress in pregnant women. It is pivotal to identify potential stressors and prevent their foetal and maternal consequences. The present study was conducted to validate and examine the factor structure of the Farsi version of the Pregnancy Worries and Stress Questionnaire (PWSQ). In 2015, 502 Iranian healthy pregnant women, referred to selected hospitals in Tehran for prenatal care at 8-39 weeks of pregnancy, were recruited through a randomized cluster sampling. The PWSQ was translated into Farsi, and its validity and reliability were examined using exploratory factor analysis by SPSS version 21. The content validity of items on the PWSQ was between 0.63-1. The content validity index for relevance, clarity and simplicity were 0.92, 0.98, and 0.98, respectively, with a mean of 0.94. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.863. Test-retest reliability showed high internal consistency (α=0.89; p<0.0001). The psychometric evaluation and exploratory factor analysis showed that the translated questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool to identify stress in Iranian pregnant women. Application of the questionnaire can facilitate the diagnosis of stress in pregnant women and assist health care providers in providing timely support and minimizing negative outcomes of stress and anxiety in pregnant women and their infants.

  5. Which Factors Influence the Adoption of Social Software? An Exploratory Study of Indian Information Technology Consultancy Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukkamala, Alivelu Manga; Razmerita, Liana

    2014-01-01

    The rationale behind traditional knowledge management initiatives is to create, capture, share, organize, and use intangible assets such as organizational knowledge. Information systems have been playing a vital role in the implementation of knowledge management practices and systems. Recently, o...... factors that hinder the adoption of such tools. Finally, on the basis of these research findings we aim to contribute to managerial implications for organizations wishing to adopt social media......., organizations are adopting new forms of information and communication technologies such as social software to encourage employees to create and share knowledge. This article explores the adoption of social software tools by Indian knowledge workers working for information technology consul- tancy firms. A mixed...... method approach has been applied, and drawing on social dilemma theory and Hofstede’s cultural theory, this study discusses the factors affecting the adoption of social software by knowledge workers. A quantitative descriptive-explanatory study and a qualitative exploratory study have been employed...

  6. Factors defining the mentoring competencies of clinical midwives: An exploratory quantitative research study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishinuma, Yuri; Horiuchi, Shigeko; Yanai, Haruo

    2016-01-01

    Clinical education is an extremely important process in cultivating healthcare professionals, and the quality of educators has a major impact on the quality of future practitioners. Although practicing clinical midwives contribute to the education of pre-registered midwives and those qualified within the past year (new midwives), the factors defining the educational competencies of clinical midwives have not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that define the mentoring competencies of clinical midwives involved in educating new midwives. An exploratory quantitative research study. Questionnaires were distributed to 694 midwives who had previously conducted educational activities with new midwives at the 63 facilities whose administrator or nurse manager in charge of all staff, including midwives, consented to participate. Of the 694 midwives, 464 (66.9%) returned the questionnaire and 451 (65.1%) valid responses were analyzed. Exploratory factor analyses were performed on the following three concepts: [competency as a professional], [competency as an educator], and [personal characteristics]. [Competency as a professional] consisted of two factors: and ; [competency as an educator] consisted of four factors: , , and ; and [personal characteristics consisted of three factors: exercising leadership> , and . These three concepts were defined by a total of nine sub-concepts (factors), and 41 items were extracted with a reliability coefficient (Cronbach's α) of 0.944 CONCLUSIONS: "Mentoring competencies of clinical midwives (MCCM)" are defined by three concepts and nine sub-concepts, which can be evaluated by 41 items regarding the behavior, thoughts, and characteristics that clinical midwives exhibit when they educate new midwives in clinical settings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV): exploratory and higher order factor analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV; D. Wechsler, 2008a) standardization sample using exploratory factor analysis, multiple factor extraction criteria, and higher order exploratory factor analysis (J. Schmid & J. M. Leiman, 1957) not included in the WAIS-IV Technical and Interpretation Manual (D. Wechsler, 2008b). Results indicated that the WAIS-IV subtests were properly associated with the theoretically proposed first-order factors, but all but one factor-extraction criterion recommended extraction of one or two factors. Hierarchical exploratory analyses with the Schmid and Leiman procedure found that the second-order g factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance, whereas the four first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance. It was concluded that the WAIS-IV provides strong measurement of general intelligence, and clinical interpretation should be primarily at that level.

  8. Aligning internal organizational factors with a service excellence mission: an exploratory investigation in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Robert C; Sivo, Stephen A; Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-01-01

    In today's competitive health care environment, service excellence is rapidly becoming a major differentiating advantage between health care providers. Too often, senior executives talk about their commitment to a mission statement that extols the virtues of providing world class service to their patients only to undermine those statements with what they do, write, and say. This article presents an exploratory investigation into a new application of an internal mission alignment instrument that seeks to assess the extent to which an organization's internal processes are aligned with its service mission. This instrument was sent to 250 randomly selected employees from all clinical departments of a large southeastern hospital to explore the underlying alignment factors. A factor analysis of the data revealed eight factors that predicted beneficial employee outcomes such as organizational commitment and satisfaction with the job and organization.

  9. Exploratory factor analysis of borderline personality disorder criteria in monolingual Hispanic outpatients with substance use disorders†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Daniel F.; Añez, Luis Miguel; Paris, Manuel; Grilo, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the factor structure of the DSM-IV criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) in Hispanic patients. Subjects were 130 monolingual Hispanic adults who had been admitted to a specialty outpatient clinic that provides psychiatric and substance abuse services to Spanish-speaking individuals. All were reliably assessed with the Spanish-Language Version of the Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders. After evaluating internal consistency of the BPD criterion set, an exploratory factor analysis was performed using principal axis factoring. Results suggested a unidimensional structure, and were consistent with similar studies of the DSM-IV criteria for BPD in non-Hispanic samples. These findings have implications for understanding borderline psychopathology in this population, and for the overall validity of the DSM-IV BPD construct. PMID:20472296

  10. Non-negative Tensor Factorization for Robust Exploratory Big-Data Analytics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrov, Boian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vesselinov, Velimir Valentinov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Djidjev, Hristo Nikolov [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-17

    Currently, large multidimensional datasets are being accumulated in almost every field. Data are: (1) collected by distributed sensor networks in real-time all over the globe, (2) produced by large-scale experimental measurements or engineering activities, (3) generated by high-performance simulations, and (4) gathered by electronic communications and socialnetwork activities, etc. Simultaneous analysis of these ultra-large heterogeneous multidimensional datasets is often critical for scientific discoveries, decision-making, emergency response, and national and global security. The importance of such analyses mandates the development of the next-generation of robust machine learning (ML) methods and tools for bigdata exploratory analysis.

  11. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    MUHAMMAD, Noor Azimah; SHAMSUDDIN, Khadijah; OMAR, Khairani; SHAH, Shamsul Azhar; MOHD AMIN, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. Methods: The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Results: Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (overprotection factor. All the items loaded positively on their respective factors. Conclusion: The Malaysian population favoured positive items in answering questions. The PBI-M confirmed the three-factor model that consisted of care, autonomy and overprotection. The PBI-M is a valid and reliable instrument to assess the Malaysian parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Keywords: Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity PMID:25977634

  12. Factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition: Exploratory factor analyses with the 16 primary and secondary subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canivez, Gary L; Watkins, Marley W; Dombrowski, Stefan C

    2016-08-01

    The factor structure of the 16 Primary and Secondary subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (WISC-V; Wechsler, 2014a) standardization sample was examined with exploratory factor analytic methods (EFA) not included in the WISC-V Technical and Interpretive Manual (Wechsler, 2014b). Factor extraction criteria suggested 1 to 4 factors and results favored 4 first-order factors. When this structure was transformed with the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization procedure, the hierarchical g-factor accounted for large portions of total and common variance while the 4 first-order factors accounted for small portions of total and common variance; rendering interpretation at the factor index level less appropriate. Although the publisher favored a 5-factor model where the Perceptual Reasoning factor was split into separate Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning dimensions, no evidence for 5 factors was found. It was concluded that the WISC-V provides strong measurement of general intelligence and clinical interpretation should be primarily, if not exclusively, at that level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Intercultural comparison of patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hush, Julia M; Lee, Haejung; Yung, Vivian; Adams, Roger; Mackey, Martin; Wand, Benedict M; Nelson, Roger; Beattie, Paul

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a cross-cultural comparison of the factors that influence patient satisfaction with musculoskeletal physiotherapy care in Australia and Korea. Prospective studies were conducted in Australia and Korea. Patient satisfaction data were collected using the MedRisk Instrument for Measuring Patient Satisfaction with Physical Therapy Care (MRPS) from a total of 1666 patients who were attending clinics for physiotherapy treatment of a musculoskeletal condition. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify factors determining patient satisfaction in each cohort. A four-factor solution for the MRPS was found for the Australian and Korean data sets, explaining 61 and 55% of the variance respectively. Communication and respect, convenience and quality time and person-focused care were factors common to both countries. One factor unique to Korea was courtesy and propriety. For both cultures, global patient satisfaction was significantly but weakly correlated with the outcome of treatment. The interpersonal aspect of care, namely effective communication and respect from the therapist, appears to be the predominant and universal factor that influences patient satisfaction with physiotherapy care, although other culturally specific factors were identified. Physiotherapists can maximize patient satisfaction with care by addressing those features that uniquely contribute to patient satisfaction in the cultural context in which they are working.

  14. Reliability-based load and resistance factor design for piping: an exploratory case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Abhinav; Choi, Byounghoan

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory case study on the application of Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) approach to the Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code for piping design. The failure criterion for defining the performance function is considered as plastic instability. Presently used design equation is calibrated by evaluating the minimum reliability levels associated with it. If the target reliability in the LRFD approach is same as that evaluated for the presently used design equation, it is shown that the total safety factors for the two design equations are identical. It is observed that the load and resistance factors are not dependent upon the diameter to thickness ratio. A sensitivity analysis is also conducted to study the variations in the load and resistance factors due to changes in (a) coefficients of variation for pressure, moment, and ultimate stress, (b) ratio of mean design pressure to mean design moment, (c) distribution types used for characterizing the random variables, and (d) statistical correlation between random variables. It is observed that characterization of random variables by log-normal distribution is reasonable. Consideration of statistical correlation between the ultimate stress and section modulus gives higher values of the load factor for pressure but lower value for the moment than the corresponding values obtained by considering the variables to be uncorrelated. Since the effect of statistical correlation on the load and resistance factors is relatively insignificant for target reliability values of practical interest, the effect of correlated variables may be neglected

  15. Context factors in general practitioner - patient encounters and their impact on assessing communication skills - an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor’s proficiency. Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. Methods We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. Results In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (p communication was set at 3.17. Conclusions Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent ‘adequate GP communication behaviour’. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as ‘signal’ instead of ‘noise’ in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of

  16. Measuring Women's Empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the Demographic and Health Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibitola O. Asaolu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's status and empowerment influence health, nutrition, and socioeconomic status of women and their children. Despite its benefits, however, research on women's empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is limited in scope and geography. Empowerment is variably defined and data for comparison across regions is often limited. The objective of the current study was to identify domains of empowerment from a widely available data source, Demographic and Health Surveys, across multiple regions in SSA.Methods: Demographic and Health Surveys from nineteen countries representing four African regions were used for the analysis. A total of 26 indicators across different dimensions (economic, socio-cultural, education, and health were used to characterize women's empowerment. Pooled data from all countries were randomly divided into two datasets—one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA and the other for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA—to verify the factor structure hypothesized during EFA.Results: Four factors including attitudes toward violence, labor force participation, education, and access to healthcare were found to define women's empowerment in Central, Southern, and West Africa. However, in East Africa, only three factors were relevant: attitudes toward violence, access to healthcare ranking, and labor force participation. There was limited evidence to support household decision-making, life course, or legal status domains as components of women's empowerment.Conclusion: This foremost study advances scholarship on women's empowerment by providing a validated measure of women's empowerment for researchers and other stakeholders in health and development.

  17. Exploratory study of factors related to educational scores of first preclinical year medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitticharoon, Chantacha; Srisuma, Sorachai; Kanavitoon, Sawita; Summachiwakij, Sarayut

    2014-03-01

    The relationships among the scores of major subjects taught in the first preclinical year of a Thai medical school, previous academic achievements, and daily life activities are rarely explored. We therefore performed an exploratory study identifying various factors possibly related to the educational scores of these medical students. Questionnaires were sent out to all first preclinical year medical students, with 79.8% being returned (245/307 questionnaires). Positive correlations were revealed between the premedical year grade point average (pre-MD GPA) and anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry scores (R = 0.664, 0.521, and 0.653, respectively, P student satisfaction with anatomy, the percentage of expected reading, monthly earnings, reading after class and near exam time, and duration of sleeping periods near exam time (R = 0.773, R(2) = 0.598, P student satisfaction with biochemistry, and exam performance expectations (R = 0.794, R(2) = 0.630, P satisfaction.

  18. Symptoms of delirium: an exploratory factor analytic study among referred patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2011-01-01

    Factor analytic studies of delirium symptoms among patients referred through consultation-liaison psychiatric services are rare. We examined the factor structure of delirium symptoms in referred patients and determined whether combining items from several delirium rating scales influenced the factor structure of delirium symptoms. Eighty-six patients with delirium (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) referred though the consultation-liaison services were assessed with structured rating scales. Nineteen symptom items extracted from the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R-98), the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale and the Confusional State Evaluation Scale were subjected to an exploratory (principal component) factor analysis. A second such analysis was conducted on 15 items of the DRS-R-98 for comparison. Compared with prior studies, patients were younger and the majority had hyperactive delirium. Principal components analysis identified two factors: (1) a "cognitive" factor comprising of disturbances in language, thought processes, orientation, attention, short- and long-term memory, visuospatial ability, consciousness (awareness) and perseveration accounted for 28.9% of the variance and (2) a "behavioral" factor consisting of sleep-wake cycle disturbances, delusions, perceptual disturbances, motor agitation, affect-lability, distractibility, irritability and temporal onset accounted for 18.9% of the variance. An identical factor structure was obtained with the DRS-R-98 items. Similar to previous factor analytic studies, the present study supported the existence of two principal dimensions of delirium, cognitive and behavioral. Additionally, it extended the results of earlier investigations to a wider group of patients with delirium, suggesting that these dimensions might provide important clues to the neurobiology of delirium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiometabolic risk clustering in spinal cord injury: results of exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libin, Alexander; Tinsley, Emily A; Nash, Mark S; Mendez, Armando J; Burns, Patricia; Elrod, Matt; Hamm, Larry F; Groah, Suzanne L

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests an elevated prevalence of cardiometabolic risks among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI); however, the unique clustering of risk factors in this population has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to describe unique clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors differentiated by level of injury. One hundred twenty-one subjects (mean 37 ± 12 years; range, 18-73) with chronic C5 to T12 motor complete SCI were studied. Assessments included medical histories, anthropometrics and blood pressure, and fasting serum lipids, glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). The most common cardiometabolic risk factors were overweight/obesity, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C). Risk clustering was found in 76.9% of the population. Exploratory principal component factor analysis using varimax rotation revealed a 3-factor model in persons with paraplegia (65.4% variance) and a 4-factor solution in persons with tetraplegia (73.3% variance). The differences between groups were emphasized by the varied composition of the extracted factors: Lipid Profile A (total cholesterol [TC] and LDL-C), Body Mass-Hypertension Profile (body mass index [BMI], systolic blood pressure [SBP], and fasting insulin [FI]); Glycemic Profile (fasting glucose and HbA1c), and Lipid Profile B (TG and HDL-C). BMI and SBP formed a separate factor only in persons with tetraplegia. Although the majority of the population with SCI has risk clustering, the composition of the risk clusters may be dependent on level of injury, based on a factor analysis group comparison. This is clinically plausible and relevant as tetraplegics tend to be hypo- to normotensive and more sedentary, resulting in lower HDL-C and a greater propensity toward impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

  20. Nursing students' attitudes towards information and communication technology: an exploratory and confirmatory factor analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Jae; Clarke, Charlotte L

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a shortened version of the Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health, in the investigation of nursing students with clinical placement experiences. Nurses and nursing students need to develop high levels of competency in information and communication technology. However, they encounter statistically significant barriers in the use of the technology. Although some instruments have been developed to measure factors that influence nurses' attitudes towards technology, the validity is questionable and few studies have been developed to test the attitudes of nursing students, in particular. A cross-sectional survey design was performed. The Information Technology Attitude Scales for Health was used to collect data from October 2012-December 2012. A panel of experts reviewed the content of the instrument and a pilot study was conducted. Following this, a total of 508 nursing students, who were engaged in clinical placements, were recruited from six universities in South Korea. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed and reliability and construct validity were assessed. The resulting instrument consisted of 19 items across four factors. Reliability of the four factors was acceptable and the validity was supported. The instrument was shown to be both valid and reliable for measuring nursing students' attitudes towards technology, thus aiding in the current understandings of this aspect. Through these measurements and understandings, nursing educators and students are able to be more reflexive of their attitudes and can thus seek to develop them positively. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The Nursing Performance Instrument: Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses in Registered Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagherian, Knar; Steege, Linsey M; Geiger-Brown, Jeanne; Harrington, Donna

    2018-04-01

    The optimal performance of nurses in healthcare settings plays a critical role in care quality and patient safety. Despite this importance, few measures are provided in the literature that evaluate nursing performance as an independent construct from competencies. The nine-item Nursing Performance Instrument (NPI) was developed to fill this gap. The aim of this study was to examine and confirm the underlying factor structure of the NPI in registered nurses. The design was cross-sectional, using secondary data collected between February 2008 and April 2009 for the "Fatigue in Nursing Survey" (N = 797). The sample was predominantly dayshift female nurses working in acute care settings. Using Mplus software, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were applied to the NPI data, which were divided into two equal subsamples. Multiple fit indices were used to evaluate the fit of the alternative models. The three-factor model was determined to fit the data adequately. The factors that were labeled as "physical/mental decrements," "consistent practice," and "behavioral change" were moderately to strongly intercorrelated, indicating good convergent validity. The reliability coefficients for the subscales were acceptable. The NPI consists of three latent constructs. This instrument has the potentialto be used as a self-monitoring instrument that addressesnurses' perceptions of performance while providing patient care.

  2. Context factors in general practitioner-patient encounters and their impact on assessing communication skills--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; Kramer, Anneke; Andriesse, Boukje; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2013-05-22

    Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem. Merely valuing the presence of generic skills may not do justice to the doctor's proficiency.Our aim was to perform an exploratory study on how assessment of general practitioner (GP) communication performance changes if context factors are explicitly taken into account. We used a mixed method design to explore how ratings would change. A random sample of 40 everyday GP consultations was used to see if previously identified context factors could be observed again. The sample was rated twice using a widely used assessment instrument (the MAAS-Global), first in the standard way and secondly after context factors were explicitly taken into account, by using a context-specific rating protocol to assess communication performance in the workplace. In between first and second rating, the presence of context factors was established. Item score differences were calculated using paired sample t-tests. In 38 out of 40 consultations, context factors prompted application of the context-specific rating protocol. Mean overall score on the 7-point MAAS-Global scale increased from 2.98 in standard to 3.66 in the context-specific rating (pcommunication was set at 3.17. Applying the protocol, the mean overall score rose above the level set in an earlier study for the MAAS-Global scores to represent 'adequate GP communication behaviour'. Our findings indicate that incorporating context factors in communication assessment thus makes a meaningful difference and shows that context factors should be considered as 'signal' instead of 'noise' in GP communication assessment. Explicating context factors leads to a more deliberate and transparent rating of GP communication performance.

  3. Depersonalization: An exploratory factor analysis of the Italian version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagioli, F; Telesforo, L; Dell'Erba, A; Consolazione, M; Migliorini, V; Patanè, M; Boldrini, T; Graziani, R; Nicoletti, F; Fiori-Nastro, P

    2015-07-01

    "Depersonalization" (DP) is a common symptom in the general population and psychiatric patients (Michal et al., 2011 [1]). DP is characterized by an alteration in the experience of the self, so that one feels detached from his or her own mental processes or body (or from the world), feeling as being an outside observer of his or her own self, and loosing the experience of unity and identity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013 [2]). We performed an exploratory factor analysis of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale Italian version (CDS-IV). We enrolled 149 inpatients and outpatients of psychiatric services located in two Italian regions, Lazio and Campania. Patients were aged between 15 and 65 and diagnosed with schizophrenic, depressive or anxiety disorders. Four factors accounted for 97.4% of the variance. Factor 1 (10, 24, 26, 1, 13, 23, 9, 2, 5, and 11), called "Detachment from the Self", captures experiences of detachment from actions and thoughts. Factor 2 (19, 20, 27, 3, 12, 23, 22, and 11), called "Anomalous bodily experiences", refers to unusual bodily experiences. Factor 3 (7, 28, 25, 6, 9, and 2), named "Numbing", describes the dampening of affects. Factor 4 (14, 17, and 16), named "Temporal blunting", refers to the subjective experience of time. We did not find any specific factor that refers to derealization; this suggests that the constructs of depersonalization/derealization (DP/DR) were strongly related to each other. Our results show that the constructs of DP/DR subsume several psychopathological dimensions; moreover, the above mentioned factors were broadly consistent with prior literature. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Exploratory factor analysis of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mei; Dixon, Jane K

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reexamine the factor pattern of the 12-item Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-Being Scale (FACIT-Sp-12) using exploratory factor analysis in people newly diagnosed with advanced cancer. Principal components analysis (PCA) and 3 common factor analysis methods were used to explore the factor pattern of the FACIT-Sp-12. Factorial validity was assessed in association with quality of life (QOL). Principal factor analysis (PFA), iterative PFA, and maximum likelihood suggested retrieving 3 factors: Peace, Meaning, and Faith. Both Peace and Meaning positively related to QOL, whereas only Peace uniquely contributed to QOL. This study supported the 3-factor model of the FACIT-Sp-12. Suggestions for revision of items and further validation of the identified factor pattern were provided.

  5. Survey of methods used to determine if a patient has a deep vein thrombosis: An exploratory research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heick, John D; Farris, James W

    2017-09-01

    The use of evidence-based practice (EBP) is encouraged in the physical therapy profession, but integrating evidence into practice can be difficult for clinicians because of lack of time and other constraints. To survey physical therapy clinical instructors and determine the methods they use for screening for deep vein thrombosis (DVT), a type of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the lower extremities. Exploratory survey. Twelve survey questions written specifically for this study were sent to a convenience sample of clinical instructors associated with seven universities across 43 states. Eight hundred fifty clinical instructors (22.4% response rate) completed the survey. Of those who responded, 80.5% were taught to use Homans sign to screen for a possible DVT in their entry-level education and 67.9% continued to use Homans sign in clinical practice. Regardless of post-graduate education, respondents were more likely to choose Homans sign than a clinical decision rule (CDR) to screen for a suspected DVT. Additionally, nearly two-thirds of respondents failed to correctly identify one or more of the major risk factors for developing a DVT/VTE. The response rate was 22.4% and therefore may not fully represent the population of physical therapy clinical instructors in the United States. Results from this exploratory survey indicated that approximately two-thirds of physical therapy clinical instructors used outdated DVT/VTE screening methods that they were taught in their entry-level education and nearly two-thirds did not identify the major risk factors associated with DVT/VTE. These results suggest that change is necessary in physical therapy education, clinical practice, and continuing professional development to ensure a more evidenced-based identification of DVT and VTE.

  6. Strategic Decision-Making: Research Mapping from Exploratory Factor Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Ribeiro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To understand the connection between authors, concepts and theories that address strategic decision-making, in this article the citations and co-citations of works published up to 2014 were analyzed. The sample consists of 489 articles published in international periodicals included in the Web of Science-ISI Web of Knowledge database. The search was conducted using key words that enabled the identification of the highest possible number of articles on the subject in question. Through Multidimensional Scaling (MDS and Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA, the conceptual and theoretical relationships involved in these studies were identified. The results show that from 1980 to 2014 three different factors are highlighted: the first has to do with studies on conflict; the second factor is the Top Management Team (TMT and decision-making; and the third is related to processes. More recently (2013-2014, studies on strategic decision-making are converging towards analysis of conflict and process, composition and control, with Upper Echelon Theory being maintained as the central theory in these studies. This finding is the main contribution of this article.

  7. Risk factors for tobacco susceptibility in an orthodontic population: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashinsky, Jared Michael; Liles, Sandy; Schmitz, Katy; Ding, Ding; Hovell, Melbourne

    2017-08-01

    Tobacco use is related to increased periodontal disease, tooth loss, and decreased success of orthodontic appliances, and it may inhibit orthodontic tooth movement. Most smokers start during adolescence. Since most cessation attempts fail, prevention appears necessary. A cross-sectional sample of orthodontic patients reported hypothesized risk factors for smoking and susceptibility to tobacco use initiation. Exploratory analyses regressed susceptibility to tobacco initiation on each hypothesized predictor variable in a separate logistic model that included a standard set of covariates. Significant odds ratios (OR) were found for the presence of a smoker in the home (OR, 2.168; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.144-4.107), a friend having no-smoking rules in his or her home and car (OR, 0.337; 95% CI, 0.128-0.886), having been offered a cigarette (OR, 4.526; 95% CI, 1.190-17.207), and exposure to tobacco advertisements (OR, 1.910; 95% CI, 1.044-3.496). Peer, family, and environmental factors appear to increase children's susceptibility to smoking in orthodontic populations. Attention to such factors could help dental clinicians to more effectively identify susceptible young patients in need of antismoking advice. Prospective and experimental studies are required to confirm the role that dental clinicians might play in youth smoking prevention. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Factorization method of quadratic template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyrba, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Multiplication of two numbers is a one-way function in mathematics. Any attempt to distribute the outcome to its roots is called factorization. There are many methods such as Fermat's factorization, Dixońs method or quadratic sieve and GNFS, which use sophisticated techniques fast factorization. All the above methods use the same basic formula differing only in its use. This article discusses a newly designed factorization method. Effective implementation of this method in programs is not important, it only represents and clearly defines its properties.

  9. Exploratory study on a statistical method to analyse time resolved data obtained during nanomaterial exposure measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerc, F; Njiki-Menga, G-H; Witschger, O

    2013-01-01

    Most of the measurement strategies that are suggested at the international level to assess workplace exposure to nanomaterials rely on devices measuring, in real time, airborne particles concentrations (according different metrics). Since none of the instruments to measure aerosols can distinguish a particle of interest to the background aerosol, the statistical analysis of time resolved data requires special attention. So far, very few approaches have been used for statistical analysis in the literature. This ranges from simple qualitative analysis of graphs to the implementation of more complex statistical models. To date, there is still no consensus on a particular approach and the current period is always looking for an appropriate and robust method. In this context, this exploratory study investigates a statistical method to analyse time resolved data based on a Bayesian probabilistic approach. To investigate and illustrate the use of the this statistical method, particle number concentration data from a workplace study that investigated the potential for exposure via inhalation from cleanout operations by sandpapering of a reactor producing nanocomposite thin films have been used. In this workplace study, the background issue has been addressed through the near-field and far-field approaches and several size integrated and time resolved devices have been used. The analysis of the results presented here focuses only on data obtained with two handheld condensation particle counters. While one was measuring at the source of the released particles, the other one was measuring in parallel far-field. The Bayesian probabilistic approach allows a probabilistic modelling of data series, and the observed task is modelled in the form of probability distributions. The probability distributions issuing from time resolved data obtained at the source can be compared with the probability distributions issuing from the time resolved data obtained far-field, leading in a

  10. Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özen, Hamit; Turan, Selahattin

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study…

  11. Impact of RFID on the Retail Value Chain: An Exploratory Study Using a Mixed Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithu Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While several large retailers have mandated RFID deployment across their value chains, the case for RFID adoption in retail still remains uncertain. This paper aims at providing a realistic perspective of the immense potential of RFID, taking adoption drivers, potential benefits, and implementation challenges into account. In this paper, a mixed methodological approach is used that caters to the exploratory nature of the work to quantitatively analyze RFID adoption drivers, benefits, and implementation challenges. First content analysis is applied to analyze academic and trade articles to come up with key issues and concepts. The results from the content analysis acted as input for a Delphi study which is the second methodology. The combined results from the two methods provide deep insights and enhance understanding of important implementation issues related to RFID adoption in the retail sector and also aid in drawing meaningful managerial conclusions.

  12. College Students and Yik Yak: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathlin V. Clark-Gordon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study, employing an exploratory mixed-methods approach, explores college students’ use of Yik Yak, a pseudo-anonymous social media platform that allows users to post short messages and engage primarily with other nearby users. Study 1 qualitatively examined student uses and perceptions of the app through 12 in-depth interviews with Yik Yak users. Study 2 conducted a content analysis of yaks ( N = 3,905 from 24 colleges and universities to gain a better understanding of the content that students post and engage with inside the app. The combination of qualitative and quantitative findings offers insight into the complex phenomena of Yik Yak in a university setting. Limitations and future directions of research are discussed.

  13. An exploratory case control study of risk factors for hepatitis E in rural Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain B Labrique

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is the major cause of epidemic and sporadic hepatitis globally. Outbreaks are associated with fecal contamination of drinking water, yet the environmental reservoir of HEV between epidemics remains unclear. In contrast to neighboring countries, where epidemics and sporadic disease co-occur, HEV-endemic communities in rural Bangladesh seldom report outbreaks; sporadic hepatitis E is reported from urban and rural areas of the country. Besides typical enteric risk factors, other routes for HEV infection and disease are unclear. We conducted monthly household surveillance of a southern Bangladeshi community of 23,500 people to find incident cases of acute hepatitis E over a 22 month period. An algorithm was used to capture 279 candidate cases, of which 46 were confirmed acute HEV infections. An exploratory case-control study was conducted to identify putative risk factors for disease. Nearly 70% of cases were over 15 years old. Female gender seemed protective (OR:0.34 against hepatitis E in this conservative setting, as was the use of sanitary latrines (OR:0.28. Socioeconomic status or animal exposures were not significant predictors of disease, although outdoor employment and recent urban travel were. Unexpectedly, recent contact with a "jaundiced" patient and a history of injection exposure in the 3 months prior to disease (OR:15.50 were significant. Susceptible individuals from "endemic" communities share similar enteric exposure risks to those commonly associated with tourists from non-endemic countries. This study also raises the novel possibility of parenteral and person-to-person transmission of HEV in non-epidemic, sporadic disease settings.

  14. Falling and fall risk factors in adults with haemophilia: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammels, M; Vandesande, J; Vlaeyen, E; Peerlinck, K; Milisen, K

    2014-11-01

    Falls are a particular risk in persons with haemophilia (PWH) because of damaged joints, high risk of bleeding, possible impact on the musculoskeletal system and functioning and costs associated with treatment for these fall-related injuries. In addition, fall risk increases with age and PWH are increasingly entering the over 65 age group. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of falls during the past year and to explore which fall risk factors are present in community-dwelling PWH. Dutch speaking community-dwelling adults were included from the age of 40 years with severe or moderate haemophilia A or B, independent in their mobility and registered at the University Hospitals Leuven. They were asked to come to the haemophilia centre; otherwise a telephone survey was conducted. Demographic and social variables, medical variables, fall evaluation and clinical variables were queried. From the 89 PWH, 74 (83.1%) participated in the study. Twenty-four (32.4%) fell in the past year, and 10 of them (41.7%) more than once with an average of four falls. Living conditions, physical activity, avoidance of winter sports due to fear of falling, orthopaedic status, urinary incontinence and mobility impairments are potential fall risk factors in adult PWH. This exploratory study indicates that PWH are attentive to falling since they are at higher risk for falls and because of the serious consequences it might have. Screening and fall prevention should be stimulated in the daily practice of haemophilia care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interactions between risk factors in the prediction of onset of eating disorders: Exploratory hypothesis generating analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Desjardins, Christopher D

    2018-06-01

    Because no study has tested for interactions between risk factors in the prediction of future onset of each eating disorder, this exploratory study addressed this lacuna to generate hypotheses to be tested in future confirmatory studies. Data from three prevention trials that targeted young women at high risk for eating disorders due to body dissatisfaction (N = 1271; M age 18.5, SD 4.2) and collected diagnostic interview data over 3-year follow-up were combined to permit sufficient power to predict onset of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating disorder (BED), and purging disorder (PD) using classification tree analyses, an analytic technique uniquely suited to detecting interactions. Low BMI was the most potent predictor of AN onset, and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Overeating was the most potent predictor of BN onset, and positive expectancies for thinness and body dissatisfaction amplified this relation. Body dissatisfaction was the most potent predictor of BED onset, and overeating, low dieting, and thin-ideal internalization amplified this relation. Dieting was the most potent predictor of PD onset, and negative affect and positive expectancies for thinness amplified this relation. Results provided evidence of amplifying interactions between risk factors suggestive of cumulative risk processes that were distinct for each disorder; future confirmatory studies should test the interactive hypotheses generated by these analyses. If hypotheses are confirmed, results may allow interventionists to target ultra high-risk subpopulations with more intensive prevention programs that are uniquely tailored for each eating disorder, potentially improving the yield of prevention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Exploratory Study of Effective Online Learning: Assessing Satisfaction Levels of Graduate Students of Mathematics Education Associated with Human and Design Factors of an Online Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joohi Lee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory research project investigated graduate students’ satisfaction levels with online learning associated with human (professor/instructor and instructional associate and design factors (course structure and technical aspects using a survey study. A total of 81 graduate students (master’s students who majored in math and science education enrolled in an online math methods course (Conceptual Geometry participated in this study. According to the results of this study, student satisfaction level is closely associated with clear guidelines on assignment, rubrics, and constructive feedback. In addition, student satisfaction level is related to professor’s (or course instructor’s knowledge of materials.

  17. The factorization method and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, N.A.; Drigo Filho, E.

    1988-01-01

    Applying the factorization method, we generalize the harmonic - oscillator and the Coulomb potentials, both in arbitrary dimensions. We also show that this method allows the determination of the superpotentials and the supersymmetric partners associated with each of those systems. (author) [pt

  18. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  19. Online revenue models in the media sector : an exploratory study on their success factors and adoption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stienstra, Martin R.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Boerrigter, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Especially for companies in the media sector such as publishers, the Internet has created new strategic and commercial opportunities. However, many companies in the media sector are struggling with how to adapt their business and revenue model for doing profitable business online. This exploratory

  20. Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale among Asian American college students: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Justin C; Vance, Kristen S; Helms, Janet E

    2009-04-01

    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Validation of the Malay Version of the Parental Bonding Instrument among Malaysian Youths Using Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Noor Azimah; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Omar, Khairani; Shah, Shamsul Azhar; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-01-01

    Parenting behaviour is culturally sensitive. The aims of this study were (1) to translate the Parental Bonding Instrument into Malay (PBI-M) and (2) to determine its factorial structure and validity among the Malaysian population. The PBI-M was generated from a standard translation process and comprehension testing. The validation study of the PBI-M was administered to 248 college students aged 18 to 22 years. Participants in the comprehension testing had difficulty understanding negative items. Five translated double negative items were replaced with five positive items with similar meanings. Exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor model for the PBI-M with acceptable reliability. Four negative items (items 3, 4, 8, and 16) and item 19 were omitted from the final PBI-M list because of incorrect placement or low factor loading (parenting style. Confirmatory factor analysis may further support this finding. Malaysia, parenting, questionnaire, validity.

  2. Alternative perspectives of safety in home delivered health care: a sequential exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarahjane

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to discover and describe how patients, carers and case management nurses define safety and compare it to the traditional risk reduction and harm avoidance definition of safety. Care services are increasingly being delivered in the home for patients with complex long-term conditions. However, the concept of safety remains largely unexplored. A sequential, exploratory mixed method design. A qualitative case study of the UK National Health Service case management programme in the English UK National Health Service was deployed during 2012. Thirteen interviews were conducted with patients (n = 9) and carers (n = 6) and three focus groups with nurses (n = 17) from three community care providers. The qualitative element explored the definition of safety. Data were subjected to framework analysis and themes were identified by participant group. Sequentially, a cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2013 in a fourth community care provider (patient n = 35, carer n = 19, nurse n = 26) as a form of triangulation. Patients and carers describe safety differently to case management nurses, choosing to focus on meeting needs. They use more positive language and recognize the role they have in safety in home-delivered health care. In comparison, case management nurses described safety similarly to the definitions found in the literature. However, when offered the patient and carer definition of safety, they preferentially selected this definition to their own or the literature definition. Patients and carers offer an alternative perspective on patient safety in home-delivered health care that identifies their role in ensuring safety and is more closely aligned with the empowerment philosophy of case management. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An exploratory mixed-methods crossover study comparing DVD- vs. Web-based patient decision support in three conditions: The importance of patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halley, Meghan C; Rendle, Katharine A S; Gillespie, Katherine A; Stanley, Katherine M; Frosch, Dominick L

    2015-12-01

    The last 15 years have witnessed considerable progress in the development of decision support interventions (DESIs). However, fundamental questions about design and format of delivery remain. An exploratory, randomized mixed-method crossover study was conducted to compare a DVD- and Web-based DESI. Randomized participants used either the Web or the DVD first, followed by the alternative format. Participants completed a questionnaire to assess decision-specific knowledge at baseline and a questionnaire and structured qualitative interview after viewing each format. Tracking software was used to capture Web utilization. Transcripts were analyzed using integrated inductive and deductive approaches. Quantitative data were analyzed using exploratory bivariate and multivariate analyses. Exploratory knowledge analyses suggest that both formats increased knowledge, with limited evidence that the DVD increased knowledge more than the Web. Format preference varied across participants: 44% preferred the Web, 32% preferred the DVD and 24% preferred 'both'. Patient discussions of preferences for DESI information structure and the importance of a patients' stage of a given decision suggest these characteristics may be important factors underlying variation in utilization, format preferences and knowledge outcomes. Our results suggest that both DESI formats effectively increase knowledge. Patients' perceptions of these two formats further suggest that there may be no single 'best' format for all patients. These results have important implications for understanding why different DESI formats might be preferable to and more effective for different patients. Further research is needed to explore the relationship between these factors and DESI utilization outcomes across diverse patient populations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS IN THE SOFTWARE INDUSTRY AND THEIR RELATION WITH STRATEGIC BUSINESS ORIENTATION: AN EMPIRICAL-EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rodenes Adam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results of an empirical-exploratory study applied to companies of the Software Industry (IndSw sector. One of the objectives pursued was to know the Critical Success Factors (CSF of the SWInd and their relation with the business strategic orientation. The CSF identified and analyzed were: Government Support, Human Capital, Marketing, Quality and Innovation. The research results reveal that it is possible to identify the existence of at least two main groups of strategic orientation (cost and differentiation within this sector. The analysis of the relation between business strategic orientation and the CSF emphasizes the following CSF: Human Capital, Quality and Innovation, the remaining factors present a little significant relation. The empirical study was made through multivariate analysis techniques. The analysis of results is based on data collected through the application of a web survey (Internet to Mexican software companies. The survey was applied in July 2005.

  5. Development and psychometric evaluation of the Premarital Sexual Behavior Assessment Scale for Young Women (PSAS-YW): an exploratory mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Azam; Merghati-Khoei, Effat; Moghadam-Banaem, Lida; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Hamdieh, Mostafa; Montazeri, Ali

    2014-06-13

    Premarital sexual behaviors are important issue for women's health. The present study was designed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a scale in order to identify young women who are at greater risk of premarital sexual behavior. This was an exploratory mixed method investigation. Indeed, the study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, qualitative methods (focus group discussion and individual interview) were applied to generate items and develop the questionnaire. In the second phase, psychometric properties (validity and reliability) of the questionnaire were assessed. In the first phase an item pool containing 53 statements related to premarital sexual behavior was generated. In the second phase item reduction was applied and the final version of the questionnaire containing 26 items was developed. The psychometric properties of this final version were assessed and the results showed that the instrument has a good structure, and reliability. The results from exploratory factory analysis indicated a 5-factor solution for the instrument that jointly accounted for the 57.4% of variance observed. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the instrument was found to be 0.87. This study provided a valid and reliable scale to identify premarital sexual behavior in young women. Assessment of premarital sexual behavior might help to improve women's sexual abstinence.

  6. [Priorization of facilitators for the implementation of medication review with follow-up service in Spanish community pharmacies through exploratory factor analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Modesta Inmaculada; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando; Cardero, Manuel; Gastelurrutia, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    to prioritize previously identified in Spain facilitators for the implementation of new Pharmaceutical Services that allow designing strategies for the implementation of Medication Review with follow-up (MRFup) service. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA). A draft of a questionnaire was performed based on a previous literature review and following the RAND/UCLA methodology. An expert panel worked with it and generated a definitive questionnaire which, after piloting, was used with a representative sample of pharmacists, owners or staff members, who were working in community pharmacy, using computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) methodology. To understand underlying constructs in the questionnaire an EFA was performed. Different approaches were tested such as principal components factor analysis and principal axis factoring method. The best interpretability was achieved using the Factorization of Principal axis method with Direct Oblimin rotation, which explained the 40.0% of total variance. This produced four factors defined as: «Incentives», «External campaigns», «Expert in MRFup» and «Professionalism of the pharmacist». It can be stated that for implementation and sustainability of MRFup Service it is necessary being paid; also it must be explained to health professional and society in general. Practice of MRFup service demands pharmacists receiving a more clinical education and assuming more responsibilities as health professionals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Parallel Factor Analysis as an exploratory tool for wavelet transformed event-related EEG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hermann, Cristoph S.

    2006-01-01

    by the inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) encompassing ANOVA analysis of differences between conditions and 5-way analysis of channel x frequency x time x subject x condition. A flow chart is presented on how to perform data exploration using the PARAFAC decomposition on multi-way arrays. This includes (A......) channel x frequency x time 3-way arrays of F test values from a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) between two stimulus conditions; (B) subject-specific 3-way analyses; and (C) an overall 5-way analysis of channel x frequency x time x subject x condition. The PARAFAC decompositions were able...... of the 3-way array of ANOVA F test values clearly showed the difference of regions of interest across modalities, while the 5-way analysis enabled visualization of both quantitative and qualitative differences. Consequently, PARAFAC is a promising data exploratory tool in the analysis of the wavelets...

  8. Choosing a Surgeon: An Exploratory Study of Factors Influencing Selection of a Gender Affirmation Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettner, Randi; Ettner, Frederic; White, Tonya

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Selecting a healthcare provider is often a complicated process. Many factors appear to govern the decision as to how to select the provider in the patient-provider relationship. While the possibility of changing primary care physicians or specialists exists, decisions regarding surgeons are immutable once surgery has been performed. This study is an attempt to assess the importance attached to various factors involved in selecting a surgeon to perform gender affirmation surgery (GAS). It was hypothesized that owing to the intimate nature of the surgery, the expense typically involved, the emotional meaning attached to the surgery, and other variables, decisions regarding choice of surgeon for this procedure would involve factors other than those that inform more typical healthcare provider selection or surgeon selection for other plastic/reconstructive procedures. Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to individuals who had undergone GAS and individuals who had undergone elective plastic surgery to assess decision-making. Results: The results generally confirm previous findings regarding how patients select providers. Conclusion: Choosing a surgeon to perform gender-affirming surgery is a challenging process, but patients are quite rational in their decision-making. Unlike prior studies, we did not find a preference for gender-concordant surgeons, even though the surgery involves the genital area. Providing strategies and resources for surgical selection can improve patient satisfaction.

  9. Can pain and function be distinguished in the Oxford Hip Score in a meaningful way? : an exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, K K; Price, A J; Beard, D J; Fitzpatrick, R; Jenkinson, C; Dawson, J

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to explore dimensionality of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS) and examine whether self-reported pain and functioning can be distinguished in the form of subscales. This was a secondary data analysis of the UK NHS hospital episode statistics/patient-reported outcome measures dataset containing pre-operative OHS scores on 97 487 patients who were undergoing hip replacement surgery. The proposed number of factors to extract depended on the method of extraction employed. Velicer's Minimum Average Partial test and the Parallel Analysis suggested one factor, the Cattell's scree test and Kaiser-over-1 rule suggested two factors. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor OHS had most of the items saliently loading either of the two factors. These factors were named 'Pain' and 'Function' and their respective subscales were created. There was some cross-loading of items: 8 (pain on standing up from a chair) and 11 (pain during work). These items were assigned to the 'Pain' subscale. The final 'Pain' subscale consisted of items 1, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. The 'Function' subscale consisted of items 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7, with the recommended scoring of the subscales being from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). Cronbach's alpha was 0.855 for the 'Pain' subscale and 0.861 for the 'Function' subscale. A confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the two-factor model of the OHS had a better fit. However, none of the one-factor or two-factor models was rejected. Factor analyses demonstrated that, in addition to current usage as a single summary scale, separate information on pain and self-reported function can be extracted from the OHS in a meaningful way in the form of subscales. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:305-9. ©2014 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Testing of technology readiness index model based on exploratory factor analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariani, AF; Napitupulu, D.; Jati, RK; Kadar, JA; Syafrullah, M.

    2018-04-01

    SMEs readiness in using ICT will determine the adoption of ICT in the future. This study aims to evaluate the model of technology readiness in order to apply the technology on SMEs. The model is tested to find if TRI model is relevant to measure ICT adoption, especially for SMEs in Indonesia. The research method used in this paper is survey to a group of SMEs in South Tangerang. The survey measures the readiness to adopt ICT based on four variables which is Optimism, Innovativeness, Discomfort, and Insecurity. Each variable contains several indicators to make sure the variable is measured thoroughly. The data collected through survey is analysed using factor analysis methodwith the help of SPSS software. The result of this study shows that TRI model gives more descendants on some indicators and variables. This result can be caused by SMEs owners’ knowledge is not homogeneous about either the technology that they are used, knowledge or the type of their business.

  11. Development and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples (SKAS-PC: An exploratory mixed method study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Sadat

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Designing a valid and reliable questionnaire that allows a fair evaluation of sexual knowledge and attitudes and develop a proper sexual educational program is necessary. Objective: The present study was designed to develop and psychometric evaluation of the sexual knowledge and attitudes scale for premarital couples. Materials and Methods: An exploratory mixed method study was conducted in two phases; in the first, in order to develop a questionnaire an item pool was generated on sexual knowledge and attitudes through focus group discussions and individual interviews. In the second phase, the psychometric properties of the questionnaire were examined. For this purpose, face validity, content validity as well as construct validity were conducted. Reliability was assessed by the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient to assess internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Results: In the first phase an item pool with 88 questions was generated (sexual knowledge 45 items and sexual attitudes 43 items. In the second phase, the number of final items reduced to 33 and 34 items of sexual knowledge and sexual attitudes respectively, through exploratory factor analysis (EFA. Five factors for sexual knowledge and six factors for sexual attitudes identified by EFA. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for two sections was 0.84 and 0.81 respectively. The test- retest correlations for sexual knowledge and sexual attitude was 0.74 and 0.82 respectively. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale for Premarital Couples is a valid and reliable instrument. Further studies are needed to establish stronger psychometric properties for the questionnaire.

