WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods discussed include

  1. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A A Abbasova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation for learning. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher did not give the students ready knowledge, but pointed out the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught them to gain knowledge. This demands from the philologist the choice of effective forms of working with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this connection a special attention should be paid to the lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used during the Russian language lessons. The specificity of using this method in class for teaching Russian as a foreign language, its basic functions (teaching, developing, educating are considered. The key rules for conducting a discussion at the Russian language classes, the main and additional functions-roles of the teacher, the participants, the minute-taker are analyzed. The advantages of the discussion in Russian in comparison to the discussion in the students’ native language are summarized.

  2. DISCUSSION METHODS: MODIFICATION AND TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasova, A.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is about how to the importance of selecting the optimal methods of stimulation and motivation to learn. In modern conditions it is very important that the teacher gave the students ready knowledge, and pointed the way for the acquisition of knowledge, taught to acquire knowledge. This requires the selection of effective forms of language and literature work with texts of different types and styles of speech, listening, speaking. In this regard, special attention should be given lessons of speech development. There is a special group of methods to stimulate the development of communicative competence. Among them, and the method of discussion, which is increasingly being used in the classroom in the Russian language

  3. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  4. Creative Research Methods - a reflective online discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Leary

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In November 2013, the Institute of Advanced Studies (University of Warwick hosted a meeting of interdisciplinary colleagues interested in Creative Research Methods. The aspirations were to kick-start the debate at Warwick and create a platform from which researchers can develop projects that embrace new forms of intellectual enquiry and knowledge production. Following the meeting, several of the attendees agreed to develop some of the discussion points and briefly responded to a number of questions in an online document over a period of a few weeks. This paper is the result of that real space and online collaboration.

  5. Automatic Annotation Method on Learners' Opinions in Case Method Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samejima, Masaki; Hisakane, Daichi; Komoda, Norihisa

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to annotate an attribute of a problem, a solution or no annotation on learners' opinions automatically for supporting the learners' discussion without a facilitator. The case method aims at discussing problems and solutions in a target case. However, the learners miss discussing some of problems and solutions.…

  6. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutcliffe, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    This is an edited transcript of the recorded discussions that followed the presentation of each paper and on the general comments at the conclusion of the session. No attempt was made to identity those who offered comments or asked questions

  7. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  8. A discussion of molecular biology methods for protein engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zawaira, A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A number of molecular biology techniques are available to generate variants from a particular start gene for eventual protein expression. The authors discuss the basic principles of these methods in a repertoire that may be used to achieve...

  9. Socratic Questioning in the Paideia Method to Encourage Dialogical Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Maree; Sinclair, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of using Socratic questioning, based on the Paideia Method, on the nature of middle-schools students' patterns of interaction and on the cognitive complexity of their discussions. The hypothesis is that an experimental group will increase in both interaction focus and complexity at T3, which is the face-to-face…

  10. A discussion of some aspects of the MCSCF method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepard, R.

    1992-01-01

    After a brief overview of the MCSCF (Multi-Configuration Self- Consistent-Field) method, a more detailed examination of the underlying model is undertaken. The problem of ''multiple solutions'' is examined with reference to the ''symmetry-breaking'' problem and with emphasis on single-state cases. It is argued that the most appropriate resolution of such problems is usually case-specific, and depends on the details of how the MCSCF wave function is being used to model the chemical system rather than on features characteristic of the MCSCF wave function itself. Finally, a recently introduced MCSCF wave function optimization method based on multidimensional trigonometric interpolation is briefly discussed

  11. [Discussion paper on participation and participative methods in gerontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aner, Kirsten

    2016-02-01

    The concept of "participation" and the demand for the use of "participative methods" in human, healthcare, nursing and gerontological research as well as the corresponding fields of practice are in great demand; however, the targets and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The working group on critical gerontology of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics uses this phenomenon as an opportunity for positioning and develops a catalogue of criteria for reflection and assessment of participation of elderly people in science and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  12. Discussion paper on participation and participatory methods in gerontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aner, K

    2016-12-01

    The concept of "participation" and the use of "participatory methods" in human, healthcare, nursing, and gerontological research, as well as the corresponding fields of practice, represent an expanding field of interest. However, the objectives and organization of "participation" are not always sufficiently explicated. The Critical Gerontology Working Group of the German Society of Gerontology and Geriatrics presents a statement on this phenomenon, and proposes a catalogue of criteria for reflection upon and assessment of participation by older people in research and practice, which can also be considered a stimulus for further discussions.

  13. Discussion on calculation method of overburden cover for radon reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Jianlong; Zhou Xinghuo; Zhou Ju; Liu Huijuan

    2010-01-01

    The article collects a large number of experimental results from domestic researchers with regard to soil overburden experimental methods. Based on analyzing experimental results, some questions in determining requirements for overburden cover thickness, data processing method and negative intercept have been dis- cussed. (authors)

  14. The Effect of Instructional Methods (Lecture-Discussion versus Group Discussion) and Teaching Talent on Teacher Trainees Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrofin; Degeng, Nyoman Sudana; Ardhana, Wayan; Setyosari, Punaji

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine difference in the effect of instructional methods (lecture-discussion versus group discussion) and teaching talent on teacher trainees student learning outcomes. It was conducted by a quasi-experimental design using the factorialized (2 x 2) version of the nonequivalent control group design. The subjects were…

  15. Benchmarking routine psychological services: a discussion of challenges and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Jaime; McMillan, Dean; Leach, Chris; Lucock, Mike; Gilbody, Simon; Wood, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Policy developments in recent years have led to important changes in the level of access to evidence-based psychological treatments. Several methods have been used to investigate the effectiveness of these treatments in routine care, with different approaches to outcome definition and data analysis. To present a review of challenges and methods for the evaluation of evidence-based treatments delivered in routine mental healthcare. This is followed by a case example of a benchmarking method applied in primary care. High, average and poor performance benchmarks were calculated through a meta-analysis of published data from services working under the Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) Programme in England. Pre-post treatment effect sizes (ES) and confidence intervals were estimated to illustrate a benchmarking method enabling services to evaluate routine clinical outcomes. High, average and poor performance ES for routine IAPT services were estimated to be 0.91, 0.73 and 0.46 for depression (using PHQ-9) and 1.02, 0.78 and 0.52 for anxiety (using GAD-7). Data from one specific IAPT service exemplify how to evaluate and contextualize routine clinical performance against these benchmarks. The main contribution of this report is to summarize key recommendations for the selection of an adequate set of psychometric measures, the operational definition of outcomes, and the statistical evaluation of clinical performance. A benchmarking method is also presented, which may enable a robust evaluation of clinical performance against national benchmarks. Some limitations concerned significant heterogeneity among data sources, and wide variations in ES and data completeness.

  16. Method discussion of the performance evaluation on nuclear plant cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Yongfang; Zhong Weixia; Sun Jiansheng; Liu Jingping

    2014-01-01

    A stock cable, which is same as the nuclear plant cable in service, was treated by thermal aging. After that, the mechanical property, the flame retardant property, the anti-oxidation were measured, and relationships between them due to the thermal aging were established. By those analysis, evaluating the in-service cable performance in nuclear plant and calculating its remaining life. Furthermore, the feasibility of this method was disscussed. (authors)

  17. Catalyst support structure, catalyst including the structure, reactor including a catalyst, and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Aston, Victoria J.; Weimer, Alan W.

    2017-05-09

    Structures, catalysts, and reactors suitable for use for a variety of applications, including gas-to-liquid and coal-to-liquid processes and methods of forming the structures, catalysts, and reactors are disclosed. The catalyst material can be deposited onto an inner wall of a microtubular reactor and/or onto porous tungsten support structures using atomic layer deposition techniques.

  18. More than Method?: A Discussion of Paradigm Differences within Mixed Methods Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrits, Gitte Sommer

    2011-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that mixed methods research (MMR) constitutes a coherent research paradigm and explores how different research paradigms exist within MMR. Tracing paradigmatic differences at the level of methods, ontology, and epistemology, two MMR strategies are discussed: nested analysis, recently presented by the American…

  19. Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V

    2014-04-22

    Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.

  20. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  1. Implementation of small group discussion as a teaching method in earth and space science subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryani, N. P.; Supriyadi

    2018-03-01

    In Physics Department Universitas Negeri Semarang, Earth and Space Science subject is included in the curriculum of the third year of physics education students. There are various models of teaching earth and space science subject such as textbook method, lecturer, demonstrations, study tours, problem-solving method, etc. Lectures method is the most commonly used of teaching earth and space science subject. The disadvantage of this method is the lack of two ways interaction between lecturers and students. This research used small group discussion as a teaching method in Earth and Space science. The purpose of this study is to identify the conditions under which an efficient discussion may be initiated and maintained while students are investigating properties of earth and space science subjects. The results of this research show that there is an increase in student’s understanding of earth and space science subject proven through the evaluation results. In addition, during the learning process, student’s activeness also increase.

  2. Unsteady panel method for complex configurations including wake modeling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available implementations of the DLM are however not very versatile in terms of geometries that can be modeled. The ZONA6 code offers a versatile surface panel body model including a separated wake model, but uses a pressure panel method for lifting surfaces. This paper...

  3. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  4. Is it time to include point-of-care ultrasound in general surgery training? A review to stimulate discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenkopf, Maximilian; Tait, Noel

    2013-12-01

    Point-of-care ultrasound scanning or POCUS is a focused ultrasound (US) scan, performed by non-imaging clinicians during physical examination, an invasive procedure or surgery. As this technology becomes cheaper, smaller and easier to use, its scope for use by surgeons grows, a trend that may generate a gap between use and training. Opportunities for enhanced general surgery skill sets may be reduced unless consideration is given to inclusion of POCUS in general surgery training. To stimulate discussion regarding inclusion of POCUS in the general surgery curriculum; to resource this discussion with an overview of current trends and issues around POCUS; and to discuss concerns and controversies that may arise if POCUS was adopted into general surgery training. A literature search was performed using PUBMED, MEDLINE, Google and Google Scholar, using the terms 'ultrasound', 'point-of-care-ultrasound', 'bedside ultrasound', 'portable ultrasound' and 'hand-held ultrasound'. Literature, references and non-literature resources found were reviewed for relevance to US education in general surgery. Increasingly, medical students are graduating with basic POCUS skills. Specialty-specific uses of POCUS are proliferating. Training and assessment resources are not keeping up, in accessibility or standardization. A learned surgical college led training and accreditation process would require aligned education in anatomy and US technology and collaboration with the specialist imaging community to ensure appropriate standards are clarified and met. Research is also required into how general surgery trainees can best achieve and maintain POCUS competence. © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  5. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  6. Does a Discussion by Any Other Name Sound the Same? Teaching Discussion in Three ELA Methods Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Chandra L.; Danielson, Katie A.; Dutro, Elizabeth; Cartun, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    Facilitating discussions in English Language Arts can develop students' skills as speakers and listeners and their ability to engage with diverse perspectives. However, classroom observations often demonstrate a lack of student talk, raising questions about the complexity of facilitating discussion and teachers' opportunities to learn and hone the…

  7. The discussion on the qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods for safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Kefu

    2005-01-01

    The fundamental methods for safely culture evaluation are described. Combining with the practice of the quantitative evaluation of safety culture in Daya Bay NPP, the quantitative evaluation method for safety culture are discussed. (author)

  8. A FILTRATION METHOD AND APPARATUS INCLUDING A ROLLER WITH PORES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention offers a method for separating dry matter from a medium. A separation chamber is at least partly defined by a plurality of rollers (2,7) and is capable of being pressure regulated. At least one of the rollers is a pore roller (7) having a surface with pores allowing permeabi...

  9. Composite material including nanocrystals and methods of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawendi, Moungi G.; Sundar, Vikram C.

    2010-04-06

    Temperature-sensing compositions can include an inorganic material, such as a semiconductor nanocrystal. The nanocrystal can be a dependable and accurate indicator of temperature. The intensity of emission of the nanocrystal varies with temperature and can be highly sensitive to surface temperature. The nanocrystals can be processed with a binder to form a matrix, which can be varied by altering the chemical nature of the surface of the nanocrystal. A nanocrystal with a compatibilizing outer layer can be incorporated into a coating formulation and retain its temperature sensitive emissive properties.

  10. Methods for forming complex oxidation reaction products including superconducting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapp, R.A.; Urquhart, A.W.; Nagelberg, A.S.; Newkirk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a method for producing a superconducting complex oxidation reaction product of two or more metals in an oxidized state. It comprises positioning at least one parent metal source comprising one of the metals adjacent to a permeable mass comprising at least one metal-containing compound capable of reaction to form the complex oxidation reaction product in step below, the metal component of the at least one metal-containing compound comprising at least a second of the two or more metals, and orienting the parent metal source and the permeable mass relative to each other so that formation of the complex oxidation reaction product will occur in a direction towards and into the permeable mass; and heating the parent metal source in the presence of an oxidant to a temperature region above its melting point to form a body of molten parent metal to permit infiltration and reaction of the molten parent metal into the permeable mass and with the oxidant and the at least one metal-containing compound to form the complex oxidation reaction product, and progressively drawing the molten parent metal source through the complex oxidation reaction product towards the oxidant and towards and into the adjacent permeable mass so that fresh complex oxidation reaction product continues to form within the permeable mass; and recovering the resulting complex oxidation reaction product

  11. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Chen, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  12. Membrane for distillation including nanostructures, methods of making membranes, and methods of desalination and separation

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2016-01-21

    In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure provide membranes, methods of making the membrane, systems including the membrane, methods of separation, methods of desalination, and the like.

  13. Qualitative, quantitative, and data mining methods for analyzing log data to characterize students' learning strategies and behaviors [discussant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baker, Ryan S.J.d.; Gobert, Janice D.; van Joolingen, Wouter

    2010-01-01

    This symposium addresses how different classes of research methods, all based upon the use of log data from educational software, can facilitate the analysis of students’ learning strategies and behaviors. To this end, four multi-method programs of research are discussed, including the use of

  14. Discussion on the fusing methods for HR and CCD images of CBERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhangsheng; Zhao Yingjun

    2010-01-01

    CBERS-02B multi-spectral CCD data are different from HR panchromatic data in resolution, which causes difficulty in image fusion. With the method of Pansharping, HPF, Brovey transform, IHS transform, principal component transform, Gram Schmidt (GS) transform and wavelet transform, the authors have tested the fusion methods for CCD data and HR data of CBERS, and the fusion results are discussed and evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. (authors)

  15. Discussion of the experimental methods of the estimation of the reaction impact parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muryn, B.; Dziunikowska, K.; Eskreys, A.; Coghen, T.

