WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods eighty-two subjects

  1. Modern teaching methods in economic subjects.

    OpenAIRE

    Maxa, Radek

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is a comprehensive assessment of the practical usability and effectiveness of modern activating teaching methods in economic subjects in fulfilling the RVP economics and business and RVP Business Academy in comparison with traditional (standard) methods. To achieve this goal, a systematic clarification and evaluation of key elements of the choice of adequate methods of teaching, presentation and comparison of traditional, modern activating and comprehensive t...

  2. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  3. Psychological methods of subjective risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimolong, B.

    1980-01-01

    Reactions to situations involving risks can be divided into the following parts/ perception of danger, subjective estimates of the risk and risk taking with respect to action. Several investigations have compared subjective estimates of the risk with an objective measure of that risk. In general there was a mis-match between subjective and objective measures of risk, especially, objective risk involved in routine activities is most commonly underestimated. This implies, for accident prevention, that attempts must be made to induce accurate subjective risk estimates by technical and behavioural measures. (orig.) [de

  4. Handbook of statistical methods single subject design

    CERN Document Server

    Satake, Eiki; Maxwell, David L

    2008-01-01

    This book is a practical guide of the most commonly used approaches in analyzing and interpreting single-subject data. It arranges the methodologies used in a logical sequence using an array of research studies from the existing published literature to illustrate specific applications. The book provides a brief discussion of each approach such as visual, inferential, and probabilistic model, the applications for which it is intended, and a step-by-step illustration of the test as used in an actual research study.

  5. Methodic of practical study teaching on subject 'Characteristic mechanical oscillations'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenchurina, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    In this article the methodic of the undertaking the practical lesson for subject 'the own mechanical vibrations' is considered and offered the algorithm of the problem decision the finding of the vibration period for the different mechanical systems. (author)

  6. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    OpenAIRE

    Sergienko, Nikolai M.; Gromova, Anastasia; Sergienko, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To study the impact of the depth of focus on subjective refraction and distribution of myopic and hyperopic refractions. Methods: A total of 450 eyes of 305 subjects in the age range of 23–34 years were recruited for the study. A distribution of refractions was examined using a traditional method of the subjective refractometry on the basis of point-like posterior focus notion. Correction of the results was made on the assumption that the emmetropic eye retains high visual acuity ...

  7. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrender, Curt

    2005-12-13

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  8. System and method for acquisition management of subject position information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrender, Curt [Morgan Hill, CA

    2007-01-23

    A system and method for acquisition management of subject position information that utilizes radio frequency identification (RF ID) to store position information in position tags. Tag programmers receive position information from external positioning systems, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), from manual inputs, such as keypads, or other tag programmers. The tag programmers program each position tag with the received position information. Both the tag programmers and the position tags can be portable or fixed. Implementations include portable tag programmers and fixed position tags for subject position guidance, and portable tag programmers for collection sample labeling. Other implementations include fixed tag programmers and portable position tags for subject route recordation. Position tags can contain other associated information such as destination address of an affixed subject for subject routing.

  9. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai M. Sergienko

    2012-04-01

    Conclusion: The traditional method of subjective refractometry with application of trial lenses was developed on the basis of data of large optical aberrations and significant depth of focus which values should be taken into account during interpretation of results of subjective refractometry. Our data regarding to prevalence of emmetropic refraction falls in line with basic science provisions in respect of the physiology of the eye.

  10. Implementation of Active Learning Method in Unit Operations II Subject

    OpenAIRE

    Ma'mun, Sholeh

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Active Learning Method which requires students to take an active role in the process of learning in the classroom has been applied in Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Islamic University of Indonesia for Unit Operations II subject in the Even Semester of Academic Year 2015/2016. The purpose of implementation of the learning method is to assist students in achieving competencies associated with the Unit Operations II subject and to help in creating...

  11. E-LEARNING METHOD APPLIED TO TECHNICAL GRAPHICS SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GOANTA Adrian Mihai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some of the author’s endeavors in creating video courses for the students from the Faculty of Engineering in Braila related to subjects involving technical graphics . There are also mentioned the steps taken in completing the method and how to achieve a feedback on the rate of access to these types of courses by the students.

  12. Subjective method of refractometry and depth of focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, Nikolai M.; Gromova, Anastasia; Sergienko, Nikolai

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study the impact of the depth of focus on subjective refraction and distribution of myopic and hyperopic refractions. Methods A total of 450 eyes of 305 subjects in the age range of 23–34 years were recruited for the study. A distribution of refractions was examined using a traditional method of the subjective refractometry on the basis of point-like posterior focus notion. Correction of the results was made on the assumption that the emmetropic eye retains high visual acuity when applying convex lenses with values which are fewer or equal to the depth of focus values. The following values of the depth of focus were used: ±0.55 D, ±0.35 D and ±0.2 D for visual acuity 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0, respectively. Results Application of the traditional method of refractometry produced the following occurrence of refractions: hypermetropia 59.3%, myopia 22% and emmetropia 18.7%. After correction of the initial results of values of the depth of focus the distribution of refractions was as follows: hypermetropia 12.7%, myopia 22% and emmetropia 65.3%. Conclusion The traditional method of subjective refractometry with application of trial lenses was developed on the basis of data of large optical aberrations and significant depth of focus which values should be taken into account during interpretation of results of subjective refractometry. Our data regarding to prevalence of emmetropic refraction falls in line with basic science provisions in respect of the physiology of the eye.

  13. Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Vega Encabo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I claim that subjectivity is a way of being that is constituted through a set of practices in which the self is subject to the dangers of fictionalizing and plotting her life and self-image. I examine some ways of becoming subject through narratives and through theatrical performance before others. Through these practices, a real and active subjectivity is revealed, capable of self-knowledge and self-transformation. 

  14. Fragility assessment method of Concrete Wall Subjected to Impact Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahm, Daegi; Shin, Sang Shup; Choi, In-Kil

    2014-01-01

    These studies have been aimed to verify and ensure the safety of the targeted walls and structures especially in the viewpoint of the deterministic approach. However, recently, the regulation and the assessment of the safety of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) against to an aircraft impact are strongly encouraged to adopt a probabilistic approach, i.e., the probabilistic risk assessment of an aircraft impact. In Korea, research to develop aircraft impact risk quantification technology was initiated in 2012 by Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). In this paper, for the one example of the probabilistic safety assessment approach, a method to estimate the failure probability and fragility of concrete wall subjected to impact loading caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts will be introduced. This method and the corresponding results will be used for the total technical roadmap and the procedure to assess the aircraft impact risk (Fig.1). A method and corresponding results of the estimation of the failure probability and fragility for a concrete wall subjected to impact loadings caused by missiles or engine parts of aircrafts was introduced. The detailed information of the target concrete wall in NPP, and the example aircraft engine model is considered safeguard information (SGI), and is not contained in this paper

  15. Meat Quality of Chicken Breast Subjected to Different Thawing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is one of the methods to preserve and guarantee the quality of meat until it reaches the consumer. Even though freezing is classified as a mild form of preservation, it causes meat changes resulting from the formation of ice crystals that subsequently affect the tenderness and functionality of meat. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and structural characteristics of chicken half breast submitted to fast freezing (-36 °C for 2 hours and thawed by five different methods (under refrigeration, in a microwave, in a oven with air circulation, placed in cold water, or at room temperature. After thawing, the following parameters were evaluated: moisture content, drip loss (syneresis, water activity (aw, and shear force. Samples were also histologically evaluated by light microscopy. The results indicated that, despite being submitted to fast freezing, thawing affected (p <0.05 most of the physicochemical and structural properties of the meat, except for aw. Thawing in cold water (packed in low-density polyethylene bags and placed in cold water at approximately 10 °C for 2 hours and 15 minutes presented the best results due to lesser damage to the cell structure, as shown by the lower drip loss, higher moisture content, and greater tenderness of the samples compared to those thawed using the other methods. Histological examination showed that muscle fiber structural features and organization were maintained. Thawing at low temperatures seems to cause less damage to the meat structure and allows maintaining of its properties. It was concluded that the meat quality is not related only with the freezing method, but also with the method and conditions used in thawing.

  16. Evolving Evidence for the Value of Neuroimaging Methods and Biological Markers in Subjects Categorized with Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lista, Simone; Molinuevo, Jose L; Cavedo, Enrica; Rami, Lorena; Amouyel, Philippe; Teipel, Stefan J; Garaci, Francesco; Toschi, Nicola; Habert, Marie-Odile; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; O'Bryant, Sid E; Johnson, Leigh; Galluzzi, Samantha; Bokde, Arun L W; Broich, Karl; Herholz, Karl; Bakardjian, Hovagim; Dubois, Bruno; Jessen, Frank; Carrillo, Maria C; Aisen, Paul S; Hampel, Harald

    2015-09-24

    There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein ɛ4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.

  17. A method to evaluate performance reliability of individual subjects in laboratory research applied to work settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    This report presents a method that may be used to evaluate the reliability of performance of individual subjects, particularly in applied laboratory research. The method is based on analysis of variance of a tasks-by-subjects data matrix, with all sc...

  18. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  19. The method of adaptation under the parameters of the subject of the information interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Инесса Анатольевна Воробьёва

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the effectiveness of settings (adaptation created software and hardware on the particular subject of the method was developed for adaptation under the parameters of the subject of information interaction in the form of a set of operations to build a network dialog procedures on the basis of accounting for entry-level qualification of the subject, assessment of the current level of skills and operational restructuring of the network in accordance with the assessment of his level.

  20. Breath pacing system and method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    To provide a breath pacing system and a corresponding method for pacing the respiratory activity of a subject that provide the possibility to adapt the output signal to the respiration characteristics of the subject automatically and effectively a breath pacing system (10) for pacing the respiratory

  1. Evaluation of perioperative nutritional status with subjective global assessment method in patients undergoing gastrointestinal cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdim, Aylin; Aktan, Ahmet Özdemir

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the perioperative nutritional status of patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer using Subjective Global Assessment and surgeon behavior on nutritional support. We recruited 100 patients undergoing surgery for gastrointestinal cancer in one university and two state teaching hospitals. Subjective Global Assessment was administered to evaluate preoperative and postoperative nutritional status. Fifty-two patients in the state hospitals (Group 1) and 48 in the university hospital were assessed. Anthropometric and biochemical measurements were performed. Changes in preoperative Subjective Global Assessment scores and scores at the time of discharge and types of nutritional support were compared. Subjective Global Assessment-B was regarded as moderate and Subjective Global Assessment-C as heavy malnutrition. Ten patients had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 29 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 1 and nine had Subjective Global Assessment-B and 31 had Subjective Global Assessment-C malnutrition in Group 2 during preoperative assessment. Respective numbers in postoperative assessment were 12 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 30 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 1 and 14 for Subjective Global Assessment-B and 26 for Subjective Global Assessment-C in Group 2. There was no difference between two groups. Nutritional methods according to Subjective Global Assessment evaluation in pre- and postoperative periods were not different between the groups. This study demonstrated that the malnutrition rate is high among patients scheduled for gastrointestinal cancer surgery and the number of surgeons were inadequate to provide perioperative nutritional support. Both university and state hospitals had similar shortcomings. Subjective Global Assessment is an easy and reliable test and if utilized will be helpful to detect patients requiring nutritional support.

  2. Revisiting Individual Creativity Assessment: Triangulation in Subjective and Objective Assessment Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Namgyoo K.; Chun, Monica Youngshin; Lee, Jinju

    2016-01-01

    Compared to the significant development of creativity studies, individual creativity research has not reached a meaningful consensus regarding the most valid and reliable method for assessing individual creativity. This study revisited 2 of the most popular methods for assessing individual creativity: subjective and objective methods. This study…

  3. WHAT ARE AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS PH.D. STUDENTS LEARNING ABOUT AGRIBUSINESS RESEARCH METHODS AND SUBJECT AREAS?

    OpenAIRE

    House, Lisa; Sterns, James A.

    2002-01-01

    This document contains the PowerPoint presentation given by the authors at the 2002 WCC-72 meetings, regarding what agricultural economics Ph.D students are learning about agribusiness research methods and subject areas.

  4. A method for computing the stationary points of a function subject to linear equality constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uko, U.L.

    1989-09-01

    We give a new method for the numerical calculation of stationary points of a function when it is subject to equality constraints. An application to the solution of linear equations is given, together with a numerical example. (author). 5 refs

  5. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalco...

  6. Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    a computerized test designed to assess pilot skills by measuring spatial orientation and psychomotor skills and multitasking . The second is the...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2015-0028 Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America Joe...September 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Objective Versus Subjective Military Pilot Selection Methods in the United States of America 5a. CONTRACT

  7. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo

    2016-01-01

    influence reports of cognitive decline. METHODS: The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded...... decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Measures for subjective cognitive...... decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration...

  8. Neural interface methods and apparatus to provide artificial sensory capabilities to a subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerger, Stephen P.; Olsson, III, Roy H.; Wojciechowski, Kenneth E.; Novick, David K.; Kholwadwala, Deepesh K.

    2017-01-24

    Embodiments of neural interfaces according to the present invention comprise sensor modules for sensing environmental attributes beyond the natural sensory capability of a subject, and communicating the attributes wirelessly to an external (ex-vivo) portable module attached to the subject. The ex-vivo module encodes and communicates the attributes via a transcutaneous inductively coupled link to an internal (in-vivo) module implanted within the subject. The in-vivo module converts the attribute information into electrical neural stimuli that are delivered to a peripheral nerve bundle within the subject, via an implanted electrode. Methods and apparatus according to the invention incorporate implantable batteries to power the in-vivo module allowing for transcutaneous bidirectional communication of low voltage (e.g. on the order of 5 volts) encoded signals as stimuli commands and neural responses, in a robust, low-error rate, communication channel with minimal effects to the subjects' skin.

  9. Analytic study of the Tadoma method: language abilities of three deaf-blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, C

    1986-09-01

    This study reports on the linguistic abilities of 3 adult deaf-blind subjects. The subjects perceive spoken language through touch, placing a hand on the face of the speaker and monitoring the speaker's articulatory motions, a method of speechreading known as Tadoma. Two of the subjects, deaf-blind since infancy, acquired language and learned to speak through this tactile system; the third subject has used Tadoma since becoming deaf-blind at age 7. Linguistic knowledge and productive language are analyzed, using standardized tests and several tests constructed for this study. The subjects' language abilities prove to be extensive, comparing favorably in many areas with hearing individuals. The results illustrate a relatively minor effect of limited language exposure on eventual language achievement. The results also demonstrate the adequacy of the tactile sense, in these highly trained Tadoma users, for transmitting information about spoken language sufficient to support the development of language and learning to produce speech.

  10. An Alternative Method to Compute the Bit Error Probability of Modulation Schemes Subject to Nakagami- Fading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeiro Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents an alternative method for determining exact expressions for the bit error probability (BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In this method, the Nakagami- fading channel is seen as an additive noise channel whose noise is modeled as the ratio between Gaussian and Nakagami- random variables. The method consists of using the cumulative density function of the resulting noise to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of modulation schemes subject to Nakagami- fading. In particular, the proposed method is used to obtain closed-form expressions for the BEP of -ary quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM, -ary pulse amplitude modulation ( -PAM, and rectangular quadrature amplitude modulation ( -QAM under Nakagami- fading. The main contribution of this paper is to show that this alternative method can be used to reduce the computational complexity for detecting signals in the presence of fading.

  11. Differences in quantitative methods for measuring subjective cognitive decline - results from a prospective memory clinic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Asmus; Salem, Lise Cronberg; Andersen, Birgitte Bo; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive complaints occur frequently in elderly people and may be a risk factor for dementia and cognitive decline. Results from studies on subjective cognitive decline are difficult to compare due to variability in assessment methods, and little is known about how different methods influence reports of cognitive decline. The Subjective Memory Complaints Scale (SMC) and The Memory Complaint Questionnaire (MAC-Q) were applied in 121 mixed memory clinic patients with mild cognitive symptoms (mean MMSE = 26.8, SD 2.7). The scales were applied independently and raters were blinded to results from the other scale. Scales were not used for diagnostic classification. Cognitive performances and depressive symptoms were also rated. We studied the association between the two measures and investigated the scales' relation to depressive symptoms, age, and cognitive status. SMC and MAC-Q were significantly associated (r = 0.44, N = 121, p = 0.015) and both scales had a wide range of scores. In this mixed cohort of patients, younger age was associated with higher SMC scores. There were no significant correlations between cognitive test performances and scales measuring subjective decline. Depression scores were significantly correlated to both scales measuring subjective decline. Linear regression models showed that age did not have a significant contribution to the variance in subjective memory beyond that of depressive symptoms. Measures for subjective cognitive decline are not interchangeable when used in memory clinics and the application of different scales in previous studies is an important factor as to why studies show variability in the association between subjective cognitive decline and background data and/or clinical results. Careful consideration should be taken as to which questions are relevant and have validity when operationalizing subjective cognitive decline.

  12. Prediction method for thermal ratcheting of a cylinder subjected to axially moving temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hiroshi; Igari, Toshihide; Kitade, Shoji.

    1989-01-01

    A prediction method was proposed for plastic ratcheting of a cylinder, which was subjected to axially moving temperature distribution without primary stress. First, a mechanism of this ratcheting was proposed, which considered the movement of temperature distribution as a driving force of this phenomenon. Predictive equations of the ratcheting strain for two representative temperature distributions were proposed based on this mechanism by assuming the elastic-perfectly-plastic material behavior. Secondly, an elastic-plastic analysis was made on a cylinder subjected to the representative two temperature distributions. Analytical results coincided well with the predicted results, and the applicability of the proposed equations was confirmed. (author)

  13. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifakiogullari Serpil

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Methods Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Results Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p In subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis score was significantly correlated with total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05. Conclusion Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  14. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean François Le

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called "flip method" (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and "clustering" (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  15. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciu, Monica [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)]. E-mail: mbaciu@upmf-grenoble.fr; Juphard, Alexandra [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Cousin, Emilie [Laboratoire de Psychologie et NeuroCognition, UMR 5105 CNRS, Universite Pierre Mendes-France, F38040 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Bas, Jean Francois Le [Unite IRM, CHU Grenoble (France)

    2005-08-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference.

  16. Evaluating fMRI methods for assessing hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baciu, Monica; Juphard, Alexandra; Cousin, Emilie; Bas, Jean Francois Le

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated two methods for quantifying the hemispheric language dominance in healthy subjects, by using a rhyme detection (deciding whether couple of words rhyme) and a word fluency (generating words starting with a given letter) task. One of methods called 'flip method' (FM) was based on the direct statistical comparison between hemispheres' activity. The second one, the classical lateralization indices method (LIM), was based on calculating lateralization indices by taking into account the number of activated pixels within hemispheres. The main difference between methods is the statistical assessment of the inter-hemispheric difference: while FM shows if the difference between hemispheres' activity is statistically significant, LIM shows only that if there is a difference between hemispheres. The robustness of LIM and FM was assessed by calculating correlation coefficients between LIs obtained with each of these methods and manual lateralization indices MLI obtained with Edinburgh inventory. Our results showed significant correlation between LIs provided by each method and the MIL, suggesting that both methods are robust for quantifying hemispheric dominance for language in healthy subjects. In the present study we also evaluated the effect of spatial normalization, smoothing and 'clustering' (NSC) on the intra-hemispheric location of activated regions and inter-hemispheric asymmetry of the activation. Our results have shown that NSC did not affect the hemispheric specialization but increased the value of the inter-hemispheric difference

  17. Solution Methods for Structures with Random Properties Subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köylüoglu, H. U.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Cakmak, A. S.

    This paper deals with the lower order statistical moments of the response of structures with random stiffness and random damping properties subject to random excitation. The arising stochastic differential equations (SDE) with random coefficients are solved by two methods, a second order...... the SDE with random coefficients with deterministic initial conditions to an equivalent nonlinear SDE with deterministic coefficient and random initial conditions. In both methods, the statistical moment equations are used. Hierarchy of statistical moments in the markovian approach is closed...... by the cumulant neglect closure method applied at the fourth order level....

  18. Comparison of subjective and fully automated methods for measuring mammographic density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Waade, Gunvor G; Ursin, Giske; Hofvind, Solveig

    2018-02-01

    Background Breast radiologists of the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program subjectively classified mammographic density using a three-point scale between 1996 and 2012 and changed into the fourth edition of the BI-RADS classification since 2013. In 2015, an automated volumetric breast density assessment software was installed at two screening units. Purpose To compare volumetric breast density measurements from the automated method with two subjective methods: the three-point scale and the BI-RADS density classification. Material and Methods Information on subjective and automated density assessment was obtained from screening examinations of 3635 women recalled for further assessment due to positive screening mammography between 2007 and 2015. The score of the three-point scale (I = fatty; II = medium dense; III = dense) was available for 2310 women. The BI-RADS density score was provided for 1325 women. Mean volumetric breast density was estimated for each category of the subjective classifications. The automated software assigned volumetric breast density to four categories. The agreement between BI-RADS and volumetric breast density categories was assessed using weighted kappa (k w ). Results Mean volumetric breast density was 4.5%, 7.5%, and 13.4% for categories I, II, and III of the three-point scale, respectively, and 4.4%, 7.5%, 9.9%, and 13.9% for the BI-RADS density categories, respectively ( P for trend density categories was k w  = 0.5 (95% CI = 0.47-0.53; P density increased with increasing density category of the subjective classifications. The agreement between BI-RADS and volumetric breast density categories was moderate.

  19. Subject-independent emotion recognition based on physiological signals: a three-stage decision method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yue; Moore, Philip; Dai, Yongqiang; Feng, Lei; Ding, Zhijie

    2017-12-20

    Collaboration between humans and computers has become pervasive and ubiquitous, however current computer systems are limited in that they fail to address the emotional component. An accurate understanding of human emotions is necessary for these computers to trigger proper feedback. Among multiple emotional channels, physiological signals are synchronous with emotional responses; therefore, analyzing physiological changes is a recognized way to estimate human emotions. In this paper, a three-stage decision method is proposed to recognize four emotions based on physiological signals in the multi-subject context. Emotion detection is achieved by using a stage-divided strategy in which each stage deals with a fine-grained goal. The decision method consists of three stages. During the training process, the initial stage transforms mixed training subjects to separate groups, thus eliminating the effect of individual differences. The second stage categorizes four emotions into two emotion pools in order to reduce recognition complexity. The third stage trains a classifier based on emotions in each emotion pool. During the testing process, a test case or test trial will be initially classified to a group followed by classification into an emotion pool in the second stage. An emotion will be assigned to the test trial in the final stage. In this paper we consider two different ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools. A comparative analysis is also carried out between the proposal and other methods. An average recognition accuracy of 77.57% was achieved on the recognition of four emotions with the best accuracy of 86.67% to recognize the positive and excited emotion. Using differing ways of allocating four emotions into two emotion pools, we found there is a difference in the effectiveness of a classifier on learning each emotion. When compared to other methods, the proposed method demonstrates a significant improvement in recognizing four emotions in the

  20. GIS-Based Integration of Subjective and Objective Weighting Methods for Regional Landslides Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhua Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of landslide susceptibility maps is of great importance due to rapid urbanization. The purpose of this study is to present a method to integrate the subjective weight with objective weight for regional landslide susceptibility mapping on the geographical information system (GIS platform. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP, which is subjective, was employed to weight predictive factors’ contribution to landslide occurrence. The frequency ratio (FR method, which is objective, was used to derive subclasses’ frequency ratio with respect to landslides that indicate the relative importance of a subclass within each predictive factor. A case study was carried out at Tsushima Island, Japan, using a historical inventory of 534 landslides and seven predictive factors: elevation, slope, aspect, terrain roughness index (TRI, lithology, land cover and mean annual precipitation (MAP. The landslide susceptibility index (LSI was calculated using the weighted linear combination of factors’ weights and subclasses’ weights. The study area was classified into five susceptibility zones according to the LSI. In addition, the produced susceptibility map was compared with maps generated using the conventional FR and AHP method and validated using the relative landslide index (RLI. The validation result showed that the proposed method performed better than the conventional application of the FR method and AHP method. The obtained landslide susceptibility maps could serve as a scientific basis for urban planning and landslide hazard management.

  1. Methods of Information Subjects and Objects Interaction Rules Formalization in the Electronic Trading Platform System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Emanuilova Yandybaeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The methods of information subjects and objects interaction rules formalization in the electronic trading platform system has been developed. They are based on mathematical model of mandatory role-based access control. As a result of the work we have defined set of user roles and constructed roles hierarchy. For the roles hierarchy restrictions have been imposed to ensure the safety of the information system.

  2. Subjective assessment of the effectiveness of physiotherapeutic methods in lumbosacral discogenic pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Grzegorczyk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging society, lack of habit shaping attitude to correct posture among children and youth and a lifestyle that often requires excessive effort make lumbosacral discogenic pain syndrome a social disease. It is essential that effective methods for the prevention and treatment of these changes go hand in hand with the frequently occurring pains of the lumbosacral spine. Aim of the study: Comparison of the subjective assessment of the patient's feelings related to the lumbosacral discogenic pain. Material and method: The research group included 60 people diagnosed with a lumbosacral discogenic pain. All patients were divided into three groups of 20 people. Each group was subjected to a different type of rehabilitation, depending on the method analyzed - PNF, manual therapy, and physical treatments. The questionnaire was used as the research tool, it was filled in by the respondents. Results: The patients, before and after the treatments, regardless of the type of rehabilitation to which they were subjected, declared that the most common pain is in the buttock, thigh and calf. Before the rehabilitation, the most frequent additional complaints of the examined patients were numbness and muscle weakness, after rehabilitation it was muscle weakness. After the rehabilitation, the number of painkillers taken by the respondents decreased. Only in the case of patients who underwent physiotherapeutic procedures, the number of people taking medication increased. Conclusions: The best results from the analyzed therapies were obtained after manual therapy. The second most effective was PNF therapy, while the weakest result was achieved by physiotherapeutic procedures.

  3. Comparing subjective image quality measurement methods for the creation of public databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redi, Judith; Liu, Hantao; Alers, Hani; Zunino, Rodolfo; Heynderickx, Ingrid

    2010-01-01

    The Single Stimulus (SS) method is often chosen to collect subjective data testing no-reference objective metrics, as it is straightforward to implement and well standardized. At the same time, it exhibits some drawbacks; spread between different assessors is relatively large, and the measured ratings depend on the quality range spanned by the test samples, hence the results from different experiments cannot easily be merged . The Quality Ruler (QR) method has been proposed to overcome these inconveniences. This paper compares the performance of the SS and QR method for pictures impaired by Gaussian blur. The research goal is, on one hand, to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of both methods for quality assessment and, on the other, to make quality data of blur impaired images publicly available. The obtained results show that the confidence intervals of the QR scores are narrower than those of the SS scores. This indicates that the QR method enhances consistency across assessors. Moreover, QR scores exhibit a higher linear correlation with the distortion applied. In summary, for the purpose of building datasets of subjective quality, the QR approach seems promising from the viewpoint of both consistency and repeatability.

  4. Measurement of the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horoz, Mehmet; Bolukbas, Cengiz; Bolukbas, Fusun F; Sabuncu, Tevfik; Aslan, Mehmet; Sarifakiogullari, Serpil; Gunaydin, Necla; Erel, Ozcan

    2005-11-11

    Oxidative stress, an increase in oxidants and/or a decrease in antioxidant capacity, is one of the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. We aimed to investigate the total antioxidant response using a novel automated method in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis subjects. As a reciprocal measure, we also aimed to determine total peroxide level in the same plasma samples. Twenty-two subjects with biopsy proven nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. Total antioxidant response and total peroxide level measurements were done in all participants. The ratio percentage of total peroxide level to total antioxidant response was regarded as oxidative stress index. Total antioxidant response of subjects with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis was significantly lower than controls (p total peroxide level and mean oxidative stress index were higher (all p total peroxide level, total antioxidant response and oxidative stress index (p 0.05). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis is associated with increased oxidant capacity, especially in the presence of liver fibrosis. The novel automated assay is a reliable and easily applicable method for total plasma antioxidant response measurement in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

  5. An adjoint method of sensitivity analysis for residual vibrations of structures subject to impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Kun; Cheng, Gengdong

    2018-03-01

    For structures subject to impact loads, the residual vibration reduction is more and more important as the machines become faster and lighter. An efficient sensitivity analysis of residual vibration with respect to structural or operational parameters is indispensable for using a gradient based optimization algorithm, which reduces the residual vibration in either active or passive way. In this paper, an integrated quadratic performance index is used as the measure of the residual vibration, since it globally measures the residual vibration response and its calculation can be simplified greatly with Lyapunov equation. Several sensitivity analysis approaches for performance index were developed based on the assumption that the initial excitations of residual vibration were given and independent of structural design. Since the resulting excitations by the impact load often depend on structural design, this paper aims to propose a new efficient sensitivity analysis method for residual vibration of structures subject to impacts to consider the dependence. The new method is developed by combining two existing methods and using adjoint variable approach. Three numerical examples are carried out and demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. The numerical results show that the dependence of initial excitations on structural design variables may strongly affects the accuracy of sensitivities.

  6. Assessment of Masonry Buildings Subjected to Landslide-Induced Settlements: From Load Path Method to Evolutionary Optimization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Fabrizio; Elia, Angelo

    2017-10-01

    One of the main difficulties, when dealing with landslide structural vulnerability, is the diagnosis of the causes of crack patterns. This is also due to the excessive complexity of models based on classical structural mechanics that makes them inappropriate especially when there is the necessity to perform a rapid vulnerability assessment at the territorial scale. This is why, a new approach, based on a ‘simple model’ (i.e. the Load Path Method, LPM), has been proposed by Palmisano and Elia for the interpretation of the behaviour of masonry buildings subjected to landslide-induced settlements. However, the LPM is very useful for rapidly finding the 'most plausible solution' instead of the exact solution. To find the solution, optimization algorithms are necessary. In this scenario, this article aims to show how the Bidirectional Evolutionary Structural Optimization method by Huang and Xie, can be very useful to optimize the strut-and-tie models obtained by using the Load Path Method.

  7. A general symplectic method for the response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to random excitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available A general symplectic method for the random response analysis of infinitely periodic structures subjected to stationary/non-stationary random excitations is developed using symplectic mathematics in conjunction with variable separation and the pseudo-excitation method (PEM. Starting from the equation of motion for a single loaded substructure, symplectic analysis is firstly used to eliminate the dependent degrees of the freedom through condensation. A Fourier expansion of the condensed equation of motion is then applied to separate the variables of time and wave number, thus enabling the necessary recurrence scheme to be developed. The random response is finally determined by implementing PEM. The proposed method is justified by comparison with results available in the literature and is then applied to a more complicated time-dependent coupled system.

  8. Method for identification of fluid mixing zones subject to thermal fatigue damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vole, O.; Beaud, F.

    2009-01-01

    High cycle thermal fatigue due to the mixing of hot and cold fluids may initiate cracking in pipes of safety related circuits. A method has been developed to identify such fluid mixing zones subjected to potential thermal fatigue damage. This method is based on a loading model and a mechanical model that depend on the main characteristics of the mixing zone and on the material properties. It is supported by a large experimental program. This method has been applied to all the mixing zones of safety related circuits of the EDF pressurised water reactors, allowing to identify sensitive zones and to apply an appropriate inspection program that ensures the control of the risk due to this damage mechanism. (authors)

  9. Mixed-method tutoring support improves learning outcomes of veterinary students in basic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, María J; Pérez-Martínez, Claudia; Gutiérrez-Martín, César B; Díez-Laiz, Raquel; Sahagún-Prieto, Ana M

    2018-02-01

    Tutoring is a useful tool in the university teaching-learning binomial, although its development is impaired in large classes. Recent improvements in information and communication technologies have made tutoring possible via the Internet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mixed-method academic tutoring in two basic subjects in Veterinary Science studies at the University of León (Spain) to optimize the usefulness of tutoring support in the college environment. This quasi-experimental study was firstly carried out as a pilot study in a small group of tutored students of "Cytology and Histology" (CH) (47/186; 25.3%) and "Veterinary Pharmacology" (VP) (33/141; 23.4%) subjects, and was implemented in a large class of CH the next academic year (150 students) while comparing the results with those obtained in a previous tutorless course (162 students). Tutored students were given access to online questionnaires with electronic feedback on each subject. In addition to traditional tutoring carried out in both tutored and tutorless students, the pilot study included three sessions of face-to-face tutoring in order to monitor the progress of students. Its efficacy was assessed by monitoring students' examination scores and attendance as well as a satisfaction survey. Although the examination attendance rate in the pilot study was not significantly different between tutored and tutorless groups in both subjects, an increase for numerical scores in tutored groups was observed, with a significant higher final score in VP (p = 0.001) and in the CH practice exams (first term, p = 0.009; final, p = 0.023). Good and merit scores were also better in tutored students with significant differences in VP (p = 0.005). Students felt comfortable with the tutoring service (100% in CH; 91.7% in VP). Implementation of this additional support in CH also resulted in a significant increase of attendance at the final exam in tutored courses (87.3% versus 77

  10. Attenuation correction of myocardial SPECT by scatter-photopeak window method in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Koichi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Matsuo, Shinro; Kinuya, Seigo; Motomura, Nobutoku; Kubota, Masahiro; Yamaki, Noriyasu; Maeda, Hisato

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation with scatter and photopeak window data using attenuation correction (SSPAC) method can provide a patient-specific non-uniform attenuation coefficient map only by using photopeak and scatter images without X-ray computed tomography (CT). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of attenuation correction (AC) by the SSPAC method on normal myocardial perfusion database. A total of 32 sets of exercise-rest myocardial images with Tc-99m-sestamibi were acquired in both photopeak (140 keV±10%) and scatter (7% of lower side of the photopeak window) energy windows. Myocardial perfusion databases by the SSPAC method and non-AC (NC) were created from 15 female and 17 male subjects with low likelihood of cardiac disease using quantitative perfusion SPECT software. Segmental myocardial counts of a 17-segment model from these databases were compared on the basis of paired t test. AC average myocardial perfusion count was significantly higher than that in NC in the septal and inferior regions (P<0.02). On the contrary, AC average count was significantly lower in the anterolateral and apical regions (P<0.01). Coefficient variation of the AC count in the mid, apical and apex regions was lower than that of NC. The SSPAC method can improve average myocardial perfusion uptake in the septal and inferior regions and provide uniform distribution of myocardial perfusion. The SSPAC method could be a practical method of attenuation correction without X-ray CT. (author)

  11. The participative method of subject definition as used in the quantitative modelling of hospital laundry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, K A; Janes, F R

    1995-01-01

    The objectives for developing the participative method of subject definition were to gain all the relevant information to a high level of fidelity in the earliest stages of the work and so be able to build a realistic model at reduced labour cost. In order to better integrate the two activities--information acquisition and mathematical modelling--a procedure was devised using the methods of interactive management to facilitate teamwork. This procedure provided the techniques to create suitable working relationships between the two groups, the informants and the modellers, so as to maximize their free and accurate intercommunication, both during the initial definition of the linen service and during the monitoring of the accuracy and reality of the draft models. The objectives of this project were met in that the final model was quickly validated and approved, at a low labour cost.

  12. Dynamic analysis of an axially moving beam subject to inner pressure using finite element method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, Hongliang; Qiu, Ming; Liao, Zhenqiang [Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2017-06-15

    A dynamic model of an axially moving flexible beam subject to an inner pressure is present. The coupling principle between a flexible beam and inner pressure is analyzed first, and the potential energy of the inner pressure due to the beam bending is derived using the principle of virtual work. A 1D hollow beam element contain inner pressure is established. The finite element method and Lagrange’s equation are used to derive the motion equations of the axially moving system. The dynamic responses are analyzed by Newmark-β time integration method. Based on the computed dynamic responses, the effects of inner pressure on beam dynamics are discussed. Some interesting phenomenon is observed.

  13. Treatment of large posttraumatic tibial bone defects using the Ilizarov method: a subjective outcome assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krappinger, Dietmar; Irenberger, Alexander; Zegg, Michael; Huber, Burkhart

    2013-06-01

    The treatment of large posttraumatic tibial bone defects using the Ilizarov method was shown to be successful in several studies. These studies, however, typically focus on the radiological and functional outcome using objective parameters only. The aim of the present study was therefore to assess the objective and subjective outcome of a consecutive series of patients with large posttraumatic tibial bone defects using the Ilizarov method. Additionally, it was our goal to assess the physical and mental stress for the patients and their relatives during the long treatment period and the general health status at final follow-up. A consecutive series of 15 patients with posttraumatic tibial bone defects of >30 mm after sustaining open tibial fractures and failure of internal fixation was included. The objective outcome was assessed at final follow-up using Paley's criteria. For the assessment of the subjective outcome, all patients were asked to evaluate their satisfaction with the function of the lower leg, the cosmetic appearance and overall outcome as well. The physical and mental stress of the treatment for the patients and the nearest relative of patients were assessed at the time of frame removal using a custom-made questionnaire. The SF-36 was used to evaluate the general health status at final follow-up. Solid bone union with stable soft tissue coverage and eradication of infection was achieved in all patients despite a high complication rate. The functional outcome at final follow-up was excellent or good in all patients. The patients' satisfaction with the overall outcome and the function of the lower extremity was high as well. The fear of amputation and complications was the major subjective burden for both the patients and their relatives. The long external fixation time is another relevant issue. The Ilizarov method is a safe option for the treatment of large posttraumatic tibial bone defects after failure of internal fixation despite the high

  14. Integrated analyzing method for the progress event based on subjects and predicates in events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minowa, Hirotsugu; Munesawa, Yoshiomi

    2014-01-01

    It is expected to make use of the knowledge that was extracted by analyzing the mistakes of the past to prevent recurrence of accidents. Currently main analytic style is an analytic style that experts decipher deeply the accident cases, but cross-analysis has come to an end with extracting the common factors in the accident cases. We propose an integrated analyzing method for progress events to analyze among accidents in this study. Our method realized the integration of many accident cases by the integration connecting the common keyword called as 'Subject' or 'Predicate' that are extracted from each progress event in accident cases or near-miss cases. Our method can analyze and visualize the partial risk identification and the frequency to cause accidents and the risk assessment from the data integrated accident cases. The result of applying our method to PEC-SAFER accident cases identified 8 hazardous factors which can be caused from tank again, and visualized the high frequent factors that the first factor was damage of tank 26% and the second factor was the corrosion 21%, and visualized the high risks that the first risk was the damage 3.3 x 10 -2 [risk rank / year] and the second risk was the destroy 2.5 x 10 -2 [risk rank / year]. (author)

  15. Estimation methods with ordered exposure subject to measurement error and missingness in semi-ecological design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyang-Mi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In epidemiological studies, it is often not possible to measure accurately exposures of participants even if their response variable can be measured without error. When there are several groups of subjects, occupational epidemiologists employ group-based strategy (GBS for exposure assessment to reduce bias due to measurement errors: individuals of a group/job within study sample are assigned commonly to the sample mean of exposure measurements from their group in evaluating the effect of exposure on the response. Therefore, exposure is estimated on an ecological level while health outcomes are ascertained for each subject. Such study design leads to negligible bias in risk estimates when group means are estimated from ‘large’ samples. However, in many cases, only a small number of observations are available to estimate the group means, and this causes bias in the observed exposure-disease association. Also, the analysis in a semi-ecological design may involve exposure data with the majority missing and the rest observed with measurement errors and complete response data collected with ascertainment. Methods In workplaces groups/jobs are naturally ordered and this could be incorporated in estimation procedure by constrained estimation methods together with the expectation and maximization (EM algorithms for regression models having measurement error and missing values. Four methods were compared by a simulation study: naive complete-case analysis, GBS, the constrained GBS (CGBS, and the constrained expectation and maximization (CEM. We illustrated the methods in the analysis of decline in lung function due to exposures to carbon black. Results Naive and GBS approaches were shown to be inadequate when the number of exposure measurements is too small to accurately estimate group means. The CEM method appears to be best among them when within each exposure group at least a ’moderate’ number of individuals have their

  16. SUBJECTIVE AND INDIRECT METHODS TO OBSERVE DRIVER’S DROWSINESS AND ALERTNESS: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOR KAMALIANA K.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of drivers' workload has great interest these days due to the following reasons: high numbers of accidents seemingly ineradicable, very costly, and largely attributable to the human factor. The objective of this review is to assess the current status of fatigue performance and detection technology research and to identify any pertinent issues. Twenty-six relevant studies were identified and chosen from electronic databases, dating as far back as 1997. Fatigue, drowsiness, alertness, sleepiness, subjective, direct method and driver were the keyword search terms for this paper. Past studies demonstrated various purposes and implementation of subjective and indirect assessment among the driver for evaluating fatigue. It provides a better understanding for future researchers and industry to deal with fatigue issues among drivers. This review will provide a critical discussion on the designs used, discuss the findings in the search of directions for future studies, as well as provide insights into the use of counter measures for preventing fatigue-related accidents.

  17. The Subjective Well-Being Method of Valuation: An Application to General Health Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Timothy T

    2015-12-01

    To introduce the subjective well-being (SWB) method of valuation and provide an example by valuing health status. The SWB method allows monetary valuations to be performed in the absence of market relationships. Data are from the 1975-2010 General Social Survey. The value of health status is determined via the estimation of an implicit derivative based on a happiness equation. Two-stage least-squares was used to estimate happiness as a function of poor-to-fair health status, annual household income adjusted for household size, age, sex, race, marital status, education, year, and season. Poor-to-fair health status and annual household income are instrumented using a proxy for intelligence, a temporal version of the classic distance instrument, and the average health status of individuals who are demographically similar but geographically separated. Instrument validity is evaluated. Moving from good/excellent health to poor/fair health (1 year of lower health status) is equivalent to the loss of $41,654 of equivalized household income (2010 constant dollars) per annum, which is larger than median equivalized household income. The SWB method may be useful in making monetary valuations where fundamental market relationships are not present. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  18. Method for measuring biaxial stress in a body subjected to stress inducing loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, W. N. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for measuring stress in test articles including the steps of obtaining for a calibrating specimen a series of transit time differentials between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated through the specimen as it is subjected to known stress load of a series of stress loads for thus establishing a series of indications of the magnitudes for stress loads induced in the specimen, and thereafter obtaining a transit time differential between the second wave echo for a longitudinal wave and the first wave echo for each of a pair of shear waves propagated in the planes of the stress axes of a test article and comparing the transit time differential thus obtained to the series of transit time differentials obtained for the specimen to determine the magnitude of biaxial stress in the test article.

  19. Phisyological quality of Pinus elliotti Engelm. seeds subjected to differents storage methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Geraldo Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the growing demand for forest products, it is necessary to increase knowledge about the tree species of economic importance, especially in relation to seed storage. One method to study forest species is the storage of seeds. Cryopreservation is the cheapest and the most efficient method of seed preservation. The objective of this study was to test the behavior of Pinus elliottii Engelm. seeds storaged on liquid nitrogen; laboratory environment and refrigerator. The experiment was conducted in the seed Laboratory of the Federal University of the Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valley. The seeds were donated by Rigesa Ltda on June 2007. Three types of storage were tested: 1 liquid nitrogen temperature of -196 º C, 2 laboratory environment, 3 refrigerator. All treatments were evaluated at 0, 40, 80 and 120 days of storage. The vigor, germination and germination rate tests were mounted on gerbox with blotters and moistened with distilled water and kept in BOD incubator chamber at 25 º C. Seeds length, green mass and dry mass were also evaluated. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey test at 5% significance level. It was found that there was loss of quality of the Pinus elliottii seeds in all treatments. Cryopreservation of P. elliotii seeds can be used as an alternative of storage in genebanks.

  20. The Research on Coordinated Decision-Making Method Tax System Based on Subject Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoji Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Academically, the research of subject database of tax system aims to set up an efficient, harmonious virtual data application environment. Subject data, in application and management, has been on demand polymerized and autonomously collaborated and has reached a balance between instantaneity and accuracy. This paper defines the connotation and characteristics enterprise informationization, designs a value system of enterprise informationization which is subject database oriented, and builds a model for the import of the subject database of enterprise informationization. Meantime, this paper describes the structure of the subject database based information import model and forges the model’s theoretical basis of subject data import in tax system. Using the model can make an analysis on the information of data warehouse, storage information, and tax information to provide decision support for the tax administrators.

  1. An Analysis of Prospective Chemistry Teachers' Cognitive Structures through Flow Map Method: The Subject of Oxidation and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Senar

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyse prospective chemistry teachers' cognitive structures related to the subject of oxidation and reduction through a flow map method. Purposeful sampling method was employed in this study, and 8 prospective chemistry teachers from a group of students who had taken general chemistry and analytical chemistry courses were…

  2. The use of innovative teaching methods subject in training of bachelor «Standardization and metrology»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushchik E. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available the article considers the application of innovative teaching methods by the example of a method of collaborative learning in the laboratory practice in teaching subject «Network information technologies» to guide the preparation of 27.03.01 «Standardization and metroliya».

  3. Bootstrap Signal-to-Noise Confidence Intervals: An Objective Method for Subject Exclusion and Quality Control in ERP Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Nathan A.; Gannon, Matthew A.; Long, Stephanie M.; Young, Madeleine E.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of event-related potential (ERP) data includes several steps to ensure that ERPs meet an appropriate level of signal quality. One such step, subject exclusion, rejects subject data if ERP waveforms fail to meet an appropriate level of signal quality. Subject exclusion is an important quality control step in the ERP analysis pipeline as it ensures that statistical inference is based only upon those subjects exhibiting clear evoked brain responses. This critical quality control step is most often performed simply through visual inspection of subject-level ERPs by investigators. Such an approach is qualitative, subjective, and susceptible to investigator bias, as there are no standards as to what constitutes an ERP of sufficient signal quality. Here, we describe a standardized and objective method for quantifying waveform quality in individual subjects and establishing criteria for subject exclusion. The approach uses bootstrap resampling of ERP waveforms (from a pool of all available trials) to compute a signal-to-noise ratio confidence interval (SNR-CI) for individual subject waveforms. The lower bound of this SNR-CI (SNRLB) yields an effective and objective measure of signal quality as it ensures that ERP waveforms statistically exceed a desired signal-to-noise criterion. SNRLB provides a quantifiable metric of individual subject ERP quality and eliminates the need for subjective evaluation of waveform quality by the investigator. We detail the SNR-CI methodology, establish the efficacy of employing this approach with Monte Carlo simulations, and demonstrate its utility in practice when applied to ERP datasets. PMID:26903849

  4. Vitamin D status assessed by a validated HPLC method: within and between variation in subjects supplemented with vitamin D3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Bysted, Anette; Andersen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between-subject variat......Objective. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for assessing vitamin D status as 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (S-25OHD2) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (S-25OHD3) in serum. Material and methods. We assessed the within- and between......-subject variation of vitamin D status in serum samples from four different dietary intervention studies in which subjects (n=92) were supplemented with different doses of vitamin D3 (5-12 g/day) and for different durations (4-20 months). Results. The HPLC method was applicable for 4.0-200 nmol S-25OHD/L, while...... the within-day and between-days variations were 3.8 % and 5.7 %, respectively. There was a concentration-dependent difference between results obtained by a commercial radioimmunoassay and results from the HPLC method of -5 to 20 nmol 25OHD/L in the range 10-100 nmol 25OHD/L. The between-subject variation...