  12. Complementary Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses of the French WISC-V: Analyses Based on the Standardization Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecerf, Thierry; Canivez, Gary L

    2017-12-28

    Interpretation of the French Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fifth Edition (French WISC-V; Wechsler, 2016a) is based on a 5-factor model including Verbal Comprehension (VC), Visual Spatial (VS), Fluid Reasoning (FR), Working Memory (WM), and Processing Speed (PS). Evidence for the French WISC-V factorial structure was established exclusively through confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs). However, as recommended by Carroll (1995); Reise (2012), and Brown (2015), factorial structure should derive from both exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and CFA. The first goal of this study was to examine the factorial structure of the French WISC-V using EFA. The 15 French WISC-V primary and secondary subtest scaled scores intercorrelation matrix was used and factor extraction criteria suggested from 1 to 4 factors. To disentangle the contribution of first- and second-order factors, the Schmid and Leiman (1957) orthogonalization transformation (SLT) was applied. Overall, no EFA evidence for 5 factors was found. Results indicated that the g factor accounted for about 67% of the common variance and that the contributions of the first-order factors were weak (3.6 to 11.9%). CFA was used to test numerous alternative models. Results indicated that bifactor models produced better fit to these data than higher-order models. Consistent with previous studies, findings suggested dominance of the general intelligence factor and that users should thus emphasize the Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) when interpreting the French WISC-V. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Higher Education End-of-Course Evaluations: Assessing the Psychometric Properties Utilizing Exploratory Factor Analysis and Rasch Modeling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly D. Bradley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical assessment of the psychometric properties of a standard higher education end-of-course evaluation. Using both exploratory factor analysis (EFA and Rasch modeling, the authors investigate the (a an overall assessment of dimensionality using EFA, (b a secondary assessment of dimensionality using a principal components analysis (PCA of the residuals when the items are fit to the Rasch model, and (c an assessment of item-level properties using item-level statistics provided when the items are fit to the Rasch model. The results support the usage of the scale as a supplement to high-stakes decision making such as tenure. However, the lack of precise targeting of item difficulty to person ability combined with the low person separation index renders rank-ordering professors according to minuscule differences in overall subscale scores a highly questionable practice.

  14. An Exploratory Analysis of the Relationship between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Cognitive/Academic Performance among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Kuang Yeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the relationship between cardiometabolic risk factors (blood pressure, waist circumference, BMI, and total cholesterol and cognitive/academic performance. In this study, 1297 Taiwanese tenth-grade volunteers are recruited. Scores from the Basic Competency Test, an annual national competitive entrance examination, are used to evaluate academic performance. Cognitive abilities are accessed via the Multiple Aptitude Test Battery. The results indicate that systolic blood pressure is significantly, negatively associated with academic performance, both in male and female subjects. BMI and waist circumference are associated with verbal reasoning performance with an inverse U-shaped pattern, suggesting that both low and high BMI/waist circumference may be associated with lower verbal reasoning performance.

  15. On the factorization method in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas-Ortiz, J. Oscar

    1998-01-01

    New exactly solvable problems have already been studied by using a modification of the factorization method introduced by Mielnik. We review this method and its connection with the traditional factorization method. The survey includes the discussion on a generalization of the factorization energies used in the traditional Infeld and Hull method.

  16. Factors associated with the impact of quality improvement collaboratives in mental healthcare: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Versteeg Marleen H

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs bring together groups of healthcare professionals to work in a structured manner to improve the quality of healthcare delivery within particular domains. We explored which characteristics of the composition, participation, functioning, and organization of these collaboratives related to changes in the healthcare for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, or schizophrenia. Methods We studied three QICs involving 29 quality improvement (QI teams representing a number of mental healthcare organizations in the Netherlands. The aims of the three QICs were the implementation of multidisciplinary practice guidelines in the domains of anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia, respectively. We used eight performance indicators to assess the impact of the QI teams on self-reported patient outcomes and process of care outcomes for 1,346 patients. The QI team members completed a questionnaire on the characteristics of the composition, participation in a national program, functioning, and organizational context for their teams. It was expected that an association would be found between these team characteristics and the quality of care for patients with anxiety disorders, dual diagnosis, and schizophrenia. Results No consistent patterns of association emerged. Theory-based factors did not perform better than practice-based factors. However, QI teams that received support from their management and both active and inspirational team leadership showed better results. Rather surprisingly, a lower average level of education among the team members was associated with better results, although less consistently than the management and leadership characteristics. Team views with regard to the QI goals of the team and attitudes towards multidisciplinary practice guidelines did not correlate with team success. Conclusions No general conclusions about the impact of the characteristics of

  17. Understanding Older Adults' Perceptions of Internet Use: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert; Spears, Jeffrey; Luptak, Marilyn; Wilby, Frances

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined factors related to older adults' perceptions of Internet use. Three hundred ninety five older adults participated in the study. The factor analysis revealed four factors perceived by older adults as critical to their Internet use: social connection, self-efficacy, the need to seek financial information, and the need to…

  18. Singaporean Adolescents' Perceptions of Online Social Communication: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Robert Z.; Cheok, Angeline; Khoo, Eng

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated adolescents' perceptions in online social communication. Three factors were perceived by adolescents as critical to online social communication. These included self-identity, self-confidence, and self-social factors. Results showed significant differences between the factors derived from the current study and those…

  19. The Impacts of Student-, Teacher- and School-Level Factors on Mathematics Achievement: An Exploratory Comparative Investigation of Singaporean Students and the USA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ker, H. W.

    2016-01-01

    Reports from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) consistently show that there is a substantial gap in average mathematics achievement between Singapore and the USA. This study conducts an exploratory comparative investigation on the multilevel factors influencing the mathematics achievement of students from these two…

  20. Identification of Site Selection Factors in the U.S. Franchise Restaurant Industry: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Kunsoon

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and rank the importance of the site selection factors that influence the U.S. franchise restaurant industry as well as rank the confidence level of the experts. To identify the site selection factors, this study sought assistance and support from restaurant professionals. The Delphi technique was used to elicit the opinions of a panel of experts regarding the site selection factors. The panel was composed of restaurant professionals of restaurant c...

  1. FACTORS FOR KMS POST ADOPTION: THE EXPLORATORY STUDY IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Sureena Matayong; Ahmad Kamil Bin Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the analytical factors that influence Knowledge Management System (KMS) adoption at the individual level known as post adoption phase. Though many organizations have increasingly recognized KMS significance and started to implement it but its adoption has proved to be very difficult and many organizations are still facing with challenges. The analysis of Grounded Theory (GT) process provides results of the individual factors influence the adoption. These factors offer insi...

  2. An Exploratory Study of Factors Affecting Consumer International Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Pingjun Jiang; David B. Jones

    2014-01-01

    Few studies in the literature on electronic commerce provide empirical investigation of consumer behavior in the international online shopping context. This study identifies and discusses factors that influence international online purchases and profile the characteristics of those who purchase and those who do not purchase from online stores overseas in three main categories: the online shopping experiential factors, the international shopping motivational factors, and the international trus...

  3. Exploratory Factor Analysis as a Construct Validation Tool: (Mis)applications in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Factor analysis has been frequently exploited in applied research to provide evidence about the underlying factors in various measurement instruments. A close inspection of a large number of studies published in leading applied linguistic journals shows that there is a misconception among applied linguists as to the relative merits of exploratory…

  4. Exploratory Analysis of the Factors Affecting Consumer Choice in E-Commerce: Conjoint Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mazurova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to previous studies of online consumer behaviour, three factors are the most influential on purchasing behavior - brand, colour and position of the product on the screen. However, a simultaneous influence of these three factors on the consumer decision making process has not been investigated previously. In this particular work we aim to execute a comprehensive study of the influence of these three factors. In order to answer our main research questions, we conducted an experiment with 96 different combinations of the three attributes, and using statistical analysis, such as conjoint analysis, t-test analysis and Kendall analysis we identified that the most influential factor to the online consumer decision making process is brand, the second most important attribute is the colour, which was estimated half as important as brand, and the least important attribute is the position on the screen. Additionally, we identified the main differences regarding consumers stated and revealed preferences regarding these three attributes.

  5. Time dependent view factor methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-03-01

    View factors have been used for treating radiation transport between opaque surfaces bounding a transparent medium for several decades. However, in recent years they have been applied to problems involving intense bursts of radiation in enclosed volumes such as in the laser fusion hohlraums. In these problems, several aspects require treatment of time dependence

  6. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chen; Adhikari, Koushik; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, incl...

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Sun

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy.

  8. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire: A Self-Determination Theory instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miketinas, Derek; Cater, Melissa; Bailey, Ariana; Craft, Brittany; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-10-01

    Increasing adolescents' motivation and competence to cook may improve diet quality and reduce the risk for obesity and chronic diseases. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure adolescents' intrinsic motivation to prepare healthy foods and the four psychological needs that facilitate motivation identified by the Self Determination Theory (SDT). Five hundred ninety-three high school students (62.7% female) were recruited to complete the survey. Participants indicated to what extent they agreed or disagreed with 25 statements pertaining to intrinsic motivation and perceived competence to cook, and their perceived autonomy support, autonomy, and relatedness to teachers and classmates. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), and internal consistency reliability. EFA returned a five-factor structure explaining 65.3% of the variance; and CFA revealed that the best model fit was a five-factor structure (χ2 = 524.97 (265); Comparative Fit Index = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.056; and SRMR = 0.04). The sub-scales showed good internal consistency (Intrinsic Motivation: α = 0.94; Perceived Competence: α = 0.92; Autonomy Support: α = 0.94; Relatedness: α = 0.90; and Autonomy: α = 0.85). These results support the application of the Adolescent Motivation to Cook Questionnaire to measure adolescents' motivation and perceived competence to cook, autonomy support by their instructor, autonomy in the classroom, and relatedness to peers. Further studies are needed to investigate whether this instrument can measure change in cooking intervention programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationships of Functional Tests Following ACL Reconstruction: Exploratory Factor Analyses of the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFabio, Melissa; Slater, Lindsay V; Norte, Grant; Goetschius, John; Hart, Joseph M; Hertel, Jay

    2018-03-01

    After ACL reconstruction (ACLR), deficits are often assessed using a variety of functional tests, which can be time consuming. It is unknown whether these tests provide redundant or unique information. To explore relationships between components of a battery of functional tests, the Lower Extremity Assessment Protocol (LEAP) was created to aid in developing the most informative, concise battery of tests for evaluating ACLR patients. Descriptive, cross-sectional. Laboratory. 76 ACLR patients (6.86±3.07 months postoperative) and 54 healthy participants. Isokinetic knee flexion and extension at 90 and 180 degrees/second, maximal voluntary isometric contraction for knee extension and flexion, single leg balance, 4 hopping tasks (single, triple, crossover, and 6-meter timed hop), and a bilateral drop vertical jump that was scored with the Landing Error Scoring System (LESS). Peak torque, average torque, average power, total work, fatigue indices, center of pressure area and velocity, hop distance and time, and LESS score. A series of factor analyses were conducted to assess grouping of functional tests on the LEAP for each limb in the ACLR and healthy groups and limb symmetry indices (LSI) for both groups. Correlations were run between measures that loaded on retained factors. Isokinetic and isometric strength tests for knee flexion and extension, hopping, balance, and fatigue index were identified as unique factors for all limbs. The LESS score loaded with various factors across the different limbs. The healthy group LSI analysis produced more factors than the ACLR LSI analysis. Individual measures within each factor had moderate to strong correlations. Isokinetic and isometric strength, hopping, balance, and fatigue index provided unique information. Within each category of measures, not all tests may need to be included for a comprehensive functional assessment of ACLR patients due to the high amount of shared variance between them.

  10. Sustainability Perceptions in Romanian Non-Profit Organizations: An Exploratory Study Using Success Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ion Ceptureanu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses sustainability perceptions in Romanian non-profits by investigating 81 non-profits managers and board members. Using a multidimensional sustainability measurement framework, Success Factor Analysis, as a conceptual model, we measured perceptions on 5 critical sustainability factors: People, Business Model, Operations, Strategy and Culture and concluded that there are significant differences in the perceptions of sustainability depending on respondents’ previous failure experiences. While those which previously experienced failure adopt a long-term approach based on marketization, clear accountability standards and rely on strategy, while the others prefer a short-term approach, focused more on non-profits operations and focus on human resources.

  11. Achieving Scientific Excellence: An Exploratory Study of the Role of Emotional and Motivational Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Liliana S.; Cruz, José Fernando A.; Almeida, Leandro S.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the perceived role of psychological factors in achieving excellence in scientific research. Six outstanding scientists aged 33-42 were interviewed. Data were analyzed inductively resulting in three main dimensions: personality traits and characteristics, psychological skills and processes, and task-specific strategies.…

  12. Dysthymia among Substance Abusers: An Exploratory Study of Individual and Mental Health Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, Eloise G.; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Nelson, Jenniffer

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the individual characteristics and mental health factors of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers. Out of a total of 1,209 medical records reviewed to select cases of dysthymic and nondysthymic substance abusers attending a community drug treatment program, 183 medical records were selected, 48% of…

  13. The influence of national level factors on international kaizen transfer: an exploratory study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokozawa, Kodo; Steenhuis, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research study was to examine the international transfer of kaizen or continuous improvement. The central research question was formulated as: what national level factors influence the transfer of kaizen, and how? Design/methodology/approach: In the study, a survey

  14. Risk factors for Parkinson's disease may differ in men and women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R; Bower, James H; Ahlskog, J Eric; Rocca, Walter A

    2013-02-01

    Although several environmental and genetic risk or protective factors have been associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), their interactions overall and in men and women separately remain unknown. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We considered the following 12 risk or protective factors: personal history of head trauma, pesticide use, immunologic diseases, anemia, hysterectomy (in women only), cigarette smoking, coffee consumption, and education; and family history of parkinsonism, essential tremor, dementia, or psychiatric disorders. We used recursive partitioning analyses to explore interactions overall and in men and women separately and used logistic regression analyses to test for interactions. In the overall group, we observed the independent effects of anemia, lack of coffee consumption (never vs. ever), and head trauma; however, the findings were different in men and women. In men, we observed the independent effects of lack of coffee consumption (never vs. ever), head trauma, and pesticide use, and a suggestive synergistic interaction between immunologic diseases and family history of dementia. By contrast, in women, anemia was the most important factor and we observed a suggestive synergistic interaction between anemia and higher education. Risk factors for PD and their interactions may differ in men and women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms among Mexican Immigrant Men in South Mississippi: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Rehner, Tim; Castellanos, Diana Cuy

    2011-01-01

    Despite increased interest in mental health among Latino immigrants in the United States, it is particularly salient to note that minimal or marginal attention has been paid to Mexican immigrant men settling in non-metro or rural areas outside of traditional settlement places. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with…

  16. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Businelle, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were…

  17. Factors affecting the retention of Generation X public servants: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Vhutshilo Masibigiri; Hester Nienaber

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Retaining employees, especially Generation Xers, is imperative to ensure the high performance of organisations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that affect the retention of Generation X public servants. Motivation for the study: Given their unique characteristics, it is a challenge to retain Generation X employees. This problem may be worse in the public sector than in the private sector, as there are fewer financial rewards in the public ...

  18. Risk factors for Parkinson’s disease may differ in men and women: An exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Savica, Rodolfo; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bower, James H.; Ahlskog, J. Eric; Rocca, Walter A.

    2012-01-01

    Although several environmental and genetic risk or protective factors have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), their interactions overall and in men and women separately remain unknown. We used the medical records-linkage system of the Rochester Epidemiology Project to identify 196 subjects who developed PD in Olmsted County, MN, from 1976 through 1995. Each incident case was matched by age (±1 year) and sex to a general population control. We considered the following 12 risk or pr...

  19. Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) in ethnically diverse college women: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoury, Liya M; Rozalski, Vincent; Barchard, Kimberly A; Warren, Cortney S

    2018-03-01

    Extant research suggests that disordered eating is common in college women and is associated with decreased quality of life. The Eating Disorder Quality of Life Scale (EDQLS) examines impairment to disordered eating-related quality of life, but has not been validated in college women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the EDQLS in a diverse sample of 971 college women. Students from a large United States university completed questionnaires examining disordered eating and the EDQLS online. The EDQLS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and good convergent validity with the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDEQ). Contrary to the original 12-domain design of the EDQLS, principal component analyses suggested five factors that mapped onto the following constructs: (1) Positive Emotionality; (2) Body/Weight Dissatisfaction; (3) Disordered Eating Behaviors; (4) Negative Emotionality; and (5) Social Engagement. However, 15 of the 40 items loaded onto multiple factors. Total scores on the EDQLS are reliable and valid when used with diverse samples of college women, but some revisions are needed to create subscales than can justifiably be used in clinical practice.

  20. Factors affecting the retention of Generation X public servants: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhutshilo Masibigiri

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that affect the retention of Generation X public servants. Motivation for the study: Given their unique characteristics, it is a challenge to retain Generation X employees. This problem may be worse in the public sector than in the private sector, as there are fewer financial rewards in the public service than in the private sector. Research design: The interpretivist paradigm is appropriate for this study. It used a qualitative, empirical approach. The researchers obtained the data through purposive sampling and interviews. Main findings: The study showed that the factors affecting the retention of Generation X public servants include work content, utilisation of skills, career advancement, work–life balance, compensation, security needs, leadership and drive. Practical/managerial implications: Employers, like the civil service, can be proactive in retaining Generation X employees because of the factors that affect their retention. Managers can prevent further pressure on service delivery that the skills shortage has caused if they use the skills the employees already have. Contribution: The article fills a gap, as there has been little research on staff retention. This is particularly true of Generation X employees in South Africa. This article adds information that will improve retention strategies for Generation X employees, particularly in the public service.

  1. Risk factors for financial hardship in patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer: a population-based exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Veena; Jolly, Sanjay; Blough, David; Ramsey, Scott D

    2012-05-10

    Characteristics that predispose patients to financial hardship during cancer treatment are poorly understood. We therefore conducted a population-based exploratory analysis of potential factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence during and following adjuvant chemotherapy for colon cancer. Patients diagnosed with stage III colon cancer between 2008 and 2010 were identified from a population-based cancer registry representing 13 counties in Washington state. Patients were asked to complete a comprehensive survey on treatment-related costs. Patients were considered to have experienced financial hardship if they accrued debt, sold or refinanced their home, borrowed money from friends or family, or experienced a 20% or greater decline in their annual income as a result of treatment-related expenses. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate factors associated with financial hardship and treatment nonadherence. A total of 284 responses were obtained from 555 eligible patients (response rate, 51.2%). Nearly all patients in the final sample were insured during treatment. In this sample, 38% of patients reported one or more financial hardships as a result of treatment. The factors most closely associated with treatment-related financial hardship were younger age and lower annual household income. Younger age, lower income, and unemployment or disability (which occurred in most instances following diagnosis) were most closely associated with treatment nonadherence. A significant proportion of patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer may experience financial hardship, despite having health insurance coverage. Interventions to help at-risk patients early on during therapy may prevent long-term financial adverse effects.

  2. Dimensions of insight in schizophrenia: Exploratory factor analysis of items from multiple self- and interviewer-rated measures of insight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsztowicz, Susanna; Schmitz, Norbert; Lepage, Martin

    2018-03-10

    Insight in schizophrenia is regarded as a multidimensional construct that comprises aspects such as awareness of the disorder and recognition of the need for treatment. The proposed number of underlying dimensions of insight is variable in the literature. In an effort to identify a range of existing dimensions of insight, we conducted a factor analysis on combined items from multiple measures of insight. We recruited 165 participants with enduring schizophrenia (treated for >3years). Exploratory factor analysis was conducted on itemized scores from two interviewer-rated measures of insight: the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight-Expanded and the abbreviated Scale to assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder; and two self-report measures: the Birchwood Insight Scale and the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale. A five-factor solution was selected as the best-fitting model, with the following dimensions of insight: 1) awareness of illness and the need for treatment; 2) awareness and attribution of symptoms and consequences; 3) self-certainty; 4) self-reflectiveness for objectivity and fallibility; and 5) self-reflectiveness for errors in reasoning and openness to feedback. Insight in schizophrenia is a multidimensional construct comprised of distinct clinical and cognitive domains of awareness. Multiple measures of insight, both clinician- and self-rated, are needed to capture all of the existing dimensions of insight. Future exploration of associations between the various dimensions and their potential determinants will facilitate the development of clinically useful models of insight and effective interventions to improve outcome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaroli, Sandra; Veronese, Guido; Nevonen, Lauri; Fiore, Francesca; Centorame, Franceso; Favaretto, Ettore; Ruggiero, Giovanni Maria

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61) and Swedish (n = 31) female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism) and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism). Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  4. An Exploratory Study on the Critical Success Factors in the Implementation of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Colmenares

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on an exploratory study, carried out in seven Venezuelan organizations who have successfully implemented an enterprise resource planning (ERP system. The data were collected by means of both a questionnaire and of conducted interviews to the seven project managers of the project of implementation of ERP systems in these enterprises. The purpose of the study was to know the perceptions the project managers, on aspects and activities of the process of implementing an ERP system and that are strongly correlated with the Critical Success Factors (FCE’s for this kind of projects. The FCE’s were identified in a deep revision of the literature. The questionnaire included, among others, questions on the top management support to the project, the process of selection of the system, team work implementation and the participation and training of the users. Additionally were identified the problems that organizations confronted during the implementation process. The study concludes that organizations must take care the elements that indicate the FCE’s, because them hit positively the project, additionally describe aspects, which must take into account the enterprises who are in the process to adopt an ERP system to facilitate its implementation.

  5. Autonomy and Submissiveness as Cognitive and Cultural Factors Influencing Eating Disorders in Italy and Sweden: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sassaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the correlation between cultural and psychological factors in relation to predicting eating disorders in two different non-clinical Italian (n = 61 and Swedish (n = 31 female populations, thought to have different cultures and lifestyles. The Swedish sample would reflect an emancipated model of women pursuing autonomy and freedom but also an ideal of thinness, while the Italian sample would reflect a difficult transition from traditional submissiveness to modern autonomy. Both groups completed self-report instruments assessing cultural values (e.g., collectivism and individualism and features of eating disorders (e.g., drive for thinness, bulimia, body dissatisfaction, self-esteem, parental criticism and perfectionism. Swedish women were found to display higher levels of bulimia, perfectionism, and individualism than Italian women, while regression analysis showed that in the Italian sample high levels of collectivism were correlated with measures of EDs. The results support the hypothesis that EDs are linked with both modern values of autonomy, independence and emancipation, and situations of cultural transition in which women are simultaneously exposed to traditional models of submission and opportunities for emancipation and autonomy.

  6. An Instrument to Measure Dental Students' Communication Skills With Patients in Six Specific Circumstances: An Exploratory Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalboe, Joanna A; Schumacher, Mitzi M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the internal structure of an instrument assessing dental students' confidence in their ability to communicate with patients in six specific circumstances (anxious, in pain, etc.) using exploratory factor analysis. In a Communication in the Dental Health Care Setting course at a U.S. dental school, second-year dental students in two years (2013 and 2014) responded to the six items on a survey instrument. Of the total 123 students, 122 fully completed the instrument, for a response rate of 99%. Analysis of the results identified a unidimensional scale with regards to patient-specific communication self-efficacy and explained 74% of the total variance. The scale had good internal consistency reflected by high Cronbach's alpha (α=0.929, 95% CI [0.907, 0.947]). These findings suggest the instrument may be a useful tool in assessing the development of patient communication skills in second-year dental students following a course in communication. Further exploration utilizing confirmatory analysis, determining predictive validity, and assessing convergent and discriminant evidence is warranted.

  7. An exploratory study of differences in views of factors affecting sexual orientation for a sample of lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Melanie D; Skinner, William F

    2004-06-01

    An exploratory study of lesbians (70) and gay men (118) from a rural state in the mid-South was conducted using a self-administered, mail-out survey. The nonrandom sample was drawn from organizational mailing lists, snowball sampling, and a convenience sample at a community event. Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which each of the following affected sexual orientation: genetics, relationship between parents, relationship with parents, birth order, peers, growing up in a dysfunctional family, growing up in a single-parent family, negative experiences with the opposite sex, and positive experiences with the same sex. Similar to studies of heterosexual men and women, these gay men were more likely to view sexual orientation as a result of genetics than the lesbian respondents. Further, the lesbian group were more likely to view positive relationships with the same sex to have a great influence on sexual orientation. These data indicate there are sex differences in views on factors that affect sexual orientation.

  8. Physical activity and associated factors among young adults in Malaysia: an online exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, C T; Majeed Kutty, N A; Razzaq Jabbar, M A; Boo, N Y

    2012-06-01

    The burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in Malaysia. Insufficient Physical Activity, which is an important risk factor for non-communicable diseases, is less researched in Malaysia. We aimed to assess the level of physical activity and identify its correlates. An online survey was carried out during October, 2011 in the University Tunku Abdul Rahman by the opinion poll research committee. Young adults answered the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire and a questionnaire about factors according to a socio-ecological model which was adapted from published studies. Metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours and MET-minutes were calculated. Physical activity was classified as sufficient when MET-minutes were > 840. The mean age of the 474 participants was 22.4 years (S.D. = 4.7), and 253 (53.4%) were females. Their mean and median of MET-hours of PA done during the previous seven days were 31.36 (S.D., 52.19) and 14.7 (IQR, 5.77-32.07), respectively. Physical activity done was sufficient among 242 (51.1%) participants. Using univariate analysis, being male, good self-rated health, positive intention, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, social support, and availability of facilities were associated with sufficient physical activity. Using multivariate analysis sufficient physical activity was associated with participants' intention (OR 0.75, 95% CIs 0.64, 0.88), self-efficacy (OR 0.91, 95% CIs 0.85, 0.97) and facility availability (OR 0.81, 95% CIs 0.73, 0.91). The proportion of participants with sufficient physical activity was low. Positive intention and self-efficacy associated with sufficient physical activity should be supported by availability of facilities and a safely-built environment. A nationwide survey about physical and associated socialecological factors is needed to design rational health promotion strategies.

  9. Investigating how menopausal factors and self-compassion shape well-being: An exploratory path analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lydia; Bryant, Christina; Brown, Valerie; Bei, Bei; Judd, Fiona

    2015-06-01

    A large body of work has investigated the relationship between menopausal factors and negative well-being (e.g. anxiety and depressive symptoms), but less is known about positive well-being and its correlates among midlife women. This study tests two models with both positive and negative well-being indices as outcomes: the first included menopausal factors as predictors; the second model expanded the first by adding self-compassion, a protective trait, as a predictor and moderator. Cross-sectional study based on self-report questionnaires from 206 women aged 40-60, currently experiencing hot flushes. Hot flush interference ratings, emotional balance, satisfaction with life, eudaimonic well-being and depressive symptoms. In model one, menopausal stage and hot flush frequency were independent of well-being outcomes. Beliefs about perceived control over menopause was the strongest predictor of well-being (β range: .22-.32), followed by hot flush interference ratings (β range: .15-.33). In model two, self-compassion was the strongest predictor of well-being indices (β range: .20-.39), followed by beliefs about control (β range: .16-.20) and interference ratings (β range: .17-.26). Psychological aspects of the menopause appear more strongly linked to well-being than physiological aspects such as menopausal stage and hot flush frequency. Specifically, self-compassion, feeling in control of menopause and low interference ratings are three factors that are associated with well-being among midlife women. These aspects could be considered in tandem, as a means to support well-being in the context of menopause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An exploratory study of factors influencing resuscitation skills retention and performance among health providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Vernon; Fleet, Lisa; Greene, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Resuscitation and life support skills training comprises a significant proportion of continuing education programming for health professionals. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and attitudes of certified resuscitation providers toward the retention of resuscitation skills, regular skills updating, and methods for enhancing retention. A mixed-methods, explanatory study design was undertaken utilizing focus groups and an online survey-questionnaire of rural and urban health care providers. Rural providers reported less experience with real codes and lower abilities across a variety of resuscitation areas. Mock codes, practice with an instructor and a team, self-practice with a mannequin, and e-learning were popular methods for skills updating. Aspects of team performance that were felt to influence resuscitation performance included: discrepancies in skill levels, lack of communication, and team leaders not up to date on their skills. Confidence in resuscitation abilities was greatest after one had recently practiced or participated in an update or an effective debriefing session. Lowest confidence was reported when team members did not work well together, there was no clear leader of the resuscitation code, or if team members did not communicate. The study findings highlight the importance of access to update methods for improving providers' confidence and abilities, and the need for emphasis on teamwork training in resuscitation. An eclectic approach combining methods may be the best strategy for addressing the needs of health professionals across various clinical departments and geographic locales. Copyright © 2012 The Alliance for Continuing Education in the Health Professions, the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education, and the Council on CME, Association for Hospital Medical Education.

  11. Characterizing Stressors and Modifiable Health Risk Factors Among Homeless Smokers: An Exploratory Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Businelle, Michael S

    2015-10-01

    This pilot study was conducted to explore the associations between stressors related to homelessness and modifiable health risk factors (poor diet, insufficient physical activity, and overweight/obesity) and to provide direction for future research. Participants (N = 57) were homeless adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. Analyses were conducted to characterize the sample as well as the relations between relevant stressors (discrimination, chronic stress, and fear and mistrust) and health risk factors. Inadequate daily consumption of fruits, vegetables, and fiber was common. High-fat diet and insufficient physical activity were also prevalent, and the majority of participants were overweight/obese. Participants commonly endorsed discrimination, fear of victimization, mistrust of others, and several other stressors. Greater endorsement of stressors was associated with a high-fat diet. Results suggest that lifestyle interventions and policy changes may be warranted in homeless shelters to attenuate the potential effects of stressors on high-fat dietary consumption among smokers. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  12. Factors Associated With Domestic Violence Against Women in Iran: An Exploratory Multicenter Community-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Arslan, Syed Asadullah; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeid; Pakpour, Amir H; Zaben, Faten Al; Koenig, Harold G

    2017-06-01

    Domestic violence against women committed by intimate partners is a worldwide concern especially in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the problem among Iranian women and identify associated risk factors. Using a cross-sectional multicenter design, 1,600 women in six different areas of Iran were surveyed. A measure of domestic violence against women was administered and demographic information collected. Logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with domestic violence. The prevalence of domestic violence among participants were emotional (64%), physical (28%), and sexual (18%). Higher education (both women and their partners), employment status of partner (being employed), and lower number of children lowered the risk, whereas history of previous marriage (for either women or their partners), unstable marriage, substance abuse, crowded family situation, and lower socioeconomic status increased the risk of domestic violence. There is a high prevalence of domestic violence, particularly emotional, against women by their partners. Preventive measures are recommended such as increasing public awareness, improving in socioeconomic status of families, educating women about what they can do, and encouraging counseling for the couple or the woman alone.

  13. An Exploratory Study in Nursing Education: Factors Influencing Nursing Students' Acceptance of Mobile Learning

    OpenAIRE

    R. Abdulrahman; A. Eardley; A. Soliman

    2017-01-01

    The proliferation in the development of mobile learning (m-learning) has played a vital role in the rapidly growing electronic learning market. This relatively new technology can help to encourage the development of in learning and to aid knowledge transfer a number of areas, by familiarizing students with innovative information and communications technologies (ICT). M-learning plays a substantial role in the deployment of learning methods for nursing students by using the Internet and portab...

  14. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF MARKETING FACTORS INFLUENCING FAIRTRADE FOOD BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Amofa Yamoah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenal growth of the fairtrade industry has attracted increased research interest but little is known as to what marketing factors drive fairtrade retail sales. This gap has profound implications for fairtrade marketing research and the future of the fairtrade industry. To provide a more robust and objective insight this paper draws on the analysis of supermarket loyalty card dataset of 1.7 million fairtrade shoppers to establish the influence of price, promotion and distribution on fairtrade retail sales. Insights from the results show the lack of cross shopping pattern among fairtrade food product shoppers. The results also indicate that the increasing fairtrade retail sales growth is not shopper demand driven but predominately attributable to widened distribution and price increases. The findings of the study offer insights to fairtrade marketing researchers and strategic direction for managers working to ensure that fairtrade thrives as an ethical consumer driven industry.

  15. Factors Influencing the Degree Progress of International PhD Students from Africa: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almoustapha Oumarou Soumana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades some countries of the Middle East have offered facilities to attract international students to pursue their higher education within their higher education institutions. The purpose of this study is to understand the difficulties faced by these students while conducting their studies abroad, and in doing so, to broaden the awareness of the challenges they face to complete their research. The participants of this qualitative study are international PhD students studying at a Middle Eastern public university. The university has reported increasing enrollment of international students, particularly from Africa in the last few years. Data were collected using a set of semi-structured interviews that drew out information on critical incidents that characterized the kind of difficulties students had faced in their studies. The data collected was further analyzed using a qualitative software package, NVivo (QSR International, 11. Six main themes came out from the content analysis of the interviews, which are the role of the adviser, student features, funding issues, family engagement, research and psychological obstacles which provide a holistic picture of student perspectives on the factors that influence degree progress. While these students might have faced difficulties mentioned in existing literature, this study argues that the participants have indicated experiencing psychological obstacles that were not described in earlier studies, such as the state of mind they were in as a result of being worried for family members due to war or violence in their home countries, and drop in currency exchange rates and difficulties in acquiring money due to international sanctions imposed against their countries. This study provides important thoughts on the factors that impact the degree progress of international PhD students from Africa, while at the same time revealing a serious gap in the advisers’ role which can contribute to the

  16. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Mat; Chen, Duan-Rung; Huang, Song-Lih

    The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health. Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child) and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications. Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to practices

  17. Social and Cultural Factors Affecting Maternal Health in Rural Gambia: An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Lowe

    Full Text Available The high rate of maternal mortality reported in The Gambia is influenced by many factors, such as difficulties in accessing quality healthcare and facilities. In addition, socio-cultural practices in rural areas may limit the resources available to pregnant women, resulting in adverse health consequences. The aim of this study is to depict the gender dynamics in a rural Gambian context by exploring the social and cultural factors affecting maternal health.Five focus group discussions that included 50 participants (aged 15-30 years, with at least one child and six in-depth interviews with traditional birth attendants were conducted to explore perceptions of maternal health issues among rural women. The discussion was facilitated by guides focusing on issues such as how the women perceived their own physical health during pregnancy, difficulties in keeping themselves healthy, and health-related problems during pregnancy and delivery. The data resulting from the discussion was transcribed verbatim and investigated using a qualitative thematic analysis. In general, rural Gambian women did not enjoy privileges in their households when they were pregnant. The duties expected of them required pregnant women to endure heavy workloads, with limited opportunities for sick leave and almost nonexistent resources to access prenatal care. The division of labor between men and women in the household was such that women often engaged in non-remunerable field work with few economic resources, and their household duties during pregnancy were not alleviated by either their husbands or the other members of polygamous households. At the time of delivery, the decision to receive care by trained personnel was often beyond the women's control, resulting in birth-related complications.Our findings suggest that despite women's multiple roles in the household, their positions are quite unfavorable. The high maternal morbidity and mortality rate in The Gambia is related to

  18. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  19. Exploratory study of the major factors influencing craft productivity in nuclear power plant construction. Volume I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, S.J.; Borcherding, J.D.

    1979-05-01

    The data for this study were collected at six nuclear power plant construction sites spread throughout the United States. The geographical distribution included two projects from the Midwest and one site from each the Deep South, North Central, Southwest, and Northeast regions of the nation. The range for stage of completion varied from between approximately four and seventy-seven percent. Two of the projects were utilizing boiling water reactors (BWR) while the balance of the sites made use of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems. All of the installations had generating capacities approximately equal to 1200 megawatts per unit. The primary objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive investigation of the most influential factors adversely affecting craft productivity by means of a sampling comprised of five hundred seventy-six union and open shop carpenters, electricians, and pipefitters. The overall average amount of time lost due to delays obtaining materials and tools, overcrowded working conditions, interferences between crews, postponements relating to quality control inspections, and waiting for and/or receiving instructions was estimated by the tradesmen to be 24.12 manhours per individual on a weekly basis. Thus, a minimum of 60.3% of each tradesman's time is lost due to one of the aforementioned predicaments. Conversely, this figure accounts for a maximum possible level of direct work activity equal to 39.7% and is not inclusive of any personal breaks or late starts/early quits. The combined mean duration that was speculated for rework activities at all six sites totaled 5.77 manhours per craftsman per week. The summation of these two estimates yields a value of 29.89 manhours showing that only slightly more than twenty-five percent of each worker's time is allocated to productive endeavors for activities being engaged in for the first time

  20. Analogical Thinking for Generation of Innovative Ideas: An Exploratory Study of Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunyoung Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Analogical thinking is one of the most effective tools to generate innovative ideas. It enables us to develop new ideas by transferring information from well-known domains and utilizing them in a novel domain. However, using analogical thinking does not always yield appropriate ideas, and there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the evaluation methods for assessing new ideas. Here, we define the appropriateness of generated ideas as having high structural and low superficial similarities with their source ideas. This study investigates the relationship between thinking process and the appropriateness of ideas generated through analogical thinking. We conducted four workshops with 22 students in order to collect the data. All generated ideas were assessed based on the definition of appropriateness in this study. The results show that participants who deliberate more before reaching the creative leap stage and those who are engaged in more trial and error for deciding the final domain of a new idea have a greater possibility of generating appropriate ideas. The findings suggest new strategies of designing workshops to enhance the appropriateness of new ideas.

  1. Generational differences in factors influencing job turnover among Japanese nurses: an exploratory comparative design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Miyuki; Oba, Keiko; Yamashita, Noriko

    2009-07-01

    Although nurse turnover is a serious problem, the fact that each nurse has different work-related needs/values, and leaves their job for different reasons makes it difficult for organisations to develop effective countermeasures against it. Understanding nurses' needs and the reasons for job turnover by the generation in which they were born may provide some feasible solutions. The purpose of the study was to identify specific work-related needs and values of nurses in three generations (born in 1946-1959, 1960-1974, 1975-present). The study also aimed to explore generation-specific reasons that might make nurses consider leaving the jobs. The study was conducted in three public hospitals in Japan. A convenience sample of 315 registered nurses participated in the study. A survey method was used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were analysed by ANOVA, and qualitative data were analysed by content analysis. Nurses born between 1960 and 1974 embraced high needs and values in professional privileges such as autonomy and recognition, while those born after 1975 expressed low needs and values in the opportunities for clinical challenge. For nurses born between 1960 and 1974, the imbalance between their jobs and personal life made them consider leaving their jobs. For those born after 1975, losing the confidence to care made them consider turning over. Nurses born after 1960 tended to value economic return and job security more highly compared to those born between 1946 and 1959. Nurses in different generations have different sets of needs/values and reasons for job turnover. Understanding generation-specific needs and values of nurses may enable organisations and Nurse Managers to develop feasible and effective countermeasures to reduce nurse turnover.

  2. Factors affecting acquisition of psychomotor clinical skills by student nurses and midwives in CHAM Nursing Colleges in Malawi: A qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwale, Omero Gonekani; Kalawa, Roselyn

    2016-01-01

    Acquisition of psychomotor clinical skills has been shown to improve the quality of care provided to patients when care providers are competent. The aim of this study was to explore students, nurses and tutors experience on factors affecting acquisition of psychomotor clinical skills. The study employed an exploratory qualitative research design. The population was students, clinical nurses and tutors from a nursing College and mission hospital in the southern region of Malawi. In depth interviews using a semi structured guide was used to collect data. Thematic analysis method was employed to analyze the collected data. Ethical principles of respect of human dignity, beneficence and justice were observed. The findings have shown that acquisition of psychomotor skills is affected by: student motivation, lack of resources, learning environment, knowledge gap between the qualified nurses and tutors, and role modeling. In principle when student nurses have acquired necessary skills the quality of care provided to patients improve. Basing on the findings of this study it is recommended that Student should be well prepared before clinical placement Nurses and tutors should also update their knowledge and clinical teaching skills for them to adequately guide students. The clinical arena should have adequate resources.

  3. An exploratory survey of methods used to develop measures of performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamner, Kenneth L.; Lafleur, Charles A.

    1993-09-01

    Nonmanufacturing organizations are being challenged to provide high-quality products and services to their customers, with an emphasis on continuous process improvement. Measures of performance, referred to as metrics, can be used to foster process improvement. The application of performance measurement to nonmanufacturing processes can be very difficult. This research explored methods used to develop metrics in nonmanufacturing organizations. Several methods were formally defined in the literature, and the researchers used a two-step screening process to determine the OMB Generic Method was most likely to produce high-quality metrics. The OMB Generic Method was then used to develop metrics. A few other metric development methods were found in use at nonmanufacturing organizations. The researchers interviewed participants in metric development efforts to determine their satisfaction and to have them identify the strengths and weaknesses of, and recommended improvements to, the metric development methods used. Analysis of participants' responses allowed the researchers to identify the key components of a sound metrics development method. Those components were incorporated into a proposed metric development method that was based on the OMB Generic Method, and should be more likely to produce high-quality metrics that will result in continuous process improvement.

  4. A comparison of confirmatory factor analysis methods : Oblique multiple group method versus confirmatory common factor method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuive, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Confirmatieve Factor Analyse (CFA) is een vaak gebruikte methode wanneer onderzoekers een bepaalde veronderstelling hebben over de indeling van items in één of meerdere subtests en willen onderzoeken of deze indeling ook wordt ondersteund door verzamelde onderzoeksgegevens. De meest gebruikte

  5. Dietary Patterns Derived Using Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis are Stable and Generalizable Across Race, Region, and Gender Subgroups in the REGARDS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E.; Letter, Abraham J.; Shikany, James M.; Roth, David L.; Newby, P. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of intake patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups. Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study who completed the Block 98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, and sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the “Convenience” pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the “Plant-based” pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the “Sweets/Fats” pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the “Southern” pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the “Alcohol/Salads” pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusion: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex, and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts. PMID:25988129

  6. Dietary patterns derived using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis are stable and generalizable across race, region, and gender subgroups in the REGARDS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne E Judd

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Examining diet as a whole using dietary patterns as exposures is a complementary method to using single food or nutrients in studies of diet and disease, but the generalizability of patterns across race, region, and gender in the United States has not been established. Objective: To employ rigorous statistical analysis to empirically derive dietary patterns in a large bi-racial, geographically diverse population and examine whether results are stable across population subgroups.Design: The present analysis utilized data from 21,636 participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS study who completed the Block98 food frequency questionnaire. We employed exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analyses on 56 different food groups iteratively and examined differences by race, region, sex to determine the optimal factor solution in our sample. Results: Five dietary patterns emerged: the Convenience pattern was characterized by mixed dishes; the Plant-based pattern by fruits, vegetables, and fish; the Sweets/Fats pattern by sweet snacks, desserts, and fats and oils; the Southern pattern by fried foods, organ meat, and sweetened beverages; and the Alcohol/Salads pattern by beer, wine, liquor, and salads. Differences were most pronounced in the Southern pattern with black participants, those residing in the Southeast, and participants not completing high school having the highest scores. Conclusions: Five meaningful dietary patterns emerged in the REGARDS study and showed strong congruence across race, sex and region. Future research will examine associations between these patterns and health outcomes to better understand racial disparities in disease and inform prevention efforts.

  7. Virtual Exploratories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sisse Siggaard

    2006-01-01

    -systems, the paper introduces the designing strategy referred to as virtual exploratories. Some of the advanced virtual worlds may inspire the design of such provoking and challenging virtual exploratories, and especially the Massively Multi-User Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS). However, if we have to learn from...... the design and activity of the advanced virtual worlds and role-playing games, then the empirical research on the actors’ activity, while they are acting, is an important precondition to it. A step towards the conception of such a designing strategy for virtual exploratories is currently pursued....... [1] The research project: Actors and Avatars Communicating in Virtual Worlds – an Empirical Analysis of Actors’ Sense-making Strategies When Based on a Communication Theoretical Approach’ (2006-2007) is supported...

  8. Food store owners' and managers' perspectives on the food environment: an exploratory mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Boston, P Qasimah; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Schultz, Alan F; Betterley, Connie

    2014-10-03

    Neighborhood characteristics such as poverty and racial composition are associated with inequalities in access to food stores and in the risk of obesity, but the pathways between food environments and health are not well understood. This article extends research on consumer food environments by examining the perspectives of food-store owners and managers. We conducted semistructured, open-ended interviews with managers and owners of 20 food stores in low-income, predominantly African American neighborhoods in Tallahassee, Florida (USA). The interviews were designed to elicit store managers' and owners' views about healthy foods, the local food environment, and the challenges and opportunities they face in creating access to healthy foods. We elicited perceptions of what constitutes "healthy foods" using two free-list questions. The study was designed and implemented in accord with principles of community-based participatory research. Store owners' and managers' conceptions of "healthy foods" overlapped with public health messages, but (a) agreement about which foods are healthy was not widespread and (b) some retailers perceived processed foods such as snack bars and sugar-sweetened juice drinks as healthy. In semistructured interviews, store owners and managers linked the consumer food environment to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including: business practices such as the priority of making sales and the delocalization of decision-making, macroeconomic factors such as poverty and the cost of healthier foods, individual and family-level factors related to parenting and time constraints, and community-level factors such as crime and decline of social cohesion. Our results link food stores to multilevel, ecological models of the food environment. Efforts to reshape the consumer food environment require attention to factors across multiple levels of analysis, including local conceptions of "healthy foods", the business priority of making sales, and

  9. Human factors methods in DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, C.T.; Banks, W.W.; Waters, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of developing a series of guidelines for the use of human factors standards, procedures, and methods to be used in nuclear facilities. This paper discusses the philosophy and process being used to develop a DOE human factors methods handbook to be used during the design cycle. The following sections will discuss: (1) basic justification for the project; (2) human factors design objectives and goals; and (3) role of human factors engineering (HFE) in the design cycle

  10. What supports hospital pharmacist prescribing in Scotland? - A mixed methods, exploratory sequential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Kinnear, M; Reid, F; Souter, C; Stewart, D

    2018-05-01

    While approximately half of all qualified hospital pharmacist independent prescribers (PIPs) in Scotland are active prescribers, there are major differences in prescribing activity across geographical areas. This study aimed to explore, through focus groups, interviews and a questionnaire, hospital PIPs' perceptions of factors associated with prescribing activity and to investigate the infrastructure required to better support active prescribing by PIPs. Findings reinforced the perceived positive impact of supportive pharmacy leadership within the organisation, recognition that prescribing is integral to the clinical pharmacist role and a work environment conducive to prescribing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Association between Foster Care and Substance Abuse Risk Factors and Treatment Outcomes: An Exploratory Secondary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…

  12. Art in Occupational Therapy Education: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Study of an ArtsBased Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Coppola

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Art-based learning experiences have demonstrated a range of benefits, including improved observation skills and perspective taking. This article describes the effects of an art-based module in an entry-level curriculum for occupational therapy (OT students. An exploratory pilot study investigated the feasibility of a groupadministered visual art-based module for 20 first-year OT graduate students. Outcomes were evaluated using a mixed-methods approach that combined pre-post quantitative results from survey questionnaires and qualitative reflective essays. Pre- and post-surveys revealed significant changes in the students’ perception regarding the benefits of art in OT curricula. The students’ reflective essays on their learning described artbased sessions as: (a opportunities to practice perspective shifting, (b tapping into emotion, (c exemplars of the therapeutic encounter, (d integrative and “out of the box,” and (e impacting student roles and the classroom environment. Findings support art-based pedagogies to complement coursework to build an understanding of clients, creative thinking, and valued learning experiences. Learning partnerships between occupational therapy faculty, art museum educators, and artists can offer fruitful interdisciplinary learning experiences.