    1978-01-01

    Two methods of determination of the reaction impact parameter, the one proposed by Webber and other by Henyey and Pumplin, are compared and discussed. It is shown that the lower limits of the impact parameter bsub(L) obtained by means of these methods are comparable and are always very low (approximately < 0.5 fm). On the example of the Henyey - Pumplin method it is argued that the experimentally obtained values bsub(L) may be very unreliable estimates of the reaction impact parameter and that any comparison of different reactions or reactions channels may be meaningless. (author)

  16. Using mixed methods research designs in health psychology: an illustrated discussion from a pragmatist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Felicity L

    2015-02-01

    To outline some of the challenges of mixed methods research and illustrate how they can be addressed in health psychology research. This study critically reflects on the author's previously published mixed methods research and discusses the philosophical and technical challenges of mixed methods, grounding the discussion in a brief review of methodological literature. Mixed methods research is characterized as having philosophical and technical challenges; the former can be addressed by drawing on pragmatism, the latter by considering formal mixed methods research designs proposed in a number of design typologies. There are important differences among the design typologies which provide diverse examples of designs that health psychologists can adapt for their own mixed methods research. There are also similarities; in particular, many typologies explicitly orient to the technical challenges of deciding on the respective timing of qualitative and quantitative methods and the relative emphasis placed on each method. Characteristics, strengths, and limitations of different sequential and concurrent designs are identified by reviewing five mixed methods projects each conducted for a different purpose. Adapting formal mixed methods designs can help health psychologists address the technical challenges of mixed methods research and identify the approach that best fits the research questions and purpose. This does not obfuscate the need to address philosophical challenges of mixing qualitative and quantitative methods. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Mixed methods research poses philosophical and technical challenges. Pragmatism in a popular approach to the philosophical challenges while diverse typologies of mixed methods designs can help address the technical challenges. Examples of mixed methods research can be hard to locate when component studies from mixed methods projects are published separately. What does this study add? Critical

  17. Discussion of Science and Math Teaching Methods: criticism and possibilities in teaching practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gerhardt Manfredo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a discussion of practices among Science and Math teachers in Brazilian Basic Education. Analysis focuses on criticism over teaching practices throughout Basic Education which includes Children, Primary and Medium levels. Discussion highlights the interdisciplinary and educational projects as the most chosen tool for reflective practices. Most educational problems must be solved by the use of shared theoretical choices and investigative methodological approach. Such choices ought to be made during teachers' continuing trainning based on a researcher-teacher action as it provides ways for methodological changes in Sciences and Math Education in the Country

  18. Discussion on the methods for calculation release limits for low-level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Fengbo; Liu Xiaochao

    2012-01-01

    The release request for low-level radioactive waste are briefly described in this paper. Associating with the conditions of low-level radioactive waste of some radioactive waste processing station, the methods and gist for calculating release limits for low-level radioactive waste with national release limits and annual effective dose limit for the public or the occupation are discussed. Then release limits for the low-level radioactive waste are also proposed. (authors)

  19. Discussion on verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hualong; Liu Yanzi; Jia Ming; Huang Weijun

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent or reduce human error and ensure the safe operation of nuclear power plants, control device should be verified from the perspective of human factors engineering (HFE). The domestic and international human factors engineering guidelines about nuclear power plant controller were considered, the verification criterion and method of human factors engineering for nuclear power plant controller were discussed and the application examples were provided for reference in this paper. The results show that the appropriate verification criterion and method should be selected to ensure the objectivity and accuracy of the conclusion. (authors)

  20. Discussion of the Investigation Method on the Reaction Kinetics of Metallurgical Reaction Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Ruiling; Wu, Keng; Zhang, Jiazhi; Zhao, Yong

    Reaction kinetics of metallurgical physical chemistry which was successfully applied in metallurgy (as ferrous metallurgy, non-ferrous metallurgy) became an important theoretical foundation for subject system of traditional metallurgy. Not only the research methods were very perfect, but also the independent structures and systems of it had been formed. One of the important tasks of metallurgical reaction engineering was the simulation of metallurgical process. And then, the mechanism of reaction process and the conversion time points of different control links should be obtained accurately. Therefore, the research methods and results of reaction kinetics in metallurgical physical chemistry were not very suitable for metallurgical reaction engineering. In order to provide the definite conditions of transmission, reaction kinetics parameters and the conversion time points of different control links for solving the transmission and reaction equations in metallurgical reaction engineering, a new method for researching kinetics mechanisms in metallurgical reaction engineering was proposed, which was named stepwise attempt method. Then the comparison of results between the two methods and the further development of stepwise attempt method were discussed in this paper. As a new research method for reaction kinetics in metallurgical reaction engineering, stepwise attempt method could not only satisfy the development of metallurgical reaction engineering, but also provide necessary guarantees for establishing its independent subject system.

  1. Advantages of discussion and cognitive conflict as an instructional method in contemporary teaching of mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišurac-Zorica Irena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary theories of teaching and learning mathematics emphasise the importance of learner’s active participation in the teaching process, in which discovery and logical reasoning lead to the construction of student’s knowledge. In this form of teaching, it is important to detect students’ misunderstandings and errors that can occur during learning. Uncovered tacit and false conceptions of students’ knowledge can greatly contribute to the opposite effect in the construction of knowledge. In teaching mathematics, there are many situations which leave students with ambiguities and misunderstandings, and create an impression in children that teaching of mathematics and mathematical knowledge itself is something that is not possible. Discussion and cognitive conflict are methods which have their starting point in the theory of constructivism. The aim of our study has been to determine whether application of the method of discussion and cognitive conflict in learning to divide decimal numbers leads to the enhancement of student’s procedural knowledge and conceptual knowledge about the division of decimal numbers. Longitudinally, we monitored two groups of 117 pupils of the fifth grade. In the first group, which was taught according to the guidelines of contemporary mathematics education, students engaged in discussion, discovering their misunderstandings and errors, and the cognitive conflict resulted in correct concepts. The second group of students were taught traditionally, learning the procedure and then practicing it. The paper presents a descriptive analysis of the process of teaching and quantitative analysis of the performance based on the comparison of conceptual and procedural knowledge of both groups. Results of our work show that the application of contemporary methods of discussion and cognitive conflict affects the increase of procedural and conceptual knowledge of the division of decimal numbers.

  2. [Discussion on Quality Evaluation Method of Medical Device During Life-Cycle in Operation Based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Caixian; Zheng, Kun; Shen, Yunming; Wu, Yunyun

    2016-01-01

    The content related to the quality during life-cycle in operation of medical device includes daily use, repair volume, preventive maintenance, quality control and adverse event monitoring. In view of this, the article aims at discussion on the quality evaluation method of medical devices during their life cycle in operation based on the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). The presented method is proved to be effective by evaluating patient monitors as example. The method presented in can promote and guide the device quality control work, and it can provide valuable inputs to decisions about purchase of new device.

  3. Discussion method for the Wigner-Seitz model applied to plane problems; Methode de discussion du modele Wigner-Seitz appliquee a des problemes plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J

    1949-04-01

    This report discusses the approximation which consists, for the study of a waves field, in replacing a square domain by a circular domain in a square orthogonal mesh network. For this purpose, it is proposed to introduce J{sub 4}(Kr)cos(4{theta}) and Y{sub 4}(Kr)cos(4{theta}) terms and to modify the outside limits of the mesh for the calculation of the coefficients of these terms.

  4. [Discussion on ideological concept implied in traditional reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suyun; Zhao, Jingsheng

    2017-11-12

    The forming and development of traditional reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture was rooted in traditional culture of China, and was based on the ancients' special understanding of nature, life and diseases, therefore its principle and methods were inevitably influenced by philosophy culture and medicine concept at that time. With deep study on Inner Canon of Huangdi and representative reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture, the implied ideological concept, including contradiction view and profit-loss view in ancient dialectic, yin-yang balance theory, concept of life flow, monophyletic theory of qi , theory of existence of disease-evil, yin - yang astrology theory, theory of inter-promotion of five elements, were summarized and analyzed. The clarified and systematic understanding on guiding ideology of reinforcing and reducing method of acupuncture could significantly promote the understanding on principle, method, content and manipulation.

  5. Discussion on the method of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Guohua

    2008-01-01

    Based on the characteristics and environmental radiological impact of the highway construction project, the basic procedure of environmental radiological impact assessment for the highway construction project is put forward, including analysis and determination of contamination sources, selection of evaluation factors, determination of assessment range and dose limit, environmental investigation, environmental impact prediction and assessment. The working method of each procedure is analyzed. (authors)

  6. Discussion of a method for providing general risk information by linking with the nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Yokomizo, Shirou; Umezawa, Sayaka

    2004-06-01

    'Risk information navigator (http://www.ricotti.jp/risknavi/)', an internet tool for arousing public interest and fostering people's risk literacy, has been developed as the contents for the official website of Techno Community Square 'RICOTTI' (http://www.ricotti.jp) at TOKAI village. In this report we classified the risk information into the fields, Health/Daily Life', 'Society/Crime/Disaster' and Technology/Environment/Energy', for the internet tool contents. According to these categories we discussed a method for providing various risk information on general fields by linking with the information on nuclear field. The web contents are attached to this report with the CD-R media. (author)

  7. Comparison and discussion of two types of threat (Hazard) categorization method for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Rongyao; Xu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Jiangang; Zhao, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The emergency threat categorization method suggested by international atomic energy agency (IAEA) and hazard categorization standard by the Department of Energy of United States (USDOE) for nuclear facilities are compared and discussed in this paper. The research shows the two types of categorization method for nuclear facility are similar, though each has its own speciality. The categorization method suggested by IAEA is quite completed and sound in scientific basis. The thresholds of radioactive material are connected with the quantity of dangerous source, and the latest radiobiological effect research results are taken in setting the thresholds. While the main purpose is put on emergency management, some of the categorization criteria do not fit for safety surveillance of nuclear facilities. The categorization method of DOE is advanced in its operability, and it fits for safety surveillance. The disadvantage is that the thresholds of radioactive material need to be updated because the parameters used in calculation is outdated, and also the threshold of category 3 is somewhat disputable for many reasons. We should take advantage of both methods and adjust the standards according to the application purpose while establishing the categorization standard of nuclear facilities in China. (author)

  8. [Discussion on appraisal methods and key technologies of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and medicinal plant symbiosis system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilan; Guo, Lanping; Yang, Guang; Chen, Min; Yang, Li; Huang, Luqi

    2011-11-01

    Applications of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in research of medicinal plant cultivation are increased in recent years. Medicinal plants habitat is complicated and many inclusions are in root, however crop habitat is simple and few inclusions in root. So appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of crop and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can't completely suitable for the symbiotic system of medicinal plants and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. This article discuss the appraisal methods and key technologies about the symbiotic system of medicinal plant and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from the isolation and identification of arbuscular mycorrhiza, and the appraisal of colonization intensity. This article provides guidance for application research of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in cultivation of medicinal plants.

  9. A Practical MethodDiscussion using Matrix Diagram’ , ConnectingHuman Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Wataru

    In order to bring up talented people, it is a most important subject how to awake ‘Emotional Human Power’ , which is the origin of Autonomy and Creativity. A Practical MethodDiscussion using Matrix Diagram’ developed for improving ‘Emotional Human Power’ including ‘Communication Skill’ , is confirmed to be useful for connecting Human Base-Liberal-and Engineering Base-Professional-.

  10. Discussion and a new method of optical cryptosystem based on interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dajiang; He, Wenqi; Liao, Meihua; Peng, Xiang

    2017-02-01

    A discussion and an objective security analysis of the well-known optical image encryption based on interference are presented in this paper. A new method is also proposed to eliminate the security risk of the original cryptosystem. For a possible practical application, we expand this new method into a hierarchical authentication scheme. In this authentication system, with a pre-generated and fixed random phase lock, different target images indicating different authentication levels are analytically encoded into corresponding phase-only masks (phase keys) and amplitude-only masks (amplitude keys). For the authentication process, a legal user can obtain a specified target image at the output plane if his/her phase key, and amplitude key, which should be settled close against the fixed internal phase lock, are respectively illuminated by two coherent beams. By comparing the target image with all the standard certification images in the database, the system can thus verify the user's legality even his/her identity level. Moreover, in despite of the internal phase lock of this system being fixed, the crosstalk between different pairs of keys held by different users is low. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are both provided to demonstrate the validity of this method.

  11. Text mining for search term development in systematic reviewing: A discussion of some methods and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Claire; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Thomas, James

    2017-09-01

    Using text mining to aid the development of database search strings for topics described by diverse terminology has potential benefits for systematic reviews; however, methods and tools for accomplishing this are poorly covered in the research methods literature. We briefly review the literature on applications of text mining for search term development for systematic reviewing. We found that the tools can be used in 5 overarching ways: improving the precision of searches; identifying search terms to improve search sensitivity; aiding the translation of search strategies across databases; searching and screening within an integrated system; and developing objectively derived search strategies. Using a case study and selected examples, we then reflect on the utility of certain technologies (term frequency-inverse document frequency and Termine, term frequency, and clustering) in improving the precision and sensitivity of searches. Challenges in using these tools are discussed. The utility of these tools is influenced by the different capabilities of the tools, the way the tools are used, and the text that is analysed. Increased awareness of how the tools perform facilitates the further development of methods for their use in systematic reviews. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Research on Integrated Analysis Method for Equipment and Tactics Based on Intervention Strategy Discussion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超; 张迎新; 毛赤龙

    2012-01-01

    As the increase of the complexity of the information warfare,its intervention strategy needs to be designed in an integrated environment.However,the current research always breaks the internal relation between equipment and tactics,and it is difficult to meet the requirements of their integrated analysis.In this paper,the research status quo of the integrated analysis about equipment and tactics is discussed first,some shortages of the current methods are summarized then,and an evolvement mechanism of the integrated analysis for equipment and tactics is given finally.Based on these,a framework of integrated analysis is proposed.This method's effectiveness is validated by an example.

  13. A discussion on validity of the diffusion theory by Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Dong-qing; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2008-12-01

    Diffusion theory was widely used as a basis of the experiments and methods in determining the optical properties of biological tissues. A simple analytical solution could be obtained easily from the diffusion equation after a series of approximations. Thus, a misinterpret of analytical solution would be made: while the effective attenuation coefficient of several semi-infinite bio-tissues were the same, the distribution of light fluence in the tissues would be the same. In order to assess the validity of knowledge above, depth resolved internal fluence of several semi-infinite biological tissues which have the same effective attenuation coefficient were simulated with wide collimated beam in the paper by using Monte Carlo method in different condition. Also, the influence of bio-tissue refractive index on the distribution of light fluence was discussed in detail. Our results showed that, when the refractive index of several bio-tissues which had the same effective attenuation coefficient were the same, the depth resolved internal fluence would be the same; otherwise, the depth resolved internal fluence would be not the same. The change of refractive index of tissue would have affection on the light depth distribution in tissue. Therefore, the refractive index is an important optical property of tissue, and should be taken in account while using the diffusion approximation theory.

  14. A brief discussion about image quality and SEM methods for quantitative fractography of polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L R O; Campos, K A; Caltabiano, P C R O; Kostov, K G

    2013-01-01

    The methodology for fracture analysis of polymeric composites with scanning electron microscopes (SEM) is still under discussion. Many authors prefer to use sputter coating with a conductive material instead of applying low-voltage (LV) or variable-pressure (VP) methods, which preserves the original surfaces. The present work examines the effects of sputter coating with 25 nm of gold on the topography of carbon-epoxy composites fracture surfaces, using an atomic force microscope. Also, the influence of SEM imaging parameters on fractal measurements is evaluated for the VP-SEM and LV-SEM methods. It was observed that topographic measurements were not significantly affected by the gold coating at tested scale. Moreover, changes on SEM setup leads to nonlinear outcome on texture parameters, such as fractal dimension and entropy values. For VP-SEM or LV-SEM, fractal dimension and entropy values did not present any evident relation with image quality parameters, but the resolution must be optimized with imaging setup, accompanied by charge neutralization. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Automatically classifying sentences in full-text biomedical articles into Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shashank; Yu, Hong

    2009-12-01

    Biomedical texts can be typically represented by four rhetorical categories: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion (IMRAD). Classifying sentences into these categories can benefit many other text-mining tasks. Although many studies have applied different approaches for automatically classifying sentences in MEDLINE abstracts into the IMRAD categories, few have explored the classification of sentences that appear in full-text biomedical articles. We first evaluated whether sentences in full-text biomedical articles could be reliably annotated into the IMRAD format and then explored different approaches for automatically classifying these sentences into the IMRAD categories. Our results show an overall annotation agreement of 82.14% with a Kappa score of 0.756. The best classification system is a multinomial naïve Bayes classifier trained on manually annotated data that achieved 91.95% accuracy and an average F-score of 91.55%, which is significantly higher than baseline systems. A web version of this system is available online at-http://wood.ims.uwm.edu/full_text_classifier/.

  16. Case Method Instruction: 25 Minutes of Discussion Can Make a Difference

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zbylut, Michelle L; Brunner, Jason M; Vowels, Christopher L; Kim, Julia M

    2007-01-01

    .... Findings indicated that students produced better quality answers and were better able to diagnose leadership problems in the scenario after participating in discussion, even though the time allotted...

  17. Composite materials and bodies including silicon carbide and titanium diboride and methods of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo, Thomas M.; Chu, Henry S.; Harrison, William M.; Bailey, Derek

    2013-01-22

    Methods of forming composite materials include coating particles of titanium dioxide with a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon, and reacting the titanium dioxide with the substance including boron and the substance including carbon to form titanium diboride. The methods may be used to form ceramic composite bodies and materials, such as, for example, a ceramic composite body or material including silicon carbide and titanium diboride. Such bodies and materials may be used as armor bodies and armor materials. Such methods may include forming a green body and sintering the green body to a desirable final density. Green bodies formed in accordance with such methods may include particles comprising titanium dioxide and a coating at least partially covering exterior surfaces thereof, the coating comprising a substance including boron (e.g., boron carbide) and a substance including carbon.

  18. MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Leslie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain.