  5. Solution of a partial differential equation subject to temperature overspecification by He's homotopy perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghan, Mehdi; Shakeri, Fatemeh

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the solution of an inverse problem concerning a diffusion equation with source control parameters is presented. The homotopy perturbation method is employed to solve this equation. This method changes a difficult problem into a simple problem which can be easily solved. In this procedure, according to the homotopy technique, a homotopy with an embedding parameter p element of [0,1] is constructed, and this parameter is considered a 'small parameter', so the method is called the homotopy perturbation method, which can take full advantage of the traditional perturbation method and homotopy technique. The approximations obtained by the proposed method are uniformly valid not only for small parameters, but also for very large parameters. The fact that this technique, in contrast to the traditional perturbation methods, does not require a small parameter in the system, leads to wide applications in nonlinear equations

  6. Subjectivity and Reflexivity in the Social Sciences: Epistemic Windows and Methodical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Breuer

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available We sketch four basic epistemological assumptions that imply a constructionist orientation to knowledge including (a perspectivity, positionality; (b horizonality, dynamic observer position; (c the structuring of knowledge through instruments of knowledge production; and (d interactivity and interventionist nature of research. Although social scientists often adopt a constructionist epistemology to frame their research object, the methodological consequences of such an epistemology for the production of social scientific knowledge are not normally drawn. Instead of dealing with the four assumptions as a productive epistemic window, many researchers exhibit a defensive tendency and continue the quest for objectivity in their own writing. We propose a different methodological position conceptualized in the dialectic of the always embodied, individual, and social researcher-in-interaction. Beginning with the concept of a decentered (self- observation we develop the idea of the reflexive nature that relates the epistemic subject and object. We propose a way systematizing methodological considerations and procedures that follows the research process, beginning with the identification of a research topic to the final presentation of the results. The contributions to the two present FQS volumes on "Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research" provide answers and possible solutions to the questions and problems raised in this introduction. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0302258

  7. Subjective annoyance caused by indoor low-level and low frequency noise and control method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DI Guo-qing; ZHANG Bang-jun; SHANG Qi

    2005-01-01

    The influence of low-level noise has not been widely noticed. This paper discovered that low-level and low frequency noise(Aweighted equivalent level Leq < 45 dB) causes higher probability of subjective annoyance. The fuzzy mathematic principle was applied to deal with the threshold level of subjective annoyance from noise in this study; there is preferable relationship between the indoor noise and noise annoyance at low frequency noise level. Study indicated at the same centered noise level, the change of annoyance probability is mainly caused by the change of the frequency spectrum characteristic of the indoor noise. Under low noise level environment, without change of the medium-low frequency noise, the slight increase of medium-high frequency noise level with the help of noise sheltering effect can significantly reduce the noise annoyance. This discovery brings a new resolution on how to improve the environmental quality of working or living places. A noise control model is given in this study according to the acoustic analysis.

  8. Theoretical, methodological and methodical bases of structural policy of territorial subjects of the russian federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Sergeevna Antonyuk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the maintenance of the various points of view on a category «the structural policy» is revealed. The sight of authors of the article is reflected: the structural policy is understood as a subsystem of a social and economic policy of the state, called to carry out function managing by development of branches of the economy together with private business, distributions of financial resources between sectors, control over use of the given money resources with a view of, actual for a certain historical stage, by use of administrative, standard and financial tools of regulation. The methodological basis of a structural policy is defined, functions with that end in view reveal, the target system, subjects and objects, and also are specified principles and classification of tools of a structural policy. By sight authors, regional branch shifts which promote progressivechanges of branch structure of a region in directions of formation V and VI technological ways, increase of a diversification of manufacture by stimulation of innovative changes should become a target reference point of a structural policy. The most sensitiveto tactical both technological fluctuations and vulnerablein the economic plan are monospecialized regions. In this connection, the technique of carrying out of a structural policy in monospecialized subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account shifts in branches of their industrial specializations is offered.

  9. Is the implementation of quality improvement methods in hospitals subject to the neighbourhood effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tsung-Hsien; Chung, Kuo-Piao

    2014-06-01

    Quality improvement (QI) methods have been fashionable in hospitals for decades. Previous studies have discussed the relationships between the implementation of QI methods and various external and internal factors, but there has been no examination to date of whether the neighbourhood effect influences such implementation. The aim of this study was to use a multilevel model to investigate whether and how the neighbourhood effect influences the implementation of QI methods in the hospital setting in Taiwan. This is a retrospective questionnaire-based survey. All medical centres, regional hospitals and district teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Directors or persons in charge of implementing QI methods in hospitals. None. The breadth and depth of QI method implementation. Seventy-two of the 139 hospitals contacted returned the questionnaire, yielding a 52% response rate. The breadth and depth of QI method implementation increased over the 10-year study period, particularly between 2004 and 2006. The breadth and depth of the QI methods implemented in the participating hospitals were significantly associated with the average breadth and depth of those implemented by their competitors in the same medical area during the previous period. In addition, time was positively associated with the breadth and depth of QI method implementation. In summary, the findings of this study show that hospitals' QI implementation status is influenced by that of their neighbours. Hence, the neighbourhood effect is an important factor in understanding hospital behaviour. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care; all rights reserved.

  10. A novel noninvasive method for measuring fatigability of the quadriceps muscle in noncooperating healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Rose, Martin Høyer; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    days, nonvoluntary isometric contractions (twitch and tetanic) of the quadriceps femoris muscle evoked by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation were recorded in twelve healthy adults. For tetanic contractions, the Fatigue Index (ratio of peak torque values) and the slope of the regression line...... of peak torque values were primary outcome measures. For twitch contractions, maximum peak torque and rise time were calculated. Relative (intraclass correlation, ICC3.1) and absolute (standard error of measurement, SEM) reliability were assessed and minimum detectable change was calculated using a 95...... fatigability of the quadriceps muscle produces reliable results in healthy subjects and may provide valuable data on quantitative changes in muscle working capacity and treatment effects in patients who are incapable of producing voluntary muscle contractions....

  11. Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Strip Foundation Subjected to Eccentric Inclined Loads Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Majeed Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In real conditions of structures, foundations like retaining walls, industrial machines and platforms in offshore areas are commonly subjected to eccentrically inclined loads. This type of loading significantly affects the overall stability of shallow foundations due to exposing the foundation into two components of loads (horizontal and vertical and consequently reduces the bearing capacity Based on a numerical analysis performed using finite element software (Plaxis 3D Foundation, the behavior of model strip foundation rested on dry sand under the effect of eccentric inclined loads with different embedment ratios (D/B ranging from (0-1 has been explored. The results display that, the bearing capacity of strip foundation is noticeably decreased with the increase of inclination angle (α and eccentricity ratio (e/B. As well as, a reduction factor (RF expression was appointed to measure the degree of decreasing in the bearing capacity when the model footing is subjected to eccentric inclined load. It was observed that, the (RF decreases as the embedment ratio increases. Moreover, the test results also exhibit that, the model footing bearing capacity is reduced by about (69% when the load inclination is varied from (0° to 20° and the model footing is on the surface. While, the rate of decreasing in the bearing capacity was found to be (58%, for both cases of footing when they are at embedment ratios of (0.5 and 1.0. Also, a comparative study was carried out between the present results and previous experimental test results under the same conditions (soil properties and boundary condition. A good agreement was obtained between the predicted bearing capacities for the two related studies.

  12. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  13. A method for measuring quality of life through subjective weighting of functional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stineman, Margaret G; Wechsler, Barbara; Ross, Richard; Maislin, Greg

    2003-04-01

    To apply a new tool to understand the quality of life (QOL) implications of patients' functional status. Results from the Features-Resource Trade-Off Game were used to form utility weights by ranking functional activities by the relative value of achieving independence in each activity compared with all other component activities. The utility weights were combined with patients' actual levels of performance across the same activities to produce QOL-weighted functional status scores and to form "value rulers" to order activities by perceived importance. Persons with severe disabilities living in the community and clinicians practicing in various rehabilitation disciplines. Two panels of 5 consumers with disabilities and 2 panels of 5 rehabilitation clinicians. The 4 panels played the Features Resource Trade-Off Game by using the FIMT(TM) instrument definitions. Utility weights for each of the 18 FIM items, QOL-weighted FIM scores, and value rulers. All 4 panels valued the achievement of independence in cognitive and communication activities more than independence in physical activities. Consequently, the unweighted FIM scores of patients who have severe physical disabilities but relatively intact cognitive skills will underestimate QOL, while inflating QOL in those with low levels of independence in cognition and communication but higher physical function. Independence in some activities is more valued than in others; thus, 2 people with the same numeric functional status score could experience very different QOL. QOL-weighted functional status scores translate objectively measured functional status into its subjective meaning. This new technology for measuring subjective function-related QOL has a variety of applications to clinical, educational, and research practices.

  14. The study of surgical image quality evaluation system by subjective quality factor method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian J.; Xuan, Jason R.; Yang, Xirong; Yu, Honggang; Koullick, Edouard

    2016-03-01

    GreenLightTM procedure is an effective and economical way of treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH); there are almost a million of patients treated with GreenLightTM worldwide. During the surgical procedure, the surgeon or physician will rely on the monitoring video system to survey and confirm the surgical progress. There are a few obstructions that could greatly affect the image quality of the monitoring video, like laser glare by the tissue and body fluid, air bubbles and debris generated by tissue evaporation, and bleeding, just to name a few. In order to improve the physician's visual experience of a laser surgical procedure, the system performance parameter related to image quality needs to be well defined. However, since image quality is the integrated set of perceptions of the overall degree of excellence of an image, or in other words, image quality is the perceptually weighted combination of significant attributes (contrast, graininess …) of an image when considered in its marketplace or application, there is no standard definition on overall image or video quality especially for the no-reference case (without a standard chart as reference). In this study, Subjective Quality Factor (SQF) and acutance are used for no-reference image quality evaluation. Basic image quality parameters, like sharpness, color accuracy, size of obstruction and transmission of obstruction, are used as subparameter to define the rating scale for image quality evaluation or comparison. Sample image groups were evaluated by human observers according to the rating scale. Surveys of physician groups were also conducted with lab generated sample videos. The study shows that human subjective perception is a trustworthy way of image quality evaluation. More systematic investigation on the relationship between video quality and image quality of each frame will be conducted as a future study.

  15. Optimization of structures subjected to dynamic load: deterministic and probabilistic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élcio Cassimiro Alves

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper deals with the deterministic and probabilistic optimization of structures against bending when submitted to dynamic loads. The deterministic optimization problem considers the plate submitted to a time varying load while the probabilistic one takes into account a random loading defined by a power spectral density function. The correlation between the two problems is made by one Fourier Transformed. The finite element method is used to model the structures. The sensitivity analysis is performed through the analytical method and the optimization problem is dealt with by the method of interior points. A comparison between the deterministic optimisation and the probabilistic one with a power spectral density function compatible with the time varying load shows very good results.

  16. Measuring subjective meaning structures by the laddering method: Theoretical considerations and methodological problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G.; Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    Starting from a general model of measuring cognitive structures for predicting consumer behaviour, we discuss laddering as a possible method to obtain estimates of consumption-relevant cognitive structures which will have predictive validity. Four criteria for valid measurement are derived and ap...

  17. An Analysis of Communication Barriers in Five Methods of Teaching Business Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golen, Steven; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes communication barriers in teaching methods such as lectures, prepared and live case studies, experiential exercises, and computer simulations. Concludes that the most serious barriers were the instructors' and students' tendency not to listen, instructors' hostile attitudes, personality conflicts between instructors and students, and an…

  18. High-resolution subject-specific mitral valve imaging and modeling: experimental and computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Milan; Bloodworth, Charles H; Einstein, Daniel R; Pierce, Eric L; Cochran, Richard P; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Kunzelman, Karyn S

    2016-12-01

    The diversity of mitral valve (MV) geometries and multitude of surgical options for correction of MV diseases necessitates the use of computational modeling. Numerical simulations of the MV would allow surgeons and engineers to evaluate repairs, devices, procedures, and concepts before performing them and before moving on to more costly testing modalities. Constructing, tuning, and validating these models rely upon extensive in vitro characterization of valve structure, function, and response to change due to diseases. Micro-computed tomography ([Formula: see text]CT) allows for unmatched spatial resolution for soft tissue imaging. However, it is still technically challenging to obtain an accurate geometry of the diastolic MV. We discuss here the development of a novel technique for treating MV specimens with glutaraldehyde fixative in order to minimize geometric distortions in preparation for [Formula: see text]CT scanning. The technique provides a resulting MV geometry which is significantly more detailed in chordal structure, accurate in leaflet shape, and closer to its physiological diastolic geometry. In this paper, computational fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations are used to show the importance of more detailed subject-specific MV geometry with 3D chordal structure to simulate a proper closure validated against [Formula: see text]CT images of the closed valve. Two computational models, before and after use of the aforementioned technique, are used to simulate closure of the MV.

  19. Stability analysis of shallow tunnels subjected to eccentric loads by a boundary element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Panji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, stress behavior of shallow tunnels under simultaneous non-uniform surface traction and symmetric gravity loading was studied using a direct boundary element method (BEM. The existing full-plane elastostatic fundamental solutions to displacement and stress fields were used and implemented in a developed algorithm. The cross-section of the tunnel was considered in circular, square, and horseshoe shapes and the lateral coefficient of the domain was assumed as unit quantity. Double-node procedure of the BEM was applied at the corners to improve the model including sudden traction changes. The results showed that the method used was a powerful tool for modeling underground openings under various external as well as internal loads. Eccentric loads significantly influenced the stress pattern of the surrounding tunnel. The achievements can be practically used in completing and modifying regulations for stability investigation of shallow tunnels.

  20. Structural evaluation method study and procedure development for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yixiong; Yu Xiaofei; Ai Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification phenomenon of pressurizer surge line can lead potential threaten to plant safety. Base on the mechanism of thermal stratification occurrence, Fr number is used to judge whether the stratification occurs or not. Also the method of calculating heat transfer coefficient is investigated. Theoretically the 3-dimension thermal stress induced by thermal stratification is decoupled to 1-dimension global stress and 2-dimension local stress, and the complex 3-dimension problem is simplified into a combination of 1-dimension and 2-dimension to compute the stress. Comply with criterion RCC-M, the complete structure integrity evaluation is accomplished after combining the stress produced by thermal stratification and the stresses produced by the other loadings. In order to match the above combined analysis method, Code SYSTUS and ROCOCO are developed. By means of aforesaid evaluation method and corresponding analysis program, surge line thermal stratification of Qinshan Phase II Extension project is investigated in this paper. And the results show that structural integrity of the pressurizer surge line affected by thermal stratification still satisfies criterion RCC-M. (authors)

  1. Effect of a physical training program using the Pilates method on flexibility in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Iskiewicz, Matheus Magalhães; Marschner, Rafael Aguiar; Lehnen, Tatiana Ederich; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2015-12-01

    The adaptations of the human body resulting from the aging process especially loss of flexibility can increase the risk of falls and the risk of developing other health conditions. Exercise training, in particular the Pilates exercise method, has become an important form of physical activity that minimizes the deleterious effects of aging on flexibility. Few studies have evaluated the effect of this training method on body flexibility among elderly. We aimed to evaluate the effects of physical training using the Pilates method on body flexibility of elderly individuals. Eighteen elderly women and two elderly men (aged 70 ± 4 years) followed a 10-week Pilates training program. Individuals were recruited from the local community via open invitations. At study entry, none of them had limited mobility (walking requiring the use of walkers or canes). Furthermore, those with neurologic, muscular, or psychiatric disorders as well as those using an assistive device for ambulation were excluded secondary to limited participation. Flexibility assessment tests (flexion, extension, right and left tilt, and right and left rotation of the cervical and thoracolumbar spine; flexion, extension, abduction, and lateral and medial right and left rotation of the glenohumeral joint; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, and lateral and medial rotation of the right and left hip; and flexion of the right and left knee) were performed by a blinded evaluator using a flexometer before and after the training period. All assessments were carried out at the same time of day. There was an observed increase in flexion (22.86%; p falls).

  2. Objective and subjective methods for quantifying training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturricastillo, Aitor; Granados, Cristina; Los Arcos, Asier; Yanci, Javier

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the training load in wheelchair basketball small-sided games and determine the relationship between heart rate (HR)-based training load and perceived exertion (RPE)-based training load methods among small-sided games bouts. HR-based measurements of training load included Edwards' training load and Stagno's training impulses (TRIMP MOD ) while RPE-based training load measurements included cardiopulmonary (session RPEres) and muscular (session RPEmus) values. Data were collected from 12 wheelchair basketball players during five consecutive weeks. The total load for the small-sided games sessions was 67.5 ± 6.7 and 55.3 ± 12.5 AU in HR-based training load (Edwards' training load and TRIMP MOD ), while the RPE-based training loads were 99.3 ± 26.9 (session RPEres) and 100.8 ± 31.2 AU (session RPEmus). Bout-to-bout analysis identified greater session RPEmus in the third [P training loads. It is suggested that HR-based and RPE-based training loads provide different information, but these two methods could be complementary because one method could help us to understand the limitations of the other.

  3. Eighty-two year old female with long term abdominal pain, fever and skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz Nicolás, G; Zafar Iqbal-Mirza, S; Gonzáles Carhuancho, J A; Mollejo Villanueva, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an old woman, consulting for fever, abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms one year of evolution. The differential diagnosis is between infectious, tumoral, or inflammatory disease, which may be located at the abdominal level, performing additional tests to rule out abdominal process. The existence of pain in the legs and level scan left thigh of a mass of hard consistency, makes us raise another diagnosis. Finally show on ultrasound soft tissue inflammatory changes regarding panniculitis. From this finding aetiologies of panniculitis are reviewed. Skin biopsy that shows the final diagnosis is made. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  4. IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTIVE TEACHING METHODS AND EMERGING TOPICS IN PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND REMOTE SENSING SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kosmatin Fras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student’s team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI for identifying deep and

  5. Implementation of Active Teaching Methods and Emerging Topics in Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatin Fras, M.; Grigillo, D.

    2016-06-01

    Fast technological developments in photogrammetry and remote sensing areas demand quick and steady changes in the education programme and its realization. The university teachers and assistants are faced with ensuring the learning materials, data and software for practical lessons, as well as project proposals for student's team work and bachelor or master thesis. In this paper the emerging topics that already have a considerable impact in the practice are treated mostly from the educational aspect. These relatively new topics that are considered in this paper are unmanned aerial systems for spatial data collection, terrestrial and aerial laser scanning, mobile mapping systems, and novelties in satellite remote sensing. The focus is given to practical implementation of these topics into the teaching and learning programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation at the University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, and experiences gained by the authors so far. Together with the technological advances, the teaching approaches must be modernized as well. Classical approaches of teaching, where a lecturer gives lecture ex cathedra and students are only listeners, are not effective enough. The didactics science of teaching has developed and proved in the practice many useful approaches that can better motivate students for more active learning. We can use different methods of team work like pro et contra debate, buzzing groups, press conference, moderated discussion etc. An experimental study on active teaching methods in the class of students of the Master programme of Geodesy and Geoinformation has been made and the results are presented. After using some new teaching methods in the class, the students were asked to answer two types of a questionnaire. First questionnaire was the standard form developed by Noel Entwistle, an educational psychologist who developed the Approaches to Studying Inventory (ASI) for identifying deep and surface approaches to

  6. [Influence of Sex and Age on Contrast Sensitivity Subject to the Applied Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darius, Sabine; Bergmann, Lisa; Blaschke, Saskia; Böckelmann, Irina

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study was to detect gender and age differences in both photopic and mesopic contrast sensitivity with different methods in relation to German driver's license regulations (Fahrerlaubnisverordnung; FeV). We examined 134 healthy volunteers (53 men, 81 women) with an age between 18 and 76 years, that had been divided into two groups (AG I Mars charts under standardized illumination were applied for photopic contrast sensitivity. We could not find any gender differences. When evaluating age, there were no differences between the two groups for the Mars charts nor in the Rodatest. In all other tests, the younger volunteers achieved significantly better results. For contrast vision, there exists age-adapted cut-off-values. Concerning the driving safety of traffic participants, sufficient photopic and mesopic contrast vision should be focused on, independent of age. Therefore, there is a need to reconsider the age-adapted cut-off-values. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Foucault, the subject and the research interview: a critique of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadyl, Joanna K; Nicholls, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research interviews are a widely used method in qualitative health research and have been adapted to suit a range of methodologies. Just as it is valuable that new approaches are explored, it is also important to continue to examine their appropriate use. In this article, we question the suitability of research interviews for 'history of the present' studies informed by the work of Michel Foucault - a form of qualitative research that is being increasingly employed in the analysis of healthcare systems and processes. We argue that several aspects of research interviewing produce philosophical and methodological complications that can interfere with achieving the aims of the analysis in this type of study. The article comprises an introduction to these tensions and examination of them in relation to key aspects of a Foucauldian philosophical position, and discussion of where this might position researchers when it comes to designing a study. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The influence of previous subject experience on interactions during peer instruction in an introductory physics course: A mixed methods analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondruska, Judy A.

    Over the past decade, peer instruction and the introduction of student response systems has provided a means of improving student engagement and achievement in large-lecture settings. While the nature of the student discourse occurring during peer instruction is less understood, existing studies have shown student ideas about the subject, extraneous cues, and confidence level appear to matter in the student-student discourse. Using a mixed methods research design, this study examined the influence of previous subject experience on peer instruction in an introductory, one-semester Survey of Physics course. Quantitative results indicated students in discussion pairs where both had previous subject experience were more likely to answer clicker question correctly both before and after peer discussion compared to student groups where neither partner had previous subject experience. Students in mixed discussion pairs were not statistically different in correct response rates from the other pairings. There was no statistically significant difference between the experience pairs on unit exam scores or the Peer Instruction Partner Survey. Although there was a statistically significant difference between the pre-MPEX and post-MPEX scores, there was no difference between the members of the various subject experience peer discussion pairs. The qualitative study, conducted after the quantitative study, helped to inform the quantitative results by exploring the nature of the peer interactions through survey questions and a series of focus groups discussions. While the majority of participants described a benefit to the use of clickers in the lecture, their experience with their discussion partners varied. Students with previous subject experience tended to describe peer instruction more positively than students who did not have previous subject experience, regardless of the experience level of their partner. They were also more likely to report favorable levels of comfort with

  9. The Potential of Subjective Semantic Methods in Exploring the Perception of Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyrva A.U.,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on empirical explorations of psychological features and mechanisms of the percep¬tion of urban architecture and on the specifics of the perception of buildings of various architectural styles. The techniques employed included those of personality and architectural semantic differential and the Value Spectrum technique. Four factors were found to have a significant impact on an individual’s percep¬tion and understanding of architectural space: ‘passive-active’, ‘whole-split’, ‘open-closed’, and ‘expressive’. People tend to attribute more semantic features and values to listed buildings or buildings that bear witness of a certain historical period than to those buildings that look alike and represent a typical example of mass housing. No significant sex differences were found in the individuals’ evaluations of buildings. Consistent quantitative differences were revealed between the images of listed buildings and of mass housing. The paper describes the relevance of various research methods in explorations of architectural images.

  10. EFFECT OF INVERSION ON TREATMENT OF FENCE SUBJECTED TO SAP DISPLACEMENT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509813338This work aimed to evaluate the effect of inversion of Prosopis juliflora and Leucaena leucocephala fenceposts, in distribution, penetration and retention of copper chrome borate (CCB solution applied by sapdisplacement method. The Prosopis juliflora was collected in Brazilian Agricultural Research Company(EMBRAPA and the Leucaena leucocephala at the Federal University of Campina Grande in Patos,Paraíba state, Brazil. Trees with DAP from 5.0 to 10.0 cm were employed. Disks of 2.0 cm of thicknesswere retired on the top and on the base of pieces. The external disks were then discarded and the internones were employed to determine the wood characteristics, being the round pieces with 2.0 m. A solutionof 2% of active ingredients of CCB was used to treated woods. A total of 10 pieces of each species weretreated, and five of them remained in the solution for 8 days and the five ones had their tops inverted afterthe sixth day of treatment. The pieces were seasoned; disks of 2.0 cm of thickness were taken in 5 positions along of pieces and the analyses for determination of copper and boron penetration took place. The valuesof wood characteristics indicated that the pieces were homogeneous. The absorption of the solution was of19.9 liters (Prosopis juliflora and of 17.0 liters (Leucaena leucocephala. The nominal retentions of CCBwere 7.72 and 5.34 kg active ingredients (a.i./m3, respectively. In general, the inversion of the pieces inthe preservative solution is recommended, by providing a better distribution, penetration and retention ofCCB on treated pieces.

  11. Fracture Failure of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading Using the Combined Finite-Discrete Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Jaini

    Full Text Available Abstract Numerical modeling of fracture failure is challenging due to various issues in the constitutive law and the transition of continuum to discrete bodies. Therefore, this study presents the application of the combined finite-discrete element method to investigate the fracture failure of reinforced concrete slabs subjected to blast loading. In numerical modeling, the interaction of non-uniform blast loading on the concrete slab was modeled using the incorporation of the finite element method with a crack rotating approach and the discrete element method to model crack, fracture onset and its post-failures. A time varying pressure-time history based on the mapping method was adopted to define blast loading. The Mohr-Coulomb with Rankine cut-off and von-Mises criteria were applied for concrete and steel reinforcement respectively. The results of scabbing, spalling and fracture show a reliable prediction of damage and fracture.

  12. Semi-quantitative methods yield greater inter- and intraobserver agreement than subjective methods for interpreting 99m technetium-hydroxymethylene-diphosphonate uptake in equine thoracic processi spinosi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zadelhoff, Claudia; Ehrle, Anna; Merle, Roswitha; Jahn, Werner; Lischer, Christoph

    2018-05-09

    Scintigraphy is a standard diagnostic method for evaluating horses with back pain due to suspected thoracic processus spinosus pathology. Lesion detection is based on subjective or semi-quantitative assessments of increased uptake. This retrospective, analytical study is aimed to compare semi-quantitative and subjective methods in the evaluation of scintigraphic images of the processi spinosi in the equine thoracic spine. Scintigraphic images of 20 Warmblood horses, presented for assessment of orthopedic conditions between 2014 and 2016, were included in the study. Randomized, blinded image evaluation was performed by 11 veterinarians using subjective and semi-quantitative methods. Subjective grading was performed for the analysis of red-green-blue and grayscale scintigraphic images, which were presented in full-size or as masked images. For the semi-quantitative assessment, observers placed regions of interest over each processus spinosus. The uptake ratio of each processus spinosus in comparison to a reference region of interest was determined. Subsequently, a modified semi-quantitative calculation was developed whereby only the highest counts-per-pixel for a specified number of pixels was processed. Inter- and intraobserver agreement was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients. Inter- and intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were 41.65% and 71.39%, respectively, for the subjective image assessment. Additionally, a correlation between intraobserver agreement, experience, and grayscale images was identified. The inter- and intraobserver agreement was significantly increased when using semi-quantitative analysis (97.35% and 98.36%, respectively) or the modified semi-quantitative calculation (98.61% and 98.82%, respectively). The proposed modified semi-quantitative technique showed a higher inter- and intraobserver agreement when compared to other methods, which makes it a useful tool for the analysis of scintigraphic images. The

  13. Airflow in Tracheobronchial Tree of Subjects with Tracheal Bronchus Simulated Using CT Image Based Models and CFD Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Shouliang; Zhang, Baihua; Yue, Yong; Shen, Jing; Teng, Yueyang; Qian, Wei; Wu, Jianlin

    2018-03-01

    Tracheal Bronchus (TB) is a rare congenital anomaly characterized by the presence of an abnormal bronchus originating from the trachea or main bronchi and directed toward the upper lobe. The airflow pattern in tracheobronchial trees of TB subjects is critical, but has not been systemically studied. This study proposes to simulate the airflow using CT image based models and the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Six TB subjects and three health controls (HC) are included. After the geometric model of tracheobronchial tree is extracted from CT images, the spatial distribution of velocity, wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS) is obtained through CFD simulation, and the lobar distribution of air, flow pattern and global pressure drop are investigated. Compared with HC subjects, the main bronchus angle of TB subjects and the variation of volume are large, while the cross-sectional growth rate is small. High airflow velocity, wall pressure, and WSS are observed locally at the tracheal bronchus, but the global patterns of these measures are still similar to those of HC. The ratio of airflow into the tracheal bronchus accounts for 6.6-15.6% of the inhaled airflow, decreasing the ratio to the right upper lobe from 15.7-21.4% (HC) to 4.9-13.6%. The air into tracheal bronchus originates from the right dorsal near-wall region of the trachea. Tracheal bronchus does not change the global pressure drop which is dependent on multiple variables. Though the tracheobronchial trees of TB subjects present individualized features, several commonalities on the structural and airflow characteristics can be revealed. The observed local alternations might provide new insight into the reason of recurrent local infections, cough and acute respiratory distress related to TB.

  14. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner Mackenzie, Brett; Waite, David W; Taylor, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation) were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation), with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation) and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  15. Evaluating variation in human gut microbiota profiles due to DNA extraction method and inter-subject differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett eWagner Mackenzie

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The human gut contains dense and diverse microbial communities which have profound influences on human health. Gaining meaningful insights into these communities requires provision of high quality microbial nucleic acids from human fecal samples, as well as an understanding of the sources of variation and their impacts on the experimental model. We present here a systematic analysis of commonly used microbial DNA extraction methods, and identify significant sources of variation. Five extraction methods (Human Microbiome Project protocol, MoBio PowerSoil DNA Isolation Kit, QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrep, phenol:chloroform-based DNA isolation were evaluated based on the following criteria: DNA yield, quality and integrity, and microbial community structure based on Illumina amplicon sequencing of the V4 region of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes. Our results indicate that the largest portion of variation within the model was attributed to differences between subjects (biological variation, with a smaller proportion of variation associated with DNA extraction method (technical variation and intra-subject variation. A comprehensive understanding of the potential impact of technical variation on the human gut microbiota will help limit preventable bias, enabling more accurate diversity estimates.

  16. Comparison of subjective and objective methods to determine the retinal arterio-venous ratio using fundus photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekka Heitmar

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: Grader education and experience leads to inter-grader differences but more importantly, subjective grading is not capable to pick up subtle differences across healthy individuals and does not represent true AVR when compared with an objective assessment method. Technology advancements mean we no longer rely on opthalmoscopic evaluation but can capture and store fundus images with retinal cameras, enabling us to measure vessel calibre more accurately compared to visual estimation; hence it should be integrated in optometric practise for improved accuracy and reliability of clinical assessments of retinal vessel calibres.

  17. Application of a mixed Galerkin/least-squares method to axisymetric shell problems subjected to arbitrary loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Toledo, E.M.; Franca, L.P.; Garcia, E.L.M.

    1989-08-01

    A variationaly consistent finite element formulation for constrained problems free from shear or membrane locking is applied to axisymetric shells subjected to arbitrary loading. The governing equations are writen according to Love's classical theory for a problem of bending of axisymetric thin and moderately thick shells accounting for shear deformation. The mixed variational formulation, in terms of stresses and displacements here presented consists of classical Galerkin method plus mesh-dependent least-square type terms employed with equal-order finite element polynomials. The additional terms enhance stability and accuracy of the original Galerkin method, as already proven theoretically and confirmed trough numerical experiments. Numerical results of some examples are presented to demonstrate the good stability and accuracy of the formulation. (author) [pt

  18. Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) Study: Study Design, Methods, and Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hannae; Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-won; Lee, Sang-Ah; Moon, Jiyoung; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Ki Sung; Kim, Jee Yong; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing Farmers’ Cohort for Agricultural Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (FARM) study was developed to evaluate health status and related factors in farmers. Methods Farmers in Kangwon Province, South Korea, were recruited. Baseline characteristics were determined using questionnaires about sociodemographic and health characteristics and agricultural work-related factors. In addition, laboratory examinations (lumbar spinal radiography and serologic testing) were conducted. Results The FARM study covers eight rural areas and recruited 1013 subjects (534 women; mean [standard deviation {SD}] age, 57.2 [7.5] years). Musculoskeletal pain in multiple areas was reported by 925 subjects (91.3%), and low back pain (63.8%) was the most frequent site of pain. Farmer’s Stress Inventory (mean [SD], 77.7 [10.2]; range, 28–112] and subjective stress index (mean [SD], 5.3 [2.4]; range, 0–10) were above median scale values, reflecting a stressful condition, while the EuroQol-5D-3L index and the EuroQol-Visual Analog Scale scores were high (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.1]; range −0.171–1 and mean [SD], 67.7 [18.7]; range 0–100, respectively), reflecting good life quality. In total, 53% of participants had worked in farming for more than 30 years, and workers involved in dry-field farming comprised the largest subgroup (41.5%). Most participants (94.3%) had no more than a high school education, and families with annual income below 20 million won constituted the largest subgroup (36.3%). Conclusions The FARM study may provide data on the current health status and related sociodemographic and agricultural work-related risk factors in Korean farmers, with the goal of providing a scientific basis for developing coping interventions and preventive strategies. PMID:26235456

  19. Love as a subjective corrlate of interpersonal relationships: attempts of defining of the concepts and methods of measurment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Zolotnyik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to overview the scientific study of the phenomenon of love. Attempts of scientific knowledge presented by developed by sociologists and psychologists love theories, which defined, classified and measure this phenomenon. The paper proposed to review the most popular theory of love studying: the triangular theory of love for Robert J. Sternberg, classification styles love for John Alan Lee and transformational concept of A.Giddens. The importance of studying this subject is explained by the subjective definition by respondents of the role of love as correlates of interpersonal relationships. Love is considered as a factor that acts as a marriage motive and components, which ensures its durability. The complexity of the scientific understanding of love is the absence of clear empirical referents for fixation. The examined theory reaffirms their scientific hypotheses through the use of specific methods of measurement. It is offered for review: Scale of love and sympathy by Z.Rubin, Love Attitude Scale by Hendrick C. and Hendrick S. and scale of romantic relationships by Munro­Adams. These methodologies are widely used in modern scientific research, been undergo with modifications and adaptation depending on the cultural characteristics of the respondents. The phenomenon of love needs more scientific study with the aim of further categorization, require range of techniques selection and should be included  as a component in the sociological survey of interpersonal relationships.

  20. Characteristics of High School Students' and Science Teachers' Cognitive Frame about Effective Teaching Method for High School Science Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Duk Ho; Park, Kyeong-Jin; Cho, Kyu Seong

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the cognitive frame of high school students and inservice high school science teachers about effective teaching method, and we also explored how they understood about the teaching methods suggested by the 2009 revised Science Curriculum. Data were collected from 275 high school science teachers and 275 high school students. We analyzed data in terms of the words and the cognitive frame using the Semantic Network Analysis. The results were as follows. First, the teachers perceived that an activity oriented class was the effective science class that helped improve students'' problem-solving abilities and their inquiry skills. The students had the cognitive frame that their teacher had to present relevant and enough teaching materials to students, and that they should also receive assistance from teachers in science class to better prepare for college entrance exam. Second, both students and teachers retained the cognitive frame about the efficient science class that was not reflected 2009 revised Science Curriculum exactly. Especially, neither groups connected the elements of ''convergence'' as well as ''integration'' embedded across science subject areas to their cognitive frame nor cognized the fact that many science learning contents were closed related to one another. Therefore, various professional development opportunities should be offered so that teachers succinctly comprehend the essential features and the intents of the 2009 revised Science Curriculum and thereby implement it in their science lessons effectively. Keywords : semantic network analysis, cognitive frame, teaching method, science lesson

  1. Improving of the teaching methods of chemical subjects by using of teaching tests in high educational institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzahira Turebekova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the information technologies may cause great pedagogical effect: using of computer opens the opportunity for organization of problem teaching developing the creative thinking, forming research, practical skills of students, creation of the steady positive motivation of the students. Technical facilities of the computer technology allow solving the teaching and research tasks in the chemistry come as original catalyst of creation of different types of information technology systems and projection on their basis the novel ways and methods of their application. Use of computer technology in education helps to support necessary educational level of students and pay attention to their independent work. The article represents that the computer testing can be widely used for control of knowledge and for teaching. Teaching testing arouses interest in subject and develops ability of self-preparation and self – education, provides in-door and out- door work.

  2. Subjective memory impairment in general practice : Short overview and design of a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentzek, Michael; Leve, Verena; Leucht, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Public awareness for dementia is rising and patients with concerns about forgetfulness are not uncommon in general practice. For the general practitioner (GP) subjectively perceived memory impairment (SMI) also offers a chance to broach the issue of cognitive function with the patient. This may support GPs' patient-centered care in terms of a broader frailty concept. What is SMI (definition, operationalization, prevalence and burden)? Which conceptions and approaches do GPs have regarding SMI? Narrative overview of recent SMI criteria and results, selective utilization of results from a systematic literature search on GP dementia care, non-systematic search regarding SMI in general practice, deduction of a study design from the overview and development according to international standards. Studies revealed that approximately 60% of GP patients aged >74 reported a declining memory, every sixth person had concerns about this aspect and only relatively few seek medical advice. Concerns about SMI are considered a risk factor for future dementia. Specific general practice conceptions about SMI could not be identified in the literature. Using guidelines for mixed methods research, the design of an exploratory sequential mixed methods study is presented, which should reveal different attitudes of GPs towards SMI. Subjective memory impairment (SMI) is a common feature and troubles a considerable proportion of patients. Neuropsychiatric research is progressing, but for the transfer of the SMI concept into routine practice, involvement of GP research is necessary. A new study aims to make a contribution to this.

  3. Effect of the Pilates method on physical conditioning of healthy subjects: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Renata R; Dias, Josilainne M; Pereira, Ligia M; Obara, Karen; Barreto, Maria S; Silva, Mariana F; Mazuquin, Bruno F; Christofaro, Diego G; Fernandes, Romulo A; Iversen, Maura D; Cardoso, Jefferson R

    2016-01-01

    Physical conditioning consists of a variety of health-related attributes and Pilates exercises are described as a form of this conditioning. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of the Pilates method on health and ability outcome of the physical conditioning of healthy individuals. The search was performed in the following databases: Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Lilacs, Scielo, Web of Science, PEDro, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register Library, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar. (1950-2014). Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that assessed the effects of the Pilates method on healthy subjects. Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Pilates improved abdominal muscular endurance when compared with no exercises (mean difference [MD]=9.53%; 95% CI: 2.41, 16.43; P=0.009), however, there was no difference in flexibility (MD=4.97; 95% CI: -0.53, 10.47; P=0.08). Some positive effects (up to 6 months) of the Pilates practice were found in some RCTs' results as follows: Improvement of dynamic balance, quality of life and back muscle flexibility. The results indicate the Pilates exercises performed on the mat or apparatus 2 to 3 times a week, for 5 to 12 weeks, improves abdominal muscular endurance (on average, 10 more abdominals curls in 1-minute sit-up test) for both genders, when compared to no exercises.

  4. The Influence of Teaching Methods and Learning Environment to the Student's Learning Achievement of Craft and Entrepreneurship Subjects at Vocational High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munawaroh

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to explain the influence of teacher's teaching methods and learning environment to the learning achievement in class XI with the competency of accounting expertise to the subjects of craft and entrepreneurship, according to the students, the subject was very heavy and dull. The population in this research are students in class…

  5. Comprehensive comparison of preselected regions for a high level radioactive waste repository: a subjective quantitative evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Zong Zihua; Jin Yuanxin; Zhu Pengfei; Su Rui; Chen Weiming

    2012-01-01

    Based on the comprehensive features of the 6 preselected regions (Northwest China, Southwest China East China, South China, Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang regions) for China's high level radioactive waste repository, this paper uses the subjective quantitative method to evaluate the weight of each site selection criterion and provides the scores of each region. The results shows that the future natural changes and the hydrogeological conditions are considered as the most important natural siting criteria, while the social impact and human activities are the most important social siting criteria. According to the scores, the priority order of the regions are Northwest China, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, South China, East China, Southwest China. On the whole, the scores of' the regions in western China (Northwest China, Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia) are higher than those in eastern China (South China, East China Southwest China), which obviously shows that the participated experts considers that the disposal of high level waste in west China is more favorable than in east China. (authors)

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDY THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD OF LIDS USED IN CYLINDRICAL VESSEL IN HORIZONTAL POSITION SUBJECT TO INTERNAL PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio V. Ibarra-Hernández

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work a study of the cylindrical vessels in horizontal position and subject to internal pressure is carried out, where lids are one of the main components of this equipment. The Autodesk Inventor pro. 2016 is used to make the geometrical characterization of these elements: parametric solid modeler, assembles and surfaces for the mechanical design of complex parts. The different geometric forms of the lids and bottoms analyzed in this work are: flat-circular with or without flange, elliptical with different values of the K factor, torispherical with different values of the M factor and the hemispherical bottoms. Using the Finate Element Method (FEM, a comparative study is made about the behavior of the stress and strain in the different geometrical forms mentioned before, being demonstrated that although the best resistance and rigidity values are presented by the hemispherical bottoms and the best options of production by the flat-circulars, they are not the bottoms used the most in this vessels, being the elliptic bottoms those of more use. The results obtained allow optimizing the design and knowing the thickness limit in the most requested areas.

  7. AES, EELS and TRIM simulation method study of InP(100 subjected to Ar+, He+ and H+ ions bombardment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abidri B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS have been performed in order to investigate the InP(100 surface subjected to ions bombardment. The InP(100 surface is always contaminated by carbon and oxygen revealed by C-KLL and O-KLL AES spectra recorded just after introduction of the sample in the UHV spectrometer chamber. The usually cleaning process of the surface is the bombardment by argon ions. However, even at low energy of ions beam (300 eV indium clusters and phosphorus vacancies are usually formed on the surface. The aim of our study is to compare the behaviour of the surface when submitted to He+ or H+ ions bombardment. The helium ions accelerated at 500V voltage and for 45 mn allow removing contaminants but induces damaged and no stoichiometric surface. The proton ions were accelerated at low energy of 500 eV to bombard the InP surface at room temperature. The proton ions broke the In-P chemical bonds to induce the formation of In metal islands. Such a chemical reactivity between hydrogen and phosphorus led to form chemical species such as PH and PH3, which desorbed from the surface. The chemical susceptibly and the small size of H+ advantaged their diffusion into bulk. Since the experimental methods alone were not able to give us with accuracy the disturbed depth of the target by these ions. We associate to the AES and EELS spectroscopies, the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter simulation method in order to show the mechanism of interaction between Ar+, He+ or H+ ions and InP and determine the disturbed depth of the target by argon, helium or proton ions.

  8. Positive Psychology in the Class: The Effectiveness of a Teaching Method Based on Subjective Well-Being and Engagement Increasing Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study is investigate that the effectiveness of a teaching method which is based on subjective well-being increasing activities and engagement increasing activities, has been developed for university students in the present study. The method of the present study is a mixed method. Thus, the most important feature of it has…

  9. An Evaluation of Kernel Equating: Parallel Equating with Classical Methods in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] Program. Research Report. ETS RR-09-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Mary C.; Zhang, Lilly; Damiano, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated kernel equating methods by comparing these methods to operational equatings for two tests in the SAT Subject Tests[TM] program. GENASYS (ETS, 2007) was used for all equating methods and scaled score kernel equating results were compared to Tucker, Levine observed score, chained linear, and chained equipercentile equating…

  10. Cereal Consumption among Subjects with Celiac Disease: A Snapshot for Nutritional Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Valitutti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: To our knowledge no study has focused on the pattern of cereal-based products (CBP consumption among people with celiac disease (CD. Our study aimed at evaluating the dietary intake of CBP among patients with CD and comparing it with a control population. Methods: Eighty-two volunteers with CD and 77 non-CD volunteers enrolled throughout Italy were asked to register their consumption of CBP on specific diaries for three days. Results: CD patients’ median three-day intake of biscuits and crackers was higher compared to controls (65.8 g vs. 22.7 g and 44.7 g vs. 10.6 g, p < 0.05 respectively, Mann–Whitney test. A significant difference was observed also comparing the two groups for median three-day bread consumption, with the CD group consuming less bread than controls (109.5 g vs. 150.7 g, p < 0.05, Mann–Whitney test. When assessing regional and gender-related CBP consumption patterns, significantly higher rice consumption was found among CD women from Northern Italy compared to CD women from Central and Southern Italy (p = 0.006 and p = 0.002 respectively, Fisher’s exact test. No other significant differences were observed. Conclusions: Our results provide a snapshot of the overall consumption of CBP among Italian subjects with CD. Altogether, these data show that, despite minor differences, dietary consumption of CBP among CD patients is similar to the general population.

  11. The quality of medical services in a subjective assessment of hospitalized patients using the SERVQUAL method – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Węgłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . The provision of medical services to patients according to their expectations and needs is necessary for the comfort and quality of life of patients, as well as for the standardization of hospital procedures. In recognizing these needs and expectations, an important step is the verification of provided services in order to improve their quality. The present study was designed to determine differences in service quality, as evaluated by hospitalized patients. Objectives . The analysis of the subjective feelings of hospitalized patients concerning service quality in the context of the application of the SER VQUAL method – a pilot study. Material and methods. The study was conducted in a Lower Silesian hospital in a group of 29 young patients (women: 16, men: 13, average age: 16 diagnosed with kidney disease. In the study a standard sheet of 22 SER VQUAL statements was used, and an analysis of the validity of 5 quality areas important for the patient was conducted. Results. According to the respondents, the most important of all 5 features directly affecting the quality of life during treatment is the ability and skill of the ward staff to provide medical services, so-called reliability – 24.48%. In turn, the least important of all the study characteristics was the aesthetics and ergonomics of rooms, the presence of appropriate equipment, the so-called material dimension – 15.31%. Furthermore, service quality gaps were visible in all five service quality dimensions. Conclusions . 1. The SER VQUAL method helps to identify discrepancies between the perceptions of patients’ expectations in all dimensions of the quality of provided medical services. 2. For the patients the least important is the material dimension, and the most affecting is the dimension associated with the reliability of the medical services. 3. Improvement of the level of satisfaction with the quality of medical services requires proper planning and effective

  12. Comfort in palliative sedation (Compas): a transdisciplinary mixed method study protocol for linking objective assessments to subjective experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, Stefaan; Laureys, Steven; Poelaert, Jan; Bilsen, Johan; Theuns, Peter; Deschepper, Reginald

    2018-04-18

    In case of untreatable suffering at the end of life, palliative sedation may be chosen to assure comfort by reducing the patient's level of consciousness. An important question here is whether such sedated patients are completely free of pain. Because these patients cannot communicate anymore, caregivers have to rely on observation to assess the patient's comfort. Recently however, more sophisticated techniques from the neurosciences have shown that sometimes consciousness and pain are undetectable with these traditional behavioral methods. The aim of this study is to better understand how unconscious palliative sedated patients experience the last days of their life and to find out if they are really free of pain. In this study we will observe 40 patients starting with initiation of palliative sedation until death. Assessment of comfort based on behavioral observations will be related with the results from a NeuroSense monitor, an EEG-based monitor used for evaluation of the adequacy of anesthesia and sedation in the operating room and an ECG-based Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) monitor, which informs about comfort or discomfort condition, based on the parasympathetic tone. An innovative and challenging aspect of this study is its qualitative approach; "objective" and "subjective" data will be linked to achieve a holistic understanding of the study topic. The following data will be collected: assessment of pain/comfort by the patients themselves (if possible) by scoring a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS); brain function monitoring; monitoring of parasympathetic tone; caregivers' assessment (pain, awareness, communication); relatives' perception of the quality of the dying process; assessment by 2 trained investigators using observational scales; video and audio registration. Measuring pain and awareness in non-communicative dying patients is both technically and ethically challenging. ANI and EEG have shown to be promising technologies to detect pain that otherwise

  13. Characterization of human myotubes from type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects using complementary quantitative mass spectrometric methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingholm, Tine E; Bak, Steffen; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2011-01-01

    2 diabetes. Several abnormalities have been identified in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects, however, the exact molecular mechanisms leading to the diabetic phenotype has still not been found. Here we present a large-scale study in which we combine a quantitative proteomic discovery...... strategy using iTRAQ and a label-free study with a targeted quantitative proteomic approach using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to identify, quantify and validate changes in protein abundance between human myotubes obtained from non-diabetic lean, non-diabetic obese and type 2 diabetic subjects...