  13. [Does the GHQ-12 scoring system affect its factor structure? An exploratory study of Ibero American students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Bargsted, Mariana; Irarrázaval, Matías

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the scoring system of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) alters the instrument's factor structure. The method considered 1,972 university students from nine Ibero American countries. Modeling was performed with structural equations for 1, 2, and 3 latent factors. The mechanism for scoring the questions was analyzed within each type of structure. The results indicate that models with 2 and 3 factors show better goodness-of-fit. In relation to scoring mechanisms, procedure 0-1-1-1 for models with 2 and 3 factors showed the best fit. In conclusion, there appears to be a relationship between the response format and the number of factors identified in the instrument's structure. The model with the best fit was 3-factor 0-1-1-1-formatted, but 0-1-2-3 has acceptable and more stable indicators and provides a better format for two- and three-dimensional models.

  14. Assessing the feasibility of community health insurance in Uganda: A mixed-methods exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggeri, M; Nannini, M; Putoto, G

    2018-03-01

    Community health insurance (CHI) aims to provide financial protection and facilitate health care access among poor rural populations. Given common operational challenges that hamper the full development of the scheme, there is need to undertake systematic feasibility studies. These are scarce in the literature and usually they do not provide a comprehensive analysis of the local context. The present research intends to adopt a mixed-methods approach to assess ex-ante the feasibility of CHI. In particular, eight preconditions are proposed to inform the viability of introducing the micro insurance. A case study located in rural northern Uganda is presented to test the effectiveness of the mixed-methods procedure for the feasibility purpose. A household survey covering 180 households, 8 structured focus group discussions, and 40 key informant interviews were performed between October and December 2016 in order to provide a complete and integrated analysis of the feasibility preconditions. Through the data collected at the household level, the population health seeking behaviours and the potential insurance design were examined; econometric analyses were carried out to investigate the perception of health as a priority need and the willingness to pay for the scheme. The latter component, in particular, was analysed through a contingent valuation method. The results validated the relevant feasibility preconditions. Econometric estimates demonstrated that awareness of catastrophic health expenditures and the distance to the hospital play a critical influence on household priorities and willingness to pay. Willingness is also significantly affected by socio-economic status and basic knowledge of insurance principles. Overall, the mixed-methods investigation showed that a comprehensive feasibility analysis can shape a viable CHI model to be implemented in the local context. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Dried Urine Spot Method to Screen Cotinine among Tobacco Dependents: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raka; Quraishi, Rizwana; Verma, Arpita

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine in body fluids, is an important approach for validating the self-report among tobacco users. Adaptation of assays on dried urine spots (DUSs) has advantages of ease of collection, transportation, minimal invasiveness, and requirement of small volume. The aim of the present study was to develop an efficient method for testing cotinine in DUSs and evaluating its clinical applicability. This involved optimization of conditions for detection, recovery, and stability of cotinine from dried urine, spotted on filter paper. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for screening, whereas confirmation was done by gas chromatography. For clinical applicability, urine samples of tobacco users were tested. Water was found to be a suitable extracting solvent as compared to carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 9.2) and saline. Screening was achieved by two punches taken from a 20 μl (diameter 1.3 cm) spotted urine samples, and confirmation was achieved by five complete circles each of 20 μl sample volume. The recovery was found to be 97% in water. Limit of detection for the method was found to be 100 ng/ml. No signs of significant degradation were found under all storage conditions. All the urine samples of tobacco users were found to be positive by a conventional method as well as DUSs, and the method proved to be efficient. DUS samples are a useful alternative for biological monitoring of recent nicotine use, especially in developing countries where sample logistics could be an important concern.

  16. Diagnosis of Dementia by Machine learning methods in Epidemiological studies: a pilot exploratory study from south India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyashree, Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan; Nagaraj, Kiran; Prince, Martin; Fall, Caroline H D; Krishna, Murali

    2018-01-01

    There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India. The data sets for 466 men and women for this study were obtained from the on-going Mysore Studies of Natal effect of Health and Ageing (MYNAH), in south India. The data sets included: demographics, performance on the 10/66 cognitive function tests, the 10/66 diagnosis of mental disorders and population based normative data for the 10/66 battery of cognitive function tests. Diagnosis of dementia from the rule based approach was compared against the 10/66 diagnosis of dementia. We have applied machine learning techniques to identify minimal number of the 10/66 cognitive function tests required for diagnosing dementia and derived an algorithm to improve the accuracy of dementia diagnosis. Of 466 subjects, 27 had 10/66 diagnosis of dementia, 19 of whom were correctly identified as having dementia by Jrip classification with 100% accuracy. This pilot exploratory study indicates that machine learning methods can help identify community dwelling older adults with 10/66 criterion diagnosis of dementia with good accuracy in a LMIC setting such as India. This should reduce the duration of the diagnostic assessment and make the process easier and quicker for clinicians, patients and will be useful for 'case' ascertainment in population based epidemiological studies.

  17. Aware, motivated and striving for a 'safe tan': an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M; Sniehotta, Falko F; Birch-Machin, Mark A; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21-62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers' knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health messages need to

  18. Development and preliminary validation of a questionnaire to measure satisfaction with home care in Greece: an exploratory factor analysis of polychoric correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niakas Dimitris

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The primary aim of this study was to develop and psychometrically test a Greek-language instrument for measuring satisfaction with home care. The first empirical evidence about the level of satisfaction with these services in Greece is also provided. Methods The questionnaire resulted from literature search, on-site observation and cognitive interviews. It was applied in 2006 to a sample of 201 enrollees of five home care programs in the city of Thessaloniki and contains 31 items that measure satisfaction with individual service attributes and are expressed on a 5-point Likert scale. The latter has been usually considered in practice as an interval scale, although it is in principle ordinal. We thus treated the variable as an ordinal one, but also employed the traditional approach in order to compare the findings. Our analysis was therefore based on ordinal measures such as the polychoric correlation, Kendall's Tau b coefficient and ordinal Cronbach's alpha. Exploratory factor analysis was followed by an assessment of internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, construct validity and sensitivity. Results Analyses with ordinal and interval scale measures produced in essence very similar results and identified four multi-item scales. Three of these were found to be reliable and valid: socioeconomic change, staff skills and attitudes and service appropriateness. A fourth dimension -service planning- had lower internal consistency reliability and yet very satisfactory test-retest reliability, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects. The global satisfaction scale created was also quite reliable. Overall, participants were satisfied -yet not very satisfied- with home care services. More room for improvement seems to exist for the socio-economic and planning aspects of care and less for staff skills and attitudes and appropriateness of provided services. Conclusions The methods developed seem to be a

  19. DEMOGRAPHIC AND SOCIAL FACTORS INFLUENCING PUBLIC OPINION ON PROSTITUTION: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY IN KWAZULU-NATAL PROVINCE, SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Pudifin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been growing demand for the decriminalisation of prostitution, and as a result the issue is currently under consideration by the South African Law Reform Commission. The Commission released a Discussion Paper on Adult ProSstitution in May 2009, and is expected to make recommendations to parliament for legal reform in this area. An exploratory survey of 512 South Africans revealed interesting correlations between opinion on prostitution and both demographic characteristics (including gender, age, race and education level and so-called "social" characteristics (including religiosity, belief in the importance of gender equality, the acceptance of rape myths, and a belief that prostitutes have no other options. The survey reveals two key findings in respect of the attitudes of South Africans to prostitution. Firstly, an overwhelming majority of South Africans - from all walks of life - remain strongly morally opposed to prostitution, and would not support legal reforms aimed at decriminalising or legalising prostitution. Secondly, our data confirm that these views are strongly influenced by certain demographic and 'social' variables. In particular, race, gender, religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be religiosity, cohabitation status, and socio-economic status were found to be statistically significantly related to opinions on prostitution, while other variables - particularly the belief in the importance of gender equality and the

  20. Critical Success Factors for an Effective Security Risk Management Program in an Organization: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Humayun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates differences in perception between layers of management (executive, middle, and lower) and staff with regard to the influence of critical success factors (CSFs) on security risk management (SRM) effectiveness. This is an in-depth case study conducted at a Fortune 500 company. Rockart's (1979) CSF method is modified through…

  1. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality-an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome-deaths of strangers-by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the "Time Travel" condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a "Repetition" condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of "time travel" provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  2. Why sample selection matters in exploratory factor analysis: implications for the 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Lambert, Sylvie D; Bowe, Steven J; Orellana, Liliana

    2017-03-11

    Sample selection can substantially affect the solutions generated using exploratory factor analysis. Validation studies of the 12-item World Health Organization (WHO) Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0) have generally involved samples in which substantial proportions of people had no, or minimal, disability. With the WHODAS 2.0 oriented towards measuring disability across six life domains (cognition, mobility, self-care, getting along, life activities, and participation in society), performing factor analysis with samples of people with disability may be more appropriate. We determined the influence of the sampling strategy on (a) the number of factors extracted and (b) the factor structure of the WHODAS 2.0. Using data from adults aged 50+ from the six countries in Wave 1 of the WHO's longitudinal Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE), we repeatedly selected samples (n = 750) using two strategies: (1) simple random sampling that reproduced nationally representative distributions of WHODAS 2.0 summary scores for each country (i.e., positively skewed distributions with many zero scores indicating the absence of disability), and (2) stratified random sampling with weights designed to obtain approximately symmetric distributions of summary scores for each country (i.e. predominantly including people with varying degrees of disability). Samples with skewed distributions typically produced one-factor solutions, except for the two countries with the lowest percentages of zero scores, in which the majority of samples produced two factors. Samples with approximately symmetric distributions, generally produced two- or three-factor solutions. In the two-factor solutions, the getting along domain items loaded on one factor (commonly with a cognition domain item), with remaining items loading on a second factor. In the three-factor solutions, the getting along and self-care domain items loaded separately on two factors and three other domains

  3. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) in a Brazilian musician sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar; José Alexandre de Souza; Flávia de Lima Osório

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI) is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA). Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI), in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial facto...

  4. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality - an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron eFriedman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality, to give people the illusion of having travelled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome - deaths of strangers – by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the ‘Time Travel’ condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a ‘Repetition’ condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of ‘time travel’ provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5 then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number.

  5. A method for generating an illusion of backwards time travel using immersive virtual reality—an exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Doron; Pizarro, Rodrigo; Or-Berkers, Keren; Neyret, Solène; Pan, Xueni; Slater, Mel

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new method, based on immersive virtual reality (IVR), to give people the illusion of having traveled backwards through time to relive a sequence of events in which they can intervene and change history. The participant had played an important part in events with a tragic outcome—deaths of strangers—by having to choose between saving 5 people or 1. We consider whether the ability to go back through time, and intervene, to possibly avoid all deaths, has an impact on how the participant views such moral dilemmas, and also whether this experience leads to a re-evaluation of past unfortunate events in their own lives. We carried out an exploratory study where in the “Time Travel” condition 16 participants relived these events three times, seeing incarnations of their past selves carrying out the actions that they had previously carried out. In a “Repetition” condition another 16 participants replayed the same situation three times, without any notion of time travel. Our results suggest that those in the Time Travel condition did achieve an illusion of “time travel” provided that they also experienced an illusion of presence in the virtual environment, body ownership, and agency over the virtual body that substituted their own. Time travel produced an increase in guilt feelings about the events that had occurred, and an increase in support of utilitarian behavior as the solution to the moral dilemma. Time travel also produced an increase in implicit morality as judged by an implicit association test. The time travel illusion was associated with a reduction of regret associated with bad decisions in their own lives. The results show that when participants have a third action that they can take to solve the moral dilemma (that does not immediately involve choosing between the 1 and the 5) then they tend to take this option, even though it is useless in solving the dilemma, and actually results in the deaths of a greater number. PMID:25228889

  6. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carmen; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Parra-Vidales, Esther; de Leo, Diego; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    Background This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Methods Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Results Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ

  7. Exploratory factor analysis of Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI in a Brazilian musician sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elisa Medeiros Barbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI is very significant among the available instruments which measures Musical Performance Anxiety (MPA. Objective The aim of this study is to find evidence of validity of the Kenny Music Performance Anxiety Inventory (K-MPAI, in its translated and adapted Brazilian version, through the study of its factor structure. Methods A convenience sample of 230 amateur musicians completed the K-MPAI. Results The initial factor analysis yielded eight factors, explaining 62.4% of variance. However, due to the factors’ composition and internal consistency values lower than 0.50, the number of factors was later set at three, considering the internal consistency of those, the theoretical propositions and symptomatology aspects that supported the construction of scale. They were named “Worries and insecurity” (α = 0.82, “Depression and hopelessness” (α = 0.77 and “Early parental relationships” (α = 0.57. Discussion/Conclusions These results point to the scale’s construct validity, since they support the theoretical basis used for the development of the K-MPAI and the clinical manifestations of the MPA.

  8. Homeless people's access to primary care physiotherapy services: an exploratory, mixed-method investigation using a follow-up qualitative extension to core quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Jo; Deaton, Stuart; Greenwood, Nan

    2017-06-30

    The purpose of this study was to appraise referrals of homeless patients to physiotherapy services and explore perceptions of barriers to access. This exploratory mixed-method study used a follow-up qualitative extension to core quantitative research design. Over 9 months, quantitative data were gathered from the healthcare records of homeless patients referred to physiotherapy by a general practitioner (GP) practice, including the number of referrals and demographic data of all homeless patients referred. Corresponding physiotherapy records of those people referred to physiotherapy were searched for the outcome of their care. Qualitative semi-structured telephone interviews, based on the quantitative findings, were carried out with staff involved with patient care from the referring GP practice and were used to expand insight into the quantitative findings. Two primary care sites provided data for this study: a GP practice dedicated exclusively to homeless people and the physiotherapy department receiving their referrals. Quantitative data from the healthcare records of 34 homeless patient referrals to physiotherapy were collected and analysed. In addition, five staff involved in patient care were interviewed. 34 referrals of homeless people were made to physiotherapy in a 9-month period. It was possible to match 25 of these to records from the physiotherapy department. Nine (36%) patients did not attend their first appointment; seven (28%) attended an initial appointment, but did not attend a subsequent appointment and were discharged from the service; five (20%) completed treatment and four patients (16%) had ongoing treatment. Semi-structured interviews revealed potential barriers preventing homeless people from accessing physiotherapy services, the complex factors being faced by those making referrals and possible ways to improve physiotherapy access. Homeless people with musculoskeletal problems may fail to access physiotherapy treatment, but opportunities

  9. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.; Szlapetis, I.; Hay, T.; Weihrer, S.

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs

  10. Review of human factors guidelines and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhodes, W; Szlapetis, I; Hay, T; Weihrer, S [Rhodes and Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-04-01

    The review examines the use of human factors guidelines and methods in high technology applications, with emphasis on application to the nuclear industry. An extensive literature review was carried out identifying over 250 applicable documents, with 30 more documents identified during interviews with experts in human factors. Surveys were sent to 15 experts, of which 11 responded. The survey results indicated guidelines used and why these were favoured. Thirty-three of the most applicable guideline documents were described in detailed annotated bibliographies. A bibliographic list containing over 280 references was prepared. Thirty guideline documents were rated for their completeness, validity, applicability and practicality. The experts survey indicated the use of specific techniques. Ten human factors methods of analysis were described in general summaries, including procedures, applications, and specific techniques. Detailed descriptions of the techniques were prepared and each technique rated for applicability and practicality. Recommendations for further study of areas of importance to human factors in the nuclear field in Canada are given. (author). 8 tabs., 2 figs.

  11. INTERACTIONS BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONAL SIZE AND SOME IT FACTORS IN THE CONTEXT OF ERP SUCCESS ASSESSMENT: AN EXPLORATORY INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARD EDELHAUSER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study set sights on Romanian organizations which implemented a SIVECO ERP and BI software. The methodology used is both quantitative and qualitative. The research results were obtained with the use of a questionnaire, and our purpose was to demonstrate some hypothesis concerning the size of the organisation, the management method and the IT&C based decision. The questionnaire was operated with SPSS 17, through a linear regression analysis. The research has revealed how the organizational size and the IT factors interaction in the 2010 Romanian organizations. The research has a high level of originality, such a study has been never conducted before for computer based advanced management methods implementation.

  12. Mismatch of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and DSM-IV Symptom Clusters in a Cancer Sample: Exploratory Factor Analysis of the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A.; Golden-Kreutz, Deanna M.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2007-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994a) conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes three symptom clusters: reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and arousal. The PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) corresponds to the DSM-IV PTSD symptoms. In the current study, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the PCL-C with two aims: (a) to examine whether the PCL-C evidenced the three-factor solution implied by the DSM-IV symptom clusters, and (b) to identify a factor solution for the PCL-C in a cancer sample. Women (N = 148) with Stage II or III breast cancer completed the PCL-C after completion of cancer treatment. We extracted two-, three-, four-, and five-factor solutions using EFA. Our data did not support the DSM-IV PTSD symptom clusters. Instead, EFA identified a four-factor solution including reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and arousal factors. Four symptom items, which may be confounded with illness and cancer treatment-related symptoms, exhibited poor factor loadings. Using these symptom items in cancer samples may lead to overdiagnosis of PTSD and inflated rates of PTSD symptoms. PMID:16281232

  13. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using the text-mining method: Relationships with maternal traits and post-partum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Sato, Shuhei; Ohwada, Michitaka

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibility of screening apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression from an analysis of the textual data in the Mother and Child Handbook by using the text-mining method. Uncomplicated pregnant women (n = 58) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade (high trait [group I, n = 21] and low trait [group II, n = 37]) or Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score (high score [group III, n = 15] and low score [group IV, n = 43]). An exploratory analysis of the textual data from the Maternal and Child Handbook was conducted using the text-mining method with the Word Miner software program. A comparison of the 'structure elements' was made between the two groups. The number of structure elements extracted by separated words from text data was 20 004 and the number of structure elements with a threshold of 2 or more as an initial value was 1168. Fifteen key words related to maternal anxiety, and six key words related to post-partum depression were extracted. The text-mining method is useful for the exploratory analysis of textual data obtained from pregnant woman, and this screening method has been suggested to be useful for apprehensive pregnant women and mothers at risk for post-partum depression. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  14. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Berit Petersen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %. However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region, women and children’s risk of second hand smoke (SHS exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women’s practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women’s tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. Methods We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18–55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Results None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 % reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 % overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59], allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79], place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74], and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54] contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. Conclusions While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred

  15. Diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzon, T.; Mielnik, J.; Gosciniak, W.

    1993-01-01

    The diagnostic methods of tubal factor in infertility have been presented. In details have been discussed PJ, PK HSG and pelviscopy. These examinations themselves constitute the basic ones in infertility. We turned our attention into technical details and possible mistakes which may occur at the time of performing them, these misinterpretations may lead to absolutely wrong conclusion and diagnosis. Authors have wide experience in performing the discussed examinations and this allows them to share their opinion. Over the years several thousand of PK and HSG examinations have been carried out and also 1000 laparoscopies. (author)

  16. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollema Liesbeth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.

  17. Exploratory scoping of the literature on factors that influence oral health workforce planning and management in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knevel, Rjm; Gussy, M G; Farmer, J

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to scope the literature that exists about factors influencing oral health workforce planning and management in developing countries (DCs). The Arksey and O'Malley method for conducting a scoping review was used. A replicable search strategy was applied, using three databases. Factors influencing oral health workforce planning and management in DCs identified in the eligible articles were charted. Four thousand citations were identified; 41 papers were included for review. Most included papers were situational analyses. Factors identified were as follows: lack of data, focus on the restorative rather than preventive care in practitioner education, recent increase in number of dental schools (mostly private) and dentistry students, privatization of dental care services which has little impact on care maldistribution, and debates about skill mix and scope of practice. Oral health workforce management in the eligible studies has a bias towards dentist-led systems. Due to a lack of country-specific oral health related data in developing or least developed countries (LDCs), oral health workforce planning often relies on data and modelling from other countries. Approaches to oral health workforce management and planning in developing or LDCs are often characterized by approaches to increase numbers of dentists, thus not ameliorating maldistribution of service accessibility. Governments appear to be reducing support for public and preventative oral healthcare, favouring growth in privatized dental services. Changes to professional education are necessary to trigger a paradigm shift to the preventive approach and to improve relationships between different oral healthcare provider roles. This needs to be premised on greater appreciation of preventive care in health systems and funding models. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Dental Hygiene Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. General and specific attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder factors of children 4 to 6 years of age: An exploratory structural equation modeling approach to assessing symptom multidimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Víctor B; Ponce, Fernando P; Martínez-Molina, Agustín; Arias, Benito; Núñez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We tested first-order factor and bifactor models of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to adequately summarize the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, (DSM-IV-TR) symptoms observed in a Spanish sample of preschoolers and kindergarteners. Six ESEM and CFA models were estimated based on teacher evaluations of the behavior of 638 children 4 to 6 years of age. An ESEM bifactor model with a central dimension plus 3 specific factors (inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity) showed the best fit and interpretability. Strict invariance between the sexes was observed. The bifactor model provided a solution to previously encountered inconsistencies in the factorial models of ADHD in young children. However, the low reliability of the specific factors casts doubt on the utility of the subscales for ADHD measurement. More research is necessary to clarify the nature of G and S factors of ADHD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. [Association between carbonyl proteins and tumor necrosis factor alpha with muscle strength in young and older women: exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Huenchullán, Sergio Francisco; Mancilla Solorza, Eladio Bernabé

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that there is a close relationship between oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation. Both processes have been related separately to muscle function in older adults (OA). Nevertheless, it still has not been determined if this relationship is present particularly in OA. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plasma levels of TNF-α and carbonyl proteins (CP) and muscle strength in a group of young and older women. An exploratory study was conducted on 13 older and 8 young women, in whom the plasma levels of CP and TNF-α were measured. Muscle strength was measured by handgrip test, quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength, arm curl, and the 30 second sit to stand test. There were no differences in the plasma levels of CP and TNF-α between the groups, but there was relationship between the biomarkers only in the OA group. A non-linear relationship was observed between CP and quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength only in the OA group (R(2)=36.2; P=.038). For TNF-α there were no significant association with any of the applied tests. There is an association between CP and quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength only in the OA group, which could indicate a deleterious action of oxidative stress on muscle function, particularly in aging. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Factor structure and longitudinal measurement invariance of PHQ-9 for specialist mental health care patients with persistent major depressive disorder: Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Boliang; Kaylor-Hughes, Catherine; Garland, Anne; Nixon, Neil; Sweeney, Tim; Simpson, Sandra; Dalgleish, Tim; Ramana, Rajini; Yang, Min; Morriss, Richard

    2017-09-01

    The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) is a widely used instrument for measuring levels of depression in patients in clinical practice and academic research; its factor structure has been investigated in various samples, with limited evidence of measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) but not in patients with more severe depression of long duration. This study aims to explore the factor structure of the PHQ-9 and the ME/I between treatment groups over time for these patients. 187 secondary care patients with persistent major depressive disorder (PMDD) were recruited to a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with allocation to either a specialist depression team arm or a general mental health arm; their PHQ-9 score was measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Exploratory Structural Equational Modelling (ESEM) was performed to examine the factor structure for this specific patient group. ME/I between treatment arm at and across follow-up time were further explored by means of multiple-group ESEM approach using the best-fitted factor structure. A two-factor structure was evidenced (somatic and affective factor). This two-factor structure had strong factorial invariance between the treatment groups at and across follow up times. Participants were largely white British in a RCT with 40% attrition potentially limiting the study's generalisability. Not all two-factor modelling criteria were met at every time-point. PHQ-9 has a two-factor structure for PMDD patients, with strong measurement invariance between treatment groups at and across follow-up time, demonstrating its validity for RCTs and prospective longitudinal studies in chronic moderate to severe depression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. An Exploratory Study of the Critical Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olusegun Folorunso; Oluwafunmilayo Ayobami Ateji; Gabriel Oludare Awe

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as a basis for studying critical factors that affects the acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM) in Nigeria. Questionnaire approach was used with the respondents predominantly between 20-29 years old. Factor analysis was used to test which of the factors are the main factors affecting the adoption of the technology in Nigeria. It was discovered that the major factors affecting people’s intention to accept ATM are the security issu...

  2. Factors Influencing Acceptance Of Contraceptive Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What are the factors influencing acceptance of contraceptive methods. Objective: To study the determinants influencing contra­ceptive acceptance. Study design: Population based cross - sectional study. Setting: Rural area of East Delhi. Participants: Married women in the reproductive age group. Sample:Stratified sampling technique was used to draw the sample. Sample Size: 328 married women of reproductive age group. Study Variables: Socio-economic status, Type of contraceptive, Family size, Male child. Outcome Variables: Acceptance of contraceptives Statistical Analysis: By proportions. Result: Prevalence of use of contraception at the time of data collection was 40.5%. Tubectomy and vasectomy were most commonly used methods. (59.4%, n - 133. Educational status of the women positively influenced the contraceptive acceptance but income did not. Desire for more children was single most important deterrent for accepting contraception. Recommendations: (i             Traditional method of contraception should be given more attention. (ii            Couplesshould be brought in the contraceptive use net at the early stage of marriage.

  3. Heart Disease and Occupational Risk Factors in the Canadian Population: An Exploratory Study Using the Canadian Community Health Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behdin Nowrouzi-Kia

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this study is to find temporal trends in the associations between cardiovascular disease and occupational risk factors in the context of the Canadian population. Methods: Population data were analyzed from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS collected between 2001 and 2014 for trends over time between heart disease and various occupational risk factors: hours worked, physical exertion at work, and occupation type (management/arts/education, business/finance, sales/services, trades/transportations, and primary industry/processing. Results: We found no significant difference in the average number of hours worked/wk between individuals who report having heart disease in all years of data except in 2011 (F1,96 = 7.02, p = 0.009 and 2012 (F1,96 = 8.86, p = 0.004. We also found a significant difference in the degree of physical exertion at work in 2001 (F1,79 = 7.45, p = 0.008. There were statistically significant results of occupation type on self-reported heart disease from 2003 to 2014. Conclusion: Canadian data from the CCHS do not exhibit a trend toward an association between heart disease and the number of hours worked/wk. There is an association between heart disease and physical exertion at work, but the trend is inconsistent. The data indicate a trend toward an association between heart disease and occupation type, but further analysis is required to determine which occupation type may be associated with heart disease. Keywords: occupational health, occupation type, physical exertion, self-reported cardiovascular disease

  4. Do levels of social competence influence the perception of social affordances among students with low levels of education? An exploratory case study of the relationship between offline and online socializing factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moekotte, Paulo; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Ritzen, Henk

    2018-01-01

    In this exploratory case study we investigate the relation between off line and online factors that influence social dynamics of online, collaborative learning, that is the levels of social competence and the perception of social affordances. We argued that low educated with low social competences

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Critical Factors Affecting the Acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Folorunso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM as a basis for studying critical factors that affects the acceptability of Automated Teller Machine (ATM in Nigeria. Questionnaire approach was used with the respondents predominantly between 20-29 years old. Factor analysis was used to test which of the factors are the main factors affecting the adoption of the technology in Nigeria. It was discovered that the major factors affecting people’s intention to accept ATM are the security issues and poor internet connectivity.

  6. Exploratory analysis of textual data from the Mother and Child Handbook using a text mining method (II): Monthly changes in the words recorded by mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagawa, Miki; Matsuda, Yoshio; Manaka, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Makiko; Ohwada, Michitaka; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the possibility of converting subjective textual data written in the free column space of the Mother and Child Handbook (MCH) into objective information using text mining and to compare any monthly changes in the words written by the mothers. Pregnant women without complications (n = 60) were divided into two groups according to State-Trait Anxiety Inventory grade: low trait anxiety (group I, n = 39) and high trait anxiety (group II, n = 21). Exploratory analysis of the textual data from the MCH was conducted by text mining using the Word Miner software program. Using 1203 structural elements extracted after processing, a comparison of monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments was made between the two groups. The data was mainly analyzed by a correspondence analysis. The structural elements in groups I and II were divided into seven and six clusters, respectively, by cluster analysis. Correspondence analysis revealed clear monthly changes in the words used in the mothers' comments as the pregnancy progressed in group I, whereas the association was not clear in group II. The text mining method was useful for exploratory analysis of the textual data obtained from pregnant women, and the monthly change in the words used in the mothers' comments as pregnancy progressed differed according to their degree of unease. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com. PMID:27331907

  8. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, Alexander; Kottorp, Anders; Boettcher, Johanna; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653). An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  9. Conditioning factors of test-taking engagement in PIAAC: an exploratory IRT modelling approach considering person and item characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A potential problem of low-stakes large-scale assessments such as the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC is low test-taking engagement. The present study pursued two goals in order to better understand conditioning factors of test-taking disengagement: First, a model-based approach was used to investigate whether item indicators of disengagement constitute a continuous latent person variable by domain. Second, the effects of person and item characteristics were jointly tested using explanatory item response models. Methods Analyses were based on the Canadian sample of Round 1 of the PIAAC, with N = 26,683 participants completing test items in the domains of literacy, numeracy, and problem solving. Binary item disengagement indicators were created by means of item response time thresholds. Results The results showed that disengagement indicators define a latent dimension by domain. Disengagement increased with lower educational attainment, lower cognitive skills, and when the test language was not the participant’s native language. Gender did not exert any effect on disengagement, while age had a positive effect for problem solving only. An item’s location in the second of two assessment modules was positively related to disengagement, as was item difficulty. The latter effect was negatively moderated by cognitive skill, suggesting that poor test-takers are especially likely to disengage with more difficult items. Conclusions The negative effect of cognitive skill, the positive effect of item difficulty, and their negative interaction effect support the assumption that disengagement is the outcome of individual expectations about success (informed disengagement.

  10. An Exploratory Study of the Factors Associated with Literacy Teachers' Integration of Technology: A Study of Lebanese Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaaban, Youmen; Moloney, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore Lebanese teachers' perceptions of the factors determining their integration of technology into literacy classrooms. A quantitative survey examining literacy teachers' individual characteristics and their perceptions of contextual factors was conducted at Lebanese schools. The survey collected data on the…

  11. Clustering of leptin and physical activity with components of metabolic syndrome in Iranian population: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Zandieh, Ali; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Morteza, Afsaneh; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), manifested by insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, central obesity, and hypertension, is conceived to be associated with hyperleptinemia and physical activity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors underlying components of MetS and also to test the suitability of leptin and physical activity as additional components of this syndrome. Data of the individuals without history of diabetes mellitus, aged 25-64 years, from third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases (SuRFNCD-2007), were analyzed. Performing factor analysis on waist circumference, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) led to extraction of two factors which explained around 59.0% of the total variance in both genders. When TG and HDL-C were replaced by TG to HDL-C ratio, a single factor was obtained. In contrast to physical activity, addition of leptin was consistent with one-factor structure of MetS and improved the ability of suggested models to identify obesity (BMI≥30 kg/m2, Pphysical activity loaded on the first identified factor. Our study shows that one underlying factor structure of MetS is also plausible and the inclusion of leptin does not interfere with this structure. Further, this study suggests that physical activity influences MetS components via modulation of the main underlying pathophysiologic pathway of this syndrome.

  12. Systematic monitoring of male circumcision scale-up in Nyanza, Kenya: exploratory factor analysis of service quality instrument and performance ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omondi Aduda, Dickens S; Ouma, Collins; Onyango, Rosebella; Onyango, Mathews; Bertrand, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Considerable conceptual and operational complexities related to service quality measurements and variability in delivery contexts of scaled-up medical male circumcision, pose real challenges to monitoring implementation of quality and safety. Clarifying latent factors of the quality instruments can enhance contextual applicability and the likelihood that observed service outcomes are appropriately assessed. To explore factors underlying SYMMACS service quality assessment tool (adopted from the WHO VMMC quality toolkit) and; determine service quality performance using composite quality index derived from the latent factors. Using a comparative process evaluation of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up in Kenya site level data was collected among health facilities providing VMMC over two years. Systematic Monitoring of the Medical Male Circumcision Scale-Up quality instrument was used to assess availability of guidelines, supplies and equipment, infection control, and continuity of care services. Exploratory factor analysis was performed to clarify quality structure. Fifty four items and 246 responses were analyzed. Based on Eigenvalue >1.00 cut-off, factors 1, 2 & 3 were retained each respectively having eigenvalues of 5.78; 4.29; 2.99. These cumulatively accounted for 29.1% of the total variance (12.9%; 9.5%; 6.7%) with final communality estimates being 13.06. Using a cut-off factor loading value of ≥0.4, fifteen items loading on factor 1, five on factor 2 and one on factor 3 were retained. Factor 1 closely relates to preparedness to deliver safe male circumcisions while factor two depicts skilled task performance and compliance with protocols. Of the 28 facilities, 32% attained between 90th and 95th percentile (excellent); 45% between 50th and 75th percentiles (average) and 14.3% below 25th percentile (poor). the service quality assessment instrument may be simplified to have nearly 20 items that relate more closely to service outcomes. Ranking of

  13. How do trained raters take context factors into account when assessing GP trainee communication performance? An exploratory, qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essers, Geurt; Dielissen, Patrick; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees; van Dulmen, Sandra; Kramer, Anneke

    2015-03-01

    Communication assessment in real-life consultations is a complex task. Generic assessment instruments help but may also have disadvantages. The generic nature of the skills being assessed does not provide indications for context-specific behaviour required in practice situations; context influences are mostly taken into account implicitly. Our research questions are: 1. What factors do trained raters observe when rating workplace communication? 2. How do they take context factors into account when rating communication performance with a generic rating instrument? Nineteen general practitioners (GPs), trained in communication assessment with a generic rating instrument (the MAAS-Global), participated in a think-aloud protocol reflecting concurrent thought processes while assessing videotaped real-life consultations. They were subsequently interviewed to answer questions explicitly asking them to comment on the influence of predefined contextual factors on the assessment process. Results from both data sources were analysed. We used a grounded theory approach to untangle the influence of context factors on GP communication and on communication assessment. Both from the think-aloud procedure and from the interviews we identified various context factors influencing communication, which were categorised into doctor-related (17), patient-related (13), consultation-related (18), and education-related factors (18). Participants had different views and practices on how to incorporate context factors into the GP(-trainee) communication assessment. Raters acknowledge that context factors may affect communication in GP consultations, but struggle with how to take contextual influences into account when assessing communication performance in an educational context. To assess practice situations, raters need extra guidance on how to handle specific contextual factors.

  14. Factor analysis methods and validity evidence: A systematic review of instrument development across the continuum of medical education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, Angela Payne

    Previous systematic reviews indicate a lack of reporting of reliability and validity evidence in subsets of the medical education literature. Psychology and general education reviews of factor analysis also indicate gaps between current and best practices; yet, a comprehensive review of exploratory factor analysis in instrument development across the continuum of medical education had not been previously identified. Therefore, the purpose for this study was critical review of instrument development articles employing exploratory factor or principal component analysis published in medical education (2006--2010) to describe and assess the reporting of methods and validity evidence based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing and factor analysis best practices. Data extraction of 64 articles measuring a variety of constructs that have been published throughout the peer-reviewed medical education literature indicate significant errors in the translation of exploratory factor analysis best practices to current practice. Further, techniques for establishing validity evidence tend to derive from a limited scope of methods including reliability statistics to support internal structure and support for test content. Instruments reviewed for this study lacked supporting evidence based on relationships with other variables and response process, and evidence based on consequences of testing was not evident. Findings suggest a need for further professional development within the medical education researcher community related to (1) appropriate factor analysis methodology and reporting and (2) the importance of pursuing multiple sources of reliability and validity evidence to construct a well-supported argument for the inferences made from the instrument. Medical education researchers and educators should be cautious in adopting instruments from the literature and carefully review available evidence. Finally, editors and reviewers are encouraged to recognize

  15. Context factors in general practitioner-patient encounters and their impact on assessing communication skills--an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.T.J.M.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.

  16. Context factors in general practitioner - patient encounters and their impact on assessing communication skills: an exploratory study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, G.; Kramer, A.; Andriesse, B.; Weel, C. van; Vleuten, C. van der; Dulmen, S. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: Assessment of medical communication performance usually focuses on rating generically applicable, well-defined communication skills. However, in daily practice, communication is determined by (specific) context factors, such as acquaintance with the patient, or the presented problem.

  17. The Obstacles for the Teaching of 8th Grade TR History of Revolution and Kemalism Course According to the Constructivist Approach (An Example of Exploratory Sequential Mixed Method Design)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Yavuz; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the problems social studies teachers face in the teaching of topics covered in 8th grade TRHRK Course. The study was conducted in line with explanatory sequential mixed method design, which is one of the mixed research method, was used. The study involves three phases. In the first step, exploratory process…

  18. Using Exploratory Factor Analysis to Explore Personal Attitudes Influencing the People-Plant Relationship in Danish Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...

  19. Using exploratory factor analysis to explore personal attitudes influencing the people-plant relationship in Danish workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jane Dyrhauge; Müller, Renate; Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.

    2012-01-01

    office workplaces. A paper-pencil questionnaire was developed in order to collect demographical information about the employees at the workplaces under investigation. A scale composed of 13 items regarding the attitudes towards ornamental plants at the workplace was also included in the questionnaire...... was 0.79 and 0.93 for the second factor. These two factors form an interesting platform from which the question of how personal attitudes are influencing the people-plant relationship at Danish workplaces can be investigated further. However, it should be noted that the results reported here...

  20. Factors associated with the growing-finishing performances of swine herds: an exploratory study on serological and herd level indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Robert, N; Lewandowski, E; Gosselin, M

    2018-01-01

    Growing and finishing performances of pigs strongly influence farm efficiency and profitability. The performances of the pigs rely on the herd health status and also on several non-infectious factors. Many recommendations for the improvement of the technical performances of a herd are based on the results of studies assessing the effect of one or a limited number of infections or environmental factors. Few studies investigated jointly the influence of both type of factors on swine herd performances. This work aimed at identifying infectious and non-infectious factors associated with the growing and finishing performances of 41 French swine herds. Two groups of herds were identified using a clustering analysis: a cluster of 24 herds with the highest technical performance values (mean average daily gain = 781.1 g/day +/- 26.3; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.5 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 4.1% +/- 0.9; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 121.2 kg +/- 5.2) and a cluster of 17 herds with the lowest performance values (mean average daily gain =715.8 g/day +/- 26.5; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.6 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 6.8% +/- 2.0; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 117.7 kg +/- 3.6). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify factors associated with the level of technical performance. Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the porcine circovirus type 2 were infectious factors associated with the cluster having the lowest performance values. This cluster also featured farrow-to-finish type herds, a short interval between successive batches of pigs (≤3 weeks) and mixing of pigs from different batches in the growing or/and finishing steps. Inconsistency between nursery and fattening building management was another factor associated with the low-performance cluster. The odds of a herd showing low growing-finishing performance was significantly

  1. Occupational fatigue and other health and safety issues for young Australian workers: an exploratory mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Jessica Louise; Clarkson, Larissa; Rainbird, Sophia; Etherton, Hayley; Blewett, Verna

    2015-01-01

    Youth are vulnerable to sleep loss and fatigue due to biological, social and psychological factors. However, there are few studies addressing the risk that sleep loss and fatigue pose for youth in the workplace. The aim of this study was to explore work health and safety (WHS) issues for young workers and develop strategies and solutions for improved WHS outcomes, with a focus on issues related to fatigue, using a mixed-method, multi-stage approach. Participants either completed a survey (n=212) or took part in focus groups (n=115) addressing WHS for young workers, or attended a Future Inquiry Workshop (n=29) where strategies for improving youth WHS were developed. Fatigue was identified as a significant problem by the majority of young workers and was associated with unpredictable working time arrangements, precarious employment, high workload, working overtime and limited ability to self-advocate. Participants identified six key areas for action to improve WHS outcomes for young workers; 1) develop expertise, 2) give young workers a voice, 3) improve education and training, 4) build stakeholder engagement, 5) increase employer awareness of WHS responsibilities and, 6) improve processes for employers to manage and monitor WHS outcomes. The application of these directives to fatigue is discussed.

  2. A multi-method exploratory study of stress, coping, and substance use among high school youth in private schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Ritchie, Amanda; Linick, Jessica L.; Cleland, Charles M.; Elliott, Luther; Grethel, Michele

    2015-01-01

    There is growing awareness that students’ experiences of stress may impede academic success, compromise mental health, and promote substance use. We examined these factors in an under-studied population, private/independent high school students, using a multi-method (qualitative and quantitative), iterative data collection and analytic process. We first conducted qualitative interviews with faculty and staff at a number of highly competitive private schools, followed by an anonymous quantitative survey with 128 11th grade students from two of these settings. We then conducted a qualitative exploration of the quantitative results with a subset of students. Next, a set of Expert Panel members participated in qualitative interviews to reflect on and interpret study findings. Overall, we found students experienced high levels of chronic stress, particularly in relation to academic performance and the college admissions process. While students described a range of effective, adaptive coping strategies, they also commonly internalized these serious pressures and turned to alcohol and drugs to cope with chronic stress, although not typically at problematic levels. We discuss study implications for both schools and families derived from the Expert Panel. PMID:26257685

  3. Facilitating Factors and Barriers to the Use of Emerging Technologies for Suicide Prevention in Europe: Multicountry Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Juan-Luis; Delgado, Carmen; Parra-Vidales, Esther; Franco-Martín, Manuel

    2018-01-24

    This study provides an analysis on the use of emerging technologies for the prevention of suicide in 8 different European countries. The objective of this study was to analyze the potentiality of using emerging technologies in the area of suicide prevention based on the opinion of different professionals involved in suicide prevention. Opinions of 3 groups of stakeholders (ie, relevant professionals in suicide field) were gathered using a specifically designed questionnaire to explore dimensions underlying perceptions of facilitating factors and barriers in relation to the use of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Goal 1 involved facilitating factors for the use of emerging technologies in suicide prevention. Northern European countries, except for Belgium, attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. On the other hand, Southern European countries attach greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. According to different stakeholders, the analysis of these facilitating factors suggest that professionals in the field of social work attach greater relevance to those that optimize implementation and benefits. However, professionals involved in the area of mental health, policy makers, and political decision makers give greater importance to professionally oriented and user-centered facilitating factors. Goal 2 was related to barriers to the usability of emerging technologies for suicide prevention. Both countries and stakeholders attach greater importance to barriers associated with resource constraints than to those centered on personal limitations. There are no differences between countries or between stakeholders. Nevertheless, there is a certain stakeholders-countries interaction that indicates that the opinions on resource constraints expressed by different stakeholders do not follow a uniform pattern in different countries, but they differ depending on the country. Although all

  4. Demographic and social factors influencing public opinion on prostitution: an exploratory study in Kwazulu-Natal province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pudifin, S; Bosch, S

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines countervailing South African public opinion on the subject of prostitution in South Africa, and identifies the factors which might influence these attitudes. It also investigates the complex relationship between public opinion and the law. Whilst engaging in prostitution constitutes a criminal offence under the Sexual Offences Act 23 of 1957, it is generally ignored by the police, which results in a quasi-legalised reality on the ground. In recent years there has been grow...

  5. Factors influencing the choice of performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain – exploratory study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menhat, Masha; Yusuf, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The current value of the oil price per barrel has severely impacted the oil and gas industry around the world. This has worsened the situation due to the fact that it has long been the backbone of the country through the energy supply, employability and also its role as the major economic contributor. Due to multiple external factors that affect this industry such as crude oil availability, oil price fluctuation, high transportation cost, as well as exposure to high uncertainties, it is sensible for the supply chain practitioner to shift their focus in managing their resources and capabilities. To maximise the potential of supply chain activities in improving overall company performance, it is important to pay extra attention on their performance management. This includes the design of meaningful performance measurement framework to assess organisational performance. This study will explore the influencing factors in choosing performance measures for the oil and gas supply chain. Five in-depth interviews were conducted with supply chain experts within the industry. Eight influencing factors have been identified through the interviews.

  6. Psychosocial risk and protective factors of secondary school dropout in Luxembourg: the protocol of an exploratory case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Pascale; Bocquet, Valéry; Pull, Charles; Couffignal, Sophie; Graas, Marc; Lair, Marie-Lise; Lehnert, Torsten; Fond-Harmant, Laurence; Ansseau, Marc

    2011-07-13

    In Luxembourg, the extensive phenomenon of school dropout is a prime policy concern in the light of individual, social and economic consequences. Although the authorities report an overall decrease of the national dropout rate, the proportion of early school leavers who remain without any specific occupation is still alarming. Therefore, this study intends a shift of focus from system-inherent to individual factors, including mental health and family correlates, to provide a more comprehensive analysis of the dropout phenomenon. The objectives of this study are to investigate the type and prevalence of psychiatric disorders among school dropouts and to compare the findings with those by a matched control group of regularly enrolled students. Furthermore, family variables and socioeconomic status will be analysed, as they are factors likely to interfere with both educational attainment and mental health. A trained psychologist will use structured interviews and self-report forms to investigate for mental health issues, information on schooling, socioeconomic situation and family life. Controls will be matched for gender, age, school type and educational grade. As school dropouts face a serious risk of long term professional and social marginalization, there is an evident need for action. Identifying psychosocial risk and protective factors of school dropout will deliver solid insight on how to conceive public health strategies for young people who may need a more customized support to carry out their academic potential. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01354236.