  19. MycoKey Round Table Discussions of Future Directions in Research on Chemical Detection Methods, Genetics and Biodiversity of Mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Veronica; Cary, Jeffrey; Chulze, Sofia N.; Gerardino, Annamaria; Liao, Yu-Cai; Maragos, Chris M.; Meca, Giuseppe; Moretti, Antonio; Munkvold, Gary; Mulè, Giuseppina; Njobeh, Patrick; Pecorelli, Ivan; Pietri, Amedeo; Proctor, Robert H.; Rahayu, Endang S.; Ramírez, Maria L.; Samson, Robert; Stroka, Jörg; Sumarah, Mark; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Hao; Logrieco, Antonio F.

    2018-01-01

    MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This paper includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on Chemical Detection and Monitoring of mycotoxins and on the role of genetics and biodiversity in mycotoxin production. Discussions were managed by using the nominal group discussion technique, which generates numerous ideas and provides a ranking for those identified as the most important. Four questions were posed for each research area, as well as two questions that were common to both discussions. Test kits, usually antibody based, were one major focus of the discussions at the Chemical Detection and Monitoring roundtable because of their many favorable features, e.g., cost, speed and ease of use. The second area of focus for this roundtable was multi-mycotoxin detection protocols and the challenges still to be met to enable these protocols to become methods of choice for regulated mycotoxins. For the genetic and biodiversity group, both the depth and the breadth of trending research areas were notable. For some areas, e.g., microbiome studies, the suggested research questions were primarily of a descriptive nature. In other areas, multiple experimental approaches, e.g., transcriptomics, proteomics, RNAi and gene deletions, are needed to understand the regulation of toxin production and mechanisms underlying successful biological controls. Answers to the research questions will provide starting points for developing acceptable prevention and remediation processes. Forging a partnership between scientists and appropriately-placed communications experts was recognized by both groups as an essential step to communicating risks, while retaining overall confidence in the safety of the food supply and the integrity of the food production chain. PMID:29494529

  20. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

  1. Influence of lubricant on the pitting capacity of gears. Comparison and discussion of main pitting test methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, Bernd-Robert; Oster, Peter; Tobie, Thomas; Hergesell, Maria [Forschungsstelle fuer Zahnraeder und Getriebebau, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The lubricant in a gearbox should provide a separating lubricating film between the meshing teeth. Furthermore its main task is the evacuation of the developing heat. Hence the lubricant is also an important influence parameter on the pitting life time of gearsets. Due to the constantly rising demands for higher power transmission of gearsets, also higher demands are made against the performance of the lubricants. In order to quantify the capability and to choose the appropriate lubricant for each application, reliable testing methods are necessary. Therefor today different testing methods are available. Two of the main pitting testing methods are the Standard Pittingtest according to FVA 2/IV [2] and its advancement, the Practice Relevant Pittingtest according to FVA 371 [4]. For the Practice Relevant Pittingtest test gears with profile modification and lengthwise crowning are used, which are superfinished. For the introduction of the Practice Relevant Pittingtest into industrial application a round robin test was performed in co-operation with FVA and DGMK. This paper is discussing the today usual testing methods regarding the pitting load capacity of lubricants and their characteristics in comparison. Furthermore the results of the round robin test and further example results, including pictures of typical pittings, are presented. In addition it is demonstrated, how to deal with the results. On the basis of test experience, knowledge from research projects and other examples typical questions concerning the different testing methods are discussed. Thereby essential requirements for reliable and reproducible results are pointed out and possible limits for the application of the test methods are represented. (orig.)

  2. Discussion of the Method to Determine the Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Soil Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peng; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yangfu

    2017-12-01

    Combining literature examples, this paper has carried out Contrastive analysis of the theoretical formula method and finite element method about the ultimate bearing capacity of foundation, To verify rationality and superiority of the incremental load method in finite element ABAQUS in solving the bearing capacity of foundation soil. The study can provide certain reference for practical engineering calculation and analysis of foundation bearing capacity.

  3. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...... of the units". This problem is related mainly to the slender types of armour units. The paper discusses the various types of loads, and the practical determination of the wave and gravity induced loads and stresses, especially the model test technique and its restrictions. Examples related to Dolosse...

  4. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland; description of the probabilistic method and discussion of some input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Rosa, D.; Merz, H.A.

    1976-01-01

    The probabilistic model used in a seismic risk mapping project for Switzerland is presented. Some of its advantages and limitations are spelled out. In addition some earthquake parameters which should be carefully investigated before using them in a seismic risk analysis are discussed

  5. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  6. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harst-Wintraecken, van der Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-01-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of

  7. Second-principles method for materials simulations including electron and lattice degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Pablo; Wojdeł, Jacek C.; Íñiguez, Jorge; Junquera, Javier

    2016-05-01

    We present a first-principles-based (second-principles) scheme that permits large-scale materials simulations including both atomic and electronic degrees of freedom on the same footing. The method is based on a predictive quantum-mechanical theory—e.g., density functional theory—and its accuracy can be systematically improved at a very modest computational cost. Our approach is based on dividing the electron density of the system into a reference part—typically corresponding to the system's neutral, geometry-dependent ground state—and a deformation part—defined as the difference between the actual and reference densities. We then take advantage of the fact that the bulk part of the system's energy depends on the reference density alone; this part can be efficiently and accurately described by a force field, thus avoiding explicit consideration of the electrons. Then, the effects associated to the difference density can be treated perturbatively with good precision by working in a suitably chosen Wannier function basis. Further, the electronic model can be restricted to the bands of interest. All these features combined yield a very flexible and computationally very efficient scheme. Here we present the basic formulation of this approach, as well as a practical strategy to compute model parameters for realistic materials. We illustrate the accuracy and scope of the proposed method with two case studies, namely, the relative stability of various spin arrangements in NiO (featuring complex magnetic interactions in a strongly-correlated oxide) and the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas at the interface between band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (featuring subtle electron-lattice couplings and screening effects). We conclude by discussing ways to overcome the limitations of the present approach (most notably, the assumption of a fixed bonding topology), as well as its many envisioned possibilities and future extensions.

  8. Discussion of various flow calculation methods in high-speed centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvet, P.; Cortet, C.

    1979-01-01

    The flow in high-speed centrifuges for the separation of uranium isotopes has been studied in the frame of linearized theory for long years. Three different methods have been derived for viscous compressible flow with small Ekman numbers and high Mach numbers: - numerical solution of flow equation by finite element method and Gaussian elimination (Centaure Code), - boundary layer theory using matched asymptotic expansions, - the so called eigenfunction method slightly modified. The mathematical assumptions, the easiness and the accuracy of the computations are compared. Numerical applications are performed successively for thermal countercurrent centrifuges with or without injections

  9. The discussion of a method to determine the underground destruction range of nuclear earth penetrator bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Xiaobing; Zhang Zhongshan

    2007-01-01

    This thesis chooses cross hole seismic tomography to determine the destruction range of surrounded rock in virtue of the characteristic of nuclear earth penetrator explosion.According to Fermat's principle, ray tracing method-the shortest path method suggested by Moser used, a programme was produced to calculate seismic travel time and then to simulate the collection the practical travel time data. The Genetic Algorithm is adopted as the inversion method to simulate in accordance with the crater model of nuclear earth penetrator explosion. (authors)

  10. Investigations on the binary systems of boron with chromium, columbium, nickel, and thorium, including a discussion of the Phase TiB in the titanium-boron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, L H; Kiessling, R

    1950-01-01

    Investigations on the binary systems chromium-, columbium-, nickel-, and thorium-boron are reported. The titanium-boron system is discussed, and it is shown that the phase TiB, previously assumed to have zincblende structure, probably has a face-centered titanium lattice with boron in the octahedral interstices. In the chromium-boron system, the structure of the eta phase has been determined. It has the composition Cr/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and is isomorphous with Ta/sub 3/B/sub 4/ and Mn/sub 3/B/sub 4/. Some data for the delta phase are also given. For the columbium-boron system, a phase analysis has been carried out. The structures of three of the intermediary phases, CbB, Cb/sub 3/B/sub 2/, and CbB/sub 2/ (with extended homogeneity range), have been determined. They are isomorphous with corresponding phases of the tantalum-boron system. A brief phase analysis of the nickel-boron system showed the existence of a phase with lower boron content than Ni/sub 2/B, which has not been previously reported. In the thorium-boron system a new phase, probably with a complicated structure, was found with a boron content of about 50 at. %.

  11. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  12. Preliminary discussion on the application of the geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Guangzhong; Wei Mingji; Luo Yiyue

    1992-01-01

    The geological conceptual model method of uranium ore formation is established on the basis of geological theory and apriorism. Variables are screened with the application of the method of mathematical geology to find out the variables which are more contributed. In combination with the practical situation in Xikang-Yunnan axis, the variables are compiled and graded so as to determine the optimal ore-controlling factor and to establish the statistical predictive model which is of geological significance. The resources evaluation work has been conducted in the Late Proterozoic geological terrain in Xikang-Yunnan axis

  13. Discussion on Boiler Efficiency Correction Method with Low Temperature Economizer-Air Heater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Liu; Xing-sen, Yang; Fan-jun, Hou; Zhi-hong, Hu

    2017-05-01

    This paper pointed out that it is wrong to take the outlet flue gas temperature of low temperature economizer as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation based on GB10184-1988. What’s more, this paper proposed a new correction method, which decomposed low temperature economizer-air heater system into two hypothetical parts of air preheater and pre condensed water heater and take the outlet equivalent gas temperature of air preheater as exhaust gas temperature in boiler efficiency calculation. This method makes the boiler efficiency calculation more concise, with no air heater correction. It has a positive reference value to deal with this kind of problem correctly.

  14. Brief Discussions of a Draw of American Universal Education on Chinese Postgraduate Teaching Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhengminqing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiated by International Friendships Inc.(IFI in Cincinnati, that is a Christian community organization, the authors participated in a universal education activity, called “History Museum”, organized by the local people in Kentucky State of U.S.A. In the activity, the authors grasped some characteristics of American universal education and reflected some problems of the professional foundation teaching of Chinese postgraduates, especially of Chinese engineering postgraduates. Based on the above thinking, some suggestions of the teaching methods for the professional foundation courses of Chinese postgraduates are proposed. Furthermore, the authors hope the proposed methods would be good for improving the postgraduate education in China.

  15. Discussion and Outline of a Course on Methods of Teaching a Foreign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Mary

    This course, designed for instructing potential teaching assistants to teach college students a foreign language, concentrates on six major areas of preparation. A detailed outline covers: (1) course introduction and definitions, (2) applied linguistics, (3) approaches and methods, (4) testing, (5) classroom techniques, and (6) demonstrations.…

  16. Atomic spectrometry methods for wine analysis: A critical evaluation and discussion of recent applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindlay, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.grindlay@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, PO Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, PO Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Analytical Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-08

    The analysis of wine is of great importance since wine components strongly determine its stability, organoleptic or nutrition characteristics. In addition, wine analysis is also important to prevent fraud and to assess toxicological issues. Among the different analytical techniques described in the literature, atomic spectrometry has been traditionally employed for elemental wine analysis due to its simplicity and good analytical figures of merit. The scope of this review is to summarize the main advantages and drawbacks of various atomic spectrometry techniques for elemental wine analysis. Special attention is paid to interferences (i.e. matrix effects) affecting the analysis as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, latest studies about wine speciation are briefly discussed.

  17. Atomic spectrometry methods for wine analysis: a critical evaluation and discussion of recent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T C

    2011-04-08

    The analysis of wine is of great importance since wine components strongly determine its stability, organoleptic or nutrition characteristics. In addition, wine analysis is also important to prevent fraud and to assess toxicological issues. Among the different analytical techniques described in the literature, atomic spectrometry has been traditionally employed for elemental wine analysis due to its simplicity and good analytical figures of merit. The scope of this review is to summarize the main advantages and drawbacks of various atomic spectrometry techniques for elemental wine analysis. Special attention is paid to interferences (i.e. matrix effects) affecting the analysis as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, latest studies about wine speciation are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Discussion of plastic instabilities of a pressure vessel by means of the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmer, H.; Ritter, B.; Tsakmakis, C.

    1994-06-01

    In this report the influence of geometrical and thermal imperfections on the load-carrying capacity of pressure vessels has been studied by means of the ABAQUS finite element code. Using a thermo-plasticity model for finite strains failure due to plastic instability has been investigated. The parameters needed for this model were identified with uniaxial tensile tests. The parameters were fitted in such a way that necking of the tensile rod was described in a satisfactory manner. Starting from the tensile rod the influence of imperfections on necking of a structure is discussed. Axisymmetric and three dimensional calculations showed that for a sufficient size of the imperfection necking can be obtained. As expected, the maximum internal pressure at failure and the beginning of localization of plastic deformations depend on the size of the imperfection. (orig.) [de

  19. Atomic spectrometry methods for wine analysis: A critical evaluation and discussion of recent applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Gras, Luis; Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T.C. de

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of wine is of great importance since wine components strongly determine its stability, organoleptic or nutrition characteristics. In addition, wine analysis is also important to prevent fraud and to assess toxicological issues. Among the different analytical techniques described in the literature, atomic spectrometry has been traditionally employed for elemental wine analysis due to its simplicity and good analytical figures of merit. The scope of this review is to summarize the main advantages and drawbacks of various atomic spectrometry techniques for elemental wine analysis. Special attention is paid to interferences (i.e. matrix effects) affecting the analysis as well as the strategies available to mitigate them. Finally, latest studies about wine speciation are briefly discussed.

  20. Does discussing sexually transmissible infections or HIV with a parent increase condom use among young women using other contraceptive methods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Heather; Leichliter, Jami S; Gift, Thomas L

    2013-03-01

    Young people may be more likely to use condoms if they discuss sexual risks with their parents. However, no previous study has examined whether discussing sexual risks with a parent is differently associated with condom use among women using and not using other contraceptive methods. Using weighted data from the 2006-2008 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined condom use at last sex among 1206 sexually active unmarried women aged 15-24 years. Using logistic regression, we examined the association between condom use and discussing sexually transmissible infections (STIs) with parents before the age of 18 years, adjusted for women's characteristics (age, ethnicity, income and condom use at first sex). We estimated the predicted probability of condom use by whether women discussed STIs with parents, stratified by use of other contraceptive methods. Overall, 53% of women used condoms at last sex. Among 564 women using other contraceptives, 42% used condoms, versus 64% of 642 women not using other contraceptive methods (P<0.01). After adjustment for covariates, the predicted probability of condom use among women using other contraceptives was 47% among women who discussed STIs with their parents (v. 31% of those not discussing STIs; P<0.01). Among women not using other contraceptives, the predicted probability of condom use remained 64% regardless of whether they discussed STIs with their parents. Young women who use other contraceptive methods are less likely to use condoms, but discussing STIs with parents is associated with increased condom use among these women.

  1. A method for the computation of turbulent polymeric liquids including hydrodynamic interactions and chain entanglements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivotides, Demosthenes, E-mail: demosthenes.kivotides@strath.ac.uk

    2017-02-12

    An asymptotically exact method for the direct computation of turbulent polymeric liquids that includes (a) fully resolved, creeping microflow fields due to hydrodynamic interactions between chains, (b) exact account of (subfilter) residual stresses, (c) polymer Brownian motion, and (d) direct calculation of chain entanglements, is formulated. Although developed in the context of polymeric fluids, the method is equally applicable to turbulent colloidal dispersions and aerosols. - Highlights: • An asymptotically exact method for the computation of polymer and colloidal fluids is developed. • The method is valid for all flow inertia and all polymer volume fractions. • The method models entanglements and hydrodynamic interactions between polymer chains.

  2. Discussion on Regression Methods Based on Ensemble Learning and Applicability Domains of Linear Submodels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Hiromasa

    2018-02-26

    To develop a new ensemble learning method and construct highly predictive regression models in chemoinformatics and chemometrics, applicability domains (ADs) are introduced into the ensemble learning process of prediction. When estimating values of an objective variable using subregression models, only the submodels with ADs that cover a query sample, i.e., the sample is inside the model's AD, are used. By constructing submodels and changing a list of selected explanatory variables, the union of the submodels' ADs, which defines the overall AD, becomes large, and the prediction performance is enhanced for diverse compounds. By analyzing a quantitative structure-activity relationship data set and a quantitative structure-property relationship data set, it is confirmed that the ADs can be enlarged and the estimation performance of regression models is improved compared with traditional methods.