  14. Dynamic analysis of isotropic nanoplates subjected to moving load using state-space method based on nonlocal second order plate theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nami, Mohammad Rahim [Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Janghorban, Maziar [Islamic Azad University, Marvdash (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this work, dynamic analysis of rectangular nanoplates subjected to moving load is presented. In order to derive the governing equations of motion, second order plate theory is used. To capture the small scale effects, the nonlocal elasticity theory is adopted. It is assumed that the nanoplate is subjected to a moving concentrated load with the constant velocity V in the x direction. To solve the governing equations, state-space method is used to find the deflections of rectangular nanoplate under moving load. The results obtained here reveal that the nonlocality has significant effect on the deflection of rectangular nanoplate subjected to moving load.

  15. Quantification of beta-cell function during IVGTT in Type II and non-diabetic subjects: assessment of insulin secretion by mathematical methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, L L; Vølund, A; Madsbad, Sten

    2001-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We compared four methods to assess their accuracy in measuring insulin secretion during an intravenous glucose tolerance test in patients with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and with varying beta-cell function and matched control subjects. METHODS: Eight control...... subjects and eight Type II diabetic patients underwent an intravenous glucose tolerance test with tolbutamide and an intravenous bolus injection of C-peptide to assess C-peptide kinetics. Insulin secretion rates were determined by the Eaton deconvolution (reference method), the Insulin SECretion method...... (ISEC) based on population kinetic parameters as well as one-compartment and two-compartment versions of the combined model of insulin and C-peptide kinetics. To allow a comparison of the accuracy of the four methods, fasting rates and amounts of insulin secreted during the first phase (0-10 min...

  16. A Study of the Subject Categorization of the MIS-related Journals in the ISI Databases Using Topical Features in the Text Content and Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Chien Lin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed and discussed that the MIS-related journals under the ISI subject category of IS&LS are simultaneously given with subject category Management, using methods of topic modeling, journal clustering and subject category prediction. In the experiment of journal clustering, all journals under subject category Management and other journals also having similar topical features can be gathered into a cluster, and “management” is their common and the most distinct topic. Because the journals belonged to this cluster are almost same to those in the MIS clusters generated by the previous studies, we considered it as the MIS cluster in this study. In the second experiment, we used the classification and regression tree (CART technique to predict assignment of subject category with that the journals in the original subject category Management and in the MIS cluster produced in this study as positive examples, respectively. The trees generated by the two tests both used the occurring probabilities of the topic “management” as the main classification rule. However, in the latter test, we did not only obtain a simpler classification tree but also had a result with less predicting errors. This means that if all journals in the MIS cluster could be given with subject category Management, the retrieval results can be more effective and complete.

  17. The Implementation of APIQ Creative Mathematics Game Method in the Subject Matter of Greatest Common Factor and Least Common Multiple in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Abdul; Saleh Ahmar, Ansari; Arifin, A. Nurani M.; Upu, Hamzah; Mulbar, Usman; Alimuddin; Arsyad, Nurdin; Ruslan; Rusli; Djadir; Sutamrin; Hamda; Minggi, Ilham; Awi; Zaki, Ahmad; Ahmad, Asdar; Ihsan, Hisyam

    2018-01-01

    One of causal factors for uninterested feeling of the students in learning mathematics is a monotonous learning method, like in traditional learning method. One of the ways for motivating students to learn mathematics is by implementing APIQ (Aritmetika Plus Intelegensi Quantum) creative mathematics game method. The purposes of this research are (1) to describe students’ responses toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matter of Greatest Common Factor (GCF) and Least Common Multiple (LCM) and (2) to find out whether by implementing this method, the student’s learning completeness will improve or not. Based on the results of this research, it is shown that the responses of the students toward the implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method in the subject matters of GCF and LCM were good. It is seen in the percentage of the responses were between 76-100%. (2) The implementation of APIQ creative mathematics game method on the subject matters of GCF and LCM improved the students’ learning.

  18. Comparative Analyses of the Teaching Methods and Evaluation Practices in English Subject at Secondary School Certificate (SSC) and General Certificate of Education (GCE O-Level) in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behlol, Malik Ghulam; Anwar, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the teaching methods and evaluation practices in English subject at secondary school certificate (SSC) and general certificate of education GCE-O-level in Pakistan. The population of the study was students, teachers and experts at SSC and 0-level in the Punjab province. Purposive and random sampling techniques…

  19. Physics Education: Effect of Micro-Teaching Method Supported by Educational Technologies on Pre-Service Science Teachers' Misconceptions on Basic Astronomy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbuz, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research study is to explore pre-service science teachers' misconceptions on basic astronomy subjects and to examine the effect of micro teaching method supported by educational technologies on correcting misconceptions. This study is an action research. Semi- structured interviews were used in the study as a data collection…

  20. Expanding subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda; Soldz, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A major theme in recent psychoanalytic thinking concerns the use of therapist subjectivity, especially “countertransference,” in understanding patients. This thinking converges with and expands developments in qualitative research regarding the use of researcher subjectivity as a tool......-Saxon and continental traditions, this special issue provides examples of the use of researcher subjectivity, informed by psychoanalytic thinking, in expanding research understanding....

  1. THE EFFECTS OF PBL METHOD USING THE HYPERMEDIA TO THE STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING SKILL ON THE SOCIAL STUDIES SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Iranto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Education as human’s process to gain knowledge is very important to create thinking skill for the human being. Related to that thing, implemented the learning with Problem Based Learning method which is the learning that is oriented to enhance the students’ critical thinking skill. In the constructivism learning theory, the students should be able to construct the knowledge through problem solving so they got the truth which is useful for the existence. This research is using the quasi experiment method with non-equivalent group design. The conclusion of this research shows that there is enhancement to the students’ critical thinking skill significantly and suggested to use this method on another topic, schools gives the hypermedia facilities, and researching another learning competences.

  2. Effects of Singapore's Model Method on Elementary Student Problem Solving Performance: Single Subject Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    This research investigation examined the effects of Singapore's Model Method, also known as "model drawing" or "bar modeling" on the word problem-solving performance of American third and fourth grade students. Employing a single-case design, a researcher-designed teaching intervention was delivered to a child in third…

  3. A study of the image quality of computed tomography adaptive statistical iterative reconstructed brain images using subjective and objective methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangat, J.; Morgan, J.; Benson, E.; Baath, M.; Lewis, M.; Reilly, A.

    2016-01-01

    The recent reintroduction of iterative reconstruction in computed tomography has facilitated the realisation of major dose saving. The aim of this article was to investigate the possibility of achieving further savings at a site with well-established Adaptive Statistical iterative Reconstruction (ASiR TM ) (GE Healthcare) brain protocols. An adult patient study was conducted with observers making visual grading assessments using image quality criteria, which were compared with the frequency domain metrics, noise power spectrum and modulation transfer function. Subjective image quality equivalency was found in the 40-70% ASiR TM range, leading to the proposal of ranges for the objective metrics defining acceptable image quality. Based on the findings of both the patient-based and objective studies of the ASiR TM /tube-current combinations tested, 60%/305 mA was found to fall within all, but one, of these ranges. Therefore, it is recommended that an ASiR TM level of 60%, with a noise index of 12.20, is a viable alternative to the currently used protocol featuring a 40% ASiR TM level and a noise index of 11.20, potentially representing a 16% dose saving. (authors)

  4. Comparison of radioisotope methods for the measurement of phosphate absorption in normal subjects and in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, K.; Mohammed, M.N.; Newman, S.P.; Varghese, Z.; Moorhead, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    Intestinal phosphate absorption was measured in normal subjects, in patients with chronic renal failure, and in post-transplant patients, by a double isotope technique involving oral administration of 32 P and simultaneous intravenous injection of 33 P with subsequent deconvolution analysis. By this technique intestinal phosphate absorption has been shown to have two components: an initial rapid phase, which is completed by 3 h, and a slower more prolonged phase, which continues beyond 71/2 h. Phosphate malabsorption has been demonstrated in chronic renal failure and transplant patients, which is accounted for by impairment of the initial phase of absorption. Results obtained by deconvolution analysis have been compared with other estimates of phosphate absorption obtained from analysis of 32 P radioactivity curves alone. The fractional hourly rate of absorption and the plasma 32 P radioactivity at 60 min corrected for extracellular fluid volume provided the best approximations to the result obtained by deconvolution analysis, with respect to both the maximal rate of phosphate absorption and cumulative percentage phosphate absorption. (author)

  5. A new method for calculating energy release rate in tunnel excavation subjected to high in situ stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Qinghua

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on energy theory, energy release rate (EER and local energy release rate (LEER, a new index called FERR (Fractional Energy Release Rate is proposed, and this method can not only evaluate the risk of rock burst, but also can point out the location of high risk and the scale of rockburst. The FERR index is applied to the TBM assembling tunnel in Jinping Hydro Power Station II to evaluate the scale and intensity of rockburst, as well as the location where rockburst occurs. With FDM method adopted, the energy release rate of 3 excavation plans are calculated and the scale and risk of rockburst is evaluated, and the location of high risk of rockburst is also mapped. With FERR used in the evaluation, the rockburst is nicely controlled which ensured the safety and construction schedule of the project.

  6. A Solution Method for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear MDOF Systems with Random Properties subject to Random Excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micaletti, R. C.; Cakmak, A. S.; Nielsen, Søren R. K.

    structural properties. The resulting state-space formulation is a system of ordinary stochastic differential equations with random coefficient and deterministic initial conditions which are subsequently transformed into ordinary stochastic differential equations with deterministic coefficients and random......A method for computing the lower-order moments of randomly-excited multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) systems with random structural properties is proposed. The method is grounded in the techniques of stochastic calculus, utilizing a Markov diffusion process to model the structural system with random...... initial conditions. This transformation facilitates the derivation of differential equations which govern the evolution of the unconditional statistical moments of response. Primary consideration is given to linear systems and systems with odd polynomial nonlinearities, for in these cases...

  7. THE EFFECTS OF PBL METHOD USING THE HYPERMEDIA TO THE STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING SKILL ON THE SOCIAL STUDIES SUBJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Iranto, Dicky; Suparno, S

    2014-01-01

    Education as human’s process to gain knowledge is very important to create thinking skill for the human being. Related to that thing, implemented the learning with Problem Based Learning method which is the learning that is oriented to enhance the students’ critical thinking skill. In the constructivism learning theory, the students should be able to construct the knowledge through problem solving so they got the truth which is useful for the existence. This research is using the quasi experi...

  8. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panari Chiara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers’ health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. Method An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. Results The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers’ psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. Conclusions It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers’ conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers’ health.

  9. An improved method for sacro-iliac joint imaging: a study of normal subjects, patients with sacro-iliitis and patients with low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, J.; Hilson, A.J.W.; Maisey, M.N.; Laurent, R.; Panayi, G.S.; Saunders, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new method is described for quantitative measurement of the uptake of sup(99m)Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) by the sacro-iliac joints. The method uses 'regions of interest' providing advantages over the previously described 'slice' method; the two methods are compared in normal subjects, patients with known sacro-iliitis and patients with low back pain. Sacro-iliac activity, as calculated by the sacro-iliac index (SII) in normal patients, was shown to decrease with age in females but not in males. The SII was compared with radiographs of the sacro-iliac joints in the patients with known sacro-iliac joint disease and in those with low back pain. The method is useful for the exclusion of sacro-iliitis as a specific cause of back pain. (author)

  10. An advanced revised universal slope method for low cycle fatigue evaluation of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    In order to rationalize the low cycle fatigue evaluation of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement, an advanced revised universal slope method is proposed. In the proposed method, the coefficient of the first term of the fatigue life equation which resembles Manson's equation is expressed by parameters of the multi-axial degree, the tensile strength and the fracture strength. Also, the coefficient of the second term is expressed by the multi-axial degree, the fracture ductility and the minimum fracture ductility under the maximum multi-axial degree. Here equivalent strain range is used for the fatigue life estimation. The previously carried out pipe elbow test data were reanalyzed using the proposed method. As the result, the experimentally obtained fatigue lives had considerably good coincidences with the predicted fatigue lives by the proposed method. Application of the proposed method is also discussed. (author)

  11. Email-Based Informed Consent: Innovative Method for Reaching Large Numbers of Subjects for Data Mining Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lesley R.; Mason, Sara S.; Babiak-Vazquez, Adriana; Ray, Stacie L.; Van Baalen, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Since the 2010 NASA authorization to make the Life Sciences Data Archive (LSDA) and Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) data archives more accessible by the research and operational communities, demand for data has greatly increased. Correspondingly, both the number and scope of requests have increased, from 142 requests fulfilled in 2011 to 224 in 2014, and with some datasets comprising up to 1 million data points. To meet the demand, the LSAH and LSDA Repositories project was launched, which allows active and retired astronauts to authorize full, partial, or no access to their data for research without individual, study-specific informed consent. A one-on-one personal informed consent briefing is required to fully communicate the implications of the several tiers of consent. Due to the need for personal contact to conduct Repositories consent meetings, the rate of consenting has not kept up with demand for individualized, possibly attributable data. As a result, other methods had to be implemented to allow the release of large datasets, such as release of only de-identified data. However the compilation of large, de-identified data sets places a significant resource burden on LSAH and LSDA and may result in diminished scientific usefulness of the dataset. As a result, LSAH and LSDA worked with the JSC Institutional Review Board Chair, Astronaut Office physicians, and NASA Office of General Counsel personnel to develop a "Remote Consenting" process for retrospective data mining studies. This is particularly useful since the majority of the astronaut cohort is retired from the agency and living outside the Houston area. Originally planned as a method to send informed consent briefing slides and consent forms only by mail, Remote Consenting has evolved into a means to accept crewmember decisions on individual studies via their method of choice: email or paper copy by mail. To date, 100 emails have been sent to request participation in eight HRP

  12. Assessing and improving health in the workplace: an integration of subjective and objective measures with the STress Assessment and Research Toolkit (St.A.R.T.) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panari, Chiara; Guglielmi, Dina; Ricci, Aurora; Tabanelli, Maria Carla; Violante, Francesco Saverio

    2012-09-20

    The aim of this work was to introduce a new combined method of subjective and objective measures to assess psychosocial risk factors at work and improve workers' health and well-being. In the literature most of the research on work-related stress focuses on self-report measures and this work represents the first methodology capable of integrating different sources of data. An integrated method entitled St.A.R.T. (STress Assessment and Research Toolkit) was used in order to assess psychosocial risk factors and two health outcomes. In particular, a self-report questionnaire combined with an observational structured checklist was administered to 113 workers from an Italian retail company. The data showed a correlation between subjective data and the rating data of the observational checklist for the psychosocial risk factors related to work contexts such as customer relationship management and customer queue. Conversely, the factors related to work content (workload and boredom) measured with different methods (subjective vs. objective) showed a discrepancy. Furthermore, subjective measures of psychosocial risk factors were more predictive of workers' psychological health and exhaustion than rating data. The different objective measures played different roles, however, in terms of their influence on the two health outcomes considered. It is important to integrate self-related assessment of stressors with objective measures for a better understanding of workers' conditions in the workplace. The method presented could be considered a useful methodology for combining the two measures and differentiating the impact of different psychological risk factors related to work content and context on workers' health.

  13. SCIENTIFIC AND METHODICAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION OF SUBJECT CONTENT OF TRAINING COURSESFOR INVERSE PROBLEMS FOR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В С Корнилов

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents scientific and methodical aspects of forming the content of education inverse problems for differential equations for students of higher educational institutions of physical, mathematical and natural science training areas. The goals are formulated and the principles of training are the content of learning inverse problems for differential equations. Attention is drawn to the particular issues of teaching courses inverse problems. Describes the classification criteria and target modules that play the role of tools to create and analyze the model and curriculum, forming learning content inverse problems for differential equations. The content classification features and target modules. Formulate conclusions that learning the inverse problems for differential equations has scientific, educational and humanitarian potential of students and as a result of this training they gain the fundamental knowledge in the applied and computational mathematics, and also develop scientific worldview, applied, environmental, information thinking.

  14. Nonequilibrium Kondo effect by the equilibrium numerical renormalization group method: The hybrid Anderson model subject to a finite spin bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tie-Feng; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng

    2018-06-01

    We investigate Kondo correlations in a quantum dot with normal and superconducting electrodes, where a spin bias voltage is applied across the device and the local interaction U is either attractive or repulsive. When the spin current is blockaded in the large-gap regime, this nonequilibrium strongly correlated problem maps into an equilibrium model solvable by the numerical renormalization group method. The Kondo spectra with characteristic splitting due to the nonequilibrium spin accumulation are thus obtained at high precision. It is shown that while the bias-induced decoherence of the spin Kondo effect is partially compensated by the superconductivity, the charge Kondo effect is enhanced out of equilibrium and undergoes an additional splitting by the superconducting proximity effect, yielding four Kondo peaks in the local spectral density. In the charge Kondo regime, we find a universal scaling of charge conductance in this hybrid device under different spin biases. The universal conductance as a function of the coupling to the superconducting lead is peaked at and hence directly measures the Kondo temperature. Our results are of direct relevance to recent experiments realizing a negative-U charge Kondo effect in hybrid oxide quantum dots [Nat. Commun. 8, 395 (2017), 10.1038/s41467-017-00495-7].

  15. A pilot study of a new method of cognitive stimulation using abacus arithmetic in healthy and cognitively impaired elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matías-Guiu, J A; Pérez-Martínez, D A; Matías-Guiu, J

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the applicability of a cognitive stimulation method based on abacus arithmetic in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. This observational and prospective pilot study was performed in 2 hospitals. The study assessed the applicability of a programme of arithmetic training developed for use in the elderly population. The primary endpoint was an evaluation of the stimulation programme, in terms of usability, satisfaction, and participation, in healthy elderly controls and elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease. Secondary endpoints were family satisfaction, caregiver burden, and the behaviour and cognition of patients. Usability, satisfaction, and degree of participation were high. The Mini-Mental State Examination showed significant changes (23.1±4.8 before the intervention vs 24.9±4.2 afterwards, P=.002); there were no changes on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, Yesavage Geriatric Depression scale, and Zarit caregiver burden scale. The study suggests that cognitive stimulation with abacus arithmetic may be used in elderly people with and without cognitive impairment. Further studies will be needed to evaluate the efficacy of this kind of programmes. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantification of the level descriptors for the standard EQ-5D three-level system and a five-level version according to two methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M. F.; Birnie, E.; Bonsel, G. J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare the quantitative position of the level descriptors of the standard EQ-5D three-level system (3L) and a newly developed, experimental five-level version (5L) using a direct and a vignette-based indirect method. METHODS: Eighty-two respondents took part in the study.

  17. Quantification of the level descriptors for the standard EQ-5D three-level system and a five-level version according to two methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Janssen (Bas); E. Birnie (Erwin); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: Our aim was to compare the quantitative position of the level descriptors of the standard EQ-5D three-level system (3L) and a newly developed, experimental five-level version (5L) using a direct and a vignette-based indirect method. Methods: Eighty-two respondents took part

  18. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masami; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: "Frontal Lobe," "Hippocampus," "Occipital Lobe," "Orbital Gyrus," "Parietal Lobe," "Putamen," and "Temporal Lobe." Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies.

  19. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiological Technology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Abe, Osamu [Nihon University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Itabashi-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Aoki, Shigeki [Juntendo University, Department of Radiology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Hayashi, Naoto [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki [Kanazawa University, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa (Japan); Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni [University of Tokyo Hospital, Department of Radiology and Department of Computational Diagnostic Radiology and Preventive Medicine, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Iwatsubo, Takeshi [University of Tokyo, Department of Neuropathology, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Yamashita, Fumio [Iwate Medical University, Department of Radiology, Yahaba, Iwate (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Integrative Brain Imaging Center National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kodaira, Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: Japanese Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative

    2013-07-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  20. Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra provides reduced effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Masami; Ino, Kenji; Yano, Keiichi; Abe, Osamu; Aoki, Shigeki; Hayashi, Naoto; Miyati, Tosiaki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Iwatsubo, Takeshi; Yamashita, Fumio; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of scanner for cortex volumetry with atlas-based method is reduced using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) normalization compared with standard normalization. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (3D-T1WIs) of 21 healthy subjects were obtained and evaluated for effect of scanner in cortex volumetry. 3D-T1WIs of the 21 subjects were obtained with five MRI systems. Imaging of each subject was performed on each of five different MRI scanners. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry 8 tool implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 and WFU PickAtlas software (Talairach brain atlas theory). The following software default settings were used as bilateral region-of-interest labels: ''Frontal Lobe,'' ''Hippocampus,'' ''Occipital Lobe,'' ''Orbital Gyrus,'' ''Parietal Lobe,'' ''Putamen,'' and ''Temporal Lobe.'' Effect of scanner for cortex volumetry using the atlas-based method was reduced with DARTEL normalization compared with standard normalization in Frontal Lobe, Occipital Lobe, Orbital Gyrus, Putamen, and Temporal Lobe; was the same in Hippocampus and Parietal Lobe; and showed no increase with DARTEL normalization for any region of interest (ROI). DARTEL normalization reduces the effect of scanner, which is a major problem in multicenter studies. (orig.)

  1. Subjective safety and self-confidence in prehospital trauma care and learning progress after trauma-courses: part of the prospective longitudinal mixed-methods EPPTC-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häske, David; Beckers, Stefan K; Hofmann, Marzellus; Lefering, Rolf; Grützner, Paul A; Stöckle, Ulrich; Papathanassiou, Vassilios; Münzberg, Matthias

    2017-08-14

    Prehospital trauma care is stressful and requires multi-professional teamwork. A decrease in the number of accident victims ultimately affects the routine and skills and underlines the importance of effective training. Standardized courses, like PHTLS, are established for health care professionals to improve the prehospital care of trauma patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the subjective safety in prehospital trauma care and learning progress by paramedics in a longitudinal analysis. This was a prospective intervention trial and part of the mixed-method longitudinal EPPTC-trial, evaluating subjective and objective changes among participants and real patient care as a result of PHTLS courses. Participants were evaluated with pre/post questionnaires as well as one year after the course. We included 236 datasets. In the pre/post comparison, an increased performance could be observed in nearly all cases. The result shows that the expectations of the participants of the course were fully met even after one year (p = 0.002). The subjective safety in trauma care is significantly better even one year after the course (p < 0.001). Regression analysis showed that (ABCDE)-structure is decisive (p = 0.036) as well as safety in rare and common skills (both p < 0.001). Most skills are also rated better after one year. Knowledge and specific safety are assessed as worse after one year. The courses meet the expectations of the participants and increase the subjective safety in the prehospital care of trauma patients. ABCDE-structure and safety in skills are crucial. In the short term, both safety in skills and knowledge can be increased, but the courses do not have the power to maintain knowledge and specific subjective safety issues over a year. German Clinical Trials Register, ID DRKS00004713 , registered 14. February 2014.

  2. Morphision: A method for subjective evaluation of metamorphopsia in patients with unilateral macular pathology (i.e., full thickness macular hole and epiretinal membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ugarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of clinical tests to quantify spatial components of distortion in patients with full thickness macular holes (FTMH and epiretinal membranes (ERM. Aim: To develop a test for subjective evaluation of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation in patients with unilateral FTMH or ERM. Settings and Design: Prospective case-control study carried out at tertiary referral center. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with unilateral macular disease (13 macular epiretinal membranes, 12 full-thickness macular holes, and nine controls (without ocular pathology underwent ophthalmological examination with logMAR ETDRS visual acuity, near vision and contrast sensitivity assessed. Macular optical coherence tomography and metamorphopsia assessment using Morphision test was also carried out. This test consists of a set of modified Amsler charts for detection, identification, and subjective quantification of visual distortion in the central visual field around fixation. Morphision test content and construct validity, and reliability (test-retest method were evaluated. Sixteen patients completed an unstructured survey on test performance and preference. Results: Every patient with unilateral FTMH or ERM identified a particular chart using Morphision test (content validity. None of the normal subjects without symptoms of metamorphopsia identified any distortion (construct validity. Test-retest showed a 100% consistency for frequency and 67% for amplitude. The mean amplitude difference between measurements was 0.02 degrees (SD = 0.038. The coefficient of repeatability was 0.075. There was a correlation between Morphision amplitude score and visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, individually. Conclusions: Morphision test allowed detection and subjective quantification of metamorphopsia in the clinical setting in our patients with unilateral macular epiretinal membranes and full thickness macular holes.

  3. Evaluation of skeletal maturity in North Indian subjects using an objective method based on cervical vertebral bone age and assessment of its reliability as compared to hand wrist radiographic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the skeletal maturity objectively and assess the reliability and validity of this method in North Indian subjects. Materials and Methods: Sixty subjects (8-16 years were taken and divided into two groups of 30 males and 30 females. For each subject, cervical vertebral bone age (VA was evaluated by the objective method described by Mito et al., and bone age (BA was estimated by Grave and Brown method of hand wrist radiograph. Correlations and average differences between various ages were determined. An analysis of variance and Tukey′s post-hoc tests were used to compare various ages at 5% significance level. Results: The correlations between cervical VAs and BAs were higher than other ages and also more in females than males. The analysis of female data showed no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05 whereas analysis of male data showed statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 between various ages. Conclusion: The findings of the present study suggest that this method of objectively evaluating skeletal maturation is reliable and can be applied to North Indian females only. The development of a new method to objectively evaluate cervical VA in males is needed.

  4. A method for the automatic quantification of the completeness of pulmonary fissures: evaluation in a database of subjects with severe emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Goldin, Jonathan G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Abtin, Fereidoun; Kim, Hyun J.; Lu, Peiyun; Shaw, Greg; Brown, Matthew S. [University of California-Los Angeles, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers and Thoracic Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiological Sciences, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Diagnostic Image Analysis Group, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-02-15

    To propose and evaluate a technique for automatic quantification of fissural completeness from chest computed tomography (CT) in a database of subjects with severe emphysema. Ninety-six CT studies of patients with severe emphysema were included. The lungs, fissures and lobes were automatically segmented. The completeness of the fissures was calculated as the percentage of the lobar border defined by a fissure. The completeness score of the automatic method was compared with a visual consensus read by three radiologists using boxplots, rank sum tests and ROC analysis. The consensus read found 49% (47/96), 15% (14/96) and 67% (64/96) of the right major, right minor and left major fissures to be complete. For all fissures visually assessed as being complete the automatic method resulted in significantly higher completeness scores (mean 92.78%) than for those assessed as being partial or absent (mean 77.16%; all p values <0.001). The areas under the curves for the automatic fissural completeness were 0.88, 0.91 and 0.83 for the right major, right minor and left major fissures respectively. An automatic method is able to quantify fissural completeness in a cohort of subjects with severe emphysema consistent with a visual consensus read of three radiologists. (orig.)

  5. Sensibility and Subjectivity: Levinas’ Traumatic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmika Pandya

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of Levinas’ notions of sensibility and subjectivity are evident in the revision of phenomenological method by current phenomenologists such as Jean-Luc Marion and Michel Henry. The criticisms of key tenants of classical phenomenology, intentionality and reduction, are of a particular note. However, there are problems with Levinas’ characterization of subjectivity as essentially sensible. In “Totality and Infinity” and “Otherwise than Being”, Levinas criticizes and recasts a traditional notion of subjectivity, particularly the notion of the subject as the first and foremost rational subject. The subject in Levinas’ works is characterized more by its sensibility and affectedness than by its capacity to reason or affect its world. Levinas ties rationality to economy and suggests an alternative notion of reason that leads to his analysis of the ethical relation as the face-to-face encounter. The ‘origin’ of the social relation is located not in our capacity to know but rather in a sensibility that is diametrically opposed to the reason understood as economy. I argue that the opposition in Levinas’ thought between reason and sensibility is problematic and essentially leads to a self-conflicted subject. In fact, it would seem that violence characterizes the subject’s self-relation and, thus, is also inscribed at the base of the social relation. Rather than overcoming a problematic tendency to dualistic thought in philosophy Levinas merely reverses traditional hierarchies of reason/emotion, subject/object and self/other. 

  6. Development of methods to predict both the dynamic and the pseudo-static response of secondary structures subjected to seismic excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.

    1984-01-01

    Multiple independent support excitation time history formulations have been used to investigate simplified methods to predict the inertial (or dynamic) component of response as well as the pseudo-static (or static) component of response of secondary structures subjected to seismic excitations. For the dynamic component the independent response spectrum method is used with current industry practice for the modal and direction of excitation combinations being adopted and various procedures for the group combination and sequence being investigated. SRSS combination between support groups is found to yield satisfactory results. For the static component, support grouping by elevation for preliminary design followed by support grouping by attachment point for final design assure overall safety in the design

  7. A new method for registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials for studies of proprioceptive sensitivity in normal subjects and patients with organic lesions in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, S A; Voronin, S G

    2015-01-01

    The proprioceptive sensitivity of healthy volunteers and convalescents after acute cerebrovascular episodes was studied by a new neurophysiological method for registration of kinesthetic evoked potentials emerging in response to passive 50(o) bending of the hand in the wrist joint with the angular acceleration of 350 rad/sec(2). Kinesthetic evoked potentials were recorded above the somatosensory cortex projection areas in the hemispheres contra- and ipsilateral to the stimulated limb. The patients exhibited significantly longer latencies and lesser amplitudes of the early components of response in the involved hemisphere in comparison with normal subjects. The method for registration of the kinesthetic evoked potentials allows a more detailed study of the mechanisms of kinesthetic sensitivity in health and in organic involvement of the brain.

  8. Subjective poverty line definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Flik; B.M.S. van Praag (Bernard)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we will deal with definitions of subjective poverty lines. To measure a poverty threshold value in terms of household income, which separates the poor from the non-poor, we take into account the opinions of all people in society. Three subjective methods will be discussed

  9. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 准确设置会计科目的意义与方法%The Meaning and Methods of Setting up Accounting Subject Accurately

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海; 孙胜

    2013-01-01

      管理会计的产生与发展,是会计发展史上的一次伟大变革,它让会计工作的价值得到了有效地升华。而恰当的设置会计科目,对经济数据进行有效地分类、归集自然成为了会计信息管理的核心工作。本文从准确设置会计科目的重要意义、会计科目设置原则、会计科目设置方法方面进行了论述,为企业财务管理与经济管理提供参考依据。%The origin and development of management accounting is a great change in the history of the accounting development, it gives effective sublimation for the value of the accounting work. Proper setting up accounting subject, effectively sorting and collecting the economic data has become the core work of the accounting information management. This article discussed from the significance, principle and the method of accurately setting up accounting subject, and provided a reference for enterprise financial management and economic management.

  11. [Behavior of circadian rhythm of ACTH and cortisol in 16 normal subjects after a balanced normocaloric diet and after a high protein diet (Cosinor mean method)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellini, M; Giovannini, C; Manzo, G; Barletta, C; Borboni, P

    1983-01-31

    In 16 normal subjects the circadian rhythm of ACTH has been studied during normal calories diet and after a 15 days period of high protein content diet (2 g/Kg body weight). The statistical study, according Cosinor method, has shown a significant increase of the mesor and of the amplitude, but has not shown any change of the ACTH and Cortisol rhythm, after hyperproteic diet. Data advise the increase of the tonic and fasic secretion of both hormones and shown the mantained acrophase. The action of the protein on the ACTH and Cortisol secretion does not seem related to mechanism like stress, neither to the probable mediation of intestinal like-ACTH messengers. On the contrary it seems related to a direct stimulus on the diencephalo-pituitary axis; it is possible that some amino-acids (tryptophan, arginine) act as a mediator, even if data concern just the effect of the over mentioned amino-acid in large doses.

  12. Hygienic characteristic of working conditions and use of some evaluation methods of health of persons subjected to concomitant effect of industrial factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.B.

    1987-01-01

    To study peculiarities of hygienic-occupational effect of low-dose irradiation a comparative evaluation of working conditions and health of persons occupied in exhausting and testing of electron-beam tubes is carried out. Evaluation was based on results of 5-year prophylactic medical examinations and with due account of physiological, hematological and some other factors. To study general condition of people a modernized Dembo-Rubinstein test and specially developed questionnaire of health self-evaluation is used. Along with helth self-evaluation Dembo-Rubinstein test includes helth self- evaluation accounting public complaints. The given investigation methods demonstrated its sufficient informativity and applicabi lity for evaluation of health of persons subjected to concomitan t effect of industrial factors

  13. SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Electrochemical behaviour of alkaline copper complexes. 543 ... Kinetic investigation of the oxidation of N- alkyl anilines by ... Catalytic combustion of methane. A method for increasing ... Cobalt(III), nickel(II) and ruthenium(II) complexes of 1 ...

  14. A subjective scheduler for subjective dedicated networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Fakhrizal, Said Reza; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    Multiple access technique is one of important techniques within medium access layer in TCP/IP protocol stack. Each network technology implements the selected access method. Priority can be implemented in those methods to differentiate services. Some internet networks are dedicated for specific purpose. Education browsing or tutorial video accesses are preferred in a library hotspot, while entertainment and sport contents could be subjects of limitation. Current solution may use IP address filter or access list. This paper proposes subjective properties of users or applications are used for priority determination in multiple access techniques. The NS-2 simulator is employed to evaluate the method. A video surveillance network using WiMAX is chosen as the object. Subjective priority is implemented on WiMAX scheduler based on traffic properties. Three different traffic sources from monitoring video: palace, park, and market are evaluated. The proposed subjective scheduler prioritizes palace monitoring video that results better quality, xx dB than the later monitoring spots.

  15. Subject Index

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BetiCiciJoan

    Nayak, M. Jamil, L. P. Singh & R. Myrzakulov) 97. Gravitational ... (Solution by the Second Perturbation Method) (Lin-Sen Li) 189. FAST Maser .... γ-Ray Emission from the Extreme Blazar 1ES 0229 + 200 (J. Lie, T. Kang & Y. G.. Zheng) 341 .... C. Eiland, T. C. Salzillo, B. H. Hokr, J. L. Highland, W. D. Mayfield & B. M. Wyatt) ...

  16. The effect of scatter correction on {sup 123}I-IMP brain perfusion SPET with the triple energy window method in normal subjects using SPM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiga, Tohru; Takano, Akihiro; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Tamaki, Nagara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Kubo, Naoki [Department of Radiological Technology, College of Medical Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan); Kobayashi, Junko; Takeda, Yoji; Nakamura, Fumihiro; Koyama, Tsukasa [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Katoh, Chietsugu [Department of Tracer Kinetics, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-03-01

    Scatter correction (SC) using the triple energy window method (TEW) has recently been applied for brain perfusion single-photon emission tomography (SPET). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of scatter correction using TEW on N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPET in normal subjects. The study population consisted of 15 right-handed normal subjects. SPET data were acquired from 20 min to 40 min after the injection of 167 MBq of IMP, using a triple-head gamma camera. Images were reconstructed with and without SC. 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images were also obtained with a 1.5-Tesla scanner. First, IMP images with and without SC were co-registered to the 3D MRI. Second, the two co-registered IMP images were normalised using SPM96. A t statistic image for the contrast condition effect was constructed. We investigated areas using a voxel-level threshold of 0.001, with a corrected threshold of 0.05. Compared with results obtained without SC, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly decreased in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle, and also in the lateral occipital cortex and the base of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the IMP distribution with SC was significantly increased in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, the insular cortex and the medial part of the thalamus. It is concluded that differences in the IMP distribution with and without SC exist not only in the peripheral areas of the cerebellum, the cortex and the ventricle but also in the occipital lobe, the base of the temporal lobe, the insular cortex, the medial part of the thalamus, and the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. This needs to be recognised for adequate interpretation of IMP brain perfusion SPET after scatter correction. (orig.)

  17. Miscellaneous subjects, ch. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brussaard, P.J.; Glaudemans, P.W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is paid to a variery of subjects which are related to shell model applications, e.g. the Lanczos method for matrix diagonalization, truncation methods (seniority truncation, single-particle energy truncation and diagonal energy truncation which can be used for reducing the configuration space.) Coulomb energies and spurious states are briefly discussed. Finally attention is paid to the particle-vibrator model

  18. Setting of methods for analysis of mucosal antibodies in seminal and vaginal fluids of HIV seropositive subjects from Cambodian and Italian cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Donadoni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Genital mucosae play a key role in protection from STD and HIV infection, due to their involvement in both horizontal and vertical disease transmission. High variability of published observations concerning IgA isolation and quantification underlies the strong requirement of specific methods able to maximize investigation on HIV-specific IgA.Genital fluids from 109 subjects, including male and female cohorts from Italy and Cambodia, were collected, aliquoted and processed with different techniques, to assess optimal conditions maximizing mucosal antibody recovery. Three sampling techniques, up to sixteen preservation conditions, six ELISA methods and four purifications protocols were compared.The optimal method here described took advantage of Weck-Cel sampling of female mucosal fluids. Immediate processing of genital fluids, with the addition of antibiotics and EDTA, improved recovery of vaginal IgA, while the triple addition of EDTA, antibiotics and protease inhibitors provided the highest amount of seminal IgA. Due to low amount of IgA in mucosal fluids, a high sensitive sandwich ELISA assay was set; sensitivity was enhanced by milk-based overcoating buffer and by a two-step biotin-streptavidin signal amplification. Indeed, commercial antisera to detect human immunoglobulins showed weak cross-reactivity to different antibody types. Three-step affinity purification provided reproducible immunoglobulin recovery from genital specimens, while conventional immuno-affinity IgA purification was found poorly manageable. Affinity columns were suitable to isolate mucosal IgA, which are ten-fold less concentrated than IgG in genital specimens, and provided effective separation of IgA monomers, dimers, and J-chains. Jacalin-bound resin successfully separated IgA1 from IgA2 subfraction.Specific, effective and reliable methods to study local immunity are key items in understanding host mucosal response. The sequence of methods here described is effective

  19. Definition and identification of journals as bibliographic and subject entities: Librarianship versus ISI Journal Citation Reports methods and their effect on citation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensman, S.J.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the ISI Journal Citation Reports (JCR) bibliographic and subject structures through Library of Congress (LC) and American research libraries cataloging and classification methodology. The 2006 Science Citation Index JCR Behavioral Sciences subject category journals are used as an

  20. Comparison between Subjective Global Assessment methods in oncology Comparação entre métodos de Avaliação Subjetiva Global

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Milani El-Kik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare results achieved in using the subjective global assessment (SGA and the patient generated subjective global assessment (PG-SGA in order to improve nutritional assistance to cancer patients. Materials and Methods: This is a transversal observational study with an analytical descriptive approach. The data collection was done through the application of SGA and PG-SGA in patients older than 20 years-old, both sexes, in a university hospital, with a cancer diagnosis. The study was approved by the Ethical Research Committee at PUCRS. Results: 68 patients took part of the study. The descriptive evaluation revealed 4 patients assessed as "well-nourished" by both SGA and PG-SGA. 96.5% of the 57 patients assessed by the SGA as "moderately or suspected of being malnourished" presented the same result in the PG-SGA. As regards the 7 patients appointed as "severely malnourished" by the SGA, 71.4% presented the same result in the PG-SGA. Such results disclosed a difference in the nutritional diagnosis of 4 patients, which is not statistically significant (p=0.135. Kappa’s quotient suggests a strong agreement between both methods (Kappa=0.793; p=0.001. Conclusion: Although the SGA is a common nutritional evaluation tool used in several hospitals, the use of the PG-SGA can also be an alternative, according to the availability and suitability of each place.Objetivo: Comparar os resultados obtidos através da utilização da avaliação subjetiva global (ASG e da avaliação subjetiva global produzida pelo paciente (ASG-PPP, a fim de qualificar a assistência nutricional prestada ao paciente oncológico. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo observacional, transversal, com abordagem descritiva e analítica. A coleta de dados foi feita através da aplicação da ASG e da ASG-PPP em pacientes a partir de 20 anos de idade, de ambos os sexos, internados na Unidade de Internação de um hospital universitário, com diagnóstico de c

  1. Interaction, transference, and subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Fieldwork is one of the important methods in educational, social, and organisational research. In fieldwork, the researcher takes residence for a shorter or longer period amongst the subjects and settings to be studied. The aim of this is to study the culture of people: how people seem to make...... sense of their lives and which moral, professional, and ethical values seem to guide their behaviour and attitudes. In fieldwork, the researcher has to balance participation and observation in her attempts at representation. Consequently, the researcher’s academic and life-historical subjectivity...... is also subjected to psychodynamic processes. In this article, I draw upon a number of research inquiries to illustrate how psychodynamic processes influence research processes: data production, research questions and methodology, relations to informants, as well as interpretation and analysis. I further...

  2. Power in Operation: A Case Study Focussing on How Subject-Based Knowledge Is Constrained by the Methods of Assessment in GCE A Level Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lorna

    2008-01-01

    The General Certificate of Education (GCE) A Level Dance specification, offered by the Assessment and Qualifications Alliance (AQA), is the only GCE course of study in the UK that focuses solely on dance. Acquisition of subject specific knowledge is a feature of its aims, while assessment, as constructed by its objectives, is assumed to be a…

  3. Longitudinal measurements of total body water and body composition in healthy volunteers by online breath deuterium measurement and other near-subject methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engel, B.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.; Diskin, A. M.; Davis, S. J.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2005), s. 99-106 ISSN 1479-456X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA203/00/0632 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : total body water * deuterium isotope dilution * FA-MS * bio-impendance Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Study on prestressed concrete reactor vessel structures. II-5: Crack analysis by three dimensional finite elements method of 1/20 multicavity type PCRV subjected to internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.

  5. A systematic study on the influencing parameters and improvement of quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker method using notoginseng as research subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao-Qun; Jia, Xiu-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuko; Wang, Xuan; Cai, Shao-Qing

    2015-03-01

    A new quantitative analysis of multi-component with single marker (QAMS) method for 11 saponins (ginsenosides Rg1, Rb1, Rg2, Rh1, Rf, Re and Rd; notoginsenosides R1, R4, Fa and K) in notoginseng was established, when 6 of these saponins were individually used as internal referring substances to investigate the influences of chemical structure, concentrations of quantitative components, and purities of the standard substances on the accuracy of the QAMS method. The results showed that the concentration of the analyte in sample solution was the major influencing parameter, whereas the other parameters had minimal influence on the accuracy of the QAMS method. A new method for calculating the relative correction factors by linear regression was established (linear regression method), which demonstrated to decrease standard method differences of the QAMS method from 1.20%±0.02% - 23.29%±3.23% to 0.10%±0.09% - 8.84%±2.85% in comparison with the previous method. And the differences between external standard method and the QAMS method using relative correction factors calculated by linear regression method were below 5% in the quantitative determination of Rg1, Re, R1, Rd and Fa in 24 notoginseng samples and Rb1 in 21 notoginseng samples. And the differences were mostly below 10% in the quantitative determination of Rf, Rg2, R4 and N-K (the differences of these 4 constituents bigger because their contents lower) in all the 24 notoginseng samples. The results indicated that the contents assayed by the new QAMS method could be considered as accurate as those assayed by external standard method. In addition, a method for determining applicable concentration ranges of the quantitative components assayed by QAMS method was established for the first time, which could ensure its high accuracy and could be applied to QAMS methods of other TCMs. The present study demonstrated the practicability of the application of the QAMS method for the quantitative analysis of multi

  6. Teaching of foundations of radiochemistry on chemical faculty of Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov. Methodical ensuring of the subject

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.B.; Berdonosov, S.S.; Fedoseev, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The peculiarities of the lecture course on radiochemistry principles in the Moscow State University after M.V. Lomonosov are considered. The methodical provision of the lectures including the curriculum, methodical aids, tasks for self-control and for lecture control, as well as, summary questionary forms, is discussed. 3 refs

  7. Computer modeling in free spreadsheets OpenOffice.Calc as one of the modern methods of teaching physics and mathematics cycle subjects in primary and secondary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markushevich M.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available the article details the use of such modern method of training as computer simulation applied to modelling of various kinds of mechanical motion of a material point in the free spreadsheet OpenOffice.org Calc while designing physics and computer science lessons in primary and secondary schools. Particular attention is paid to the application of computer modeling integrated with other modern teaching methods.

  8. Validation of the 133Xe inhalation method for measuring brain stem and cerebellar blood flow in human subjects and the baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, F.; Meyer, J. St.; Yamaguchi, F.; Yamamoto, M.; Shaw, T.; Juge, O.

    1979-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements recorded by probes placed over the posterior fossa after 133 Xe inhalation have been validated here in. After inhalation, 133 Xe gas is distributed via arterial blood of both carotid an vertebrobasilar systems, so that it should be possible to measure rCBF of the brain stem and cerebellum if appropriate collimation, probe placement and selection of activity are employed. Detectors placed over the suboccipital regions may be subject to distortion by radioactivity derived from extracerebral sources so that the following questions were asked: 1) What is the counting geometry for each probe looking at this area 2) What is the extent of contamination from surrounding tissues 3) Are the flow values reproducible and in accordance with values obtained by other techniques 4) Are the flow values able to show predictable changes under physiological and pathological conditions Animal and human experiments designed to answer these questions are reported. (Auth.)

  9. Comparison between subjective and quantitative methods for assessing the resolution limit of radiographic systems; Comparacao entre metodos subjetivos e quantitativos na medida da resolucao limite de sistemas radiograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: matheus@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two ways of measuring the resolution limit of radiographic systems, one subjective and one quantitative. To this end, nine images were acquired with different radiographic techniques using a pattern of bars and aluminum plates. With these images were acquired modulation transfer function (MTF) through the edge image obtained by the aluminum plate - the MTF 10% was measured on all images - and the variation of these points, which was faced with the evaluation obtained by the resolution limit of the standard bar. Although we have observed a greater variation between measurements obtained using the bar-pattern, the simplicity of this measuring technique favors the common use of the same. We concluded that, to optimize the quality control of radiographic equipment, it is suggested to measure the MTF at least in periods of time while the annual pattern of bars to be used in shorter time periods to measure changes in resolution of the system. (author)

  10. Subjective experience of coercion in psychiatric care: a study comparing the attitudes of patients and healthy volunteers towards coercive methods and their justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielau, J; Altunbay, J; Gallinat, J; Heinz, A; Bermpohl, F; Lehmann, A; Montag, C

    2016-06-01

    Under certain conditions, coercive interventions in psychotic patients can help to regain insight and alleviate symptoms, but can also traumatize subjects. This study explored attitudes towards psychiatric coercive interventions in healthy individuals and persons suffering from schizophrenia, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder. The impact of personal history of coercive treatment on preferences concerning clinical management of patients unable to consent was investigated. Six case vignettes depicting scenarios of ethical dilemmas and demanding decisions in favour of or against coercive interventions were presented to 60 healthy volunteers and 90 patients. Structured interviews focusing on experienced coercion were performed in conjunction with the Coercion Experience Scale and the Admission Experience Survey. Symptom severity, psychosocial functioning and insight into illness were assessed as influencing variables. Student's t tests compared patients' and controls' judgments, followed by regression analyses to define the predictive value of symptoms and measures of coercion on judgments regarding the total patient sample and patients with experience of fixation. Patients and non-psychiatric controls showed no significant difference in their attitudes towards involuntary admission and forced medication. Conversely, patients more than controls significantly disapproved of mechanical restraint. Subjective experience of coercive interventions played an important role for the justification of treatment against an individual's "natural will". Factors influencing judgments on coercion were overall functioning and personal experience of treatment effectiveness and fairness. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of perceived coercion, in addition to insight into illness, predicted judgments of previously fixated patients. Results underline the importance of the quality of practical implementation and care, if coercive interventions cannot be avoided.