  7. Negative Effects of Psychological Treatments: An Exploratory Factor Analysis of the Negative Effects Questionnaire for Monitoring and Reporting Adverse and Unwanted Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rozental

    Full Text Available Research conducted during the last decades has provided increasing evidence for the use of psychological treatments for a number of psychiatric disorders and somatic complaints. However, by focusing only on the positive outcomes, less attention has been given to the potential of negative effects. Despite indications of deterioration and other adverse and unwanted events during treatment, little is known about their occurrence and characteristics. Hence, in order to facilitate research of negative effects, a new instrument for monitoring and reporting their incidence and impact was developed using a consensus among researchers, self-reports by patients, and a literature review: the Negative Effects Questionnaire. Participants were recruited via a smartphone-delivered self-help treatment for social anxiety disorder and through the media (N = 653. An exploratory factor analysis was performed, resulting in a six-factor solution with 32 items, accounting for 57.64% of the variance. The derived factors were: symptoms, quality, dependency, stigma, hopelessness, and failure. Items related to unpleasant memories, stress, and anxiety were experienced by more than one-third of the participants. Further, increased or novel symptoms, as well as lack of quality in the treatment and therapeutic relationship rendered the highest self-reported negative impact. In addition, the findings were discussed in relation to prior research and other similar instruments of adverse and unwanted events, giving credence to the items that are included. The instrument is presently available in eleven different languages and can be freely downloaded and used from www.neqscale.com.

  8. The Hierarchy of Brain Networks Is Related to Insulin Growth Factor-1 in a Large, Middle-Aged, Healthy Cohort: An Exploratory Magnetoencephalography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrentino, Pierpaolo; Nieboer, Dagmar; Twisk, Jos W R; Stam, Cornelis J; Douw, Linda; Hillebrand, Arjan

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a large study demonstrated that lower serum levels of insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) relate to brain atrophy and to a greater risk for developing Alzheimer's disease in a healthy elderly population. We set out to test if functional brain networks relate to IGF-1 levels in the middle aged. Hence, we studied the association between IGF-1 and magnetoencephalography-based functional network characteristics in a middle-aged population. The functional connections between brain areas were estimated for six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, beta, gamma) using the phase lag index. Subsequently, the topology of the frequency-specific functional networks was characterized using the minimum spanning tree. Our results showed that lower levels of serum IGF-1 relate to a globally less integrated functional network in the beta and theta band. The associations remained significant when correcting for gender and systemic effects of IGF-1 that might indirectly affect the brain. The value of this exploratory study is the demonstration that lower levels of IGF-1 are associated with brain network topology in the middle aged.

  9. Construction and validation of the South African version of the Fear Survey Schedule for Children: an exploratory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Käthe; Loxton, Helene; Kagee, Ashraf; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised (Ollendick, 1983) is an 80-item self-report instrument that has been used internationally to asses the number of fears and general level of fearfulness among children. Despite its widespread use, this instrument has not been adapted to the South African context. The present study addressed this gap by means of a 2-phase investigation aimed at developing a South African version of the instrument. In Phase 1, semistructured interviews were conducted with 40 children (7 to 13 years of age). Qualitative data obtained from these interviews were used to construct additional items for inclusion in the South African Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised. The modified scale, consisting of 97 items, was then administered to a sample of 646 children between the ages of 7 and 13 years. Further psychometric considerations resulted in the final version of the scale consisting of 74 items with high internal consistency (α=.97). The factor structure was explored by means of principal component analysis with varimax rotation and a 5-factor solution was found to provide the best conceptual fit. The factors identified were as follows: Fear of Death and Danger; Fear of the Unknown; Fear of Small Animals and Minor Threats to Self; Large Animal Fears; and Situational Fears. Differences between the South African version and the original Fear Survey Schedule for Children-Revised are noted and implications for the study of fear in South Africa and other countries are discussed. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Exploratory Analysis in Learning Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David; de Freitas, Sara

    2016-01-01

    This article summarizes the methods, observations, challenges and implications for exploratory analysis drawn from two learning analytics research projects. The cases include an analysis of a games-based virtual performance assessment and an analysis of data from 52,000 students over a 5-year period at a large Australian university. The complex…

  11. Factors Associated with Migration in Individuals Affected by Leprosy, Maranhão, Brazil: An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Murto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, leprosy is endemic and concentrated in high-risk clusters. Internal migration is common in the country and may influence leprosy transmission and hamper control efforts. We performed a cross-sectional study with two separate analyses evaluating factors associated with migration in Brazil’s Northeast: one among individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and the other among a clinically unapparent population with no symptoms of leprosy for comparison. We included 394 individuals newly diagnosed with leprosy and 391 from the clinically unapparent population. Of those with leprosy, 258 (65.5% were birth migrants, 105 (26.6% were past five-year migrants, and 43 (10.9% were circular migrants. In multivariate logistic regression, three independent factors were found to be significantly associated with migration among those with leprosy: (1 alcohol consumption, (2 separation from family/friends, and (3 difficulty reaching the healthcare facility. Separation from family/friends was also associated with migration in the clinically unapparent population. The health sector may consider adapting services to meet the needs of migrating populations. Future research is needed to explore risks associated with leprosy susceptibility from life stressors, such as separation from family and friends, access to healthcare facilities, and alcohol consumption to establish causal relationships.

  12. Use of multiple methods to determine factors affecting quality of care of patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khunti, K

    1999-10-01

    The process of care of patients with diabetes is complex; however, GPs are playing a greater role in its management. Despite the research evidence, the quality of care of patients with diabetes is variable. In order to improve care, information is required on the obstacles faced by practices in improving care. Qualitative and quantitative methods can be used for formation of hypotheses and the development of survey procedures. However, to date few examples exist in general practice research on the use of multiple methods using both quantitative and qualitative techniques for hypothesis generation. We aimed to determine information on all factors that may be associated with delivery of care to patients with diabetes. Factors for consideration on delivery of diabetes care were generated by multiple qualitative methods including brainstorming with health professionals and patients, a focus group and interviews with key informants which included GPs and practice nurses. Audit data showing variations in care of patients with diabetes were used to stimulate the brainstorming session. A systematic literature search focusing on quality of care of patients with diabetes in primary care was also conducted. Fifty-four potential factors were identified by multiple methods. Twenty (37.0%) were practice-related factors, 14 (25.9%) were patient-related factors and 20 (37.0%) were organizational factors. A combination of brainstorming and the literature review identified 51 (94.4%) factors. Patients did not identify factors in addition to those identified by other methods. The complexity of delivery of care to patients with diabetes is reflected in the large number of potential factors identified in this study. This study shows the feasibility of using multiple methods for hypothesis generation. Each evaluation method provided unique data which could not otherwise be easily obtained. This study highlights a way of combining various traditional methods in an attempt to overcome the

  13. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States. A Research and Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kwanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    This report presents the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video study of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This exploratory research project is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study included 231 eighth-grade mathematics…

  14. Burn-related factors affecting anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M; Khadilkar, N; De Sousa, A

    2017-03-31

    Burns are physically, psychologically and economically challenging injuries, and the factors leading to them are many and under-studied. The aim of the current study was to assess level of anxiety, depression and self-esteem in burn patients, and look at various burn-related variables that affect them. This cross-sectional study included 100 patients with burn injuries admitted to a tertiary care private hospital in an urban metropolis in India. The patients were assessed for anxiety, depression and self-esteem using the Hamilton anxiety rating scale, Hamilton depression rating scale and Rosenberg self-esteem scale respectively. Assessment was carried out within 2-8 weeks of injury following medical stabilization. The data was tabulated and statistically analyzed. The study sample was predominantly male (54%), married (69%), with a mean age of 34.1 ± 10.8 years. Accidental burns (94%) were the most common modality of injury. The majority (46%) suffered burns involving 20-59% total body surface area (TBSA), and facial burns were present (57%). No significant association was found between TBSA and anxiety, depression or self-esteem, and the same was true for facial burns. Deep burns, however, were significantly associated with anxiety (p=0.03) and depression (p=0.0002). High rates of anxiety and depression are associated with burn injuries and related to burn depth. Adjustment and recovery in these patients depends on various other factors like the patient's psychological status, nature/extent of the injury and ensuing medical care. Further research is warranted to reveal the magnitude and predictors of psychological problems in burn patients.

  15. Prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to first-line ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy for adult patients with advanced soft tissue sarcomas An exploratory, retrospective analysis on large series from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sleiffer, S.; Ouali, M.; van Glabbeke, M.

    2010-01-01

    prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based therapy. Methods: A retrospective, exploratory analysis was performed on data from 1337 advanced STS patients who received first-time ifosfamide-containing chemotherapy. For predictive factor analysis, 660 patients treated with doxorubicin...... patients having the highest chance to respond. Predictive factor analysis showed that compared to doxorubicin monotherapy, patients who benefited less from ifosfamide-based therapies were leiomyosarcoma patients in terms of OS, and patients with liposarcoma for response. No predictive factors were found...... for PFS. Conclusion: In this study, we established an independent set of prognostic and predictive factors for outcome to ifosfamide-based chemotherapy in advanced STS patients. This study provides important information for the interpretation and design of clinical trials for specific STS entities and may...

  16. Exploratory of society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  17. Development of voluntary private health insurance in Nordic countries - An exploratory study on country-specific contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, Liina-Kaisa; Alexandersen, Nina; Kaarbøe, Oddvar; Anell, Anders; Lehto, Juhani; Vrangbӕk, Karsten

    2018-03-16

    The Nordic countries are healthcare systems with tax-based financing and ambitions for universal access to comprehensive services. This implies that distribution of healthcare resources should be based on individual needs, not on the ability to pay. Despite this ideological orientation, significant expansion in voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) contracts has occurred in recent decades. The development and role of VPHIs are different across the Nordic countries. Complementary VPHI plays a significant role in Denmark and in Finland. Supplementary VPHI is prominent in Norway and Sweden. The aim of this paper is to explore drivers behind the developments of the VPHI markets in the Nordic countries. We analyze the developments in terms of the following aspects: the performance of the statutory system (real or perceived), lack of coverage in certain areas of healthcare, governmental interventions or inability to reform the system, policy trends and the general socio-cultural environment, and policy responses to voting behavior or lobbying by certain interest groups. It seems that the early developments in VPHI markets have been an answer to the gaps in the national health systems created by institutional contexts, political decisions, and cultural interpretations on the functioning of the system. However, once the market is created it introduces new dynamics that have less to do with gaps and inflexibilities and more with cultural factors. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Intermediate vaginal flora and bacterial vaginosis are associated with the same factors: findings from an exploratory analysis among female sex workers in Africa and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédou, Fernand A; Van Damme, Lut; Deese, Jennifer; Crucitti, Tania; Mirembe, Florence; Solomon, Suniti; Becker, Marissa; Alary, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Several recent studies suggest that intermediate vaginal flora (IVF) is associated with similar adverse health outcomes as bacterial vaginosis (BV). Yet, it is still unknown if IVF and BV share the same correlates. We conducted a cross-sectional and exploratory analysis of data from women screened prior to enrolment in a microbicide trial to estimate BV and IVF prevalence and examine their respective correlates. Participants were interviewed, examined and provided blood and genital samples for the diagnosis of IVF and BV (using Nugent score) and other reproductive tract infections. Polytomous logistic regressions were used in estimating respective ORs of IVF and BV, in relation to each potential risk factor. Among 1367 women, BV and IVF prevalences were 47.6% (95% CI 45.0% to 50.3%) and 19.2% (95% CI 17.1% to 21.2%), respectively. Multivariate polytomous analysis of IVF and BV showed that they were generally associated with the same factors. The respective adjusted ORs were for HIV 1.98 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.86) and 1.62 (95% CI 1.20 to 2.20) (p=0.2248), for gonorrhoea 1.25 (95% CI 0.64 to 2.4) and 2.01 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.49) (p=0.0906), for trichomoniasis 3.26 (95% CI 1.71 to 6.31) and 2.39 (95% CI 1.37 to 4.33) (p=0.2630), for candidiasis 0.52 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.75) and 0.59 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.78) (p=0.5288), and for hormonal contraception 0.65 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.04) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.90) (p=0.8819). In addition, the association between vaginal flora abnormalities and factors such as younger age, HIV, gonorrhoea trichomoniasis and candidiasis were modified by the study site (all p for interaction ≤0.05). IVF has almost the same correlates as BV. The relationship between some factors and vaginal flora abnormalities may be site-specific.

  19. Human factors estimation methods using physiological informations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Ken-ichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1984-01-01

    To enhance the operational safety in the nuclear power plant, it is necessary to decrease abnormal phenomena due to human errors. Especially, it is essential to basically understand human behaviors under the work environment for plant maintenance workers, inspectors, and operators. On the above stand point, this paper presents the results of literature survey on the present status of human factors engineering technology applicable to the nuclear power plant and also discussed the following items: (1) Application fields where the ergonomical evaluation is needed for workers safety. (2) Basic methodology for investigating the human performance. (3) Features of the physiological information analysis among various types of ergonomical techniques. (4) Necessary conditions for the application of in-situ physiological measurement to the nuclear power plant. (5) Availability of the physiological information analysis. (6) Effectiveness of the human factors engineering methodology, especially physiological information analysis in the case of application to the nuclear power plant. The above discussions lead to the demonstration of high applicability of the physiological information analysis to nuclear power plant, in order to improve the work performance. (author)

  20. Monitoring county-level chlamydia incidence in Texas, 2004 – 2005: application of empirical Bayesian smoothing and Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owens Chantelle J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydia continues to be the most prevalent disease in the United States. Effective spatial monitoring of chlamydia incidence is important for successful implementation of control and prevention programs. The objective of this study is to apply Bayesian smoothing and exploratory spatial data analysis (ESDA methods to monitor Texas county-level chlamydia incidence rates by examining spatiotemporal patterns. We used county-level data on chlamydia incidence (for all ages, gender and races from the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS for 2004 and 2005. Results Bayesian-smoothed chlamydia incidence rates were spatially dependent both in levels and in relative changes. Erath county had significantly (p 300 cases per 100,000 residents than its contiguous neighbors (195 or less in both years. Gaines county experienced the highest relative increase in smoothed rates (173% – 139 to 379. The relative change in smoothed chlamydia rates in Newton county was significantly (p Conclusion Bayesian smoothing and ESDA methods can assist programs in using chlamydia surveillance data to identify outliers, as well as relevant changes in chlamydia incidence in specific geographic units. Secondly, it may also indirectly help in assessing existing differences and changes in chlamydia surveillance systems over time.

  1. An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness -based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercer Stewart W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive theory. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-depressed participants with a history of relapsing depression are protected from relapse by participating in the course. This exploratory study examined the acceptability and effectiveness of MBCT for patients in primary care with active symptoms of depression and anxiety Methods 13 patients with recurrent depression or recurrent depression and anxiety were recruited to take part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted three months after completing the MBCT programme. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Beck depression inventories (BDI-II and Beck anxiety inventories (BAI provided quantitative data and were administered before and three months after the intervention. Results The qualitative data indicated that mindfulness training was both acceptable and beneficial to the majority of patients. For many of the participants, being in a group was an important normalising and validating experience. However most of the group believed the course was too short and thought that some form of follow up was essential. More than half the patients continued to apply mindfulness techniques three months after the course had ended. A minority of patients continued to experience significant levels of psychological distress, particularly anxiety. Statistically significant reductions in mean depression and anxiety scores were observed; the mean pre-course depression score was 35.7 and post-course score was 17.8 (p = 0.001. A similar reduction was noted for anxiety with a mean pre-course anxiety score of 32.0 and mean post course score of 20.5 (p = 0.039. Overall 8/11 (72% patients showed improvements in BDI and 7/11 (63% patients showed improvements in BAI. In general the results

  2. Use of exploratory factor analysis to ascertain the correlation between the activities of rheumatoid arthritis and infection by human parvovirus B19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakurina, Natalja; Kadisa, Anda; Lejnieks, Aivars; Mikazane, Helena; Kozireva, Svetlana; Murovska, Modra

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a possible correlation between the clinical activities of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and human parvovirus B19 (B19) infection using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). RA patients were organized into two groups: 100 patients in the main group and 97 in the RA(DAS28) group. Four subgroups were defined from the main group according to the presence or absence of certain infection-specific markers: group I comprised 43 patients who had IgG antibodies against B19; group II, 25 patients with active B19 infection (B19-specific IgM antibodies and/or plasma viremia); group III, 19 patients with latent/persistent B19 infection (virus-specific sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes' DNA with or without B19-specific IgG antibodies), and group IV, 13 patients without infection markers. The RA(DAS28) group was divided into four subgroups similarly to the main group: group I, 35; group II, 31; group III, 19; and group IV, 12 patients. Disease-specific clinical values in both groups were analyzed employing EFA, and the RA(DAS28) group was additionally assessed using Disease Activity Score (DAS)28. RA activity was higher in patients who had markers of B19 infection. The highest activity of RA in both study groups was in patients with latent/persistent infection. In the RA(DAS28) group, according to DAS28, the highest activity of RA was in patients with active B19 infection. Using EFA and DAS28, a correlation between the clinical activity of RA and B19 infection was confirmed. These data suggest that EFA is applicable for medico-biological studies. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  3. An Exploratory Mixed Method Assessment of Low Income, Pregnant Hispanic Women's Understanding of Gestational Diabetes and Dietary Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads-Baeza, Maria Elena; Reis, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe and assess low income, healthy, pregnant Hispanic women's understanding of gestational diabetes (GDM) and willingness to change aspects of their diet. Design: One-on-one, in-person interviews conducted in Spanish with 94 women (primarily Mexican). Setting: Federal Qualified Community Health Center's prenatal clinic. Method:…

  4. An exploratory study on the driving method of speech synthesis based on the human eye reading imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei-pei; Liu, Feng

    2016-10-01

    With the development of information technology and artificial intelligence, speech synthesis plays a significant role in the fields of Human-Computer Interaction Techniques. However, the main problem of current speech synthesis techniques is lacking of naturalness and expressiveness so that it is not yet close to the standard of natural language. Another problem is that the human-computer interaction based on the speech synthesis is too monotonous to realize mechanism of user subjective drive. This thesis introduces the historical development of speech synthesis and summarizes the general process of this technique. It is pointed out that prosody generation module is an important part in the process of speech synthesis. On the basis of further research, using eye activity rules when reading to control and drive prosody generation was introduced as a new human-computer interaction method to enrich the synthetic form. In this article, the present situation of speech synthesis technology is reviewed in detail. Based on the premise of eye gaze data extraction, using eye movement signal in real-time driving, a speech synthesis method which can express the real speech rhythm of the speaker is proposed. That is, when reader is watching corpora with its eyes in silent reading, capture the reading information such as the eye gaze duration per prosodic unit, and establish a hierarchical prosodic pattern of duration model to determine the duration parameters of synthesized speech. At last, after the analysis, the feasibility of the above method is verified.

  5. Aware, motivated and striving for a ‘safe tan’: an exploratory mixed-method study of sun-protection during holidays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Angela M.; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Birch-Machin, Mark A.; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: This article presents an exploratory study, aiming to explore the correspondence between knowledge, motivation and sun-protection practices during holidays. Methods: Seventeen participants aged 21–62 years old, recruited from community settings took part in individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews, completed sun sensitivity questions and an objective assessment of sunscreen use. Holidaymakers’ knowledge about sun-safe messages, intentions and perceptions of barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were assessed. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis and integrated with quantitative data, using a pragmatic theory-informed approach to synthesise the findings. Results: Participants were well informed about sun-safe messages, highly motivated to protect themselves from solar UV radiation (UVR) and they perceived themselves as well protected. However, they did not seem to use effective protective practices. Sunscreen was the preferred method of sun-protection, but most participants used considerably less than the recommended amount and significantly overestimated the amount of time they could be safely exposed. Seeking shade was the least used method of sun-protection and covering-up strategies were mostly implemented as a partial protection (i.e. hats or sunglasses). The desire to reach an optimal balance between getting a tan and using sun-protection to avoid sunburns was preeminent. Several additional barriers and facilitators for sun-protection were identified. Conclusions: Holidaymakers might have a false sense of security when it comes to sun-exposure. They are aware of the need to protect from solar UVR, but the motive for a safe tan, the overreliance on sunscreen, the overestimation of the safe sun-exposure time for their skin type and the insufficient application of sunscreen leaves holidaymakers motivated to protect their skin at significant risk of overexposure, sunburn and skin cancer. Public health

  6. An exploratory analysis of contraceptive method choice and symptoms of depression in adolescent females initiating prescription contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jenny; Presser, Liandra; Malbon, Katherine; Braun-Courville, Debra; Linares, Lourdes Oriana

    2015-04-01

    We examine the association between depressive symptoms and contraceptive method choice among adolescents initiating prescription contraception. This cross-sectional study analyzes baseline data of 220 urban, minority adolescent females (ages 15-19 years) presenting for prescription contraceptive initiation at a comprehensive, free-of-cost, adolescent health center in New York City. All participants met with a health care provider who provided standard contraception counseling before initiating contraception. Each participant then selected a short- or long-acting contraceptive: a 3-month supply of the pill, patch, ring or a medroxyprogesterone acetate depot injection (short-acting), or placement/referral for an intrauterine device (IUD; long-acting). We assess the independent association between contraceptive method selection and symptoms of depression [assessed by the Center for Epidemiological Studies - Depression (CES-D) scale]. Ten percent (n=21/220) of adolescent females selected an IUD. Bivariate analysis revealed that those with elevated levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to select an IUD as compared to those with minimal symptoms (mean CES-D score 20 vs. 13; t=3.052, p=.003). In multivariate logistic regressions, adolescent females had increased odds of selecting an IUD if they reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=4.93; confidence interval, 1.53-15.83; p=.007) after controlling for ethnicity/race, education, number of lifetime partners and gravidity. Inner-city, minority adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression who present for prescription contraceptive initiation may be more likely to select an IUD rather than shorter-acting methods. By recognizing adolescent females with depressive symptoms, providers can strategize their approach to effective contraception counseling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mapping hospice patients' perception and verbal communication of end-of-life needs: an exploratory mixed methods inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Bruce L

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comprehensive "Total Pain" assessments of patients' end-of-life needs are critical for providing improved patient-clinician communication, assessing needs, and offering high quality palliative care. However, patients' needs-based research methodologies and findings remain highly diverse with their lack of consensus preventing optimum needs assessments and care planning. Mixed-methods is an underused yet robust "patient-based" approach for reported lived experiences to map both the incidence and prevalence of what patients perceive as important end of life needs. Methods Findings often include methodological artifacts and their own selection bias. Moving beyond diverse findings therefore requires revisiting methodological choices. A mixed methods research cross-sectional design is therefore used to reduce limitations inherent in both qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Audio-taped phenomenological "thinking aloud" interviews of a purposive sample of 30 hospice patients are used to identify their vocabulary for communicating perceptions of end-of-life needs. Grounded theory procedures assisted by QSR-NVivo software is then used for discovering domains of needs embedded in the interview narratives. Summary findings are translated into quantified format for presentation and analytical purposes. Results Findings from this mixed-methods feasibility study indicate patients' narratives represent 7 core domains of end-of-life needs. These are (1 time, (2 social, (3 physiological, (4 death and dying, (5 safety, (6 spirituality, (7 change & adaptation. The prevalence, rather than just the occurrence, of patients' reported needs provides further insight into their relative importance. Conclusion Patients' perceptions of end-of-life needs are multidimensional, often ambiguous and uncertain. Mixed methodology appears to hold considerable promise for unpacking both the occurrence and prevalence of cognitive structures represented by

  8. Determining the Number of Factors in P-Technique Factor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lawrence L.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.; Rovine, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Determining the number of factors is a critical first step in exploratory factor analysis. Although various criteria and methods for determining the number of factors have been evaluated in the usual between-subjects R-technique factor analysis, there is still question of how these methods perform in within-subjects P-technique factor analysis. A…

  9. Exploratory analysis of methods for automated classification of laboratory test orders into syndromic groups in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C Dórea

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish

  10. Factors associated with secondhand tobacco smoke in the home: an exploratory cross-sectional study among women in Aleta Wondo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne Berit; Thompson, Lisa M; Dadi, Gezahegn Bekele; Tolcha, Alemu; Cataldo, Janine K

    2016-08-31

    In Ethiopia, female smoking rates are currently low (1 %). However, because of male smoking rates (overall 7.7 % and up to 27 % depending on region), women and children's risk of second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is a pressing concern. In order to develop effective public health interventions that prevent the uptake and exposure to smoking, thereby averting the projected increase in tobacco-induced disease, an understanding of Ethiopian women's practices regarding tobacco is needed. The purpose of this study was to explore Ethiopian women's tobacco use and prevalence of SHS exposure, and to identify covariates associated with SHS exposure. We conducted an exploratory cross-sectional study in Southern Ethiopia between August and October 2014, and systematically sampled households in Aleta Wondo town and surrounding districts. Trained interviewers verbally administered surveys to women 18-55 years of age. Descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. None of the 353 participants reported current tobacco use and less than 1 % reported ever use, however, 11 % reported ever use of the stimulant leaf khat. Twenty-seven women (7.6 %) reported living with a tobacco user, however, twice that number (14.4 %) overall, and 22 % of urban participants reported that smoking occurred daily in their home. When controlling for other factors, living with a tobacco user (OR = 9.91, 95 % CI [3.32, 29.59]), allowing smoking in the home (OR = 5.67, 95 % CI [2.51, 12.79]), place of residence (OR = 2.74, 95 % CI [1.11, 6.74)]), and exposure to point-of-sale advertising within the last 30 days (OR = 2.87, 95 % CI [1.26, 6.54]) contributed significantly to a model predicting the likelihood of reporting daily occurrence of smoking/SHS in the home. While few women reported having ever used tobacco, one in seven women in this study reported that smoking/SHS occurred daily in their homes. Therefore SHS exposure is a potential health

  11. A fluorescence-based method for direct measurement of submicrosecond intramolecular contact formation in biopolymers: an exploratory study with polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Robert R; Huang, Fang; Gramlich, Gabriela; Nau, Werner M

    2002-01-30

    A fluorescent amino acid derivative (Fmoc-DBO) has been synthesized, which contains 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) as a small, hydrophilic fluorophore with an extremely long fluorescence lifetime (325 ns in H2O and 505 ns in D2O under air). Polypeptides containing both the DBO residue and an efficient fluorescence quencher allow the measurement of rate constants for intramolecular end-to-end contact formation. Bimolecular quenching experiments indicated that Trp, Cys, Met, and Tyr are efficient quenchers of DBO (k(q) = 20, 5.1, 4.5, and 3.6 x 10(8) M(-1) x s(-1) in D2O), while the other amino acids are inefficient. The quenching by Trp, which was selected as an intrinsic quencher, is presumed to involve exciplex-induced deactivation. Flexible, structureless polypeptides, Trp-(Gly-Ser)n-DBO-NH2, were prepared by standard solid-phase synthesis, and the rates of contact formation were measured through the intramolecular fluorescence quenching of DBO by Trp with time-correlated single-photon counting, laser flash photolysis, and steady-state fluorometry. Rate constants of 4.1, 6.8, 4.9, 3.1, 2.0, and 1.1 x 10(7) s(-1) for n = 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 were obtained. Noteworthy was the relatively slow quenching for the shortest peptide (n = 0). The kinetic data are in agreement with recent transient absorption studies of triplet probes for related peptides, but the rate constants are significantly larger. In contrast to the flexible structureless Gly-Ser polypeptides, the polyproline Trp-Pro4-DBO-NH2 showed insignificant fluorescence quenching, suggesting that a high polypeptide flexibility and the possibility of probe-quencher contact is essential to induce quenching. Advantages of the new fluorescence-based method for measuring contact formation rates in biopolymers include high accuracy, fast time range (100 ps-1 micros), and the possibility to perform measurements in water under air.

  12. An integrating factor matrix method to find first integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saputra, K V I; Quispel, G R W; Van Veen, L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we develop an integrating factor matrix method to derive conditions for the existence of first integrals. We use this novel method to obtain first integrals, along with the conditions for their existence, for two- and three-dimensional Lotka-Volterra systems with constant terms. The results are compared to previous results obtained by other methods.

  13. An exploratory qualitative analysis of student midwives views of teaching methods that could build their confidence to deliver perinatal bereavement care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caroline J Hollins; Robb, Yvonne; Forrest, Eleanor

    2016-04-01

    Equipping student midwives with confidence to deliver bereavement care to childbearing women is a challenge for midwifery lecturers. To explore qualitative data provided by student midwives who evaluated the workbook Bereavement care for childbearing women and their families (Hollins Martin & Forrest, 2013) to explore their views of potential teaching strategies that could build their confidence to deliver real bereavement care. An exploratory qualitative thematic analysis was used to provide, analyse and report themes identified within data collected in a prior study. Participants were student midwives (n=179) in their second/third year of a midwifery degree program at 1 of 3 universities in the UK were included in the study. Data to evaluate effectiveness of the bereavement workbook as a teaching method was collected using a survey instrument. It was the comments written under questions by participants that were analysed in the present study. Three themes emerged: (1) increasing classroom interaction, (2) the importance of reflecting on emotions, and (3) need for experience. Although this study has addressed delivery of education that relates to midwives, the findings are cross transferable to other healthcare educators, practitioners, and students. Several solutions are proposed that could potentially build student confidence to deliver bereavement care: lecturers should (1) encourage group discussion in the classroom to help build student confidence to emotionally cope during real bereavement events; (2) ensure students gain exposure by encouraging qualified midwives to include them in real bereavement events early on in their training, and (3) develop packages of perinatal bereavement scenarios for simulation and rehearsal in the clinical skills laboratory. Post-implementation, it is recommended that these teaching strategies be evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Results from an exploratory study to identify the factors that contribute to success for UK medical device small- and medium-sized enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourd, P C; Williams, D J

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports the results from an exploratory study that sets out to identify and compare the strategic approaches and patterns of business practice employed by 14 UK small- and medium-sized enterprises to achieve success in the medical device sector of the health-care industry. An interview-based survey was used to construct individual case studies of the medical device technology (MDT) companies. A cross-case analysis was performed to search for patterns and themes that cut across these individual cases. Exploratory results revealed the heterogeneity of MDT companies and the distinctive features of the MDT innovation process that emphasize the importance of a strategic approach for achieving milestones in the product development and exploitation process and for creating value for the company and its stakeholders. Recognizing the heterogeneity of MDT companies, these exploratory findings call for further investigation to understand better the influence of components of the MDT innovation process on the commercialization life cycle and value trajectory. This is required to assist start-up or spin-out MDT companies in the UK and worldwide to navigate the critical transitions that determine access to financial and consumer markets and enhance the potential to build a successful business. This will be important not only for bioscience-based companies but also for engineering-based companies aiming to convert their activities into medical devices and the health- and social-care market.

  15. An exploratory GIS-based method to identify and characterise landscapes with an elevated epidemiological risk of Rhodesian human African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardrop Nicola A

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific land cover types and activities have been correlated with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense distributions, indicating the importance of landscape for epidemiological risk. However, methods proposed to identify specific areas with elevated epidemiological risk (i.e. where transmission is more likely to occur tend to be costly and time consuming. This paper proposes an exploratory spatial analysis using geo-referenced human African trypanosomiasis (HAT cases and matched controls from Serere hospital, Uganda (December 1998 to November 2002 to identify areas with an elevated epidemiological risk of HAT. Methods Buffers 3 km from each case and control were used to represent areas in which village inhabitants would carry out their daily activities. It was hypothesised that the selection of areas where several case village buffers overlapped would enable the identification of locations with increased risk of HAT transmission, as these areas were more likely to be frequented by HAT cases in several surrounding villages. The landscape within these overlap areas should more closely relate to the environment in which transmission occurs as opposed to using the full buffer areas. The analysis was carried out for each of four annual periods, for both cases and controls, using a series of threshold values (number of overlapping buffers, including a threshold of one, which represented the benchmark (e.g. use of the full buffer area as opposed to the overlap areas. Results A greater proportion of the overlap areas for cases consisted of seasonally flooding grassland and lake fringe swamp, than the control overlap areas, correlating well with the preferred habitat of the predominant tsetse species within the study area (Glossina fuscipes fuscipes. The use of overlap areas also resulted in a greater difference between case and control landscapes, when compared with the benchmark (using the full buffer area. Conclusions These results

  16. Investigation of evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Seiichi; Fujimoto, Junzo; Sasou Kunihide; Hasegawa, Naoko

    2004-01-01

    Education effectiveness in accordance with investment is required in the steam of electric power regulation alleviation. Therefore, evaluation methods for human factors education effectiveness which can observe human factors culture pervading process were investigated through research activities on education effectiveness in universities and actual in house education in industry companies. As a result, the contents of evaluation were found to be the change of feeling for human factors and some improving proposals in work places when considering the purpose of human factors education. And, questionnaire is found to be suitable for the style of evaluation. In addition, the timing of evaluation is desirable for both just after education and after some period in work places. Hereafter, data will be collected using these two kinds of questionnaires in human factors education courses in CRIEPI and some education courses in utilities. Thus, education effectiveness evaluation method which is suitable for human factors will be established. (author)

  17. Plasma inflammatory factors are associated with anxiety, depression, and cognitive problems in adults with and without methamphetamine dependence: An exploratory protein array study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn eHuckans

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: It is hypothesized that immune factors influence addictive behaviors and contribute to relapse. The primary study objectives were to: 1 compare neuropsychiatric symptoms across adults with active methamphetamine dependence, in early remission from methamphetamine dependence, and with no history of substance dependence, 2 determine whether active or recent methamphetamine dependence affects the expression of immune factors, and 3 evaluate the association between immune factor levels and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using between group comparisons and regression analyses to investigate associations among variables. Eighty-four adults were recruited into control (n = 31, methamphetamine (MA-active (n = 17, or MA-remission (n = 36 groups. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and memory complaints and objective tests of attention and executive function. Blood samples were collected, and a panel of immune factors was measured using multiplex technology. Results: Relative to controls, MA dependent adults evidenced greater anxiety and depression during active use (p < 0.001 and remission (p < 0.007, and more attention, memory, and executive problems during remission (p < 0.01 but not active dependence. Regression analyses identified 10 immune factors (putatively associated with cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions associated with anxiety, depression, and memory problems. Conclusion: While psychiatric symptoms are present during active methamphetamine dependence and remission, at least some cognitive difficulties emerge only during remission. Altered expression of a network of immune factors contributes to neuropsychiatric symptom severity.

  18. An exploratory examination of the relationship between motivational factors and the degree to which the higher education faculty integrate computer-mediated communication (CMC) tools into their courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murage, Francis Ndwiga

    The stated research problem of this study was to examine the relationship between motivational factors and the degree to which the higher education faculty integrate CMC tools into their courses. The study population and sample involved higher education faculty teaching in science departments at one public university and three public colleges in the state of West Virginia (N = 153). A Likert-type rating scale survey was used to collect data based on the research questions. Two parts of the survey were adopted from previous studies while the other two were self-constructed. Research questions and hypothesis were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential analyses. The study results established a positive relationship between motivational factors and the degree the higher education faculty integrate CMC tools in their courses. The results in addition established that faculty are highly motivated to integrate CMC tools by intrinsic factors, moderately motivated by environmental factors and least motivated by extrinsic factors. The results also established that the most integrated CMC tools were those that support asynchronous methods of communication while the least integrated were those that support synchronous methods of communication. A major conclusion made was that members of higher education faculty are more likely to be motivated to integrate CMC tools into their courses by intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic or environmental factors. It was further concluded that intrinsic factors that supported and enhanced student learning as well as those that were altruistic in nature significantly influenced the degree of CMC integration. The study finally concluded that to larger extent, there is a relationship between motivational factors and the degree to which the higher education faculty integrate CMC tools in their courses. A major implication of this study was that institutions that wish to promote integration of CMC technologies should provide as much

  19. Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale: Two Factors or Method Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo

    1999-01-01

    Results of a study with 640 Spanish high school students suggest the existence of a global self-esteem factor underlying responses to Rosenberg's (M. Rosenberg, 1965) Self-Esteem Scale, although the inclusion of method effects is needed to achieve a good model fit. Method effects are associated with item wording. (SLD)

  20. An economic and financial exploratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European Exploratory for economics and finance will be constituted as a network of infrastructure, observatories, data repositories, services and facilities and will foster the creation of a new cross-disciplinary research community of social scientists, complexity scientists and computing (ICT) scientists to collaborate in investigating major issues in economics and finance. It is also considered a cradle for training and collaboration with the private sector to spur spin-offs and job creations in Europe in the finance and economic sectors. The Exploratory will allow Social Scientists and Regulators as well as Policy Makers and the private sector to conduct realistic investigations with real economic, financial and social data. The Exploratory will (i) continuously monitor and evaluate the status of the economies of countries in their various components, (ii) use, extend and develop a large variety of methods including data mining, process mining, computational and artificial intelligence and every other computer and complex science techniques coupled with economic theory and econometric, and (iii) provide the framework and infrastructure to perform what-if analysis, scenario evaluations and computational, laboratory, field and web experiments to inform decision makers and help develop innovative policy, market and regulation designs.

  1. Optimizing treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis—a proof of principle and exploratory trial: is dose tapering practical in good responders?

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Fowzia; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Doré, Caroline J; Bosworth, Ailsa; Ma, Margaret H; Galloway, James B; Cope, Andrew P; Pande, Ira; Walker, David; Scott, David L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: RA patients receiving TNF inhibitors (TNFi) usually maintain their initial doses. The aim of the Optimizing Treatment with Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis trial was to evaluate whether tapering TNFi doses causes loss of clinical response.Methods: We enrolled RA patients receiving etanercept or adalimumab and a DMARD with DAS28 under 3.2 for over 3 months. Initially (months 0-6) patients were randomized to control (constant TNFi) or two experimental groups...

  2. Factorization method for simulating QCD at finite density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun

    2003-01-01

    We propose a new method for simulating QCD at finite density. The method is based on a general factorization property of distribution functions of observables, and it is therefore applicable to any system with a complex action. The so-called overlap problem is completely eliminated by the use of constrained simulations. We test this method in a Random Matrix Theory for finite density QCD, where we are able to reproduce the exact results for the quark number density. (author)

  3. An alternative method for centrifugal compressor loading factor modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galerkin, Y.; Drozdov, A.; Rekstin, A.; Soldatova, K.

    2017-08-01

    The loading factor at design point is calculated by one or other empirical formula in classical design methods. Performance modelling as a whole is out of consideration. Test data of compressor stages demonstrates that loading factor versus flow coefficient at the impeller exit has a linear character independent of compressibility. Known Universal Modelling Method exploits this fact. Two points define the function - loading factor at design point and at zero flow rate. The proper formulae include empirical coefficients. A good modelling result is possible if the choice of coefficients is based on experience and close analogs. Earlier Y. Galerkin and K. Soldatova had proposed to define loading factor performance by the angle of its inclination to the ordinate axis and by the loading factor at zero flow rate. Simple and definite equations with four geometry parameters were proposed for loading factor performance calculated for inviscid flow. The authors of this publication have studied the test performance of thirteen stages of different types. The equations are proposed with universal empirical coefficients. The calculation error lies in the range of plus to minus 1,5%. The alternative model of a loading factor performance modelling is included in new versions of the Universal Modelling Method.

  4. Recent Progress on the Factorization Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Harrach

    2013-01-01

    method was introduced by Kirsch for inverse scattering problems and extended to electrical impedance tomography (EIT by Brühl and Hanke. Since these pioneering works, substantial progress has been made on the theoretical foundations of the method. The necessary assumptions have been weakened, and the proofs have been considerably simplified. In this work, we aim to summarize this progress and present a state-of-the-art formulation of the Factorization Method for EIT with continuous data. In particular, we formulate the method for general piecewise analytic conductivities and give short and self-contained proofs.

  5. International survey on attitudes toward ethics in health technology assessment: An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arellano, L.E.; Willett, J.M.; Borry, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this exploratory study was to survey international health technology assessment (HTA) professionals to determine attitudes toward ethics in HTA. Methods: An exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study design was developed. The sample population (n = 636) was

  6. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  7. Scale factor measure method without turntable for angular rate gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Fangyi; Han, Xuefei; Yao, Yanqing; Xiong, Yuting; Huang, Yuqiong; Wang, Hua

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a scale factor test method without turntable is originally designed for the angular rate gyroscope. A test system which consists of test device, data acquisition circuit and data processing software based on Labview platform is designed. Taking advantage of gyroscope's sensitivity of angular rate, a gyroscope with known scale factor, serves as a standard gyroscope. The standard gyroscope is installed on the test device together with a measured gyroscope. By shaking the test device around its edge which is parallel to the input axis of gyroscope, the scale factor of the measured gyroscope can be obtained in real time by the data processing software. This test method is fast. It helps test system miniaturized, easy to carry or move. Measure quarts MEMS gyroscope's scale factor multi-times by this method, the difference is less than 0.2%. Compare with testing by turntable, the scale factor difference is less than 1%. The accuracy and repeatability of the test system seems good.

  8. Fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomel, Sergey; Luo, Songting; Zhao, Hongkai

    2009-09-01

    We develop a fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation. By decomposing the solution of a general eikonal equation as the product of two factors: the first factor is the solution to a simple eikonal equation (such as distance) or a previously computed solution to an approximate eikonal equation. The second factor is a necessary modification/correction. Appropriate discretization and a fast sweeping strategy are designed for the equation of the correction part. The key idea is to enforce the causality of the original eikonal equation during the Gauss-Seidel iterations. Using extensive numerical examples we demonstrate that (1) the convergence behavior of the fast sweeping method for the factored eikonal equation is the same as for the original eikonal equation, i.e., the number of iterations for the Gauss-Seidel iterations is independent of the mesh size, (2) the numerical solution from the factored eikonal equation is more accurate than the numerical solution directly computed from the original eikonal equation, especially for point sources.

  9. Factors of Selection of the Stock Allocation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohov Heorhii K.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes results of the author’s study of factors of making strategic decisions on selection of methods of stock allocation by public joint stock companies in Ukraine. The author used the Random forest mathematical apparatus of classification trees building and also informal methods. The article analyses the reasons that restrain public allocation of stock. It shows significant influence upon selection of a method of stock allocation of such factors as capital concentration, balance rate of corporate rights, sector of economy and significant participation of the institutes of common investment or the state in the authorised capital. The built hierarchical model of classification of factors of the issuing policy of joint stock companies finds logical justification in specific features of the institutional environment, however, it does not fit into the framework of the classical concept of the market economy. The model could be used both for formation of goals of corporate financial strategies and in the process of improvement of state regulation of activity of securities issuers. The prospect of further studies in this direction is identification of transformation of factors of selection of the stock allocation method under conditions of revival of the stock market.

  10. Factors that influence utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing at a selected university campus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndabarora, Eléazar; Mchunu, Gugu

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have reported that university students, who are mostly young people, rarely use existing HIV/AIDS preventive methods. Although studies have shown that young university students have a high degree of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and HIV modes of transmission, they are still not utilising the existing HIV prevention methods and still engage in risky sexual practices favourable to HIV. Some variables, such as awareness of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods, have been associated with utilisation of such methods. The study aimed to explore factors that influence use of existing HIV/AIDS prevention methods among university students residing in a selected campus, using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a theoretical framework. A quantitative research approach and an exploratory-descriptive design were used to describe perceived factors that influence utilisation by university students of HIV/AIDS prevention methods. A total of 335 students completed online and manual questionnaires. Study findings showed that the factors which influenced utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods were mainly determined by awareness of the existing university-based HIV/AIDS prevention strategies. Most utilised prevention methods were voluntary counselling and testing services and free condoms. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS score was also found to correlate with HIV risk index score. Perceived susceptibility and perceived threat of HIV/AIDS showed correlation with self-efficacy on condoms and their utilisation. Most HBM variables were not predictors of utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students. Intervention aiming to improve the utilisation of HIV/AIDS prevention methods among students at the selected university should focus on removing identified barriers, promoting HIV/AIDS prevention services and providing appropriate resources to implement such programmes.

  11. Factors affecting sustainable adoption of e-health technology in developing countries: an exploratory survey of Nigerian hospitals from the perspective of healthcare professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toycan, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    Background E-health technology applications are essential tools of modern information technology that improve quality of healthcare delivery in hospitals of both developed and developing countries. However, despite its positive benefits, studies indicate that the rate of the e-health adoption in some developing countries is either low or underutilized. This is due in part, to barriers such as resistance from healthcare professionals, poor infrastructure, and low technical expertise among others. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate, identify and analyze the underlying factors that affect healthcare professionals decision to adopt and use e-health technology applications in developing countries, with particular reference to hospitals in Nigeria. Methods The study used a cross sectional approach in the form of a close-ended questionnaire to collect quantitative data from a sample of 465 healthcare professionals randomly selected from 15 hospitals in Nigeria. We used the modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the dependent variable and external factors as independent variables. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis such as frequency test, reliability analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis. Results The results obtained, which correspond with findings from other researches published, indicate that perceived usefulness, belief, willingness, as well as attitude of healthcare professionals have significant influence on their intention to adopt and use the e-health technology applications. Other strategic factors identified include low literacy level and experience in using the e-health technology applications, lack of motivation, poor organizational and management policies. Conclusion The study contributes to the literature by pinpointing significant areas where findings can positively affect, or be found useful by, healthcare policy decision makers in Nigeria and other developing countries. This can help them

  12. Factors affecting sustainable adoption of e-health technology in developing countries: an exploratory survey of Nigerian hospitals from the perspective of healthcare professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ahmed Zayyad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background E-health technology applications are essential tools of modern information technology that improve quality of healthcare delivery in hospitals of both developed and developing countries. However, despite its positive benefits, studies indicate that the rate of the e-health adoption in some developing countries is either low or underutilized. This is due in part, to barriers such as resistance from healthcare professionals, poor infrastructure, and low technical expertise among others. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate, identify and analyze the underlying factors that affect healthcare professionals decision to adopt and use e-health technology applications in developing countries, with particular reference to hospitals in Nigeria. Methods The study used a cross sectional approach in the form of a close-ended questionnaire to collect quantitative data from a sample of 465 healthcare professionals randomly selected from 15 hospitals in Nigeria. We used the modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM as the dependent variable and external factors as independent variables. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis such as frequency test, reliability analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis. Results The results obtained, which correspond with findings from other researches published, indicate that perceived usefulness, belief, willingness, as well as attitude of healthcare professionals have significant influence on their intention to adopt and use the e-health technology applications. Other strategic factors identified include low literacy level and experience in using the e-health technology applications, lack of motivation, poor organizational and management policies. Conclusion The study contributes to the literature by pinpointing significant areas where findings can positively affect, or be found useful by, healthcare policy decision makers in Nigeria and other developing countries. This

  13. Exploratory multivariate analysis by example using R

    CERN Document Server

    Husson, Francois; Pages, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    Full of real-world case studies and practical advice, Exploratory Multivariate Analysis by Example Using R focuses on four fundamental methods of multivariate exploratory data analysis that are most suitable for applications. It covers principal component analysis (PCA) when variables are quantitative, correspondence analysis (CA) and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) when variables are categorical, and hierarchical cluster analysis.The authors take a geometric point of view that provides a unified vision for exploring multivariate data tables. Within this framework, they present the prin

  14. Methods for determining radionuclide retardation factors: status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relyea, J.F.; Serne, R.J.; Rai, D.