  3. Development of calculation method for one-dimensional kinetic analysis in fission reactors, including feedback effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paixao, S.B.; Marzo, M.A.S.; Alvim, A.C.M.

    1986-01-01

    The calculation method used in WIGLE code is studied. Because of the non availability of such a praiseworthy solution, expounding the method minutely has been tried. This developed method has been applied for the solution of the one-dimensional, two-group, diffusion equations in slab, axial analysis, including non-boiling heat transfer, accountig for feedback. A steady-state program (CITER-1D), written in FORTRAN 4, has been implemented, providing excellent results, ratifying the developed work quality. (Author) [pt

  4. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  5. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  6. Discussion on the installation checking method of precast composite floor slab with lattice girders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Jin, Xing; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Hele; Gu, Jianing

    2018-03-01

    Based on the installation checking requirements of China’s current standards and the international norms for prefabricated structural precast components, it proposed an installation checking method for precast composite floor slab with lattice girders. By taking an equivalent composite beam consisted of a single lattice girder and the precast concrete slab as the checking object, compression instability stress of upper chords and yield stress of slab distribution reinforcement at the maximum positive moment, tensile yield stress of upper chords, slab normal section normal compression stress and shear instability stress of diagonal bars at the maximum negative moment were checked. And the bending stress and deflection of support beams, strength and compression stability bearing capacity of the vertical support, shear bearing capacity of the bolt and compression bearing capacity of steel tube wall at the bolt were checked at the same time. Every different checking object was given a specific load value and load combination. Application of installation checking method was given and testified by example.

  7. The discussion of method for survey the radiosensitivity of human glioma cell line SHG-44

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Xu Changshao; Zhou Juying; Xu Xiaoting; Luo Jialin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate if thiazolyl blue colorimetric assay (MTT) and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) can replace clone forming assay for survey the radiosensitivity of SHG-44. Methods; Three assays was applied to examine the growth inhibition of human glioma cell line SHG-44 in eight dose groups of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 and 10 Gy, and statistical research was applied to analyze the correlation between survival fraction and various doses. Results: Dose was associated with survival fraction in these three assays at some range of irradiation doseage (dose≤3 Gy). If out of the range, the relation is poor. CCK-8 has no rather superiority than MTT. Conclusion: By now clone forming assay is still the 'gold standard'. In some cases, MTT and other assays can give us some reference, but these assays still can not replace clone forming assay. (authors)

  8. [Data validation methods and discussion on Chinese materia medica resource survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Ma, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Guo, Lan-Ping; Wang, Xing-Xing

    2013-07-01

    From the beginning of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources, there were 22 provinces have conducted pilots. The survey teams have reported immense data, it put forward the very high request to the database system construction. In order to ensure the quality, it is necessary to check and validate the data in database system. Data validation is important methods to ensure the validity, integrity and accuracy of census data. This paper comprehensively introduce the data validation system of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources database system, and further improve the design idea and programs of data validation. The purpose of this study is to promote the survey work smoothly.

  9. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  10. Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWall, Kevin George [Pocatello, ID; Garcia, Humberto Enrique [Idaho Falls, ID; McKellar, Michael George [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-17

    Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

  11. MycoKey round table discussions of future directions in research on chemical detection methods, genetics and biodiversity of mycotoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    MycoKey, an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project, includes a series of “Roundtable Discussions” to gather information on trending research areas in the field of mycotoxicology. This presentation includes summaries of the Roundtable Discussions on the role of Genetics and Biodiversity in mycotoxin product...

  12. Electrode assemblies, plasma apparatuses and systems including electrode assemblies, and methods for generating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C; Grandy, Jon D; Detering, Brent A; Zuck, Larry D

    2013-09-17

    Electrode assemblies for plasma reactors include a structure or device for constraining an arc endpoint to a selected area or region on an electrode. In some embodiments, the structure or device may comprise one or more insulating members covering a portion of an electrode. In additional embodiments, the structure or device may provide a magnetic field configured to control a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Plasma generating modules, apparatus, and systems include such electrode assemblies. Methods for generating a plasma include covering at least a portion of a surface of an electrode with an electrically insulating member to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on the electrode. Additional methods for generating a plasma include generating a magnetic field to constrain a location of an arc endpoint on an electrode.

  13. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: Examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. Methods We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Results Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Conclusions Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research. PMID:22545681

  14. A novel technique for including surface tension in PLIC-VOF methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.; Yadigaroglu, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Lab. ETH-Zentrum, CLT, Zurich (Switzerland); Smith, B. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland). Lab. for Thermal-Hydraulics

    2002-02-01

    Various versions of Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) methods have been used successfully for the numerical simulation of gas-liquid flows with an explicit tracking of the phase interface. Of these, Piecewise-Linear Interface Construction (PLIC-VOF) appears as a fairly accurate, although somewhat more involved variant. Including effects due to surface tension remains a problem, however. The most prominent methods, Continuum Surface Force (CSF) of Brackbill et al. and the method of Zaleski and co-workers (both referenced later), both induce spurious or 'parasitic' currents, and only moderate accuracy in regards to determining the curvature. We present here a new method to determine curvature accurately using an estimator function, which is tuned with a least-squares-fit against reference data. Furthermore, we show how spurious currents may be drastically reduced using the reconstructed interfaces from the PLIC-VOF method. (authors)

  15. Comparison of different methods to include recycling in LCAs of aluminium cans and disposable polystyrene cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Harst, Eugenie; Potting, José; Kroeze, Carolien

    2016-02-01

    Many methods have been reported and used to include recycling in life cycle assessments (LCAs). This paper evaluates six widely used methods: three substitution methods (i.e. substitution based on equal quality, a correction factor, and alternative material), allocation based on the number of recycling loops, the recycled-content method, and the equal-share method. These six methods were first compared, with an assumed hypothetical 100% recycling rate, for an aluminium can and a disposable polystyrene (PS) cup. The substitution and recycled-content method were next applied with actual rates for recycling, incineration and landfilling for both product systems in selected countries. The six methods differ in their approaches to credit recycling. The three substitution methods stimulate the recyclability of the product and assign credits for the obtained recycled material. The choice to either apply a correction factor, or to account for alternative substituted material has a considerable influence on the LCA results, and is debatable. Nevertheless, we prefer incorporating quality reduction of the recycled material by either a correction factor or an alternative substituted material over simply ignoring quality loss. The allocation-on-number-of-recycling-loops method focusses on the life expectancy of material itself, rather than on a specific separate product. The recycled-content method stimulates the use of recycled material, i.e. credits the use of recycled material in products and ignores the recyclability of the products. The equal-share method is a compromise between the substitution methods and the recycled-content method. The results for the aluminium can follow the underlying philosophies of the methods. The results for the PS cup are additionally influenced by the correction factor or credits for the alternative material accounting for the drop in PS quality, the waste treatment management (recycling rate, incineration rate, landfilling rate), and the

  16. Methods of using structures including catalytic materials disposed within porous zeolite materials to synthesize hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-02-01

    Catalytic structures include a catalytic material disposed within a zeolite material. The catalytic material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of methanol from carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide, and the zeolite material may be capable of catalyzing a formation of hydrocarbon molecules from methanol. The catalytic material may include copper and zinc oxide. The zeolite material may include a first plurality of pores substantially defined by a crystal structure of the zeolite material and a second plurality of pores dispersed throughout the zeolite material. Systems for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules also include catalytic structures. Methods for synthesizing hydrocarbon molecules include contacting hydrogen and at least one of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide with such catalytic structures. Catalytic structures are fabricated by forming a zeolite material at least partially around a template structure, removing the template structure, and introducing a catalytic material into the zeolite material.

  17. Comparison of some biased estimation methods (including ordinary subset regression) in the linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, S. M.

    1975-01-01

    Ridge, Marquardt's generalized inverse, shrunken, and principal components estimators are discussed in terms of the objectives of point estimation of parameters, estimation of the predictive regression function, and hypothesis testing. It is found that as the normal equations approach singularity, more consideration must be given to estimable functions of the parameters as opposed to estimation of the full parameter vector; that biased estimators all introduce constraints on the parameter space; that adoption of mean squared error as a criterion of goodness should be independent of the degree of singularity; and that ordinary least-squares subset regression is the best overall method.

  18. Including mixed methods research in systematic reviews: examples from qualitative syntheses in TB and malaria control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Launiala, Annika; Kagaha, Alexander; Smith, Helen

    2012-04-30

    Health policy makers now have access to a greater number and variety of systematic reviews to inform different stages in the policy making process, including reviews of qualitative research. The inclusion of mixed methods studies in systematic reviews is increasing, but these studies pose particular challenges to methods of review. This article examines the quality of the reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only studies. We used two completed systematic reviews to generate a sample of qualitative studies and mixed method studies in order to make an assessment of how the quality of reporting and rigor of qualitative-only studies compares with that of mixed-methods studies. Overall, the reporting of qualitative studies in our sample was consistently better when compared with the reporting of mixed methods studies. We found that mixed methods studies are less likely to provide a description of the research conduct or qualitative data analysis procedures and less likely to be judged credible or provide rich data and thick description compared with standalone qualitative studies. Our time-related analysis shows that for both types of study, papers published since 2003 are more likely to report on the study context, describe analysis procedures, and be judged credible and provide rich data. However, the reporting of other aspects of research conduct (i.e. descriptions of the research question, the sampling strategy, and data collection methods) in mixed methods studies does not appear to have improved over time. Mixed methods research makes an important contribution to health research in general, and could make a more substantial contribution to systematic reviews. Through our careful analysis of the quality of reporting of mixed methods and qualitative-only research, we have identified areas that deserve more attention in the conduct and reporting of mixed methods research.

  19. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  20. Complete Tangent Stiffness for eXtended Finite Element Method by including crack growth parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mougaard, J.F.; Poulsen, P.N.; Nielsen, L.O.

    2013-01-01

    the crack geometry parameters, such as the crack length and the crack direction directly in the virtual work formulation. For efficiency, it is essential to obtain a complete tangent stiffness. A new method in this work is presented to include an incremental form the crack growth parameters on equal terms......The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) is a useful tool for modeling the growth of discrete cracks in structures made of concrete and other quasi‐brittle and brittle materials. However, in a standard application of XFEM, the tangent stiffness is not complete. This is a result of not including...... with the degrees of freedom in the FEM‐equations. The complete tangential stiffness matrix is based on the virtual work together with the constitutive conditions at the crack tip. Introducing the crack growth parameters as direct unknowns, both equilibrium equations and the crack tip criterion can be handled...

  1. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure method eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption -regarding type and direction of earthquake waves- required in the direct method. The substructure method is computationally efficient because the two substructures-the structure and the soil region- are analyzed separately; and, more important, it permits taking advantage of the important feature that response to earthquake ground motion is essentially contained in the lower few natural modes of vibration of the structure on fixed base. For sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no obvious rigid boundary such as a soil-rock interface, numerical results for earthquake response of a nuclear reactor structure are presented to demonstrate that the commonly used finite element method may lead to unacceptable errors; but the substructure method leads to reliable results

  2. Effects of an additional small group discussion to cognitive achievement and retention in basic principles of bioethics teaching methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Afandi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The place of ethics in undergraduate medical curricula is essential but the methods of teaching medical ethics did not show substantial changes. “Basic principles of bioethics” is the best knowledge to develop student’s reasoning analysis in medical ethics In this study, we investigate the effects of an additional small group discussion in basic principles of bioethics conventional lecture methods to cognitive achievement and retention. This study was a randomized controlled trial with parallel design. Cognitive scores of the basic principles of bioethics as a parameter was measured using basic principles of bioethics (Kaidah Dasar Bioetika, KDB test. Both groups were attending conventional lectures, then the intervention group got an additional small group discussion.Result Conventional lectures with or without small group discussion significantly increased cognitive achievement of basic principles of bioethics (P= 0.001 and P= 0.000, respectively, and there were significant differences in cognitive achievement and retention between the 2 groups (P= 0.000 and P= 0.000, respectively.Conclusion Additional small group discussion method improved cognitive achievement and retention of basic principles of bioethics. (Med J Indones 2009; 18: 48-52Keywords: lecture, specification checklist, multiple choice questions

  3. Spine surgeon's kinematics during discectomy, part II: operating table height and visualization methods, including microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2014-05-01

    Surgeon spine angle during surgery was studied ergonomically and the kinematics of the surgeon's spine was related with musculoskeletal fatigue and pain. Spine angles varied depending on operation table height and visualization method, and in a previous paper we showed that the use of a loupe and a table height at the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum are optimal for reducing musculoskeletal loading. However, no studies have previously included a microscope as a possible visualization method. The objective of this study is to assess differences in surgeon spine angles depending on operating table height and visualization method, including microscope. We enrolled 18 experienced spine surgeons for this study, who each performed a discectomy using a spine surgery simulator. Three different methods were used to visualize the surgical field (naked eye, loupe, microscope) and three different operating table heights (anterior superior iliac spine, umbilicus, the midpoint between the umbilicus and the sternum) were studied. Whole spine angles were compared for three different views during the discectomy simulation: midline, ipsilateral, and contralateral. A 16-camera optoelectronic motion analysis system was used, and 16 markers were placed from the head to the pelvis. Lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, cervical lordosis, and occipital angle were compared between the different operating table heights and visualization methods as well as a natural standing position. Whole spine angles differed significantly depending on visualization method. All parameters were closer to natural standing values when discectomy was performed with a microscope, and there were no differences between the naked eye and the loupe. Whole spine angles were also found to differ from the natural standing position depending on operating table height, and became closer to natural standing position values as the operating table height increased, independent of the visualization method

  4. Earthquake analysis of structures including structure-soil interaction by a substructure method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, A.K.; Guttierrez, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A general substructure method for analysis of response of nuclear power plant structures to earthquake ground motion, including the effects of structure-soil interaction, is summarized. The method is applicable to complex structures idealized as finite element systems and the soil region treated as either a continuum, for example as a viscoelastic halfspace, or idealized as a finite element system. The halfspace idealization permits reliable analysis for sites where essentially similar soils extend to large depths and there is no rigid boundary such as soil-rock interface. For sites where layers of soft soil are underlain by rock at shallow depth, finite element idealization of the soil region is appropriate; in this case, the direct and substructure methods would lead to equivalent results but the latter provides the better alternative. Treating the free field motion directly as the earthquake input in the substructure eliminates the deconvolution calculations and the related assumption-regarding type and direction of earthquake waves-required in the direct method. (Auth.)

  5. Method and apparatus for controlling a powertrain system including a multi-mode transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessell, Steven M.; Morris, Robert L.; McGrogan, Sean W.; Heap, Anthony H.; Mendoza, Gil J.

    2015-09-08

    A powertrain including an engine and torque machines is configured to transfer torque through a multi-mode transmission to an output member. A method for controlling the powertrain includes employing a closed-loop speed control system to control torque commands for the torque machines in response to a desired input speed. Upon approaching a power limit of a power storage device transferring power to the torque machines, power limited torque commands are determined for the torque machines in response to the power limit and the closed-loop speed control system is employed to determine an engine torque command in response to the desired input speed and the power limited torque commands for the torque machines.

  6. A frequency domain linearized Navier-Stokes method including acoustic damping by eddy viscosity using RANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Andreas; Kierkegaard, Axel; Weng, Chenyang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a method for including damping of acoustic energy in regions of strong turbulence is derived for a linearized Navier-Stokes method in the frequency domain. The proposed method is validated and analyzed in 2D only, although the formulation is fully presented in 3D. The result is applied in a study of the linear interaction between the acoustic and the hydrodynamic field in a 2D T-junction, subject to grazing flow at Mach 0.1. Part of the acoustic energy at the upstream edge of the junction is shed as harmonically oscillating disturbances, which are conveyed across the shear layer over the junction, where they interact with the acoustic field. As the acoustic waves travel in regions of strong shear, there is a need to include the interaction between the background turbulence and the acoustic field. For this purpose, the oscillation of the background turbulence Reynold's stress, due to the acoustic field, is modeled using an eddy Newtonian model assumption. The time averaged flow is first solved for using RANS along with a k-ε turbulence model. The spatially varying turbulent eddy viscosity is then added to the spatially invariant kinematic viscosity in the acoustic set of equations. The response of the 2D T-junction to an incident acoustic field is analyzed via a plane wave scattering matrix model, and the result is compared to experimental data for a T-junction of rectangular ducts. A strong improvement in the agreement between calculation and experimental data is found when the modification proposed in this paper is implemented. Discrepancies remaining are likely due to inaccuracies in the selected turbulence model, which is known to produce large errors e.g. for flows with significant rotation, which the grazing flow across the T-junction certainly is. A natural next step is therefore to test the proposed methodology together with more sophisticated turbulence models.