  11. Accuracy of the estimation of dental age in comparison with chronological age in a Spanish sample of 2641 living subjects using the Demirjian and Nolla methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, María; Ata-Ali, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Age estimation is an important procedure in forensic medicine and is carried out for a number of reasons. For living persons, age estimation is performed in order to assess whether a child has attained the age of criminal responsibility, in scenarios involving rape, kidnapping or marriage, in premature births, adoption procedures, illegal immigration, pediatric endocrine diseases and orthodontic malocclusion, as well as in circumstances in which the birth certificate is not available or the records are suspect. According to data from the UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees), the number of people seeking refugee status continued to increase in the last years, driven by the wars in Syria and Iraq, as well as by conflict and instability in Afghanistan, Eritrea and elsewhere. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of estimating dental age versus chronological age using the Nolla and Demirjian methods in a Spanish population. A final sample of 2641 panoramic X-rays corresponding to Spanish patients (1322 males and 1319 females) between 7-21 years of age was analyzed. Dental age was assessed using the Nolla and Demirjian methods, establishing comparisons with mean chronological age based on the Student t-test for paired samples, followed by the generation of a linear regression model. Both methods showed slight discrepancy between dental and chronological age. On examining the reproducibility of the Nolla and Demirjian methods, technical errors of 0.84% and 0.62%, respectively, were observed. On average, the Nolla method was found to estimate an age 0.213years younger than the chronological age, while the Demirjian method estimated an age 0.853years older than the chronological age. Linear combination of the mean Nolla and Demirjian estimates increased the predictive capacity to 99.2%. In conclusion the Nolla and Demirjian methods were found to be accurate in estimating chronological age from dental age in a Spanish population. The error

  12. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  13. Method for automatic determination of soybean actual evapotranspiration under open top chambers (OTC) subjected to effects of water stress and air ozone concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Gianfranco; Katerji, Nader; Mastrorilli, Marcello

    2012-10-01

    The present study describes an operational method, based on the Katerji et al. (Eur J Agron 33:218-230, 2010) model, for determining the daily evapotranspiration (ET) for soybean inside open top chambers (OTCs). It includes two functions, calculated day par day, making it possible to separately take into account the effects of concentrations of air ozone and plant water stress. This last function was calibrated in function of the daily values of actual water reserve in the soil. The input variables of the method are (a) the diurnal values of global radiation and temperature, usually measured routinely in a standard weather station; (b) the daily values of the AOT40 index accumulated (accumulated ozone over a threshold of 40 ppb during daylight hours, when global radiation exceeds 50 Wm(-2)) determined inside the OTC; and (c) the actual water reserve in the soil, at the beginning of the trial. The ensemble of these input variables can be automatable; thus, the proposed method could be applied in routine. The ability of the method to take into account contrasting conditions of ozone air concentration and water stress was evaluated over three successive years, for 513 days, in ten crop growth cycles, excluding the days employed to calibrate the method. Tests were carried out in several chambers for each year and take into account the intra- and inter-year variability of ET measured inside the OTCs. On the daily scale, the slope of the linear regression between the ET measured by the soil water balance and that calculated by the proposed method, under different water conditions, are 0.98 and 1.05 for the filtered and unfiltered (or enriched) OTCs with root mean square error (RMSE) equal to 0.77 and 1.07 mm, respectively. On the seasonal scale, the mean difference between measured and calculated ET is equal to +5% and +11% for the filtered and unfiltered OTCs, respectively. The ability of the proposed method to estimate the daily and seasonal ET inside the OTCs is

  14. Comparison of two methods using plasma triglyceride concentration as a surrogate estimate of insulin action in nondiabetic subjects: triglycerides × glucose versus triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Fahim; Reaven, Gerald M

    2011-12-01

    The objective was to compare relationships between insulin-mediated glucose uptake and surrogate estimates of insulin action, particularly those using fasting triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. Insulin-mediated glucose uptake was quantified by determining the steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) concentration during the insulin suppression test in 455 nondiabetic subjects. Fasting TG, HDL-C, glucose, and insulin concentrations were measured; and calculations were made of the following: (1) plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C, (2) TG × fasting glucose (TyG index), (3) homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and (4) insulin area under the curve (insulin-AUC) during a glucose tolerance test. Insulin-AUC correlated most closely with SSPG (r ∼ 0.75, P index, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and fasting TG and insulin (r ∼ 0.60, P index correlated with SSPG concentration to a similar degree, and the relationships were comparable to estimates using fasting insulin. The strongest relationship was between SSPG and insulin-AUC. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermo-mechanical nonlinear vibration analysis of fluid-conveying structures subjected to different boundary conditions using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic balancing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gbeminiyi Sobamowo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of mathematical models for describing the dynamic behaviours of fluid conveying pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes under the influence of some thermo-mechanical parameters results into nonlinear equations that are very difficult to solve analytically. In cases where the exact analytical solutions are presented either in implicit or explicit forms, high skills and rigorous mathematical analyses were employed. It is noted that such solutions do not provide general exact solutions. Inevitably, comparatively simple, flexible yet accurate and practicable solutions are required for the analyses of these structures. Therefore, in this study, approximate analytical solutions are provided to the nonlinear equations arising in flow-induced vibration of pipes, micro-pipes and nanotubes using Galerkin-Newton-Harmonic Method (GNHM. The developed approximate analytical solutions are shown to be valid for both small and large amplitude oscillations. The accuracies and explicitness of these solutions were examined in limiting cases to establish the suitability of the method.

  16. On the use of the serial dilution culture method to enumerate viable phytoplankton in natural communities of plankton subjected to ballast water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, John J; MacIntyre, Hugh L

    2016-01-01

    Discharge standards for ballast water treatment (BWT) systems are based on concentrations of living cells, for example, as determined with vital stains. Ultraviolet radiation (UV) stops the reproduction of microorganisms without killing them outright; they are living, but not viable, and ecologically as good as dead. Consequently, UV-treated discharge can be compliant with the intent of regulation while failing a live/dead test. An alternative evaluation of BWT can be proposed based on the assessment of viable, rather than living, cells in discharge water. In principle, the serial dilution culture-most probable number (SDC-MPN) method provides the appropriate measure for phytoplankton. But, the method has been criticized, particularly because it is thought that many phytoplankton species cannot be cultured. A review of the literature shows that although SDC-MPN has been used for more than 50 years-generally to identify and count phytoplankton species that cannot be preserved-its application to enumerate total viable phytoplankton seems to be new, putting past criticisms of the method in a different light. Importantly, viable cells need to grow only enough to be detected, not to be brought into sustained culture, and competition between species in a dilution tube is irrelevant as long as the winner is detectable. Thorough consideration of sources of error leads to recommendations for minimizing and quantifying uncertainties by optimizing growth conditions and conducting systematic comparisons. We conclude that with careful evaluation, SDC-MPN is potentially an effective method for assessing the viability of phytoplankton after BWT.

  17. Comparison of three methods of tonometry in normal subjects: Goldmann applanation tonometer, non-contact airpuff tonometer, and Tono-Pen XL

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ihsan; Altan,Cigdem; Aygit,Ebru Demet; Alagoz,Cengiz; Baz,Okkes; Ahmet,Sibel; Urvasizoglu,Semih; Yaşa,Dilek; Demirok,Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Ihsan Yilmaz, Cigdem Altan, Ebru Demet Aygit, Cengiz Alagoz, Okkes Baz, Sibel Ahmet, Semih Urvasizoglu, Dilek Yasa, Ahmet DemirokBeyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyObjective: We aimed to compare intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements via three different tonometers: the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), the Tono-Pen® XL (TPXL), and a non-contact airpuff tonometer (NCT).Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 200 eyes from 20...

  18. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Ali, Sara E; Hodaya, Rashad H; El-Seedi, Hesham R; Sultani, Haider N; Laub, Annegret; Eissa, Tarek F; Abou-Zaid, Fouad O F; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-05-08

    Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous) flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS) annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum , flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum . Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to dried specimens

  19. Phytochemical Profiles and Antimicrobial Activities of Allium cepa Red cv. and A. sativum Subjected to Different Drying Methods: A Comparative MS-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Farag

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants of the Allium genus produce sulphur compounds that give them a characteristic (alliaceous flavour and mediate for their medicinal use. In this study, the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Allium cepa red cv. and A. sativum in the context of three different drying processes were assessed using metabolomics. Bulbs were dried using either microwave, air drying, or freeze drying and further subjected to chemical analysis of their composition of volatile and non-volatile metabolites. Volatiles were collected using solid phase micro-extraction (SPME coupled to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC/MS with 42 identified volatiles including 30 sulphur compounds, four nitriles, three aromatics, and three esters. Profiling of the polar non-volatile metabolites via ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution MS (UPLC/MS annotated 51 metabolites including dipeptides, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and fatty acids. Major peaks in GC/MS or UPLC/MS contributing to the discrimination between A. sativum and A. cepa red cv. were assigned to sulphur compounds and flavonoids. Whereas sulphur conjugates amounted to the major forms in A. sativum, flavonoids predominated in the chemical composition of A. cepa red cv. With regard to drying impact on Allium metabolites, notable and clear separations among specimens were revealed using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA scores plot of the UPLC/MS dataset showed closer metabolite composition of microwave dried specimens to freeze dried ones, and distant from air dried bulbs, observed in both A. cepa and A. sativum. Compared to GC/MS, the UPLC/MS derived PCA model was more consistent and better in assessing the impact of drying on Allium metabolism. A phthalate derivative was found exclusively in a commercial garlic preparation via GC/MS, of yet unknown origin. The freeze dried samples of both Allium species exhibited stronger antimicrobial activities compared to

  20. Photoelastic method to quantitatively visualise the evolution of whole-field stress in 3D printed models subject to continuous loading processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Yang; Ren, Zhangyu; Wang, Li; Mao, Lingtao; Chiang, Fu-Pen

    2018-01-01

    The combination of three-dimensional (3D) printing techniques and photoelastic testing is a promising way to quantitatively determine the continuous whole-field stress distributions in solids that are characterized by complex structures. However, photoelastic testing produces wrapped isoclinic and isochromatic phase maps, and unwrapping these maps has always been a significant challenge. To realize the visualization and transparentization of the stress fields in complex structures, we report a new approach to quantify the continuous evolution of the whole-field stress in photosensitive material that is applicable to the fabrication of complex structures using 3D printing technology. The stress fringe orders are determined by analyzing a series of continuous frames extracted from a video recording of the fringe changes over the entire loading process. The integer portion of the fringe orders at a specific point on the model can be determined by counting the valleys of the light intensity change curve over the whole loading process, and the fractional portion can be calculated based on the cosine function between the light intensity and retardation. This method allows the fringe orders to be determined from the video itself, which significantly improves characterization accuracy and simplifies the experimental operation over the entire processes. To validate the proposed method, we compare the results of the theoretical calculations to those of experiments based on the diametric compression of a circular disc prepared by a 3D printer with photosensitive resin. The results indicate that the method can accurately determine the stress fringe order, except for points where the deformation is too large to differentiate the fringes pertaining to photoplasticity.

  1. A generalized modal shock spectra method for spacecraft loads analysis. [internal loads in a spacecraft structure subjected to a dynamic launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M.; Salama, M.

    1979-01-01

    Unlike an earlier shock spectra approach, generalization permits an accurate elastic interaction between the spacecraft and launch vehicle to obtain accurate bounds on the spacecraft response and structural loads. In addition, the modal response from a previous launch vehicle transient analysis with or without a dummy spacecraft - is exploited to define a modal impulse as a simple idealization of the actual forcing function. The idealized modal forcing function is then used to derive explicit expressions for an estimate of the bound on the spacecraft structural response and forces. Greater accuracy is achieved with the present method over the earlier shock spectra, while saving much computational effort over the transient analysis.

  2. Validating a Method to Assess Lipreading, Audiovisual Gain, and Integration During Speech Reception With Cochlear-Implanted and Normal-Hearing Subjects Using a Talking Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreitmüller, Stefan; Frenken, Miriam; Bentz, Lüder; Ortmann, Magdalene; Walger, Martin; Meister, Hartmut

    Watching a talker's mouth is beneficial for speech reception (SR) in many communication settings, especially in noise and when hearing is impaired. Measures for audiovisual (AV) SR can be valuable in the framework of diagnosing or treating hearing disorders. This study addresses the lack of standardized methods in many languages for assessing lipreading, AV gain, and integration. A new method is validated that supplements a German speech audiometric test with visualizations of the synthetic articulation of an avatar that was used, for it is feasible to lip-sync auditory speech in a highly standardized way. Three hypotheses were formed according to the literature on AV SR that used live or filmed talkers. It was tested whether respective effects could be reproduced with synthetic articulation: (1) cochlear implant (CI) users have a higher visual-only SR than normal-hearing (NH) individuals, and younger individuals obtain higher lipreading scores than older persons. (2) Both CI and NH gain from presenting AV over unimodal (auditory or visual) sentences in noise. (3) Both CI and NH listeners efficiently integrate complementary auditory and visual speech features. In a controlled, cross-sectional study with 14 experienced CI users (mean age 47.4) and 14 NH individuals (mean age 46.3, similar broad age distribution), lipreading, AV gain, and integration of a German matrix sentence test were assessed. Visual speech stimuli were synthesized by the articulation of the Talking Head system "MASSY" (Modular Audiovisual Speech Synthesizer), which displayed standardized articulation with respect to the visibility of German phones. In line with the hypotheses and previous literature, CI users had a higher mean visual-only SR than NH individuals (CI, 38%; NH, 12%; p < 0.001). Age was correlated with lipreading such that within each group, younger individuals obtained higher visual-only scores than older persons (rCI = -0.54; p = 0.046; rNH = -0.78; p < 0.001). Both CI and NH

  3. Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Jaatinen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1 make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2 point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125 during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353. The key findings were that a for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method

  4. A method for measuring brain partial pressure of oxygen in unanesthetized unrestrained subjects: the effect of acute and chronic hypoxia on brain tissue PO(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Prado, E; Natah, Siraj; Srinivasan, Sathyanarayanan; Dunn, Jeff F

    2010-11-30

    The level of tissue oxygenation provides information related to the balance between oxygen delivery, oxygen utilization, tissue reactivity and morphology during physiological conditions. Tissue partial pressure of oxygen (PtO(2)) is influenced by the use of anesthesia or restraint. These factors may impact the absolute level of PtO(2). In this study we present a novel fiber optic method to measure brain PtO(2). This method can be used in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals, provides absolute values for PO(2), has a stable calibration, does not consume oxygen and is MRI compatible. Brain PtO(2) was studied during acute hypoxia, as well as before and after 28 days of high altitude acclimatization. A sensor was chronically implanted in the frontal cortex of eight Wistar rats. It is comprised of a fiber optic probe with a tip containing material that fluoresces with an oxygen dependent lifetime. Brain PtO(2) declines by 80% and 76% pre- and post-acclimatization, respectively, when the fraction of inspired oxygen declines from 0.21 to 0.08. In addition, a linear relationship between brain PtO(2) and inspired O(2) levels was demonstrated r(2)=0.98 and r(2)=0.99 (pre- and post-acclimatization). Hypoxia acclimatization resulted in an increase in the overall brain PtO(2) by approximately 35%. This paper demonstrates the use of a novel chronically implanted fiber optic based sensor for measuring absolute PtO(2). It shows a very strong linear relationship in awake animals between inspired O(2) and tissue O(2), and shows that there is a proportional increase in PtO(2) over a range of inspired values after exposure to chronic hypoxia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  6. Comparison of three methods of tonometry in normal subjects: Goldmann applanation tonometer, non-contact airpuff tonometer, and Tono-Pen XL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilmaz I

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ihsan Yilmaz, Cigdem Altan, Ebru Demet Aygit, Cengiz Alagoz, Okkes Baz, Sibel Ahmet, Semih Urvasizoglu, Dilek Yasa, Ahmet DemirokBeyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyObjective: We aimed to compare intraocular pressure (IOP measurements via three different tonometers: the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT, the Tono-Pen® XL (TPXL, and a non-contact airpuff tonometer (NCT.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 200 eyes from 200 patients. Right eyes of all patients were included in this study. IOP was measured via GAT, NCT, and TPXL by three physicians. Each physician used one of the tonometers. Measurements via the three devices were compared.Results: The mean IOP was 15.5±2.2 mmHg (range 10–22 with the GAT, 16.1±3.0 (range 9–25 with the TPXL, and 16.1±2.8 (range 10–26 with the NCT. Bland–Altman analysis showed that the mean difference between measurements from the NCT and the GAT was 0.6±2.3 mmHg. The mean difference between the TPXL and GAT measurements was 0.7±2.5 mmHg. The mean difference between the NCT and TPXL measurements was −0.02±3.0 mmHg. There was no significant difference between the groups according to a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test. P-values were 0.998 for NCT–TPXL, 0.067 for NCT–GAT, and 0.059 for TPXL–GAT.Conclusion: The NCT and TPXL provide IOP measurements comparable to those of the gold standard GAT in normotensive eyes.Keywords: tonometry, noncontact tonometry, Goldmann applanation tonometer, Tono-Pen

  7. Validation of an UHPLC-MS/MS Method for Screening of Antimicrobial Residues in Eggs and Their Application to Analyses of Eggs from Laying Hens Subjected to Pharmacological Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Gomes Magnago Caldeira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method by UHPLC/MS-MS was optimized and validated for the screening and semiquantitative detection of antimicrobials residues from tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, quinolones, lincosamides, β-lactams, sulfonamides, and macrolides families in eggs. A qualitative approach was used to ensure adequate sensitivity to detect residues at the level of interest, defined as maximum residue limit (MRL, or less. The applicability of the methods was assessed by analyzing egg samples from hens that had been subjected to pharmacological treatment with neomycin, enrofloxacin, lincomycin, oxytetracycline, and doxycycline during five days and after discontinuation of medication (10 days. The method was adequate for screening all studied analytes in eggs, since the performance parameters ensured a false-compliant rate below or equal to 5%, except for flumequine. In the analyses of eggs from laying hens subjected to pharmacological treatment, all antimicrobial residues were detected throughout the experimental period, even after discontinuation of medication, except for neomycin, demonstrating the applicability of the method for analyses of antimicrobial residues in eggs.

  8. Socioeconomic Status, Subjective Social Status, and Perceived Stress: Associations with Stress Physiology and Executive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursache, Alexandra; Noble, Kimberly G; Blair, Clancy

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have investigated associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and indicators of children's physiological and cognitive self-regulation. Although objective measures of family SES may be good proxies for families' experiences of disadvantage, less is known about subjective aspects of families' experiences. We hypothesize that subjective social status (SSS) and perceived stress may be important independent predictors of children's stress physiology and executive functioning (EF). Eighty-two children from diverse SES backgrounds were administered EF measures and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Caregivers reported on objective SES, SSS, and perceived stress. Results suggest that SES and SSS are both independently and positively related to EF. In models predicting stress physiology, higher perceived stress was associated with lower baseline cortisol. Moreover, SES and age interacted to predict cortisol levels such that among younger children, lower SES was associated with higher cortisol, whereas among older children, lower SES was associated with lower cortisol. Results highlight the importance of considering both objective and subjective indicators of families' SES and stressful experiences in relation to multiple aspects of children's self-regulation.

  9. Fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method of spinal cord MR images at 3T applied to the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed-Mounir El Mendili

    Full Text Available To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord.A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM, threshold-based method (TbM and manual outlining (ground truth. Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59, a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map.Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction.A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

  10. Fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method of spinal cord MR images at 3T applied to the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mendili, Mohamed-Mounir; Chen, Raphaël; Tiret, Brice; Villard, Noémie; Trunet, Stéphanie; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Pradat, Pierre-François; Benali, Habib

    2015-01-01

    To design a fast and accurate semi-automated segmentation method for spinal cord 3T MR images and to construct a template of the cervical spinal cord. A semi-automated double threshold-based method (DTbM) was proposed enabling both cross-sectional and volumetric measures from 3D T2-weighted turbo spin echo MR scans of the spinal cord at 3T. Eighty-two healthy subjects, 10 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 10 with spinal muscular atrophy and 10 with spinal cord injuries were studied. DTbM was compared with active surface method (ASM), threshold-based method (TbM) and manual outlining (ground truth). Accuracy of segmentations was scored visually by a radiologist in cervical and thoracic cord regions. Accuracy was also quantified at the cervical and thoracic levels as well as at C2 vertebral level. To construct a cervical template from healthy subjects' images (n=59), a standardization pipeline was designed leading to well-centered straight spinal cord images and accurate probability tissue map. Visual scoring showed better performance for DTbM than for ASM. Mean Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) was 95.71% for DTbM and 90.78% for ASM at the cervical level and 94.27% for DTbM and 89.93% for ASM at the thoracic level. Finally, at C2 vertebral level, mean DSC was 97.98% for DTbM compared with 98.02% for TbM and 96.76% for ASM. DTbM showed similar accuracy compared with TbM, but with the advantage of limited manual interaction. A semi-automated segmentation method with limited manual intervention was introduced and validated on 3T images, enabling the construction of a cervical spinal cord template.

  11. Subjective Evaluation of Audiovisual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Fikejz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with subjective evaluation of audiovisual signals, with emphasis on the interaction between acoustic and visual quality. The subjective test is realized by a simple rating method. The audiovisual signal used in this test is a combination of images compressed by JPEG compression codec and sound samples compressed by MPEG-1 Layer III. Images and sounds have various contents. It simulates a real situation when the subject listens to compressed music and watches compressed pictures without the access to original, i.e. uncompressed signals.

  12. Methods for subjective determination of transmission quality

    CERN Document Server

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2000-01-01

    The main purpose of this List is to indicate all the ITU-T (and CCITT) Recommendations currently in effect at the date of its publication In addition, it includes the CCITT/ITU-T Supplements which contain operational or other practical/implementation a particular Series of Recommendations. At present, more than 2600 recommendations (standards) on some 60,000 pages are in force. Recommendations are non-binding standards agreed by consensus in technical study groups. ITU-T Recommendations are non-binding, however they are generally complied with due to their high quality and because they guarantee the interconnectivity of networks and enable telecommunication services to be provided on a worldwide scale.

  13. Psychiatric and subjective symptoms and cerebral blood flow in patients with chronic cerebral infarction after treatment with Ca antagonist (nilvadipine). Quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow by the 123IMP-SPECT ARG method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakayori, Osamu; Kitamura, Shin; Mishina, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Mineo; Terashi, Akirou

    1997-01-01

    Psychiatric and subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness, lack of spontaneity, anxiety, and a depressive state are often found in patients with chronic cerebral infarction. Some Ca antagonists are reported to relieve such symptoms. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between psychiatric and subjective symptoms and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in cerebral infarction and to evaluate the clinical effects of Ca antagonists from the standpoint of the cerebral circulation. Nilvadipine was administered to is patients with chronic cerebral infarction and their CBF was measured by the 123 IMP-SPECT ARG method before and at 8 weeks after the nilvadipine treatment. The CBF in patients with hypertension was increased by 11% after giving nilvadipine. Patients without hypertension showed no tendency for elevation of their CBF. Patients who were relieved from some psychiatric symptoms revealed a 14% increase of CBF in all cortical regions, and a significant increase was noted in the frontal and temporal regions. In other patients without changes in psychiatric symptoms, the CBF did not increase in any of the cortical regions. No relationship between symptoms and CBF was observed in any of the patients with subjective symptoms. Our study demonstrated a close correlation between psychiatric symptoms and CBF. We speculate that psychiatric symptoms in chronic cerebral infarction may reflect diffuse brain dysfunctions. We also conclude that nilvadipine is more effective in relieving psychiatric symptoms in patients with hypertensive cerebral infarction. It is inferred that nilvadipine may be more effective in relieving psychiatric symptoms in patients with hypertension. (author)

  14. The effect of subject measurement error on joint kinematics in the conventional gait model: Insights from the open-source pyCGM tool using high performance computing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mathew; Dixon, Philippe C

    2018-01-01

    The conventional gait model (CGM) is a widely used biomechanical model which has been validated over many years. The CGM relies on retro-reflective markers placed along anatomical landmarks, a static calibration pose, and subject measurements as inputs for joint angle calculations. While past literature has shown the possible errors caused by improper marker placement, studies on the effects of inaccurate subject measurements are lacking. Moreover, as many laboratories rely on the commercial version of the CGM, released as the Plug-in Gait (Vicon Motion Systems Ltd, Oxford, UK), integrating improvements into the CGM code is not easily accomplished. This paper introduces a Python implementation for the CGM, referred to as pyCGM, which is an open-source, easily modifiable, cross platform, and high performance computational implementation. The aims of pyCGM are to (1) reproduce joint kinematic outputs from the Vicon CGM and (2) be implemented in a parallel approach to allow integration on a high performance computer. The aims of this paper are to (1) demonstrate that pyCGM can systematically and efficiently examine the effect of subject measurements on joint angles and (2) be updated to include new calculation methods suggested in the literature. The results show that the calculated joint angles from pyCGM agree with Vicon CGM outputs, with a maximum lower body joint angle difference of less than 10-5 degrees. Through the hierarchical system, the ankle joint is the most vulnerable to subject measurement error. Leg length has the greatest effect on all joints as a percentage of measurement error. When compared to the errors previously found through inter-laboratory measurements, the impact of subject measurements is minimal, and researchers should rather focus on marker placement. Finally, we showed that code modifications can be performed to include improved hip, knee, and ankle joint centre estimations suggested in the existing literature. The pyCGM code is provided

  15. A Subjective Rational Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, G. P.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of constructing a choice model of an agent with endogenous purposes of evolution is under debate. It is demonstrated that its solution requires the development of well-known methods of decision-making while taking into account the relation of action mode motivation to an agent’s ambition to implement subjectively understood interests and the environment state. The latter is submitted for consideration as a purposeful state situation model that exists only in the mind of an agent. It is the situation that is a basis for getting an insight into the agent’s ideas on the possible selected action mode results. The agent’s ambition to build his confidence in the feasibility of the action mode and the possibility of achieving the desired state requires him to use the procedures of forming an idea model based on the measured values of environment state. This leads to the gaming approach for the choice problem and its solution can be obtained on a set of trade-off alternatives.

  16. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  17. Estimating Subjective Probabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Fountain, John; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2014-01-01

    either construct elicitation mechanisms that control for risk aversion, or construct elicitation mechanisms which undertake 'calibrating adjustments' to elicited reports. We illustrate how the joint estimation of risk attitudes and subjective probabilities can provide the calibration adjustments...... that theory calls for. We illustrate this approach using data from a controlled experiment with real monetary consequences to the subjects. This allows the observer to make inferences about the latent subjective probability, under virtually any well-specified model of choice under subjective risk, while still...

  18. Fractal analysis of plaque border, a novel method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque contour irregularity, is associated with pro-atherogenic plasma lipid profile in subjects with non-obstructive carotid stenoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Francesco; Magnoni, Marco; Vergani, Vittoria; Ammirati, Enrico; Camici, Paolo G

    2018-01-01

    Plaque border irregularity is a known imaging characteristic of vulnerable plaques, but its evaluation heavily relies on subjective evaluation and operator expertise. Aim of the present work is to propose a novel fractal-analysis based method for the quantification of atherosclerotic plaque border irregularity and assess its relation with cardiovascular risk factors. Forty-two asymptomatic subjects with carotid stenosis underwent ultrasound evaluation and assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Total, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) plasma cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations were measured for each subject. Fractal analysis was performed in all the carotid segments affected by atherosclerosis, i.e. 147 segments. The resulting fractal dimension (FD) is a measure of irregularity of plaque profile on long axis view of the plaque. FD in the severest stenosis (main plaque FD,mFD) was 1.136±0.039. Average FD per patient (global FD,gFD) was 1.145±0.039. FD was independent of other plaque characteristics. mFD significantly correlated with plasma HDL (r = -0.367,p = 0.02) and triglycerides-to-HDL ratio (r = 0.480,p = 0.002). Fractal analysis is a novel, readily available, reproducible and inexpensive technique for the quantitative measurement of plaque irregularity. The correlation between low HDL levels and plaque FD suggests a role for HDL in the acquisition of morphologic features of plaque instability. Further studies are needed to validate the prognostic value of fractal analysis in carotid plaques evaluation.

  19. Ecosecent:: Essence, Subject and Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozachenko Hanna V.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that due to multi-laterality the knowledge about security is distributed by various branches, one of which is ecosestate, within which conditions of secure functioning of socio-economic systems and methods of their provision are studied. It shows the essence of ecosecent as a component of the “state – region (branch – subject of economic activity” ecosestate vertical – a set of knowledge about economic security of subjects of economic activity. It considers reasons that cause establishment of ecosecent: practical needs and a necessity to reconsider basic concepts of the essence, limits and factors of economy. It formulates the subject of ecosecent. It considers the status of the “economic security of the subject of economic activity” notion as its state, described with a set of parameters or characteristic features as characteristics of the subject of economic activity as a condition of its activity and as a set of actions that allow ensuring or preservation of the state of security, in other words, protection of the subject of economic activity. It presents general approaches to structuring of ecosecent by activity, functional and branch features.

  20. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  1. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  2. RUSSIAN LAW SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.N. Bakhrakh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The question about the subjects of law branches is concerning the number of most important and difficult in law science. Its right decision influences on the subject of law regulation, precise definition of addressees of law norms, the volume of their rights and duties, the limits of action of norms of Main part of the branch, its principles. Scientific investigations, dedicated to law subjects system, promote the development of recommendations for the legislative and law applying activity; they are needed for scientific work organization and student training, for preparing qualified lawyers.

  3. Writing and the 'Subject'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Charlotte

    /page. It is, moreover, an index pointing to the painting/writing subject; it is a special deictic mode of painting/writing. The handwriting of the Russian avant-garde books, the poetics of handwriting, and the way handwriting is represented in poetry emphasize the way the subject (the speaking and the viewing...... in the early as well as the contemporary avant-garde, it becomes clear that the ‘subject’ is an unstable category that can be exposed to manipulation and play. Handwriting is performing as a signature (as an index), but is at the same time similar to the signature of a subject (an icon) and a verbal construct...

  4. Subject (of documents)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    This article presents and discuss the concept “subject” or subject matter (of documents) as it has been examined in library and information science (LIS) for more than 100 years. Different theoretical positions are outlined and it is found that the most important distinction is between document......-oriented views versus request-oriented views. The document-oriented view conceive subject as something inherent in documents, whereas the request-oriented view (or the policy based view) understand subject as an attribution made to documents in order to facilitate certain uses of them. Related concepts...

  5. USING DIDACTIC EQUIPMENT IN VOCATIONAL SUBJECTS TEACHING

    OpenAIRE

    JIROUT, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Baccalaureate Work ?Using Didactic Equipment In Vocational Subjects Teaching? describes various methods of teaching and using didactic engineering in education. Theoretic part describes general aspects of using didactic engineering, teaching methods a and ways how to use didactic engineering in teaching vocational subjects. Practical part finds how students appreciate using modern didactic aids and engineering in education.

  6. The remembering subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Garzón Martínez

    2015-07-01

    More concretely this article presents the idea of remembrance subjectivity that becomes converted into a political platform for reclaiming the right to recollect and change based on those recollections

  7. On English Locative Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Brůhová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses English sentences with thematic locative subjects. These subjects were detected as translation counterparts of Czech sentenceinitial locative adverbials realized by prepositional phrases with the prepositions do (into, na (on, v/ve (in, z/ze (from complemented by a noun. In the corresponding English structure, the initial scene-setting adverbial is reflected in the thematic subject, which results in the locative semantics of the subject. The sentences are analysed from syntactic, semantic and FSP aspects. From the syntactic point of view, we found five syntactic patterns of the English sentences with a locative subject (SV, SVA, SVO, SVpassA and SVCs that correspond to Czech sentences with initial locative adverbials. On the FSP level the paper studies the potential of the sentences to implement the Presentation or Quality Scale. Since it is the “semantic content of the verb that actuates the presentation semantics of the sentence” (Duškova, 2015a: 260, major attention is paid to the syntactic-semantic structure of the verb. The analysis of the semantics of the English sentences results in the identification of two semantic classes of verbs which co-occur with the English locative subject.

  8. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  9. Development and validation of a sensitive liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous analysis of granisetron and 7-hydroxy granisetron in human plasma and urine samples: application in a clinical pharmacokinetic study in pregnant subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Chen, Hui-Jun; Caritis, Steve; Venkataramanan, Raman

    2016-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for the quantification of granisetron and its major metabolite, 7-hydroxy granisetron in human plasma and urine samples was developed and validated. Respective stable isotopically labeled granisetron and 7-hydroxy granisetron were used as internal standards (IS). Chromatography was performed using an Xselect HSS T3 analytical column with a mobile phase of 20% acetonitrile in water (containing 0.2 mM ammonium formate and 0.14% formic acid, pH 4) delivered in an isocratic mode. Tandem mass spectrometry operating in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring was used for quantification. The standard curves were linear in the concentration ranges of 0.5-100 ng/mL for granisetron and 0.1-100 ng/mL for 7-hydroxy granisetron in human plasma samples, and 2-2000 ng/mL for granisetron and 2-1000 ng/mL for 7-hydroxy granisetron in human urine samples, respectively. The accuracies were >85% and the precision as determined by the coefficient of variations was granisetron or 7-hydroxy granisetron in either plasma or urine samples. Granisetron was stable under various storage and experimental conditions. This validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after intravenous administration of 1 mg granisetron to a pregnant subject. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Performance comparison of resistance-trained subjects by different methods of adjusting for body mass. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2012v14n3p313

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladymir Külkamp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the performance (1RM of resistance-trained subjects, using different methods of adjusting for body mass (BM: ratio standard, theoretical allometric exponent (0.67, and specific allometric exponents. The study included 11 male and 11 female healthy non-athletes (mean age = 22 years engaged in regular resistance training for at least 6 months. Bench press (BP, 45° leg press (LP and arm curl (AC exercises were performed, and the participants were ranked (in descending order according to each method. The specific allometric exponents for each exercise were: for men – BP (0.73, LP (0.35, and AC (0.71; and for women – BP (1.22, LP (1.02, and AC (0.85. The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed no differences between the rankings. However, visual inspection indicated that the participants were often classified differently in relation to performance by the methods used. Furthermore, no adjusted strength score was equal to the absolute strength values (1RM. The results suggest that there is a range of values in which the differences between exponents do not reflect different rankings (below 0.07 points and a range in which rankings can be fundamentally different (above 0.14 points. This may be important in long-term selection of universally accepted allometric exponents, considering the range of values found in different studies. The standardization of exponents may allow the use of allometry as an additional tool in the prescription of resistance training.

  11. Subjectivity of embodiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novotný, Karel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2014), s. 187-195 ISSN 1804-624X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Levinas * phenomenology * factivity * body * experience Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  13. Reliability of a digital image method for measuring medial mandibular flexure in dentate subjects Confiabilidade de um método de imagem digital para medição de deflexão mandibular medial em adultos dentados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Sadami Arai Shinkai

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Medial mandibular flexure (MMF is the functional approximation of hemi-mandibles in jaw opening and protrusion, which may affect conventional or implant-supported arch prostheses. OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a digital image method for linear measurement of MMF in dentate subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mandibular occlusal impressions in vinyl polysiloxane during rest and maximum opening were obtained from seven adult volunteers. Each impression and the Mitutoyo digital calipers with a 10mm opening were scanned at a 200% magnification. The images were processed using Adobe Photoshop software to get reference points on contralateral first molars. Linear intermolar measurements were taken using the Image Tool software (UTHSCSA, which was calibrated with the standard opening of the digital calipers. Intermolar distance was measured in triplicate for each image by two independent examiners. MMF was calculated by subtracting the intermolar distance in maximum opening (or protrusion from the distance in rest position. Data were analyzed by intraclass correlation (ICC tests for estimating intra- and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: MMF values ranged from -0.21 to 0.44mm. Intra-rater ICCs were 0.982 and 0.993, and inter-rater ICC was 0.696. CONCLUSION: The present results show excellent intra-rater and good inter-rater reliability of this digital image method for measuring MMF in dentate subjects.A deflexão mandibular medial (MMF é uma deformação funcional que ocorre com a aproximação das hemi-mandíbulas em abertura e protrusão, podendo afetar próteses convencionais e implanto-suportadas em arco. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho avaliou a confiabilidade intra- e inter-examinador de um método de imagem digital para aferição linear da MMF. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados sete voluntários adultos dentados, obtendo-se registros oclusais inferiores de silicona de adição em repouso, abertura e

  14. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  15. Vision as subjective perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppas, J.B.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-01-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey's one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: 1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.)

  16. The Subjectivity of Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Morten

    of a community of social/youth workers in Copenhagen between 1987 and 2003, who developed a pedagogy through creating collectives and mobilizing young people as participants. The theoretical and practical traditions are combined in a unique methodology viewing research as a contentious modeling of prototypical......What is a 'we' – a collective – and how can we use such communal self-knowledge to help people? This book is about collectivity, participation, and subjectivity – and about the social theories that may help us understand these matters. It also seeks to learn from the innovative practices and ideas...

  17. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...... between subjects with and without psoriasis with regard to traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions Our results contrast with the hitherto-reported increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in subjects with psoriasis in the general US population. However, our results agree with those of other...

  18. Praxis, subjectivity and sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Gómez-Muller

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A primordial aspect of the Sartrian critique of alienation concerns understanding the analytic ideology as the domination of materiality over the symbolic, in other words as the reification of the human, and therefore as anticulture. In the context of contemporary nihilism, the decoding of the mechanisms which consign praxis to the practico-inert requires a critique of the relations between the social sciences and philosophy, which in its turn implies a new theory of the relation between what Sartre calls the "notion" (the area of subjectivity and the "concept" (objectivity, From this perspective, the deconstruction of the established frontiers between the social sciences and philosophy, and between the conceptual and the narrative, is corelative to a redefinition of the relation between theory and practice.

  19. Interview without a subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This article contributes to the rethinking of qualitative interview research into intercultural issues. It suggests that the application of poststructuralist thought should not be limited to the analysis of the interview material itself, but incorporate the choice of interviewees and the modalities...... for the accomplishment of interviews. The paper focuses on a discussion of theoretical and methodological considerations of design, approach and research strategy. These discussions are specified in relation to a project on gender and ethnicity in cultural encounters at Universities. In the paper, I introduce a research...... design named Cultural interviewing, present an approach to the design of interviews named Interview without a subject, and offer an analytic strategy directed towards the analysis of interview transcripts named Interview on the level of the signifier. The paper concludes that even though it is relevant...

  20. Laboratory instruction and subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Barolli

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The specific aspects which determined the way some groups of students conducted their work in a university laboratory, made us understand the articulation of these groups´s dynamics, from elements that were beyond the reach of cognition. In more specific terms the conduction and the maintenance of the groups student´s dynamics were explicited based on a intergame between the non conscious strategies, shared anonymously, and the efforts of the individuals in working based on their most objective task. The results and issues we have reached so far, using a reference the work developed by W.R.Bion, with therapeutical groups, gave us the possibility for understanding the dynamics of the student´s experimental work through a new approach that approximates the fields of cognition and subjectivity. This approximation led us to a deeper reflection about the issues which may be involved in the teaching process, particularly in situations which the teacher deals with the class, organised in groups.

  1. Subjective versus objective assessment of breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henseler, Helga; Smith, Joanna; Bowman, Adrian; Khambay, Balvinder S; Ju, Xiangyang; Ayoub, Ashraf; Ray, Arup K

    2013-05-01

    To date breast assessment has been conducted mainly subjectively. However lately validated objective three-dimensional (3D) imaging was developed. The study aimed to assess breast reconstruction subjectively and objectively and conduct a comparison. In forty-four patients after immediate unilateral breast reconstruction with solely the extended latissimus dorsi flap the breast was captured by validated 3D imaging method and standardized 2D photography. Breast symmetry was subjectively evaluated by six experts who applied the Harris score giving a mark of 1-4 for a poor to excellent result. An error study was conducted by examination of the intra and inter-observer agreement and agreement on controls. By Procrustes analysis an objective asymmetry score was obtained and compared to the subjective assessment. The subjective assessment showed that the inter-observer agreement was good or substantial (p-value: value: fair (p-values: 0.159, 0.134, 0.099) to substantial (p-value: 0.005) intra-observer agreement. The objective assessment revealed that the reconstructed breast showed a significantly smaller volume compared to the opposite side and that the average asymmetry score was 0.052, ranging from 0.019 to 0.136. When comparing the subjective and objective method the relationship between the two scores was highly significant. Subjective breast assessment lacked accuracy and reproducibility. This was the first error study of subjective breast assessment versus an objective validated 3D imaging method based on true 3D parameters. The substantial agreement between established subjective breast assessment and new validated objective method supported the value of the later and we expect its future role to expand. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subjective Bayesian Beliefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Constantinos; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2015-01-01

    A large literature suggests that many individuals do not apply Bayes’ Rule when making decisions that depend on them correctly pooling prior information and sample data. We replicate and extend a classic experimental study of Bayesian updating from psychology, employing the methods of experimenta...... economics, with careful controls for the confounding effects of risk aversion. Our results show that risk aversion significantly alters inferences on deviations from Bayes’ Rule....

  3. A living wage for research subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Trisha B

    2011-01-01

    Offering cash payments to research subjects is a common recruiting method, but this practice continues to be controversial because of its potential to compromise the protection of human subjects. Federal regulations and guidelines currently allow researchers to pay subjects for participation, but they say very little about how much researchers can pay their subjects. This paper argues that the federal regulations and guidelines should implement a standard payment formula. It argues for a wage payment model, and critically examines three candidates for a base wage: the nonfarm production wage, the FLSA minimum wage, and a living wage. After showing that the nonfarm production wage is too high to satisfy ethical criteria, and the minimum wage is too low, this paper concludes that the wage payment model with a base wage equivalent to a living wage is the best candidate for a standard payment formula in human subjects research. © 2011 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  4. Discovering subjectivity: A subjective world of meanings in the stories of the twilight of life

    OpenAIRE

    Zagórska Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Pointing to the subjective nature of human life, theorists argue that only in a dialogue with another person does the human disclose meanings important to him or her. The interpretation and analysis of stories with regard to the included subjective meanings included in them as manifestations of human subjectivity seem to be the most effective when undertaken in the hermeneutic approach where psychology and philosophy meet. In the paper advantages of a self-narrative method based on the princi...

  5. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  6. Teaching Subjectively: Interdisciplinary Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Douglas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article of linked, short essays reflecting on the experiences of five female scholars across three disciplines — law, social work and political science - draws upon Britzman’s (1991 notion of the “dialogic discourse” to explore how these professors’ sense of self is constituted through interplay with colleagues and their perceptions of students within the classroom. The authors explore the teacher/learner relationship as a dialogue within which learners and educators shape each other as they come to understand how and what they know. What the collection makes explicit is what is often only implicit, that the ways in which professors understand their practices and subjective self is central to the identity of “a professor”, which is never stable or certain, but is always a creative practice. Such practices, we argue, are best sustained through collegial reflective practices that help us make sense of ourselves and continue our work. Cet article consiste de courts essais reliés entre eux qui relatent les expériences de cinq professeures érudites qui oeuvrent dans trois disciplines différentes : le droit, le travail social et les sciences politiques. Il est basé sur la notion de « discours dialogique » de Britzman (1991 qui permet d’explorer comment la conscience de soi de ces professeures s’est constituée à travers leurs interactions avec leurs collègues et leurs perceptions des étudiants dans la salle de classe. Les auteures explorent les relations entre enseignants et apprenants sous forme de dialogues au sein desquels les apprenants et les éducateurs se façonnent les uns les autres au fur et à mesure qu’ils comprennent comment ils apprennent et ce qu’ils ont appris. Ce que la collection rend explicite est ce qui est souvent seulement implicite, à savoir que les diverses manières dont les professeurs comprennent leurs pratiques et leur moi subjectif sont au centre de l’identité d’un « professeur

  7. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 1

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1EPA, 1Agrotourism, 148AHP, 148balance scorecard, 63batik tulis Rolla Junior, 23Broiler, 90business model canvas, 137business performance,32capital structure, 81cashew industry,158CHAID,106CLI,42coal transportation service,63company’s characteristics, 81competitive advantage, 12competitive strategy, 127consumer satisfaction, 51CSI, 42customer loyalty, 42customer satisfaction,42decision of visitors, 72development strategy, 23development,158entrepreneurship, 32Feasibility studies, 90FEM, 81gap analysis, 1Indonesia Stock Exchange, 177Indosat, 137investor,177Kawah Putih, 72kedai sop durian lodaya (KSDL,51klassen typology, 96leading sector, 96less cash society, 137liquidity ratio, 165location quotient, 96logistic regression, 115market, 177marketing development strategy, 148Marketing mix, 72mobile payment, 137modern and Traditional cage, 90multiple regression analyse,165multiple regression, 177net working capital, 165organic tofu product, 115Padang, 106paired comparison, 63partnership, 1, 32Pecking Order Theory, 81PLS, 81Portfolio, 96power, 32product quality, 51profitability ratio, 165Prol Tape Primadona, 127purchase decision, 115purchase intention, 51purchasing interest,115QSPM, 23, 127refilled drinking water, 106seed,1segmentation, 106SEM, 42, 51service quality, 51SMEs, 96specialty coffee, 12stock,177strategic diagnosis,137strategy, 158Sukorambi Botanic Garden, 148SWOT, 23, 127, 148, 158SWOT-AHP, 12tourists,72UD. Primadona, 127value chain, 12VRIO,12 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 1Adiningsih, Kartika Puspitasari,42Aknesia, Vharessa,12Amalia, Firda Rachma,90Andati, Trias, 177Anggraeni, Lukytawati,23Asriani,158Daryanto, Arief,12, 90Djamaludin, MD., 42Djohar, Setiadi,96Fachrodji, Achmad,72Fahmi, Idqan,1, 63, 127Fasyni, Awisal,106Hubeis, Musa,148Iskandar, Dodi,51Juanda, Bambang, 165Kirbrandoko, 12, 106, 115Lumbantoruan, Dewi Margareth,96Maulana, TB Nur Ahmad,81Muksin, 148Mukti Soleh, Cecep,63Najib, Mukhamad,106Noor, Tajudin,81

  8. Subjective quality of life and emotional pain among subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World Health Organization Quality of Life-Bref (WHOQoL-Bref), Psychache Scale (PAS) instruments were administered on subjects that consented to the study. Results: One hundred and forty four (144) subjects of equal sex distribution were studied. The mean age was 31.7±10.2 years. The highest number of subjects, ...