    1980-04-01

    This report identifies a number of mechanisms that retard radionuclide migration, and describes the static and dynamic methods that are used to study such retardation phenomena. Both static and dynamic methods are needed for reliable safety assessments of underground nuclear-waste repositories. This report also evaluates the extent to which the two methods may be used to diagnose radionuclide migration through various types of geologic media, among them unconsolidated, crushed, intact, and fractured rocks. Adsorption is one mechanism that can control radionuclide concentrations in solution and therefore impede radionuclide migration. Other mechanisms that control a solution's radionuclide concentration and radionuclide migration are precipitation of hydroxides and oxides, oxidation-reduction reactions, and the formation of minerals that might include the radionuclide as a structural element. The retardation mechanisms mentioned above are controlled by such factors as surface area, cation exchange capacity, solution pH, chemical composition of the rock and of the solution, oxidation-reduction potential, and radionuclide concentration. Rocks and ground waters used in determining retardation factors should represent the expected equilibrium conditions in the geologic system under investigation. Static test methods can be used to rapidly screen the effects of the factors mentioned above. Dynamic (or column) testing, is needed to assess the effects of hydrodynamics and the interaction of hydrodynamics with the other important parameters. This paper proposes both a standard method for conducting batch Kd determinations, and a standard format for organizing and reporting data. Dynamic testing methods are not presently developed to the point that a standard methodology can be proposed. Normal procedures are outlined for column experimentation and the data that are needed to analyze a column experiment are identified

  15. The annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and deposition factor according to methods of atmospheric stability classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hae Sun; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Kim, Eun Han; Han, Moon Hee; Hwang, Won Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This study analyzes the differences in the annual averaged atmospheric dispersion factor and ground deposition factor produced using two classification methods of atmospheric stability, which are based on a vertical temperature difference and the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. Daedeok and Wolsong nuclear sites were chosen for an assessment, and the meteorological data at 10 m were applied to the evaluation of atmospheric stability. The XOQDOQ software program was used to calculate atmospheric dispersion factors and ground deposition factors. The calculated distances were chosen at 400 m, 800 m, 1,200 m, 1,600 m, 2,400 m, and 3,200 m away from the radioactive material release points. All of the atmospheric dispersion factors generated using the atmospheric stability based on the vertical temperature difference were shown to be higher than those from the standard deviation of horizontal wind direction fluctuation. On the other hand, the ground deposition factors were shown to be same regardless of the classification method, as they were based on the graph obtained from empirical data presented in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.111, which is unrelated to the atmospheric stability for the ground level release. These results are based on the meteorological data collected over the course of one year at the specified sites; however, the classification method of atmospheric stability using the vertical temperature difference is expected to be more conservative.

  16. Thermal disadvantage factor calculation by the multiregion collision probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, B.; Ozgener, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    A multi-region collision probability formulation that is capable of applying white boundary condition directly is presented and applied to thermal neutron transport problems. The disadvantage factors computed are compared with their counterparts calculated by S N methods with both direct and indirect application of white boundary condition. The results of the ABH and collision probability method with indirect application of white boundary condition are also considered and comparisons with benchmark Monte Carlo results are carried out. The studies show that the proposed formulation is capable of calculating thermal disadvantage factor with sufficient accuracy without resorting to the fictitious scattering outer shell approximation associated with the indirect application of the white boundary condition in collision probability solutions

  17. A study of environmental polluting factors by neutron activation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunoiu, C.; Doca, C.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents: a) some importance factors of the environmental pollution; b) the theoretical aspects of the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) used in the study of the environmental pollution; c) the NAA specific hardware and software facilities existing at the Institute for Nuclear Research; d) a direct application of the NAA method in the study of the environmental pollution for Pitesti city by the analysis of some ground and vegetation samples; e) results and conclusions. (authors)

  18. Exploratory behaviour, emotional wellbeing and childcare quality in preschool education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Barandiaran

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between children exploratory behaviour and the quality of structural childcare and process in preschools. The study also examined how childcare quality affects the relationship between emotional wellbeing and exploratory behaviour. The sample comprised 206 children from 40 classrooms in 20 preschools, together with their teachers. The children's age ranged between 37 and 64 months (M = 50.96, SD = 6.54. The results indicated that children cared for by more sensitive teachers engaged in more exploratory behavior. However, no moderating effect was found of teacher sensitivity on the positive relationship between exploratory behavior and wellbeing. Finally, some factors linked to the quality of structural childcare also influenced exploratory behavior, although to a lesser extent.

  19. Dirac equation in low dimensions: The factorization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Monroy, J.A., E-mail: antosan@if.usp.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Quimbay, C.J., E-mail: cjquimbayh@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, D. C. (Colombia); CIF, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-11-15

    We present a general approach to solve the (1+1) and (2+1)-dimensional Dirac equations in the presence of static scalar, pseudoscalar and gauge potentials, for the case in which the potentials have the same functional form and thus the factorization method can be applied. We show that the presence of electric potentials in the Dirac equation leads to two Klein–Gordon equations including an energy-dependent potential. We then generalize the factorization method for the case of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. Additionally, the shape invariance is generalized for a specific class of energy-dependent Hamiltonians. We also present a condition for the absence of the Klein paradox (stability of the Dirac sea), showing how Dirac particles in low dimensions can be confined for a wide family of potentials. - Highlights: • The low-dimensional Dirac equation in the presence of static potentials is solved. • The factorization method is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The shape invariance is generalized for energy-dependent Hamiltonians. • The stability of the Dirac sea is related to the existence of supersymmetric partner Hamiltonians.

  20. Managing exploratory innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Charue-Duboc , Florence; Aggeri , Franck; Chanal , Valérie; Garel , Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Although the concept of exploration has been widely used in management research since James March's seminal article, the literature on exploration remains rather fuzzy. The question of exploration is dominated by the literature on ambidexterity but this research actually says little about concretely managing exploratory innovation itself, although this appears to be a central concern of most industrial firms today. Based on a material (twenty presentations made in a research seminar the autho...

  1. Convergence Improvement of Response Matrix Method with Large Discontinuity Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Akio

    2003-01-01

    In the response matrix method, a numerical divergence problem has been reported when extremely small or large discontinuity factors are utilized in the calculations. In this paper, an alternative response matrix formulation to solve the divergence problem is discussed, and properties of iteration matrixes are investigated through eigenvalue analyses. In the conventional response matrix formulation, partial currents between adjacent nodes are assumed to be discontinuous, and outgoing partial currents are converted into incoming partial currents by the discontinuity factor matrix. Namely, the partial currents of the homogeneous system (i.e., homogeneous partial currents) are treated in the conventional response matrix formulation. In this approach, the spectral radius of an iteration matrix for the partial currents may exceed unity when an extremely small or large discontinuity factor is used. Contrary to this, an alternative response matrix formulation using heterogeneous partial currents is discussed in this paper. In the latter approach, partial currents are assumed to be continuous between adjacent nodes, and discontinuity factors are directly considered in the coefficients of a response matrix. From the eigenvalue analysis of the iteration matrix for the one-group, one-dimensional problem, the spectral radius for the heterogeneous partial current formulation does not exceed unity even if an extremely small or large discontinuity factor is used in the calculation; numerical stability of the alternative formulation is superior to the conventional one. The numerical stability of the heterogeneous partial current formulation is also confirmed by the two-dimensional light water reactor core analysis. Since the heterogeneous partial current formulation does not require any approximation, the converged solution exactly reproduces the reference solution when the discontinuity factors are directly derived from the reference calculation

  2. A survey on critical factors influencing new advertisement methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Soft drink beverages are important part of many people’s foods and many prefer soft drink to water when they have dinner. Therefore, this business model can be considered as the longest lasting sector for many years and there has been not much change in these products. However, new methods of advertisement play important role for increasing market share. In this paper, we study the impact of new methods of advertisement in product development. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire for one of Iranian soft drink producers, which consisted of 274 questions in Likert scale and uses factor analysis (FA to analyze the results. The study selects 250 people who live in city of Tehran, Iran and Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.88, which is well above the minimum desirable limit. According to our results, there were six important factors impacting in product development, including modern advertisement techniques, emotional impact, strategy of market leadership, pricing strategy, product life chain and supply entity. The most important factor loading in these six components include impact of social values, persuading unaware and uninformed customers, ability to monopolizing in production, improving pricing techniques, product life cycle and negative impact of high advertisement.

  3. DIETFITS Study (Diet Intervention Examining The Factors Interacting with Treatment Success) – Study Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael; Robinson, Jennifer; Kirkpatrick, Susan; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa; Trepanowski, John; Hauser, Michelle; Hartle, Jennifer; Cherin, Rise; King, Abby C.; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25 kg weight loss to ~5 kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40 kg/m2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. PMID:28027950

  4. DIETFITS study (diet intervention examining the factors interacting with treatment success) - Study design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Michael V; Robinson, Jennifer L; Kirkpatrick, Susan M; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Avery, Erin C; Rigdon, Joseph; Offringa, Lisa C; Trepanowski, John F; Hauser, Michelle E; Hartle, Jennifer C; Cherin, Rise J; King, Abby C; Ioannidis, John P A; Desai, Manisha; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-02-01

    Numerous studies have attempted to identify successful dietary strategies for weight loss, and many have focused on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carbohydrate comparisons. Despite relatively small between-group differences in weight loss found in most previous studies, researchers have consistently observed relatively large between-subject differences in weight loss within any given diet group (e.g., ~25kg weight loss to ~5kg weight gain). The primary objective of this study was to identify predisposing individual factors at baseline that help explain differential weight loss achieved by individuals assigned to the same diet, particularly a pre-determined multi-locus genotype pattern and insulin resistance status. Secondary objectives included discovery strategies for further identifying potential genetic risk scores. Exploratory objectives included investigation of an extensive set of physiological, psychosocial, dietary, and behavioral variables as moderating and/or mediating variables and/or secondary outcomes. The target population was generally healthy, free-living adults with BMI 28-40kg/m 2 (n=600). The intervention consisted of a 12-month protocol of 22 one-hour evening instructional sessions led by registered dietitians, with ~15-20 participants/class. Key objectives of dietary instruction included focusing on maximizing the dietary quality of both Low-Fat and Low-Carbohydrate diets (i.e., Healthy Low-Fat vs. Healthy Low-Carbohydrate), and maximally differentiating the two diets from one another. Rather than seeking to determine if one dietary approach was better than the other for the general population, this study sought to examine whether greater overall weight loss success could be achieved by matching different people to different diets. Here we present the design and methods of the study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk factors associated with the community-acquired colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive Escherichia Coli. an exploratory case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Leistner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The number of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL positive (+ Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. In contrast with many other multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is suspected that they predominantly spread within the community. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with community-acquired colonization of ESBL (+ E. coli. METHODS: We performed a matched case-control study at the Charité University Hospital Berlin between May 2011 and January 2012. Cases were defined as patients colonized with community-acquired ESBL (+ E. coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Controls were patients that carried no ESBL-positive bacteria but an ESBL-negative E.coli identified <72 h after hospital admission. Two controls per case were chosen from potential controls according to admission date. Case and control patients completed a questionnaire assessing nutritional habits, travel habits, household situation and language most commonly spoken at home (mother tongue. An additional rectal swab was obtained together with the questionnaire to verify colonization status. Genotypes of ESBL (+ E. coli strains were determined by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors associated with ESBL (+ E. coli colonization were analyzed by a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: We analyzed 85 cases and 170 controls, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, speaking an Asian language most commonly at home (OR = 13.4, CI 95% 3.3-53.8; p<0.001 and frequently eating pork (≥ 3 meals per week showed to be independently associated with ESBL colonization (OR = 3.5, CI 95% 1.8-6.6; p<0.001. The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-1 with 44% (n = 37, CTX-M-15 with 28% (n = 24 and CTX-M-14 with 13% (n = 11. CONCLUSION: An Asian mother tongue and frequently consuming certain types of meat like pork can be independently associated with the colonization of ESBL-positive bacteria. We found neither frequent consumption

  6. Factor structure, internal consistency and reliability of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: an exploratory study Estrutura fatorial, consistência interna e confiabilidade do Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Paula Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD is an anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to traumatic events. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL is a self-report measure largely used to evaluate the presence of PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the internal consistency, temporal reliability and factor validity of the Portuguese language version of the PCL used in Brazil. METHODS: A total of 186 participants were recruited. The sample was heterogeneous with regard to occupation, sociodemographic data, mental health history, and exposure to traumatic events. Subjects answered the PCL at two occasions within a 15 days’ interval (range: 5-15 days. RESULTS: Cronbach’s alpha coefficients indicated high internal consistency for the total scale (0.91 and for the theoretical dimensions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV (0.83, 0.81, and 0.80. Temporal reliability (test-retest was high and consistent for different cutoffs. Maximum likelihood exploratory factor analysis (EFA was conducted and oblique rotation (Promax was applied. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO index (0.911 and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (χ² = 1,381.34, p INTRODUÇÃO: O transtorno do estresse pós-traumático (TEPT é um transtorno de ansiedade decorrente da exposição a eventos traumáticos. Entre as medidas de avaliação dos sintomas, destaca-se o Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL. OBJETIVO: Investigar a consistência interna, a confiabilidade temporal e a validade fatorial da versão do PCL em português, utilizada no Brasil. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 186 indivíduos heterogêneos em relação a ocupação, características sociodemográficas, histórico de saúde mental e exposição a eventos traumáticos. O PCL foi aplicado em dois momentos considerando um intervalo máximo de 15 dias (intervalo: 5-15 dias. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna (alfa de Cronbach foi adequada para a escala

  7. Comparative Analysis Of Dempster Shafer Method With Certainty Factor Method For Diagnose Stroke Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Kuit Panggabean

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of artificial intelligence technology that has occurred has allowed expert systems to be applied in detecting disease using programming languages. One in terms of providing information about a variety of disease problems that have recently been feared by Indonesian society, namely stroke. Expert system method used is dempster shafer and certainty factor method is used to analyze the comparison of both methods in stroke.Based on the analysis result, it is found that certainty factor is better than demster shafer and more accurate in handling the knowledge representation of stoke disease according to the symptoms of disease obtained from one hospital in medan city, uniqueness of algorithm that exist in both methods.

  8. Factors influencing the contraceptive method choice: a university hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Korhan; Göç, Göksu; Taşkın, Salih; Haznedar, Pınar; Karagözlü, Selen; Kale, Burak; Kurtipek, Zeynep; Özmen, Batuhan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze the factors influencing behavior of women in choosing contraceptive methods. Material and Methods A total of 4022 women who were admitted to our clinic in a year, were the subjects in this current study for contraception choices. Relationship between the current contraceptive choice and the age, marital status, educational level, gravidity and induced abortions were evaluated. Results Current users of any contraceptive methods were found to make up thirty-three percent of the entire study population. The most preferred method of contraception was an intrauterine device (46.4%), followed by, condom (19.2%), coitus interruptus (16.4%), tubal sterilization (11%), oral contraceptives (5.7%) and lastly the “other methods” that consisted of depot injectables and implants (1.2%). Among other contraceptive methods, the condom was found to be used mostly by the younger age group (OR:0.956, 95% CI:0.936–0.976, p<0.001), while tubal sterilization was preferred mainly by the elderly population (p<0.001, OR:1.091, 95% CI:1.062–1.122). Women that have a higher educational level, were found to use OC (76.3%, OR:5.970, 95% CI:3.233–11.022), tubal sterilization (59.6%, OR:4.110, 95% CI:2.694–6.271) and other methods (62.5%, OR:3.279, 95% CI:1.033–10.402) more commonly than the low educational group (p<0.001). Conclusion These results demonstrated that the rates of both contraception utilization and the usage of more effective methods of contraception need to be increased by providing better family planning systems and counselling opportunities. PMID:24592017

  9. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: janetegc@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  10. Methodological exploratory study applied to occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Janete C.G. Gaburo; Vasques, MOnica Heloisa B.; Fontinele, Ricardo S.; Sordi, Gian Maria A.

    2007-01-01

    The utilization of epidemiologic methods and techniques has been object of practical experimentation and theoretical-methodological reflection in health planning and programming process. Occupational Epidemiology is the study of the causes and prevention of diseases and injuries from exposition and risks in the work environment. In this context, there is no intention to deplete such a complex theme but to deal with basic concepts of Occupational Epidemiology, presenting the main characteristics of the analysis methods used in epidemiology, as investigate the possible determinants of exposition (chemical, physical and biological agents). For this study, the social-demographic profile of the IPEN-CNEN/SP work force was used. The knowledge of this reference population composition is based on sex, age, educational level, marital status and different occupations, aiming to know the relation between the health aggravating factors and these variables. The methodology used refers to a non-experimental research based on a theoretical methodological practice. The work performed has an exploratory character, aiming a later survey of indicators in the health area in order to analyze possible correlations related to epidemiologic issues. (author)

  11. Culture, social networks, and information sharing: An exploratory study of Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes and habits in light of cultural factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuko

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of culture and language on Japanese aerospace engineers' information-seeking processes by both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The Japanese sample consisted of 162 members of the Japan Society for Aeronautical and Space Sciences (JSASS). U.S. aerospace engineers served as a reference point, consisting of 213 members of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The survey method was utilized in gathering data using self-administered mail questionnaires in order to explore the following eight areas: (1) the content and use of information resources; (2) production and use of information products; (3) methods of accessing information service providers; (4) foreign language skills; (5) studying/researching/collaborating abroad as a tool in expanding information resources; (6) scientific and technical societies as networking tools; (7) alumni associations (school/class reunions) as networking tools; and (8) social, corporate, civic and health/fitness clubs as networking tools. Nine Japanese cultural factors expressed as statements about Japanese society are as follows: (1) information is neither autonomous, objective, nor independent of the subject of cognition; (2) information and knowledge are not readily accessible to the public; (3) emphasis on groups is reinforced in a hierarchical society; (4) social networks thrive as information-sharing vehicles; (5) high context is a predominant form of communication in which most of the information is already in the person, while very little is in the coded, transmitted part of the message; (6) obligations based on mutual trust dictate social behaviors instead of contractual agreements; (7) a surface message is what is presented while a bottom-line message is true feeling privately held; (8) various religious beliefs uphold a work ethic based on harmony; (9) ideas from outside are readily assimilated into its own society. The result of the

  12. Optimizing treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis—a proof of principle and exploratory trial: is dose tapering practical in good responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Doré, Caroline J; Bosworth, Ailsa; Ma, Margaret H; Galloway, James B; Cope, Andrew P; Pande, Ira; Walker, David; Scott, David L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives RA patients receiving TNF inhibitors (TNFi) usually maintain their initial doses. The aim of the Optimizing Treatment with Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis trial was to evaluate whether tapering TNFi doses causes loss of clinical response. Methods We enrolled RA patients receiving etanercept or adalimumab and a DMARD with DAS28 under 3.2 for over 3 months. Initially (months 0–6) patients were randomized to control (constant TNFi) or two experimental groups (tapering TNFi by 33 or 66%). Subsequently (months 6–12) control subjects were randomized to taper TNFi by 33 or 66%. Disease flares (DAS28 increasing ⩾0.6 with at least one additional swollen joint) were the primary outcome. Results Two hundred and forty-four patients were screened, 103 randomized and 97 treated. In months 0–6 there were 8/50 (16%) flares in controls, 3/26 (12%) with 33% tapering and 6/21 (29%) with 66% tapering. Multivariate Cox analysis showed time to flare was unchanged with 33% tapering but was reduced with 66% tapering compared with controls (adjusted hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI: 0.99, 7.94; P = 0.051). Analysing all tapered patients after controls were re-randomized (months 6–12) showed differences between groups: there were 6/48 (13%) flares with 33% tapering and 14/39 (36%) with 66% tapering. Multivariate Cox analysis showed 66% tapering reduced time to flare (adjusted hazard ratio 3.47, 95% CI: 1.26, 9.58; P = 0.016). Conclusion Tapering TNFi by 33% has no impact on disease flares and appears practical in patients in sustained remission and low disease activity states. Trail registration EudraCT, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, 2010-020738-24; ISRCTN registry, https://www.isrctn.com, 28955701 PMID:28968858

  13. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  14. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R(2) = 0.40). All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment.

  15. Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Jerker; Lunner, Thomas; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Lidestam, Björn; Zekveld, Adriana Agatha; Sörqvist, Patrik; Lyxell, Björn; Träff, Ulf; Yumba, Wycliffe; Classon, Elisabet; Hällgren, Mathias; Larsby, Birgitta; Signoret, Carine; Pichora-Fuller, M. Kathleen; Rudner, Mary; Danielsson, Henrik; Stenfelt, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4 dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment. PMID:27589015

  16. Project-Method Fit: Exploring Factors That Influence Agile Method Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Diana K.

    2013-01-01

    While the productivity and quality implications of agile software development methods (SDMs) have been demonstrated, research concerning the project contexts where their use is most appropriate has yielded less definitive results. Most experts agree that agile SDMs are not suited for all project contexts. Several project and team factors have been…

  17. Five-Factor Model of Personality, Work Behavior Self-Efficacy, and Length of Prior Employment for Individuals with Disabilities: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Deirdre; Strauser, David R.; Wong, Alex W. K.

    2012-01-01

    With the continued lower employment rate for persons with disabilities, researchers are focusing more on barriers to employment that reach beyond functional impairment. Personality and self-efficacy have consistently been important factors when considering employment outcomes for persons without disability; less is known about these factors as…

  18. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the MPAM-R to Brazilian Portuguese and Proposal of a New Method to Calculate Factor Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Maicon R.; Lopes, Mariana C.; de Paula, Jonas J.; Faria, Larissa O.; Pereira, Eveline T.; da Costa, Varley T.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the reasons that lead individuals to practice physical activity, researchers developed the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) scale. In 2010, a translation of MPAM-R to Portuguese and its validation was performed. However, psychometric measures were not acceptable. In addition, factor scores in some sports psychology scales are calculated by the mean of scores by items of the factor. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate that items with higher factor loadings, extracted by Factor Analysis, have greater weight in the factor score, as items with lower factor loadings have less weight in the factor score. The aims of the present study are to translate, validate the MPAM-R for Portuguese versions, and investigate agreement between two methods used to calculate factor scores. Three hundred volunteers who were involved in physical activity programs for at least 6 months were collected. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 30 items indicated that the version did not fit the model. After excluding four items, the final model with 26 items showed acceptable model fit measures by Exploratory Factor Analysis, as well as it conceptually supports the five factors as the original proposal. When two methods are compared to calculate factors scores, our results showed that only “Enjoyment” and “Appearance” factors showed agreement between methods to calculate factor scores. So, the Portuguese version of the MPAM-R can be used in a Brazilian context, and a new proposal for the calculation of the factor score seems to be promising. PMID:28293203

  19. Biological stability of drinking water: controlling factors, methods and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuelle ePrest

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g. development of opportunistic pathogens, aesthetic (e.g. deterioration of taste, odour, colour or operational (e.g. fouling or biocorrosion of pipes problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors such as (i type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii presence of predators such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv environmental conditions such as water temperature, and (v spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment or biofilm. Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discuss how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order to

  20. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  1. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.

    2016-02-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  2. Factorization method and new potentials from the inverted oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, David; Fernández C, David J.

    2013-01-01

    In this article we will apply the first- and second-order supersymmetric quantum mechanics to obtain new exactly-solvable real potentials departing from the inverted oscillator potential. This system has some special properties; in particular, only very specific second-order transformations produce non-singular real potentials. It will be shown that these transformations turn out to be the so-called complex ones. Moreover, we will study the factorization method applied to the inverted oscillator and the algebraic structure of the new Hamiltonians. -- Highlights: •We apply supersymmetric quantum mechanics to the inverted oscillator potential. •The complex second-order transformations allow us to build new non-singular potentials. •The algebraic structure of the initial and final potentials is analyzed. •The initial potential is described by a complex-deformed Heisenberg–Weyl algebra. •The final potentials are described by polynomial Heisenberg algebras

  3. The occurrence of high-risk factors for hearing loss in very-low-birth-weight neonates: a retrospective exploratory study of targeted hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Amisha; Khoza-Shangase, Katijah

    2012-12-01

    The current study aimed at determining the type and frequency of high-risk factors for hearing loss in a group of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates in a tertiary hospital in South Africa with the objective of collating evidence that could be used in arguing for or against revisiting targeted hearing screening in developing countries. Furthermore, the study aimed at investigating the relationship between the identified high-risk factors and hearing screening results. In a retrospective data review design, data were collated from files from the VLBW project; this included hearing screening records, as well as records from participant medical and audiology files. Records of 86 neonates with birth weights ranging between 680 g and 1500 g were reviewed. Findings indicated that neonatal jaundice, exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), mechanical or assisted ventilation, and neonatal intensive care unit stay greater than 48 hours were the most frequently occurring high-risk factors for hearing loss in the current sample. These factors are consistent with those listed in the high-risk register of the Health Professions Council of South Africa for the South African context. Findings confirm the complexity of risk factors, and the influence that a variety of factors such as poor follow-up or return rate might have on the implementation of early hearing detection and intervention. The importance of establishing context-specific risk factors for effective implementation of targeted screening protocols where niversal newborn hearing screening is not yet a reality was highlighted by the current study.

  4. Risk factors for the undermined coal bed mining method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arad, V. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept. of Mining Engineering; Arad, S. [Petrosani Univ., Petrosani (Romania). Dept of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The Romanian mining industry has been in a serious decline and is undergoing ample restructuring. Analyses of reliability and risk are most important during the early stages of a project in guiding the decision as to whether or not to proceed and in helping to establish design criteria. A technical accident occurred in 2008 at the Petrila coal mine involving an explosion during the exploitation of a coal seam. Over time a series of technical accidents, such as explosions and ignitions of methane gas, roof blowing phenomena or self-ignition of coal and hazard combustions have occurred. This paper presented an analysis of factors that led to this accident as well an analysis of factors related to the mining method. Specifically, the paper discussed the geomechanical characteristics of rocks and coal; the geodynamic phenomenon from working face 431; the spontaneous combustion phenomenon; gas accumulation; and the pressure and the height of the undermined coal bed. It was concluded that for the specific conditions encountered in Petrila colliery, the undermined bed height should be between 5 and 7 metres, depending on the geomechanic characteristics of coal and surrounding rocks. 8 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  5. Affairs of State and Student Retention: An Exploratory Study of the Factors that Impact Student Retention in a Politically Turbulent Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Tsur, Dalia

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the impact of a country's security unrest on student retention. It draws on the key factors that influence retention worldwide, adopts Bourdieu's notion of cultural capital and also brings in concepts related to terrorism and security unrest traditionally absent from theories on student retention. Based on a case study carried…

  6. Risk factors associated with sick leave due to work-related injuries in Dutch farmers: an exploratory case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had

  7. Policy Environments and Institutional Factors that Shape the Role of Technology in Entrepreneurial Culture: An Exploratory Study in Mexico and Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Arechavala Vargas, A.; Holbrook, J.A.; Díaz Pérez, C.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a comparative study of entrepreneurship in Mexico and Canada, based on the study of the role of technology and innovation in entrepreneurial activity. The aim of the paper is to highlight similarities and differences in the perceptions of entrepreneurs about environmental and policy factors that affect their business opportunities, in order to better understand their role, and to derive policy implications that may be useful in advancing technological innovation in Me...

  8. Exploratory orbit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal

  9. Exploratory orbit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michelotti, L.

    1989-03-01

    Unlike the other documents in these proceedings, this paper is neither a scientific nor a technical report. It is, rather, a short personal essay which attempts to describe an Exploratory Orbit Analysis (EOA) environment. Analyzing the behavior of a four or six dimensional nonlinear dynamical system is at least as difficult as analyzing events in high-energy collisions; the consequences of doing it badly, or slowly, would be at least as devastating; and yet the level of effort and expenditure invested in the latter, the very attention paid to it by physicists at large, must be two orders of magnitude greater than that given to the former. It is difficult to choose the model which best explains the behavior of a physical device if one does not first understand the behavior of the available models. The time is ripe for the development of a functioning EOA environment, which I will try to describe in this paper to help us achieve this goal.

  10. Fundamentals of exploratory analysis of variance

    CERN Document Server

    Hoaglin, David C; Tukey, John W

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of variance is presented as an exploratory component of data analysis, while retaining the customary least squares fitting methods. Balanced data layouts are used to reveal key ideas and techniques for exploration. The approach emphasizes both the individual observations and the separate parts that the analysis produces. Most chapters include exercises and the appendices give selected percentage points of the Gaussian, t, F chi-squared and studentized range distributions.

  11. Factors affecting sustainable adoption of e-health technology in developing countries: an exploratory survey of Nigerian hospitals from the perspective of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayyad, Musa Ahmed; Toycan, Mehmet

    2018-01-01

    E-health technology applications are essential tools of modern information technology that improve quality of healthcare delivery in hospitals of both developed and developing countries. However, despite its positive benefits, studies indicate that the rate of the e-health adoption in some developing countries is either low or underutilized. This is due in part, to barriers such as resistance from healthcare professionals, poor infrastructure, and low technical expertise among others. The aim of this study is to investigate, identify and analyze the underlying factors that affect healthcare professionals decision to adopt and use e-health technology applications in developing countries, with particular reference to hospitals in Nigeria. The study used a cross sectional approach in the form of a close-ended questionnaire to collect quantitative data from a sample of 465 healthcare professionals randomly selected from 15 hospitals in Nigeria. We used the modified Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the dependent variable and external factors as independent variables. The collected data was then analyzed using SPSS statistical analysis such as frequency test, reliability analysis, and correlation coefficient analysis. The results obtained, which correspond with findings from other researches published, indicate that perceived usefulness, belief, willingness, as well as attitude of healthcare professionals have significant influence on their intention to adopt and use the e-health technology applications. Other strategic factors identified include low literacy level and experience in using the e-health technology applications, lack of motivation, poor organizational and management policies. The study contributes to the literature by pinpointing significant areas where findings can positively affect, or be found useful by, healthcare policy decision makers in Nigeria and other developing countries. This can help them understand their areas of priorities and weaknesses

  12. Human factors estimation method in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    It is need for improving a NPS reliability to prevent human-errors of operators in a control room. Especially, the time error or omission error may be often caused by a exceed of the mental work load. Therefore, in order to decrease such kinds of human errors, not only the planning of an equipment and a console is well considered about proper level of mental work load but also the exceeded mental work load must be let down by trainning etc. This paper present measurement techniques of the mental work load by physiological informations and the relation between the error rate and mental work load on the basis of the experiment by various modeled tasks. Following results are obtained. (1) TSF, the indicator of the mental work load, is well correlated to the subsidary task reaction time. Therefore it is able to estimate the TSF by subsidary tasks if the task was loaded instanteniously with main task. (2) The relation between the TSF and GSR pulses rate has a 0.81 correlation factor except the case of a parallel processing task. Because we can evaluate the mental work load by the measurement of the GSR pulses rate if the task was processed by a single channel. But if uses GSR, the atomospheric condition is kept constant and the arousal level must be at the well stage. (3) The human error is greatly increase when the TSF exceed above 60 %, that values are almost agreed to the tolerance limit of the TTS methods. (author)

  13. Exploratory Analysis of Time from HIV Diagnosis to ART Start, Factors and effect on survival: A longitudinal follow up study at seven teaching hospitals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Alula M; Delele, Kesetebirhan; Abraha, Mulu; Belayhun, Bekele; Gudina, Esayas Kebede; Nega, Abiy

    2017-02-01

    The HIV care in Ethiopia has reached 79% coverage. The timeliness of the care provided at the different levels in the course of the disease starting from knowing HIV positive status to ART initiation is not well known. This study intends to explore the timing of the care seeking, the care provision and associated factors. This is a longitudinal follow-up study at seven university hospitals. Patients enrolled in HIV care from September 2005 to December 2013 and aged ≥14 years were studied. Different times in the cascade of HIV care were examined including the duration from date HIV diagnosed to enrollment in HIV care, duration from enrollment to eligibility for ART and time from eligibility to initiation of ART. Ordinal logistic regression was used to investigate their determinants while the effect of these periods on survival of patients was determined using cox-proportional hazards regression. 4159 clients were studied. Time to enrollment after HIV test decreased from 39 days in 2005 to 1 day after 2008. It took longer if baseline CD4 was higher, and eligibility for ART was assessed late. Young adults, lower baseline CD4, HIV diagnosisART initiation. Male gender, advanced disease stage and lower baseline CD4 were consistent risk factors for mortality. Time to enrollment and duration of ART eligibility assessment as well as ART initiation time after eligibility is improving. Further study is required to identify why mortality is slightly increasing after 2010.

  14. An exploratory analysis of factors associated with depression in a vulnerable group of young people living in informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Govender, Kaymarlin; Jewkes, Rachel

    2018-07-01

    Depression amongst young people is a major health challenge and is often shaped by social marginalisation. Informal settlements are growing rapidly. There is a need to deepen understandings of depression amongst young people in these contexts. We sought to understand factors associated with depressive symptomology amongst 232 young people (122 women, 110 men) aged 18-30 in urban informal settlements in South Africa. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected for the Stepping Stones and Creating Futures pilot. Logistic regression modelled relationships between depressive symptomology, livelihoods and violence. Symptomatic depression in this population was 49.5% for men and 57.9% for women. In multiple regression, depression in men was associated with stealing because of hunger (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 5.78, p = .03), being more controlling in relationships (aOR 0.81, p = .008) and being more ashamed about lack of work (aOR 0.75, p = .01). For women, depressive symptoms were associated with greater stress about lack of work (aOR 0.72, p < .0001) and food insecurity (aOR 5.57, p = .039). The study emphasises that socio-economic factors, shaped by local understandings of gender, play a significant role in depressive symptomology. We suggest reducing economic distress may have an important role in reducing depression in this population.

  15. Effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws and associated factorsExploratory empirical analysis using a bivariate ordered probit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behram Wali

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary traffic safety research comprises little information on quantifying the simultaneous association between drink driving and speeding among fatally injured drivers. Potential correlation between driver's drink driving and speeding behavior poses a substantial methodological concern which needs investigation. This study therefore focused on investigating the simultaneous impact of socioeconomic factors, fatalities, vehicle ownership, health services and highway agency road safety policies on enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws. The effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws has been investigated through development of bivariate ordered probit model using data extricated from WHO's global status report on road safety in 2013. The consistent and intuitive parameter estimates along with statistically significant correlation between response outcomes validates the statistical supremacy of bivariate ordered probit model. The results revealed that fatalities per thousand registered vehicles, hospital beds per hundred thousand population and road safety policies are associated with a likely medium or high effectiveness of enforcement levels of speed limit and drink driving laws, respectively. Also, the model encapsulates the effect of several other agency related variables and socio-economic status on the response outcomes. Marginal effects are reported for analyzing the impact of such factors on intermediate categories of response outcomes. The results of this study are expected to provide necessary insights to elemental enforcement programs. Also, marginal effects of explanatory variables may provide useful directions for formulating effective policy countermeasures for overcoming driver's speeding and drink driving behavior.

  16. Epistemic beliefs of middle and high school students in a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit: An exploratory, mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jiangyue

    Epistemic beliefs are individuals' beliefs about the nature of knowledge, how knowledge is constructed, and how knowledge can be justified. This study employed a mixed-methods approach to examine: (a) middle and high school students' self-reported epistemic beliefs (quantitative) and epistemic beliefs revealed from practice (qualitative) during a problem-based, scientific inquiry unit, (b) How do middle and high school students' epistemic beliefs contribute to the construction of students' problem solving processes, and (c) how and why do students' epistemic beliefs change by engaging in PBL. Twenty-one middle and high school students participated in a summer science class to investigate local water quality in a 2-week long problem-based learning (PBL) unit. The students worked in small groups to conduct water quality tests at in their local watershed and visited several stakeholders for their investigation. Pretest and posttest versions of the Epistemological Beliefs Questionnaire were conducted to assess students' self-reported epistemic beliefs before and after the unit. I videotaped and interviewed three groups of students during the unit and conducted discourse analysis to examine their epistemic beliefs revealed from scientific inquiry activities and triangulate with their self-reported data. There are three main findings from this study. First, students in this study self-reported relatively sophisticated epistemic beliefs on the pretest. However, the comparison between their self-reported beliefs and beliefs revealed from practice indicated that some students were able to apply sophisticated beliefs during the unit while others failed to do so. The inconsistency between these two types of epistemic beliefs may due to students' inadequate cognitive ability, low validity of self-report measure, and the influence of contextual factors. Second, qualitative analysis indicated that students' epistemic beliefs of the nature of knowing influenced their problem

  17. Risk factors associated with the community-acquired colonization of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive Escherichia Coli. an exploratory case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, Rasmus; Meyer, Elisabeth; Gastmeier, Petra; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Eller, Christoph; Dem, Petra; Schwab, Frank

    2013-01-01

    The number of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) positive (+) Escherichia coli is increasing worldwide. In contrast with many other multidrug-resistant bacteria, it is suspected that they predominantly spread within the community. The objective of this study was to assess factors associated with community-acquired colonization of ESBL (+) E. coli. We performed a matched case-control study at the Charité University Hospital Berlin between May 2011 and January 2012. Cases were defined as patients colonized with community-acquired ESBL (+) E. coli identified language most commonly spoken at home (mother tongue). An additional rectal swab was obtained together with the questionnaire to verify colonization status. Genotypes of ESBL (+) E. coli strains were determined by PCR and sequencing. Risk factors associated with ESBL (+) E. coli colonization were analyzed by a multivariable conditional logistic regression analysis. We analyzed 85 cases and 170 controls, respectively. In the multivariable analysis, speaking an Asian language most commonly at home (OR = 13.4, CI 95% 3.3-53.8; p<0.001) and frequently eating pork (≥ 3 meals per week) showed to be independently associated with ESBL colonization (OR = 3.5, CI 95% 1.8-6.6; p<0.001). The most common ESBL genotypes were CTX-M-1 with 44% (n = 37), CTX-M-15 with 28% (n = 24) and CTX-M-14 with 13% (n = 11). An Asian mother tongue and frequently consuming certain types of meat like pork can be independently associated with the colonization of ESBL-positive bacteria. We found neither frequent consumption of poultry nor previous use of antibiotics to be associated with ESBL colonization.

  18. Effects of exercise with or without blueberries in the diet on cardio-metabolic risk factors: an exploratory pilot study in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Sofia; Gerring, Edvard; Gjellan, Solveig; Vergara, Marta; Lindström, Torbjörn; Nystrom, Fredrik H

    2013-11-01

    The improvement of insulin sensitivity by exercise has been shown to be inhibited by supplementation of vitamins acting as antioxidants. To examine effects of exercise with or without blueberries, containing natural antioxidants, on cardio-metabolic risk factors. Fifteen healthy men and 17 women, 27.6 ± 6.5 years old, were recruited, and 26 completed a randomized cross-over trial with 4 weeks of exercise by running/jogging 5 km five times/week and 4 weeks of minimal physical activity. Participants were also randomized to consume 150 g of blueberries, or not, on exercise days. Laboratory variables were measured before and after a 5 km running-race at maximal speed at the beginning and end of each period, i.e. there were four maximal running-races and eight samplings in total for each participant. Insulin and triglyceride levels were reduced while HDL-cholesterol increased by exercise compared with minimal physical activity. Participants randomized to consume blueberries showed an increase in fasting glucose levels compared with controls, during the exercise period (blueberries: from 5.12 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 5.32 ± 0.29 mmol/l; controls: from 5.24 ± 0.27 mmol/l to 5.17 ± 0.23 mmol/l, P = 0.04 for difference in change). Triglyceride levels fell in the control group (from 1.1 ± 0.49 mmol/l to 0.93 ± 0.31 mmol/l, P = 0.02), while HDL-cholesterol increased in the blueberry group (from 1.51 ± 0.29 mmol/l to 1.64 ± 0.33 mmol/l, P = 0.006). Ingestion of blueberries induced differential effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors, including increased levels of both fasting glucose and HDL-cholesterol. However, since it is possible that indirect effects on food intake were induced, other than consumption of blueberries, further studies are needed to confirm the findings.

  19. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Permian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Permian Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Permian Basin, Texas. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references, 13 tables

  20. Relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within organizations: an exploratory study Fatores relevantes à transferência de conhecimento tácito em organizações: um estudo exploratório

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Lemos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and management of such knowledge have been studied for some time now in the field of Management. However, in the 1990s, with the growth in the economy based on intangible assets, companies needed more than an unstructured approach to corporate knowledge management to succeed in this new competitive environment. Therefore, this article aims to identify, in an exploratory way, the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within a major Brazilian oil company trough a case study. This study reviews the literature concerning tacit knowledge transfer within organizations, and using a quantitative approach based on exploratory factorial analysis, it collects facts in order to identify the relevant factors for tacit knowledge transfer within the organization under study. It can be said that idiosyncratic factors, the knowledge management strategy adopted by the company, and its organizational structure are the critical elements for the success of tacit knowledge transfer within the organization under analysis. Finally, three propositions arising from the results obtained are then consolidated and presented in order that they may be tested in a future explanatory study and the research limitation are unveiled.O conhecimento tem sido estudado há bastante tempo dentro da área de Gestão. Entretanto, a partir da década de 1990, com o crescimento da economia baseada em ativos intangíveis, as empresas passaram a preocupar-se com o conhecimento existente em suas organizações, assim como com o seu gerenciamento. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho é identificar, exploratoriamente, por meio de um estudo de caso, quais são os fatores relevantes à transferência de conhecimento tácito em uma grande empresa petrolífera brasileira. A presente pesquisa analisa parte relevante da bibliografia acerca da transferência de conhecimento tácito em organiza��ões e, usando abordagem quantitativa baseada em análise fatorial exploratória, coleta

  1. A phase I/II exploratory clinical trial for intracordal injection of recombinant hepatocyte growth factor for vocal fold scar and sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Kawamoto, Atsuhiko; Tateya, Ichiro; Mizuta, Masanobu; Kishimoto, Yo; Hiwatashi, Nao; Kawai, Yoshitaka; Tsuji, Takuya; Suzuki, Ryo; Kaneko, Mami; Naito, Yasushi; Kagimura, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tatsuo; Kanemaru, Shin-Ichi

    2018-04-01

    Vocal fold scar and sulcus are intractable diseases with no effective established treatments. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has preclinically proven to have potent antifibrotic and regenerative effects on vocal fold scar. The current Phase I/II clinical trial aims to examine the safety and effectiveness of intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug for patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. This is an open-label, dose-escalating, first-in-human clinical trial. Eighteen patients with bilateral vocal fold scar or sulcus were enrolled and divided into three groups: Step I received 1 μg of HGF per vocal fold; Step II received 3 μg of HGF; and Step III received 10 μg of HGF. Injections were administered once weekly for 4 weeks. The protocol treatment was performed starting with Step I and escalating to Step III. Patients were followed for 6 months post-treatment. Local and systemic safety aspects were examined as primary endpoints, and therapeutic effects were assessed as secondary endpoints using voice handicap index-10; maximum phonation time; vocal fold vibratory amplitude; grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale; and jitter. The results indicated no serious drug-related adverse events in either the systemic or local examinations. In whole-subject analysis, voice handicap index-10, vocal fold vibratory amplitude, and grade, rough, breathy, asthenic, strained scale were significantly improved at 6 months, whereas maximum phonation time and jitter varied. There were no significant differences in phonatory data between the step groups. In conclusion, intracordal injection of a recombinant human HGF drug was safe, feasible, and potentially effective for human patients with vocal fold scar or sulcus. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Modelling the impact of causal and non-causal factors on disruption duration for Toronto's subway system: An exploratory investigation using hazard modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jacob; Shalaby, Amer; Habib, Khandker Nurul

    2017-01-01

    Most investigations of incident-related delay duration in the transportation context are restricted to highway traffic, with little attention given to delays due to transit service disruptions. Studies of transit-based delay duration are also considerably less comprehensive than their highway counterparts with respect to examining the effects of non-causal variables on the delay duration. However, delays due to incidents in public transit service can have serious consequences on the overall urban transportation system due to the pivotal and vital role of public transit. The ability to predict the durations of various types of transit system incidents is indispensable for better management and mitigation of service disruptions. This paper presents a detailed investigation on incident delay durations in Toronto's subway system over the year 2013, focusing on the effects of the incidents' location and time, the train-type involved, and the non-adherence to proper recovery procedures. Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) hazard models are estimated to investigate the relationship between these factors and the resulting delay duration. The empirical investigation reveals that incident types that impact both safety and operations simultaneously generally have longer expected delays than incident types that impact either safety or operations alone. Incidents at interchange stations are cleared faster than incidents at non-interchange stations. Incidents during peak periods have nearly the same delay durations as off-peak incidents. The estimated models are believed to be useful tools in predicting the relative magnitude of incident delay duration for better management of subway operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimizing treatment with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors in rheumatoid arthritis-a proof of principle and exploratory trial: is dose tapering practical in good responders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Fowzia; Lorente-Cánovas, Beatriz; Doré, Caroline J; Bosworth, Ailsa; Ma, Margaret H; Galloway, James B; Cope, Andrew P; Pande, Ira; Walker, David; Scott, David L

    2017-11-01

    RA patients receiving TNF inhibitors (TNFi) usually maintain their initial doses. The aim of the Optimizing Treatment with Tumour Necrosis Factor Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis trial was to evaluate whether tapering TNFi doses causes loss of clinical response. We enrolled RA patients receiving etanercept or adalimumab and a DMARD with DAS28 under 3.2 for over 3 months. Initially (months 0-6) patients were randomized to control (constant TNFi) or two experimental groups (tapering TNFi by 33 or 66%). Subsequently (months 6-12) control subjects were randomized to taper TNFi by 33 or 66%. Disease flares (DAS28 increasing ⩾0.6 with at least one additional swollen joint) were the primary outcome. Two hundred and forty-four patients were screened, 103 randomized and 97 treated. In months 0-6 there were 8/50 (16%) flares in controls, 3/26 (12%) with 33% tapering and 6/21 (29%) with 66% tapering. Multivariate Cox analysis showed time to flare was unchanged with 33% tapering but was reduced with 66% tapering compared with controls (adjusted hazard ratio 2.81, 95% CI: 0.99, 7.94; P = 0.051). Analysing all tapered patients after controls were re-randomized (months 6-12) showed differences between groups: there were 6/48 (13%) flares with 33% tapering and 14/39 (36%) with 66% tapering. Multivariate Cox analysis showed 66% tapering reduced time to flare (adjusted hazard ratio 3.47, 95% CI: 1.26, 9.58; P = 0.016). Tapering TNFi by 33% has no impact on disease flares and appears practical in patients in sustained remission and low disease activity states. EudraCT, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu, 2010-020738-24; ISRCTN registry, https://www.isrctn.com, 28955701. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  4. Effect of the Jigsaw-Based Cooperative Learning Method on Student Performance in the General Certificate of Education Advanced-Level Psychology: An Exploratory Brunei Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmin, Nur Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    The mixed-methods study investigated the effect of the jigsaw cooperative learning method on student performance in psychology and their views towards it. Experimental data were obtained via pre-and-post tests and an open-ended questionnaire from 16 conveniently selected students at one Sixth Form College in Brunei. Moreover, the participants…

  5. An Exploratory Study of a New Educational Method Using Live Animals and Visual Thinking Strategies for Natural Science Teaching in Museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovesi, Jacqueline Sue

    2011-01-01

    The earth is in an environmental crisis that can only be addressed by changing human conservation attitudes. People must have the scientific knowledge to make informed decisions. Research identifying new promising practices, for the use of live animals that incorporate new theories of learning and factors proven to impact learning, is critical. …

  6. How well can post-traumatic stress disorder be predicted from pre-trauma risk factors? An exploratory study in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Ronald C; Rose, Sherri; Koenen, Karestan C; Karam, Elie G; Stang, Paul E; Stein, Dan J; Heeringa, Steven G; Hill, Eric D; Liberzon, Israel; McLaughlin, Katie A; McLean, Samuel A; Pennell, Beth E; Petukhova, Maria; Rosellini, Anthony J; Ruscio, Ayelet M; Shahly, Victoria; Shalev, Arieh Y; Silove, Derrick; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Bromet, Evelyn J; de Almeida, José Miguel Caldas; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E; Gureje, Oye; Haro, Josep Maria; Hinkov, Hristo; Kawakami, Norito; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Lee, Sing; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Murphy, Samuel D; Navarro-Mateu, Fernando; Piazza, Marina; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate; Torres, Yolanda; Carmen Viana, Maria

    2014-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) should be one of the most preventable mental disorders, since many people exposed to traumatic experiences (TEs) could be targeted in first response settings in the immediate aftermath of exposure for preventive intervention. However, these interventions are costly and the proportion of TE-exposed people who develop PTSD is small. To be cost-effective, risk prediction rules are needed to target high-risk people in the immediate aftermath of a TE. Although a number of studies have been carried out to examine prospective predictors of PTSD among people recently exposed to TEs, most were either small or focused on a narrow sample, making it unclear how well PTSD can be predicted in the total population of people exposed to TEs. The current report investigates this issue in a large sample based on the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys. Retrospective reports were obtained on the predictors of PTSD associated with 47,466 TE exposures in representative community surveys carried out in 24 countries. Machine learning methods (random forests, penalized regression, super learner) were used to develop a model predicting PTSD from information about TE type, socio-demographics, and prior histories of cumulative TE exposure and DSM-IV disorders. DSM-IV PTSD prevalence was 4.0% across the 47,466 TE exposures. 95.6% of these PTSD cases were associated with the 10.0% of exposures (i.e., 4,747) classified by machine learning algorithm as having highest predicted PTSD risk. The 47,466 exposures were divided into 20 ventiles (20 groups of equal size) ranked by predicted PTSD risk. PTSD occurred after 56.3% of the TEs in the highest-risk ventile, 20.0% of the TEs in the second highest ventile, and 0.0-1.3% of the TEs in the 18 remaining ventiles. These patterns of differential risk were quite stable across demographic-geographic sub-samples. These results demonstrate that a sensitive risk algorithm can be created using

  7. Comparison of Different Numerical Methods for Quality Factor Calculation of Nano and Micro Photonic Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh, Alireza; Mørk, Jesper; Chung, Il-Sug

    2014-01-01

    Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed.......Four different numerical methods for calculating the quality factor and resonance wavelength of a nano or micro photonic cavity are compared. Good agreement was found for a wide range of quality factors. Advantages and limitations of the different methods are discussed....