  7. Reliability and limitation of various diagnostic methods including nuclear medicine in myocardial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyasu, Yoshiki; Kusakabe, Kiyoko; Yamazaki, Toshio

    1981-01-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG), echocardiography, nuclear method, cardiac catheterization, left ventriculography and endomyocardial biopsy (biopsy) were performed in 40 cases of cardiomyopathy (CM), 9 of endocardial fibroelastosis and 19 of specific heart muscle disease, and the usefulness and limitation of each method was comparatively estimated. In CM, various methods including biopsy were performed. The 40 patients were classified into 3 groups, i.e., hypertrophic (17), dilated (20) and non-hypertrophic.non-dilated (3) on the basis of left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy of the ventricular wall. The hypertrophic group was divided into 4 subgroups: 9 septal, 4 apical, 2 posterior and 2 anterior. The nuclear study is useful in assessing the site of the abnormal ventricular thickening, perfusion defect and ventricular function. Echocardiography is most useful in detecting asymmetric septal hypertrophy. The biopsy gives the sole diagnostic clue, especially in non-hypertrophic.non-dilated cardiomyopathy. ECG is useful in all cases but correlation with the site of disproportional hypertrophy was not obtained. (J.P.N.)

  8. A method for including external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM and implementation into ORIGEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotalo, A.E.; Wieselquist, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A method for handling external feed in depletion calculations with CRAM. • Source term can have polynomial or exponentially decaying time-dependence. • CRAM with source term and adjoint capability implemented to ORIGEN in SCALE. • The new solver is faster and more accurate than the original solver of ORIGEN. - Abstract: A method for including external feed with polynomial time dependence in depletion calculations with the Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method (CRAM) is presented and the implementation of CRAM to the ORIGEN module of the SCALE suite is described. In addition to being able to handle time-dependent feed rates, the new solver also adds the capability to perform adjoint calculations. Results obtained with the new CRAM solver and the original depletion solver of ORIGEN are compared to high precision reference calculations, which shows the new solver to be orders of magnitude more accurate. Furthermore, in most cases, the new solver is up to several times faster due to not requiring similar substepping as the original one

  9. Improved Riccati Transfer Matrix Method for Free Vibration of Non-Cylindrical Helical Springs Including Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free vibration equations for non-cylindrical (conical, barrel, and hyperboloidal types helical springs with noncircular cross-sections, which consist of 14 first-order ordinary differential equations with variable coefficients, are theoretically derived using spatially curved beam theory. In the formulation, the warping effect upon natural frequencies and vibrating mode shapes is first studied in addition to including the rotary inertia, the shear and axial deformation influences. The natural frequencies of the springs are determined by the use of improved Riccati transfer matrix method. The element transfer matrix used in the solution is calculated using the Scaling and Squaring method and Pad'e approximations. Three examples are presented for three types of springs with different cross-sectional shapes under clamped-clamped boundary condition. The accuracy of the proposed method has been compared with the FEM results using three-dimensional solid elements (Solid 45 in ANSYS code. Numerical results reveal that the warping effect is more pronounced in the case of non-cylindrical helical springs than that of cylindrical helical springs, which should be taken into consideration in the free vibration analysis of such springs.

  10. SU-F-J-86: Method to Include Tissue Dose Response Effect in Deformable Image Registration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, J; Liang, J; Chen, S; Qin, A; Yan, D [Beaumont Health Systeml, Royal Oak, MI (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Organ changes shape and size during radiation treatment due to both mechanical stress and radiation dose response. However, the dose response induced deformation has not been considered in conventional deformable image registration (DIR). A novel DIR approach is proposed to include both tissue elasticity and radiation dose induced organ deformation. Methods: Assuming that organ sub-volume shrinkage was proportional to the radiation dose induced cell killing/absorption, the dose induced organ volume change was simulated applying virtual temperature on each sub-volume. Hence, both stress and heterogeneity temperature induced organ deformation. Thermal stress finite element method with organ surface boundary condition was used to solve deformation. Initial boundary correspondence on organ surface was created from conventional DIR. Boundary condition was updated by an iterative optimization scheme to minimize elastic deformation energy. The registration was validated on a numerical phantom. Treatment dose was constructed applying both the conventional DIR and the proposed method using daily CBCT image obtained from HN treatment. Results: Phantom study showed 2.7% maximal discrepancy with respect to the actual displacement. Compared with conventional DIR, subvolume displacement difference in a right parotid had the mean±SD (Min, Max) to be 1.1±0.9(−0.4∼4.8), −0.1±0.9(−2.9∼2.4) and −0.1±0.9(−3.4∼1.9)mm in RL/PA/SI directions respectively. Mean parotid dose and V30 constructed including the dose response induced shrinkage were 6.3% and 12.0% higher than those from the conventional DIR. Conclusion: Heterogeneous dose distribution in normal organ causes non-uniform sub-volume shrinkage. Sub-volume in high dose region has a larger shrinkage than the one in low dose region, therefore causing more sub-volumes to move into the high dose area during the treatment course. This leads to an unfavorable dose-volume relationship for the normal organ

  11. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustinov, A; Khayrullina, A; Khmelik, M; Sveshnikova, A; Borzenko, V

    2016-01-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia. (paper)

  12. Development method of Hybrid Energy Storage System, including PEM fuel cell and a battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinov, A.; Khayrullina, A.; Borzenko, V.; Khmelik, M.; Sveshnikova, A.

    2016-09-01

    Development of fuel cell (FC) and hydrogen metal-hydride storage (MH) technologies continuously demonstrate higher efficiency rates and higher safety, as hydrogen is stored at low pressures of about 2 bar in a bounded state. A combination of a FC/MH system with an electrolyser, powered with a renewable source, allows creation of an almost fully autonomous power system, which could potentially replace a diesel-generator as a back-up power supply. However, the system must be extended with an electro-chemical battery to start-up the FC and compensate the electric load when FC fails to deliver the necessary power. Present paper delivers the results of experimental and theoretical investigation of a hybrid energy system, including a proton exchange membrane (PEM) FC, MH- accumulator and an electro-chemical battery, development methodology for such systems and the modelling of different battery types, using hardware-in-the-loop approach. The economic efficiency of the proposed solution is discussed using an example of power supply of a real town of Batamai in Russia.

  13. Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Counts, Scott; Gamon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    , time and other confounding factors, few of the studies that attempt to extract information from social media actually condition on such factors due to the difficulty in extracting these factors from naturalistic data and the added complexity of including them in analyses. In this paper, we present......Much research has focused on studying complex phenomena through their reflection in social media, from drawing neighborhood boundaries to inferring relationships between medicines and diseases. While it is generally recognized in the social sciences that such studies should be conditioned on gender...... a simple framework for specifying and implementing common social media analyses that makes it trivial to inspect and condition on contextual information. Our data model—discussion graphs—captures both the structural features of relationships inferred from social media as well as the context...

  14. Engine including hydraulically actuated valvetrain and method of valve overlap control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, Joel [White Lake, MI

    2012-05-08

    An exhaust valve control method may include displacing an exhaust valve in communication with the combustion chamber of an engine to an open position using a hydraulic exhaust valve actuation system and returning the exhaust valve to a closed position using the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly. During closing, the exhaust valve may be displaced for a first duration from the open position to an intermediate closing position at a first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a first mode. The exhaust valve may be displaced for a second duration greater than the first duration from the intermediate closing position to a fully closed position at a second velocity at least eighty percent less than the first velocity by operating the hydraulic exhaust valve actuation assembly in a second mode.

  15. Flexible barrier film, method of forming same, and organic electronic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blizzard, John; Tonge, James Steven; Weidner, William Kenneth

    2013-03-26

    A flexible barrier film has a thickness of from greater than zero to less than 5,000 nanometers and a water vapor transmission rate of no more than 1.times.10.sup.-2 g/m.sup.2/day at 22.degree. C. and 47% relative humidity. The flexible barrier film is formed from a composition, which comprises a multi-functional acrylate. The composition further comprises the reaction product of an alkoxy-functional organometallic compound and an alkoxy-functional organosilicon compound. A method of forming the flexible barrier film includes the steps of disposing the composition on a substrate and curing the composition to form the flexible barrier film. The flexible barrier film may be utilized in organic electronic devices.

  16. Zirconium-based alloys, nuclear fuel rods and nuclear reactors including such alloys, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Robert Dominick

    2014-09-09

    Zirconium-based metal alloy compositions comprise zirconium, a first additive in which the permeability of hydrogen decreases with increasing temperatures at least over a temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C., and a second additive having a solubility in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. At least one of a solubility of the first additive in the second additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. and a solubility of the second additive in the first additive over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. is higher than the solubility of the second additive in zirconium over the temperature range extending from 350.degree. C. to 750.degree. C. Nuclear fuel rods include a cladding material comprising such metal alloy compositions, and nuclear reactors include such fuel rods. Methods are used to fabricate such zirconium-based metal alloy compositions.

  17. Discussion in Postsecondary Classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curt Dudley-Marling

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Spoken language is, arguably, the primary means by which teachers teach and students learn. Much of the literature on language in classrooms has focused on discussion that is seen as both a method of instruction and a curricular outcome. While much of the research on discussion has focused on K-12 classrooms, there is also a body of research examining the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings. This article provides a review of this literature in order to consider the effect of discussion on student learning in college and university classrooms, the prevalence of discussion in postsecondary settings, and the quality of discussion in these settings. In general, the results of research on the efficacy of discussion in postsecondary settings are mixed. More seriously, researchers have not been explicit about the meaning of discussion and much of what is called discussion in this body of research is merely recitation with minimal levels of student participation. Although the research on discussion in college and university classrooms is inconclusive, some implications can be drawn from this review of the research including the need for future researchers to clearly define what they mean by “discussion.”

  18. Discussion on sensor location in circular array for spatial autocorrelation method; Kukan jiko sokanho no enkei array ni okeru jishinkei haichi no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H; Iwamoto, K; Saito, T; Yoshida, A [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    Methods to derive underground structures by utilizing the dispersion phenomenon of surface waves contained in microtremors include the frequency-wave number analysis method (the F-K method) and the spatial autocorrelation method (SAC method). The SAC method is said capable of estimating the structures to deeper depths than with the F-K method if the same seismometer is used. However, the F-K method is used more frequently. This is because the SAC method imposes a strict restriction that seismometers must be arranged evenly on the same circumference, while the F-K method allows seismometers to be arranged arbitrarily during an observation. Therefore, the present study has discussed whether the SAC method can be applied to observations with the seismometers arranged in the same way as in the F-K method, by using microtremor data acquired from actual observations. It was made clear that a seismometer arrangement for the SAC method may be sufficed with at least three meters arranged on the same circumference. These meters may not have to be arranged evenly, but because the acquired phase velocities may vary according to wave arriving directions and seismometer arrangement, it is desirable to perform observations with seismometers arranged as evenly as possible. 13 figs.

  19. Practicing the practice: Learning to guide elementary science discussions in a practice-oriented science methods course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashima Mathur

    University methods courses are often criticized for telling pre-service teachers, or interns, about the theories behind teaching instead of preparing them to actually enact teaching. Shifting teacher education to be more "practice-oriented," or to focus more explicitly on the work of teaching, is a current trend for re-designing the way we prepare teachers. This dissertation addresses the current need for research that unpacks the shift to more practice-oriented approaches by studying the content and pedagogical approaches in a practice-oriented, masters-level elementary science methods course (n=42 interns). The course focused on preparing interns to guide science classroom discussions. Qualitative data, such as video records of course activities and interns' written reflections, were collected across eight course sessions. Codes were applied at the sentence and paragraph level and then grouped into themes. Five content themes were identified: foregrounding student ideas and questions, steering discussion toward intended learning goals, supporting students to do the cognitive work, enacting teacher role of facilitator, and creating a classroom culture for science discussions. Three pedagogical approach themes were identified. First, the teacher educators created images of science discussions by modeling and showing videos of this practice. They also provided focused teaching experiences by helping interns practice the interactive aspects of teaching both in the methods classroom and with smaller groups of elementary students in schools. Finally, they structured the planning and debriefing phases of teaching so interns could learn from their teaching experiences and prepare well for future experiences. The findings were analyzed through the lens of Grossman and colleagues' framework for teaching practice (2009) to reveal how the pedagogical approaches decomposed, represented, and approximated practice throughout course activities. Also, the teacher educators

  20. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CASE BASED DISCUSSION AS A VALID PROBLEM BASED LEARNING METHOD IN ANAESTHESIA POSTGRADUATE TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melveetil S

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : CONTEXT: Anaesthesia is a branch of medicine which allows only a very narrow margin of error. Anaesthesia post-graduate (PG teaching with problem-based learning (PBL enhances the critical thinking and problem-solving skills among the students .Among the different problem based learning methods case based discussions (CBD are most widely practiced out of all in anaesthesia PG teaching. METHODS AND MATERIAL: An anonymous questionnaire based, crosssectional survey among 37 anaesthesia residents from two medical institutions in North Kerala, India was conducted. The present survey was designed to assess the effectiveness of case based discussions in anaesthesia PG teaching by assessing the student’s satisfaction with CBD and the suggested modifications if any to improve the current status of teaching. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The CBD as a part of PBL in anesthesia PG teaching in our set up lacks many important aspects of PBL such as formulation of objectives, facilitation skills, communication on direction of PBL and supplementation of inadequacies. A broader, strict and organized implementation of PBL incorporating the key elements of PBL needs emphasis in PG teaching curriculum. Facilitation skill development programs needs motivation and encouragement from the perspective of the academic administrators.

  1. Applicability of a panel method, which includes nonlinear effects, to a forward-swept-wing aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    The ability of a lower order panel method VSAERO, to accurately predict the lift and pitching moment of a complete forward-swept-wing/canard configuration was investigated. The program can simulate nonlinear effects including boundary-layer displacement thickness, wake roll up, and to a limited extent, separated wakes. The predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using a small-scale model in the 7- by 10- Foot Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. For the particular configuration under investigation, wake roll up had only a small effect on the force and moment predictions. The effect of the displacement thickness modeling was to reduce the lift curve slope slightly, thus bringing the predicted lift into good agreement with the measured value. Pitching moment predictions were also improved by the boundary-layer simulation. The separation modeling was found to be sensitive to user inputs, but appears to give a reasonable representation of a separated wake. In general, the nonlinear capabilities of the code were found to improve the agreement with experimental data. The usefullness of the code would be enhanced by improving the reliability of the separated wake modeling and by the addition of a leading edge separation model.

  2. Methods of forming aluminum oxynitride-comprising bodies, including methods of forming a sheet of transparent armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lillo, Thomas Martin [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-12-02

    The invention includes methods of forming an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body. For example, a mixture is formed which comprises A:B:C in a respective molar ratio in the range of 9:3.6-6.2:0.1-1.1, where "A" is Al.sub.2O.sub.3, "B" is AlN, and "C" is a total of one or more of B.sub.2O.sub.3, SiO.sub.2, Si--Al--O--N, and TiO.sub.2. The mixture is sintered at a temperature of at least 1,600.degree. C. at a pressure of no greater than 500 psia effective to form an aluminum oxynitride-comprising body which is at least internally transparent and has at least 99% maximum theoretical density.

  3. Built-up index methods and their applications for urban extraction from Sentinel 2A satellite data: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdiviezo-N, Juan C; Téllez-Quiñones, Alejandro; Salazar-Garibay, Adan; López-Caloca, Alejandra A

    2018-01-01

    Several built-up indices have been proposed in the literature in order to extract the urban sprawl from satellite data. Given their relative simplicity and easy implementation, such methods have been widely adopted for urban growth monitoring. Previous research has shown that built-up indices are sensitive to different factors related to image resolution, seasonality, and study area location. Also, most of them confuse urban surfaces with bare soil and barren land covers. By gathering the existing built-up indices, the aim of this paper is to discuss some of their advantages, difficulties, and limitations. In order to illustrate our study, we provide some application examples using Sentinel 2A data.