  9. SUBJECT AND AUTHOR INDEXS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IJBE Volume 2

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SUBJECT INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2access credit, 93acquisition, 177AHP, 61, 82, 165arena simulation,43BMC, 69Bojonegoro, 69brand choice, 208brand image, 208brand positioning, 208bullwhip effect, 43burger buns, 1business synergy and financial reports, 177capital structure, 130cluster, 151coal reserves, 130coffee plantation, 93competitiveness, 82consumer behaviour, 33consumer complaint behavior, 101cooking spices, 1crackers, 1cross sectional analytical, 139crosstab, 101CSI, 12direct selling, 122discriminant analysis, 33economic value added, 130, 187employee motivation, 112employee performance, 112employees, 139EOQ, 23farmer decisions, 93farmer group, 52financial performance evaluation, 187financial performance, 52, 177financial ratio, 187financial report, 187fiva food, 23food crops, 151horticulture, 151imports, 151improved capital structure, 177IPA, 12leading sector, 151life insurance, 165LotteMart, 43main product, 61marketing mix, 33, 165matrix SWOT, 69MPE, 61multiple linear regression, 122muslim clothing, 197Ogun, 139Pangasius fillet, 82Pati, 93pearson correlation, 101perceived value, 208performance suppy chain, 23PLS, 208POQ, 23portfolio analyzing, 1product, 101PT SKP, 122pulp and papers, 187purchase decision, 165purchase intention, 33remuneration, 112re-purchasing decisions, 197sales performance, 122sawmill, 52SCOR, 23sekolah peternakan rakyat, 69SEM, 112SERVQUAL, 12Sido Makmur farmer groups, 93SI-PUHH Online, 12small and medium industries (IKM, 61socio-demographic, 139sport drink, 208stress, 139supply chain, 43SWOT, 82the mix marketing, 197Tobin’s Q, 130trade partnership, 52uleg chili sauce, 1 AUTHOR INDEX IJBE VOLUME 2Achsani, Noer Azam, 177Andati, Trias, 52, 177Andihka, Galih, 208Arkeman, Yandra, 43Baga, Lukman M, 69Cahyanugroho, Aldi, 112Daryanto, Arief, 12David, Ajibade, 139Djoni, 122Fahmi, Idqan, 1Fattah, Muhammad Unggul Abdul, 61Hakim, Dedi Budiman, 187Harianto, 93Hartoyo, 101Homisah, 1Hubeis, Musa, 112Hutagaol, M. Parulian, 93Jaya, Stevana

  10. Night-vision goggles for night-blind subjects : subjective evaluation after 2 years of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartong, D. T.; Kooijman, A. C.

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of night-vision goggles (NVG) for night-blind subjects after 1 and 2 years of use. Methods: Eleven night-blind subjects with retinitis pigmentosa used NVG for a 2-year period. At the end of each year, they were requested to fill-in two questionnaires regarding

  11. Subjective video quality comparison of HDTV monitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, G.; Lim, C.; Lee, S.; Lee, C.

    2009-01-01

    HDTV broadcasting services have become widely available. Furthermore, in the upcoming IPTV services, HDTV services are important and quality monitoring becomes an issue, particularly in IPTV services. Consequently, there have been great efforts to develop video quality measurement methods for HDTV. On the other hand, most HDTV programs will be watched on digital TV monitors which include LCD and PDP TV monitors. In general, the LCD and PDP TV monitors have different color characteristics and response times. Furthermore, most commercial TV monitors include post-processing to improve video quality. In this paper, we compare subjective video quality of some commercial HD TV monitors to investigate the impact of monitor type on perceptual video quality. We used the ACR method as a subjective testing method. Experimental results show that the correlation coefficients among the HDTV monitors are reasonable high. However, for some video sequences and impairments, some differences in subjective scores were observed.

  12. SUBJECTIVE RESOURCESTHE PSYCHOLOGICAL AND ACMEOLOGICAL PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ivanovna Ilyushina

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the moment the subject – resources of a person. Be caused, “loss” possible resources: lack of personal self-realization, the maladjustment of the individual in a social environment, obstructed line of identity, which in some cases is accompanied by incomplete personal self-actualization and self-sufficiency. The article emphasizes the importance of the subjective component in understanding, identifying, understanding, mobilization, conservation and accumulation of resources of the individual. Man is an active Converter to your reality, where he and reality are the result of the conversion and source conversion. The author proposed the concept of “subjective resource” as a necessary factor for quality of life of the individual, achievement of tops of her self-improvement and self-development, both professionally and personally. Subjective component emphasizes the role of the individual in the conservation, transformation, accumulation, the reallocation of resources. Purpose. The subject of analysis is the awareness, understanding person own resources – the subjective resourcest. The author aims to describe the subjective resourcest as psychological and acmeological phenomenon to reveal its essence and to suggest the methodology of the study of this phenomenon, showing the importance of verbalization resources through associative image without relying on the visibility and relying on her. Methodology. The basis of the study form a General theoretical methods (theoretical analysis, including psychological analysis, generalization, systematization, system description. Results. The results of the work lies in the fact that the author has defined the concept of “subjective resourcesthe” and proposed methodology of the study. The obtained results may be of interest to improve the efficiency of the work to define the resources of the individual. The results and method of determining a subjective resource

  13. A Bayesian truth serum for subjective data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelec, Drazen

    2004-10-15

    Subjective judgments, an essential information source for science and policy, are problematic because there are no public criteria for assessing judgmental truthfulness. I present a scoring method for eliciting truthful subjective data in situations where objective truth is unknowable. The method assigns high scores not to the most common answers but to the answers that are more common than collectively predicted, with predictions drawn from the same population. This simple adjustment in the scoring criterion removes all bias in favor of consensus: Truthful answers maximize expected score even for respondents who believe that their answer represents a minority view.

  14. System reliability analysis with natural language and expert's subjectivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onisawa, T.

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces natural language expressions and expert's subjectivity to system reliability analysis. To this end, this paper defines a subjective measure of reliability and presents the method of the system reliability analysis using the measure. The subjective measure of reliability corresponds to natural language expressions of reliability estimation, which is represented by a fuzzy set defined on [0,1]. The presented method deals with the dependence among subsystems and employs parametrized operations of subjective measures of reliability which can reflect expert 's subjectivity towards the analyzed system. The analysis results are also expressed by linguistic terms. Finally this paper gives an example of the system reliability analysis by the presented method

  15. Human subjects research handbook: Protecting human research subjects. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This handbook serves as a guide to understanding and implementing the Federal regulations and US DOE Orders established to protect human research subjects. Material in this handbook is directed towards new and continuing institutional review board (IRB) members, researchers, institutional administrators, DOE officials, and others who may be involved or interested in human subjects research. It offers comprehensive overview of the various requirements, procedures, and issues relating to human subject research today.

  16. Memory and subjective workload assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, L.; Hart, S.; Yeh, Y. Y.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research suggested subjective introspection of workload is not based upon specific retrieval of information from long term memory, and only reflects the average workload that is imposed upon the human operator by a particular task. These findings are based upon global ratings of workload for the overall task, suggesting that subjective ratings are limited in ability to retrieve specific details of a task from long term memory. To clarify the limits memory imposes on subjective workload assessment, the difficulty of task segments was varied and the workload of specified segments was retrospectively rated. The ratings were retrospectively collected on the manipulations of three levels of segment difficulty. Subjects were assigned to one of two memory groups. In the Before group, subjects knew before performing a block of trials which segment to rate. In the After group, subjects did not know which segment to rate until after performing the block of trials. The subjective ratings, RTs (reaction times) and MTs (movement times) were compared within group, and between group differences. Performance measures and subjective evaluations of workload reflected the experimental manipulations. Subjects were sensitive to different difficulty levels, and recalled the average workload of task components. Cueing did not appear to help recall, and memory group differences possibly reflected variations in the groups of subjects, or an additional memory task.

  17. Human subjects and experimental irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, R.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years the public has expressed concern about the use of human subjects in scientific research. Some professional institutions have adopted codes of practice to guide them in this matter. At the University of New South Wales, where human subjects are used in teaching and research programmes, a committee ensures that high ethical standards are maintained. As the volunteer subjects do not gain any benefit themselves from the procedures, their level of risk is kept low. One type of procedure in which risk is becoming quantifiable, is the irradiation of human subjects. To assist peer review groups, the ICRP, WHO and the National Health and Medical Research Council have enunciated principles which should be followed in the irradiation of human volunteer subjects. In general the role of the Committee is advisory to protect the rights of the investigator, the subject, and the institution. Some of the inherent problems are discussed

  18. Perturbation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali H

    2008-01-01

    1. Introduction 1 2. Straightforward Expansions and Sources of Nonuniformity 23 3. The Method of Strained Coordinates 56 4. The Methods of Matched and Composite Asymptotic Expansions 110 5. Variation of Parameters and Methods of Averaging 159 6. The Method of Multiple Scales 228 7. Asymptotic Solutions of Linear Equations 308 References and Author Index 387 Subject Index 417

  19. Reliability of structural systems subject to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    Concepts and computational procedures for the reliability calculation of structural systems subject to fatigue are outlined. Systems are dealt with by approximately computing componential times to first failure. So-called first-order reliability methods are then used to formulate dependencies between componential failures and to evaluate the system failure probability. (Author) [pt

  20. Towards a definition of SUBJECT in binding domains and subject ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be antecedents for subject-oriented anaphors (e.g. Maling 1984) ... 1985), it is unclear what actually determines this binding behaviour, or why subjects should ..... contexts can be unified by the fact that both functionally determine their complements. ...... Binding theory, control and pro. ... San Diego: Academic Press. pp. 179 ...

  1. Current state of low-cycle fatigue research based on multiaxial stress intensity and its challenges. Part 1. Focusing on low-cycle fatigue strength evaluation method of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The R and D of fatigue strength at multiaxial stress intensity is recognized to become extremely important in the future in terms of the elaboration of low-cycle fatigue evaluation of various structures including piping systems and reflection on those standards. This paper focuses on the evaluation method developed by the author, namely cumulative damage rule in consideration of multiaxial stress intensity, and explains the concept and the results of verification and evaluation. It also discusses the engineering problems of the current low cycle fatigue assessment technology that were clarified in the process of developing low-cycle fatigue assessment method based on multiaxial stress intensity. The conservative lifespan and somewhat more conservative actual lifetime of elbow piping can be estimated by the conventional 'revised universal slope method' and 'advanced revised universal slope method.' However, these are empirical rules, and the theoretical basis is not clear. From 'cumulative damage rule in consideration of multiaxial stress intensity,' the author calculated furthermore 'low cycle fatigue evaluation formula based on cumulative damage rule in consideration of multi-axial stress intensity,' and examined it. As a result, an evaluation formula that can reasonably assume the equivalent thermoplastic strain range could be obtained at half of the repeat count as targeted. Furthermore, at the stage where future high precision FEM analysis can be used, direct low-cycle fatigue life curve can be established. (A.O.)

  2. The Subject in Cognitive Psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Caro-Gabalda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the various subjects embedded in cognitive psychotherapy. The cognitive model developed by Beck, considered as a rationalist and modernist model, will exemplify these subjects. Cognitive therapy should be placed in the modernist historical context and related to a subject characterized as having rationality and the ability to observe and detect cognitions, emotions and behaviors. The paper develops this background introducing three main subject types. The first is the introspective and conscious subject, who is able to observe what is within oneself, has free access, and is conscious of one's cognitive world. The second is the cognitive miser that describes the subject who enters into therapy. The final subject identified, is the trained scientist who is able to develop a more objective knowledge, changing faulty schemas and cognitive distortions. This subject is the one most looked for in cognitive therapy. We could connect these subjects to some of the main elements of cognitive therapy such as the concept of ABC, assessment procedures, cognitive techniques or the relevance of schemas. Finally, the paper suggests some issues for study that could contribute to the theoretical and clinical evolution of cognitive psychotherapy.

  3. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Skin, which is the largest organ in the body, carries immense psychological significance. Disfiguring skin disorders may impact negatively on the mental health of individuals. Aim: This study compared the psychiatric morbidity of subjects with leprosy and albinism. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects ...

  4. Anatomo-clinical overlapping maps (AnaCOM): a new method to create anatomo-functional maps from neuropsychological tests and structural MRI scan of subjects with brain lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinkingnehun, Serge R. J.; du Boisgueheneuc, Foucaud; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Zhang, Sandy X.; Levy, Richard; Dubois, Bruno

    2004-04-01

    We have developed a new technique to analyze correlations between brain anatomy and its neurological functions. The technique is based on the anatomic MRI of patients with brain lesions who are administered neuropsychological tests. Brain lesions of the MRI scans are first manually segmented. The MRI volumes are then normalized to a reference map, using the segmented area as a mask. After normalization, the brain lesions of the MRI are segmented again in order to redefine the border of the lesions in the context of the normalized brain. Once the MRI is segmented, the patient's score on the neuropsychological test is assigned to each voxel in the lesioned area, while the rest of the voxels of the image are set to 0. Subsequently, the individual patient's MRI images are superimposed, and each voxel is reassigned the average score of the patients who have a lesion at that voxel. A threshold is applied to remove regions having less than three overlaps. This process leads to an anatomo-functional map that links brain areas to functional loss. Other maps can be created to aid in analyzing the functional maps, such as one that indicates the 95% confidence interval of the averaged scores for each area. This anatomo-clinical overlapping map (AnaCOM) method was used to obtain functional maps from patients with lesions in the superior frontal gyrus. By finding particular subregions more responsible for a particular deficit, this method can generate new hypotheses to be tested by conventional group methods.

  5. Multimodal imaging of ocular surface of dry eye subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Aquavella, James V.; Zavislan, James M.

    2016-03-01

    To study the relationship between the corneal lipid layer and the ocular surface temperature (OST), we conducted a clinical trial for 20 subjects. Subjects were clinically screened prior to the trial. Of the 20 subjects, 15 have Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and 5 have aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE). A custom, circularly polarized illumination video tearscope measured the lipid layer thickness of the ocular tear film. A long-wave infrared video camera recorded the dynamic thermal properties of the ocular team film. The results of these two methods were analyzed and compared. Using principal component analysis (PCA) of the lipid layer distribution, we find that the 20 subjects could be categorized into five statistically significant groups, independent of their original clinical classification: thin (6 subjects), medium (5 subjects), medium and homogenous (3 subjects), thick (4 subjects), and very thick (2 subjects) lipids, respectively. We also conducted PCA of the OST data, and recategorized the subjects into two thermal groups by k-means clustering: one includes all ADDE subjects and some MGD subjects; the other includes the remaining MGD subjects. By comparing these two methods, we find that dry eye subjects with thin ( 40 nm), there is no strong correlation between the lipid layer thickness and heterogeneity and the OST patterns.

  6. Human endogenous retrovirus K(HML-2) Gag and Env specific T-cell responses are not detected in HTLV-I-infected subjects using standard peptide screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R Brad; Leal, Fabio E; Hasenkrug, Aaron M; Segurado, Aluisio C; Nixon, Douglas F; Ostrowski, Mario A; Kallas, Esper G

    2013-01-10

    An estimated 10-20 million individuals are infected with the retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1). While the majority of these individuals remain asymptomatic, 0.3-4% develop a neurodegenerative inflammatory disease, termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HAM/TSP results in the progressive demyelination of the central nervous system and is a differential diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). The etiology of HAM/TSP is unclear, but evidence points to a role for CNS-inflitrating T-cells in pathogenesis. Recently, the HTLV-1-Tax protein has been shown to induce transcription of the human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) families W, H and K. Intriguingly, numerous studies have implicated these same HERV families in MS, though this association remains controversial. Here, we explore the hypothesis that HTLV-1-infection results in the induction of HERV antigen expression and the elicitation of HERV-specific T-cells responses which, in turn, may be reactive against neurons and other tissues. PBMC from 15 HTLV-1-infected subjects, 5 of whom presented with HAM/TSP, were comprehensively screened for T-cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning HERV-K(HML-2) Gag and Env. In addition, we screened for responses to peptides derived from diverse HERV families, selected based on predicted binding to predicted optimal epitopes. We observed a lack of responses to each of these peptide sets. Thus, although the limited scope of our screening prevents us from conclusively disproving our hypothesis, the current study does not provide data supporting a role for HERV-specific T-cell responses in HTLV-1 associated immunopathology.

  7. Early Labour Market Returns to College Subject

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    2009-01-01

    We estimate early labour market outcomes of Italian university  graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order to unravel...... the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market. Our results suggest that 'quantitative' fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering, and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings, conditional...

  8. Early labour market returns to college subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buonanno, Paolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    This paper aims at estimating early labour market outcomes  of Italian university graduates across college subjects. We devote great attention to endogenous selection issues using alternative methods to control for potential self-selection associated with the choice of the degree subject in order...... to unravel the causal link between college major and subsequent outcomes in the labour market.  Our results suggest that "quantitative" fields (i.e. Sciences, Engineering and Economics) increase not only the speed of transition into the first job and employment probability but also early earnings...

  9. Reliability assessment based on subjective inferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhibo; Zhu Jianshi; Xu Naixin

    2003-01-01

    The reliability information which comes from subjective analysis is often incomplete prior. This information can be generally assumed to exist in the form of either a stated prior mean of R (reliability) or a stated prior credibility interval on R. An efficient approach is developed to determine a complete beta prior distribution from the subjective information according to the principle of maximum entropy, and the the reliability of survival/failure product is assessed via Bayes theorem. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the methods

  10. Subjective evaluation of HEVC in mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ray; Kalva, Hari

    2013-03-01

    Mobile compute environments provide a unique set of user needs and expectations that designers must consider. With increased multimedia use in mobile environments, video encoding methods within the smart phone market segment are key factors that contribute to positive user experience. Currently available display resolutions and expected cellular bandwidth are major factors the designer must consider when determining which encoding methods should be supported. The desired goal is to maximize the consumer experience, reduce cost, and reduce time to market. This paper presents a comparative evaluation of the quality of user experience when HEVC and AVC/H.264 video coding standards were used. The goal of the study was to evaluate any improvements in user experience when using HEVC. Subjective comparisons were made between H.264/AVC and HEVC encoding standards in accordance with Doublestimulus impairment scale (DSIS) as defined by ITU-R BT.500-13. Test environments are based on smart phone LCD resolutions and expected cellular bit rates, such as 200kbps and 400kbps. Subjective feedback shows both encoding methods are adequate at 400kbps constant bit rate. However, a noticeable consumer experience gap was observed for 200 kbps. Significantly less H.264 subjective quality is noticed with video sequences that have multiple objects moving and no single point of visual attraction. Video sequences with single points of visual attraction or few moving objects tended to have higher H.264 subjective quality.

  11. subjective approach to subjective approach to human physiological

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    the only physiological variables that influence the heat balance [4]. Yao et al [2] .... between the human responses and outdoor climate. 4.1 Subjective Response ... months seem to be influenced by cloud cover rather than the altitude.

  12. Coping with subjectivity in vulnerability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renis, T.A.; Cardwell, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Vulnerability assessment models are widely used to systematically evaluate the performance of complex safeguards systems against a variety of threats. These models require varying levels of detail and input data about the physical design of a facility and its safeguards operations and procedures. However, to evaluate safeguards effectiveness and give a performance rating, these models require additional performance data reflecting probabilities of detection, assessment, interruption, and neutralization, as well as the associated times for various adversary scenarios. These data may be attained from equipment design specifications, laboratory testing, expert judgment, or component testing. Regardless of how these data are obtained, they are inherently subjective. This paper addresses the uses of various vulnerability assessment models and the nature of subjectivity in those models. The paper also describes methods for coping with subjective data

  13. Microvascular retinopathy in subjects without diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Kessel, Line; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:  Retinal vascular lesions such as microaneurysms and haemorrhages, while typical of diabetic retinopathy, are also seen in subjects without diabetes where they are associated with elevated cardiovascular mortality. In theory, these lesions could be a consequence of past hyperglycaemia. We...... examined the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy, including lens fluorescence, a biomarker of cumulative life-time glycaemia in adults without diabetes. Methods:  Cross-sectional population-based study of 711 subjects without diabetes (WHO 1999 criteria) aged 30-60 years, including oral glucose...... tolerance testing, clinical and laboratory examinations, non-invasive ocular lens fluorometry and seven-field fundus photography. Results:  Retinopathy was present in 8.3% (CI(95) 6.3-10.3%) of subjects. Higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.032), increasing body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.014) and wider...

  14. Politics of modern muslim subjectivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Petersen, Marie Juul; Sparre, Sara Lei

    Examining modern Muslim identity constructions, the authors introduce a novel analytical framework to Islamic Studies, drawing on theories of successive modernities, sociology of religion, and poststructuralist approaches to modern subjectivity, as well as the results of extensive fieldwork...

  15. Objective and subjective sleep quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    and subjective sleep quality during benzodiazepine discontinuation and whether sleep variables were associated with benzodiazepine withdrawal. Eligible patients included adults with a diagnosis of schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder and long-term use of benzodiazepines in combination...

  16. Longitudinal growth changes in subjects with deepbite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo; McNamara, James A

    2011-08-01

    This study was a cephalometric evaluation of the growth changes in untreated subjects with deepbite at 4 time points during their developmental ages (from the early mixed dentition to the permanent dentition, and from the prepubertal phase to young adulthood). A sample of 29 subjects with deepbite (overbite >4.5 mm) was followed longitudinally from about 9 through about 18 years of age. Dentofacial changes at 4 times, defined by the cervical vertebral maturation method, were analyzed on lateral cephalograms. Nonparametric statistical analysis was used for comparisons. Overbite improved on average by 1.3 mm between the first and last measurements; it worsened significantly during the prepubertal period, but it improved significantly at the pubertal growth spurt. From the prepubertal ages through young adulthood, overbite improved in 83% of the subjects and self-corrected in 62% of the subjects. Improvements in overbite were related to the initial amount of maxillary incisor proclination. The significant improvement in overbite during the adolescent growth spurt depended on the amount of vertical growth of the mandibular ramus and the eruption of the mandibular molars. Subjects with deepbite showed worsened occlusal conditions during the prepubertal and mixed dentition phases, but had significant improvements thereafter. Improvements in overbite cannot be predicted on the basis of skeletal vertical relationships. These results provide useful indications for appropriate orthodontic treatment timing for an increased overbite. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Subjective Illness theory and coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gessmann H.-W.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a view of a problem of subjective illness theory in context of coping behavior. The article compiles the results of the latest studies of coping; discloses the way subjective illness theory affects the illness coping and patient's health; presents the study of differences in coping behaviour of patients at risk of heart attack and oncology. The article is recommended for specialists, concerned with psychological reasons of pathogenic processes and coping strategies of patients.

  18. Subject categories and scope descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series. It defines the subject categories and provides the scope descriptions to be used for categorization of the nuclear literature for the preparation of INIS and ETDE input by national and regional centres. Together with the other volumes of the INIS Reference Series it defines the rules, standards and practices and provides the authorities to be used in the International Nuclear Information System and ETDE. A complete list of the volumes published in the INIS Reference Series may be found on the inside front cover of this publication. This INIS/ETDE Reference Series document is intended to serve two purposes: to define the subject scope of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) and the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE) and to define the subject classification scheme of INIS and ETDE. It is thus the guide to the inputting centres in determining which items of literature should be reported, and in determining where the full bibliographic entry and abstract of each item should be included in INIS or ETDE database. Each category is identified by a category code consisting of three alphanumeric characters. A scope description is given for each subject category. The scope of INIS is the sum of the scopes of all the categories. With most categories cross references are provided to other categories where appropriate. Cross references should be of assistance in finding the appropriate category; in fact, by indicating topics that are excluded from the category in question, the cross references help to clarify and define the scope of the category to which they are appended. A Subject Index is included as an aid to subject classifiers, but it is only an aid and not a means for subject classification. It facilitates the use of this document, but is no substitute for the description of the scope of the subject categories

  19. Subjective expected utility without preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Bouyssou , Denis; Marchant , Thierry

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theory of subjective expected utility based on primitives only involving the fact that an act can be judged either "attractive" or "unattractive". We give conditions implying that there are a utility function on the set of consequences and a probability distribution on the set of states such that attractive acts have a subjective expected utility above some threshold. The numerical representation that is obtained has strong uniqueness properties.

  20. On the subjectivity of personality theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, G E; Tomkins, S S

    1976-04-01

    Every theorist of personality views the human condition from the unique perspective of his own individuality. As a consequence, personality theories are strongly influenced by personal and subjective factors. These influences are partially responsible for the present day lack of consensus in psychology as to basic conceptual frameworks for the study of man. The science of human personality can achieve a greater degree of consensus and generality only if it begins to turn back on itself and question its own psychological foundations. The role of subjective and personal factors in this field can be studied and made more explicit by means of a psychobiographical method which interprets the major ideas of personality theories in the light of the formative experiences in the respective theorists' lives. This method is briefly illustrated by an examination of the influence of personal experiences on theoretical concepts in the work of Carl Jung, Carl Rogers, Wilhelm Reich, and Gordon Allport. The subjective factors disclosed by psychobiographical analysis can bee seen to interact with influences stemming from the intellectual and historical context within which the theorist work. The psychobiographical study of personality theory is only one part of a larger discipline, the psychology of knowledge, which would study the role of subjective and personal factors in the structure of man's knowledge in general.

  1. Removing the subjectivity from tonal noise assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffle, R.; Bass, J.; Bullmore, A.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify an objective measure of tones in wind farm noise that corresponds to perception both within and outside of the wind energy industry. The Joint Nordic Method (currently the most widely used assessment in Europe) has been analysed with regard to variability and correlation to subjective results. It has been found that there is considerable scope in the Joint Nordic Method for obtaining different results, for the same wind farm. This is because the method is not clearly specified in all areas. Therefore, a new more tightly defined method, based on the Joint Nordic Method were possible, is outlined here. Initial analysis indicates that the new measure is appropriate and further validation is ongoing. (Author)

  2. Subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosse-Henck, Andrea; Wirtz, Hubert; Hinz, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Poor sleep is common among patients with medical disorders. Sleep disturbances can be a cause of fatigue and poor quality of life for patients suffering from sarcoidosis. Studies on subjective sleep quality or prevalence of insomnia have not been reported so far. The aim of this study was to investigate the subjectively reported sleep quality and its relation to psychological and physical factors in sarcoidosis patients. 1197 patients from Germany diagnosed with sarcoidosis were examined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Medical Research Council (MRC) dyspnea scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). 802 patients (67%) had PSQI global scores >5, indicating subjectively poor quality of sleep. The mean PSQI score was 7.79 ± 4.00. Women reported a significantly inferior individual quality of sleep than men. The subjective quality of sleep was lowered significantly with increasing dyspnea for men and women. 294 patients (25%) had PSQI global scores >10 usually found in patients with clinically relevant insomnia. In this group 86% had high values for fatigue, 69% for anxiety, and 59% for depression. The prevalence of known sleep apnea was 8.7% and 15.7% for restless legs. Poor subjective sleep quality in sarcoidosis patients is about twice as common as in the general population and is associated with fatigue, anxiety, depression and dyspnea. Questions about sleep complaints should therefore be included in the management of sarcoidosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Weak Subjectivity, Trans-Subjectivity and the Power of Event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kouba, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2010), s. 391-406 ISSN 1387-2842 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/1164 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Heidegger * Nietschean model of thought Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  4. A Hybrid System for Subjectivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Rustamov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggested different structured hybrid systems for the sentence-level subjectivity analysis based on three supervised machine learning algorithms, namely, Hidden Markov Model, Fuzzy Control System, and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System. The suggested feature extraction algorithm in our experiment computes a feature vector using statistical textual terms frequencies in a training dataset not having the use of any lexical knowledge except tokenization. Taking into consideration this fact, the above-mentioned methods may be employed in other languages as these methods do not utilize the morphological, syntactical, and lexical analysis in the classification problems.

  5. Energy data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redford, J.S.

    1981-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, and various update journals and bulletins in specialized areas. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE Energy Data Base on the DOE/RECON on-line retrieval system and on other commercial retrieval systems. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a commitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  6. Subjective figures and texture perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, S W; Cavanagh, P

    1985-01-01

    A texture discrimination task using the Ehrenstein illusion demonstrates that subjective brightness effects can play an essential role in early vision. The subjectively bright regions of the Ehrenstein can be organized either as discs or as stripes, depending on orientation. The accuracy of discrimination between variants of the Ehrenstein and control patterns was a direct function of the presence of the illusory brightness stripes, being high when they were present and low otherwise. It is argued that neither receptive field structure nor spatial-frequency content can adequately account for these results. We suggest that the subjective brightness illusions, rather than being a high-level, cognitive aspect of vision, are in fact the result of an early visual process.

  7. Psychoanalysis And Politics: Historicising Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, I compare three different views of the relation between subjectivity and modernity: one proposed by Elisabeth Young-Bruehl, a second by theorists of institutionalised individualisation, and a third by writers in the Foucaultian tradition of studies of the history of governmentalities. The theorists were chosen because they represent very different understandings of the relation between contemporary history and subjectivity. My purpose is to ground psychoanalytic theory about what humans need in history and so to question what it means to talk ahistorically about what humans need in order to thrive psychologically. Only in so doing can one assess the relation between psychoanalysis and progressive politics. I conclude that while psychoanalysis is a discourse of its time, it can also function as a counter-discourse and can help us understand the effects on subjectivity of a more than thirty year history in the West of repudiating dependency needs and denying interdependence. PMID:23678239

  8. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U.

    2007-01-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  9. Visual perception of spatial subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osterloh, K.R.S.; Ewert, U. [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Principally, any imaging technology consists of two consecutive, though strictly separated processes: data acquisition and subsequent processing to generate an image that can be looked at, either on a monitor screen or printed on paper. Likewise, the physiological process of viewing can be separated into vision and perception, though these processes are much more overlapping. Understanding the appearance of a subject requires the entire sequence from receiving the information carried e.g. by photons up to an appropriate processing leading to the perception of the subject shown. As a consequence, the imagination of a subject is a result of both, technological and physiological processes. Whenever an evaluation of an image is critical, also the physiological part of the processing should be considered. However, an image has two dimensions in the first place and reality is spatial, it has three dimensions. This problem has been tackled on a philosophical level at least since Platon's famous discussion on the shadow image in a dark cave. The mere practical point is which structural details can be perceived and what may remain undetected depending on the mode of presentation. This problem cannot be resolved without considering each single step of visual perception. Physiologically, there are three 'tools' available to understanding the spatial structure of a subject: binocular viewing, following the course of perspective projection and motion to collect multiple aspects. Artificially, an object may be cut in various ways to display the interior or covering parts could be made transparent within a model. Samples will be shown how certain details of a subject can be emphasised or hidden depending on the way of presentation. It needs to be discussed what might help to perceive the true spatial structure of a subject with all relevant details and what could be misleading. (authors)

  10. Subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : There is limited information from India on subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. The aim of the present study was to assess and compare patterns of subjective burden on spouses of schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted at the OPD level, and follow-up was done at the Ranchi Institute of Neuropsychiatry and Sciences (RINPAS during the period May 2008 to November 2008. Tools utilized were sociodemographic data sheet, Family Burden Interview Schedule developed by Pai and R. L. Kapur (1981. The sample comprised of 50 samples of spouses (25 male and 25 female spouses of schizophrenia patients. Results: The findings suggest that both the groups, viz., male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients, showed moderate level of subjective burden, i.e., 13 (52% and 15 (60% male and female spouses, respectively, which was statistically found to be insignificant. Conclusion : No significant difference was found between male and female spouses of schizophrenia patients with regard to the level of subjective burden.

  11. Proceedings (Mathematical Sciences) SUBJECT INDEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    SUBJECT INDEX. Abel's summation formula. Analogues of Euler and Poisson summa- tion formulae. 213 ... theorems of Wiener and Lévy on absolutely convergent Fourier series. 179. Brownian motion. Probabilistic representations of solutions to the heat equation. 321. Cesáro matrix. Necessary and sufficient conditions for.

  12. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, G.; Borsch, P.; Halaszovich, S.; Laser, M.; Paschke, M.; Richter, B.; Stein, G.; Stippler, R.; Wagner, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    The report supplements and extends basic information contained in the seminar report 'Use and risk of nuclear energy' (Juel-Conf-17). The contributions deal with nuclear waste management, measures to avoid the misuse of nuclear fuels, and the properties and use of plutonium. As against the last edition, the subject 'Energy and environment' has been added. (orig.) [de

  13. Youth Homelessness and Individualised Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, David

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to understandings of youth homelessness and subjectivity by analysing identity construction in terms of young people's negotiation of the structural and institutional environment of youth homelessness. I suggest that while existing literature on this topic concentrates mainly on micro-social encounters, the…

  14. Subjectivity, objectivity, and triangular space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    The author reviews his ideas on subjectivity, objectivity, and the third position in the psychoanalytic encounter, particularly in clinical work with borderline and narcissistic patients. Using the theories of Melanie Klein and Wilfred Bion as a basis, the author describes his concept of triangular space. A case presentation of a particular type of narcissistic patient illustrates the principles discussed.

  15. Teacher Negotiations of Sexual Subjectivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2007-01-01

    Discrimination often silences and marginalizes those who do not conform to the dominant gender and (hetero)sexual discourses that operate in broader society. This discussion addresses the ways that seventeen self-identified lesbian teachers working in New South Wales (NSW) Australia negotiate their sexual subjectivities at work in order to pass or…

  16. Russia needs the Subjective Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Z. Gontcharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the comparative analysis of different kinds of philosophic thinking, the paper reveals the advantages of subjective philosophy – the most adequate universal essentiality of socialized human being, opening the prospects for Russia as the creative society of cultural spontaneous activity. Objective principle of thinking is limited by the logic of outward definition. According to the above logic, people are regarded as tiny parts of social mechanism, the objects of manipulation. Separating action from spontaneous activity, object changes from self-alteration of human subject, executive functions from norm-creating ones brings about alienated practices and such social situation that makes individuals perceive their own existence as alien non- existence, or opposing existence.Subjectivity is a form of social activity regarding individuals and groups according to their ability in self-definition, self-organizing, self-control, norm-creating, as well as their actual rights and duties in social spheres of needs and objectives, and their feasible power over forces of nature and society. Subjective philosophy perceives the material production as the means for cultivating wholesome and spontaneously active individuals due to educational fundamentality and cultural prosperity. Accordingly, accumulation of capital turns into accumulation of culture and personal creativity growth. The results of the undertaken analysis and its conclusions can be implemented in developing creative anthropological bases for philosophy, pedagogy, psychology, economics, political science, as well as the relating discipline teaching. 

  17. Subjective or objective? What matters?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 1 (2014), s. 35-43 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : comparative housing policy * globalisation Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  18. Student Pressure Subject of Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses student pressure as a subject of debate. The latest debate about schoolwork is being fueled by three recent books: "The Homework Myth" by Alfie Kohn, "The Case Against Homework" by Sara Bennett and Nancy Kalish, and "The Overachievers", by Alexandra Robbins, which depicts overextended high…

  19. The Subject and Method of Interrigonal Competition in Agriculuture

    OpenAIRE

    斉藤, 修

    1982-01-01

    Marketing theory from the view of individual firms in order to solve problem of market was formed to create demand by marketing-mix that was integrated competition means by firm, operationary in accordance with the firm goal. But, an approach to the analysis in terms of business policy might lead to an systemtic treatment by introducing industrial organization. Consequently, this approach focuses not only on the anlysis on the behavior of the firm but also leads directly unto the analysis of ...

  20. Subjectivity, individuality and singularity in children: a socially constituted subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Del Ré

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering the hypothesis that Bakhtin and his Circle‟s reflections can help us think about issues involving the field of Language Acquisition, in addition to the fact that there are only a few works developed within this perspective in Brazil, in this article, we intend to discuss the notions of “subject”, “subjectivity”,“individuality” and “singularity”, drawing on Bakhtin‟s theory. Thus, in order to make this discussion clearer, we bring data from the speech of young children, from 1.8 to 3 years old, who were filmed in natural contexts interacting with their parents and relatives. From these data, we could verify, among other things, that children, as individuals who constitute themselves as subjects in and throughlanguage, bring marks to their discourse, revealing their subjectivity (through lexical, morphological, syntactic or genre choices.

  1. Working Memory Processing In Normal Subjects and Subjects with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, S. M.; Lajiness-O'Neill, R.; Weiland, B. J.; Mason, K.; Tepley, N.

    2004-10-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to determine the neuroanatomical location of working memory (WM) processes. Differences between subjects with dyslexia (SD; n=5) and normal readers (NR; n=5) were studied during two WM tasks. A spatial WM task (SMW) consisted of blocks visually presented in one of 12 positions for 2 s each. Subjects were to determine if the current position matched the position presented 2 slides earlier (N-Back Test). The verbal task (VMW) consisted of presentation of a single letter. The location of cortical activity during SWM in NR (determined with MR-FOCUSS analysis) was in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) and right angular gyrus (AG). Similar activation was seen in SD with a slight delay of approximately 20 ms. During VWM activity was seen in LEFT STG and LEFT AG in NR. In contrast for SD, activation was in the RIGHT STG and RIGHT AG. This study demonstrates the possibility to differentiate WM processing in subjects with and without learning disorders.

  2. Subject search study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todeschini, C.

    1995-01-01

    The study gathered information on how users search the database of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS), using indicators such as Subject categories, Controlled terms, Subject headings, Free-text words, combinations of the above. Users participated from the Australian, French, Russian and Spanish INIS Centres, that have different national languages. Participants, both intermediaries and end users, replied to a questionnaire and executed search queries. The INIS Secretariat at the IAEA also participated. A protocol of all search strategies used in actual searches in the database was kept. The thought process for Russian and Spanish users is predominantly non-English and also the actual initial search formulation is predominantly non-English among Russian and Spanish users while it tends to be more in English among French users. A total of 1002 searches were executed by the five INIS centres including the IAEA. The search protocols indicate the following search behaviour: 1) free text words represent about 40% of search points on an average query; 2) descriptors used as search keys have the widest range as percentage of search points, from a low of 25% to a high of 48%; 3) search keys consisting of free text that coincides with a descriptor account for about 15% of search points; 4) Subject Categories are not used in many searches; 5) free text words are present as search points in about 80% of all searches; 6) controlled terms (descriptors) are used very extensively and appear in about 90% of all searches; 7) Subject Headings were used in only a few percent of searches. From the results of the study one can conclude that there is a greater reluctance on the part of non-native English speakers in initiating their searches by using free text word searches. Also: Subject Categories are little used in searching the database; both free text terms and controlled terms are the predominant types of search keys used, whereby the controlled terms are used more

  3. Economics and subjectivities of wellbeing in rural Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sarah; Ramirez, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Mixed method research in Chiawa rural Zambia explores the importance of the economic within subjective dimensions of wellbeing. Statistical analysis shows a close relationship between subjective economic confidence and overall happiness, and that objective economic status predicts some subjective dimensions of wellbeing. Qualitative analysis explores the role of economic capacity in forging (male) gender identities; the emphasis on reciprocity and a moral economy; and the use of economics as ...

  4. The Societal Nature of Subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Henning Salling

    2013-01-01

    The HSR Focus presents a psycho-societal approach to qualitative empirical research in several areas of everyday social life. It is an approach which integrates a theory of subjectivity and an interpretation methodology which integrates hermeneutic experiences from text analysis and psychoanalysis....... In terms of methodology it revives the themes originally launched in FOS exactly ten years ago: "Subjectivity and Reflectivity in Qualitative Research" (Breuer, Mruck and Roth 2002; Mruck and Breuer 2003). This editorial introduction presents the intellectual background of the psycho-societal methodology......, reflects on its relevance and critical perspectives in a contemporary landscape of social science, and comments the way in which an international and interdisciplinary research group has developed this approach to profane empirical research....

  5. Changes in Dictionary Subject Matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2003-01-01

    The general content of the three editions of the Duden dictionary has undergone few changes. The most substantial changes are the addition of syllabification and the deletion of antonomy in respect of lemmata in the second and third editions. The concept of dictionary subject matter is questioned......, and it is argued that it is more appropriate to consider how the relationships between the classes of items interact with the function of the dictionary....

  6. Subject: Construct or Acting Being? The Status of the Subject and the Problem of Solipsism in Wittgenstein’s Tractatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz HEFLIK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In his Tractatus and Notebooks 1914-1916, Wittgenstein develops some themes concerning the nature of the subject, transcendentalism, solipsism and mysticism. Though Wittgenstein rejects a naive, psychological understanding of the subject, he preserves the idea of the metaphysical subject, so-called “philosophical I”. The present investigations exhibit two ways of grasping the subject: (1 subject as a boundary (of the world; (2 subject (I as the world. The author of the paper aims to analyze different methods of conceiving the subject, both logical and transcendental. Then he discusses the naturalistic or reductionist consequences of solipsism which were derived by Wittgenstein. Moreover, he refers to the concept of ‘subject of will’ introduced in the Tractatus. Finally, the author puts a question whether the metaphysical subject is a boundary of the world identified with the subject of will. While trying to answer this question one can point to the essential difficulties of Wittgenstein’s standpoint. These difficulties become especially evident if we examine Wittgenstein’s statements concerning mysticism. The category of subject seems to gain a new dimension when reconsidered in this context. In the conclusion, the author offers an interpretation inspired by Schopenhauer’s conception of the double aspect of the subject that is to overstep these difficulties.

  7. Masticatory efficiency of shortened dental arch subjects with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the masticatory efficiency in subjects with shortened dental arch (SDA) before and after restoration with removable partial denture (RPD). Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study carried out on 36 consecutive patients. The subjects were asked to chew 5 g of ...

  8. Subjective Fatigue in Children with Hearing Loss: Some Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.; Werfel, Krystal; Camarata, Stephen; Bess, Fred H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors examined the effect of hearing loss on subjective reports of fatigue in school-age children using a standardized measure. Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, the authors obtained subjective ratings of fatigue using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (Varni,…

  9. An Expert System Approach to Online Catalog Subject Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Christopher S. G.; Poo, Danny C. C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews methods to improve online catalogs for subject searching and describes the design of an expert system front-end to improve subject access in online public access catalogs that focuses on search strategies. Implementation of a prototype system at the National University of Singapore is described, and reformulation strategies are discussed.…

  10. Psychiatric Morbidity among Subjects with Leprosy and Albinism in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects with leprosy and 100 with albinism were interviewed. .... change negative mind-sets and sociocultural stereotypes about albinism in ... respondent's age, gender, marital status, occupation, the highest ... Variables such as age, sex, marital status, occupation, level of education,.

  11. Usng subjective percentiles and test data for estimating fragility functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, L.L.; Mensing, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Fragility functions are cumulative distribution functions (cdfs) of strengths at failure. They are needed for reliability analyses of systems such as power generation and transmission systems. Subjective opinions supplement sparse test data for estimating fragility functions. Often the opinions are opinions on the percentiles of the fragility function. Subjective percentiles are likely to be less biased than opinions on parameters of cdfs. Solutions to several problems in the estimation of fragility functions are found for subjective percentiles and test data. How subjective percentiles should be used to estimate subjective fragility functions, how subjective percentiles should be combined with test data, how fragility functions for several failure modes should be combined into a composite fragility function, and how inherent randomness and uncertainty due to lack of knowledge should be represented are considered. Subjective percentiles are treated as independent estimates of percentiles. The following are derived: least-squares parameter estimators for normal and lognormal cdfs, based on subjective percentiles (the method is applicable to any invertible cdf); a composite fragility function for combining several failure modes; estimators of variation within and between groups of experts for nonidentically distributed subjective percentiles; weighted least-squares estimators when subjective percentiles have higher variation at higher percents; and weighted least-squares and Bayes parameter estimators based on combining subjective percentiles and test data. 4 figures, 2 tables

  12. Subjective cognitive complaints after stroke : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijsbergen, M.W.A.; Mark, R.E.; de Kort, P.L.; Sitskoorn, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies to date have assessed poststroke cognitive impairment objectively, whereas less attention is paid to subjective cognitive complaints (SCC). We, therefore, systematically searched the literature to summarize and evaluate the current knowledge about poststroke SCC. Methods

  13. Acquisition in different and special subject areas

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S

    2013-01-01

    Learn how acquisitions librarians successfully serve specialized users! In this book, you'll find profiles, methods, and processes for acquisitions in specialized subject areas, such as local and regional poetry, oceanography, educational information in electronic formats, popular fiction, regional and ethnic materials, and more. Seasoned acquisitions librarians share their experiences in gathering the hard-to-find materials their libraries' highly specialized clients need to access. You'll also examine issues surrounding the acquisition of new reference tools that are vital in today's emergi

  14. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Suction caissons are being increasingly used as offshore foundation solutions in shallow and intermediate water depths. The convenient installation method through the application of suction has rendered this type of foundation as an attractive alternative to the more traditional monopile foundation...... for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...

  15. Aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sui, Osamu; Shimazu, Hideki

    1985-03-01

    We previously reported basic and clinical evaluation of aerosol lung inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-millimicrosphere albumin (milli MISA) and concluded aerosol inhalation scintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-milli MISA was useful for routine examination. But central airway deposit of aerosol particles was found in not only the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but also normal subjects. So we performed aerosol inhalation scintigraphy in normal subjects and evaluated their scintigrams. The subjects had normal values of FEVsub(1.0)% (more than 70%) in lung function tests, no abnormal findings in chest X-ray films and no symptoms and signs. The findings of aerosol inhalation scintigrams in them were classified into 3 patterns; type I: homogeneous distribution without central airway deposit, type II: homogeneous distribution with central airway deposit, type III: inhomogeneous distribution. These patterns were compared with lung function tests. There was no significant correlation between type I and type II in lung function tests. Type III was different from type I and type II in inhomogeneous distribution. This finding showed no correlation with %VC, FEVsub(1.0)%, MMF, V radical50 and V radical50/V radical25, but good correlation with V radical25 in a maximum forced expiratory flow-volume curve. Flow-volume curve is one of the sensitive methods in early detection of COPD, so inhomogeneous distribution of type III is considered to be due to small airway dysfunction.

  16. Vision as subjective perception; La vision, une perception subjective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppas, J.B. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Biological Labs.; Dale, A.; Sereno, M.; Tootell, R.

    1996-07-01

    The human brain is not very different of the monkey`s one: at least, its visual cortex is organized as a similar scheme. Specialized areas in the movement analysis are found and others in the forms perception. In this work, the author tries to answer to the following questions: (1)why so many visual areas? What are exactly their role in vision? Thirteen years of experimentation have not allowed to answer to these questions. The cerebral NMR imaging gives the opportunity of understanding the subjective perception of the visual world. One step which is particularly described in this work is to know how the visual cortex reacts to the optical illusions. (O.M.).

  17. Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    6 Abstract Title: Postural stability in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to find out if the postural stability is differed in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury and in the control group after the "4 steps - one leg stance" test had been performed. Methods: This study compared a group with anterior cruciate ligament injury and a control group on the basis of the "4 steps - one leg stance" test. Methods of comparison and analys...