  8. The concept of key success factors: Theory and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Ellegaard, Charlotte

    1992-01-01

    Executive summary: 1. The term key success factors can be used in four different ways: a) as a necessary ingre-dient in a management information system, b) as a unique characteristic of a company, c) as a heuristic tool for managers to sharpen their thinking, d) as a description of the major skills...... and resources required to be successful in a given market. We adopt the last view. 2. The actual key success factors on a market, and those key success factors perceived by decision-makers in companies operating in the market, will be different. A number of psychological mechanisms result in misperceptions...... or resource that a business can i in, which, on the market the business is operating on, explains a major part of the observable differences in perceived value and/or relative costs. 4. Key success factors differ from core skills and resources, which are prerequisites for being on a market, but do not explain...

  9. Area specific stripping factors for AGS. A method for extracting stripping factors from survey data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aage, H.K.; Korsbech, U. [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    2006-04-15

    In order to use Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) for contamination mapping, for source search etc. one must to be able to eliminate the contribution to the spectra from natural radioactivity. This in general is done by a stripping technique. The parameters for performing a stripping have until recently been measured by recording gamma spectra at special calibration sites (pads). This may be cumbersome and the parameters may not be correct when used at low gamma energies for environmental spectra. During 2000-2001 DTU tested with success a new technique for Carborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (CGS) where the spectra from the surveyed area (or from a similar area) were used for calculating the stripping parameters. It was possible to calculate usable stripping ratios for a number of low energy windows - and weak source signals not detectable by other means were discovered with the ASS technique. In this report it is shown that the ASS technique also works for AGS data, and it has been used for recent Danish AGS tests with point sources. (Check of calibration of AGS parameters.) By using the ASS technique with the Boden data (Barents Rescue) an exercise source was detected that has not been detected by any of the teams during the exercise. The ASS technique therefore seems to be better for search for radiation anomalies than any other method known presently. The experiences also tell that although the stripping can be performed correctly at any altitude there is a variation of the stripping parameters with altitude that has not yet been quite understood. However, even with the oddly variations the stripping worked as expected. It was also observed that one might calculate a single common set of usable stripping factors for all altitudes from the entire data set i.e. some average a, b and c values. When those stripping factors were used the stripping technique still worked well. (au)

  10. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  11. An Exploratory Analysis for the Selection and Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technology by Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making Methods: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Surajit; Sarkar, Bijan

    2017-08-01

    Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMTs) offer opportunities for the manufacturing organizations to excel their competitiveness and in turn their effectiveness in manufacturing. Proper selection and evaluation of AMTs is the most significant task in today's modern world. But this involves a lot of uncertainty and vagueness as it requires many conflicting criteria to deal with. So the task of selection and evaluation of AMTs becomes very tedious for the evaluators as they are not able to provide crisp data for the criteria. Different Fuzzy Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) methods help greatly in dealing with this problem. This paper focuses on the application of two very much potential Fuzzy MCDM methods namely COPRAS-G, EVAMIX and a comparative study between them on some rarely mentioned criteria. Each of the two methods is very powerful evaluation tool and has beauty in its own. Although, performance wise these two methods are almost at same level, but, the approach of each one of them are quite unique. This uniqueness is revealed by introducing a numerical example of selection of AMT.

  12. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kawanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    1999-01-01

    Describes the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video survey of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Part of the Third International Mathematics and Science study, this research project is the first study of videotaped records from national probability samples. (SLD)

  13. Exploratory studies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    The Exploratory Studies Group is dedicated to advanced investigation of accelerators and radiation, primarily in the area of charged-particle beams and photon beams. Its primary mission is to explore the next steps in the development of particle accelerators and storage rings, which are important both for high-energy physics and for the wide range of disciplines now turning to synchrotron-radiation sources and free-electron lasers. Our research is therefore deeply committed to LBL's institutional goal of becoming a center for the generation and use of coherent and incoherent electromagnetic radiation of exceptional brightness, as well as for generic research on the future development of accelerators. A significant fraction of our effort is dedicated to general accelerator-physics research for facilities on the immediate horizon, but a vital part of our activities comprises research into exotic possibilities for charged-particle production, accumulation, acceleration, and storage. During this report period, we were proncipally involved in four general areas of study: Accelerator-physics research for the Advanced Light Source, the 1-2 GeV synchrotron radiation source now under construction at LBL. In collaboration with the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, both the conceptual and the detailed design of PEP-II, an energy-asymmetric electron-positron collider, based on the PEP ring at SLAC and designed to serve as a B-meson factory. Studies of ultraviolet and infrared free-electron lasers based on linear accelerators and storage rings, in particular the conceptual design of an infrared free-electron laser for the proposed Chemical Dynamics Research Laboratory at LBL. Generic high-energy accelerator-physics and photon-beam research directed far into the future to envision facilities that would employ new techniques of particle-beam acceleration and storage and photon-beam generation

  14. Human factors estimation methods in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko

    1986-01-01

    The diffinitions and models of mental work-loads are investigated, consequently the most simple and reasonable one is the single channel model, and the channel has limited capacity. The capacity depends on the time related to the brain information processings, like as the recognizations by eyes or ears etc., and the judgements by memory or experience etc., and the actions. In this paper the mental work load is diffined by the relative needed time of such information processing compared to total capacity. Based on the above diffinitions, the model experiment is carried out, the main task is simple additional task of the two digits displayed on a CRT and varying the additional speed from 10 cycle/min. - 60 cycle/min. Four techniques to measure the mental work-load, (1) the task time analysis method, (2) the physiological method, (3) the secondary task method, (4) the subjective method, are examined in the respects of the sensitivity and validity. The measured values gained by the physiological method and the secondary task method and subjective method are compared to those of the task time analysis results, because the task time analysis method is most faithfull to the diffinitions. (author)

  15. New method in obtaining correction factor of power confirming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Yongjun; Li Rundong; Liu Yongkang; Zhou Wei

    2010-01-01

    Westcott theory is the most widely used method in reactor power calibration, which particularly suited to research reactor. But this method is very fussy because lots of correction parameters which rely on empirical formula to special reactor type are needed. The incidence coefficient between foil activity and reactor power was obtained by Monte-Carlo calculation, which was carried out with precise description of the reactor core and the foil arrangement position by MCNP input card. So the reactor power was determined by the core neutron fluence profile and the foil activity placed in the position for normalization use. The characteristic of this new method is simpler, more flexible and accurate than Westcott theory. In this paper, the results of SPRR-300 obtained by the new method in theory were compared with the experimental results, which verified the possibility of this new method. (authors)

  16. Factors determining the use of botanical insect pest control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A farm survey was conducted in three representative administrative districts of the Lake Victoria Basin (LVB), Kenya to document farmers' indigenous knowledge and the factors that influence the use of botanicals instead of synthetic insecticides in insect pest management. A total of 65 farm households were randomly ...

  17. METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE MAXIMUM ARRANGEMENT FACTOR OF FOOTWEAR PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRIŞCU Mariana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available By classic methodology, designing footwear is a very complex and laborious activity. That is because classic methodology requires many graphic executions using manual means, which consume a lot of the producer’s time. Moreover, the results of this classical methodology may contain many inaccuracies with the most unpleasant consequences for the footwear producer. Thus, the costumer that buys a footwear product by taking into consideration the characteristics written on the product (size, width can notice after a period that the product has flaws because of the inadequate design. In order to avoid this kind of situations, the strictest scientific criteria must be followed when one designs a footwear product. The decisive step in this way has been made some time ago, when, as a result of powerful technical development and massive implementation of electronical calculus systems and informatics, This paper presents a product software for determining all possible arrangements of a footwear product’s reference points, in order to automatically acquire the maximum arrangement factor. The user multiplies the pattern in order to find the economic arrangement for the reference points. In this purpose, the user must probe few arrangement variants, in the translation and rotate-translation system. The same process is used in establishing the arrangement factor for the two points of reference of the designed footwear product. After probing several variants of arrangement in the translation and rotation and translation systems, the maximum arrangement factors are chosen. This allows the user to estimate the material wastes.

  18. Deterministic factor analysis: methods of integro-differentiation of non-integral order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina V. Tarasova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to summarize the methods of deterministic factor economic analysis namely the differential calculus and the integral method. nbsp Methods mathematical methods for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order the theory of derivatives and integrals of fractional nonintegral order. Results the basic concepts are formulated and the new methods are developed that take into account the memory and nonlocality effects in the quantitative description of the influence of individual factors on the change in the effective economic indicator. Two methods are proposed for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order for the deterministic factor analysis of economic processes with memory and nonlocality. It is shown that the method of integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order can give more accurate results compared with standard methods method of differentiation using the first order derivatives and the integral method using the integration of the first order for a wide class of functions describing effective economic indicators. Scientific novelty the new methods of deterministic factor analysis are proposed the method of differential calculus of nonintegral order and the integral method of nonintegral order. Practical significance the basic concepts and formulas of the article can be used in scientific and analytical activity for factor analysis of economic processes. The proposed method for integrodifferentiation of nonintegral order extends the capabilities of the determined factorial economic analysis. The new quantitative method of deterministic factor analysis may become the beginning of quantitative studies of economic agents behavior with memory hereditarity and spatial nonlocality. The proposed methods of deterministic factor analysis can be used in the study of economic processes which follow the exponential law in which the indicators endogenous variables are power functions of the factors exogenous variables including the processes

  19. Factores de personalidad predictores de la disposición para la venta: Un estudio exploratorio con postulantes laborales Personality factors that predict sale readiness: An exploratory study with industrial applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Diego Blum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tuvo por objetivo detectar variables predictoras de la Disposición General para la Venta (DGV y de los Estilos Receptivo y Agresivo de Venta partiendo del análisis de las correlaciones entre variables de personalidad del vendedor y otros factores de personalidad, factores sociodemográficos y Cociente Intelectual (CI. Se tomó una muestra de 33 postulantes a vendedor con edades entre 23 y 57, 94% hombres, a los que se administró el Inventario de Personalidad para Vendedores (IPV, el Cuestionario de 16 Factores de Personalidad (16 Personality Factor, PF versión 5 y el Test de Factor General (G. Los resultados principales arrojan correlaciones significativas entre DGV e Independencia (r = .39, p = .02 y entre Estilo Receptivo de Venta y Dureza (r = -.48, p The goal of the present research was to find predictive variables for the General Sale Readiness (GSR and the Receptive and Aggressive Sale Styles by making correlational analysis among salesmen personality variables and other personality factors, sotiodemographic factors and Intelligence Quotient (IQ. A sample of 33 applicants for sales jobs aged 23 to 57 with 94% of men was taken and evaluated with the Salesmen Personality Inventory (SPI, the 16 Personality Factor 5th version Questionnaire and the General (G Factor Test. Main results show significant correlations between GSR and Independence (r = .39, p = .02 and between Receptive Sale Style and Tough-Mindedness (r = -.48, p < .01. The GSR and the Sale Styles of the SPI do not vary significantly with Age, Studies Level or IQ. These findings are applicable to the short term selection of qualified commercial personnel.

  20. An exploratory examination of the predictors of success for a science education program enhanced by communication technologies: Contributions from qualitative and quantitative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Curtis Clinton

    New hybrid educational programs are evolving to challenge traditional definitions of distance education. One such program is the Integrated Science (IS) program of The University of Alabama's Center for Communication and Educational Technology (CCET), which was developed to address concerns about scientific illiteracy in middle school education. IS relies on a multilayered use of communication technologies (primarily videotape and e-mail) for delivery of student instruction, as a delivery vehicle for curriculum materials, and as a feedback mechanism. The IS program serves to enhance classroom science instruction by providing professionally developed videotaped educational lectures and curriculum materials used by classroom science teachers. To date, such hybrid forms of distance education have seldom been examined. Using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, this study examines 64 IS classrooms visited from October 1992 to April 1995 by researchers at the Institute for Communication Research at The University of Alabama. Detailed qualitative information was gathered from each classroom by student, teacher, and administrator interviews; focus groups; questionnaires; and recording observations of classroom activity. From the reports of the site visits, key components of the IS classroom experience thought to be predictors of the success of the program for individual classrooms are identified. Exemplars of both positive and negative components are provided in narrative form. A model is posited to describe the potential relationships between the various components and their impact on the overall success of the IS program in an individual classroom. Quantitative assessments were made of the 21 key variables identified in the qualitative data that appeared to enhance the likelihood of success for the IS program in an individual classroom. Accounting for 90% of the variance in the regression model, the factor with the greatest predictive potential for success

  1. Microalbuminuria: It's Significance, risk factors and methods of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alasia Datonye

    Male gender Hypertension. High salt (and protein ) ... gender and high salt intake are also to be associated with a .... method has advantages and disadvantages, and the choice depends .... single voided urine samples to estimate quantitative proteinuria. .... in an Urban and Periurban School, Port Harcourt , Rivers. State.

  2. The impact of a community-based food skills intervention on cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices - an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrieden, Wendy L; Anderson, Annie S; Longbottom, Pat J; Valentine, Karen; Stead, Martine; Caraher, Martin; Lang, Tim; Gray, Bill; Dowler, Elizabeth

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of undertaking a food skills intervention study in areas of social deprivation aimed at altering cooking confidence, food preparation methods and dietary choices. A standardised skills programme was implemented in community-based settings. Pre- (T1) and post-intervention (T2) and 6-month follow-up (T3) measures (7-day diaries and self-administered questionnaires) were undertaken in intervention and comparison groups. Eight urban communities in Scotland. One hundred and thirteen adults living in areas of social deprivation. It was clear that many subjects led fragmented lives and found commitment to intervention classes problematic. Sixty-three subjects completed the final (T3) assessments. The response to each component varied due to inability to attend sessions, illness, study requirements, employment, moving out of the area, change in circumstances, loss of interest and loss of postal questionnaires. At baseline, reported consumption of fruit and vegetables was low (mean frequency 8.1 +/- 4.78 times per week). Fruit intake increased significantly (P food skills intervention is likely to have a small but positive effect on food choice and confidence in food preparation. A full-scale randomised controlled trial in this hard-to-reach group would require a range of flexible approaches rather than a fully defined intervention, and presents challenges for trial design.

  3. Acute and Chronic Risk Preceding Suicidal Crises Among Middle-Aged Men Without Known Mental Health and/or Substance Abuse Problems: An Exploratory Mixed-Methods Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiff, Lara B; Holland, Kristin M; Stone, Deborah M; Logan, J; Marshall, Khiya J; Martell, Brandi; Bartholow, Brad

    2015-01-01

    Suicides among men aged 35-64 years increased by 27% between 1999 and 2013, yet little research exists to examine the nature of the suicide risk within this population. Many men do not seek help if they have mental health problems and suicides may occur in reaction to stressful circumstances. We examined the precipitating circumstances of 600 suicides without known mental health or substance abuse (MH/SA) problems and with a recent crisis. Whether these suicides occurred within the context of an acute crisis only or in the context of chronic circumstances was observed. Using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System and employing mixed-methods analysis, we examined the circumstances and context of a census of middle-aged male suicides (n = 600) in seven states between 2005 and 2010. Precipitating circumstances among this group involved intimate partner problems (IPP; 58.3%), criminal/legal problems (50.7%), job/financial problems (22.5%), and health problems (13.5%). Men with IPP and criminal/legal issues were more likely than men with health and/or job/financial issues to experience suicide in the context of an acute crisis only. Suicides occurring in reaction to an acute crisis only or in the context of acute and chronic circumstances lend themselves to opportunities for intervention. Further implications are discussed.

  4. A Comparison of Distribution Free and Non-Distribution Free Factor Analysis Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Nicola L.

    2012-01-01

    Many researchers recognize that factor analysis can be conducted on both correlation matrices and variance-covariance matrices. Although most researchers extract factors from non-distribution free or parametric methods, researchers can also extract factors from distribution free or non-parametric methods. The nature of the data dictates the method…

  5. Insulin-like growth factors: assay methods and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyda, H.J.; Posner, B.I.; Schiffrin, A.; Rappaport, R.; Postel-Vinay, M.C.; Corvol, M.T.

    1981-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factors (IGF's) are small molecular weight peptides (6-10 x 10 3 daltons) that circulate in blood plasma almost entirely bound to macromolecular carrier proteins. The growth-promoting and insulin-like activities of IGF's can be explained by the observed ability of these peptides to interact with the IGF receptor on the one hand and with the insulin receptor on the other. These observations have led to the establishment of radioreceptor assays (RRA's), competitive protein binding assays (CPBA's), and more recently radioimmunoassays (RIA's) for the IGF's that have different specificities. Because of their ease of performance and sensitivity, the radioligand assays have largely supplanted the biological assays originally utilized to identify and characterize these anabolic peptides. In this report the authors' studies are summarised which utilize a slightly acidic IGF which has been purified on the basis of its insulin-like activity in an insulin RRA and which was termed ILAs. They refer to purified insulin-like peptides that have the properties of a somatomedin by the generic term insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Somatomedin (SM) activity will be utilized to connote that activity in plasma or serum determined by bioassay. The competitive dose-response curves for IGF peptides in the insulin RRA as well as those in the ILAs RRA are presented. A combination of bioassays, RRA and RIA were employed to assess somatomedin activity and IGF peptide levels in a number of clinical circumstances. The correlations are discussed. (Auth.)

  6. Mining concepts of health responsibility using text mining and exploratory graph analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellström, Sofia; Golino, Hudson

    2018-05-24

    Occupational therapists need to know about people's beliefs about personal responsibility for health to help them pursue everyday activities. The study aims to employ state-of-the-art quantitative approaches to understand people's views of health and responsibility at different ages. A mixed method approach was adopted, using text mining to extract information from 233 interviews with participants aged 5 to 96 years, and then exploratory graph analysis to estimate the number of latent variables. The fit of the structure estimated via the exploratory graph analysis was verified using confirmatory factor analysis. Exploratory graph analysis estimated three dimensions of health responsibility: (1) creating good health habits and feeling good; (2) thinking about one's own health and wanting to improve it; and 3) adopting explicitly normative attitudes to take care of one's health. The comparison between the three dimensions among age groups showed, in general, that children and adolescents, as well as the old elderly (>73 years old) expressed ideas about personal responsibility for health less than young adults, adults and young elderly. Occupational therapists' knowledge of the concepts of health responsibility is of value when working with a patient's health, but an identified challenge is how to engage children and older persons.

  7. The power series method in the effectiveness factor calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Filipich, C. P.; Villa, L. T.; Grossi, Ricardo Oscar

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, exact analytical solutions are obtained for nonlinear ordinary differential equations which appear in complex diffusionreaction processes. A technique based on the power series method is used. Numerical results were computed for a number of cases which correspond to boundary value problems available in the literature. Additionally, new numerical results were generated for several important cases. Fil: Filipich, C. P.. Universidad Tecnológica Nacional. Facultad Regiona...

  8. Methods for Factor Screening in Computer Simulation Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-01

    of the dat-a In a-space, impacto the variable selection problem s ign if Lrast ly. S-arch-type variable selection methods include the all-po"sible...i.iv 41.1 ti * n wt- -iu’pt-v c C it st’vt’re mu It ico11 inear it v is pro-crtnt Lind. , ii;.qt4pai tlv * Iti’lt- c- j c. tic j icivnt, art, verv

  9. Shielding design method for LMFBR validation on the Phenix factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrillat, J.C.; Crouzet, J.; Misrakis, J.; Salvatores, M.; Rado, V.; Palmiotti, G.

    1983-05-01

    Shielding design methods, developed at CEA for shielding calculations find a global validation by the means of Phenix power reactor (250 MWe) measurements. Particularly, the secondary sodium activation of pool type LMFBR such as Super Phenix (1200 MWe) which is subject to strict safety limitation is well calculated by the adapted scheme, i.e. a two dimension transport calculation of shielding coupled to a Monte-Carlo calculation of secondary sodium activation

  10. Purification and Autoactivation Method for Recombinant Coagulation Factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovski, Vladimir; Freitas, Marcela C C; Abreu-Neto, Mario Soares; Covas, Dimas T

    2018-01-01

    Recombinant coagulation factor VII is a very important and complex protein employed for treatment of hemophiliac patients (hemophilia A/B) who develop inhibitors antibodies to conventional treatments (FVIII and FIX). The rFVII is a glycosylated molecule and circulates in plasma as zymogen of 50 kDa. When activated the molecule is cleaved to 20-30 kDa and has a half-life of about 3 h, needing to be processed fast and efficiently until freeze-drying. Here, we describe a very simple and fast purification sequence for rFVII using affinity FVII Select resin and a dialysis system that can be easily scaled up.

  11. Fatores de marketing na construção de marcas sólidas: estudo exploratório com marcas brasileiras Marketing factors for building strong brands: an exploratory Brazilian study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Motta Romeiro Khauaja

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo se propôs a investigar o processo de construção de marcas sólidas criadas e desenvolvidas no Brasil e comercializadas por empresas de controle acionário brasileiro. O objetivo geral foi ampliar o conhecimento sobre os fatores de marketing voltados para a construção de marcas sólidas. Conduziu-se uma pesquisa exploratória, de caráter qualitativo, por meio do estudo dos casos de construção das marcas Gol, O Boticário e DPaschoal. Seguiu-se a lógica da replicação literal. Cada caso particular consistiu em um estudo completo, cujas conclusões foram comparadas para que se indicasse a extensão da lógica da replicação. Concluiu-se que a adoção do conjunto de todos os fatores de marketing foi o que ajudou as três marcas estudadas a se construir e a se tornar tão sólidas quanto são atualmente. Com base nas conclusões e levando-se em consideração as limitações do método da pesquisa, foram efetuadas recomendações sobre procedimentos e ações para a construção de marcas sólidas no Brasil.Strong brands developed for use by Brazilian owned companies were investigated to better understand marketing aspects involved. A qualitative exploratory case study was conducted for each of the brands, Gol, O Boticario and DPaschoal. Work was done and reported separately to facilitate identification of the extent of replication logic. Results indicated that a combination of all Marketing factors was necessary to achieve the current solidity of these brands which, however, did not necessarily imply perfection. Conclusions were included in recommendations for building strong Brazilian brands.

  12. Hidden multiplicity in exploratory multiway ANOVA: Prevalence and remedies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, A.O.J.; van Ravenzwaaij, D.; Matzke, D.; Steingroever, H.; Wetzels, R.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; Waldorp, L.J.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2016-01-01

    Many psychologists do not realize that exploratory use of the popular multiway analysis of variance harbors a multiple-comparison problem. In the case of two factors, three separate null hypotheses are subject to test (i.e., two main effects and one interaction). Consequently, the probability of at

  13. Human factors estimation methods in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi; Yoshino, Kenji; Nagasaka, Akihiko; Ishii, Keichiro; Nakasa, Hiroyasu

    1985-01-01

    To improve the operational and maintenance work reliability, it is neccessary for workers to maintain his performance always at high level, that leads to decreasing mistaken judgements and operations. This paper inuolves the development and evaluation of ''Multi-Purpose Physiological Information Measurement system'' to estimate human performance and conditions with a highly fixed quantity. The following itemes is mentioned : (1) Most suitable physiological informations are selected to measure worker' performance in nuclear power plant with none-disturbance, ambulatory, continual, and multi channel measurement. (2) Relatively important physiological informations are measured with the real-time monitoring functions. (electrocardiogram, respirometric functions and EMG (electromyogram) pulse rete). (3) It is made to optimize the measurement condition and analysing methods in the use of a noise-cut function and a D.C. drift cutting method. (4) As a example, it is clear that, when the different weight is loaded to the arm and make it strech-bend motion, the EMG signal is measured and analysed by this system, the analysed EMG pulse rate and maximum amplitude is related to the arm loaded weight. (author)

  14. Effective multiplication factor measurement by feynman-α method. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouri, Tomoaki; Ohtani, Nobuo

    1998-06-01

    The sub-criticality monitoring system has been developed for criticality safety control in nuclear fuel handling plants. In the past experiments performed with the Deuterium Critical Assembly (DCA), it was confirmed that the detection of sub-criticality was possible to k eff = 0.3. To investigate the applicability of the method to more generalized system, experiments were performed in the light-water-moderated system of the modified DCA core. From these experiments, it was confirmed that the prompt decay constant (α), which was a index of the sub-criticality, was detected between k eff = 0.623 and k eff = 0.870 and the difference of 0.05 - 0.1Δk could be distinguished. The α values were numerically calculated with 2D transport code TWODANT and monte carlo code KENO V.a, and the results were compared with the measured values. The differences between calculated and measured values were proved to be less than 13%, which was sufficient accuracy in the sub-criticality monitoring system. It was confirmed that Feynman-α method was applicable to sub-critical measurement of the light-water-moderated system. (author)

  15. Slip and Slide Method of Factoring Trinomials with Integer Coefficients over the Integers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, William A.

    2012-01-01

    In intermediate and college algebra courses there are a number of methods for factoring quadratic trinomials with integer coefficients over the integers. Some of these methods have been given names, such as trial and error, reversing FOIL, AC method, middle term splitting method and slip and slide method. The purpose of this article is to discuss…

  16. Medium-Based Design: Extending a Medium to Create an Exploratory Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rick, Jochen; Lamberty, K. K.

    2005-01-01

    This article introduces "medium-based" design -- an approach to creating "exploratory learning environments" using the method of "extending a medium". First, the characteristics of exploratory learning environments and medium-based design are described and grounded in related work. Particular attention is given to "extending a medium" --…

  17. Preparedness for use of the rapid result HIV self-test by gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM): a mixed methods exploratory study among MSM and those involved in HIV prevention and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, P; Riddell, J; Park, C; Ahmed, B; Young, I; Frankis, J; Davis, M; Gilbert, M; Estcourt, C; Wallace, L; McDaid, L M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to explore preparedness for the HIV self-test among men who have sex with men (MSM) and those involved in HIV prevention and care. A mixed methods exploratory research design was employed, detailing awareness and willingness to use the self-test and the perceived barriers and facilitators to implementation. Quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis were completed in parallel. Descriptive and inferential analysis of cross-sectional bar-based survey data collected from MSM through a self-completed questionnaire and oral fluid specimen collection (n = 999) was combined with qualitative, thematic, analysis of data collected through 12 expert focus groups (n = 55) consisting of gay men, National Health Service (NHS) staff, community organizations, entrepreneurs and activists. Findings were subsequently combined and assessed for synergies. Among MSM, self-test awareness was moderate (55%). Greater awareness was associated with increased educational attainment [adjusted odds ratio 1.51; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-2.30; P = 0.05] and previous history of sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing (adjusted odds ratio 1.63; 95% CI 1.11-2.39; P = 0.01). Willingness to use the test was high (89%) and associated with meeting sexual partners online (unadjusted odds ratio 1.96; 95% CI 1.31-2.94; P self-testing; it was understood as convenient, discreet, accessible, and with a low burden to services. However, some ambivalence towards self-testing was reported; it could reduce opportunities to engage with wider services, wider health issues and the determinants of risk. Self-testing represents an opportunity to reduce barriers to HIV testing and enhance prevention and access to care. Levels of awareness are moderate but willingness to use is high. Self-testing may amplify health inequalities. © 2016 The Authors. HIV Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British HIV Association.

  18. Trojin horse method for indirect measurement of astrophysic S factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yuanyong; Zhou Shuhua; Li Chengbo; Wen Qungang

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear reaction rates in the astrophysical environment are indispensable input parameters in different astrophysics theories, and play important roles in understanding the astrophysical nuclear synthesis and the evolution of the universe. However, at the astrophysical temperature, the nuclear reactions proceed at very low energies. Due to the Coulomb barrier the reaction cross sections are very small, so that the direct measurement is almost impossible. The Trojin horse theory provides a useful method to measure indirectly the low energy two body cross sections by measuring the suitable three body reactions. Some approximations are applied in the theory to get convenient formula. This paper introduces the Trojin horse theory and its application in astrophysics nuclear reactions. (authors)

  19. Methods of selecting factors in the analysis of the real estates market

    OpenAIRE

    Jasińska, Elżbieta; Preweda, Edward

    2006-01-01

    In the paper the problem of selecting the method of choosing factors in factorial analysis is presented. For the database of 61 real estates the process of singling out the factors was carried out with the use of all the methods proposed in the STATISTICA 6.0 pack. A particular attention was paid on the number of differentiated factors and the efficiency of subsequent methods for the analysis of the real estates market. Edward Preweda

  20. An economic and financial exploratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.H.; Kirman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic

  1. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  2. Exploratory Topology Modelling of Form-Active Hybrid Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holden Deleuran, Anders; Pauly, Mark; Tamke, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The development of novel form-active hybrid structures (FAHS) is impeded by a lack of modelling tools that allow for exploratory topology modelling of shaped assemblies. We present a flexible and real-time computational design modelling pipeline developed for the exploratory modelling of FAHS...... that enables designers and engineers to iteratively construct and manipulate form-active hybrid assembly topology on the fly. The pipeline implements Kangaroo2's projection-based methods for modelling hybrid structures consisting of slender beams and cable networks. A selection of design modelling sketches...

  3. Human factors methods for nuclear control room design. Volume I. Human factors enhancement of existing nuclear control rooms. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.; Seidenstein, S.; Eckert, S.K.; Smith, D.L.

    1979-11-01

    Human factors engineering is an interdisciplinary specialty concerned with influencing the design of equipment systems, facilities, and operational environments to promote safe, efficient, and reliable operator performance. Human factors approaches were applied in the design of representative nuclear power plant control panels. First, methods for upgrading existing operational control panels were examined. Then, based on detailed human factors analyses of operator information and control requirements, designs of reactor, feedwater, and turbine-generator control panels were developed to improve the operator-control board interface, thereby reducing the potential for operator errors. In addition to examining present-generation concepts, human factors aspects of advanced systems and of hybrid combinations of advanced and conventional designs were investigated. Special attention was given to warning system designs. Also, a survey was conducted among control board designers to (1) develop an overview of design practices in the industry, and (2) establish appropriate measures leading to a more systematic concern for human factors in control board design

  4. Exploratory structural equation modeling of personality data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Tom; Hughes, David J

    2014-06-01

    The current article compares the use of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) as an alternative to confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) models in personality research. We compare model fit, factor distinctiveness, and criterion associations of factors derived from ESEM and CFA models. In Sample 1 (n = 336) participants completed the NEO-FFI, the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form, and the Creative Domains Questionnaire. In Sample 2 (n = 425) participants completed the Big Five Inventory and the depression and anxiety scales of the General Health Questionnaire. ESEM models provided better fit than CFA models, but ESEM solutions did not uniformly meet cutoff criteria for model fit. Factor scores derived from ESEM and CFA models correlated highly (.91 to .99), suggesting the additional factor loadings within the ESEM model add little in defining latent factor content. Lastly, criterion associations of each personality factor in CFA and ESEM models were near identical in both inventories. We provide an example of how ESEM and CFA might be used together in improving personality assessment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Method of Factor Extraction and Simple Structure of Data from Diverse Scientific Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorndike, Robert M.

    To study the applicability of simple structure logic for factorial data from scientific disciplines outside psychology, four correlation matrices from each of six scientific areas were factor analyzed by five factoring methods. Resulting factor matrices were compared on two objective criteria of simple structure before and after rotation.…

  6. Toward a Unified Theory of the Relationship between Training Methods and Factors of Cognitive Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Shani D.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a theory that trainees have varying ability levels across different factors of cognitive ability, and that these abilities are used in varying levels by different training methods. The paper reviews characteristics of training methods and matches these characteristics to different factors of cognitive ability. The paper proposes…

  7. A method to adjust radiation dose-response relationships for clinical risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane Lindegaard; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    Several clinical risk factors for radiation induced toxicity have been identified in the literature. Here, we present a method to quantify the effect of clinical risk factors on radiation dose-response curves and apply the method to adjust the dose-response for radiation pneumonitis for patients...

  8. Some new results on correlation-preserving factor scores prediction methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Berge, J.M.F.; Krijnen, W.P.; Wansbeek, T.J.; Shapiro, A.

    1999-01-01

    Anderson and Rubin and McDonald have proposed a correlation-preserving method of factor scores prediction which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for variables. Green has proposed a correlation-preserving method which minimizes the trace of a residual covariance matrix for factors.

  9. Factores de éxito de un emprendimiento: Un estudio exploratorio con base en técnicas de data mining (Entrepreneurial success factors: An exploratory study based on Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Messina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Centro de Emprendedurismo CCEEmprende de- sarrolla, desde 2007, un programa de apoyo a emprende- dores. Para mejorar su gestión, resulta de gran importancia analizar, en forma preliminar, los emprendimientos en una de dos categorías: éxito o fracaso. En este artículo se identifican los principales factores asociados al éxito de un emprendimiento y cómo se vincu- lan para anticipar el futuro del emprendimiento. Se presenta un caso de estudio con base en los datos de una encuesta realizada a emprendedores participantes del programa, aplicando técnicas de clasificación. Las dos técnicas utilizadas de data mining son árbol de decisión y regresión logística, en ambas se obtuvieron resultados coincidentes. Los hallazgos muestran que los dos elementos más relevantes para anticipar el éxito de un emprendimiento son contar con financiamiento y que, anteriormente, la situa- ción laboral del emprendedor sea trabajador independiente. Estos primeros resultados obtenidos en el estudio de caso revelan información útil acerca de las mejores formas de apoyo al emprendedor, cómo generar incentivos al em- prendedor y la definición de herramientas o actividades que incidan favorablemente en el éxito de los emprendimientos. Si bien desde la teoría o para otras realidades existe infor- mación sobre los factores que colaboran en la determina- ción del éxito, para la realidad del Uruguay no se identifican estudios similares.   Abstract  Since 2007, the CCEE Entrepreneurship Centre has developed a supporting program for entrepreneurs. A preliminary analysis to determine if the venture was successful or a failure is made to improve the program’s management . In this article, the authors identify the main factors associated with entrepreneurship’s success, and how they can anticipate entrepreneurship’s performance. The case study is based on a survey data applied to the Entrepreneurship Program participants. The two data mining

  10. English Language Learners in Higher Education: An Exploratory Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jamie; Shi, Hong

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses an exploratory conversation between a newly hired assistant professor of ESOL Education and one of her graduate level students taking the methods and materials course. The graduate student was an English learner (international student), and therefore offered this new professor an opportunity to explore her practice of…

  11. [A factor analysis method for contingency table data with unlimited multiple choice questions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Hideki; Haiden, Reina; Kubo, Saori; Ikehara, Kazuya; Isobe, Yurie

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method of factor analysis for analyzing contingency tables developed from the data of unlimited multiple-choice questions. This method assumes that the element of each cell of the contingency table has a binominal distribution and a factor analysis model is applied to the logit of the selection probability. Scree plot and WAIC are used to decide the number of factors, and the standardized residual, the standardized difference between the sample, and the proportion ratio, is used to select items. The proposed method was applied to real product impression research data on advertised chips and energy drinks. Since the results of the analysis showed that this method could be used in conjunction with conventional factor analysis model, and extracted factors were fully interpretable, and suggests the usefulness of the proposed method in the study of psychology using unlimited multiple-choice questions.

  12. Factors Influencing Achievement in Undergraduate Social Science Research Methods Courses: A Mixed Methods Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle, Gail

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate social science research methods courses tend to have higher than average rates of failure and withdrawal. Lack of success in these courses impedes students' progression through their degree programs and negatively impacts institutional retention and graduation rates. Grounded in adult learning theory, this mixed methods study…

  13. An Effective Method to Accurately Calculate the Phase Space Factors for β"-β"- Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horoi, Mihai; Neacsu, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Accurate calculations of the electron phase space factors are necessary for reliable predictions of double-beta decay rates and for the analysis of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. We present an effective method to calculate these phase space factors that takes into account the distorted Coulomb field of the daughter nucleus, yet it allows one to easily calculate the phase space factors with good accuracy relative to the most exact methods available in the recent literature.

  14. Calculation of mixed mode stress intensity factors using an alternating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takayuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, mixed mode stress intensity factors (K I and K II ) of a square plate with a notch were calculated using a finite element alternating method. The obtained results were compared with the ones by a finite element method, and it was shown that the finite element alternating method can accurately estimate mixed mode stress intensity factors. Then, using this finite element alternating method, mixed mode stress intensity factors were calculated as changing the size and position of the notch, and its simplified equations were proposed. (author)

  15. An economic and financial exploratory

    OpenAIRE

    Cincotti, S.; Sornette, D.; Treleaven, P.; Battiston, S.; Caldarelli, G.; Hommes, C.; Kirman, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the vision of a European Exploratory for economics and finance using an interdisciplinary consortium of economists, natural scientists, computer scientists and engineers, who will combine their expertise to address the enormous challenges of the 21st century. This Academic Public facility is intended for economic modelling, investigating all aspects of risk and stability, improving financial technology, and evaluating proposed regulatory and taxation changes. The European...

  16. The radiation factor 'hot particles': origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, Ts.; Vapirev, E.; Yanev, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest

  17. The radiation factor `hot particles`: origin, methods of investigation, characterization and risk factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonchev, Ts; Vapirev, E; Yanev, Y

    1994-12-31

    The problem of hot particles (HP) is reviewed chronologically following published data. The term appeared in the 50-s when HP have been found in fallout as a result of nuclear explosions in the atmosphere. After the Chernobyl accident there is a growing interest in HP. In 1986 HP have been discovered in American nuclear power plants (NPP) and in 1992 some have been found at Kozloduy NPP in Bulgaria as well. Detection and collection methods and different approaches for HP investigation are discussed. The direct and indirect risks from HP are described. It is concluded that the problem deserves further investigation and the discovery of HP inside NPP is of special interest.

  18. Discovery and Reuse of Open Datasets: An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This article analyzes twenty cited or downloaded datasets and the repositories that house them, in order to produce insights that can be used by academic libraries to encourage discovery and reuse of research data in institutional repositories. Methods: Using Thomson Reuters’ Data Citation Index and repository download statistics, we identified twenty cited/downloaded datasets. We documented the characteristics of the cited/downloaded datasets and their corresponding repositories in a self-designed rubric. The rubric includes six major categories: basic information; funding agency and journal information; linking and sharing; factors to encourage reuse; repository characteristics; and data description. Results: Our small-scale study suggests that cited/downloaded datasets generally comply with basic recommendations for facilitating reuse: data are documented well; formatted for use with a variety of software; and shared in established, open access repositories. Three significant factors also appear to contribute to dataset discovery: publishing in discipline-specific repositories; indexing in more than one location on the web; and using persistent identifiers. The cited/downloaded datasets in our analysis came from a few specific disciplines, and tended to be funded by agencies with data publication mandates. Conclusions: The results of this exploratory research provide insights that can inform academic librarians as they work to encourage discovery and reuse of institutional datasets. Our analysis also suggests areas in which academic librarians can target open data advocacy in their communities in order to begin to build open data success stories that will fuel future advocacy efforts.

  19. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    We consider here two basic groups of methods for analysis and assessment of the human factor in the NPP area and give some results from performed analyses as well. The human factor is the human interaction with the design equipment, with the working environment and takes into account the human capabilities and limits. In the frame of the qualitative methods for analysis of the human factor are considered concepts and structural methods for classifying of the information, connected with the human factor. Emphasize is given to the HPES method for human factor analysis in NPP. Methods for quantitative assessment of the human reliability are considered. These methods allow assigning of probabilities to the elements of the already structured information about human performance. This part includes overview of classical methods for human reliability assessment (HRA, THERP), and methods taking into account specific information about human capabilities and limits and about the man-machine interface (CHR, HEART, ATHEANA). Quantitative and qualitative results concerning human factor influence in the initiating events occurrences in the Kozloduy NPP are presented. (authors)

  20. Factors that facilitate or inhibit interest of domestic students in the engineering PhD: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell Smith, Michelle C.

    Given the increasing complexity of technology in our society, the United States has a growing demand for a more highly educated technical workforce. Unfortunately, the proportion of United States citizens earning a PhD in engineering has been declining and there is concern about meeting the economic, national security and quality of life needs of our country. This mixed methods sequential exploratory instrument design study identified factors that facilitate or inhibit interest in engineering PhD programs among domestic engineering undergraduate students in the United States. This study developed a testable theory for how domestic students become interested in engineering PhD programs and a measure of that process, the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII). The study was conducted in four phases. The first phase of the study was a qualitative grounded theory exploration of interest in the engineering PhD. Qualitative data were collected from domestic engineering students, engineering faculty and industry professional who had earned a PhD in engineering. The second phase, instrument development, developed the Exploring Engineering Interest Inventory (EEII), a measurement instrument designed with good psychometric properties to test a series of preliminary hypotheses related to the theory generated in the qualitative phase. In the third phase of the study, the EEII was used to collect data from a larger sample of junior and senior engineering majors. The fourth phase integrated the findings from the qualitative and quantitative phases. Four factors were identified as being significant influences of interest in the engineering PhD: Personal characteristics, educational environment, misperceptions of the economic and personal costs, and misperceptions of engineering work. Recommendations include increasing faculty encouragement of students to pursue an engineering PhD and programming to correct the misperceptions of the costs of the engineering PhD and the

  1. Contraceptive Method Choice Among Young Adults: Influence of Individual and Relationship Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S Marie; Oakley, Lisa P; Washburn, Isaac; Agnew, Christopher R

    2018-01-26

    Because decisions related to contraceptive behavior are often made by young adults in the context of specific relationships, the relational context likely influences use of contraceptives. Data presented here are from in-person structured interviews with 536 Black, Hispanic, and White young adults from East Los Angeles, California. We collected partner-specific relational and contraceptive data on all sexual partnerships for each individual, on four occasions, over one year. Using three-level multinomial logistic regression models, we examined individual and relationship factors predictive of contraceptive use. Results indicated that both individual and relationship factors predicted contraceptive use, but factors varied by method. Participants reporting greater perceived partner exclusivity and relationship commitment were more likely to use hormonal/long-acting methods only or a less effective method/no method versus condoms only. Those with greater participation in sexual decision making were more likely to use any method over a less effective method/no method and were more likely to use condoms only or dual methods versus a hormonal/long-acting method only. In addition, for women only, those who reported greater relationship commitment were more likely to use hormonal/long-acting methods or a less effective method/no method versus a dual method. In summary, interactive relationship qualities and dynamics (commitment and sexual decision making) significantly predicted contraceptive use.

  2. Considering induction factor using BEM method in wind farm layout optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghadirian, Amin; Dehghan, M.; Torabi, F.

    2014-01-01

    For wind farm layout optimization process, a simple linear model has been mostly used for considering the wake effect of a wind turbine on its downstream turbines. In this model, the wind velocity in the wake behind a turbine is obtained as a function of turbine induction factor which...... was considered to be 0.324 almost in all the previous studies. However, it is obviously evident that this factor is a strong function of turbine blade geometry and operational conditions. In the present study, a new method is introduced by which the induction factor for wind turbines can be calculated based...... on the method of Blade Element Momentum theory. By this method, the effect of blade profile, wind speed and angular velocity of wind turbine on the induction factor can be easily taken into account. The results show that for different blade profiles and operational conditions, the induction factor differs from...