  4. A quasi-experimental design based on regional variations: discussion of a method for evaluating outcomes of medical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, A; Andersen, T F; Madsen, Mette

    1989-01-01

    A large proportion of common medical practices are subject to substantial regional variation resulting in numerous natural experiments. Opportunities are thereby provided for outcome evaluation through quasi-experimental design. If patients treated in different regions were comparable a natural...... experiment involving alternative treatments could be regarded as 'pseudo randomised', but empirical investigations are needed to verify this prerequisite. This paper discusses the role of quasi-experimental designs in assessment of medical care with evaluation of outcomes after hysterectomy in Denmark...... groups are elicited from administrative data. We conclude that it is possible to establish a quasi-experimental design based on regional variations and that the comparability of the groups included may be assessed through registry data. The importance of technology diffusion for the prospects...

  5. Implementation aspects of the Boundary Element Method including viscous and thermal losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of viscous and thermal losses using the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is based on the Kirchhoff’s dispersion relation and has been tested in previous work using analytical test cases and comparison with measurements. Numerical methods that can simulate sound fields in fluids...

  6. Summary discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.H.

    1982-01-01

    Remarks intended to highlight topics of importance for future research were made by three of the participants at the conclusion of the Seminar. A brief listing is given of topics discussed by each of these rapporteurs

  7. A coupling method for a cardiovascular simulation model which includes the Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Shimayoshi, Takao; Amano, Akira; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2012-01-01

    Multi-scale models of the cardiovascular system provide new insight that was unavailable with in vivo and in vitro experiments. For the cardiovascular system, multi-scale simulations provide a valuable perspective in analyzing the interaction of three phenomenons occurring at different spatial scales: circulatory hemodynamics, ventricular structural dynamics, and myocardial excitation-contraction. In order to simulate these interactions, multiscale cardiovascular simulation systems couple models that simulate different phenomena. However, coupling methods require a significant amount of calculation, since a system of non-linear equations must be solved for each timestep. Therefore, we proposed a coupling method which decreases the amount of calculation by using the Kalman filter. In our method, the Kalman filter calculates approximations for the solution to the system of non-linear equations at each timestep. The approximations are then used as initial values for solving the system of non-linear equations. The proposed method decreases the number of iterations required by 94.0% compared to the conventional strong coupling method. When compared with a smoothing spline predictor, the proposed method required 49.4% fewer iterations.

  8. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  9. Development of a quantitative safety assessment method for nuclear I and C systems including human operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol

    2004-02-01

    Conventional PSA (probabilistic safety analysis) is performed in the framework of event tree analysis and fault tree analysis. In conventional PSA, I and C systems and human operators are assumed to be independent for simplicity. But, the dependency of human operators on I and C systems and the dependency of I and C systems on human operators are gradually recognized to be significant. I believe that it is time to consider the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of PSA. But, unfortunately it seems that we do not have appropriate methods for incorporating the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators in the framework of Pasa. Conventional human reliability analysis (HRA) methods are not developed to consider the interdependecy, and the modeling of the interdependency using conventional event tree analysis and fault tree analysis seem to be, event though is does not seem to be impossible, quite complex. To incorporate the interdependency between I and C systems and human operators, we need a new method for HRA and a new method for modeling the I and C systems, man-machine interface (MMI), and human operators for quantitative safety assessment. As a new method for modeling the I and C systems, MMI and human operators, I develop a new system reliability analysis method, reliability graph with general gates (RGGG), which can substitute conventional fault tree analysis. RGGG is an intuitive and easy-to-use method for system reliability analysis, while as powerful as conventional fault tree analysis. To demonstrate the usefulness of the RGGG method, it is applied to the reliability analysis of Digital Plant Protection System (DPPS), which is the actual plant protection system of Ulchin 5 and 6 nuclear power plants located in Republic of Korea. The latest version of the fault tree for DPPS, which is developed by the Integrated Safety Assessment team in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), consists of 64

  10. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  11. New Multigrid Method Including Elimination Algolithm Based on High-Order Vector Finite Elements in Three Dimensional Magnetostatic Field Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hano, Mitsuo; Hotta, Masashi

    A new multigrid method based on high-order vector finite elements is proposed in this paper. Low level discretizations in this method are obtained by using low-order vector finite elements for the same mesh. Gauss-Seidel method is used as a smoother, and a linear equation of lowest level is solved by ICCG method. But it is often found that multigrid solutions do not converge into ICCG solutions. An elimination algolithm of constant term using a null space of the coefficient matrix is also described. In three dimensional magnetostatic field analysis, convergence time and number of iteration of this multigrid method are discussed with the convectional ICCG method.

  12. Method for including detailed evaluation of daylight levels in Be06

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen

    2008-01-01

    Good daylight conditions in office buildings have become an important issue due to new European regulatory demands which include energy consumption for electrical lighting in the building energy frame. Good daylight conditions in offices are thus in increased focus as an energy conserving measure....... In order to evaluate whether a certain design is good daylight design or not building designers must perform detailed evaluation of daylight levels, including the daylight performance of dynamic solar shadings, and include these in the energy performance evaluation. However, the mandatory national...... calculation tool in Denmark (Be06) for evaluating the energy performance of buildings is currently using a simple representation of available daylight in a room and simple assumptions regarding the control of shading devices. In a case example, this is leading to an overestimation of the energy consumption...

  13. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented

  14. Development of Extended Ray-tracing method including diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, Kota; Kubo, Shin; Dodin, Ilya; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Tsujimura, Toru

    2017-10-01

    Geometrical Optics Ray-tracing is a reasonable numerical analytic approach for describing the Electron Cyclotron resonance Wave (ECW) in slowly varying spatially inhomogeneous plasma. It is well known that the result with this conventional method is adequate in most cases. However, in the case of Helical fusion plasma which has complicated magnetic structure, strong magnetic shear with a large scale length of density can cause a mode coupling of waves outside the last closed flux surface, and complicated absorption structure requires a strong focused wave for ECH. Since conventional Ray Equations to describe ECW do not have any terms to describe the diffraction, polarization and wave decay effects, we can not describe accurately a mode coupling of waves, strong focus waves, behavior of waves in inhomogeneous absorption region and so on. For fundamental solution of these problems, we consider the extension of the Ray-tracing method. Specific process is planned as follows. First, calculate the reference ray by conventional method, and define the local ray-base coordinate system along the reference ray. Then, calculate the evolution of the distributions of amplitude and phase on ray-base coordinate step by step. The progress of our extended method will be presented.

  15. Indication of Importance of Including Soil Microbial Characteristics into Biotope Valuation Method.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trögl, J.; Pavlorková, Jana; Packová, P.; Seják, J.; Kuráň, P.; Kuráň, J.; Popelka, J.; Pacina, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 253. ISSN 2071-1050 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : biotope assessment * biotope valuation method * soil microbial communities Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.789, year: 2016

  16. Method of preparing a negative electrode including lithium alloy for use within a secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczuk, Zygmunt; Olszanski, Theodore W.; Battles, James E.

    1977-03-08

    A negative electrode that includes a lithium alloy as active material is prepared by briefly submerging a porous, electrically conductive substrate within a melt of the alloy. Prior to solidification, excess melt can be removed by vibrating or otherwise manipulating the filled substrate to expose interstitial surfaces. Electrodes of such as solid lithium-aluminum filled within a substrate of metal foam are provided.

  17. Thick electrodes including nanoparticles having electroactive materials and methods of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jie; Lu, Dongping; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jiguang; Graff, Gordon L.

    2017-02-21

    Electrodes having nanostructure and/or utilizing nanoparticles of active materials and having high mass loadings of the active materials can be made to be physically robust and free of cracks and pinholes. The electrodes include nanoparticles having electroactive material, which nanoparticles are aggregated with carbon into larger secondary particles. The secondary particles can be bound with a binder to form the electrode.

  18. Method for pulse control in a laser including a stimulated brillouin scattering mirror system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, C. Brent; Hackel, Lloyd; Harris, Fritz B.

    2007-10-23

    A laser system, such as a master oscillator/power amplifier system, comprises a gain medium and a stimulated Brillouin scattering SBS mirror system. The SBS mirror system includes an in situ filtered SBS medium that comprises a compound having a small negative non-linear index of refraction, such as a perfluoro compound. An SBS relay telescope having a telescope focal point includes a baffle at the telescope focal point which blocks off angle beams. A beam splitter is placed between the SBS mirror system and the SBS relay telescope, directing a fraction of the beam to an alternate beam path for an alignment fiducial. The SBS mirror system has a collimated SBS cell and a focused SBS cell. An adjustable attenuator is placed between the collimated SBS cell and the focused SBS cell, by which pulse width of the reflected beam can be adjusted.

  19. Dynamic analysis of liquid storage tank including hydrodynamic interaction by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, I.T.; Ting, K.

    1987-01-01

    Dynamic response of liquid storage tanks considering the hydrodynamic interactions due to earthquake ground motion has been extensively studied. Several finite element procedures, such as Balendra et. al. (1982) and Haroun (1983), have been devoted to investigate the dynamic interaction between the deformable wall of the tank and the liquid. Further, if the geometry of the storage tank can not be described by axi-symmetric case, the tank wall and the fluid domain must be discretized by three dimensional finite elements to investigate the fluid-structure-interactions. Thus, the need of large computer memory and expense of vast computer time usually make this analysis impractical. To demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of the solution technique developed herein, the dynamic behavior of ground-supported, deformed, cylindrical tank with incompressible fluid conducted by Haroun (1983) are analyzed. Good correlations of hydrodynamic pressure distribution between the computed results with the referenced solutions are noted. The fluid compressibility significantly affects the hydrodynamic pressures of the liquid-tank-interactions and the work which is done on this discussion is still little attention. Thus, the influences of the compressibility of the liquid on the reponse of the liquid storage due to ground motion are then drawn. By the way, the complex-valued frequency response functions for hydrodynamic forces of Haroun's problem are also displayed. (orig./GL)

  20. Impact of Including Authentic Inquiry Experiences in Methods Courses for Pre-Service Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Elfring, L.; Novodvorsky, I.; Talanquer, V.; Quintenz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in the context of their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: prepare students to address real world complex problems; develop students' ability to use scientific methods; prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. However, it is unclear what the broader pre-service teacher preparation community is doing in preparing future teachers to promote, manage, and successful facilitate their own students in conducting authentic scientific inquiry. Surveys of undergraduates in secondary science education programs suggests that students have had almost no experiences themselves in conducting open scientific inquiry where they develop researchable questions, design strategies to pursue evidence, and communicate data-based conclusions. In response, the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Arizona requires all students enrolled in its various science teaching methods courses to complete an open inquiry research project and defend their findings at a specially designed inquiry science mini-conference at the end of the term. End-of-term surveys show that students enjoy their research experience and believe that this experience enhances their ability to facilitate their own future students in conducting open inquiry.

  1. Use of the potentiometric titration method to investigate heterogeneous systems including phosphorylated complexones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, G.S.; Kharitonova, L.K.; Kuznetsova, O.B.

    1979-01-01

    Heterogeneous systems Y(NO 3 ) 3 (YCl 3 )-Hsub(n)L-KNO 3 (KCl)-H 2 O are investigated by potentiometric titration (with coulomb-meter generation of oH - ions). Hsub(n)L is one of the following: oxyethylidendiphosphonic; aminobenzilidendiphosphonic; glycine-bis-methyl-phosphonic; nitrilotrimethylphosphonic (H 6 L) and ethylenediaminetetramethylphosphonic acids. The range of the exsistence of YHsub(nL3)LxyH 2 O has been determined. The possibility of using potentiometric titration for investigating heterogeneous systems is demonstrated by the stUdy of the system Y(NO 3 ) 3 -H 6 L-KOH-H 2 o by the method of residual concentration. The two methods have shown that at pH 3 LxyH 2 O; at pH=6, KYH 2 Lxy'H 2 O, and at pH=7, K 2 YHLxy''H 2 O. The complete solubility products of nitrilotrimethylphosphonates are evaluated

  2. A convolution method for predicting mean treatment dose including organ motion at imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, J.T.; Zavgorodni, S.F.; Royal Adelaide Hospital, SA

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The random treatment delivery errors (organ motion and set-up error) can be incorporated into the treatment planning software using a convolution method. Mean treatment dose is computed as the convolution of a static dose distribution with a variation kernel. Typically this variation kernel is Gaussian with variance equal to the sum of the organ motion and set-up error variances. We propose a novel variation kernel for the convolution technique that additionally considers the position of the mobile organ in the planning CT image. The systematic error of organ position in the planning CT image can be considered random for each patient over a population. Thus the variance of the variation kernel will equal the sum of treatment delivery variance and organ motion variance at planning for the population of treatments. The kernel is extended to deal with multiple pre-treatment CT scans to improve tumour localisation for planning. Mean treatment doses calculated with the convolution technique are compared to benchmark Monte Carlo (MC) computations. Calculations of mean treatment dose using the convolution technique agreed with MC results for all cases to better than ± 1 Gy in the planning treatment volume for a prescribed 60 Gy treatment. Convolution provides a quick method of incorporating random organ motion (captured in the planning CT image and during treatment delivery) and random set-up errors directly into the dose distribution. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  3. Panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The panel discussion at the 10th Allianz Forum on 'Technology and Insurance' dealt with the following topics: New technologies: energy conversion (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear energy, solar energy); infrastructure (transport, data processing); basic products (metallic materials, chemical products, pharmaceutical products); integrated products (microprocessors, production line machines) as well as new risks: political; general economic (financing, market structure); insurance-related, dangers to persons and property; reduction of risks. (orig.) [de

  4. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-09-19

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  5. System and method for detecting components of a mixture including a valving scheme for competition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Chung-Yan; Piccini, Matthew E.; Singh, Anup K.

    2017-07-11

    Examples are described including measurement systems for conducting competition assays. A first chamber of an assay device may be loaded with a sample containing a target antigen. The target antigen in the sample may be allowed to bind to antibody-coated beads in the first chamber. A control layer separating the first chamber from a second chamber may then be opened to allow a labeling agent loaded in a first portion of the second chamber to bind to any unoccupied sites on the antibodies. A centrifugal force may then be applied to transport the beads through a density media to a detection region for measurement by a detection unit.

  6. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  7. Decoding Facial Esthetics to Recreate an Esthetic Hairline: A Method Which Includes Forehead Curvature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Anil K; Garg, Seema

    2017-01-01

    The evidence suggests that our perception of physical beauty is based on how closely the features of one's face reflect phi (the golden ratio) in their proportions. By that extension, it must certainly be possible to use a mathematical parameter to design an anterior hairline in all faces. To establish a user-friendly method to design an anterior hairline in cases of male pattern alopecia. We need a flexible measuring tape and skin marker. A reference point A (glabella) is taken in between eyebrows. Mark point E, near the lateral canthus, 8 cm horizontal on either side from the central point A. A mid-frontal point (point B) is marked 8 cm from point A on the forehead in a mid-vertical plane. The frontotemporal points (C and C') are marked on the frontotemporal area, 8 cm in a horizontal plane from point B and 8 cm in a vertical plane from point E. The temporal peak points (D and D') are marked on the line joining the frontotemporal point C to the lateral canthus point E, slightly more than halfway toward lateral canthus, usually 5 cm from the frontotemporal point C. This line makes an anterior border of the temporal triangle. We have conducted a study with 431 cases of male pattern alopecia. The average distance of the mid-frontal point from glabella was 7.9 cm. The patient satisfaction reported was 94.7%. Our method gives a skeletal frame of the anterior hairline with minimal criteria, with no need of visual imagination and experience of the surgeon. It automatically takes care of the curvature of the forehead and is easy to use for a novice surgeon.

  8. Consensus for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment: basal cell carcinoma, including a cost analysis of treatment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauvar, Arielle N B; Cronin, Terrence; Roenigk, Randall; Hruza, George; Bennett, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US population affecting approximately 2.8 million people per year. Basal cell carcinomas are usually slow-growing and rarely metastasize, but they do cause localized tissue destruction, compromised function, and cosmetic disfigurement. To provide clinicians with guidelines for the management of BCC based on evidence from a comprehensive literature review, and consensus among the authors. An extensive review of the medical literature was conducted to evaluate the optimal treatment methods for cutaneous BCC, taking into consideration cure rates, recurrence rates, aesthetic and functional outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of the procedures. Surgical approaches provide the best outcomes for BCCs. Mohs micrographic surgery provides the highest cure rates while maximizing tissue preservation, maintenance of function, and cosmesis. Mohs micrographic surgery is an efficient and cost-effective procedure and remains the treatment of choice for high-risk BCCs and for those in cosmetically sensitive locations. Nonsurgical modalities may be used for low-risk BCCs when surgery is contraindicated or impractical, but the cure rates are lower.