  18. Differentiation chronic post traumatic stress disorder patients from healthy subjects using objective and subjective sleep-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasian, Masoud; Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Abedini, Mina; Ghadami, Mohammad R; Sepehry, Amir A; Knight, David C; Khazaie, Habibolah

    2017-05-22

    Sleep disturbance is common in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, prior work has demonstrated that there are inconsistencies between subjective and objective assessments of sleep disturbance in PTSD. Therefore, we investigated whether subjective or objective sleep assessment has greater clinical utility to differentiate PTSD patients from healthy subjects. Further, we evaluated whether the combination of subjective and objective methods improves the accuracy of classification into patient versus healthy groups, which has important diagnostic implications. We recruited 32 chronic war-induced PTSD patients and 32 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects to participate in this study. Subjective (i.e. from three self-reported sleep questionnaires) and objective sleep-related data (i.e. from actigraphy scores) were collected from each participant. Subjective, objective, and combined (subjective and objective) sleep data were then analyzed using support vector machine classification. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for subjective variables were 89.2%, 89.3%, and 89%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for objective variables were 65%, 62.3%, and 67.8%, respectively. The classification accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for the aggregate variables (combination of subjective and objective variables) were 91.6%, 93.0%, and 90.3%, respectively. Our findings indicate that classification accuracy using subjective measurements is superior to objective measurements and the combination of both assessments appears to improve the classification accuracy for differentiating PTSD patients from healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urban and Spatial Opposition by the Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Gizem; Kırcı, Nazan

    2017-10-01

    In the production of spaces, an important aspect, that is ‘the subject’ was neglected with the influence of the industrial revolution, modernisation, capitalism and neo-liberalism. While the rationalist reason was standardising and extending production, the relationship between space and its user was broken-off. It initiated a tremendous change when the subject as the user of the spaces, singled out his own existence and needs from the whole and comprehended his self-distinctiveness. Such a split up indicating the act of critical thinking and liberation of the subject also created a demand for diversity. The demands of the subject being the user of the space was not met at the architectural and urban levels for several reasons. The subject feeling the discomfort of such a situation brings into view his criticisms first in his own individual space and then in public space for the purposes of expressing his right to live and his locus standi. Such acts being classified as adversary are being realised in order to provide the adaptability of the subject and the space to changing living conditions using different means. Such adversary touches being provided partly by the urbanites and partly by the professionals draw attention to the issue through by-pass interventions to the architecturally choked urban areas. By taking a stance against the existing situation, the intention is to treat space in a different way than what has been produced by the system, to re-produce it and to render it more democratic. All such alternative spatial situations show us that other production methods and lines of thought, other than what has been defined by the dominant market conditions are also possible. It has been asserted through these adversary instigations that there is a requirement for micro designs towards the daily and changing needs of the subject as a user during the act of design by architects and planners. For this reason, the part played by the designer should be

  20. Digital Pupillometry in Normal Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickmann, Annekatrin; Waizel, Maria; Kazerounian, Sara; Szurman, Peter; Wilhelm, Helmut; Boden, Karl T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the pupil size of normal subjects at different illumination levels with a novel pupillometer. The pupil size of healthy study participants was measured with an infrared-video PupilX pupillometer (MEye Tech GmbH, Alsdorf, Germany) at five different illumination levels (0, 0.5, 4, 32, and 250 lux). Measurements were performed by the same investigator. Ninety images were executed during a measurement period of 3 seconds. The absolute linear camera resolution was approximately 20 pixels per mm. This cross-sectional study analysed 490 eyes of 245 subjects (mean age: 51.9 ± 18.3 years, range: 6–87 years). On average, pupil diameter decreased with increasing light intensities for both eyes, with a mean pupil diameter of 5.39 ± 1.04 mm at 0 lux, 5.20 ± 1.00 mm at 0.5 lux, 4.70 ± 0.97 mm at 4 lux, 3.74 ± 0.78 mm at 32 lux, and 2.84 ± 0.50 mm at 250 lux illumination. Furthermore, it was found that anisocoria increased by 0.03 mm per life decade for all illumination levels (R2 = 0.43). Anisocoria was higher under scotopic and mesopic conditions. This study provides additional information to the current knowledge concerning age- and light-related pupil size and anisocoria as a baseline for future patient studies. PMID:28228832

  1. Subjective randomness as statistical inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L; Daniels, Dylan; Austerweil, Joseph L; Tenenbaum, Joshua B

    2018-06-01

    Some events seem more random than others. For example, when tossing a coin, a sequence of eight heads in a row does not seem very random. Where do these intuitions about randomness come from? We argue that subjective randomness can be understood as the result of a statistical inference assessing the evidence that an event provides for having been produced by a random generating process. We show how this account provides a link to previous work relating randomness to algorithmic complexity, in which random events are those that cannot be described by short computer programs. Algorithmic complexity is both incomputable and too general to capture the regularities that people can recognize, but viewing randomness as statistical inference provides two paths to addressing these problems: considering regularities generated by simpler computing machines, and restricting the set of probability distributions that characterize regularity. Building on previous work exploring these different routes to a more restricted notion of randomness, we define strong quantitative models of human randomness judgments that apply not just to binary sequences - which have been the focus of much of the previous work on subjective randomness - but also to binary matrices and spatial clustering. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sieve methods

    CERN Document Server

    Halberstam, Heine

    2011-01-01

    Derived from the techniques of analytic number theory, sieve theory employs methods from mathematical analysis to solve number-theoretical problems. This text by a noted pair of experts is regarded as the definitive work on the subject. It formulates the general sieve problem, explores the theoretical background, and illustrates significant applications.""For years to come, Sieve Methods will be vital to those seeking to work in the subject, and also to those seeking to make applications,"" noted prominent mathematician Hugh Montgomery in his review of this volume for the Bulletin of the Ameri

  3. Crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment of adaptive video streaming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) re- quirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve...... humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....

  4. Photogrammetry and remote sensing education subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazaridou, Maria A.; Karagianni, Aikaterini Ch.

    2017-09-01

    The rapid technologic advances in the scientific areas of photogrammetry and remote sensing require continuous readjustments at the educational programs and their implementation. The teaching teamwork should deal with the challenge to offer the volume of the knowledge without preventing the understanding of principles and methods and also to introduce "new" knowledge (advances, trends) followed by evaluation and presentation of relevant applications. This is of particular importance for a Civil Engineering Faculty as this in Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, as the framework of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing is closely connected with applications in the four educational Divisions of the Faculty. This paper refers to the above and includes subjects of organizing the courses in photogrammetry and remote sensing in the Civil Engineering Faculty of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. A scheme of the general curriculum as well the teaching aims and methods are also presented.

  5. Postural control in blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Antonio Vinicius; Oliveira, Cláudia Silva Remor de; Knabben, Rodrigo José; Domenech, Susana Cristina; Borges Junior, Noe Gomes

    2011-12-01

    To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  6. Formal Institutions and Subjective Wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2010-01-01

    A long tradition in economics explores the association between the quality of formal institutions and economic performance. The literature on the relationship between such institutions and happiness is, however, rather limited, and inconclusive. In this paper, we revisit the findings from recent...... cross-country studies on the institution-happiness association. Our findings suggest that their conclusions are qualitatively rather insensitive to the specific measure of 'happiness' used, while the associations between formal institutions and subjective well-being differ among poor and rich countries....... Separating different types of institutional quality, we find that in low-income countries the effects of economic-judicial institutions on happiness dominate those of political institutions, while analyses restricted to middle- and high-income countries show strong support for an additional beneficial effect...

  7. Abnormal Metabolite in Alcoholic Subjects,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    this study included alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis of the liver in 29. of the alcoholic subjects; diabetes mellitus in 8 and Korsakoff’s syndrome in 6...evidence of -7- Korsakoff’s syndrome and the presence or absence of 2,3-butanediol. There was, however, a suggestive correlation with independently...Gamma GT 193, SGPT 29 b 0 0.023 0.05 51a F.B. 22 M 28 0.029 0.14 b 0 ɘ.01 0.12 77 J.N.S. 52 M 0 0.027 0.11 57 JJ.S 45 m 4. 0.25 .35 Korsakoff ’s

  8. Do subjective assessments of running patterns reflect objective parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussiana, Thibault; Gindre, Cyrille; Mourot, Laurent; Hébert-Losier, Kim

    2017-08-01

    Running patterns are often categorized into subgroups according to common features before data analysis and interpretation. The Volodalen ® method is a simple field-based tool used to classify runners into aerial or terrestrial using a 5-item subjective rating scale. We aimed to validate the Volodalen ® method by quantifying the relationship between its subjective scores and 3D biomechanical measures. Fifty-four runners ran 30 s on a treadmill at 10, 12, 14, 16, and 18 km h -1 while their kinematics were assessed subjectively using the Volodalen ® method and objectively using 3D motion capture. For each runner and speed, two researchers scored the five Volodalen ® items on a 1-to-5 scale, which addressed vertical oscillation, upper-body motion, pelvis and foot position at ground contact, and footstrike pattern. Seven 3D biomechanical parameters reflecting the subjective items were also collected and correlated to the subjective scores. Twenty-eight runners were classified as aerial and 26 as terrestrial. Runner classification did not change with speed, but the relative contribution of the biomechanical parameters to the subjective classification was speed dependent. The magnitude of correlations between subjective and objective measures ranged from trivial to very large. Five of the seven objective parameters significantly differed between aerial and terrestrial runners, and these parameters demonstrated the strongest correlations to the subjective scores. Our results support the validity of the Volodalen ® method, whereby the visual appreciation of running gait reflected quantifiable objective parameters. Two minor modifications to the method are proposed to simplify its use and improve agreement between subjective and objective measures.

  9. Subjective evaluation of compressed image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesub; Rowberg, Alan H.; Frank, Mark S.; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin

    1992-05-01

    Lossy data compression generates distortion or error on the reconstructed image and the distortion becomes visible as the compression ratio increases. Even at the same compression ratio, the distortion appears differently depending on the compression method used. Because of the nonlinearity of the human visual system and lossy data compression methods, we have evaluated subjectively the quality of medical images compressed with two different methods, an intraframe and interframe coding algorithms. The evaluated raw data were analyzed statistically to measure interrater reliability and reliability of an individual reader. Also, the analysis of variance was used to identify which compression method is better statistically, and from what compression ratio the quality of a compressed image is evaluated as poorer than that of the original. Nine x-ray CT head images from three patients were used as test cases. Six radiologists participated in reading the 99 images (some were duplicates) compressed at four different compression ratios, original, 5:1, 10:1, and 15:1. The six readers agree more than by chance alone and their agreement was statistically significant, but there were large variations among readers as well as within a reader. The displacement estimated interframe coding algorithm is significantly better in quality than that of the 2-D block DCT at significance level 0.05. Also, 10:1 compressed images with the interframe coding algorithm do not show any significant differences from the original at level 0.05.

  10. Subjective social status and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euteneuer, Frank

    2014-09-01

    Subjective social status (SSS) predicts health outcomes above and beyond traditional objective measures of social status, such as education, income and occupation. This review summarizes and integrates recent findings on SSS and health. Current studies corroborate associations between low SSS and poor health indicators by extending previous findings to further populations and biological risk factors, providing meta-analytic evidence for adolescents and by demonstrating that negative affect may not confound associations between SSS and self-rated health. Recent findings also highlight the relevance of SSS changes (e.g. SSS loss in immigrants) and the need to consider cultural/ethnical differences in psychological mediators and associations between SSS and health. SSS is a comprehensive measure of one's social position that is related to several poor health outcomes and risk factors for disease. Future investigation, particularly prospective studies, should extend research on SSS and health to further countries/ethnic groups, also considering additional psychological and biological mediators and dynamic aspects of SSS. Recently developed experimental approaches to manipulate SSS may also be promising.

  11. Clinical management of transsexual subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Elaine Maria Frade; Mendonca, Berenice Bilharinho

    2014-03-01

    Transsexual subjects are individuals who have a desire to live and be accepted as a member of the opposite sex, usually accompanied by a sense of discomfort with, or inappropriateness of, one's anatomic sex, and a wish to have surgery and hormonal treatment to make one's body as congruent as possible with one's preferred sex. They seek to develop the physical characteristics of the desired gender, and should undergo an effective and safe treatment regimen. The goal of treatment is to rehabilitate the individual as a member of society in the gender he or she identifies with. Sex reassignment procedures necessary for the treatment of transsexual patients are allowed in our country, at Medical Services that have a multidisciplinary team composed of a psychologist, a social worker, a psychiatrist, an endocrinologist and surgeons (gynecologists, plastic surgeons, and urologists). Patients must be between 21 to 75 years old and in psychological and hormonal treatment for at least 2 years. Testosterone is the principal agent used to induce male characteristics in female transsexual patients, and the estrogen is the chosen hormone used to induce the female sexual characteristics in male transsexual patients. Based on our 15 years of experience, we can conclude that testosterone and estradiol treatment in physiological doses are effective and safe in female and male transsexual patients, respectively.

  12. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  13. Authentic subjectivity and social transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O'Sullivan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Holiness in the Christian tradition has often been understood in a way that devalues embodiment and practical engagement with the world of one’s time. The latter understanding, for example, led to Marx’s critique and repudiation of Christianity. Both interpretations of holiness can be understood as mistaken efforts to express the dynamism for authenticity in contextualised human subjectivity. Vatican 2 opposed both views by addressing itself to all people of good will, declaring that everyone was called to holiness, and that authentic Christian identity involved solidarity with the world of one’s time, especially those who are poor. Vatican 2, therefore, provided an authoritative faith foundation for holiness expressed through social commitment and for viewing social commitment on the part of people of good will in whatever state of life as a form of holiness. This vision was also the conviction of leading spirituality writers of the period, like Thomas Merton, and inspired liberation theologians and the Latin American Catholic bishops at their conference in Medellín a few years after the Council. The argument of this article is that the emergence and development of a non-dualist Christian spirituality is grounded methodologically in the correct appropriation of the common innate dynamism for authenticity in concrete human persons and lived spiritual experiences consistent with and capable of enhancing this dynamism.

  14. Topical subjects of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    The controversy as regards the introduction of nuclear energy to the energy supply of the Federal Republic of Germany has not subdued yet. However, the discussion has shifted from technical questions more to the field of political argumentation. In addition, questions concerning the back end cycle have come to the fore. The report at hand deals with the topical subjects of fuel reprocessing, ultimate storage of radioactive wastes, the impact of power plants in general and nuclear power plants in particular on the climate, safety and safeguard questions concerning nuclear facilities and fissionable materials, and with the properties and possibilities of plutonium. The authors tried to present technical know-how in an easy comprehensible way. Literature references enable the checking of facts and provide the possibility to deal in more detail with the matter. The seminar report is to give all those interested the opportunity to acquaint themselves with facts and know-how and to acquire knowledge on which to base a personal opinion. (orig.) [de

  15. Single-Subject Research Methodology: An Underutilized Tool in the Field of Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullis, Michael; Anderson, Glenn

    1986-01-01

    Single-subject research methods are simple, powerful, and very applicable to selected study of deafness. This article considers group versus single-subject designs; an example of withdrawal single-subject design; and an example of the multiple baseline single-subject design. (CB)

  16. Pursuing the Emancipatory Purport of Subjectivity from Frankfurt to Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mesbahian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigating the philosophical place of Subjectivity in the contemporary thought. My justification for engaging in further study on this much-discussed concept is that three significant questions concerning subjectivity have remained insufficiently examined: What is the problem of philosophical foundation of modernity from Cartesian Cogito to the Kantian autonomous will and to the Hegelian subjectivity? Is there any possibility to overcome the proposed problem from an internal point of view and from the perspective of Jürgen Habermas? Whether the radical criticism of the Enlightenment idea of an autonomous subject by thinkers like Foucault and Derrida leads to loss of freedom or to the robust notion of freedom being deeply improved? This paper, accordingly, will examine the three above mentioned questions regarding subjectivity across three sections. I have argued, in the first section that the Enlightenment’s her¬itage is contradictory. On the one hand, the notion of subjectivity has generated a kind of emancipation. On the other hand, the subjectivity has enthroned a conception of reason and of method that can be interpreted as a new form of domination. In the second section, I have argued that Habermas’s answer to the philosophical dilemma of subjectivity is to accept the criticism of subject-centered reason but to find a basis for reason in communicative action. Habermas’s conception of subjectivity has been criticized by the help of some contemporary thinkers, in the third section of this paper, and it has been argued that based on his notions of modernity and subjectivity the marginalized populations of the World- namely the Other- can no longer expect intellectual and ethical support for their plight from Frankfurt and should immigrate to Paris in order to purse the emancipatory aspect of subjectivity.

  17. Development process of subjects society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Reshetnichenko

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background due to defining the role of people in the development of society and the almost complete absence of scientific management processes capable of progressive development of both individuals and social communities, and nations, and civilization in general. In order to overcome inherent subjectivist methodology of knowledge, psyholohizatorskyh, hiperpolityzovanyh and utilitarian approach, the authors proposed a three-tier system of business processes of society. The conceptual core of the approach consists in the detection task as logical - mathematical laws of subjects of primary, secondary and higher levels of development, and on the mechanisms of their formation and practice. The solution of the tasks allowed the authors to reveal the structure of both the ascending and descending processes of economic society. Thus, the analysis of individual carriers upward changes as «individual», «individuality», «person» and «personality» showed conditionality determination of their activities with «anthropometric», «ethnic», «demographic» and «ideological» mechanisms. Nature as common carriers downstream changes revealed using correlative related «groups», «group «, «groups» and «communities» whose activity is due to «vitalistic», «education», «professional» and «stratification» mechanisms. To disclose the nature and organization of secondary and higher levels of economic society by the authors introduced the category of «citizen», «heneralista», «human space», «human galactic» ‘formation and development is causing «status», «Persona logical», «humanocentric», «institutional», «cluster», «kontaminatsiyni» and other mechanisms. One of the main achievements of the work, the authors consider the possibility of further development and practical implementation of new quality management processes of economic society based multimodal dialectical logic.

  18. Seismic analysis of piping systems subjected to multiple support excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundararajan, C.; Vaish, A.K.; Slagis, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative study between the multiple response spectrum method and the time-history method for the seismic analysis of nuclear piping systems subjected to different excitation at different supports or support groups. First, the necessary equations for the above analysis procedures are derived. Then, three actual nuclear piping systems subjected to single and multiple excitations are analyzed by the different methods, and extensive comparisons of the results (stresses) are made. Based on the results, it is concluded that the multiple response spectrum analysis gives acceptable results as compared to the ''exact'', but much more costly, time-history analysis. 6 refs

  19. Tackling the sheer scale of subjective QoE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menkovski, V.; Exarchakos, G.; Liotta, A.; Atzoni, L.; Delgado, J.; Giusto, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) used as a method for subjective assessment of video quality alleviates the inconveniencies associated with high variation and biases common in rating methods. However, the number of tests in a MLDS study rises fairly quickly with the number of samples

  20. 商業方法軟體專利之標的適格性研究 ― 以比較法之研究為中心 The Patentable Subject Matter of Business Method Patents: An Analysis from a Perspective on Comparative Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    吉玉成 Yuh-Cherng Jyi

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available 本文於第2 部分先就商業方法軟體依軟體系統之架構予以定義,以觀察其特殊性,並作為發明專利標的適格分析之基礎。第3 部分則概述商業方法軟體之施以專利保護,對產業與專利審查實務所造成之影響。第4 部分係探討商業方法軟體是否得為發明專利之標的,而依次簡介美國法之規定與實務見解、日本特許法之規定與特許廳之態度、歐洲專利公約與專利局之立場,並由我國專利法之規定,論述絕大多數之商業方法軟體專利,其發明專利之標的適格性乃有欠缺;另就我國智慧財產局所公布之「電腦軟體相關發明專利審查基準」加以探討,及提出個人淺見,並就智慧財產局已核准商業方法軟體專利之實例,予以個案分析。第5 部分則提出個人對商業方法軟體專利之淺見及對我國未來專利保護方向之芻議,以為結 論。 This thesis first in Chapter II defines and identifies business method software under modern computer software architecture so as to form the foundation on which the patentable subject matter of business method software can be further analyzed. In Chapter III follows an overview of how patenting business method software impacts on industry and patent examination practice. Chapter IV analyzes whether business method software qualifies as patentable subject matter from a perspective on comparative legal research in American laws, Japanese laws and the European Patent Convention, and explicates that most of the business method patents granted are unqualified under the interpretation of current ROC Patent Law; this Chapter also reviews the “Examination Guidelines for Computer- Related Software Inventions” promulgated by the Intellectual Property Office from a different perspective and illustrates thereof with a business method patent granted by the Intellectual Property Office. Chapter V concludes this

  1. Decoding subjective mental states from fMRI activity patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Masako; Kamitani, Yukiyasu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoding has emerged as a powerful tool to read out detailed stimulus features from multi-voxel brain activity patterns. Moreover, the method has been extended to perform a primitive form of 'mind-reading,' by applying a decoder 'objectively' trained using stimulus features to more 'subjective' conditions. In this paper, we first introduce basic procedures for fMRI decoding based on machine learning techniques. Second, we discuss the source of information used for decoding, in particular, the possibility of extracting information from subvoxel neural structures. We next introduce two experimental designs for decoding subjective mental states: the 'objective-to-subjective design' and the 'subjective-to-subjective design.' Then, we illustrate recent studies on the decoding of a variety of mental states, such as, attention, awareness, decision making, memory, and mental imagery. Finally, we discuss the challenges and new directions of fMRI decoding. (author)

  2. On confessional dialogue and collective subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth; Krejsler, John B.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of dialogue as an ideal for face-to face relationships in education has a long history in Western societies. Dialogue, however, does not only opeate in face-to-face relationships but also between collective subjects such as national states. The focus of this chapter is to discuss...... the operation of dialogue as a governmental practice in the construction of the contemporary European Higher Educational Area (EHEA) as a transnational political space. In this context the Bologna Process, as an expression of the rationalities of Open Method of Coordination, operates as a goal directed...... machinery or, as we prefer to call it, as a dialogic dispositive for the governmentalisation of Europe as a transnational political space. Dialogue operates as a means to reaching a form of unity in diversity considered inevitable if the hope for a future Europe with smart, sustainable and inclusive growth...

  3. Subjective Oral Health in Dutch Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijsbert H.W. Verrips

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine whether the subjective oral health (SOH of the Dutch adult population was associated with clinical and demographic variables. Methods: A clinical examination was conducted in a sample of 1,018 people from the Dutch city of ‘s-Hertogenbosch. SOH was measured using the Dutch translation of the short form of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-NL14. Results: The average score on the OHIP-NL14 was 2.8 ± 5.9 and 51% of the respondents had a score of 0. Dental status was the most important predictor of SOH. Conclusions:  The SOH in the Dutch adult population was much better than in groups of adults in Australia, the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Nevertheless, there were important variations in SOH related to dental and socio-economic status.

  4. The relationship between insight and subjective experience in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kako Y

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Yuki Kako, Koki Ito, Naoki Hashimoto, Kuniyoshi Toyoshima, Yusuke Shimizu, Nobuyuki Mitsui, Yutaka Fujii, Teruaki Tanaka, Ichiro Kusumi Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan Objectives: To examine the relationship between level of insight and various subjective experiences for patients with schizophrenia.Materials and methods: Seventy-four patients with schizophrenia who were discharged from our hospital were evaluated. The level of insight into their illness and various subjective experiences were evaluated at discharge. We used the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD for evaluation of insight. In addition, five different rating scales were used to evaluate subjective experiences: Subjective Experience of Deficits in Schizophrenia (SEDS, Subjective Well-being under Neuroleptic drug treatment Short form (SWNS, Schizophrenia Quality of Life Scale (SQLS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, and the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI-30.Results: The SWNS and the scores for awareness of mental disorder and awareness of the social consequences of mental disorder on SUMD showed a weak positive correlation. The DAI-30 showed a significant negative correlation with most general items on SUMD and a negative correlation between the subscale scores for the awareness and attribution of past symptoms. SEDS, SWNS, SQLS, and the BDI significantly correlated with the subscale scores for awareness of current symptoms on SUMD, and weakly correlated with the subscale scores for attribution of current negative symptoms.Conclusion: Awareness of subjective distress was related to awareness of having a mental disorder. Feeling subjective distress was related to awareness of current symptoms, as well as to the ability to attribute current negative symptoms to a mental disorder. Positive attitudes toward medication correlated with better general insight into the illness. Keywords: schizophrenia, insight

  5. Thromboxane production in morbidly obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Francesca; Biasucci, Luigi M; Cialdella, Pio; Liuzzo, Giovanna; Giubilato, Simona; Della Bona, Roberta; Pulcinelli, Fabio M; Iaconelli, Amerigo; Mingrone, Geltrude; Crea, Filippo

    2011-06-01

    Postmortem studies have demonstrated that morbidly obese subjects, surprisingly, have less coronary atherosclerosis than obese subjects. However, the reasons for this apparent protection from atherosclerosis are not yet clear. Thromboxane A2, a marker of platelet activation, is greater in obese subjects than in lean subjects, and this might be a clue to their increased cardiovascular risk. However, data on thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects are lacking; therefore, we hypothesized that lower levels of thromboxane A2 in morbidly obese subjects might play a role in their lower atherothrombotic burden. We measured the serum levels of thromboxane B2 (TxB2), a stable metabolite of thromboxane A2, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and leptin in 17 lean subjects (body mass index [BMI] 22.9 ± 1.6 kg/m(2)), 25 obese subjects (BMI 32.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)), and 23 morbidly obese subjects (BMI 48.6 ± 7.1 kg/m(2)), without insulin resistance, diabetes, or overt cardiovascular disease. The serum TxB2 levels were lower in the lean subjects than in the obese subjects (p = 0.046) and in the morbidly obese subjects than in the lean and obese subjects (p = 0.015 and p lean subjects (hs-CRP, p lean subjects (p lean subjects, suggesting that reduced platelet activation could play a role in the paradoxical protection of morbidly obese subjects from atherosclerosis, despite the greater levels of leptin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Occlusion and Temporomandibular Function among Subjects with Mandibular Distal Extension Removable Partial Dentures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creugers, N.H.J.; Witter, D.J.; Spijker, A. van 't; Gerritsen, A.E.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. To quantify effects on occlusion and temporomandibular function of mandibular distal extension removable partial dentures in shortened dental arches. Methods. Subjects wearing mandibular extension removable partial dentures (n = 25) were compared with subjects with shortened dental arches

  7. A deductive approach to select or rank journals in multifaceted subject, Oceanography

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sahu, S.R.; Panda, K.C.

    journal) whereas Bradford’s differential approach (articles in the bibliographies of specific subject field) to account/rank the core journals. Both these methods make sense in the journal selection/ranking process to a specific subject field...

  8. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Koylu Ahmet O; Aslan Mehmet; Bolukbas Filiz F; Bolukbas Cengiz; Horoz Mehmet; Selek Sahbettin; Erel Ozcan

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Methods Sixteen hepatitis C (+) hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Results T...

  9. Beer, Wine, Spirits and Subjective Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Morten; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Mygind, K.

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health.......To examine the association between intake of different types of alcoholic beverages and self reported subjective health....

  10. [Comparisons of manual and automatic refractometry with subjective results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wübbolt, I S; von Alven, S; Hülssner, O; Erb, C

    2006-11-01

    Refractometry is very important in everyday clinical practice. The aim of this study is to compare the precision of three objective methods of refractometry with subjective dioptometry (Phoropter). The objective methods with the smallest deviation to subjective refractometry results are evaluated. The objective methods/instruments used were retinoscopy, Prism Refractometer PR 60 (Rodenstock) and Auto Refractometer RM-A 7000 (Topcon). The results of monocular dioptometry (sphere, cylinder and axis) of each objective method were compared to the results of the subjective method. The examination was carried out on 178 eyes, which were divided into 3 age-related groups: 6 - 12 years (103 eyes), 13 - 18 years (38 eyes) and older than 18 years (37 eyes). All measurements were made in cycloplegia. The smallest standard deviation of the measurement error was found for the Auto Refractometer RM-A 7000. Both the PR 60 and retinoscopy had a clearly higher standard deviation. Furthermore, the RM-A 7000 showed in three and retinoscopy in four of the nine comparisons a significant bias in the measurement error. The Auto Refractometer provides measurements with the smallest deviation compared to the subjective method. Here it has to be taken into account that the measurements for the sphere have an average deviation of + 0.2 dpt. In comparison to retinoscopy the examination of children with the RM-A 7000 is difficult. An advantage of the Auto Refractometer is the fast and easy handling, so that measurements can be performed by medical staff.

  11. Is Subjective Status Influenced by Psychosocial Factors?

    OpenAIRE

    Lundberg, Johanna; Kristenson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective Associations between subjective status and health are still relatively unexplored. This study aimed at testing whether subjective status is uniquely confounded by psychosocial factors compared to objective status, and what factors that may predict subjective status. Design A cross-sectional analysis of a population-based, random sample of 795 middle-aged men and women from the southeast of Sweden. Questionnaires included subjective status, objective measures of socioeconomic status,...

  12. Single Subject Research: Applications to Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiroglu, Orhan

    2012-01-01

    Single subject research is a scientific research methodology that is increasingly used in the field of special education. Therefore, understanding the unique characteristics of single subject research methodology is critical both for educators and practitioners. Certain characteristics make single subject research one of the most preferred…

  13. Processing subject-object ambiguities in Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaan, Edith

    1997-01-01

    Various clause types in Dutch and German are at least temporarily ambiguous with respect to the order of subject and object. A number of previous studies regarding the processing of such subject-object ambiguities have reported a preference for a subject-object interpretation. This order preference

  14. Sex Education as a Transversal Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Amanda Oliveira; Pereira, Graziela Raupp; Reis, Maria Amélia; Ferreira, António G.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, sex education is in many countries a transversal subject, in which the school becomes a privileged place for the implementation of policies that aim at promoting "public health." Its design as a cross-cutting subject envisages fostering the dissemination of these subjects in all pedagogical and curricular fields; however, we…

  15. The changing role of the subject specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cotta-Schønberg

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As we all know, libraries are these years rapidly undergoing change on unparalleled scale. Evidently, this applies to librarians, too, and not the least to that important category of library staff, the subject specialist. As recruiting and education of library workers differ from country to country it is difficult to give a detailed, generally valid description of the subject librarian in libraries, but I believe that you can describe an ideal model of subject librarianship as follows: Within each of the major subject disciplines covered by the library, the library should have a subject specialist preferably with a master degree or at least a bachelor degree in the particular subject discipline. The role of the subject specialist is to perform four basic functions where extensive subject knowledge is considered to be necessary: selecting and classifying books, assisting users with advanced subject inquiries, giving subject-specific courses in information retrieval, and maintaining liaison with relevant academic departments and centres. Personally, I know this system very well since I got employment in the Royal Library in Copenhagen as a subject specialist in psychology in the very month I finished my degree in psychology from the University of Copenhagen, back in 1973. The subject librarian system at the Royal Library in Copenhagen was patterned on the ideal model, as I just described it, and it was closely paralleled in the other academic libraries in Denmark, also the new university libraries which were founded in the seventies.

  16. Modelling and management of subjective information in a fuzzy setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchon-Meunier, Bernadette; Lesot, Marie-Jeanne; Marsala, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Subjective information is very natural for human beings. It is an issue at the crossroad of cognition, semiotics, linguistics, and psycho-physiology. Its management requires dedicated methods, among which we point out the usefulness of fuzzy and possibilistic approaches and related methods, such as evidence theory. We distinguish three aspects of subjectivity: the first deals with perception and sensory information, including the elicitation of quality assessment and the establishment of a link between physical and perceived properties; the second is related to emotions, their fuzzy nature, and their identification; and the last aspect stems from natural language and takes into account information quality and reliability of information.

  17. Vibration Response Imaging: evaluation of rater agreement in healthy subjects and subjects with pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makris Demosthenes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We evaluated pulmonologists variability in the interpretation of Vibration response imaging (VRI obtained from healthy subjects and patients hospitalized for community acquired pneumonia. Methods The present is a prospective study conducted in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty healthy subjects and twenty three pneumonia cases were included in this study. Six pulmonologists blindly analyzed images of normal subjects and pneumonia cases and evaluated different aspects of VRI images related to the quality of data aquisition, synchronization of the progression of breath sound distribution and agreement between the maximal energy frame (MEF of VRI (which is the maximal geographical area of lung vibrations produced at maximal inspiration and chest radiography. For qualitative assessment of VRI images, the raters' evaluations were analyzed by degree of consistency and agreement. Results The average value for overall identical evaluations of twelve features of the VRI image evaluation, ranged from 87% to 95% per rater (94% to 97% in control cases and from 79% to 93% per rater in pneumonia cases. Inter-rater median (IQR agreement was 91% (82-96. The level of agreement according to VRI feature evaluated was in most cases over 80%; intra-class correlation (ICC obtained by using a model of subject/rater for the averaged features was overall 0.86 (0.92 in normal and 0.73 in pneumonia cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest good agreement in the interpretation of VRI data between different raters. In this respect, VRI might be helpful as a radiation free diagnostic tool for the management of pneumonia.

  18. Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of genetic marker alleles associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    NOVELTY - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring. USE - The methods are useful...... for determining fertility in a bovine subject; and selecting bovine subjects for breeding purposes (all claimed). DETAILED DESCRIPTION - Determining fertility in a bovine subject comprises detecting in a sample from the bovine subject the presence or absence of two or more genetic marker alleles...... that are associated with a trait indicative of fertility of the bovine subject and/or off-spring, where the two or more genetic marker alleles are single nucleotide polymorphisms selected from Hapmap60827-rs29019866, ARS-BFGL-NGS-40979, Hapmap47854-BTA-119090, ARS-BFGL-NGS-114679, Hapmap43841-BTA-34601, Hapmap43407...

  19. Mediating effect of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Akin, Ahmet

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the mediating effects of Facebook addiction on the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness. 297 university students (157 women, 140 men; M age = 20.1 yr., SD = 1.3) were administered the Facebook Addiction Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that Facebook addiction partially mediated the relationship between subjective vitality and subjective happiness.

  20. Subjective cognitive decline: The first clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Studart Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Mild cognitive impairment is considered as the first clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD, when the individual exhibits below performance on standardized neuropsychological tests. However, some subjects before having a lower performance on cognitive assessments already have a subjective memory complaint. Objective: A review about subjective cognitive decline, the association with AD biomarkers and risk of conversion to dementia. Methods: We performed a comprehensive non-systematic review on PubMed. The keywords used in the search were terms related to subjective cognitive decline. Results: Subjective cognitive decline is characterized by self-experience of deterioration in cognitive performance not detected objectively through formal neuropsychological testing. However, various terms and definitions have been used in the literature and the lack of a widely accepted concept hampers comparison of studies. Epidemiological data have shown that individuals with subjective cognitive decline are at increased risk of progression to AD dementia. In addition, there is evidence that this group has a higher prevalence of positive biomarkers for amyloidosis and neurodegeneration. However, Alzheimer's disease is not the only cause of subjective cognitive decline and various other conditions can be associated with subjective memory complaints, such as psychiatric disorders or normal aging. The features suggestive of a neurodegenerative disorder are: onset of decline within the last five years, age at onset above 60 years, associated concerns about decline and confirmation by an informant. Conclusion: These findings support the idea that subjective cognitive complaints may be an early clinical marker that precedes mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Dental state and subjective chewing ability of institutionalized elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekelund, R

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dental state of the elderly, to provide a subjective appraisal of their chewing ability and their inability to eat certain foods because of their poor dental state. The subjects were 480 residents of 24 municipal old people's homes in different parts of Finland. Of the subjects, 153 were men and 327 women, and their ages ranged from 65 to 100 years. The methods used were clinical examination and interview. The clinical examination revealed that 68% of the subjects had no natural teeth, and 22% had neither natural nor artificial teeth. The number of teeth in dentate subjects was small (average 7.6), and the condition mostly poor. Only 2% had any serviceable counterparts. 51% of the subjects wore dentures: 57 subjects in the maxilla alone, three in the mandible alone and 186 in both maxilla and mandible. 41% said that because of their teeth they were unable to eat some foods they would have liked to eat, crisp bread being mentioned most often as such a food (85% of those with chewing difficulties). Edentulous subjects and dentate subjects wearing both maxillary and mandibular dentures said more often than those without dentures that they could eat everything; those without any teeth had most often (59%) to avoid some foods. More attention should be given to the dental condition and the masticatory function of the elderly, especially of those living in institutions, to ensure that they are comfortable physically, psychologically, and socially for the rest of their lives.

  2. The structural neural substrate of subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Sawada, Reiko; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2015-11-20

    Happiness is a subjective experience that is an ultimate goal for humans. Psychological studies have shown that subjective happiness can be measured reliably and consists of emotional and cognitive components. However, the neural substrates of subjective happiness remain unclear. To investigate this issue, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging and questionnaires that assessed subjective happiness, the intensity of positive and negative emotional experiences, and purpose in life. We found a positive relationship between the subjective happiness score and gray matter volume in the right precuneus. Moreover, the same region showed an association with the combined positive and negative emotional intensity and purpose in life scores. Our findings suggest that the precuneus mediates subjective happiness by integrating the emotional and cognitive components of happiness.

  3. Subjective estimates of colour attributes for surface colours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishak, I.G.H.; Bouma, H.; van Bussel, H.J.J.

    1970-01-01

    Subjective estimates of hue, saturation, and lightness are reported for sixty coloured Munsell samples, shown against seven backgrounds (black, grey, white, red, yellow, green, and blue) as judged by two observers. The results show the adequacy of this method for studies on colour appearance. The

  4. Features of the Subject Domain of Historical Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    V A Koltsova

    2008-01-01

    The known psychologist, the author of a number of important works on methodology of psychological science as a whole and historical psychology, in particular, considers pressing matters of the formation of historical psychology. Her attention is drawn to such matters, as the subject, structure and method of arising intersubject branch of knowledge - historical psychology.

  5. Normative and Subjective Need for Orthodontic Treatment within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the normative and subjective need for orthodontic treatment within different age groups in Turkey. Methods: One thousand and sixteen patients from seven different demographic regions of Turkey (Marmara, Black Sea, East Anatolia, Southeastern Anatolia, Mediterranean, Aegean,

  6. using subjective judgement to determine the validity of a tutorial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-11-21

    Nov 21, 2008 ... Subjective Judgement Model for paired comparison of instrument .... methods for decision making and problem solving would be ... quantitative analysis allows for repeatability and hence an audit ... Takes risks in expressing ideas ..... PBL curriculum planning, implementation and evaluation, ... Company.

  7. Robust Subjective Visual Property Prediction from Crowdsourced Pairwise Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yanwei; Hospedales, Timothy M; Xiang, Tao; Xiong, Jiechao; Gong, Shaogang; Wang, Yizhou; Yao, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The problem of estimating subjective visual properties from image and video has attracted increasing interest. A subjective visual property is useful either on its own (e.g. image and video interestingness) or as an intermediate representation for visual recognition (e.g. a relative attribute). Due to its ambiguous nature, annotating the value of a subjective visual property for learning a prediction model is challenging. To make the annotation more reliable, recent studies employ crowdsourcing tools to collect pairwise comparison labels. However, using crowdsourced data also introduces outliers. Existing methods rely on majority voting to prune the annotation outliers/errors. They thus require a large amount of pairwise labels to be collected. More importantly as a local outlier detection method, majority voting is ineffective in identifying outliers that can cause global ranking inconsistencies. In this paper, we propose a more principled way to identify annotation outliers by formulating the subjective visual property prediction task as a unified robust learning to rank problem, tackling both the outlier detection and learning to rank jointly. This differs from existing methods in that (1) the proposed method integrates local pairwise comparison labels together to minimise a cost that corresponds to global inconsistency of ranking order, and (2) the outlier detection and learning to rank problems are solved jointly. This not only leads to better detection of annotation outliers but also enables learning with extremely sparse annotations.

  8. Lipid Profile Pattern amongst Type 2 DM subjects with Erectile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective:Dyslipidaemia in patientswith diabetesmellitus leads to atherosclerosis and this contributes to erectile dysfunction (ED). This study set out to characterize the lipid profile pattern in diabetic patients with erectile dysfunction. Subject andMethods:Aprospective, cross sectional study carried out at the diabetes clinic of ...

  9. Cerebral atrophy in elderly with subjective memory complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, W.M.; Ferrarini, L.; van der Flier, W.M.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Bollen, E.L.E.M.; Middelkoop, H.A.M.; Milles, J.R.; van der Grond, J.; van Buchem, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate ventricular shape differences along the complete surface of the lateral and third ventricles of persons with subjective memory complaints (MC). Materials and Methods We included 28 controls and 21 persons with MC. FLAIR, T2, and PD-weighted brain MRI scans were acquired at 1.5

  10. Subjective effects of cannabis before the first psychotic episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Bart D.; de Koning, Pelle; Dingemans, Peter; Becker, Hiske; Linszen, Don H.; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the positive and negative effects of cannabis in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and in the ultrahigh-risk (UHR) state for psychosis. Method: A theory-driven questionnaire was used to examine subjective effects in the

  11. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  12. body composition, and subjective assessments of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Giessing

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of resistance training (RT examine methods that do not resemble typical training practices of persons participating in RT. Ecologically valid RT programs more representative of such practices are seldom compared. This study compared two such approaches to RT. Thirty participants (males, n=13; females, n=17 were randomised to either a group performing low volume ‘High Intensity Training’ (HIT; n=16 or high volume ‘Body-building’ (3ST; n=14 RT methods 2x/week for 10 weeks. Outcomes included muscular performance, body composition, and participant’s subjective assessments. Both HIT and 3ST groups improved muscular performance significantly (as indicated by 95% confidence intervals with large effect sizes (ES; 0.97 to 1.73 and 0.88 to 1.77 respectively. HIT had significantly greater muscular performance gains for 3 of 9 tested exercises compared with 3ST (p < 0.05 and larger effect sizes for 8 of 9 exercises. Body composition did not significantly change in either group. However, effect sizes for whole body muscle mass changes were slightly more favourable in the HIT group compared with the 3ST group (0.27 and -0.34 respectively in addition to whole body fat mass (0.03 and 0.43 respectively and whole body fat percentage (-0.10 and -0.44 respectively. Significant muscular performance gains can be produced using either HIT or 3ST. However, muscular performance gains may be greater when using HIT. Future research should look to identify which components of ecologically valid RT programs are primarily responsible for these differences in outcome.

  13. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  14. Subjective Wellbeing Among Adults with Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes-Truscott, Elizabeth; Browne, Jessica L; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    duration, body mass index, number of diabetes-related complications, and depression). Furthermore, adults with type 2 diabetes using insulin to manage their condition report the lowest levels of subjective wellbeing, and are also most likely to report dissatisfaction with their current health....... These findings suggest that living with diabetes, and in particular, living with type 2 diabetes and using insulin, strongly challenges the maintenance of subjective wellbeing.......This study examines the subjective wellbeing of Australian adults with diabetes who completed the Diabetes MILES—Australia survey, investigating by diabetes type and treatment, and by comparing with the subjective wellbeing of the general Australian adult population. In addition, the extent...

  15. Influence diagram in evaluating the subjective judgment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The author developed the idea of the subjective influence diagrams to evaluate subjective judgment. The subjective judgment of a stake holder is a primary decision making proposition. It involves a basic decision process an the individual attitude of the stake holder for his decision purpose. The subjective judgment dominates the some final decisions. A complex decision process may include the subjective judgment. An influence diagram framework is a simplest tool for analyzing subjective judgment process. In the framework, the characters of influence diagrams generate the describing the analyzing, and the evaluating of the subjective judgment. The relationship between the information and the decision, such as independent character between them, is the main issue. Then utility function is the calculating tool to evaluation, the stake holder can make optimal decision. Through the analysis about the decision process and relationship, the building process of the influence diagram identically describes the subjective judgment. Some examples are given to explain the property of subjective judgment and the analysis process

  16. Assessment of clinical residents' needs for ten educational subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Razavi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Fulfilling the learners' "real needs" will improve medical education. There are subjects that are necessary for any clinical residents not considering their field of specialty. Among the subjects ten seems to be the most important: research methodology and data analysis, computer-based programs, medical recording, cardiopulmonary and cerebral resuscitation, clinical teaching programs, communication skills, clinical ethics, laboratory examinations, reporting special diseases and death certification, and prescription. Purpose This cross-sectional study assessed educational needs of clinical residents for ten educational subjects. Methods A questionnaire prepared by board faculty members consisted of 10 close-ended questions, and one open­ ended question was distributed among 1307 residents from 22 clinical disciplines, who registered for preboard or promotion exam in June 2000. Results Among the subjects three were the most needed: computer-based programs 149 (60%, data collecting system 606 (49%, and clinical ethics 643 (46%. The prescription standard was the least required 177(13%. Conclusion Complementary training courses on these subjects can be an answer to the clinical residents needs. Keywords : research methodology, computer in medicine, cpr, clinical teaching methods, communication in medicine, medical ethics, laboratory ordering, disease coding system, death certificate, prescription writing

  17. Feeling Expression Using Avatars and Its Consistency for Subjective Annotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuyuko; Sasaki, Yasunari; Hiroyasu, Tomoyuki; Miki, Mitsunori

    Consumer Generated Media(CGM) is growing rapidly and the amount of content is increasing. However, it is often difficult for users to extract important contents and the existence of contents recording their experiences can easily be forgotten. As there are no methods or systems to indicate the subjective value of the contents or ways to reuse them, subjective annotation appending subjectivity, such as feelings and intentions, to contents is needed. Representation of subjectivity depends on not only verbal expression, but also nonverbal expression. Linguistically expressed annotation, typified by collaborative tagging in social bookmarking systems, has come into widespread use, but there is no system of nonverbally expressed annotation on the web. We propose the utilization of controllable avatars as a means of nonverbal expression of subjectivity, and confirmed the consistency of feelings elicited by avatars over time for an individual and in a group. In addition, we compared the expressiveness and ease of subjective annotation between collaborative tagging and controllable avatars. The result indicates that the feelings evoked by avatars are consistent in both cases, and using controllable avatars is easier than collaborative tagging for representing feelings elicited by contents that do not express meaning, such as photos.

  18. Subjective Well‐Being Anak Dari Orang Tua Yang Bercerai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pracasta Samya Dewi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to know how the psychological dynamic of Subjective Well‐Being (SWB of children is from divorced parents. This research involved three children from divorced parents as subject. The subjects’ ages were between 18‐21 years old. Data was collected through in‐depth interview, participative observation, and self report method. Findings indicated that there were three conditions of subjective well‐being of children from divorced parents. The first condition is the condition before the parent`s divorced, whereas the second and the third are the condition after the parent`s divorced. The first condition shows that children from divorced parents have low level of subjective well‐being before their parents divorced. It is mainly because of the parental conflict and the low level of family to spend time together which araised motional attachment. In the second condition, children from divorced parents still have low level of subjective well‐being that mainly because of the parental divorced, parental attitude that never told to their child about the divorced, and the decrease of parental attachment following the divorced. The third condition, children from divorced parents show the higher level of subjective well‐being that mainly because of the acceptance of children for the parents divorced. This acceptance leads children from divorced parents feeling positive affect and life satisfaction.