  3. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems

  4. Self-assembling peptide amphiphiles and related methods for growth factor delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupp, Samuel I [Chicago, IL; Donners, Jack J. J. M.; Silva, Gabriel A [Chicago, IL; Behanna, Heather A [Chicago, IL; Anthony, Shawn G [New Stanton, PA

    2009-06-09

    Amphiphilic peptide compounds comprising one or more epitope sequences for binding interaction with one or more corresponding growth factors, micellar assemblies of such compounds and related methods of use.

  5. A continuous exchange factor method for radiative exchange in enclosures with participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naraghi, M.H.N.; Chung, B.T.F.; Litkouhi, B.

    1987-01-01

    A continuous exchange factor method for analysis of radiative exchange in enclosures is developed. In this method two types of exchange functions are defined, direct exchange function and total exchange function. Certain integral equations relating total exchange functions to direct exchange functions are developed. These integral equations are solved using Gaussian quadrature integration method. The results obtained based on the present approach are found to be more accurate than those of the zonal method

  6. Importance of development factors in company dealing with cataphoresis coating method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Klimecka-Tatar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of presented in this paper results is analysis of the most important factors in the company activity. The questionnaire test were carried among persons employed by the company, which mainstream is method of cataphoresis anti-corrosion coating. In the paper also validity of the Toyota roof elements were defined. Based on research as the most important factors of the company mission, indicated the quality factor.

  7. Factors associated with high school learners' poor performance: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, using a non-experimental, exploratory and descriptive method, established learners' and educators' views about factors that contribute to poor performance in mathematics and physical science. Participants were purposefully selected from seven schools with poor pass rates in District 3 of Tshwane North.

  8. Method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xianmei; Lu Yuancheng; Wan Baonian

    2001-01-01

    A method of calculating the safety factor profile on the HT-7 tokamak has been described. It is derived from Maxwell's equations, among which the authors mainly use two of them: one is the magnetic field diffusion equation, and the other is Ampere's Law. This method can be also used to evaluate the safety factor on other devices with a circular cross sections. It is helpful to the study of the plasma MHD behavior on the HT-7 tokamak

  9. Crowdsourcing for quantifying transcripts: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Tarek; Harman, Elena

    2016-02-01

    This exploratory study attempts to demonstrate the potential utility of crowdsourcing as a supplemental technique for quantifying transcribed interviews. Crowdsourcing is the harnessing of the abilities of many people to complete a specific task or a set of tasks. In this study multiple samples of crowdsourced individuals were asked to rate and select supporting quotes from two different transcripts. The findings indicate that the different crowdsourced samples produced nearly identical ratings of the transcripts, and were able to consistently select the same supporting text from the transcripts. These findings suggest that crowdsourcing, with further development, can potentially be used as a mixed method tool to offer a supplemental perspective on transcribed interviews. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Determination of antenna factors using a three-antenna method at open-field test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Hiroshi; Tejima, Teruo; Harima, Katsushige; Morikawa, Takao

    1992-09-01

    Recently NIST has used the three-antenna method for calibration of the antenna factor of an antenna used for EMI measurements. This method does not require the specially designed standard antennas which are necessary in the standard field method or the standard antenna method, and can be used at an open-field test site. This paper theoretically and experimentally examines the measurement errors of this method and evaluates the precision of the antenna-factor calibration. It is found that the main source of the error is the non-ideal propagation characteristics of the test site, which should therefore be measured before the calibration. The precision of the antenna-factor calibration at the test site used in these experiments, is estimated to be 0.5 dB.

  11. An analytically based numerical method for computing view factors in real urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Il; Woo, Ju-Wan; Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    A view factor is an important morphological parameter used in parameterizing in-canyon radiative energy exchange process as well as in characterizing local climate over urban environments. For realistic representation of the in-canyon radiative processes, a complete set of view factors at the horizontal and vertical surfaces of urban facets is required. Various analytical and numerical methods have been suggested to determine the view factors for urban environments, but most of the methods provide only sky-view factor at the ground level of a specific location or assume simplified morphology of complex urban environments. In this study, a numerical method that can determine the sky-view factors ( ψ ga and ψ wa ) and wall-view factors ( ψ gw and ψ ww ) at the horizontal and vertical surfaces is presented for application to real urban morphology, which are derived from an analytical formulation of the view factor between two blackbody surfaces of arbitrary geometry. The established numerical method is validated against the analytical sky-view factor estimation for ideal street canyon geometries, showing a consolidate confidence in accuracy with errors of less than 0.2 %. Using a three-dimensional building database, the numerical method is also demonstrated to be applicable in determining the sky-view factors at the horizontal (roofs and roads) and vertical (walls) surfaces in real urban environments. The results suggest that the analytically based numerical method can be used for the radiative process parameterization of urban numerical models as well as for the characterization of local urban climate.

  12. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  13. An Exploratory Note on Interstate Living-Cost Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    1985-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to identify factors that systematically influence interstate living-cost differentials. Living costs refer to the average cost of living for a four-person family in each of the 50 states. For the year 1977, the living cost level is found to be an increasing function of population density, average income, and the degree of urbanization, while being a decreasing function of the presence of right-to-work laws.

  14. Quantitative EDXS analysis of organic materials using the ζ-factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fladischer, Stefanie; Grogger, Werner

    2014-01-01

    In this study we successfully applied the ζ-factor method to perform quantitative X-ray analysis of organic thin films consisting of light elements. With its ability to intrinsically correct for X-ray absorption, this method significantly improved the quality of the quantification as well as the accuracy of the results compared to conventional techniques in particular regarding the quantification of light elements. We describe in detail the process of determining sensitivity factors (ζ-factors) using a single standard specimen and the involved parameter optimization for the estimation of ζ-factors for elements not contained in the standard. The ζ-factor method was then applied to perform quantitative analysis of organic semiconducting materials frequently used in organic electronics. Finally, the results were verified and discussed concerning validity and accuracy. - Highlights: • The ζ-factor method is used for quantitative EDXS analysis of light elements. • We describe the process of determining ζ-factors from a single standard in detail. • Organic semiconducting materials are successfully quantified

  15. An experimental method to determine the electrostatic field enhancement factor of a practical conductor surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson; Crichton, George C

    1989-01-01

    A method of determining the field enhancement factor of a practical conductor is presented. The method is developed from a modified theory of discharge onset in a gaseous medium. This modification incorporates the influence of conductor surface roughness. Onset data from an experimental study...

  16. Integrals of random fields treated by the model correction factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  17. Model correction factor method for reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchin, P.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2002-01-01

    The model correction factor method (MCFM) is used in conjunction with the first-order reliability method (FORM) to solve structural reliability problems involving integrals of non-Gaussian random fields. The approach replaces the limit-state function with an idealized one, in which the integrals ...

  18. A new method for high yield purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnden-van Raaij, A.J.M. van den; Koornneef, I.; Zoelen, E.J.J. van

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed for the purification of type beta transforming growth factor from human platelets. This method is a three-step procedure including gel filtration, weak cation exchange HPLC and reverse phase HPLC. All steps are carried out at low pH using exclusively volatile acidic buffer

  19. Comparison of Five Computational Methods for Computing Q Factors in Photonic Crystal Membrane Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    2017-01-01

    Five state-of-the-art computational methods are benchmarked by computing quality factors and resonance wavelengths in photonic crystal membrane L5 and L9 line defect cavities. The convergence of the methods with respect to resolution, degrees of freedom and number of modes is investigated. Specia...

  20. Finite Difference Methods for Option Pricing under Lévy Processes: Wiener-Hopf Factorization Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Kudryavtsev

    2013-01-01

    factorization identity. Notice that our algorithm has the same complexity as the ones which use the explicit-implicit scheme, with a tridiagonal matrix. However, our method is more accurate. We support the advantage of the new method in terms of accuracy and convergence by using numerical experiments.

  1. Franck-Condon Factors for Diatomics: Insights and Analysis Using the Fourier Grid Hamiltonian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriya; Dixit, Mayank Kumar; Bhattacharyya, S. P.; Tembe, B. L.

    2013-01-01

    Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) play a crucial role in determining the intensities of the vibrational bands in electronic transitions. In this article, a relatively simple method to calculate the FCFs is illustrated. An algorithm for the Fourier Grid Hamiltonian (FGH) method for computing the vibrational wave functions and the corresponding energy…

  2. Neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors: a comparison of data sets and interpolation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sims, C.S.; Killough, G.G.

    1983-01-01

    Various segments of the health physics community advocate the use of different sets of neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors as a function of energy and different methods of interpolation between discrete points in those data sets. The major data sets and interpolation methods are used to calculate the spectrum average fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors for five spectra associated with the various shielded conditions of the Health Physics Research Reactor. The results obtained by use of the different data sets and interpolation methods are compared and discussed. (author)

  3. The Research of Regression Method for Forecasting Monthly Electricity Sales Considering Coupled Multi-factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangbo; Liu, Junhui; Li, Tiantian; Yin, Shuo; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    The monthly electricity sales forecasting is a basic work to ensure the safety of the power system. This paper presented a monthly electricity sales forecasting method which comprehensively considers the coupled multi-factors of temperature, economic growth, electric power replacement and business expansion. The mathematical model is constructed by using regression method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is accurate and effective.

  4. Update of the exploratory report Acrolein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; Bont PFH; Janus JA; Pronk MEJ; Ros JPM; ECO; PPCbv; ACT; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The report is an update of the exploratory report acrolein (Slooff et al., 1991) that served as a basis for the discussion during the exploratory meeting on acrolein in March 1992. The meeting supported the conclusion that priority should be given to the compartment air and to the risks to humans.

  5. Entrepreneurs’ Exploratory Perseverance in Learning Settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muehlfeld, K.S.; Urbig, Diemo; Weitzel, Utz

    We introduce “exploratory perseverance” as a novel construct that captures perseverant behavior in settings in which several alternatives can be explored and evaluated. We suggest that entrepreneurs display exploratory perseverance reflected by a tendency to keep exploring broader sets of

  6. Improvement of Power Flow Calculation with Optimization Factor Based on Current Injection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improvement in power flow calculation based on current injection method by introducing optimization factor. In the method proposed by this paper, the PQ buses are represented by current mismatches while the PV buses are represented by power mismatches. It is different from the representations in conventional current injection power flow equations. By using the combined power and current injection mismatches method, the number of the equations required can be decreased to only one for each PV bus. The optimization factor is used to improve the iteration process and to ensure the effectiveness of the improved method proposed when the system is ill-conditioned. To verify the effectiveness of the method, the IEEE test systems are tested by conventional current injection method and the improved method proposed separately. Then the results are compared. The comparisons show that the optimization factor improves the convergence character effectively, especially that when the system is at high loading level and R/X ratio, the iteration number is one or two times less than the conventional current injection method. When the overloading condition of the system is serious, the iteration number in this paper appears 4 times less than the conventional current injection method.

  7. Methods for Engineering Enterprise Management Based on the Inter-factor Productive-Economic Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Naydis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the current state of engineering enterprises in the Russian Federation. It conducts a review and analysis of existing methods for business management using indicators to characterize enterprise activities by means of the scalars, functional dependencies of one factor value on the other (function one, wherein the magnitude of one factor value corresponds to a single magnitude of the other value - a dependent factor, as well as by means of data tables, and, as an example, by balance list and articulation statement used in accounting. The paper gives statements of need for taking into account the mutual influences and system interrelation of factors diversity and for special methods of their identification. The article is aimed at development of methods for business management of engineering enterprises taking into account a variety of factors and their interdependencies. The relevance of the issue stems from the fact that the analysis of existing methods of business management has shown that it is impossible to have the requested information about a considerable number of productive-economic factors in their system-based interrelation. There is a proposal for the management objects wherein multiple factors and their interactions are taken into consideration to be called inter-factor productive-economic relations (IPER. The paper presents the IPER-based structure of the business management system. It describes a method to identify controlled productive-economic factors and provides allocation and justification of the significant ones for the IPER control. Described methods of business management are distinguished by a large amount of control information, and data form rather complex structures. Therefore, it is proposed to use them in automatic control systems. The paper describes principles of information support for business management through binding IPER to organizational structures of the enterprise. It offers an

  8. Various methods of numerical estimation of generalized stress intensity factors of bi-material notches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klusák J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of bi-material notches becomes a topical problem as they can model efficiently geometrical or material discontinuities. When assessing crack initiation conditions in the bi-material notches, the generalized stress intensity factors H have to be calculated. Contrary to the determination of the K-factor for a crack in an isotropic homogeneous medium, for the ascertainment of the H-factor there is no procedure incorporated in the calculation systems. The calculation of these fracture parameters requires experience. Direct methods of estimation of H-factors need choosing usually length parameter entering into calculation. On the other hand the method combining the application of the reciprocal theorem (Ψ-integral and FEM does not require entering any length parameter and is capable to extract the near-tip information directly from the far-field deformation.

  9. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  10. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  11. Logistic Regression and Path Analysis Method to Analyze Factors influencing Students’ Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noeryanti, N.; Suryowati, K.; Setyawan, Y.; Aulia, R. R.

    2018-04-01

    Students' academic achievement cannot be separated from the influence of two factors namely internal and external factors. The first factors of the student (internal factors) consist of intelligence (X1), health (X2), interest (X3), and motivation of students (X4). The external factors consist of family environment (X5), school environment (X6), and society environment (X7). The objects of this research are eighth grade students of the school year 2016/2017 at SMPN 1 Jiwan Madiun sampled by using simple random sampling. Primary data are obtained by distributing questionnaires. The method used in this study is binary logistic regression analysis that aims to identify internal and external factors that affect student’s achievement and how the trends of them. Path Analysis was used to determine the factors that influence directly, indirectly or totally on student’s achievement. Based on the results of binary logistic regression, variables that affect student’s achievement are interest and motivation. And based on the results obtained by path analysis, factors that have a direct impact on student’s achievement are students’ interest (59%) and students’ motivation (27%). While the factors that have indirect influences on students’ achievement, are family environment (97%) and school environment (37).

  12. Exploratory shaft liner corrosion estimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1985-10-01

    An estimate of expected corrosion degradation during the 100-year design life of the Exploratory Shaft (ES) is presented. The basis for the estimate is a brief literature survey of corrosion data, in addition to data taken by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project. The scope of the study is expected corrosion environment of the ES, the corrosion modes of general corrosion, pitting and crevice corrosion, dissimilar metal corrosion, and environmentally assisted cracking. The expected internal and external environment of the shaft liner is described in detail and estimated effects of each corrosion mode are given. The maximum amount of general corrosion degradation was estimated to be 70 mils at the exterior and 48 mils at the interior, at the shaft bottom. Corrosion at welds or mechanical joints could be significant, dependent on design. After a final determination of corrosion allowance has been established by the project it will be added to the design criteria. 10 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Source apportionment of PAH in Hamilton Harbour suspended sediments: comparison of two factor analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofowote, Uwayemi M; McCarry, Brian E; Marvin, Christopher H

    2008-08-15

    A total of 26 suspended sediment samples collected over a 5-year period in Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada and surrounding creeks were analyzed for a suite of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles. Hamilton Harbour sediments contain relatively high levels of polycyclic aromatic compounds and heavy metals due to emissions from industrial and mobile sources. Two receptor modeling methods using factor analyses were compared to determine the profiles and relative contributions of pollution sources to the harbor; these methods are principal component analyses (PCA) with multiple linear regression analysis (MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). Both methods identified four factors and gave excellent correlation coefficients between predicted and measured levels of 25 aromatic compounds; both methods predicted similar contributions from coal tar/coal combustion sources to the harbor (19 and 26%, respectively). One PCA factor was identified as contributions from vehicular emissions (61%); PMF was able to differentiate vehicular emissions into two factors, one attributed to gasoline emissions sources (28%) and the other to diesel emissions sources (24%). Overall, PMF afforded better source identification than PCA with MLR. This work constitutes one of the few examples of the application of PMF to the source apportionment of sediments; the addition of sulfur heterocycles to the analyte list greatly aided in the source identification process.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative methods for human factor analysis and assessment in NPP. Investigations and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristova, R.; Kalchev, B.; Atanasov, D.

    2005-01-01

    A description of the most frequently used approaches for human reliability assesment is given. The relation between different human factor causes for human induced events in Kozloduy NPP during the period 2000 - 2003 is discussed. A comparison between the contribution of the casual factors for events occurrences in Kozloduy NPP and an Japanese NPP is presented. It can be concluded that for both NPPs the most important casual factors are: 1) written procedures and documents; 2) man-machine interface; 3) environmental working conditions; 4) working practice; 5) training and qualification; 6) supervising methods

  15. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C.C.; Knudsen, Per

    2006-01-01

    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) lambda of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP....... The IEFM-based ionospheric delay estimates are validated by combining an absolute positioning mode with several ionospheric delay correction models or algorithms, using GPS data at an international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service (IGS) station (WTZR). Our results indicate that the IEFM...

  16. Determination of factors through Monte Carlo method for Fricke dosimetry from 192Ir sources for brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Mariano Gazineu; Salata, Camila; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas develops a methodology for the determination of the absorbed dose to water by Fricke chemical dosimetry method for brachytherapy sources of 192 Ir high dose rate and have compared their results with the laboratory of the National Research Council Canada. This paper describes the determination of the correction factors by Monte Carlo method, with the Penelope code. Values for all factors are presented, with a maximum difference of 0.22% for their determination by an alternative way. (author)

  17. Exploring the Factor Structure of Neurocognitive Measures in Older Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nadine Correia; Costa, Patrício Soares; Amorim, Liliana; Moreira, Pedro Silva; Cunha, Pedro; Cotter, Jorge; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Here we focus on factor analysis from a best practices point of view, by investigating the factor structure of neuropsychological tests and using the results obtained to illustrate on choosing a reasonable solution. The sample (n=1051 individuals) was randomly divided into two groups: one for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and principal component analysis (PCA), to investigate the number of factors underlying the neurocognitive variables; the second to test the “best fit” model via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). For the exploratory step, three extraction (maximum likelihood, principal axis factoring and principal components) and two rotation (orthogonal and oblique) methods were used. The analysis methodology allowed exploring how different cognitive/psychological tests correlated/discriminated between dimensions, indicating that to capture latent structures in similar sample sizes and measures, with approximately normal data distribution, reflective models with oblimin rotation might prove the most adequate. PMID:25880732

  18. Study on Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) Quantification Method in Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Jang, Inseok Jang; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jinkyun; Kim, Jong Hyun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of HRA implementation is 1) to achieve the human factor engineering (HFE) design goal of providing operator interfaces that will minimize personnel errors and 2) to conduct an integrated activity to support probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For these purposes, various HRA methods have been developed such as technique for human error rate prediction (THERP), simplified plant analysis risk human reliability assessment (SPAR-H), cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) and so on. In performing HRA, such conditions that influence human performances have been represented via several context factors called performance shaping factors (PSFs). PSFs are aspects of the human's individual characteristics, environment, organization, or task that specifically decrements or improves human performance, thus respectively increasing or decreasing the likelihood of human errors. Most HRA methods evaluate the weightings of PSFs by expert judgment and explicit guidance for evaluating the weighting is not provided. It has been widely known that the performance of the human operator is one of the critical factors to determine the safe operation of NPPs. HRA methods have been developed to identify the possibility and mechanism of human errors. In performing HRA methods, the effect of PSFs which may increase or decrease human error should be investigated. However, the effect of PSFs were estimated by expert judgment so far. Accordingly, in order to estimate the effect of PSFs objectively, the quantitative framework to estimate PSFs by using PSF profiles is introduced in this paper

  19. Computational Experiment Study on Selection Mechanism of Project Delivery Method Based on Complex Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Project delivery planning is a key stage used by the project owner (or project investor for organizing design, construction, and other operations in a construction project. The main task in this stage is to select an appropriate project delivery method. In order to analyze different factors affecting the PDM selection, this paper establishes a multiagent model mainly to show how project complexity, governance strength, and market environment affect the project owner’s decision on PDM. Experiment results show that project owner usually choose Design-Build method when the project is very complex within a certain range. Besides, this paper points out that Design-Build method will be the prior choice when the potential contractors develop quickly. This paper provides the owners with methods and suggestions in terms of showing how the factors affect PDM selection, and it may improve the project performance.

  20. Calculation Methods of Topographic Factors Modification Using Data Digital Elevation Model (DEM To Predict Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengki Simanjuntak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Erosion  is a crucial information for sustainable management of land resources within a particular watershed. The information of erosion is needed for land resource management planning, and is generally counted by USLE (Universal Soil Loss Equation. One of the parameters in USLE is topographic factor (LS. The determinations of LS in erosion estimation model are vary, both in terms of LS factor equation, as well as in terms of the length of the slope (λ and slope (s measurements. There are at least 3 methods used to calculate slope factors in spatial operation, i.e (1 Input of the LS Value from Table (INT, (2 Flow accumulation, and (3 Cell Size. The study was designed to obtain a method of calculation that gives the smallest topographic factor and in order to obtain a LS factors that similar to the slope information. Research location in Kampa Sub watershed, The LS determination in Kampa Sub watershed basically are with (INT and without calculating λ and s. INT method is determination without calculating λ and s, LS value is generate from the contour map and DEM SRTM by giving LS value from table reference of LS value. The Flow Accumulation and Cell Size are determination of LS Value by calculating λ and s. The Flow Accumulation method modifies the determination of λ and s using the middle value of s, λ per land use, and λ and s per cell. Cell Size method determines λ using the amount of cell size. The results showed that the “cell size” and "INT" methods were the best method for topographic factor (LS calculation, because LS value of “cell size” and "INT" methods are smaller than the flow accumulation method and the LS value similar to the slope information. LS value from that methods generated weighted value in average of 0,55−0,58. Keywords: cell size, flow accumulation, flow direction, the length of the slope, USLE

  1. Alternating optimization method based on nonnegative matrix factorizations for deep neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Tetsuya; Imakura, Akira; Inoue, Yuto; Futamura, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    The backpropagation algorithm for calculating gradients has been widely used in computation of weights for deep neural networks (DNNs). This method requires derivatives of objective functions and has some difficulties finding appropriate parameters such as learning rate. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for computing weight matrices of fully-connected DNNs by using two types of semi-nonnegative matrix factorizations (semi-NMFs). In this method, optimization processes are performed b...

  2. A quantitative method to analyse an open answer questionnaire: A case study about the Boltzmann Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, Onofrio Rosario; Di Paola, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a quantitative method to analyse an openended questionnaire. Student responses to a specially designed written questionnaire are quantitatively analysed by not hierarchical clustering called k-means method. Through this we can characterise behaviour students with respect their expertise to formulate explanations for phenomena or processes and/or use a given model in the different context. The physics topic is about the Boltzmann Factor, which allows the students to have a unifying view of different phenomena in different contexts.

  3. Development of scaling factor prediction method for radionuclide composition in low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Beak

    1995-02-01

    Low-level radioactive waste management require the knowledge of the natures and quantities of radionuclides in the immobilized or packaged waste. U. S. NRC rules require programs that measure the concentrations of all relevant nuclides either directly or indirectly by relating difficult-to-measure radionuclides to other easy-to-measure radionuclides with application of scaling factors. Scaling factors previously developed through statistical approach can give only generic ones and have many difficult problem about sampling procedures. Generic scaling factors can not take into account for plant operation history. In this study, a method to predict plant-specific and operational history dependent scaling factors is developed. Realistic and detailed approach are taken to find scaling factors at reactor coolant. This approach begin with fission product release mechanisms and fundamental release properties of fuel-source nuclide such as fission product and transuranic nuclide. Scaling factors at various waste streams are derived from the predicted reactor coolant scaling factors with the aid of radionuclide retention and build up model. This model make use of radioactive material balance within the radioactive waste processing systems. Scaling factors at reactor coolant and waste streams which can include the effects of plant operation history have been developed according to input parameters of plant operation history

  4. Identification of advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plott, C.; Ronan, A. M.; Laux, L.; Bzostek, J.; Milanski, J.; Scheff, S.

    2006-01-01

    NUREG-0711 Rev.2, 'Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model,' provides comprehensive guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in assessing the human factors practices employed by license applicants for Nuclear Power Plant control room designs. As software based human-system interface (HSI) technologies supplant traditional hardware-based technologies, the NRC may encounter new HSI technologies or seemingly unconventional approaches to human factors design, analysis, and evaluation methods which NUREG-0711 does not anticipate. A comprehensive survey was performed to identify advanced human factors engineering analysis, design and evaluation methods, tools, and technologies that the NRC may encounter in near term future licensee applications. A review was conducted to identify human factors methods, tools, and technologies relevant to each review element of NUREG-0711. Additionally emerging trends in technology which have the potential to impact review elements, such as Augmented Cognition, and various wireless tools and technologies were identified. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the survey results and to highlight issues that could be revised or adapted to meet with emerging trends. (authors)

  5. Dancoff factors with partial absorption in cluster geometry by the direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch; Leite, Sergio de Queiroz Bogado; Vilhena, Marco Tullio de; Bodmann, Bardo Ernest Josef

    2007-01-01

    Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in this study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collision in the moderator or cladding. In the original WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors were computed in cluster geometry by the collision probability method, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Recent improvements to the code include a new routine (PIJM) that was created to incorporate a more efficient scheme for computing the collision matrices. In that routine, each system region is considered individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions for any given accuracy. In the present work, PIJM is extended to compute Grey Dancoff factors for two-dimensional cylindrical cells in cluster geometry. The effectiveness of the method is accessed by comparing Grey Dancoff factors as calculated by PIJM, with those available in the literature by the Monte Carlo method, for the irregular geometry of the Canadian CANDU37 assembly. Dancoff factors at five symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions are found in very good agreement with the literature results (author)

  6. A method to identify dependencies between organizational factors using statistical independence test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.; Chung, C.H.; Kim, C.; Jae, M.; Jung, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    A considerable number of studies on organizational factors in nuclear power plants have been made especially in recent years, most of which have assumed organizational factors to be independent. However, since organizational factors characterize the organization in terms of safety and efficiency etc. and there would be some factors that have close relations between them. Therefore, from whatever point of view, if we want to identify the characteristics of an organization, the dependence relationships should be considered to get an accurate result. In this study the organization of a reference nuclear power plant in Korea was analyzed for the trip cases of that plant using 20 organizational factors that Jacobs and Haber had suggested: 1) coordination of work, 2) formalization, 3) organizational knowledge, 4) roles and responsibilities, 5) external communication, 6) inter-department communications, 7) intra-departmental communications, 8) organizational culture, 9) ownership, 10) safety culture, 11) time urgency, 12) centralization, 13) goal prioritization, 14) organizational learning, 15) problem identification, 16) resource allocation, 17) performance evaluation, 18) personnel selection, 19) technical knowledge, and 20) training. By utilizing the results of the analysis, a method to identify the dependence relationships between organizational factors is presented. The statistical independence test for the analysis result of the trip cases is adopted to reveal dependencies. This method is geared to the needs to utilize many kinds of data that has been obtained as the operating years of nuclear power plants increase, and more reliable dependence relations may be obtained by using these abundant data

  7. Evaluation of immunoturbidimetric rheumatoid factor method from Diagam on Abbott c8000 analyzer: comparison with immunonephelemetric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuy, Anne Marie; Hurstel, Rémy; Bargnoux, Anne Sophie; Badiou, Stéphanie; Cristol, Jean Paul

    2014-01-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) consists of autoantibodies and because of its heterogeneity its determination is not easy. Currently, nephelometry and Elisa method are considered as reference methods. Due to consolidation, many laboratories have fully automated turbidimetric apparatus, and specific nephelemetric systems are not always available. In addition, nephelemetry is more accurate, but time consuming, expensive, and requires a specific device, resulting in a lower efficiency. Turbidimetry could be an attractive alternative. The turbidimetric RF test from Diagam meets the requirements of accuracy and precision for optimal clinical use, with an acceptable measuring range, and could be an alternative in the determination of RF, without the associated cost of a dedicated instrument, making consolidation and saving blood possible.

  8. Transition from Partial Factors Method to Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment in Structural Design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, Pavel; Guštar, M.; Permaul, K.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (1999), s. 105-118 ISSN 0266-8920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA103/94/0562; GA ČR GV103/96/K034 Keywords : reliability * safety * failure * durability * Monte Carlo method Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.522, year: 1999

  9. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  10. Understanding the Impact of School Factors on School Counselor Burnout: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardhoshi, Gerta; Schweinle, Amy; Duncan, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the relationship between burnout and performing noncounseling duties among a national sample of professional school counselors, while identifying school factors that could attenuate this relationship. Results of regression analyses indicate that performing noncounseling duties significantly predicted burnout…

  11. The use of human factors methods to identify and mitigate safety issues in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Alvita J.; Islam, Mohammad K.; Rosewall, Tara; Jaffray, David A.; Easty, Anthony C.; Cafazzo, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: New radiation therapy technologies can enhance the quality of treatment and reduce error. However, the treatment process has become more complex, and radiation dose is not always delivered as intended. Using human factors methods, a radiotherapy treatment delivery process was evaluated, and a redesign was undertaken to determine the effect on system safety. Material and methods: An ethnographic field study and workflow analysis was conducted to identify human factors issues of the treatment delivery process. To address specific issues, components of the user interface were redesigned through a user-centered approach. Sixteen radiation therapy students were then used to experimentally evaluate the redesigned system through a usability test to determine the effectiveness in mitigating use errors. Results: According to findings from the usability test, the redesigned system successfully reduced the error rates of two common errors (p < .04 and p < .01). It also improved the mean task completion time by 5.5% (p < .02) and achieved a higher level of user satisfaction. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated the importance and benefits of applying human factors methods in the design of radiation therapy systems. Many other opportunities still exist to improve patient safety in this area using human factors methods.

  12. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Enjoji, Hideo

    1988-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor (RCF) is presented. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements by the four-probe method are made on three samples: isotropic graphite, ITO film and Au film. It is indicated that the RCF can correct the apparent variations of experimental data to yield reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances.

  13. Linear Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients. Revisiting the Impulsive Response Method Using Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We present an approach to the impulsive response method for solving linear constant-coefficient ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach is elementary, we only assume a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, we avoid the use of distribution theory, as well as of…

  14. A Mixed-Methods Approach to Demotivating Factors among Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonsooly, Behzad; Hassanzadeh, Tahereh; Samavarchi, Laila; Hamedi, Seyyedeh Mina

    2017-01-01

    This study used a mixed-methods approach to investigate Iranian EFL learners' attitudes towards demotivating factors which may hinder their success in a language learning course. In the quantitative phase, a sample of 337 undergraduate students from universities in Mashhad, Yazd and Gonabad completed a 34-item questionnaire. They also completed…

  15. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Gulf Interior Region salt domes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Gulf Interior Region, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility on the Richton Dome, Mississippi. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers are included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description and Construction Cost Estimate

  16. Exploratory shaft facility preliminary designs - Paradox Basin. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    The purpose of the Preliminary Design Report, Paradox Basin, is to provide a description of the preliminary design for an Exploratory Shaft Facility in the Paradox Basin, Utah. This issue of the report describes the preliminary design for constructing the exploratory shaft using the Large Hole Drilling Method of construction and outlines the preliminary design and estimates of probable construction cost. The Preliminary Design Report is prepared to complement and summarize other documents that comprise the design at the preliminary stage of completion, December 1982. Other design documents include drawings, cost estimates and schedules. The preliminary design drawing package, which includes the construction schedule drawing, depicts the descriptions in this report. For reference, a list of the drawing titles and corresponding numbers is included in the Appendix. The report is divided into three principal sections: Design Basis, Facility Description, and Construction Cost Estimate. 30 references

  17. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed.

  18. Human factors analysis and design methods for nuclear waste retrieval systems. Human factors design methodology and integration plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, S.M.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an overview of the recommended activities and methods to be employed by a team of human factors engineers during the development of a nuclear waste retrieval system. This system, as it is presently conceptualized, is intended to be used for the removal of storage canisters (each canister containing a spent fuel rod assembly) located in an underground salt bed depository. This document, and the others in this series, have been developed for the purpose of implementing human factors engineering principles during the design and construction of the retrieval system facilities and equipment. The methodology presented has been structured around a basic systems development effort involving preliminary development, equipment development, personnel subsystem development, and operational test and evaluation. Within each of these phases, the recommended activities of the human engineering team have been stated, along with descriptions of the human factors engineering design techniques applicable to the specific design issues. Explicit examples of how the techniques might be used in the analysis of human tasks and equipment required in the removal of spent fuel canisters have been provided. Only those techniques having possible relevance to the design of the waste retrieval system have been reviewed. This document is intended to provide the framework for integrating human engineering with the rest of the system development effort. The activities and methodologies reviewed in this document have been discussed in the general order in which they will occur, although the time frame (the total duration of the development program in years and months) in which they should be performed has not been discussed

  19. Exchange factor method: an alternative zonal formulation for analysis of radiating enclosures containing participating media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    The exchange factor method (EFM) is introduced and compared to the zone method (ZM). In both the EFM and ZM the region of interest is discretized into volume and surface elements, each considered to be isothermal, which are small enough to give the required resolution. A suitable set of state variables for the system is composed of the surface element radiosities and the gas element emissive powers. The EFM defines exchange factors as dimensionless total-exchange areas for radiant interchange between volume and surface elements by all possible absorption/re-emission paths, but excluding wall reflections. In the EFM, the exchange factors replace the direct-exchange areas of the ZM and are used to write energy balances for each area and volume element in the system. As in the ZM, the radiant energy balance equations result in a set of algebraic equations linear in the system state variables. The distinguishing feature of the EFM is that exchange factors may be measurable quantities. Relationships between the EFM exchange factors and the ZM direct-exchange areas are presented. EFM conservation and reciprocity laws, analogous to those of the ZM, are also included. Temperature and heat flux distributions, predicted using the EFM, for two- and three-dimensional enclosures containing absorbing/emitting, isotropically scattering, and conducting media are included. An application of the EFM is proposed which calls for the measurement of exchange factors in a scale model of the enclosure to be analyzed. The measurement of these factors in an enclosure containing an isotropically scattering medium is discussed. The effects of isotropic scattering and absorption/re-emission processes are shown to be indistinguishable in their contribution to exchange factor paths

  20. Application of Delphi method for determining the affecting factors upon audit risk model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hajiha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of risks in an audit work could directly influence the costs, timing, and strategies as well as audit quality. The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical affecting factors on risks proposed in Audit Risk Model (ARM, in Iranian audit environment of Iran. In the present, the Delphi Method consists of 60 audit partners and managers is employed. The panel consists of two equally divided groups, one from audit organization, a governmental organization, and the other from private audit firms. We employ two rounds of Delphi and 58 critical risk factors extracted from auditing literature and Iranian auditing standards and present them to the experts. There are 43 factors categorized as important factors to assess the risks in ARM. The results are considerable in an Iranian audit environment, findings show the most important factors are in inherent risk factors. Finally, we made a comparison with a similar study in Taiwan. Differences indicate that in professional judgment issues like risk assessment, the consideration of particular culture and environment could help enhance the precision of assessments, especially in assessing control risk factors.

  1. Analysis of factors affecting the development of food crop varieties bred by mutation method in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhidong; Hu Ruifa

    2002-01-01

    The research developed a production function on crop varieties developed by mutation method in order to explore factors affecting the development of new varieties. It is found that the research investment, human capital and radiation facilities were the most important factors that affected the development and cultivation area of new varieties through the mutation method. It is concluded that not all institutions involved in the breeding activities using mutation method must have radiation facilities and the national government only needed to invest in those key research institutes, which had strong research capacities. The saved research budgets can be used in the entrusting the institutes that have stronger research capacities with irradiating more breeding materials developed by the institutes that have weak research capacities, by which more opportunities to breed better varieties can be created

  2. HUMAN ERROR QUANTIFICATION USING PERFORMANCE SHAPING FACTORS IN THE SPAR-H METHOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold S. Blackman; David I. Gertman; Ronald L. Boring

    2008-09-01

    This paper describes a cognitively based human reliability analysis (HRA) quantification technique for estimating the human error probabilities (HEPs) associated with operator and crew actions at nuclear power plants. The method described here, Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method, was developed to aid in characterizing and quantifying human performance at nuclear power plants. The intent was to develop a defensible method that would consider all factors that may influence performance. In the SPAR-H approach, calculation of HEP rates is especially straightforward, starting with pre-defined nominal error rates for cognitive vs. action-oriented tasks, and incorporating performance shaping factor multipliers upon those nominal error rates.

  3. Four factors underlying mouse behavior in an open field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shoji; Young, Jared W; Halberstadt, Adam L; Masten, Virginia L; Geyer, Mark A

    2012-07-15

    The observation of the locomotor and exploratory behaviors of rodents in an open field is one of the most fundamental methods used in the field of behavioral pharmacology. A variety of behaviors can be recorded automatically and can readily generate a multivariate pattern of pharmacological effects. Nevertheless, the optimal ways to characterize observed behaviors and concomitant drug effects are still under development. The aim of this study was to extract meaningful behavioral factors that could explain variations in the observed variables from mouse exploration. Behavioral data were recorded from male C57BL/6J mice (n=268) using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM). The BPM data were subjected to the exploratory factor analysis. The factor analysis extracted four factors: activity, sequential organization, diversive exploration, and inspective exploration. The activity factor and the two types of exploration factors correlated positively with one another, while the sequential organization factor negatively correlated with the remaining factors. The extracted factor structure constitutes a behavioral model of mouse exploration. This model will provide a platform on which one can assess the effects of psychoactive drugs and genetic manipulations on mouse exploratory behavior. Further studies are currently underway to examine the factor structure of similar multivariate data sets from humans tested in a human BPM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Disadvantage factors for square lattice cells using a collision probability method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghav, H.P.

    1976-01-01

    The flux distribution in an infinite square lattice consisting of cylindrical fuel rods and moderator is calculated by using a collision probability method. Neutrons are assumed to be monoenergetic and the sources as well as scattering are assumed to be isotropic. Carlvik's method for the calculation of collision probability is used. The important features of the method are that the square boundary is treated exactly and the contribution of the surrounding cells is calculated explicitly. The method is programmed in a computer code CELLC. This carries out integration by Simpson's rule. The convergence and accuracy of CELLC is assessed by computing disadvantage factors for the well-known Thie lattices and comparing the results with Monte Carlo and other integral transport theory methods used elsewhere. It is demonstrated that it is not correct to apply the white boundary condition in the Wigner Seitz Cell for low pitch and low cross sections. (orig.) [de

  5. An investigation into the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, Thomas; O'Riordan, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Exploratory behavior in the wild is fundamentally linked to an animal's survival and natural life history. The ability to gather information about their environment, establish territories, assert dominance, communicate information regarding reproductive status and locate mates are closely associated with a range of exploratory behaviors. Understanding how these behaviors are performed within the captive setting is crucial in order to create a captive environment in which these behaviors can be expressed, and their function conserved. The objective of this research was to highlight the factors of captive husbandry and management that influence the occurrence of exploratory behaviour of cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) in captivity. One hundred and twelve cheetahs in 88 enclosures across nine zoological institutions in five countries were the subjects of this study. The presence of raised areas, number of movements between enclosures, group composition, sex and an interaction between group composition and the ability to view cheetahs in adjacent enclosures, all significantly influenced the prevalence of exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. The presence of raised areas and an increasing number of movements between enclosures significantly increased the probability of observing exploratory behaviour, while this probability was significantly decreased for female cheetahs, when cheetahs were able to view conspecifics in adjacent enclosures, and were maintained in groups. A number of recommendations are discussed in relation to promoting exploratory behavior in captive cheetahs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Novel Application of Statistical Methods to Identify New Urinary Incontinence Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theophilus O. Ogunyemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal data for studying urinary incontinence (UI risk factors are rare. Data from one study, the hallmark Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA, have been analyzed in the past; however, repeated measures analyses that are crucial for analyzing longitudinal data have not been applied. We tested a novel application of statistical methods to identify UI risk factors in older women. MESA data were collected at baseline and yearly from a sample of 1955 men and women in the community. Only women responding to the 762 baseline and 559 follow-up questions at one year in each respective survey were examined. To test their utility in mining large data sets, and as a preliminary step to creating a predictive index for developing UI, logistic regression, generalized estimating equations (GEEs, and proportional hazard regression (PHREG methods were used on the existing MESA data. The GEE and PHREG combination identified 15 significant risk factors associated with developing UI out of which six of them, namely, urinary frequency, urgency, any urine loss, urine loss after emptying, subject’s anticipation, and doctor’s proactivity, are found most highly significant by both methods. These six factors are potential candidates for constructing a future UI predictive index.

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of Alternated Number of Iterations in Multiple Imputation Method on Explanatory Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu KOÇAK

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to identify the effects of iteration numbers used in multiple iteration method, one of the methods used to cope with missing values, on the results of factor analysis. With this aim, artificial datasets of different sample sizes were created. Missing values at random and missing values at complete random were created in various ratios by deleting data. For the data in random missing values, a second variable was iterated at ordinal scale level and datasets with different ratios of missing values were obtained based on the levels of this variable. The data were generated using “psych” program in R software, while “dplyr” program was used to create codes that would delete values according to predetermined conditions of missing value mechanism. Different datasets were generated by applying different iteration numbers. Explanatory factor analysis was conducted on the datasets completed and the factors and total explained variances are presented. These values were first evaluated based on the number of factors and total variance explained of the complete datasets. The results indicate that multiple iteration method yields a better performance in cases of missing values at random compared to datasets with missing values at complete random. Also, it was found that increasing the number of iterations in both missing value datasets decreases the difference in the results obtained from complete datasets.

  8. Application of the AHP method to analyze the significance of the factors affecting road traffic safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SORDYL

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past twenty years, the number of vehicles registered in Poland has grown rapidly. At the same time, a relatively small increase in the length of the road network has been observed. As a result of the limited capacity of available infrastructure, it leads to significant congestion and to increase of the probability of road accidents. The overall level of road safety depends on many factors - the behavior of road users, infrastructure solutions and the development of automotive technology. Thus the detailed assessment of the importance of individual elements determining road safety is difficult. The starting point is to organize the factors by grouping them into categories which are components of the DVE system (driver - vehicle - environment. In this work, to analyze the importance of individual factors affecting road safety, the use of analytic hierarchy process method (AHP was proposed. It is one of the multi-criteria methods which allows us to perform hierarchical analysis of the decision process, by means of experts’ opinions. Usage of AHP method enabled us to evaluate and rank the factors affecting road safety. This work attempts to link the statistical data and surveys in significance analysis of the elements determining road safety.

  9. Sociometric Indicators of Leadership: An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Research Report 2015 Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis Elizabeth R. Uhl U.S. Army...2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sociometric Indicators of Leadership : An Exploratory Analysis 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W5J9CQ-11-D-0001 5b...objectives and a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the wearable sensor technology. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Leadership ; Social Network; Sociometric

  10. An Exploratory Study on the Optimized Test Conditions of the Lock-in Thermography Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Jin

    2011-01-01

    This work is devoted to the technique application of lock-in infrared thermography in the shipbuilding and ocean engineering industry. For this purpose, an exploratory study to find the optimized test conditions is carried out by the design of experiments. It has been confirmed to be useful method that the phase contrast images were quantified by a reference image and weighted by defect hole size. Illuminated optical intensity of lower or medium strength give a good result for getting a phase contrast image. In order to get a good phase contrast image, lock-in frequency factors should be high in proportion to the illuminated optical intensity. The integration time of infrared camera should have been inversely proportional to the optical intensity. The other hand, the difference of specimen materials gave a slightly biased results not being discriminative reasoning

  11. Multinomial Response Models, for Modeling and Determining Important Factors in Different Contraceptive Methods in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Haji Nejad

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Difference aspects of multinomial statistical modelings and its classifications has been studied so far. In these type of problems Y is the qualitative random variable with T possible states which are considered as classifications. The goal is prediction of Y based on a random Vector X ? IR^m. Many methods for analyzing these problems were considered. One of the modern and general method of classification is Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Another method is recursive partitioning techniques which has a strange relationship with nonparametric regression. Classical discriminant analysis is a standard method for analyzing these type of data. Flexible discriminant analysis method which is a combination of nonparametric regression and discriminant analysis and classification using spline that includes least square regression and additive cubic splines. Neural network is an advanced statistical method for analyzing these types of data. In this paper properties of multinomial logistics regression were investigated and this method was used for modeling effective factors in selecting contraceptive methods in Ghom province for married women age 15-49. The response variable has a tetranomial distibution. The levels of this variable are: nothing, pills, traditional and a collection of other contraceptive methods. A collection of significant independent variables were: place, age of women, education, history of pregnancy and family size. Menstruation age and age at marriage were not statistically significant.

  12. Exploratory boreholes Juchlistock-Grimsel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.; Keusen, H.R.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of the investigation was the completion of missing geological, hydrogeological and rock-mechanical data about a suitable site for the intended Nagra rock laboratory at Grimsel. To this aim, 6 horizontal boreholes of 100 m length and 86 mm diameter were drilled. The cores, extracted practically without loss, and mechanical data for the main investigation was an extensive evaluation of the lithographic discontinuities and anisotropies, because they are the main determinant of the hydrogeological conditions of the locality. The area is dominated by granites and granodiorite which are of variable biotite content, lamprophyres and aplites. The largest part of the investigated mountain region consists of compact unclefted rock. 478 of the 600 bore meters, i.e. about 80 % of the drilled mountain, have no open clefts. Only 22 of the 600 bore meters (3.6 %0 contain more than five clefts per meter, at which the open clefts in the boreholes SB1 and SB5 appear more frequently. At the remaining exploratory boreholes in 90 % of the mountain ther are no open clefts. 15 refs., 52 figs., 15 tabs

  13. Session-RPE Method for Training Load Monitoring: Validity, Ecological Usefulness, and Influencing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monoem Haddad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this review is to (1 retrieve all data validating the Session-rating of perceived exertion (RPE-method using various criteria, (2 highlight the rationale of this method and its ecological usefulness, and (3 describe factors that can alter RPE and users of this method should take into consideration.Method: Search engines such as SPORTDiscus, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases in the English language between 2001 and 2016 were consulted for the validity and usefulness of the session-RPE method. Studies were considered for further analysis when they used the session-RPE method proposed by Foster et al. in 2001. Participants were athletes of any gender, age, or level of competition. Studies using languages other than English were excluded in the analysis of the validity and reliability of the session-RPE method. Other studies were examined to explain the rationale of the session-RPE method and the origin of RPE.Results: A total of 950 studies cited the Foster et al. study that proposed the session RPE-method. 36 studies have examined the validity and reliability of this proposed method using the modified CR-10.Conclusion: These studies confirmed the validity and good reliability and internal consistency of session-RPE method in several sports and physical activities with men and women of different age categories (children, adolescents, and adults among various expertise levels. This method could be used as “standing alone” method for training load (TL monitoring purposes though some recommend to combine it with other physiological parameters as heart rate.