  9. Development of measures to assess the safety of existing NPPs and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches). Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report arises from the fourth series of peer discussions on regulatory practices entitled D evelopment of measures to assess the safety of existing nuclear power plants and the effectiveness of regulations and regulatory actions (including 'prescriptive' and 'performance based' approaches) . Senior regulators from 23 Member States participated in four peer group discussions during 1995-1996. This report presents the outcome of these meetings and recommendations of good practices identified by these senior regulators. The purpose of this report is to disseminate the views which the senior regulators presented at the meetings relating to measures used for assessing the safety of existing nuclear power plants and evaluating the effectiveness of regulators and regulatory actions. The intention in doing this is to assist Member States in the enhancement of their regulatory practices by identifying commonly accepted good practices. This report is structured so that it covers the subject matter under the following main headings: 'Prescriptive and Performance Based' Approaches to Regulation; Common Features of Regulatory Approaches; Effectiveness of the Regulator and Regulatory Actions; Recommendations of Good Practice. It is important to note that recommendations of good practice are included if they have been identified by at least one of the groups. It does not follow that all of the groups or individual Member States would necessarily endorse all of the recommendations. However, it is considered that if a single group of senior regulators judge that a particular practice is worthy of recommendation then it should be included for serious consideration. In some cases the same recommendations arise from all of the Groups

  10. A quantitative discussion on the assessment of power supply technologies: DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) as complementary methods for the “Grammar”

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakouri, Hamed G.; Nabaee, Mahdis; Aliakbarisani, Sajad

    2014-01-01

    The growing concern about the negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment, and the limited resources of them have forced more intensive use of other energy sources. In absence of sufficient economically feasible renewable energies, nuclear power may play essential role in this field. Recently, the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power and fossil fuels regarding their efficiencies have been attracted researchers' interest. This paper discusses on the findings from “A Grammar for assessing the performance of power supply systems: comparing nuclear energy to fossil energy” (Diaz-Maurin F, Giampietro M. 2013). Although the “Grammar” is a very valuable approach, it can be accomplished by using helpful quantitative methods. In this discussion, we apply quantitative decision-making approaches to compare the same fossil fuel (coal) power plants with nuclear power plants. Economic variables are also taken into consideration. The DEA (data envelopment analysis) and SAW (simple additive weighting) are the methods applied. Results confirm the results of the reference paper in most cases and show that the fossil fuel power plants with CCS (carbon capture and storage) are slightly more efficient than nuclear power plants. However, selection of input and output variables is disputable. Assuming job creation as a desired output can change the ranking results. - Highlights: • A numeric decision making approach is proposed to facilitate assessment of technologies introduced as a “Grammar”. • Two different methods are chosen (SAW and DEA) since the results obtained for ranking may differ with different methods. • We propose to use the original fractional objective function of DEA with equal weightings applied for the attributes. • Proper combinations of both input and output attributes including economic variables are discussed. • The attributes for assessment of the technologies differ from different viewpoints. Labor force and costs are simple

  11. Additivity methods for prediction of thermochemical properties. The Laidler method revisited. 2. Hydrocarbons including substituted cyclic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Rui C.; Leal, Joao P.; Martinho Simoes, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    A revised parameterization of the extended Laidler method for predicting standard molar enthalpies of atomization and standard molar enthalpies of formation at T = 298.15 K for several families of hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, polyenes, poly-ynes, cycloalkanes, substituted cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, substituted cycloalkenes, benzene derivatives, and bi and polyphenyls) is presented. Data for a total of 265 gas-phase and 242 liquid-phase compounds were used for the calculation of the parameters. Comparison of the experimental values with those obtained using the additive scheme led to an average absolute difference of 0.73 kJ . mol -1 for the gas-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation and 0.79 kJ . mol -1 for the liquid-phase standard molar enthalpy of formation. The database used to establish the parameters was carefully reviewed by using, whenever possible, the original publications. A worksheet to simplify the calculation of standard molar enthalpies of formation and standard molar enthalpies of atomization at T = 298.15 K based on the extended Laidler parameters defined in this paper is provided as supplementary material.

  12. Panel Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, James

    1997-03-01

    Panelists: Arthur Bienenstock, Stanford University Cherry Ann Murray, Lucent Technologies Venkatesh Narayanamurti, University of California-Santa Barbara Paul Peercy, SEMI-SEMATECH Robert Richardson, Cornell University James Roberto, Oak Ridge National Laboratory The Board on Physics and Astronomy is undertaking a series of reassessments of all branches of physics as the foundation of a new physics survey. As part of this project, a Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics has been established under the leadership of Venkatesh Narayanamurti of the University of California-Santa Barbara. The committee has been working since June on a study that will include an illustrative recounting of major recent achievements; identification of new opportunities and challenges facing the field; and articulation-for leaders in government, industry, universities, and the public at large-of the important roles played by the field in modern society. An especially urgent issue is how to maintain the intellectual vitality of condensed matter and materials physics, and its contributions to the well-being of the United States, in an era of limited resources. The forum will feature a panel of materials researchers who are members of the Committee on Condensed Matter and Materials Physics. They will give a brief report on the status of the study and engage in a dialogue with the audience about issues facing the condensed matter and materials physics community. Broad community input is vital to the success of the study. Please come and make your voice heard!

  13. Discussion on the method to increase the successful rate of L5/S1 intervertebral disc puncture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Xianyi; Li Liangjun; Yu Chengxin

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the effective methods of L 5 /S 1 intervertebral disc puncture without drilling to solve the barriers from iliaca. Methods: (1) puncturing with belly-buttock sticking out: to enlarge waist sacro-iliaca angle to move the puncture point up; (2) puncturing through intervertebral edge: puncturing through L 5 to 1/3 intervertebral disc to make the puncture point move Up; (3) puncturing through L 5 /S 1 intervertebral disc with the self-made puncture location instrument. Results with the methods, 280 cases with L 5 /S 1 intervertebral disc protrusion have been successfully punctured, with successful rate 100%. Conclusion: These methods are ideal and easy to use to treat L 5 /S 1 intervertebral disc protrusion puncture, and worth popularizing. (authors)

  14. A preliminary discussion of angiographic anatomy and variations of rabbit hepatic vessels and catheterization methods of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Diaodong; Yang Renjie; Zhang Hongzhi; Sun Hongliang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the normal angiographic anatomy and variations of rabbit hepatic vessels, and explore the optimal method for hepatic artery catheterization. Methods: 30 rabbits were divided into two groups randomly. Modified surgical method and interventional method were used to catheterize hepatic artery respectively, and followed by angiography to demonstrate the normal anatomy and variations of rabbit celiac artery, hepatic artery and portal vein. Results: The route and distribution of rabbit celiac artery and hepatic artery were very different from human's. The commonly seen variation showed the differences in branching bifurcation of hepatic-gastric artery, with the incidence of 13.3%. The rates of successfully hepatic artery catheterization with surgical and interventional methods were 86.6%(13/15) and 80%(12/15) respectively (P>0.05). The surgical method will not be successful, whenever there's variation. Conclusion: The normal anatomy and variation of rabbit celiac artery and hepatic artery are quite different from human's. Both surgical and interventional catheterizations could be rather successful but possessing advantages and disadvantages of each its own. (authors)

  15. Discussion of the Improved Methods for Analyzing a Cantilever Beam Carrying a Tip-Mass under Base Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hongjin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two improved analytical methods of calculations for natural frequencies and mode shapes of a uniform cantilever beam carrying a tip-mass under base excitation are presented based on forced vibration theory and the method of separation of variables, respectively. The cantilever model is simplified in detail by replacing the tip-mass with an equivalent inertial force and inertial moment acting at the free end of the cantilever based on D’Alembert’s principle. The concentrated equivalent inertial force and inertial moment are further represented as distributed loads using Dirac Delta Function. In this case, some typical natural frequencies and mode shapes of the cantilever model are calculated by the improved and unimproved analytical methods. The comparing results show that, after improvement, these two methods are in extremely good agreement with each other even the offset distance between the gravity center of the tip-mass and the attachment point is large. As further verification, the transient and steady displacement responses of the cantilever system under a sine base excitation are presented in which two improved methods are separately utilized. Finally, an experimental cantilever system is fabricated and the theoretical displacement responses are validated by the experimental measurements successfully.

  16. Group discussions with the health care team--a method of improving care of hypertension in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorian, D; Silverberg, D S; Tomer, D; Wamosher, Z

    1990-06-01

    A management-by-objective approach was used by the health care administration of the Kupat Holim Sick Fund to improve care of hypertension in 20 family practices in the city of Ashdod in central Israel. The doctor-nurse teams in these clinics met jointly on a regular basis with a physician-instructor, reviewed the results of their care of hypertension and discussed ways of improving it. Over a seven-year period, until 1988, the percentage of the population treated increased from 4.0% to 9.2% and percentage of treated patients who had diastolic pressure of 100 mmHg or more fell from 29.6% to 13.4%. Dropout rate ranged from 2.3% to 3.1% per year over the whole period. In 20 other practices in the Ashdod area in 1988 used for comparison, only 5.9% of the population was treated and the per cent treated was less than Ashdod for all age groups above 30. Dropout rate was higher, averaging 9.8% per year, and the percentage of patients with diastolic pressures of 100 mmHg or more was higher (18.1%). Thus the use of regular discussions with feedback to the health care team was associated with better detection, treatment and follow-up of hypertension.

  17. Conceptual compression discussion on a multi-linear (FTA) and systematic (FRAM) method in an offshore operation's accident modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroody, Ahmad Bahoo; Abaei, Mohammad Mahdy; Gholamnia, Reza

    2016-12-01

    Risk assessment can be classified into two broad categories: traditional and modern. This paper is aimed at contrasting the functional resonance analysis method (FRAM) as a modern approach with the fault tree analysis (FTA) as a traditional method, regarding assessing the risks of a complex system. Applied methodology by which the risk assessment is carried out, is presented in each approach. Also, FRAM network is executed with regard to nonlinear interaction of human and organizational levels to assess the safety of technological systems. The methodology is implemented for lifting structures deep offshore. The main finding of this paper is that the combined application of FTA and FRAM during risk assessment, could provide complementary perspectives and may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of an incident. Finally, it is shown that coupling a FRAM network with a suitable quantitative method will result in a plausible outcome for a predefined accident scenario.

  18. A glossary for big data in population and public health: discussion and commentary on terminology and research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Daniel; Buote, Richard; Stanley, Kevin

    2017-11-01

    The volume and velocity of data are growing rapidly and big data analytics are being applied to these data in many fields. Population and public health researchers may be unfamiliar with the terminology and statistical methods used in big data. This creates a barrier to the application of big data analytics. The purpose of this glossary is to define terms used in big data and big data analytics and to contextualise these terms. We define the five Vs of big data and provide definitions and distinctions for data mining, machine learning and deep learning, among other terms. We provide key distinctions between big data and statistical analysis methods applied to big data. We contextualise the glossary by providing examples where big data analysis methods have been applied to population and public health research problems and provide brief guidance on how to learn big data analysis methods. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Analysis of progressive distorsion. Validation of the method based on effective primary stress. Discussion of Anderson's experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, Didier.

    1981-02-01

    An empirical rule usable for design by analysis against progressive distorsion has been set up from experiments conducted in C.E.N. Saclay. This rule is checked with experimental data obtained by W.F. ANDERSON, this experiment is sufficiently different from the Saclay one to evaluate the merits of the rule. The satisfactory results achieved, are another validation of the efficiency diagram on which the method is based [fr

  20. Discussion on the source of radon in uranium exploration method using radon-released thermal effect in minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Shoutian.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of the source of radon in uranium exploration method using radon-released thermal effect. In minerals by means of scintillation emanometry, we have carried out the measurement on radon content in minerals at various temperature in barren and ore-bearing granites of the granite-type uranium deposit No. 752, and inclusion decrepitation method has also been used to determine the temperature of decrepitation and its relative frequency. It was found from experiments that heated samples may release most of radon prior to inclusion decrepitation, radon released from thermal effect was, on the contrary, very little at temperature intervals of inclusion decrepitation on a large scale basis. When inclusions were ground after radon releasing, it would still release from inclusions after reheating. The radon content calculated from uranium content in inclusions is lower than the sensitivity of the determination method, so it is too difficult to be determined, indicating that the radon content released is not related to inclusions. Samples were determined by uranium chemical analysis and radium radiochemical analysis and it is obvious to note that the radon content released from thermal effect in minerals is positively correlated to the uranium and radium content. Various kinds of experiments suggest that radon is not derived from inclusions but from the whole mineral

  1. Meeting report: discussions and preliminary findings on extracellular RNA measurement methods from laboratories in the NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise C. Laurent

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular RNAs (exRNAs have been identified in all tested biofluids and have been associated with a variety of extracellular vesicles, ribonucleoprotein complexes and lipoprotein complexes. Much of the interest in exRNAs lies in the fact that they may serve as signalling molecules between cells, their potential to serve as biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of disease and the possibility that exRNAs or the extracellular particles that carry them might be used for therapeutic purposes. Among the most significant bottlenecks to progress in this field is the lack of robust and standardized methods for collection and processing of biofluids, separation of different types of exRNA-containing particles and isolation and analysis of exRNAs. The Sample and Assay Standards Working Group of the Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium is a group of laboratories funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health to develop such methods. In our first joint endeavour, we held a series of conference calls and in-person meetings to survey the methods used among our members, placed them in the context of the current literature and used our findings to identify areas in which the identification of robust methodologies would promote rapid advancements in the exRNA field.

  2. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eila Jeronen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education in several scientific databases. The article provides an overview of 24 selected articles published in peer-reviewed scientific journals from 2006–2016. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Altogether, 16 journals were selected and 24 articles were analyzed in detail. The foci of the analyses were teaching methods, learning environments, knowledge and thinking skills, psychomotor skills, emotions and attitudes, and evaluation methods. Additionally, features of good methods were investigated and their implications for teaching were emphasized. In total, 22 different teaching methods were found to improve sustainability education in different ways. The most emphasized teaching methods were those in which students worked in groups and participated actively in learning processes. Research points toward the value of teaching methods that provide a good introduction and supportive guidelines and include active participation and interactivity.