  19. SSRI treatment suppresses dream recall frequency but increases subjective dream intensity in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Schott, E F; Gersh, T; Silvestri, R; Stickgold, R; Salzman, C; Hobson, J A

    2001-06-01

    Clinical lore and a small number of published studies report that the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) intensify dreaming. This study examines the dream effects of paroxetine and fluvoxamine in order to both increase clinical knowledge of these agents and to test an important potential method for probing the relationship between REM sleep neurobiology and dreaming in humans. Fourteen normal, paid volunteers (4 males, 10 females; mean age 27.4 year, range 22--39) free of medical or neuropsychiatric symptoms as well as of psychotropic or sleep affecting drugs completed a 31-day home-based study consisting of: 7 days drug-free baseline; 19 days on either 100 mg fluvoxamine (7 Ss) or 20 mg paroxetine (7 Ss) in divided morning and evening doses; and 5 days acute discontinuation. Upon awakening, subjects wrote dream reports, self-scored specific emotions in their reports and rated seven general dream characteristics using 5-point Likert scales. Dream reports were independently scored for bizarreness, movement and number of visual nouns by three judges. REM sleep-related measures were obtained using the Nightcap ambulatory sleep monitor. Mean dream recall frequency decreased during treatment compared with baseline. Dream report length and judge-rated bizarreness were greater during acute discontinuation compared with both baseline and treatment and this effect was a result of the fluvoxamine-treated subjects. The subjective intensity of dreaming increased during both treatment and acute discontinuation compared with baseline. Propensity to enter REM sleep was decreased during treatment compared with baseline and acute discontinuation and the intensity of REM sleep increased during acute discontinuation compared with baseline and treatment. The decrease in dream frequency during SSRI treatment may reflect serotonergic REM suppression while the augmented report length and bizarreness during acute SSRI discontinuation may reflect cholinergic rebound from

  20. Development of Subjectivity in Cadets during Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Markov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article submits the results of the research, where such personal factors as learning motivation, aggressive reactions and the choice of behavior strategy in conflict are considered as the indicators of subjectivity development. It also shows the dynamics of the subjectivity development in cadets on these indicators.

  1. Human Resource Subjects Allocation and Students' Academic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated human resource subjects' allocation and students' academic performance in Secondary Schools in Obudu, Nigeria. The relevant variables of teachers subject was used as independent variable while the dependent variables were students' academic performance. Six hundred teachers from 20 ...

  2. Sociological theories of subjective well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSubjective well-being is no great issue in sociology; the subject is not mentioned in sociological textbooks (a notable exception is Nolan & Lenski, 2004) and is rarely discussed in sociological journals. This absence has many reasons: pragmatic, ideological, and theoretical. To begin

  3. Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conditioning audience patronage using subject matters in Nollywood films: the example of 30 days in Atlanta. ... Abstract. Films are subject-based and when producers set out to communicate their viewpoints, some do it flamboyantly while others take the subtle path. Unlike live theatre before it, the possibility of a virile spiral ...

  4. Introductory Programming Subject in European Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Veljko; Ivanovic, Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Programming is one of the basic subjects in most informatics, computer science mathematics and technical faculties' curricula. Integrated overview of the models for teaching programming, problems in teaching and suggested solutions were presented in this paper. Research covered current state of 1019 programming subjects in 715 study programmes at…

  5. Internal controls subjects at insurance companies

    OpenAIRE

    Прокопенко, Жанна Володимирівна

    2015-01-01

    The problematic issues of determining the authorities of the internal controls subjects at insurance companies have been elucidated. The list of internal controls subjects of insurer depending on the form of control as well as the purposefulness of such kind of control have been determined.

  6. Eliciting Subjective Probabilities with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    objective probabilities. Drawing a sample from the same subject population, we find evidence that the binary lottery procedure induces linear utility in a subjective probability elicitation task using the Quadratic Scoring Rule. We also show that the binary lottery procedure can induce direct revelation...

  7. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  8. Centring the Subject in Order to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, R. Scott

    2007-01-01

    It is important for educators to recognise that the various calls to decentre the subject--or self--should not be interpreted as necessarily requiring the removal of the subject altogether. Through the individualism of the Enlightenment the self was centred. This highly individualistic notion of the sovereign self has now been decentred especially…

  9. "Wo Es War": Psychoanalysis, Marxism, and Subjectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Subjectivity, for Descartes, emerged when he doubted the veracity of his knowledge. Instead of truth, he counted this knowledge to be inherited myth. Cartesian subjectivity has been helpful for forming a critical education predicated on doubting ideology and hegemony. But Marx indicates a very different kind of knowledge in his analysis of…

  10. Subject/Author Index 1968-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupidura, Eva, Ed.; Kupidura, Peter, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This 25-year index contains annotations of feature articles by subject and by author. Representative subjects include basic education, development education, empowerment, human rights, lifelong education, peace education, popular education, rural development, social/political action, technological advancement, and transformative research. Articles…

  11. Thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies in euthyroid subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a key enzyme in the formation of thyroid hormones and a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases. Titers of TPO antibodies also correlate with the degree of lymphocytic infiltration in euthyroid subjects, and they are frequently present in euthyroid subjects

  12. The Anatomy of Subjective Well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praag, van B.M.S.; Frijters, P.; Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on Subjective Well-Being by taking into account different aspects of life, called domains, such as health, financial situation, job, leisure, housing, and environment. We postulate a two-Iayer model where individual total Subjective Well-Being depends on the

  13. Predicting BCI subject performance using probabilistic spatio-temporal filters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung-Il Suk

    Full Text Available Recently, spatio-temporal filtering to enhance decoding for Brain-Computer-Interfacing (BCI has become increasingly popular. In this work, we discuss a novel, fully Bayesian-and thereby probabilistic-framework, called Bayesian Spatio-Spectral Filter Optimization (BSSFO and apply it to a large data set of 80 non-invasive EEG-based BCI experiments. Across the full frequency range, the BSSFO framework allows to analyze which spatio-spectral parameters are common and which ones differ across the subject population. As expected, large variability of brain rhythms is observed between subjects. We have clustered subjects according to similarities in their corresponding spectral characteristics from the BSSFO model, which is found to reflect their BCI performances well. In BCI, a considerable percentage of subjects is unable to use a BCI for communication, due to their missing ability to modulate their brain rhythms-a phenomenon sometimes denoted as BCI-illiteracy or inability. Predicting individual subjects' performance preceding the actual, time-consuming BCI-experiment enhances the usage of BCIs, e.g., by detecting users with BCI inability. This work additionally contributes by using the novel BSSFO method to predict the BCI-performance using only 2 minutes and 3 channels of resting-state EEG data recorded before the actual BCI-experiment. Specifically, by grouping the individual frequency characteristics we have nicely classified them into the subject 'prototypes' (like μ - or β -rhythm type subjects or users without ability to communicate with a BCI, and then by further building a linear regression model based on the grouping we could predict subjects' performance with the maximum correlation coefficient of 0.581 with the performance later seen in the actual BCI session.

  14. DIDACTIC PRINCIPLES OF THE FORMATION OF STUDENTS’ SUBJECT POSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Garanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subject position of a personality is the phenomenon that determines self-activity, identity, sovereignty, and positive dynamics of selfdevelopment, self-education, self-training and self-realization, i.e. those qualities which are necessary for a modern expert. Therefore, the development of the concept of formation and development of a subject position of a future expert during his/her vocational training is an urgent scientific and practical task.The aim of the present research is to prove theoretically the following issues: regularities of a formation process of a subject position of a student of a higher education institution; principles reflecting features of functioning of subject space; and requirements shown to the organization of this pedagogical process.Methodology and research methods. The methods involve the analysis of philosophical and psychology and pedagogical sources on the research problem; transspective, phenomenological, psychological, comparative, system, and structure-functional types of the analysis; deductive and inductive methods; comparison, generalization, synthesis, and abstraction.Results and scientific novelty. The concept «student’s subject position» is redefined; the concept includes such features as polysystemacity, multidimensionality, and multi-functionality. The characteristics of a person with a subject position are summarized; special attention is paid to his/her personal characteristics. The regularities of formation and development of the subject position of the student caused by internal mechanisms of self-updating, self-organization, self-development and self-improvement are found out. It is testified that these regularities are shown in the system of various social relations; depend on external impact, integrity and unity of a teaching and educational process; those regularities are characterized by heterochronism, emergence, and evolving. The research enables to present an overall

  15. Recruiting phobic research subjects: effectiveness and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakko, T; Murtomaa, H; Milgrom, P; Getz, T; Ramsay, D S; Coldwell, S E

    2001-01-01

    Efficiently enrolling subjects is one of the most important and difficult aspects of a clinical trial. This prospective study evaluated strategies used in the recruitment of 144 dental injection phobics for a clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of combining alprazolam with exposure therapy. Three types of recruitment strategies were evaluated: paid advertising, free publicity, and professional referral. Sixty-three percent of subjects were enrolled using paid advertising (the majority of them from bus advertisements [27.0%], posters on the University of Washington campus [20.1%], and newspaper advertisements [13.2%]). Free publicity (eg, television coverage, word of mouth) yielded 18.8% of enrolled subjects and professionaL referrals 14.6% of subjects. The average cost (1996 dollars) of enrolling 1 subject was $79. Bus and poster advertising attracted more initial contacts and yielded the greatest enrollment.

  16. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    The theoretical literature has a rich characterization of scoring rules for eliciting the subjective beliefs that an individual has for continuous events, but under the restrictive assumption of risk neutrality. It is well known that risk aversion can dramatically affect the incentives to correctly...... report the true subjective probability of a binary event, even under Subjective Expected Utility. To address this one can “calibrate” inferences about true subjective probabilities from elicited subjective probabilities over binary events, recognizing the incentives that risk averse agents have...... to distort reports. We characterize the comparable implications of the general case of a risk averse agent when facing a popular scoring rule over continuous events, and find that these concerns do not apply with anything like the same force. For empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can...

  17. Subject in Tractatus according to David Pears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hoseinzadeh Yazdi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivism is viewed as one of the most fundamental underpinnings of modern philosophy. In modern philosophy, subject takes up a new position in human knowledge. The formation of the concept of subject is a decisive turn with which the modern philosophy starts. Considering the centrality of subjectivism in modern philosophy, this article attempts to explain subject in Tractatus according to David Pears. A review of Wittgenstein’s earlier teachings reveals that he considers a fundamental limitation for language. The subject serves as a point of view from which the language can be understood. The subject is the presupposition of understanding. Another way of putting this would be to say that any experience is understood from a point of view which is not represented in that experience. Regarding this, it seems that earlier Wittgenstein is somehow subjectivist. This specific form of subjectivism is different from Kantian subjectivism.

  18. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, J; Handest, P; Saebye, D

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Contemporary psychopathology, as a result of behaviourally dominated epistemological stance, downplays anomalies of the patient's subjectivity. This neglect has probably deleterious consequences for research in the causes and the boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum conditions....... The purpose of this study is to explore frequency of qualitative, not-yet-psychotic, anomalies of subjective experience in patients with residual schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness in remission. METHOD: The patients were examined with the Danish version of the Bonn Scale for the Assessment of Basic...... differential diagnosis and therefore potentially useful in the preonset detection of the schizophrenia spectrum illness....

  19. Subjective assessment of kinesitherapy as an element of comprehensive rehabilitation process of subjects with lower spine pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Łubkowska

    2016-02-01

      Abstract Background. Spinal pain has triggered interest in many fields of medicine, such as orthopedics, neurology, rheumatology, and rehabilitation. Despite ongoing development of surgery techniques, a major role is played by fitness improvement treatments, which need to be promoted. The aim of the research was a subjective assessment of kinesitherapy as an element of comprehensive rehabilitation process of subjects with lower spine pain. Material/Methods. This paper has an empirical character. The research was conducted amongst a randomly selected group of 60 patients of Independent Public Health Care Unit in Choszczno, Poland (rehabilitation at an outpatients’ clinic, aged 20-51. All of them were subjected to a series of 10 kinesitherapy treatments. The research used diagnostic polling method and the following techniques: survey and implicit interview. Results. The research proved that after completion of 10 treatments, the subjects noticed a significant improvement of their health. Kinesitherapy helped return to an active professional life for those who were forced to resign or suspend their work. Subjects reported that 10 kinesitherapy treatments were enough to notice their effectiveness in lumbar spine pain reduction. Kinesitherapy treatments resulted in a reduced usage of painkillers. Conclusions. There is evidence of positive impact of physical exercise on treatment results and beneficial effects in patients with spinal pain. Proper education aimed at changing bad habits and advising how to care for spine may be a powerful way to fight for health.   Keywords: spine, pain syndromes, lumbar spine, kinesitherapy, curative exercises, improving fitness.

  20. Objective and Subjective Assessment of Digital Pathology Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prarthana Shrestha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The quality of an image produced by the Whole Slide Imaging (WSI scanners is of critical importance for using the image in clinical diagnosis. Therefore, it is very important to monitor and ensure the quality of images. Since subjective image quality assessments by pathologists are very time-consuming, expensive and difficult to reproduce, we propose a method for objective assessment based on clinically relevant and perceptual image parameters: sharpness, contrast, brightness, uniform illumination and color separation; derived from a survey of pathologists. We developed techniques to quantify the parameters based on content-dependent absolute pixel performance and to manipulate the parameters in a predefined range resulting in images with content-independent relative quality measures. The method does not require a prior reference model. A subjective assessment of the image quality is performed involving 69 pathologists and 372 images (including 12 optimal quality images and their distorted versions per parameter at 6 different levels. To address the inter-reader variability, a representative rating is determined as a one-tailed 95% confidence interval of the mean rating. The results of the subjective assessment support the validity of the proposed objective image quality assessment method to model the readers’ perception of image quality. The subjective assessment also provides thresholds for determining the acceptable level of objective quality per parameter. The images for both the subjective and objective quality assessment are based on the HercepTestTM slides scanned by the Philips Ultra Fast Scanners, developed at Philips Digital Pathology Solutions. However, the method is applicable also to other types of slides and scanners.

  1. Demographic features of subjects with congenital glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Bolukbasi, Selim; Çapar, Olgu; Ozkok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Context: Congenital glaucoma is a potentially blinding ocular disease of the childhood. Identification of the possible associated risk factors and may be helpful for prevention or early detection of this public health problem. Aims: To demonstrate the demographic features of congenital glaucoma subjects. Setting and Design: The charts of congenital glaucoma patients referred to Tamcelik Glaucoma Center were retrospectively reviewed through the dates of 2000 and 2013. Materials and Methods: Analyzed data included diagnosis, age at first presentation, symptoms at first presentation, laterality of the disease, sex, presence of consanguinity, family history of congenital glaucoma, maturity of the fetus at delivery, and maternal age at conception. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 by IBM (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Illinois, USA) was used to compare the mean of continuous variables with Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) and χ2 test was used to test differences in proportions of categorical variables. Results: The data of 600 eyes of 311 patients were analyzed. The distribution of primary and secondary congenital glaucoma among the patients were 63.3% (n = 197) and 36.7% (n = 114), respectively. Of the 311 patients, 57.2% (n = 178) were male and 42.8% (n = 133) were female. The overall frequency of bilateral disease was 92.3% (n = 287). Overall rate of consanguinity and positive family history was 45.3% (n = 141) and 21.2% (n = 66), respectively. Conclusions: Bilateral disease in this study was more common than previously reported studies. Positive family history was more frequent in primary congenital glaucoma although not statistically significant. PMID:24881602

  2. From Perception to Subject: The Bergsonian Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messay Kebede

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In lieu of an abstract, here is the opening paragraph to the essay:What singles out philosophical analyses of perception is the challenge to common sense, that is, to the spontaneous, instinctive belief that an external world exists and that it is similar to the perception we have of it. Even those theories that refrain from questioning the independent existence of the world concede that the resemblance of whatever is out there to the perceived reality is anything but assured. Henri Bergson proposes a theory of perception that not only restores the common belief in the existence of an external world, but also goes a long way in narrowing the alleged disparity between perception and the objective world. With few exceptions, Bergson’s theory of perception has been either ignored or misunderstood. Through a close reading of the first chapter of Matter and Memory, the paper argues, in addition to correcting misreadings, that the strength and originality of Bergson’s theory lie in the reversal of the method of explaining perception from the premise of a given subject, a premise shared by all idealist and realist theories as well as phenomenology. This de-subjectification proposes an approach deriving perception from the interactions of objects while countering the materialist theory of the brain as an organ of representation. The paper contends that the Bergsonian elucidation of the brain as an organ of simulation both anticipates the findings of the sensorimotor theory and overcomes its limitation by showing how simulation inserts indetermination into materiality, thereby actualizing consciousness.

  3. Mitochondrial mutations in subjects with psychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available A considerable body of evidence supports the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in psychiatric disorders and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are known to alter brain energy metabolism, neurotransmission, and cause neurodegenerative disorders. Genetic studies focusing on common nuclear genome variants associated with these disorders have produced genome wide significant results but those studies have not directly studied mtDNA variants. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using next generation sequencing, the involvement of mtDNA variation in bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, and methamphetamine use. MtDNA extracted from multiple brain regions and blood were sequenced (121 mtDNA samples with an average of 8,800x coverage and compared to an electronic database containing 26,850 mtDNA genomes. We confirmed novel and rare variants, and confirmed next generation sequencing error hotspots by traditional sequencing and genotyping methods. We observed a significant increase of non-synonymous mutations found in individuals with schizophrenia. Novel and rare non-synonymous mutations were found in psychiatric cases in mtDNA genes: ND6, ATP6, CYTB, and ND2. We also observed mtDNA heteroplasmy in brain at a locus previously associated with schizophrenia (T16519C. Large differences in heteroplasmy levels across brain regions within subjects suggest that somatic mutations accumulate differentially in brain regions. Finally, multiplasmy, a heteroplasmic measure of repeat length, was observed in brain from selective cases at a higher frequency than controls. These results offer support for increased rates of mtDNA substitutions in schizophrenia shown in our prior results. The variable levels of heteroplasmic/multiplasmic somatic mutations that occur in brain may be indicators of genetic instability in mtDNA.

  4. An overview of optimization of structures subjected to transient loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Soo; Park, Gyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    Various aspects of structural optimization techniques under transient loads are extensively reviewed. The main themes of the paper are treatment of time dependent constraints, calculation of design sensitivity, and approximation. Each subject is reviewed with the corresponding papers that have been published since 1970s. The treatment of time dependent constraints in both the direct method and the transformation method is discussed. Two ways of calculating design sensitivity of a structure under transient loads are discussed-direct differentiation method and adjoint variable method. The approximation concept mainly focuses on response surface method in crashworthiness and local approximation with the intermediate variable. Especially, as an approximated optimization technique, equivalent static load method which takes advantage of the well-established static response optimization technique is introduced. And as an application area of dynamic response optimization technique, the structural optimization in flexible multibody dynamic system is reviewed in the viewpoint of the above three themes

  5. Who is the Subject in Educational Research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Gurdián-Fernández

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue, first, that the identity of the researcher has an impact not only in the way she/he invThis article explains, in the first place, that the identity of the researcher not only influences his way to do research, but also the teaching processes and, therefore, training of future researchers. Secondly, it states that schools and teachers play a central role in the construction of identities. Third, this paper emphasizes that those engaged in educational research are not released from this responsibility, so this is an invitation to reflect on the following: What are our responsibilities in the process of identity construction? Who is the subject of education? Who is the subject of educational research? How inclusive is our notion of both the educational and the empirical subjects? Through the analysis of questions on topics such us: the subject-object relationship; the subject in educational research; the contribution of subjectivity; the contribution of phenomenology; among others, this paper explains that: a the intellectual autobiography is a great potential instrument to understand the direction of a research process and b focusing on people, their history, social relationships and environment, as subjects and not just as objects of study, is an epistemological, political and ethical movement, which recognizes the subject’s action in and on the world. Finally, this paper states that qualitative researchers should not only understand who they are, they are ethically obliged to make it explicitly.

  6. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechell, Ben

    Firms commonly use supervisor evaluations to assess the performance of employees who work in complex environments. Doubts persist whether their subjective nature invalidates using these performance measures to learn about careers of individuals and to inform theory in personnel economics. We...... examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employee performances within narrowly defined peer-groups, correlate with objective career outcomes. We find many similarities across firms in how subjective ratings correlate with base...

  7. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  8. Protecting human research subjects: the past defines the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Joseph L

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever.

  9. Subjective Analysis and Objective Characterization of Adaptive Bitrate Videos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    The HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology allows video service providers to improve the network utilization and thereby increasing the end-users’ Quality of Experience (QoE).This has made HAS a widely used approach for audiovisual delivery. There are several previous studies aiming to identify...... the factors influencing on subjective QoE of adaptation events.However, adapting the video quality typically lasts in a time scale much longer than what current standardized subjective testing methods are designed for, thus making the full matrix design of the experiment on an event level hard to achieve....... In this study, we investigated the overall subjective QoE of 6 minutes long video sequences containing different sequential adaptation events. This was compared to a data set from our previous work performed to evaluate the individual adaptation events. We could then derive a relationship between the overall...

  10. Subjective Population of Personality: Socio-Psychological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadym Zavatskyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aimed at identifying the influence of socio-psychological factors on the formation of subjective wellbeing of a married person. The following methods were used: questionnaire, psycho diagnostic techniques for investigating satisfaction with marriage, personal self-fulfillment in the family (on the operational level and the level of values and role sets, socio-psychological adaptation, conformity of family values and role expectations in marriage. The data about the content, structural components (cognitive and evaluation, value and motivational, emotional and behavioral and functions (regulatory, prognostic, developmental of subjective well-being of a married person have been presented. Socio-psychological factors of subjective well-being of a married person have been specified.

  11. Conductive Education as a Method of Stroke Rehabilitation: A Single Blinded Randomised Controlled Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Bek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Conductive Education for stroke survivors has shown promise but randomised evidence is unavailable. This study assessed the feasibility of a definitive randomised controlled trial to evaluate efficacy. Methods. Adult stroke survivors were recruited through local community notices. Those completing the baseline assessment were randomised using an online program and group allocation was independent. Intervention group participants received 10 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of Conductive Education at the National Institute of Conductive Education in Birmingham, UK. The control group participants attended two group meetings. The study evaluated the feasibility of recruitment procedures, delivery of the intervention, retention of participants, and appropriateness of outcome measures and data collection methods. Independent assessments included the Barthel Index, the Stroke Impact Scale, the Timed Up and Go test, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results. Eighty-two patients were enrolled; 77 completed the baseline assessment (46 men, mean age 62.1 yrs. and were randomised. 70 commenced the intervention (n=37 or an equivalent waiting period (n=33. 32/37 completed the 10-week training and 32/33 the waiting period. There were no missing items from completed questionnaires and no adverse events. Discussion. Recruitment, intervention, and assessment methods worked well. Transport issues for intervention and assessment appointments require review. Conclusion. A definitive trial is feasible. This trial is registered with ISRCTN84064492.

  12. On characterizing population commonalities and subject variations in brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Bloy, Luke; Tunc, Birkan; Shankar, Varsha; Roberts, Timothy P L; Edgar, J Christopher; Schultz, Robert T; Verma, Ragini

    2017-05-01

    Brain networks based on resting state connectivity as well as inter-regional anatomical pathways obtained using diffusion imaging have provided insight into pathology and development. Such work has underscored the need for methods that can extract sub-networks that can accurately capture the connectivity patterns of the underlying population while simultaneously describing the variation of sub-networks at the subject level. We have designed a multi-layer graph clustering method that extracts clusters of nodes, called 'network hubs', which display higher levels of connectivity within the cluster than to the rest of the brain. The method determines an atlas of network hubs that describes the population, as well as weights that characterize subject-wise variation in terms of within- and between-hub connectivity. This lowers the dimensionality of brain networks, thereby providing a representation amenable to statistical analyses. The applicability of the proposed technique is demonstrated by extracting an atlas of network hubs for a population of typically developing controls (TDCs) as well as children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and using the structural and functional networks of a population to determine the subject-level variation of these hubs and their inter-connectivity. These hubs are then used to compare ASD and TDCs. Our method is generalizable to any population whose connectivity (structural or functional) can be captured via non-negative network graphs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive factors in subjective stabilization of the visual world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, B

    1981-08-01

    If an eye movement signal is fed through a galvanic mirror, to move a projected image which a subject is inspecting, prominent objects in the image may seem to jiggle or jump with the the eye when the gain is just below the threshold for detecting a jump of the entire image (Brune and Lücking 1969). We have refined and extended this observation with both naive and practiced subjects, finding results which contradict all of the current theories about the mechanism of stabilization of the visual world and suggest that cognitive factors in perception important influences on the stabilization process. Using this method with a paired photocell system to detect horizontal eye movements, some subjects saw a prominent object in the display jump slightly while the rest of the scene remained stable. The task was done first with landscape slides, then repeated with Escher prints where two sets of alternating figures completely filled the image. Subjects could concentrate on one set of forms as the "figure" and the other as the "ground", and reverse the two at will. In a majority of practiced subjects and in smaller proportion of naive subjects, motion of part of the "figure" was seen regardless of which alternative set of forms constituted it. Reversibility of the effect controlled for influence of object size, brightness, etc. in inducing the selective jump. These and related observations show that cognitive or attentional variables are as important as image properties or gain alone in determining subjective stabilization of the visual world, though current theories (inflow, outflow, cancellation, etc.) consider image position to be simple variable. Another experiment showed that image movement on the retina during saccades cannot explain saccadic suppression of displacement.

  14. Braille character discrimination in blindfolded human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Thomas; Théoret, Hugo; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2002-04-16

    Visual deprivation may lead to enhanced performance in other sensory modalities. Whether this is the case in the tactile modality is controversial and may depend upon specific training and experience. We compared the performance of sighted subjects on a Braille character discrimination task to that of normal individuals blindfolded for a period of five days. Some participants in each group (blindfolded and sighted) received intensive Braille training to offset the effects of experience. Blindfolded subjects performed better than sighted subjects in the Braille discrimination task, irrespective of tactile training. For the left index finger, which had not been used in the formal Braille classes, blindfolding had no effect on performance while subjects who underwent tactile training outperformed non-stimulated participants. These results suggest that visual deprivation speeds up Braille learning and may be associated with behaviorally relevant neuroplastic changes.

  15. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  16. Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interactive learning software for electrical engineering subjects using MATLAB and ... Keywords: electrical engineering; MATLAB; graphic user interface (GUI); educational software. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  17. Ethical aspects of trade subject to risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gethmann, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    The paper pleads for unrestricted use of the requirement of rational risk comparison. The ethical aspects of the problem are that human beings cannot help expecting certain people to take risks and others to forsake them. Expectation of risk requires an ethical justification. Consideration of justification has of course to originate from the fact that both readiness to accept risk and also the preference system are subject to strong subjective variations. Consequently, intercession has to be made to compare the definition of subjective probability (competitiveness) and a subjective preference matrix as the basis for a rational definition of risk. General liability results first due to the fact that consistency can be expected from each individual in relation to the readiness to accept risk expected of him. According to the requirement for consistency introduced here, a readiness to accept risk may be expected of an individual which is otherwise already accepted. (orig.) [de

  18. Energy Data Base: subject categories and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bost, D.E.

    1985-03-01

    The subject scope of the Energy Data Base (EDB) encompasses all DOE-sponsored research. Broadly defined, EDB subject scope includes all technological aspects of energy production, conversion, and efficient utilization, and the economic, social, and political aspects as well. Scope notes are provided to define the extent of interest in certain subject areas, particularly areas of basic research. Cross references between categories are provided to aid both the categorization of information and its retrieval. Citations entered into DOE's computerized bibliographic information system are assigned six-digit subject category numbers to broadly group information for storage, retrieval, and manipulation. These numbers are used in the preparation of printed documents, such as bibliographies and abstract journals, to arrange the citations and to aid searching on the DOE/RECON on-line system

  19. Subject related teaching in udeskole (outdoor school)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Karen Seierøe

    Subject related teaching in udeskole In this symposium, subject related teaching on a regular basis in the outdoors, known as udeskole will be described and discussed. Based on recent and ongoing research and development, the education taking the place of teaching into account of the learning...... will identify the necessity of doing research into the field, as 18,4% of all Danish schools is shown to have one or more classes working with udeskole (Barfod et al, 2016). Secondly, the subject related teaching in the outdoors will be exemplified by four research projects. First, the subject ‘Danish...... teaching in the outdoors will be supplemented with recent research upon barriers for using external learning environments ‘the open school’ in Skive Muncipiality. Closing the seminar will be a presentation of the national Danish Network UdeskoleNet and its application. Sources: Barfod, K., Ejbye-Ernst, N...

  20. Personality dimensions and subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico Librán, Eliseo

    2006-05-01

    This work examines the association between personality dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) and subjective well-being. Subjective well-being is associated both with extraversion and neuroticism, and currently, neuroticism is generally considered the more important. A total of 368 students from the University of Rovira i Virgili completed the Extraversion and Neuroticism subscales of the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck, Eysenck, and Barrett, 1985), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin, 1985), and the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (Watson, Clark, and Tellegen, 1988). Regression analyses revealed the personality variable of neuroticism as one of the most important correlates of subjective well-being. Regression analyses also showed that 44% of the variance of subjective well-being was accounted for by neuroticism, whereas extraversion only explained 8% of the variance.

  1. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  2. Are Autonomous and Controlled Motivations School-Subjects-Specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanal, Julien; Guay, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    This research sought to test whether autonomous and controlled motivations are specific to school subjects or more general to the school context. In two cross-sectional studies, 252 elementary school children (43.7% male; mean age = 10.7 years, SD = 1.3 years) and 334 junior high school children (49.7% male, mean age = 14.07 years, SD = 1.01 years) were administered a questionnaire assessing their motivation for various school subjects. Results based on structural equation modeling using the correlated trait-correlated method minus one model (CTCM-1) showed that autonomous and controlled motivations assessed at the school subject level are not equally school-subject-specific. We found larger specificity effects for autonomous (intrinsic and identified) than for controlled (introjected and external) motivation. In both studies, results of factor loadings and the correlations with self-concept and achievement demonstrated that more evidence of specificity was obtained for autonomous regulations than for controlled ones. These findings suggest a new understanding of the hierarchical and multidimensional academic structure of autonomous and controlled motivations and of the mechanisms involved in the development of types of regulations for school subjects. PMID:26247788

  3. Subjective Life Horizon and Portfolio Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Spaenjers , Christophe; Spira, Sven Michael

    2013-01-01

    Using data from a U.S. household survey, we examine the empirical relation between subjective life horizon (i.e., the self-reported expectation of remaining life span) and portfolio choice. We find that equity portfolio shares are higher for investors with longer horizons, ceteris paribus, in line with theoretical predictions. This result is robust to controlling for optimism and health status, accounting for the endogeneity of equity market participation, or instrumenting subjective life hor...

  4. Are tent halls subject to property tax?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Macudziński

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented publication is a response to currently asked questions and interpretative doubts of taxpayers and tax authorities, namely whether tent halls are subject to property tax. General issues connected with an entity and a subject of taxation of this tax are presented herein. The answer to the question asked is then provided through the qualification of constructions works and the allocation of tent halls in the proper category of the works, with the use of the current law.

  5. PSA, subjective probability and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarotti, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    PSA is the natural way to making decisions in face of uncertainty relative to potentially dangerous plants; subjective probability, subjective utility and Bayes statistics are the ideal tools for carrying out a PSA. This paper reports that in order to support this statement the various stages of the PSA procedure are examined in detail and step by step the superiority of Bayes techniques with respect to sampling theory machinery is proven

  6. Inhalation of road dust by human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima, T; Nakamura, M; Sasaki, M; Miyano, M; Yamaya, M; Sasaki, H

    1987-11-01

    We measured pneumomagnetic field strength (PMFS) in 42 healthy control subjects living in districts of Northern Japan with low levels of road dust pollution and in 39 healthy subjects living in areas with high levels of road dust pollution. Suspended road dust produced by studded tires increases from 30 micrograms/m3 during the summer season to levels as high as 400 micrograms/m3 during the snow season in the downtown areas of Sendai, Japan. Road dust retained in the lungs, containing 3% iron, was magnetized from the surface of the chest wall, and PMFS was measured. Three to 5 sequential PMFS measurements were made in each subject in March and October of 1984 and 1985, and in March 1986. The PMFS in control subjects in March 1984 was 37 +/- 14 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and did not significantly differ from the PMFS in October 1984 or that in March 1985. In March 1984, the PMFS of the subjects in highly polluted areas was 95 +/- 100 pico-Tesla (mean +/- SD) and was significantly higher than that of control subjects (p less than 0.01) and subsequently decreased in March 1985 and in March 1986, corresponding to a decrease in suspended road dust brought about by a campaign to eliminate the use of studded tires. Our findings suggest that some road dust caused by studded tires is retained in the lungs.

  7. Saturation analysis studies of corticosteroid levels in normal Greek subjects and in subjects with haemolytic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyzantiadis, A.

    1975-07-01

    Between 1970 and 1974 a saturation analysis for cortisol in plasma and free cortisol in urine, and a radioimmunoassay method for aldosterone in plasma and urine were developed. In order to permit a comparative evaluation it was necessary to study corticosteroids, diurnal rhythm and the probable effect of a siesta on this rhythm both in normal subjects and in patients suffering from hemic diseases, in particular from sickle-cell anemia. Saturation assay for cortisol, using serum from pregnant women as source of transcortin, and radioimmunoassay for aldosterone were the basic methods used. Serum cortisol was estimated twice a day (8-9 a.m. and 5-6 p.m.). Cortisol and aldosterone were also estimated in serum and in urine before and after adrenalin stimulation with ACTH. No significant influence of a siesta on the diurnal rhythm of cortisol was observed, nor did the levels of serum cortisol or the diurnal rhythm appear affected in congenital hemolytic anemias, following adrenalin stimulation. The report lists experimental results briefly and refers to a paper in which these are published in more detail

  8. Subjective Vitality as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Life Satisfaction and Subjective Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Recep; Satici, Seydi Ahmet; Satici, Begüm; Akin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the mediator and moderator effects of subjective vitality on the relationship between life satisfaction and subjective happiness were investigated. The participants were 378 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Subjective Vitality Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective…

  9. Arm rehabilitation in post stroke subjects: A randomized controlled trial on the efficacy of myoelectrically driven FES applied in a task-oriented approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsdottir, Johanna; Thorsen, Rune; Aprile, Irene; Galeri, Silvia; Spannocchi, Giovanna; Beghi, Ettore; Bianchi, Elisa; Montesano, Angelo; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Motor recovery of persons after stroke may be enhanced by a novel approach where residual muscle activity is facilitated by patient-controlled electrical muscle activation. Myoelectric activity from hemiparetic muscles is then used for continuous control of functional electrical stimulation (MeCFES) of same or synergic muscles to promote restoration of movements during task-oriented therapy (TOT). Use of MeCFES during TOT may help to obtain a larger functional and neurological recovery than otherwise possible. Multicenter randomized controlled trial. Eighty two acute and chronic stroke victims were recruited through the collaborating facilities and after signing an informed consent were randomized to receive either the experimental (MeCFES assisted TOT (M-TOT) or conventional rehabilitation care including TOT (C-TOT). Both groups received 45 minutes of rehabilitation over 25 sessions. Outcomes were Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA-UE) scores and Disability of the Arm Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Sixty eight subjects completed the protocol (Mean age 66.2, range 36.5-88.7, onset months 12.7, range 0.8-19.1) of which 45 were seen at follow up 5 weeks later. There were significant improvements in both groups on ARAT (median improvement: MeCFES TOT group 3.0; C-TOT group 2.0) and FMA-UE (median improvement: M-TOT 4.5; C-TOT 3.5). Considering subacute subjects (time since stroke rehabilitation (57.9%) than in the C-TOT group (33.2%) (difference in proportion improved 24.7%; 95% CI -4.0; 48.6), though the study did not meet the planned sample size. This is the first large multicentre RCT to compare MeCFES assisted TOT with conventional care TOT for the upper extremity. No adverse events or negative outcomes were encountered, thus we conclude that MeCFES can be a safe adjunct to rehabilitation that could promote recovery of upper limb function in persons after stroke, particularly when applied in the subacute phase.

  10. Study of Subjective Life Quality in Young People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtanova Yu.E.,

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of subjective life quality in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers. The study sample comprised 62 women aged 14 to 18 years. The experimental study group consisted of 30 students of grades VIII-XI of Secondary School of home-based learning № 1673 "Support". The control group included 32 student of grades VIII-XI of School № 1222 with in-depth study of the German language. The methods used were: Medical Outcomes Study 36 Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36, M. Kuhn test "Who am I" (M. Kuhn, T. McPartland; modification by T.V. Rumjantseva, Method and diagnosis of health, activity and mood, projective technique "Picture of the actual self" and "Picture of the desired self" with questions. We formulated conclusions about the features of the subjective assessment of the quality of life in young people with disabilities compared with their healthy peers.

  11. Oxidative stress in hepatitis C infected end-stage renal disease subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koylu Ahmet O

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both uremia and hepatitis C infection is associated with increased oxidative stress. In the present study, we aimed to find out whether hepatitis C infection has any impact on oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects. Methods Sixteen hepatitis C (+ hemodialysis subjects, 24 hepatitis C negative hemodialysis subjects and 24 healthy subjects were included. Total antioxidant capacity, total peroxide level and oxidative stress index were determined in all subjects. Results Total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher in controls than hemodialysis subjects with or without hepatitis C infection (all p 0.05/3. Conclusion Oxidative stress is increased in both hepatitis C (+ and hepatitis C (- hemodialysis subjects. However, hepatitis C infection seems to not cause any additional increase in oxidative stress in hemodialysis subjects and it may be partly due to protective effect of dialysis treatment on hepatitis C infection.

  12. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Iskander, S.K.; Moore, S.E.

    1978-03-01

    End effects on elbows subjected to moment loading are investigated using the finite element program EPACA. Relatively simple but more accurate (than present Code) equations are developed and recommendation for an alternative Code method using these equations is presented. Data from EPACA on stresses at welds (elbow-to-pipe juncture) are presented. A simple equation is given for estimating the maximum stresses at the welds

  13. Measuring the Subjective Well-being of Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Rosa Isela Gluyas Fitch; Yutzil Tania Cadena Pedraza; María del Carmen Romero Sánchez; Monica Georgina Cinco Basurto

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an instrument, designed using scientific methods, to measure the subjective well-being of teachers in relation to their work and to variables from life experience. Participant teachers work at the basic educational level in private institutions created by the civil society that attend to the needs of the socio-economically vulnerable populations outside the state’s system. The Cronbach Alfa index and exploratory factor analysis were used to establish the reliability and va...

  14. Prayeras the Subject of Speech Activity and its Communicative Intension

    OpenAIRE

    Khomulenko Tamara; Kuznetsov Oleksiy; Fomenko Karyna

    2018-01-01

    The article reveals the phenomenon of prayer as a form of communication between individual and God. It is shown that prayer as a subject of speech activity is the leading form of religious discourse. Based on the analysis of the definitions and classifications of prayer in psychological and psycholinguistic studies, the author concluded that the communicative intention of prayer is highly variable and emphasized the significant heuristic potential of the psychodiagnostic method of prayer for ...

  15. Status and progress of treatment methods for root caries in the last decade: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J; Palamara, Jea; Manton, D J; Burrow, M F

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this literature review is to explore the treatment methods for root caries in laboratory and clinical research in the last decade. A systematic search of publications in PubMed and Web of Science databases was performed. The timespan was limited to the last 10 years and English language. Further retrieval was conducted using the search terms of specific therapies or treatments. Eighty-two articles were included in this systematic review and full texts were retrieved. Types of studies included laboratory studies and clinical trials. Therapeutic approaches for root caries without risk of pulp exposure can be categorized into non-invasive and restorative treatment. Non-invasive treatments which targeted different causative factors of root caries have been developed in the last decade. Accordingly, several artificial caries model systems have been proposed for the study of root caries in the laboratory. Carious tissue excavation techniques and restorative materials and procedures have been modified to improve the prognosis of invasive treatment. It is of importance to determine the most appropriate therapy for root caries and further clinical trials are needed to draw firm conclusions concerning the efficacy and consistency of the various treatment methods proposed. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Algorithmic psychometrics and the scalable subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Luke

    2018-04-01

    Recent public controversies, ranging from the 2014 Facebook 'emotional contagion' study to psychographic data profiling by Cambridge Analytica in the 2016 American presidential election, Brexit referendum and elsewhere, signal watershed moments in which the intersecting trajectories of psychology and computer science have become matters of public concern. The entangled history of these two fields grounds the application of applied psychological techniques to digital technologies, and an investment in applying calculability to human subjectivity. Today, a quantifiable psychological subject position has been translated, via 'big data' sets and algorithmic analysis, into a model subject amenable to classification through digital media platforms. I term this position the 'scalable subject', arguing it has been shaped and made legible by algorithmic psychometrics - a broad set of affordances in digital platforms shaped by psychology and the behavioral sciences. In describing the contours of this 'scalable subject', this paper highlights the urgent need for renewed attention from STS scholars on the psy sciences, and on a computational politics attentive to psychology, emotional expression, and sociality via digital media.

  17. Null Subjects in European and Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Barbosa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper are twofold: a to provide a structural account of the effects of the informal ‘Avoid Pronoun Principle’, proposed in Chomsky (1981: 65 for the Null Subject Languages (NSLs, and b to compare, in European and Brazilian Portuguese (EP and BP, the distribution of the third person pronouns in its full and null forms, to check whether in written corpora BP incorporates signs of the ongoing loss of the null subject, largely attested in its contemporary spoken language. The strong theoretical claim is that in the Romance non-NSLs the pre-verbal subject is sitting in Spec of IP, while in the Romance NSLs it is Clitic Left-Dislocated (or is extracted by A-bar movement if it belongs to a restricted set of non-referential quantified expressions. The paper provides quantitative evidence that BP is losing the properties associated with the Null Subject Parameter. In its qualitative analysis, it shows that the contrasts between EP and BP are easily accounted for if the two derivations are assumed and if the null subjects in the two varieties are considered to be of a different nature: a pronoun in EP and a pronominal anaphor in BP.

  18. Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trybulec Barbara

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.

  19. Shareveillance: Subjectivity between open and closed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Birchall

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to question modes of sharing and watching to rethink political subjectivity beyond that which is enabled and enforced by the current data regime. It identifies and examines a ‘shareveillant’ subjectivity: a form configured by the sharing and watching that subjects have to withstand and enact in the contemporary data assemblage. Looking at government open and closed data as case studies, this article demonstrates how ‘shareveillance’ produces an anti-political role for the public. In describing shareveillance as, after Jacques Rancière, a distribution of the (digital sensible, this article posits a politico-ethical injunction to cut into the share and flow of data in order to arrange a more enabling assemblage of data and its affects. In order to interrupt shareveillance, this article borrows a concept from Édouard Glissant and his concern with raced otherness to imagine what a ‘right to opacity’ might mean in the digital context. To assert this right is not to endorse the individual subject in her sovereignty and solitude, but rather to imagine a collective political subjectivity and relationality according to the important question of what it means to ‘share well’ beyond the veillant expectations of the state.

  20. Perception and use of balance measures for stroke patients among physical therapists in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Ho Young; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study looked into physical therapists? perception and use of balance measures for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Three hundred eighty two physical therapists who understood the purpose of this study, agreed on their participation in this study, were treating or treated stroke patients. A Cross-sectional study based on self-administered questionnaire that had a total of 41 questions was performed in South Korea. 382 questionnaires were used for analysis. ...

  1. Scoring Rules for Subjective Probability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2017-01-01

    significantly due to risk aversion. We characterize an approach for eliciting the entire subjective belief distribution that is minimally biased due to risk aversion. We offer simulated examples to demonstrate the intuition of our approach. We also provide theory to formally characterize our framework. And we...... provide experimental evidence which corroborates our theoretical results. We conclude that for empirically plausible levels of risk aversion, one can reliably elicit most important features of the latent subjective belief distribution without undertaking calibration for risk attitudes providing one...

  2. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  3. The importance of subjective claims management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beger, C S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and effects of "subjective disability" on today's workforce and employers. As employees feel out of control with both their careers and demands placed upon them, the number of claims characterized by self-reported symptoms are increasing. Subjective disabilities include chronic syndrome, fibromyalgia, psychiatric claims and chronic pain. The author discusses creative strategies in case studies that have helped employers contain the costs of disability claims, while empowering the employee to take control of their own situation and return to work sooner.

  4. Pulmonary function in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P. R.; Isaksen, Jonas Lynggaard; Jemec, G. B.

    2018-01-01

    Psoriasis is a prevalent chronic inflammatory disease associated with comorbidities, e.g. cardiometabolic diseases, inflammatory bowel disease, and depression that may share an inflammatory origin. Smoking increases the risk of psoriasis and the disease has also been linked to chronic obstructive...... pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma, with evidence of shared inflammatory cytokine-mediated mechanisms. Moreover, subjects with psoriasis display increased risk of infections, especially respiratory infections including pneumonia. However, only a small single-center study of pulmonary function in subjects...... with psoriasis is available. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  5. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Marc Wittmann; Virginie Van Wassenhove; Bud Craig; Martin P Paulus; Martin P Paulus

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the...

  6. The Neural Substrates of Subjective Time Dilation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Marc; van Wassenhove, Virginie; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Paulus, Martin P.

    2010-01-01

    An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This ”time dilation effect” has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics). We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration exce...

  7. Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report In recognition of the growing need to better address cyber risk and cyber management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) held a Subject Matter Expert Workshop to Identify Cybersecurity Research Gaps and Needs of the Nation’s Water and Wastewater Systems Sector on March 30th and 31st, 2016, at the Ronald Reagan Building in Washington, D.C. The workshop was designed to create a forum for subject matter experts (SMEs) to exchange ideas and address important cybersecurity challenges facing the water sector.

  8. JPEG XS call for proposals subjective evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Bruylants, Tim; Willème, Alexandre; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Schelkens, Peter; Macq, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    In March 2016 the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), formally known as ISO/IEC SC29 WG1, issued a call for proposals soliciting compression technologies for a low-latency, lightweight and visually transparent video compression scheme. Within the JPEG family of standards, this scheme was denominated JPEG XS. The subjective evaluation of visually lossless compressed video sequences at high resolutions and bit depths poses particular challenges. This paper describes the adopted procedures, the subjective evaluation setup, the evaluation process and summarizes the obtained results which were achieved in the context of the JPEG XS standardization process.

  9. A Link between Subjective Perceptions of Memory and Physical Function: Implications for Subjective Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Stephanie; Devanand, Davangere; Gurland, Barry

    2018-01-01

    Subjective impairment in memory is a frequently defining feature of subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a state hypothesized to precede objectively apparent cognitive symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to hold promise as a non-invasive, inexpensive, preclinical indicator of AD. However, a full model of the factors that contribute to subjective memory (SM), and therefore to SCD, has yet to be articulated. While SM impairment is widely known to be associated with negative affect, the extent to which SM functioning may also reflect other factors, particularly subjective beliefs or perceptions about one's health, is not known. To examine the extent to which SM is associated with subjective perceptions of health more broadly, the current study investigated the link between SM and subjective physical functioning (independent of depressive affect, and objective cognitive and physical function) in an ethnically diverse sample of 471 older adults enrolled in the population-based Northern Manhattan Aging Project. 199 (42%) participants endorsed no difficulty on a 5-point SM index while 272 (58%) endorsed some degree of difficulty. As hypothesized, SM correlated with both depression and subjective physical function, but not with age, education, global cognition, or objective physical function. When objective and subjective physical function were entered in two separate, adjusted linear regressions predicting SM, only subjective physical function and depressive affect independently predicted SM. Subjective perceptions of memory appear to reflect individuals' broader health perceptions in part. Articulating the various correlates of SM will improve identification of SCD specific to preclinical AD.