  14. Evaluation of factor for one-point venous blood sampling method based on the causality model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutomo, Norikazu; Onishi, Hideo; Kobara, Kouichi; Sasaki, Fumie; Watanabe, Haruo; Nagaki, Akio; Mimura, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    One-point venous blood sampling method (Mimura, et al.) can evaluate the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) value with a high degree of accuracy. However, the method is accompanied by complexity of technique because it requires a venous blood Octanol value, and its accuracy is affected by factors of input function. Therefore, we evaluated the factors that are used for input function to determine the accuracy input function and simplify the technique. The input function which uses the time-dependent brain count of 5 minutes, 15 minutes, and 25 minutes from administration, and the input function in which an objective variable is used as the artery octanol value to exclude the venous blood octanol value are created. Therefore, a correlation between these functions and rCBF value by the microsphere (MS) method is evaluated. Creation of a high-accuracy input function and simplification of technique are possible. The rCBF value obtained by the input function, the factor of which is a time-dependent brain count of 5 minutes from administration, and the objective variable is artery octanol value, had a high correlation with the MS method (y=0.899x+4.653, r=0.842). (author)

  15. Identifying Critical Factors in the Eco-Efficiency of Remanufacturing Based on the Fuzzy DEMATEL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianwang Deng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing can bring considerable economic and environmental benefits such as cost saving, conservation of energy and resources, and reduction of emissions. With the increasing awareness of sustainable manufacturing, remanufacturing gradually becomes the research priority. Most studies concentrate on the analysis of influencing factors, or the evaluation of the economic and environmental performance in remanufacturing, while little effort has been devoted to investigating the critical factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing. Considering the current development of the remanufacturing industry in China, this paper proposes a set of factors influencing the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing and then utilizes a fuzzy Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL method to establish relation matrixes reflecting the interdependent relationships among these factors. Finally, the contributions of each factor to eco-efficiency and mutual influence values among them are obtained, and critical factors in eco-efficiency of remanufacturing are identified. The results of the present work can provide theoretical supports for the government to make appropriate policies to improve the eco-efficiency of remanufacturing.

  16. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2002-10-01

    Matrix diffusion has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms governing the retardation of radionuclides escaping from a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater flowing in water-bearing fractures will diffuse into water filled micropores in the rock. Important parameters governing the matrix diffusion are the formation factor, the surface diffusion and sorption. This report focuses on the formation factor in undisturbed intrusive igneous rock and the possibility of measuring this parameter in-situ. The background to and the methodology of formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods are given. The formation factor is here defined as a parameter only depending on the geometry of the porous system and not on the diffusing specie. Traditionally the formation factor has been measured by through diffusion experiments on core samples, which are costly and time consuming. It has been shown that the formation factor could also be measured by electrical methods that are faster and less expensive. Previously this has only been done quantitatively in the laboratory on a centimetre or decimetre scale. When measuring the formation factor in-situ in regions with saline groundwater only the rock resistivity and the pore water resistivity are needed. The rock resistivity could be obtained by a variety of geophysical downhole tools. Water-bearing fractures disturb the measurements and data possibly affected by free water has to be sorted out. This could be done without loosing too much data if the vertical resolution of the tool is high enough. It was found that the rock resistivity tool presently used by SKB are neither quantitative or have enough vertical resolution. Therefore the slimhole Dual-Laterolog from Antares was tested with good results. This tool has a high vertical resolution and gives quantitative rock resistivities that need no correction. At present there is no method of directly obtaining the

  17. Formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods. Background and methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin; Neretnieks, Ivars [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2002-10-01

    Matrix diffusion has been identified as one of the most important mechanisms governing the retardation of radionuclides escaping from a deep geological repository for nuclear waste. Radionuclides dissolved in groundwater flowing in water-bearing fractures will diffuse into water filled micropores in the rock. Important parameters governing the matrix diffusion are the formation factor, the surface diffusion and sorption. This report focuses on the formation factor in undisturbed intrusive igneous rock and the possibility of measuring this parameter in-situ. The background to and the methodology of formation factor logging in-situ by electrical methods are given. The formation factor is here defined as a parameter only depending on the geometry of the porous system and not on the diffusing specie. Traditionally the formation factor has been measured by through diffusion experiments on core samples, which are costly and time consuming. It has been shown that the formation factor could also be measured by electrical methods that are faster and less expensive. Previously this has only been done quantitatively in the laboratory on a centimetre or decimetre scale. When measuring the formation factor in-situ in regions with saline groundwater only the rock resistivity and the pore water resistivity are needed. The rock resistivity could be obtained by a variety of geophysical downhole tools. Water-bearing fractures disturb the measurements and data possibly affected by free water has to be sorted out. This could be done without loosing too much data if the vertical resolution of the tool is high enough. It was found that the rock resistivity tool presently used by SKB are neither quantitative or have enough vertical resolution. Therefore the slimhole Dual-Laterolog from Antares was tested with good results. This tool has a high vertical resolution and gives quantitative rock resistivities that need no correction. At present there is no method of directly obtaining the

  18. Method for determining correction factors induced by irradiation of ionization chamber cables in large radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, L.L.C.

    1988-01-01

    A simple method was developed to be suggested to hospital physicists in order to be followed during large radiation field dosimetry, to evaluate the effects of cables, connectors and extension cables irradiation and to determine correction factors for each system or geometry. All quality control tests were performed according to the International Electrotechnical Commission for three clinical dosimeters. Photon and electron irradiation effects for cables, connectors and extention cables were investigated under different experimental conditions by means of measurements of chamber sensitivity to a standard radiation source of 90 Sr. The radiation induced leakage current was also measured for cables, connectors and extension cables irradiated by photons and electrons. All measurements were performed at standard dosimetry conditions. Finally, measurements were performed in large fields. Cable factors and leakage factors were determined by the relation between chamber responses for irradiated and unirradiated cables. (author) [pt

  19. An introduction to linear ordinary differential equations using the impulsive response method and factorization

    CERN Document Server

    Camporesi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a method for solving linear ordinary differential equations based on the factorization of the differential operator. The approach for the case of constant coefficients is elementary, and only requires a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. In particular, the book avoids the use of distribution theory, as well as the other more advanced approaches: Laplace transform, linear systems, the general theory of linear equations with variable coefficients and variation of parameters. The case of variable coefficients is addressed using Mammana’s result for the factorization of a real linear ordinary differential operator into a product of first-order (complex) factors, as well as a recent generalization of this result to the case of complex-valued coefficients.

  20. Method for exploiting bias in factor analysis using constrained alternating least squares algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Michael R.

    2008-12-30

    Bias plays an important role in factor analysis and is often implicitly made use of, for example, to constrain solutions to factors that conform to physical reality. However, when components are collinear, a large range of solutions may exist that satisfy the basic constraints and fit the data equally well. In such cases, the introduction of mathematical bias through the application of constraints may select solutions that are less than optimal. The biased alternating least squares algorithm of the present invention can offset mathematical bias introduced by constraints in the standard alternating least squares analysis to achieve factor solutions that are most consistent with physical reality. In addition, these methods can be used to explicitly exploit bias to provide alternative views and provide additional insights into spectral data sets.

  1. An improved correlated sampling method for calculating correction factor of detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhen; Li Junli; Cheng Jianping

    2006-01-01

    In the case of a small size detector lying inside a bulk of medium, there are two problems in the correction factors calculation of the detectors. One is that the detector is too small for the particles to arrive at and collide in; the other is that the ratio of two quantities is not accurate enough. The method discussed in this paper, which combines correlated sampling with modified particle collision auto-importance sampling, and has been realized on the MCNP-4C platform, can solve these two problems. Besides, other 3 variance reduction techniques are also combined with correlated sampling respectively to calculate a simple calculating model of the correction factors of detectors. The results prove that, although all the variance reduction techniques combined with correlated sampling can improve the calculating efficiency, the method combining the modified particle collision auto-importance sampling with the correlated sampling is the most efficient one. (authors)

  2. Stress Intensity Factor for Interface Cracks in Bimaterials Using Complex Variable Meshless Manifold Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfen Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the application of the complex variable meshless manifold method (CVMMM to stress intensity factor analyses of structures containing interface cracks between dissimilar materials. A discontinuous function and the near-tip asymptotic displacement functions are added to the CVMMM approximation using the framework of complex variable moving least-squares (CVMLS approximation. This enables the domain to be modeled by CVMMM without explicitly meshing the crack surfaces. The enriched crack-tip functions are chosen as those that span the asymptotic displacement fields for an interfacial crack. The complex stress intensity factors for bimaterial interfacial cracks were numerically evaluated using the method. Good agreement between the numerical results and the reference solutions for benchmark interfacial crack problems is realized.

  3. An automated Monte-Carlo based method for the calculation of cascade summing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. J.; Britton, R.; Davies, A. V.; McLarty, J. L.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-10-01

    A versatile method has been developed to calculate cascade summing factors for use in quantitative gamma-spectrometry analysis procedures. The proposed method is based solely on Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) nuclear data, an X-ray energy library, and accurate efficiency characterisations for single detector counting geometries. The algorithm, which accounts for γ-γ, γ-X, γ-511 and γ-e- coincidences, can be applied to any design of gamma spectrometer and can be expanded to incorporate any number of nuclides. Efficiency characterisations can be derived from measured or mathematically modelled functions, and can accommodate both point and volumetric source types. The calculated results are shown to be consistent with an industry standard gamma-spectrometry software package. Additional benefits including calculation of cascade summing factors for all gamma and X-ray emissions, not just the major emission lines, are also highlighted.

  4. Motivating factors for dual-method contraceptive use among adolescents and young women: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Julie; Teal, Stephanie B; Peters, Marissa; Guiahi, Maryam

    2017-11-01

    This qualitative study explores how adolescents and young women perceive the need for and describe the use of dual method contraception. We interviewed 20 sexually active women aged 16-24 who attended an adolescent-focused Title X family-planning clinic and were using a non-barrier contraceptive method. We used a semi-structured interview guide that included domains related to sexual activity, knowledge of and use of contraceptives and condoms, and relationship factors. We coded transcripts using grounded theory techniques and used an iterative process to develop overarching themes. Dual method contraceptive users primarily discussed pregnancy prevention as their motivating factor. Many expressed anxieties over an unplanned pregnancy and reported condom use as "back-up" contraception. Risk perception for pregnancy or STI acquisition did not necessarily change as relationship trust increased, but rather, their anxiety regarding the negativity of such outcomes decreased. Dual-method contraception use decreased when participants reported that condoms were not readily available, or when they self-described immaturity. Less frequently, participants reported dual method use for sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention, and many substituted STI testing for condom use. Contraceptive type (short-acting vs. long-acting) did not influence reported attitudes towards dual method use. Health educators and clinicians encourage condom use in young women due to the significant morbidity associated with STI acquisition. Most participants in our study view condoms as a way to improve pregnancy prevention. Acknowledging and addressing this divergence in motivation will allow caregivers to improve strategies for communicating the importance of dual method use. Young women primarily describe pregnancy prevention as the reason for dual method use, STI protection is less salient. Consideration of this viewpoint by health educators and clinicians will allow us to communicate more

  5. Quantifying human and organizational factors in accident management using decision trees: the HORAAM method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumont, G.; Menage, F.; Schneiter, J.R.; Spurgin, A.; Vogel, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the level 2 Probabilistic Safety Study (PSA 2) project, the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) has developed a method for taking into account Human and Organizational Reliability Aspects during accident management. Actions are taken during very degraded installation operations by teams of experts in the French framework of Crisis Organization (ONC). After describing the background of the framework of the Level 2 PSA, the French specific Crisis Organization and the characteristics of human actions in the Accident Progression Event Tree, this paper describes the method developed to introduce in PSA the Human and Organizational Reliability Analysis in Accident Management (HORAAM). This method is based on the Decision Tree method and has gone through a number of steps in its development. The first one was the observation of crisis center exercises, in order to identify the main influence factors (IFs) which affect human and organizational reliability. These IFs were used as headings in the Decision Tree method. Expert judgment was used in order to verify the IFs, to rank them, and to estimate the value of the aggregated factors to simplify the quantification of the tree. A tool based on Mathematica was developed to increase the flexibility and the efficiency of the study

  6. The extended teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study. Study plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.; Nihlwing, Christer; Helgar, Stein; Olsen, Asle; Kvilesjoe, Hans Oeyvind; Meyer, Geir; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Svengren, Haakan

    2005-09-01

    The report documents the study plan for the Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study, which is performed within the Extended Teamwork HRP research program. The purpose of the research program is to generate ideas on how teamwork in nuclear power plants may be affected by the introduction of new operational concepts. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study contributes with empirical knowledge on the effect of a new operational concept, implying increased automation levels, changed operator roles, redefined competence requirements to the operators, and new technologies to support co-operation, on teamwork. The Extended Teamwork 2004/2005 exploratory study covered occurrences during the early transition phase, i.e., from the time the operators are introduced to the possible future operational environment, to the time they have completed the twelve scenarios comprised by the study. The study assessed how familiarity with operation in the possible future operational environment may affect the extent and quality of co-operation. The report accounts for the motivation for performing the exploratory study, and explains the research question. It describes the theoretical approach, which is based on Co-operation Theory, the human-centered automation approach, and theories on co-operation across distances, and introduces the concept extended teamwork. It also describes the method applied: it provides a detailed description of the possible future operational environment, including requirements with respect to autonomy and authority - both for humans and for automatic agents, and describes the technology applied to support co-operation in the control-room team. In addition, all measurement techniques applied in the study are accounted for (system logs, questionnaires, interviews, etc.). (Author)

  7. Developmental Testing of Habitability and Human Factors Tools and Methods During Neemo 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, S. S.; Litaker, H. L., Jr.; Holden, K. L.; Adolf, J. A.; Pace, J.; Morency, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, no established methods exist to collect real-time human factors and habitability data while crewmembers are living aboard the International Space Station (ISS), traveling aboard other space vehicles, or living in remote habitats. Currently, human factors and habitability data regarding space vehicles and habitats are acquired at the end of missions during postflight crew debriefs. These debriefs occur weeks or often longer after events have occurred, which forces a significant reliance on incomplete human memory, which is imperfect. Without a means to collect real-time data, small issues may have a cumulative effect and continue to cause crew frustration and inefficiencies. Without timely and appropriate reporting methodologies, issues may be repeated or lost. TOOL DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION: As part of a directed research project (DRP) aiming to develop and validate tools and methods for collecting near real-time human factors and habitability data, a preliminary set of tools and methods was developed. These tools and methods were evaluated during the NASA Extreme Environments Mission Operations (NEEMO) 15 mission in October 2011. Two versions of a software tool were used to collect observational data from NEEMO crewmembers that also used targeted strategies for using video cameras to collect observations. Space habitability observation reporting tool (SHORT) was created based on a tool previously developed by NASA to capture human factors and habitability issues during spaceflight. SHORT uses a web-based interface that allows users to enter a text description of any observations they wish to report and assign a priority level if changes are needed. In addition to the web-based format, a mobile Apple (iOS) format was implemented, referred to as iSHORT. iSHORT allows users to provide text, audio, photograph, and video data to report observations. iSHORT can be deployed on an iPod Touch, iPhone, or iPad; for NEEMO 15, the app was provided on an iPad2.

  8. Assessment concept for the building design process using the Eco-factor method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlström, Åsa; Brohus, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    During the last years the pressure for energy improvement has increased. However, a one-sided focus on energy efficiency might be introduced at the expense of indoor climate. Therefore, it is essential that energy optimisation is integrated with assessment of indoor climate. A guideline tool with...... with an assessment concept based on the so-called Eco-factor method been developed for an integrated design process....

  9. Preparing Methods and Its Influencing Factors about Nanoparticles Based on Dendritic Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jianwei; Li Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Based on the properties, structure and application of dendritic polymer, this paper analysed the methods of the preparation of nanoparticles using dendritic polymer, detailed preparation process, technical parameters and application effect about a single metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, sulfide and halide nanoparticles. The influencing factors of the preparation about nanoparticles were discussed, including the molecular algebra, the molar ratio of the metal ions to the dendriti...

  10. Multiplication factor evaluation of bare and reflected small fast assemblies using variational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, S.R.; Jain, D.

    1979-01-01

    The multigroup collision probability equations were solved by the variational method to derive a simple relation between the multiplication factor and the size of a small spherical bare or reflected fast reactor. This relation was verified by a number of 26-group, S 4 , transport theory calculations in one-dimensional spherical geometry for enriched uranium and plutonium systems. It has been shown that further approximations to the above relation lead to the universal empirical relation obtained by Anil Kumar. (orig.) [de

  11. Effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors analysis using machine learning methods in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutha, Rajasekar; Yarrappagaari, Suresh; Thopireddy, Lavanya; Reddy, Kesireddy Sathyavelu; Saddala, Rajeswara Reddy

    2018-03-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms underlying stress responses, meta-analysis of transcriptome is made to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and their biological, molecular and cellular mechanisms in response to stressors. The present study is aimed at identifying the effect of abiotic and biotic stress factors, and it is found that several stress responsive genes are common for both abiotic and biotic stress factors in zebrafish. The meta-analysis of micro-array studies revealed that almost 4.7% i.e., 108 common DEGs are differentially regulated between abiotic and biotic stresses. This shows that there is a global coordination and fine-tuning of gene regulation in response to these two types of challenges. We also performed dimension reduction methods, principal component analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis which are able to segregate abiotic and biotic stresses into separate entities. The supervised machine learning model, recursive-support vector machine, could classify abiotic and biotic stresses with 100% accuracy using a subset of DEGs. Beside these methods, the random forests decision tree model classified five out of 8 stress conditions with high accuracy. Finally, Functional enrichment analysis revealed the different gene ontology terms, transcription factors and miRNAs factors in the regulation of stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of corrective factors for an ultrasonic flow measuring method in pipes accounting for perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etter, S.

    1982-01-01

    By current ultrasonic flow measuring equipment (UFME) the mean velocity is measured for one or two measuring paths. This mean velocity is not equal to the velocity averaged over the flow cross-section, by means of which the flow rate is calculated. This difference will be found already for axially symmetrical, fully developed velocity profiles and, to a larger extent, for disturbed profiles varying in flow direction and for nonsteady flow. Corrective factors are defined for steady and nonsteady flows. These factors can be derived from the flow profiles within the UFME. By mathematical simulation of the entrainment effect the influence of cross and swirl flows on various ultrasonic measuring methods is studied. The applied UFME with crossed measuring paths is shown to be largely independent of cross and swirl flows. For evaluation in a computer of velocity network measurements in circular cross-sections the equations for interpolation and integration are derived. Results of the mathematical method are the isotach profile, the flow rate and, for fully developed flow, directly the corrective factor. In the experimental part corrective factors are determined in nonsteady flow in a measuring plane before and in form measuring planes behind a perturbation. (orig./RW) [de

  13. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangqing Huang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI. Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  14. An automated Monte-Carlo based method for the calculation of cascade summing factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, M.J., E-mail: mark.j.jackson@awe.co.uk; Britton, R.; Davies, A.V.; McLarty, J.L.; Goodwin, M.

    2016-10-21

    A versatile method has been developed to calculate cascade summing factors for use in quantitative gamma-spectrometry analysis procedures. The proposed method is based solely on Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) nuclear data, an X-ray energy library, and accurate efficiency characterisations for single detector counting geometries. The algorithm, which accounts for γ–γ, γ–X, γ–511 and γ–e{sup −} coincidences, can be applied to any design of gamma spectrometer and can be expanded to incorporate any number of nuclides. Efficiency characterisations can be derived from measured or mathematically modelled functions, and can accommodate both point and volumetric source types. The calculated results are shown to be consistent with an industry standard gamma-spectrometry software package. Additional benefits including calculation of cascade summing factors for all gamma and X-ray emissions, not just the major emission lines, are also highlighted. - Highlights: • Versatile method to calculate coincidence summing factors for gamma-spectrometry analysis. • Based solely on ENSDF format nuclear data and detector efficiency characterisations. • Enables generation of a CSF library for any detector, geometry and radionuclide. • Improves measurement accuracy and reduces acquisition times required to meet MDA.

  15. A New Scale Factor Adjustment Method for Magnetic Force Feedback Accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiangqing; Deng, Zhongguang; Xie, Yafei; Li, Zhu; Fan, Ji; Tu, Liangcheng

    2017-10-27

    A new and simple method to adjust the scale factor of a magnetic force feedback accelerometer is presented, which could be used in developing a rotating accelerometer gravity gradient instrument (GGI). Adjusting and matching the acceleration-to-current transfer function of the four accelerometers automatically is one of the basic and necessary technologies for rejecting the common mode accelerations in the development of GGI. In order to adjust the scale factor of the magnetic force rebalance accelerometer, an external current is injected and combined with the normal feedback current; they are then applied together to the torque coil of the magnetic actuator. The injected current could be varied proportionally according to the external adjustment needs, and the change in the acceleration-to-current transfer function then realized dynamically. The new adjustment method has the advantages of no extra assembly and ease of operation. Changes in the scale factors range from 33% smaller to 100% larger are verified experimentally by adjusting the different external coefficients. The static noise of the used accelerometer is compared under conditions with and without the injecting current, and the experimental results find no change at the current noise level, which further confirms the validity of the presented method.

  16. Novel method for on-road emission factor measurements using a plume capture trailer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawska, L; Ristovski, Z D; Johnson, G R; Jayaratne, E R; Mengersen, K

    2007-01-15

    The method outlined provides for emission factor measurements to be made for unmodified vehicles driving under real world conditions at minimal cost. The method consists of a plume capture trailer towed behind a test vehicle. The trailer collects a sample of the naturally diluted plume in a 200 L conductive bag and this is delivered immediately to a mobile laboratory for subsequent analysis of particulate and gaseous emissions. The method offers low test turnaround times with the potential to complete much larger numbers of emission factor measurements than have been possible using dynamometer testing. Samples can be collected at distances up to 3 m from the exhaust pipe allowing investigation of early dilution processes. Particle size distribution measurements, as well as particle number and mass emission factor measurements, based on naturally diluted plumes are presented. A dilution profile relating the plume dilution ratio to distance from the vehicle tail pipe for a diesel passenger vehicle is also presented. Such profiles are an essential input for new mechanistic roadway air quality models.

  17. Early Returns: Exploratory Data Analysis of the 2010-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tackney, Charles T.

    provide an opportunity for those surveyed to offer insight and provide suggestions on future implementation of Lonergan studies. The 2011 West Coast Methods Institute (WCMI) paper is an exploratory data analysis of the current valid survey sample: n=98 to date. The WCMI presentation offers summary survey......Initially inspired by a 2009 Boston College Lonergan Fellow’s survey interest in the international use of Lonergan’s empirical method in the social sciences, the Global Lonergan Survey (GLS) is a data collection instrument available on the Internet since January 2010. This paper details the survey...

  18. Experimental analysis on removal factor of smear method in measurement of surface contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Nobuyuki; Taira, Junichi; Takenaka, Keisuke; Yamanaka, Kazuo; Sugai, Kenji; Kosako, Toshiso

    2007-01-01

    The smear test is one of the important ways to measure surface contamination. The loose contamination under the high background radiation, which is more significant in handling non-sealed radioisotopes, can be evaluated by this method. The removal factor is defined as the ratio of the activity removed from the surface by one smear to the whole activity of the removable surface contamination. The removal factor is greatly changed by the quality and condition of surface materials. In this study, the values of removal factor at several typical surface conditions were evaluated experimentally and the practical application of those values was considered. It is required the smear should be pressed by moderate pressure when wiping the surface. The pressure from 1.0 kg to 1.5 kg per filter paper was recommended. The removal factor showed lower value in wiping by the pressure below 1.0 kg. The value of 0.5 for the removal factor could be applied to the smooth surface of linoleum, concrete coated with paint or epoxy resin, stainless steel and glass with the statistical allowance. (author)

  19. The unit cost factors and calculation methods for decommissioning - Cost estimation of nuclear research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan-Seong Jeong; Dong-Gyu Lee; Chong-Hun Jung; Kune-Woo Lee

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The uncertainties of decommissioning costs increase high due to several conditions. Decommissioning cost estimation depends on the complexity of nuclear installations, its site-specific physical and radiological inventories. Therefore, the decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities must be estimated in accordance with the detailed sub-tasks and resources by the tasks of decommissioning activities. By selecting the classified activities and resources, costs are calculated by the items and then the total costs of all decommissioning activities are reshuffled to match with its usage and objectives. And the decommissioning cost of nuclear research facilities is calculated by applying a unit cost factor method on which classification of decommissioning works fitted with the features and specifications of decommissioning objects and establishment of composition factors are based. Decommissioning costs of nuclear research facilities are composed of labor cost, equipment and materials cost. Of these three categorical costs, the calculation of labor costs are very important because decommissioning activities mainly depend on labor force. Labor costs in decommissioning activities are calculated on the basis of working time consumed in decommissioning objects and works. The working times are figured out of unit cost factors and work difficulty factors. Finally, labor costs are figured out by using these factors as parameters of calculation. The accuracy of decommissioning cost estimation results is much higher compared to the real decommissioning works. (authors)

  20. Calculation of the fast multiplication factor by the fission matrix method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, V.A.; Rozin, S.G.; Ehl'perin, T.I.

    1976-01-01

    A variation of the Monte Carlo method to calculate an effective breeding factor of a nuclear reactor is described. The evaluation procedure of reactivity perturbations by the Monte Carlo method in the first order perturbation theory is considered. The method consists in reducing an integral neutron transport equation to a set of linear algebraic equations. The coefficients of this set are elements of a fission matrix. The fission matrix being a Grin function of the neutron transport equation, is evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. In the program realizing the suggested algorithm, the game for initial neutron energy of a fission spectrum and then for the region of neutron birth, ΔVsub(f)sup(i)has been played in proportion to the product of Σsub(f)sup(i)ΔVsub(f)sup(i), where Σsub(f)sup(i) is a macroscopic cross section in the region numbered at the birth energy. Further iterations of a space distribution of neutrons in the system are performed by the generation method. In the adopted scheme of simulation of neutron histories the emission of secondary neutrons is controlled by weights; it occurs at every collision and not only in the end on the history. The breeding factor is calculated simultaneously with the space distribution of neutron worth in the system relative to the fission process and neutron flux. Efficiency of the described procedure has been tested on the calculation of the breeding factor for the Godiva assembly, simulating a fast reactor with a hard spectrum. A high accuracy of calculations at moderate number of zones in the core and reasonable statistics has been stated

  1. The Empirical Verification of an Assignment of Items to Subtests : The Oblique Multiple Group Method Versus the Confirmatory Common Factor Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuive, Ilse; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; ten Berge, Jos M.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares two confirmatory factor analysis methods on their ability to verify whether correct assignments of items to subtests are supported by the data. The confirmatory common factor (CCF) method is used most often and defines nonzero loadings so that they correspond to the assignment of

  2. Dancoff factors with partial neutrons absorption in cluster geometry by the direct method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Leticia Jenisch

    2007-01-01

    Accurate analysis of resonance absorption in heterogeneous systems is essential in problems like criticality, breeding ratios and fuel depletion calculations. In compact arrays of fuel rods, resonance absorption is strongly affected by the Dancoff factor, defined in mis study as the probability that a neutron emitted from the surface of a fuel element, enters another fuel element without any collusion in the moderator or cladding. In fact, in the most practical cases of irregular cells, it is observed that inaccuracies in computing both Grey and Black Dancoff factors, i.e. for partially and perfectly absorbing fuel rods, can lead to considerable errors in the calculated values of such integral quantities. For this reason, much effort has been made in the past decades to further improve the models for calculating Dancoff factors, a task that has been accomplished in connection with the development of faster computers. In the WIMS code, Black Dancoff factors based on the above mentioned collusion probability definition are computed in cluster geometry, for each one of the symmetrically distinct fuel pin positions in the cell. Sets of equally-spaced parallel lines are drawn in subroutine PIJ, at a number of discrete equally-incremented azimuthal angles, covering the whole system and forming a mesh over which the in-plane integrations of the Bickley functions are carried out by simple trapezoidal rule, leading to the first-flight collusion matrices. Although fast, the method in PIJ is inefficient, since the constructed mesh does not depended on the system details, so that regions of small relative volumes are crossed out by relatively few lines, which affects the convergence of the calculated probabilities. A new routine (PIJM) was then created to incorporate a more efficient integration scheme considering each system region individually, minimizing convergence problems and reducing the number of neutron track lines required in the in-plane integrations for any given

  3. Shielding Factor Method for producing effective cross sections: MINX/SPHINX and the CCCC interface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Weisbin, C.R.; Paik, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Shielding Factor Method (SFM) is an economical designer-oriented method for producing the coarse-group space and energy self-shielded cross sections needed for reactor-core analysis. Extensive experience with the ETOX/1DX and ENDRUN/TDOWN systems has made the SFM the method of choice for most US fast-reactor design activities. The MINX/SPHINX system was designed to expand upon the capabilities of the older SFM codes and to incorporate the new standard interfaces for fast-reactor cross sections specified by the Committee for Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). MINX is the cross-section processor. It generates multigroup cross sections, shielding factors, and group-to-group transfer matriccs from ENDF/B-IV and writes them out as CCCC ISOTXS and BRKOXS files. It features detailed pointwise resonance reconstruction, accurate Doppler broadening, and an efficient treatment of anisotropic scattering. SPHINX is the space-and-energy shielding code. It uses specific mixture and geometry information together with equivalence principles to construct shielded macroscopic multigroup cross sections in as many as 240 groups. It then makes a flux calculation by diffusion or transport methods and collapses to an appropriate set of cell-averaged coarse-group effective cross sections. The integration of MINX and SPHINX with the CCCC interface system provides an efficient, accurate, and convenient system for producing effective cross sections for use in fast-reactor problems. The system has also proved useful in shielding and CTR applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  4. Research Progress on Measurement Methods and Influence Factors of Thin-film Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Yibo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the size of thin-film electronic devices decreasing, the film stress became an important reason for the failure of thin film devices. Film stress not only affected the membrane structure, but also associated with film optics, electricity, mechanics and other properties, therefore film stress turned into one hot spot in the research field of thin-film materials. This paper reviewed the latest research progress of film stress, substrate curvature method, X-ray diffraction technique and Raman spectroscopy, several frequently used stress measuring techniques were compared and analyzed, and composition ratios of thin film, substrate types, magnetron sputtering process parameters (sputtering power, work pressure, substrate temperature and annealing etc. factors influencing thin film stress were summarized. It was found that substrate curvature method was suitable for measuring almost all kinds of thin film materials. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were just fit for measuring materials with characteristic peaks. Nanoindentation method required extra stress-free samples as comparison experiments. During film fabrication and annealing process, film stress usually transited from compressive to tensile status, and several factors combined together could affect stress, so film stress could be reached the minimum value or even stress-free status through setting appropriate parameters. Finally, combined with film stress research status, accurate stress measurement methods for different materials as a thin-film stress research direction were introduced, and challenges in thin film detection range were pointed out.

  5. Methods for detrending success metrics to account for inflationary and deflationary factors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, A. M.; Penner, O.; Stanley, H. E.

    2011-01-01

    Time-dependent economic, technological, and social factors can artificially inflate or deflate quantitative measures for career success. Here we develop and test a statistical method for normalizing career success metrics across time dependent factors. In particular, this method addresses the long standing question: how do we compare the career achievements of professional athletes from different historical eras? Developing an objective approach will be of particular importance over the next decade as major league baseball (MLB) players from the "steroids era" become eligible for Hall of Fame induction. Some experts are calling for asterisks (*) to be placed next to the career statistics of athletes found guilty of using performance enhancing drugs (PED). Here we address this issue, as well as the general problem of comparing statistics from distinct eras, by detrending the seasonal statistics of professional baseball players. We detrend player statistics by normalizing achievements to seasonal averages, which accounts for changes in relative player ability resulting from a range of factors. Our methods are general, and can be extended to various arenas of competition where time-dependent factors play a key role. For five statistical categories, we compare the probability density function (pdf) of detrended career statistics to the pdf of raw career statistics calculated for all player careers in the 90-year period 1920-2009. We find that the functional form of these pdfs is stationary under detrending. This stationarity implies that the statistical regularity observed in the right-skewed distributions for longevity and success in professional sports arises from both the wide range of intrinsic talent among athletes and the underlying nature of competition. We fit the pdfs for career success by the Gamma distribution in order to calculate objective benchmarks based on extreme statistics which can be used for the identification of extraordinary careers.

  6. Effects of different CMV-heat-inactivation-methods on growth factors in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelz, Rangmar; Hihn, Eva; Hamprecht, Klaus; Dietz, Klaus; Jahn, Gerhard; Poets, Christian; Elmlinger, Martin

    2009-04-01

    Preterm infants can inoculate virulent cytomegalovirus (CMV) through their mothers' raw breast milk. Complete virus inactivation is achieved only by heat treatment, but the effect on growth factors has never been assessed systematically. Insulin-like-growth-factor-1-, IGF-2-, insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-protein-2-, and IGFBP-3-concentrations were measured, before and after heating, in 51 breast-milk-samples from 28 mothers, and epidermal-growth-factor-concentrations in a subgroup of 35 samples from 22 mothers. Two heating methods were applied: Short-term (5 s) pasteurisation at 62, 65, and 72 degrees C, and long-term Holder-Pasteurisation (30 min) at 63 degrees C. IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured by RIA, and EGF by ELISA. Heating for 30 min decreased significantly IGF-1 by 39.4%, IGF-2 by 9.9%, IGFBP-2 by 19.1%, and IGFBP-3 by 7.0%. In contrast, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were not altered significantly when using a short heating duration of 5 s, irrespective of the level of temperature, except for IGF-2 at 62 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.041) and IGFBP-2 at 72 degrees C for 5 s (p = 0.025). Neither long- nor short-time heating methods changed the concentration of EGF. Only short heating methods (5 s, 62-72 degrees C) can preserve, almost completely, the concentrations of IGFs in human milk, whereas Holder-Pasteurization does not.

  7. Factors Analysis And Profit Achievement For Trading Company By Using Rough Set Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ardiansyah Sembiring

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research has been done to analysis the financial raport fortrading company and it is  intimately  related  to  some  factors  which  determine  the profit of company. The result of this reseach is showed about  New Knowledge and perform of the rule. In  discussion, by followed data mining process and using Rough Set method. Rough Set is to analyzed the performance of the result. This  reseach will be assist to the manager of company with draw the intactandobjective. Rough set method is also to difined  the rule of discovery process and started the formation about Decision System, Equivalence Class, Discernibility Matrix,  Discernibility Matrix Modulo D, Reduction and General Rules. Rough set method is efective model about the performing analysis in the company.   Keywords : Data Mining, General Rules, Profit,. Rough Set.

  8. A probabilistic analysis method to evaluate the effect of human factors on plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujita, H.

    1987-01-01

    A method to evaluate the effect of human factors on probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) is developed. The main features of the method are as follows: 1. A time-dependent multibranch tree is constructed to treat time dependency of human error probability. 2. A sensitivity analysis is done to determine uncertainty in the PSA due to branch time of human error occurrence, human error data source, extraneous act probability, and human recovery probability. The method is applied to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident of a boiling water reactor-5. As a result, core melt probability and risk do not depend on the number of time branches, which means that a small number of branches are sufficient. These values depend on the first branch time and the human error probability

  9. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  10. Steel Rack Connections: Identification of Most Influential Factors and a Comparison of Stiffness Design Methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S N R Shah

    Full Text Available Steel pallet rack (SPR beam-to-column connections (BCCs are largely responsible to avoid the sway failure of frames in the down-aisle direction. The overall geometry of beam end connectors commercially used in SPR BCCs is different and does not allow a generalized analytic approach for all types of beam end connectors; however, identifying the effects of the configuration, profile and sizes of the connection components could be the suitable approach for the practical design engineers in order to predict the generalized behavior of any SPR BCC. This paper describes the experimental behavior of SPR BCCs tested using a double cantilever test set-up. Eight sets of specimens were identified based on the variation in column thickness, beam depth and number of tabs in the beam end connector in order to investigate the most influential factors affecting the connection performance. Four tests were repeatedly performed for each set to bring uniformity to the results taking the total number of tests to thirty-two. The moment-rotation (M-θ behavior, load-strain relationship, major failure modes and the influence of selected parameters on connection performance were investigated. A comparative study to calculate the connection stiffness was carried out using the initial stiffness method, the slope to half-ultimate moment method and the equal area method. In order to find out the more appropriate method, the mean stiffness of all the tested connections and the variance in values of mean stiffness according to all three methods were calculated. The calculation of connection stiffness by means of the initial stiffness method is considered to overestimate the values when compared to the other two methods. The equal area method provided more consistent values of stiffness and lowest variance in the data set as compared to the other two methods.

  11. Steel Rack Connections: Identification of Most Influential Factors and a Comparison of Stiffness Design Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S. N. R.; Sulong, N. H. Ramli; Shariati, Mahdi; Jumaat, M. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Steel pallet rack (SPR) beam-to-column connections (BCCs) are largely responsible to avoid the sway failure of frames in the down-aisle direction. The overall geometry of beam end connectors commercially used in SPR BCCs is different and does not allow a generalized analytic approach for all types of beam end connectors; however, identifying the effects of the configuration, profile and sizes of the connection components could be the suitable approach for the practical design engineers in order to predict the generalized behavior of any SPR BCC. This paper describes the experimental behavior of SPR BCCs tested using a double cantilever test set-up. Eight sets of specimens were identified based on the variation in column thickness, beam depth and number of tabs in the beam end connector in order to investigate the most influential factors affecting the connection performance. Four tests were repeatedly performed for each set to bring uniformity to the results taking the total number of tests to thirty-two. The moment-rotation (M-θ) behavior, load-strain relationship, major failure modes and the influence of selected parameters on connection performance were investigated. A comparative study to calculate the connection stiffness was carried out using the initial stiffness method, the slope to half-ultimate moment method and the equal area method. In order to find out the more appropriate method, the mean stiffness of all the tested connections and the variance in values of mean stiffness according to all three methods were calculated. The calculation of connection stiffness by means of the initial stiffness method is considered to overestimate the values when compared to the other two methods. The equal area method provided more consistent values of stiffness and lowest variance in the data set as compared to the other two methods. PMID:26452047

  12. Evaluation of stress intensity factors for bi-material interface cracks using displacement jump methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehar, K. C.; Hachi, B. E.; Cazes, F.; Haboussi, M.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the numerical modeling of interfacial cracks that may appear at the interface between two isotropic elastic materials. The extended finite element method is employed to analyze brittle and bi-material interfacial fatigue crack growth by computing the mixed mode stress intensity factors (SIF). Three different approaches are introduced to compute the SIFs. In the first one, mixed mode SIF is deduced from the computation of the contour integral as per the classical J-integral method, whereas a displacement method is used to evaluate the SIF by using either one or two displacement jumps located along the crack path in the second and third approaches. The displacement jump method is rather classical for mono-materials, but has to our knowledge not been used up to now for a bi-material. Hence, use of displacement jump for characterizing bi-material cracks constitutes the main contribution of the present study. Several benchmark tests including parametric studies are performed to show the effectiveness of these computational methodologies for SIF considering static and fatigue problems of bi-material structures. It is found that results based on the displacement jump methods are in a very good agreement with those of exact solutions, such as for the J-integral method, but with a larger domain of applicability and a better numerical efficiency (less time consuming and less spurious boundary effect).

  13. Antisperm antibodies as a factor of male infertility. Relevance, modern methods of diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nikiforov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available According to WHO statistics 40 % of childless marriage is due to factors of male infertility. One of them is the presence of antisperm antibodies in the male organism, which may be in blood serum, on the surface of spermatozoids and seminal plasma. Aim. Оn the grounds of specialized literature analysis, to show the relevance of this problem in Reproductive Medicine, to descript Basic methods of Modern treatment and diagnosis of this pathology in the body of infertile males. The most common methods of antisperm antibodies identifying are: MAR-test sample Shuvarskiy–Sims–Hyuner, Kurtsrok–Miller test, the method of latex agglutination, solid-phase immunoenzymatic blood test. Indications for antisperm antibodies determining are: modified indices, deviations in post-coital test, a negative test of sperm and cervical mucus interaction in vitro, unexplained infertility in the married couples, failure or low indices during IVF (in vitro fertilization and of course, the exclusion of other causes of infertility. When antisperm antibodies are detected, the strategy of treatment may be destined to reduction of their titer for further pregnancy. Such types of therapy can be used: contraceptive (long-term use contraception barrier to reduce antisperm antibodies titer in women, plasmapheresis, artificial insemination with pretreated from antisperm antibodies husband's sperm, methods of assisted reproductive technologies. Conclusoins. The formation of antisperm antibodies leads to infertility of immunological genesis (in 20 % of couples with unexplained infertility. To confirm their presence in the male body it is necessary to perform the MAR-test, Shuvarsky test, other tests and, of course, the exclusion of other causes of infertility. Men of reproductive age with an immunological factor of infertility provides for a comprehensive treatment, including elimination of all possible causative and contributing factors of infertility (infection of the male

  14. Factors and methods of analysis and estimation of furniture making enterprises competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Aleksandrovich Zhigarev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to describe the author39s methodology for estimating the furnituremaking enterprises competitiveness with a view to carry out the economic evaluation of the efficiency of furniture production the evaluation of the internal component of the furniture production efficiency the identification of factors influencing the efficiency of furnituremaking companies and areas for improving it through improvements in product range production and sales policy of the enterprise. The research subject is modern methods and principles of competitiveness management applicable in a rapidly changing market environment. Methods in general the research methodology consists of six stages differentiated by methods objectives and required outcomes. The first stage of the research was to study the nature of demand within the target market of a furnituremaking enterprise. The second stage was to study the expenditures of a furnituremaking enterprise for implementing individual production and sales strategies. The third stage was to study competition in the market. The fourth stage was the analysis of possibilities of a furnituremaking enterprise in producing and selling furniture in terms of factor values combinations. The fifth stage was the reexamination of the demand with a view to its distribution according to the factor space. The final sixth stage was processing of data obtained at the previous stages and carrying out the necessary calculations. Results in general the above methodology of economic evaluation of the efficiency of furniture production based on the previously developed model gives the managers of enterprises an algorithm for assessing both market and firmlevel component of the furniture production efficiency allowing the subsequent identification and evaluation of the efficiency factors and the development of measures to improve the furniture production and sale efficiency as well as the assortment rationalization production and sales policy

  15. The ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM) and its application to determining the ionospheric delay for GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Tscherning, C. C.; Knudsen, P.; Xu, G.; Ou, J.

    2008-01-01

    A new method for modeling the ionospheric delay using global positioning system (GPS) data is proposed, called the ionospheric eclipse factor method (IEFM). It is based on establishing a concept referred to as the ionospheric eclipse factor (IEF) λ of the ionospheric pierce point (IPP) and the IEF’s influence factor (IFF) bar{λ}. The IEF can be used to make a relatively precise distinction between ionospheric daytime and nighttime, whereas the IFF is advantageous for describing the IEF’s variations with day, month, season and year, associated with seasonal variations of total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. By combining λ and bar{λ} with the local time t of IPP, the IEFM has the ability to precisely distinguish between ionospheric daytime and nighttime, as well as efficiently combine them during different seasons or months over a year at the IPP. The IEFM-based ionospheric delay estimates are validated by combining an absolute positioning mode with several ionospheric delay correction models or algorithms, using GPS data at an international Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) service (IGS) station (WTZR). Our results indicate that the IEFM may further improve ionospheric delay modeling using GPS data.

  16. Pathophysiology, risk factors, and screening methods for prediabetes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourgari, Evgenia; Spanakis, Elias; Dobs, Adrian Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a syndrome associated with insulin resistance (IR), obesity, infertility, and increased cardiometabolic risk. This is a descriptive review of several mechanisms that can explain the IR among women with PCOS, other risk factors for the development of diabetes, and the screening methods used for the detection of glucose intolerance in women with PCOS. Few mechanisms can explain IR in women with PCOS such as obesity, insulin receptor signaling defects, and inhibition of insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. Women with PCOS have additional risk factors for the development of glucose intolerance such as family history of diabetes, use of oral contraceptives, anovulation, and age. The Androgen Society in 2007 and the Endocrine Society in 2013 recommended using oral glucose tolerance test as a screening tool for abnormal glucose tolerance in all women with PCOS. The approach to detection of glucose intolerance among women with PCOS varies among health care providers. Large prospective studies are still needed for the development of guidelines with strong evidence. When assessing risk of future diabetes in women with PCOS, it is important to take into account the method used for screening as well as other risk factors that these women might have.

  17. Human-factors methods for assessing and enhancing power-plant maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminara, J.L.

    1982-05-01

    EPRI Final Report NP-1567, dated February 1981, presented the results of a human factors review of plant maintainability at nine power plants (five nuclear and four fossil). This investigation revealed a wide range of plant and equipment design features that can potentially compromise the effectiveness, safety, and productivity of maintenance personnel. The present study is an extension of the earlier work. It provides those utilities that did not participate in the original study with the methodological tools to conduct a review of maintenance provisions, facilities, and practices. This report describes and provides a self-review checklist; a structured interview; a task analysis approach; methods for reviewing maintenance errors or accidents; and recommended survey techniques for evaluating such factors as noise, illumination, and communications. Application of the human factors methods described in this report should reveal avenues for enhancing existing power plants from the maintainability and availability standpoints. This document may also serve a useful purpose for designers or reviewers of new plant designs or near-operational plants presently being constructed

  18. Loregic: A Method to Characterize the Cooperative Logic of Regulatory Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daifeng; Yan, Koon-Kiu; Sisu, Cristina; Cheng, Chao; Rozowsky, Joel; Meyerson, William; Gerstein, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    The topology of the gene-regulatory network has been extensively analyzed. Now, given the large amount of available functional genomic data, it is possible to go beyond this and systematically study regulatory circuits in terms of logic elements. To this end, we present Loregic, a computational method integrating gene expression and regulatory network data, to characterize the cooperativity of regulatory factors. Loregic uses all 16 possible two-input-one-output logic gates (e.g. AND or XOR) to describe triplets of two factors regulating a common target. We attempt to find the gate that best matches each triplet’s observed gene expression pattern across many conditions. We make Loregic available as a general-purpose tool (github.com/gersteinlab/loregic). We validate it with known yeast transcription-factor knockout experiments. Next, using human ENCODE ChIP-Seq and TCGA RNA-Seq data, we are able to demonstrate how Loregic characterizes complex circuits involving both proximally and distally regulating transcription factors (TFs) and also miRNAs. Fur