  10. Learning a common dictionary for subject-transfer decoding with resting calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, Hiroshi; Kanemura, Atsunori; Hirayama, Jun-ichiro; Shikauchi, Manabu; Ogawa, Takeshi; Ikeda, Shigeyuki; Kawanabe, Motoaki; Ishii, Shin

    2015-05-01

    Brain signals measured over a series of experiments have inherent variability because of different physical and mental conditions among multiple subjects and sessions. Such variability complicates the analysis of data from multiple subjects and sessions in a consistent way, and degrades the performance of subject-transfer decoding in a brain-machine interface (BMI). To accommodate the variability in brain signals, we propose 1) a method for extracting spatial bases (or a dictionary) shared by multiple subjects, by employing a signal-processing technique of dictionary learning modified to compensate for variations between subjects and sessions, and 2) an approach to subject-transfer decoding that uses the resting-state activity of a previously unseen target subject as calibration data for compensating for variations, eliminating the need for a standard calibration based on task sessions. Applying our methodology to a dataset of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during a selective visual-spatial attention task from multiple subjects and sessions, where the variability compensation was essential for reducing the redundancy of the dictionary, we found that the extracted common brain activities were reasonable in the light of neuroscience knowledge. The applicability to subject-transfer decoding was confirmed by improved performance over existing decoding methods. These results suggest that analyzing multisubject brain activities on common bases by the proposed method enables information sharing across subjects with low-burden resting calibration, and is effective for practical use of BMI in variable environments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Transferring and generalizing deep-learning-based neural encoding models across subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Haiguang; Shi, Junxing; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhongming

    2018-08-01

    Recent studies have shown the value of using deep learning models for mapping and characterizing how the brain represents and organizes information for natural vision. However, modeling the relationship between deep learning models and the brain (or encoding models), requires measuring cortical responses to large and diverse sets of natural visual stimuli from single subjects. This requirement limits prior studies to few subjects, making it difficult to generalize findings across subjects or for a population. In this study, we developed new methods to transfer and generalize encoding models across subjects. To train encoding models specific to a target subject, the models trained for other subjects were used as the prior models and were refined efficiently using Bayesian inference with a limited amount of data from the target subject. To train encoding models for a population, the models were progressively trained and updated with incremental data from different subjects. For the proof of principle, we applied these methods to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from three subjects watching tens of hours of naturalistic videos, while a deep residual neural network driven by image recognition was used to model visual cortical processing. Results demonstrate that the methods developed herein provide an efficient and effective strategy to establish both subject-specific and population-wide predictive models of cortical representations of high-dimensional and hierarchical visual features. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Subjective executive difficulties – a study using the Dysexecutive Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Małgorzata Szepietowska

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subjective executive difficulties, understood as a sense of disruption of planning, control and correction of one’s own activity, is often reported by healthy as well as clinical individuals. Self-report measures such as the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX-S are used to assess the severity of this feeling. The diagnostic value of this method is debated due to the numerous factors affecting the beliefs on executive deficits. Aim of the study: With reference to inconclusive data concerning the underlying factors of subjective executive deficits and the value of self-report measures the following aims of the present study were established: a determination of the demographic, clinical and cognitive characteristics of individuals with various levels of subjective executive difficulties, b finding which of these variables contribute to the risk of subjective executive difficulties increase. Material and methods: The study included 213 adult individuals. DEX-S as well as measures of cognitive assessment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA; subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised, WAIS-R and depressive mood assessment [Geriatric Depression Scale (Short Form, GDS-15] were used. Demographic variables (age, gender and educational level as well as clinical variables (lack of/presence of central nervous system disease history, including lateralised brain pathology were also taken into consideration. Based on DEX-S results a cluster analysis was performed and two groups of subjects with a different level of subjective executive difficulties were identified: low-severity group (individuals reporting no complaints regarding executive deficits and high-severity group (individuals with complaints. Group comparisons demonstrated that individuals complaining about executive deficits have a higher depressive mood index and lower scores on some subtests used to assess cognitive functions. The results of logistic regression analysis

  13. Cortex Parcellation Associated Whole White Matter Parcellation in Individual Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schiffler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of specific white matter areas is a growing field in neurological research and is typically achieved through the use of atlases. However, the definition of anatomically based regions remains challenging for the white matter and thus hinders region-specific analysis in individual subjects. In this article, we focus on creating a whole white matter parcellation method for individual subjects where these areas can be associated to cortex regions. This is done by combining cortex parcellation and fiber tracking data. By tracking fibers out of each cortex region and labeling the fibers according to their origin, we populate a candidate image. We then derive the white matter parcellation by classifying each white matter voxel according to the distribution of labels in the corresponding voxel from the candidate image. The parcellation of the white matter with the presented method is highly reliable and is not as dependent on registration as with white matter atlases. This method allows for the parcellation of the whole white matter into individual cortex region associated areas and, therefore, associates white matter alterations to cortex regions. In addition, we compare the results from the presented method to existing atlases. The areas generated by the presented method are not as sharply defined as the areas in most existing atlases; however, they are computed directly in the DWI space of the subject and, therefore, do not suffer from distortion caused by registration. The presented approach might be a promising tool for clinical and basic research to investigate modalities or system specific micro structural alterations of white matter areas in a quantitative manner.

  14. Predicting variation in subject thermal response during transcranial magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound surgery: Comparison in seventeen subject datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyas, Urvi, E-mail: urvi.vyas@gmail.com; Ghanouni, Pejman; Halpern, Casey H.; Pauly, Kim Butts [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Elias, Jeff [Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: In transcranial magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (tcMRgFUS) treatments, the acoustic and spatial heterogeneity of the skull cause reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beams. These effects depend on skull-specific parameters and can lead to patient-specific thermal responses to the same transducer power. In this work, the authors develop a simulation tool to help predict these different experimental responses using 3D heterogeneous tissue models based on the subject CT images. The authors then validate and compare the predicted skull efficiencies to an experimental metric based on the subject thermal responses during tcMRgFUS treatments in a dataset of seventeen human subjects. Methods: Seventeen human head CT scans were used to create tissue acoustic models, simulating the effects of reflection, absorption, and scattering of the acoustic beam as it propagates through a heterogeneous skull. The hybrid angular spectrum technique was used to model the acoustic beam propagation of the InSightec ExAblate 4000 head transducer for each subject, yielding maps of the specific absorption rate (SAR). The simulation assumed the transducer was geometrically focused to the thalamus of each subject, and the focal SAR at the target was used as a measure of the simulated skull efficiency. Experimental skull efficiency for each subject was calculated using the thermal temperature maps from the tcMRgFUS treatments. Axial temperature images (with no artifacts) were reconstructed with a single baseline, corrected using a referenceless algorithm. The experimental skull efficiency was calculated by dividing the reconstructed temperature rise 8.8 s after sonication by the applied acoustic power. Results: The simulated skull efficiency using individual-specific heterogeneous models predicts well (R{sup 2} = 0.84) the experimental energy efficiency. Conclusions: This paper presents a simulation model to predict the variation in thermal responses

  15. Subjective visual vertical after treatment of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Mian Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. Objective: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Methods: We evaluated 20 patients. The estimated position where a fluorescent line within a bucket reached the vertical position was measured before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver. Data were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: Before repositioning maneuver, 9 patients (45.0% had absolute values of the subjective visual vertical above the reference standard and 2 (10.0% after the maneuver; the mean of the absolute values of the vertical deviation was significantly lower after the intervention (p < 0.001. Conclusion: There is a reduction of the deviations of the subjective visual vertical, evaluated by the bucket test, immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

  16. The influence of career orientations on subjective work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The study empirically assessed the causal influence of individuals’ career orientations on their perceived life satisfaction, job or career satisfaction, sense of happiness and their perceptions of work as a valuable activity as aspects of their subjective work experiences. Motivation for study: From an organisational perspective, research on individuals’ inner definitions of career success and satisfaction is needed to guide current selection, placement, development, reward and retention practices. Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 2997 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. The measuring instruments consisted of an adapted five-factor career orientations model of the Career Orientations Inventory and a 4-item global subjective work experiences scale. Structural equation modelling (SEM was conducted to achieve the aim of the study. Main findings/results: Statistically significant causal relationships were observed between the career orientations and subjective work experiences variables. Practical implications: Individuals’ career orientations influence their general sense of life and job or career satisfaction, happiness and perceptions of work as a valuable activity. Organisations concerned with the retention of staff need to find a way of aligning individuals’ career needs and motives with the goals and aspirations of the organisation. Contribution/value-add: The research confirms the need for assessing the inner career orientations of employees as these provide valuable information regarding the motives and values driving individuals’ career decision making and subjective experiences of their working lives.

  17. Subject Gateway Sites and Search Engine Ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Discusses subject gateway sites and commercial search engines for the Web and presents an explanation of Google's PageRank algorithm. The principle question addressed is the conditions under which a gateway site will increase the likelihood that a target page is found in search engines. (LRW)

  18. The Utility of Single Subject Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kyle D.

    2016-01-01

    Single subject design (SSD) research is a quantitative approach used to investigate basic and applied research questions. It has been used for decades to examine issues of social importance such as those related to general and special education strategies, therapeutic approaches in mental health, community health practices, safety, and business…

  19. Subject-Author Index 989..1009

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 38 2013. SUBJECT INDEX. 16S rRNA .... reticulum stress-induced neuronal death in rat brain after status ... of intestinal contraction and body size in rodents and rabbits. 391. Brain ...... Trans-generational immune memory. Plant innate ...

  20. Racialized Subjects in a Colour Blind School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagermann, Laila Colding

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I examine processes of racialization in a school in Copenhagen, Denmark. On the basis of the data produced in 2009, which is part of a larger study, I investigate themes of race as a difference-making and constituting category for subjective (human) becoming and racialization as contingent and negotiated processes (Butler, 1997). As…

  1. 24 CFR 110.10 - Persons subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... real estate broker, agent, salesman, or person in the business of selling or renting dwellings in which... conjunction with the sale or rental of other dwellings) offered for sale or rental through a real estate... section, (c) All persons subject to section 805 of the Act, Discrimination In Residential Real Estate...

  2. Psychology or semiotics: persons or subjects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Cultural studies and especially semiological theory has recently sought to re-conceptualise classical problems considered in academic psychology such as perception, identity, and "subjectivity". It is argued that these theorizations are reductionist and/or theoretically incoherent without an adequate epistemology. Yet they have become for many students of the human sciences the conventional modes of analyzing such questions as personal identity.

  3. Homeownership and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    Favouring homeownership is an important part of housing policies in many countries. Although this may be explained by the preferences of the majority of voters, it may also be because homeownership is believed to have positive effects on individuals’ behaviour and welfare. Previous research seems...... and subjective well-being....

  4. Reviewing Printed Subject Bibliographies: A Worksheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabachnick, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the importance of reviews of bibliographies to librarians, identifies common problems with the review process, and proposes a worksheet that will enable reviewers of printed subject bibliographies to address the needs of librarians. The theoretical foundation for the concepts used in the worksheet are discussed. (14 references) (CLB)

  5. Subjective Quantitative Studies of Human Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkire, Sabina

    2005-01-01

    Amartya Sen's writings have articulated the importance of human agency, and identified the need for information on agency freedom to inform our evaluation of social arrangements. Many approaches to poverty reduction stress the need for empowerment. This paper reviews "subjective quantitative measures of human agency at the individual level." It…

  6. A Subject Clitic in Child Catalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gavarró

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine an instance of subject cliticisation in child Catalan previously unattested in the literature (1,. Given the lack of an adult counterpart to (1 in the input the child is exposed to, the claim is made that its occurrence, far from being accidental, must result from deep properties of grammar, also detectable in other Romance varieties. (1M'he vist una pel.lícula.    (Lena, 5;9 1sCL have seen a film 'I have seen a film.' This subject clitic is sensitive to the presence of a person feature - it is limited to first person singular - and tense-sensitive - it is only found in the present perfect. The subject clitic is analysed as a means to identify the empty subject of the sentence in cases where incorporation of be to yield have is taking place, along the lines of Kayne (1993. The analysis extends to also previously unattested existential constructions found in child Catalan, which involve instances of be instead of have (Hi era un caçador instead of Hi havia un caçador 'There was a hunter' (Joan 3;5 , but not vice-versa.

  7. Subjective sleep efficiency of hemodialysis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, B.C.P.; Nagtegaal, J.E.; Hagen, E.C.; van Dorp, W.Th.; Boringa, J.B.S.; Kerkhof, G.A.; ter Wee, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Sleep disturbances have a major influence on quality of life. A commonly used measure of sleep disturbances is sleep efficiency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of decreased subjective sleep efficiency in hemodialysis patients. An additional goal was to

  8. Interests in School Subjects and Vocational Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoberg, Lennart; Drottz, Britt-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Reports a study in which Swedish high school students' academic interests were related to perceived effort, ability, and perceived vocational job prospects. Notes that academic interests were based on subjects' logical appeal and practical value. Notes that vocational preferences correlated strongly with individual job prospects but weakly with…

  9. Measuring the Subjective User eXperience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits

    Measuring the subjective user experience is a challenging task. In this tutorial we will demonstrate how psychological constructs can be divided in separate variables, each measured by its individual questionnaire items. The tutorial will address the analysis of the questionnaire data to estimate its validity and reliability. Analysis will be demonstrated using SPSS.

  10. Adult Playfulness, Humor Styles, and Subjective Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiao D; Leung, Chun-Lok; Hiranandani, Neelam A

    2016-12-01

    Playfulness has been referred to as a disposition that involves reframing a situation to amuse others and to make the situation more stimulating and enjoyable. It may serve to shift one's perspective when dealing with environmental threats. Despite all the benefits of playfulness towards psychological well-being, it remains a largely understudied subject in psychology, particularly in Chinese societies. Hence, this study examined the association between adult playfulness, humor styles, and subjective happiness among a sample of 166 university students in Hong Kong and 159 students in Guangzhou, who completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Short Measure for Adult Playfulness, the Chinese Humor Styles Questionnaire, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Results showed that adult playfulness was positively correlated with affiliative humor, self-enhancing humor, and subjective happiness in both Hong Kong and Guangzhou samples. By its implication, highly playful Chinese students preferred using affiliative and self-enhancing humor to amuse themselves and others. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Subject Reference Lists Produced by Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-chih Chen

    1968-08-01

    Full Text Available A system developed to produce fourteen subject reference lists by IBM 360/75 is described in detail. The computerized system has many advantages over conventional manual procedures. The feedback from students and other users is discussed, and some analysis of cost is included.

  12. Women, Subjectivities and Learning to Be Adaptable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to advance understandings of the subjectivities that influence auxiliary-level female employees' work and learning experiences in general legal practice. Moreover, the aim is to maximise the opportunities for these workers. Design/methodology/approach: A broader critical ethnographic study investigated…

  13. What Is the Impact of Subject Benchmarking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidcock, Steve

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of subject benchmarking led to fears of increased external intervention in the activities of universities and a more restrictive view of institutional autonomy, accompanied by an undermining of the academic profession, particularly through the perceived threat of the introduction of a national curriculum for higher education. For…

  14. Subjective Wellbeing: Telling Only Half the Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckersley, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A new paper presents a strong case for life satisfaction scales (Diener et al. in "Soc Indic Res," 2012). However, it underestimates two important weaknesses in subjective wellbeing (SWB) measures: the contrast between individual satisfaction and social discontent; and the contradictory evidence on the benefits of personal freedom. This commentary…

  15. Clinical Perspective An adolescent's subjective experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adolescent's subjective experiences of mindfulness were explored in a single case study of a 17-yearold female. Data were created by means of 'mindfulness sessions', unstructured interviews, creative expression, journals and field notes. The data were analysed and interpreted using a combination of typological and ...

  16. Subject Access Project. Third Quarterly Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Pauline

    This third quarterly report for the period January to March 1977 describes the production schedule, records, and estimated costs and times in creating the Subject Access Project data base. Plans for on-line use of the data base and search strategy design are outlined. A table of specifications for preparing the data base for on-line searching is…

  17. The Future for Mathematics Subject Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Subject associations have developed, over the years, to serve the interests of the mathematics education community. We live in changing times, and education is often at the forefront of such change. So, to remain contemporary, relevant, and to have a regard for the future in a world influenced by technology, it is suggested that there is a need…

  18. Gastrointestinal immune responses in HIV infected subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LRR Castello-Branco

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The gut associated lymphoid tissue is responsible for specific responses to intestinal antigens. During HIV infection, mucosal immune deficiency may account for the gastrointestinal infections. In this review we describe the humoral and cellular mucosal immune responses in normal and HIV-infected subjects.

  19. Subjective performance evaluations and employee careers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Lange, Fabian; Kriechel, Ben

    such data are for evaluating theories in personnel economics and whether findings from such data generalize to the labor force at large. In this paper, we examine personnel data from six large companies and establish how subjective ratings, interpreted as ordinal rankings of employees within narrowly...

  20. Integrating Subject Pathfinders into Online Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the integration of subject pathfinders into online public access catalogs (OPAC) through following features: within the OPAC, offline user guide manuals, remotely printed upon user request, or online as saved searches displayed in help screen format. Excerpts of a pathfinder display for biotechnology are presented. Four sources are…

  1. OPACs: The User and Subject Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    This survey of the literature reveals user and professional opinions of changes in subject access features available for online public access catalogs. Highlights include expanded access to fields already incorporated into traditional MARC record, access to context of the record, and design of the user interface. Twenty-four references are cited.…

  2. [Subjective Gait Stability in the Elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Theresa; Lampe, Jasmin; Michalk, Katrin; Röder, Lotte; Munsch, Karoline; Marquardt, Jonas

    2017-07-10

    It can be assumed that the feeling of gait stability or gait instability in the elderly may be independent of a possible fear of falling or a history of falling when walking. Up to now, there has been a lack of spatiotemporal gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. The aim of the study is to analyse the distribution of various gait parameters for older people who subjectively feel secure when walking. In a cross-sectional study, the gait parameters stride time, step time, stride length, step length, double support, single support, and walking speed were measured using a Vicon three-dimensional motion capture system (Plug-In Gait Lower-Body Marker Set) in 31 healthy people aged 65 years and older (mean age 72 ± 3.54 years) who subjectively feel secure when walking. There was a homogeneous distribution in the gait parameters examined, with no abnormalities. The mean values have a low variance with narrow confidence intervals. This study provides evidence that people who subjectively feel secure when walking demonstrate similarly objective gait parameters..

  3. Axiology, the Subject and the Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Campbell, Todd; Jones, Doug

    2017-08-01

    This article addresses two gaps in the literature related to science department chairs: the axiological relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and the perceptions of the chair with respect to teaching and learning within their departments. In this work, axiology is used to understand how the chair's values toward the subject influenced his own perceived capacity to lead learning within his department in a reformed discourse. A narrative inquiry methodology was used to consider the chair's experiences in the development of his identify over his life span in the form of two stories: (1) the relationship between the chair and science, the subject, and (2) the perceptions of the chair with regards to teacher learning within the department. The findings revealed that the work and career of the chair in this study were authored by strong elements of personal continuity and points of stability around the valuing of science, the subject, even as this valuing evolved from being more focused on epistemic values early in his career, to being more concerned with universal values connected to his legacy and his department later in his career.

  4. Subjective Expected Utility Theory with "Small Worlds"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyntelberg, Jacob; Hansen, Frank

    which is a more general construction than a state space. We retain preference axioms similar in spirit to the Savage axioms and obtain, without abandoning linearity of expectations, a subjective expected utility theory which allows for an intuitive distinction between risk and uncertainty. We also...

  5. Subjective Well-Being Around Retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abolhassani, Marzieh; Alessie, Rob

    This paper studies the effect of both retirement and unemployment on life satisfaction, using subjective satisfaction indicators from the German Socio-Economic Panel. Moreover, we analyze how accurate individuals anticipate changes in satisfaction around retirement, as well as the correlation

  6. MARC Coding of DDC for Subject Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajenberg, Arnold S.

    1983-01-01

    Recommends an expansion of MARC codes for decimal class numbers to enhance automated subject retrieval. Five values for a second indicator and two new subfields are suggested for encoding hierarchical relationships among decimal class numbers. Additional subfields are suggested to enhance retrieval through analysis of synthesized numbers in…

  7. Emergent Subjectivity in Caring Institutions for Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severinsson, Susanne; Nord, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    We investigate how different mealtime situations help shape teenager and staff subjectivities in two Swedish residential care homes and a special school for girls and boys, 12-15 years old, with social, emotional and behavioural difficulties. Three mealtime networks are analysed using concepts from actor-network theory, treating architectural…

  8. The Symbolic Meaning of Legal Subjectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pessers, D.; van Klink, B.; van Beers, B.; Poort, L.

    2016-01-01

    The legitimacy of the law is not to be found, as is often claimed, in procedural justice, but in the core function of the law: the symbolic insertion of every new generation into the community of legal subjects. This symbolic function is most ambitiously expressed in the Universal Declaration of

  9. Subject knowledge for teaching and continuing professional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It suggests a number of practical needs that secondary school teachers of English may be seeking to address in the way of subject knowledge development and how this may relate to the provision made within the United Kingdom (UK) Higher Education sector. It is hoped in so doing that it also identifies issues that may be ...

  10. Political Subjects: Decision and Subjectivity from a Post-Fundational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Retamozo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of decision and of political subjects was addressed in the field of 20th century political philosophy by authors such as Carl Schmitt, Hannah Arendt, and Jacques Derrida, who related it closely to the concepts of sovereignty, freedom, and contingency. The works of Ernesto Laclau and Slavoj Žižek have currently turnedto the issue of decision in order to address the constitutive spects of the political. In a context dominated by deconstruction, post-Marxism, and post-structuralism,the article inquires into the elation between decision and political subjects in a contemporary setting, examining in depth the difference between subjectivity,subjectivization, and subject.

  11. Construction of Subjectivity in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anže Dolinar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Social media are a phenomenon that came about with the Web 2.0. The essential characteristic of social media is the so-called user-generated content, which means that individuals and their lives are entangled in a social interaction in which their identity is to some extent subsumed under the logic of the production of profit. From the standpoint of the critique of political economy, the phenomenon of digital labor can be tackled with a digital labor theory of value. On the other hand, a question of a subjective aspect remains open. The initial hypothesis is that an analysis of a dynamic character of capitalism is necessarily connected with historical transformations of subjectivity. I will inspect which type of subjectivity is produced during the “process of production” on Facebook, how relations of the exchange of information and meaning take place inside this medium, and what kind of consciousness comes with this virtual identity. I will attempt to address this question with an explication of social forms of sharing amongst individuals on this social network. I will focus on how photos, notifications and comments structure web subjectivity and its function. Answers to such questions can help us in understanding a certain aspect of a socioeconomic structure of contemporary capitalism and bear an emancipatory potential in a possibility of negation of such social relations. The article will limit itself to the exploration of subjectivity in social media, which will be dealt with in a dynamic sense and in regard to formal conditions of communication inside social media, and in respect to a social situation in which they are.

  12. Subjective Memory Immediately Following Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Ole; Nordanskog, Pia; Båve, Ullvi; Cao, Yang; Hammar, Åsa; Landén, Mikael; Lundberg, Johan; Nordenskjöld, Axel

    2017-06-01

    The aims of the present study were to describe the short-term rate of subjective memory worsening (SMW) and identify factors of importance for SMW in a large clinical sample treated for depression with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). This register-based study included 1212 patients from the Swedish National Quality Register for ECT. Subjective memory worsening was defined as a 2-point worsening on the memory item of the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale from before to within 1 week after treatment. Associations between patient characteristics and treatment factors were examined using logistic regression. Subjective memory worsening was experienced in 26%. It was more common in women than in men (31% vs 18%; P < 0.001) and more common in patients aged 18 to 39 years than in patients 65 years or older (32% vs 22%; P = 0.008). Patients with less subjective memory disturbances before ECT had a greater risk of SMW. Patients in remission after ECT had a lower risk of SMW. A brief pulse width stimulus gave higher risk of SMW compared with ultrabrief pulse (odds ratio, 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.05-2.47). Subjective memory worsening is reported by a minority of patients. However, young women are at risk of experiencing SMW. Ultrabrief pulse width stimulus could be considered for patients treated with unilateral electrode placement who experience SMW. Each patient should be monitored with regard to symptoms and adverse effects, and treatment should be adjusted on an individual basis to maximize the clinical effect and with efforts to minimize the cognitive adverse effects.

  13. The effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Moghtaderi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Tinnitus is an annoying disease cause major problems including insomnia, impaired concentration, and reduced quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of hypnotherapy in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.Methods: This was a pilot experimental study with pre- and post-test method. 20 people suffered from subjective tinnitus were divided equally in two groups of experimental and control. The two groups were matched according to age and severity of tinnitus. They completed tinnitus clinical questionnaires before and after the test and the severity of their tinnitus was recorded by a number from one to ten. Experimental group went under hypnotherapy for 10 sessions. The control group did not perform any psychological treatment. The gathered data were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test (independent and dependent.Results: There were significant differences between the pre-test and post-test scores of each group and also, between the post-test scores of experimental and control groups (p = 0.001 for all.Conclusion: The results showed that hypnotherapy could effectively reduce the seventy of tinnitus in patients in the experimental group; in other words, the results confirm the effectiveness of medical hypnosis in the treatment of subjective tinnitus.

  14. Cumulative glycemia and microangiopathy in subjects with impaired glucose regulation in the Inter99 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Inger Christine; Larsen, Michael; Kessel, Line

    2011-01-01

    .8% (CI(95) 6.8-17.1%) in subjects with screen-detected diabetes compared to normoglycemic subjects, adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. The prevalences of microalbuminuria and retinopathy were significantly increased in subjects with screen-detected diabetes after adjusting for age, sex and systolic...... in subjects with abnormal glucose metabolism, most prominently in subjects with IFG+IGT and in subjects with screen-detected diabetes. These results provide the first objective evidence that cumulative glycemic load is increased at the earliest stage of impaired glucose regulation.......AIMS: To assess cumulative glycemia, microvascular characteristics, and associated risk factors for diabetes in subjects with impaired glucose regulation. METHODS: Cross-sectional, population-based study comprising systemic characteristics in 6487 participants and ocular characteristics in 970...

  15. Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research—The FQS Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available By publishing two FQS issues on "Subjectivity and Reflexivity in Qualitative Research," we address a topic that is central for modern science. On the one hand, there are many demands from philosophy of science and there are numerous methods that aim at eliminating researchers' impact on the research process except in controlled treatments. On the other hand, the insight spread that researchers, in continuously interacting with those being researched, inevitably influence and structure research processes and their outcomes—through their personal and professional characteristics, by leaning on theories and methods available at a special time and place in their (sub- cultures, disciplines and nations. This is especially (but not exclusively true for qualitative research, because qualitative methods are less structured than quantitative methods, and qualitative researchers interact for most part very closely with research participants in their respective research fields. Are there any ways out of the dilemma between the hope of arriving at non-contaminated, valid, and reliable knowledge, on the one hand, and the threat of collecting trivial data, producing (unintentionally autobiographies, or repeating the same cultural prejudices prominent at a time or place, on the other hand? The articles that we introduce here attempt to give some (often provisional answers: by discussing more principally the relevance of subjectivity and reflexivity in and to the process of scientific knowledge construction and by offering possible theoretical frameworks; by examining the research process, using own empirical examples to show in which way (sub- cultural, social, professional, biographical, and personal characteristics influence what is perceived, interpreted and published; and by providing tools that can be used to highlight subjectivity in the research process in order to achieve new levels of understanding through reflexivity. We published the FQS 3(2 and

  16. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  17. The presence of subjective feelings of xerostomia in the institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovski, Mihajlo; Minovska, Ana; Ivanovski, Kiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The presence of subjective feelings of dry mouth is the most common oral problem in the institutionalized elderly. Purpose: to assess the subjective presence of xerostomia in the institutionalized elderly. Materials and method: Seventy individuals, older than 65 years and institutionalized in a particular nursing home, were evaluated. The subjective presence of xerstomia was determined. To determine the level of expressiveness of xerostomia, a questionnaire recommended b...

  18. Abdominal acupuncture reduces laser-evoked potentials in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pazzaglia, C.; Liguori, S.; Minciotti, I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Acupuncture is known to reduce clinical pain, although the exact mechanism is unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture on laser-evoked potential amplitudes and laser pain perception. Methods: In order to evaluate whether abdominal acupuncture...... is able to modify pain perception, 10 healthy subjects underwent a protocol in which laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and laser pain perception were collected before the test (baseline), during abdominal acupuncture, and 15. min after needle removal. The same subjects also underwent a similar protocol...... in which, however, sham acupuncture without any needle penetration was used. Results: During real acupuncture, both N1 and N2/P2 amplitudes were reduced, as compared to baseline (p . < 0.01). The reduction lasted up to 15. min after needle removal. Furthermore, laser pain perception was reduced during...

  19. Implementation of Subjective Cognitive Decline criteria in research studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinuevo, José L; Rabin, Laura A.; Amariglio, Rebecca; Buckley, Rachel; Dubois, Bruno; Ellis, Kathryn A.; Ewers, Michael; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Rami, Lorena; Reisberg, Barry; Saykin, Andrew J.; Sikkes, Sietske; Smart, Colette M.; Snitz, Beth E.; Sperling, Reisa; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Wagner, Michael; Jessen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Subjective Cognitive Decline (SCD) manifesting prior to clinical impairment could serve as a target population for early intervention trials in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A working group, the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I), published SCD research criteria in the context of preclinical AD. To successfully apply them, a number of issues regarding assessment and implementation of SCD needed to be addressed. METHODS Members of the SCD-I met to identify and agree upon topics relevant to SCD criteria operationalization in research settings. Initial ideas and recommendations were discussed with other SCD-I working group members and modified accordingly. RESULTS Topics included SCD inclusion and exclusion criteria, together with the informant’s role in defining SCD presence and the impact of demographic factors. DISCUSSION Recommendations for the operationalization of SCD in differing research settings, with the aim of harmonization of SCD measurement across studies are proposed, to enhance comparability and generalizability across studies. PMID:27825022

  20. Occupational therapy intervention in a subject with Parkinson disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Artur Monzeli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Parkinson disease-PD has affected an increasing number of individuals, compromising their functional skills progressively and irreversibly, requiring preventive and rehabilitative actions. Objective: To present and discuss the effect of occupational therapy intervention with a 70-year old patient diagnosed with PD. Method: This is an experience report with a single subject. An intervention plan including an exercise program for extra-care activities and home visits for observation of possible difficulties and risk of falls in the environment has been prepared. The measurement of independence was performed using the Functional Independence Measure-FIM. The intervention occurred during six months. Results: It was identified improvement in eating and writing activities. There was one score of improvement documented in FIM. Conclusion: The importance of the intervention of occupational therapy is enforced, which in this context improved the occupational performance of this subject in the daily life activities, contributing for maintaining functional performance.

  1. Prediction of subjective ratings of emotional pictures by EEG features

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Dennis J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Sarnacki, William A.; Goldstein, Rita Z.; Wolpaw, Jonathan R.

    2017-02-01

    Objective. Emotion dysregulation is an important aspect of many psychiatric disorders. Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology could be a powerful new approach to facilitating therapeutic self-regulation of emotions. One possible BCI method would be to provide stimulus-specific feedback based on subject-specific electroencephalographic (EEG) responses to emotion-eliciting stimuli. Approach. To assess the feasibility of this approach, we studied the relationships between emotional valence/arousal and three EEG features: amplitude of alpha activity over frontal cortex; amplitude of theta activity over frontal midline cortex; and the late positive potential over central and posterior mid-line areas. For each feature, we evaluated its ability to predict emotional valence/arousal on both an individual and a group basis. Twenty healthy participants (9 men, 11 women; ages 22-68) rated each of 192 pictures from the IAPS collection in terms of valence and arousal twice (96 pictures on each of 4 d over 2 weeks). EEG was collected simultaneously and used to develop models based on canonical correlation to predict subject-specific single-trial ratings. Separate models were evaluated for the three EEG features: frontal alpha activity; frontal midline theta; and the late positive potential. In each case, these features were used to simultaneously predict both the normed ratings and the subject-specific ratings. Main results. Models using each of the three EEG features with data from individual subjects were generally successful at predicting subjective ratings on training data, but generalization to test data was less successful. Sparse models performed better than models without regularization. Significance. The results suggest that the frontal midline theta is a better candidate than frontal alpha activity or the late positive potential for use in a BCI-based paradigm designed to modify emotional reactions.

  2. [Homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) values in Chilean elderly subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, María Luisa; Lera, Lydia; Sánchez, Hugo; Uauy, Ricardo; Albala, Cecilia

    2009-11-01

    The homeostasis assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) estimates insulin resistance using basal insulin and glucose values and has a good concordance with values obtained with the euglycemic clamp. However it has a high variability that depends on environmental, genetic and physiologic factors. Therefore it is imperative to establish normal HOMA values in different populations. To report HOMA-IR values in Chilean elderly subjects and to determine the best cutoff point to diagnose insulin resistance. Cross sectional study of 1003 subjects older than 60 years of whom 803 (71% women) did not have diabetes. In 154 subjects, an oral glucose tolerance test was also performed. Insulin resistance (IR) was defined as the HOMA value corresponding to percentile 75 of subjects without over or underweight. The behavior of HOMA-IR in metabolic syndrome was studied and receiver operating curves (ROC) were calculated, using glucose intolerance defined as a blood glucose over 140 mg/dl and hyperinsulinemia, defined as a serum insulin over 60 microU/ml, two hours after the glucose load. Median HOMA-IR values were 1.7. Percentile 75 in subjects without obesity or underweight was 2.57. The area under the ROC curve, when comparing HOMA-IR with glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia, was 0.8 (95% confidence values 0.72-0.87), with HOMA-IR values ranging from 2.04 to 2.33. HOMA-IR is a useful method to determine insulin resistance in epidemiological studies. The HOMA-IR cutoff point for insulin resistance defined in thi spopulation was 2.6.

  3. 76 FR 54408 - Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 50 and 56 Human Subjects Research Protections: Enhancing Protections for Research Subjects and Reducing Burden, Delay, and Ambiguity for Investigators; Extension of... Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in coordination with the Office of Science...

  4. PARTIAL REINFORCEMENT (ACQUISITION) EFFECTS WITHIN SUBJECTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMSEL, A; MACKINNON, J R; RASHOTTE, M E; SURRIDGE, C T

    1964-03-01

    Acquisition performance of 22 rats in a straight alley runway was examined. The animals were subjected to partial reinforcement when the alley was black (B+/-) and continuous reinforcement when it was white (W+). The results indicated (a) higher terminal performance, for partial as against continuous reinforcement conditions, for starting-time and running-time measures, and (b) lower terminal performance under partial conditions for a goal-entry-time measure. These results confirm within subjects an effect previously demonstrated, in the runway, only in between-groups tests, where one group is run under partial reinforcement and a separate group is run under continuous reinforcement in the presence of the same external stimuli. Differences between the runway situation, employing a discrete-trial procedure and performance measures at three points in the response chain, and the Skinner box situation, used in its free-operant mode with a single performance measure, are discussed in relation to the present findings.

  5. A subjective utilitarian theory of moral judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dale J; Ahn, Minwoo

    2016-10-01

    Current theories hypothesize that moral judgments are difficult because rational and emotional decision processes compete. We present a fundamentally different theory of moral judgment: the Subjective Utilitarian Theory of moral judgment. The Subjective Utilitarian Theory posits that people try to identify and save the competing item with the greatest "personal value." Moral judgments become difficult only when the competing items have similar personal values. In Experiment 1, we estimate the personal values of 104 items. In Experiments 2-5, we show that the distributional overlaps of the estimated personal values account for over 90% of the variance in reaction times (RTs) and response choices in a moral judgment task. Our model fundamentally restructures our understanding of moral judgments from a competition between decision processes to a competition between similarly valued items. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Development of a subjective refraction simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perches, S.; Ares, J.; Collados, M. V.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed simulation software by Matlab (MathworksInc.) with a graphical interface designed for non-expert users. This simulator allows you to complete the process of subjective refraction starting from the aberrometry of the patients and analyse the influence of different factors during the exam. In addition to explain the graphical interface and its working, we show two examples about a complete process of subjective refraction with the influence of high order aberrations and without them showing the retinal image obtained in each step of the refraction process. When the Jackson Cross-Cylinder technique is made with this software, it becomes clear the difficulty of chosen between two images when high order aberrations are present. Therefore, the variability of response during the refraction can be a problem when the examiner has to reach an adequate optical prescription.

  7. SUBJECTIVITY: SOCIAL REPRESENTATION OF THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdete Rejane Ferro Zago

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The family, first family group of human beings, is the collective dimension of human existence and becomes responsible for the formation of the first social identity, as well as the constitution of subjectivity. Subjectivity is the inner world of each and every human being. This inner world is made up of emotions, feelings and thoughts. It is through this inner world that the individual relates to the social world, appointed by the outside world. This relationship follows the individual characteristics that mark the individual as unique, originated in shaping the individual, when they built the knowledge and beliefs. social representation as a form of knowledge, socially elaborated, shared with a practical purpose, contributing to the construction of a common reality to a social group. Is thus built up the social representation of the family.

  8. Subjective adult identity and casual sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Heidi Ann

    2015-12-01

    A majority of Americans have a casual sexual experience before transitioning to adulthood. Little research has yet to examine how identity influences causal sexual behavior. The current study fills this gap in the literature by examining if subjective adult identity predicts casual sexual behavior net of life course transitions in a national sample of Americans. To answer this research question, the Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health is utilized. Structural equation modeling results show the older and more adult-like individuals feel the less likely they are to report a recent casual sexual partner. Once life course factors are included in the model, subjective identity is no longer associated with casual sex. Practitioners who work with adult populations need to consider how life course transitions influence casual sexual behavior.

  9. Information – is it Subjective or Objective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Stanislaw Zaliwski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals first with the problems of defining information. It is concluded that it is a misunderstanding to take a term and then to look for a definition. Rather a different way ought to be taken: to find the phenomenon first and then assign a name to it. The view that information is the same thing as a structure is considered. Then the processes by which information is created are analyzed. The definition that information is detected difference is closely scrutinized and it is found that information can also be detected sameness. It is argued that information is relative to the observer and for the very reason of the way it is created it is subjective. That extends only to information acquired. The existence of subjective information, however, does not prove information cannot exist objectively.

  10. Virtual materiality, potentiality and gendered subjectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Dorte Marie

    How do we conceptualize virtual materiality, in terms of for instance avatars and weapons in computer games, virtual discourse, subjectivity and the enactment of masculinity as phenomena intra-acting with real life materiality, discourse, subjectivity and masculinity in children’s everyday lives......? How do we understand the intra-activity of such elements in children’s night dreams? These are some of the questions discussed in this paper. I bring together Karen Barad’s agential realism and Giorgi Agamben’s concept of potentiality to enable and refine an analytical approach to real......-virtual enactments, thereby questioning the potentialities of gaming, of movies and of dreams as they enter intra-activities in the comprehensive set of apparatuses that enact gendered agency and relational practices. The analyses and conceptual refinements are based on empirical cases involving interviews...

  11. Photodegradation of carotenoids in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Photodegradation of vitamins in vitro is responsible for large losses of these nutrients in foods, beverages, and semisynthetic liquid formula diets. In vivo photodegradation of vitamins has been reported for riboflavin in jaundiced infants exposed to blue light and for folate in patients with chronic psoriasis given photochemotherapy. Two recent studies of normal subjects have also shown that photodegradation of carotenoids in plasma occurs with cumulative exposure of the skin to an artificial light source having maximal spectral emission in the UVA range. Females showed a larger effect of the UV light on their plasma carotenoid levels than males. These observations have identified a need for further investigation of the role of sunlight exposure as a determinant of plasma carotenoid levels and vitamin A status in human subjects

  12. About subjective evaluation of adaptive video streaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso

    2015-03-01

    The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.

  13. The Death of Narcissus: On Musical Subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Currie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available On the first page of the preface to Michael Steinberg’s excellent book, Listening to Reason: Culture, Subjectivity, and Nineteenth-Century Music, the author states that the book’s origin can be located specifically to “August 1990,” when he was giving “a short preconcert lecture on Brahms at the first Bard Music Festival.”

  14. Gynecomastia in subjects with sexual dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maseroli, E; Rastrelli, G; Corona, G; Boddi, V; Amato, A M L; Mannucci, E; Forti, G; Maggi, M

    2014-06-01

    To analyze possible relationships between gynecomastia and clinical and biochemical parameters in a large cohort of subjects with sexual dysfunction (SD). A consecutive series of 4,023 men attending our Outpatient Clinic for SD was retrospectively studied. After excluding Klinefelter's syndrome patients, the prevalence of gynecomastia was 3.1 %. Subjects with gynecomastia had significantly lower testosterone (T) levels; the association retained statistical significance after adjusting for age and life-style. However, only 33.3 % of subjects with gynecomastia were hypogonadal. Gynecomastia was associated with delayed puberty, history of testicular or hepatic diseases, as well as cannabis abuse. Patients with gynecomastia more frequently reported sexual complaints, such as severe erectile dysfunction [odds ratio (OR) = 2.19 (1.26-3.86), p = 0.006], lower sexual desire and intercourse frequency [OR = 1.23 (1.06-1.58) and OR = 1.84 (1.22-2.78), respectively; both p Gynecomastia was also positively associated with severe obesity, lower testis volume and LH, and negatively with prostate-specific antigen levels. The further adjustment for T did not affect these results, except for obesity. After introducing body mass index as a further covariate, all the associations retained statistical significance, except for delayed ejaculation and ANDROTEST score. When considering gynecomastia severity, we found a step-wise, T-independent, decrease and increase of testis volume and LH, respectively. Gynecomastia was also associated with the use of several drugs in almost 40 % of our patients. Gynecomastia is a rare condition in subjects with SD, and could indicate a testosterone deficiency that deserves further investigation.

  15. Expectation, information processing, and subjective duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchy-Gross, Rhimmon; Margulis, Elizabeth Hellmuth

    2018-01-01

    In research on psychological time, it is important to examine the subjective duration of entire stimulus sequences, such as those produced by music (Teki, Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10, 2016). Yet research on the temporal oddball illusion (according to which oddball stimuli seem longer than standard stimuli of the same duration) has examined only the subjective duration of single events contained within sequences, not the subjective duration of sequences themselves. Does the finding that oddballs seem longer than standards translate to entire sequences, such that entire sequences that contain oddballs seem longer than those that do not? Is this potential translation influenced by the mode of information processing-whether people are engaged in direct or indirect temporal processing? Two experiments aimed to answer both questions using different manipulations of information processing. In both experiments, musical sequences either did or did not contain oddballs (auditory sliding tones). To manipulate information processing, we varied the task (Experiment 1), the sequence event structure (Experiments 1 and 2), and the sequence familiarity (Experiment 2) independently within subjects. Overall, in both experiments, the sequences that contained oddballs seemed shorter than those that did not when people were engaged in direct temporal processing, but longer when people were engaged in indirect temporal processing. These findings support the dual-process contingency model of time estimation (Zakay, Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 54, 656-664, 1993). Theoretical implications for attention-based and memory-based models of time estimation, the pacemaker accumulator and coding efficiency hypotheses of time perception, and dynamic attending theory are discussed.

  16. 2.1 Man: subject of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This second chapter 'Man and environment' of the 7th state of the environment report of Austria describes the current situation of the protection of human health in terms of the European environmental policy and the main subjects of high relevance to it, such as air pollutants, water pollution, noise pollution, dangerous chemicals, food contamination, radiation protection, effects of climate change, plants, animal and habitats. (nevyjel)

  17. The Vulnerable Subject of Negligence Law

    OpenAIRE

    Stychin, C.

    2012-01-01

    The approach taken by English courts to the duty of care question in negligence has been subject to harsh criticism in recent years. This article examines this fundamental issue in tort law, drawing upon Canadian and Australian jurisprudence by way of comparison. From this analysis, the concept of vulnerability is developed as a productive means of understanding the duty of care. Vulnerability is of increasing interest in legal and political theory and it is of particular relevance to the law...

  18. Energy information data base: subject thesaurus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The technical staff of the DOE Technical Information Center, during its subject indexing activities, develops and structures a vocabulary that allows consistent machine storage and retrieval of information necessary to the accomplishment of the DOE mission. This thesaurus incorporates that structured vocabulary. The terminology of this thesaurus is used for the subject control of information announced in DOE Energy Research Abstracts, Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis, Solar Energy Update, Geothermal Energy Update, Fossil Energy Update, Fusion Energy Update, and Energy Conservation Update. This terminology also facilitates subject searching of the DOE energy information data base, a research in progress data base, a general and practical energy information data base, power reactor docket information data base, nuclear science abstracts data base, and the federal energy information data base on the DOE on-line retrieval system, RECON. The rapid expansion of the DOE's activities will result in a concomitant thesaurus expansion as information relating to new activities is indexed. Only the terms used in the indexing of documents at the Technical Information Center to date are included

  19. Timeliness of Creative Subjects in Architecture Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargot, T.

    2017-11-01

    The following article is about the problem of insufficient number of drawing and painting lessons delivered in the process of architectural education. There is a comparison between the education of successful architects of the past and modern times. The author stands for the importance of creative subjects being the essential part of development and education of future architects. Skills achieved during the study of creative subjects will be used not only as a mean of self-expression but as an instrument in the toolkit of a professional. Sergei Tchoban was taken as an example of a successful architect for whom the knowledge of a man-made drawing is very important. He arranges the contests of architectural drawings for students promoting creative development in this way. Nowadays, students tend to use computer programs to make architectural projects losing their individual approach. The creative process becomes a matter of scissors and paste being just a copy of something that already exists. The solution of the problem is the reconsideration of the department’s curriculum and adding extra hours for creative subjects.

  20. The neural substrates of subjective time dilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An object moving towards an observer is subjectively perceived as longer in duration than the same object that is static or moving away. This 'time dilation effect' has been shown for a number of stimuli that differ from standard events along different feature dimensions (e.g. color, size, and dynamics. We performed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, while subjects viewed a stream of five visual events, all of which were static and of identical duration except the fourth one, which was a deviant target consisting of either a looming or a receding disc. The duration of the target was systematically varied and participants judged whether the target was shorter or longer than all other events. A time dilation effect was observed only for looming targets. Relative to the static standards, the looming as well as the receding targets induced increased activation of the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortices (the “core control network”. The decisive contrast between looming and receding targets representing the time dilation effect showed strong asymmetric activation and, specifically, activation of cortical midline structures (the “default network”. These results provide the first evidence that the illusion of temporal dilation is due to activation of areas that are important for cognitive control and subjective awareness. The involvement of midline structures in the temporal dilation illusion is interpreted as evidence that time perception is related to self-referential processing.