  3. Evaluation on ultrasonic examination methods applied to Ni-base alloy weld including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in BWR reactor internal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Higuchi, Shinichi; Shimizu, Sadato

    2005-01-01

    A Ni-base alloy weld, including cracks due to stress corrosion cracking found in the reactor internal of the oldest BWR in Japan, Tsuruga unit 1, in 1999, was examined by three (3) types of UT method. After this examination, a depth of each crack was confirmed by carrying out a little excavation with a grinder and PT examination by turns until each crack disappeared. Then, the depth measured by the former method was compared with the one measured by the latter method. In this fashion, performances of the UT methods were verified. As a result, a combination of the three types of UT method was found to meet the acceptance criteria given by ASME Sec.XI Appendix VIII, Performance Demonstration for Ultrasonic Examination Systems-Supplement 6. In this paper, the results of the UT examination described above and their evaluation are discussed. (author)

  4. Teaching Methods in Biology Education and Sustainability Education Including Outdoor Education for Promoting Sustainability--A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeronen, Eila; Palmberg, Irmeli; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2017-01-01

    There are very few studies concerning the importance of teaching methods in biology education and environmental education including outdoor education for promoting sustainability at the levels of primary and secondary schools and pre-service teacher education. The material was selected using special keywords from biology and sustainable education…

  5. Method for assessment of stormwater treatment facilities - Synthetic road runoff addition including micro-pollutants and tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederkvist, Karin; Jensen, Marina B; Holm, Peter E

    2017-08-01

    Stormwater treatment facilities (STFs) are becoming increasingly widespread but knowledge on their performance is limited. This is due to difficulties in obtaining representative samples during storm events and documenting removal of the broad range of contaminants found in stormwater runoff. This paper presents a method to evaluate STFs by addition of synthetic runoff with representative concentrations of contaminant species, including the use of tracer for correction of removal rates for losses not caused by the STF. A list of organic and inorganic contaminant species, including trace elements representative of runoff from roads is suggested, as well as relevant concentration ranges. The method was used for adding contaminants to three different STFs including a curbstone extension with filter soil, a dual porosity filter, and six different permeable pavements. Evaluation of the method showed that it is possible to add a well-defined mixture of contaminants despite different field conditions by having a flexibly system, mixing different stock-solutions on site, and use bromide tracer for correction of outlet concentrations. Bromide recovery ranged from only 12% in one of the permeable pavements to 97% in the dual porosity filter, stressing the importance of including a conservative tracer for correction of contaminant retention values. The method is considered useful in future treatment performance testing of STFs. The observed performance of the STFs is presented in coming papers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Use of Orientation/Decision/Do/Discuss/Reflect (OD3R) Method to Increase Critical Thinking Skill and Practical Skill in Biochemistry Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Yunita Arian Sani; Senam, Senam; Laksono, Endang W.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed an OD3R method that can be applied on Biochemistry learning. This OD3R consists of 5 phases: orientation, decision, do, discuss, and reflect to connect lessons in the class with practice in the laboratory. Implementation of OD3R method was done in 2 universities in Yogyakarta to increase critical thinking skill and practical…

  7. The Exchange of Social Support on Online Bariatric Surgery Discussion Forums: A Mixed-Methods Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Molly E; Friedman, Aliza; Meisner, Brad A; Cassin, Stephanie E

    2018-05-01

    Bariatric surgery patients often experience physical and psychosocial stressors, and difficulty adjusting to significant lifestyle changes. As a result, social support groups that provide patients with support, coping skills, and nutritional information are valuable components of bariatric care. Support group attendance at bariatric centers is associated with greater post-surgery weight loss; however, several barriers hinder attendance at in-person support groups (e.g., travel distance to bariatric centers). Consequently, online support forums are an increasingly utilized resource for patients both before and after surgery. This study examined and described the type and frequency of social support provided on a large online bariatric surgery forum. A total of 1,412 messages in the pre- (n = 822) and post-surgery (n = 590) sections of the forum were coded using qualitative content analysis according to Cutrona and Suhr's (1992) Social Support Behavior Code model (i.e., including informational, tangible, esteem, network, and emotional support types). The majority of messages provided informational and emotional support regarding: a) factual information about the bariatric procedure and nutrition; b) advice for coping with the surgery preparation process, and physical symptoms; and c) encouragement regarding adherence to surgical guidelines, and weight loss progress. Network, esteem, and tangible support types were less frequent than informational and emotional support types. The results inform healthcare providers about the types of social support available to bariatric patients on online support forums and, thus, encourage appropriate referrals to this resource.

  8. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  9. capital. A discussion paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Chojnacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to confront certain propositions presented in Lesław Niemczyk’s publication Rachunkowość finansowa aktywów kompetencyjnych i kapitału intelektualnego. Nowy dział rachunkowości(Accounting for Competence Assets and Intellectual Capital. A New Area in Accounting with ideas published in other studies. The authors discuss issues concerning firm value, selected definitions of intellectual capital, as well as certain methods of intellectual capital measurement and valuation. Other problems analysed include accounting for and reporting of intellectual capital and similarities and differences between the way those issues are presented in Polish and in international studies as well as in existing legal regulations and standards.

  10. TRANSAT-- method for detecting the conserved helices of functional RNA structures, including transient, pseudo-knotted and alternative structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Nicholas J P; Meyer, Irmtraud M

    2010-06-24

    The prediction of functional RNA structures has attracted increased interest, as it allows us to study the potential functional roles of many genes. RNA structure prediction methods, however, assume that there is a unique functional RNA structure and also do not predict functional features required for in vivo folding. In order to understand how functional RNA structures form in vivo, we require sophisticated experiments or reliable prediction methods. So far, there exist only a few, experimentally validated transient RNA structures. On the computational side, there exist several computer programs which aim to predict the co-transcriptional folding pathway in vivo, but these make a range of simplifying assumptions and do not capture all features known to influence RNA folding in vivo. We want to investigate if evolutionarily related RNA genes fold in a similar way in vivo. To this end, we have developed a new computational method, Transat, which detects conserved helices of high statistical significance. We introduce the method, present a comprehensive performance evaluation and show that Transat is able to predict the structural features of known reference structures including pseudo-knotted ones as well as those of known alternative structural configurations. Transat can also identify unstructured sub-sequences bound by other molecules and provides evidence for new helices which may define folding pathways, supporting the notion that homologous RNA sequence not only assume a similar reference RNA structure, but also fold similarly. Finally, we show that the structural features predicted by Transat differ from those assuming thermodynamic equilibrium. Unlike the existing methods for predicting folding pathways, our method works in a comparative way. This has the disadvantage of not being able to predict features as function of time, but has the considerable advantage of highlighting conserved features and of not requiring a detailed knowledge of the cellular

  11. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian

    2017-07-01

    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  12. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  13. Method of fabricating electrodes including high-capacity, binder-free anodes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Chunmei; Wu, Zhuangchun; Dillon, Anne C.

    2017-01-10

    An electrode (110) is provided that may be used in an electrochemical device (100) such as an energy storage/discharge device, e.g., a lithium-ion battery, or an electrochromic device, e.g., a smart window. Hydrothermal techniques and vacuum filtration methods were applied to fabricate the electrode (110). The electrode (110) includes an active portion (140) that is made up of electrochemically active nanoparticles, with one embodiment utilizing 3d-transition metal oxides to provide the electrochemical capacity of the electrode (110). The active material (140) may include other electrochemical materials, such as silicon, tin, lithium manganese oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. The electrode (110) also includes a matrix or net (170) of electrically conductive nanomaterial that acts to connect and/or bind the active nanoparticles (140) such that no binder material is required in the electrode (110), which allows more active materials (140) to be included to improve energy density and other desirable characteristics of the electrode. The matrix material (170) may take the form of carbon nanotubes, such as single-wall, double-wall, and/or multi-wall nanotubes, and be provided as about 2 to 30 percent weight of the electrode (110) with the rest being the active material (140).

  14. Some observations concerning blade-element-momentum (BEM) methods and vortex wake methods, including numerical experiments with a simple vortex model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snel, H. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN, Renewable Energy, Wind Energy (Netherlands)

    1997-08-01

    Recently the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) method has been made more versatile. Inclusion of rotational effects on time averaged profile coefficients have improved its achievements for performance calculations in stalled flow. Time dependence as a result of turbulent inflow, pitching actions and yawed operation is now treated more correctly (although more improvement is needed) than before. It is of interest to note that adaptations in modelling of unsteady or periodic induction stem from qualitative and quantitative insights obtained from free vortex models. Free vortex methods and further into the future Navier Stokes (NS) calculations, together with wind tunnel and field experiments, can be very useful in enhancing the potential of BEM for aero-elastic response calculations. It must be kept in mind however that extreme caution must be used with free vortex methods, as will be discussed in the following chapters. A discussion of the shortcomings and the strength of BEM and of vortex wake models is given. Some ideas are presented on how BEM might be improved without too much loss of efficiency. (EG)

  15. Applications of the conjugate gradient FFT method in scattering and radiation including simulations with impedance boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Kasra; Volakis, John L.

    1991-01-01

    The theoretical and computational aspects related to the application of the Conjugate Gradient FFT (CGFFT) method in computational electromagnetics are examined. The advantages of applying the CGFFT method to a class of large scale scattering and radiation problems are outlined. The main advantages of the method stem from its iterative nature which eliminates a need to form the system matrix (thus reducing the computer memory allocation requirements) and guarantees convergence to the true solution in a finite number of steps. Results are presented for various radiators and scatterers including thin cylindrical dipole antennas, thin conductive and resistive strips and plates, as well as dielectric cylinders. Solutions of integral equations derived on the basis of generalized impedance boundary conditions (GIBC) are also examined. The boundary conditions can be used to replace the profile of a material coating by an impedance sheet or insert, thus, eliminating the need to introduce unknown polarization currents within the volume of the layer. A general full wave analysis of 2-D and 3-D rectangular grooves and cavities is presented which will also serve as a reference for future work.

  16. Evaluation and Comparison of Multiple Test Methods, Including Real-time PCR, for Legionella Detection in Clinical Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peci, Adriana; Winter, Anne-Luise; Gubbay, Jonathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test methods and to determine if sputum is an acceptable alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from 1st January, 2010 to 30th April, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of urinary antigen test (UAT) compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV) 63.8%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7%, and NPV 98.1%. Out of 146 patients who had a Legionella-positive result by PCR, only 66 (45.2%) also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%); sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results regardless testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values = 1.0, for each test). In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; therefore, more than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical from patients being tested for Legionella. PMID:27630979

  17. Evaluation and comparison of multiple test methods, including real-time PCR, for Legionella detection in clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Peci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Legionella is a gram-negative bacterium that can cause Pontiac fever, a mild upper respiratory infection and Legionnaire’s disease, a more severe illness. We aimed to compare the performance of urine antigen, culture and PCR test methods and to determine if sputum is an alternative to the use of more invasive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL. Data for this study included specimens tested for Legionella at PHOL from January 1, 2010 to April 30, 2014, as part of routine clinical testing. We found sensitivity of UAT compared to culture to be 87%, specificity 94.7%, positive predictive value (PPV 63.8% and negative predictive value (NPV 98.5%. Sensitivity of UAT compared to PCR was 74.7%, specificity 98.3%, PPV 77.7% and NPV 98.1%. Of 146 patients who had a Legionella positive result by PCR, only 66(45.2% also had a positive result by culture. Sensitivity for culture was the same using either sputum or BAL (13.6%; sensitivity for PCR was 10.3% for sputum and 12.8% for BAL. Both sputum and BAL yield similar results despite testing methods (Fisher Exact p-values=1.0, for each test. In summary, all test methods have inherent weaknesses in identifying Legionella; thereforemore than one testing method should be used. Obtaining a single specimen type from patients with pneumonia limits the ability to diagnose Legionella, particularly when urine is the specimen type submitted. Given ease of collection, and similar sensitivity to BAL, clinicians are encouraged to submit sputum in addition to urine when BAL submission is not practical, from patients being tested for Legionella.

  18. Efficient methods for including quantum effects in Monte Carlo calculations of large systems: extension of the displaced points path integral method and other effective potential methods to calculate properties and distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Steven L; Dinpajooh, Mohammadhasan; Siepmann, J Ilja; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-01-07

    We present a procedure to calculate ensemble averages, thermodynamic derivatives, and coordinate distributions by effective classical potential methods. In particular, we consider the displaced-points path integral (DPPI) method, which yields exact quantal partition functions and ensemble averages for a harmonic potential and approximate quantal ones for general potentials, and we discuss the implementation of the new procedure in two Monte Carlo simulation codes, one that uses uncorrelated samples to calculate absolute free energies, and another that employs Metropolis sampling to calculate relative free energies. The results of the new DPPI method are compared to those from accurate path integral calculations as well as to results of two other effective classical potential schemes for the case of an isolated water molecule. In addition to the partition function, we consider the heat capacity and expectation values of the energy, the potential energy, the bond angle, and the OH distance. We also consider coordinate distributions. The DPPI scheme performs best among the three effective potential schemes considered and achieves very good accuracy for all of the properties considered. A key advantage of the effective potential schemes is that they display much lower statistical sampling variances than those for accurate path integral calculations. The method presented here shows great promise for including quantum effects in calculations on large systems.

  19. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinson, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated in barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention.

  20. Contributors to Frequent Telehealth Alerts Including False Alerts for Patients with Heart Failure: A Mixed Methods Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, K.; Bowles, K.; Zettek-Sumner, A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Telehealth data overload through high alert generation is a significant barrier to sustained adoption of telehealth for managing HF patients. Objective To explore the factors contributing to frequent telehealth alerts including false alerts for Medicare heart failure (HF) patients admitted to a home health agency. Materials and Methods A mixed methods design that combined quantitative correlation analysis of patient characteristic data with number of telehealth alerts and qualitative analysis of telehealth and visiting nurses’ notes on follow-up actions to patients’ telehealth alerts was employed. All the quantitative and qualitative data was collected through retrospective review of electronic records of the home heath agency. Results Subjects in the study had a mean age of 83 (SD = 7.6); 56% were female. Patient co-morbidities (ppatient characteristics along with establishing patient-centered telehealth outcome goals may allow meaningful generation of telehealth alerts. Reducing avoidable telehealth alerts could vastly improve the efficiency and sustainability of telehealth programs for HF management. PMID:24454576

  1. Method for contamination control and barrier apparatus with filter for containing waste materials that include dangerous particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    A container for hazardous waste materials that includes air or other gas carrying dangerous particulate matter has incorporated barrier material, preferably in the form of a flexible sheet, and one or more filters for the dangerous particulate matter sealably attached to such barrier material. The filter is preferably a HEPA type filter and is preferably chemically bonded to the barrier materials. The filter or filters are preferably flexibly bonded to the barrier material marginally and peripherally of the filter or marginally and peripherally of air or other gas outlet openings in the barrier material, which may be a plastic bag. The filter may be provided with a backing panel of barrier material having an opening or openings for the passage of air or other gas into the filter or filters. Such backing panel is bonded marginally and peripherally thereof to the barrier material or to both it and the filter or filters. A coupling or couplings for deflating and inflating the container may be incorporated. Confining a hazardous waste material in such a container, rapidly deflating the container and disposing of the container, constitutes one aspect of the method of the invention. The chemical bonding procedure for producing the container constitutes another aspect of the method of the invention. 3 figs

  2. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe; Khalil, Azza Ahmed; Holt, Marianne Ingerslev; Kandi, Maria; Hoffmann, Lone

    2017-11-01

    Minimizing the planning target volume (PTV) while ensuring sufficient target coverage during the entire respiratory cycle is essential for free-breathing radiotherapy of lung cancer. Different methods are used to incorporate the respiratory motion into the PTV. Fifteen patients were analyzed. Respiration can be included in the target delineation process creating a respiratory GTV, denoted iGTV. Alternatively, the respiratory amplitude (A) can be measured based on the 4D-CT and A can be incorporated in the margin expansion. The GTV expanded by A yielded GTV + resp, which was compared to iGTV in terms of overlap. Three methods for PTV generation were compared. PTV del (delineated iGTV expanded to CTV plus PTV margin), PTV σ (GTV expanded to CTV and A was included as a random uncertainty in the CTV to PTV margin) and PTV ∑ (GTV expanded to CTV, succeeded by CTV linear expansion by A to CTV + resp, which was finally expanded to PTV ∑ ). Deformation of tumor and lymph nodes during respiration resulted in volume changes between the respiratory phases. The overlap between iGTV and GTV + resp showed that on average 7% of iGTV was outside the GTV + resp implying that GTV + resp did not capture the tumor during the full deformable respiration cycle. A comparison of the PTV volumes showed that PTV σ was smallest and PTV Σ largest for all patients. PTV σ was in mean 14% (31 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV del , while PTV del was 7% (20 cm 3 ) smaller than PTV Σ . PTV σ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTV del ) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger treatment volumes. PTV Σ should not be used, since it incorporates the disadvantages of both PTV del and PTV σ .

  3. Daily nursing feedback and discussion – a method to develop skills and augment quality and rehabilitative nursing for patients with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Randi; Bonne, Stine

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Content: Background: Rehabilitation pathways for patients admitted with a spinal cord injury (SCI) are becoming increasingly complex, even as admission times are becoming shorter and more intensive. At the Spinal Cord Injury Centre of Western Denmark this means there is a growing need...... for sharing knowledge and experience to develop professional nursing skills in providing rehabilitative nursing care at the highest level, and in making a positive and valuable contribution to collaboration across professions. Aim: To improve knowledge, skills, and behaviour in rehabilitative nursing services...... to SCI patients through nursing feedback and discussion. Method: Four days each week, the nursing group meets for a 20-minute session of feedback and discussion on professional nursing issues, led by a session moderator. All nurses, whether new arrivals or experienced employees, have equal opportunity...

  4. Human Cloning: Let's Discuss It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Loretta; Stavroulakis, Anthea M.; Ortiz, Mary T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes experiences with holding discussions on cloning at a variety of levels in undergraduate biology courses. Discusses teaching methods used and student reactions to the discussions. Contains 12 references. (WRM)

  5. Summary of group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A key aspect of the workshop was the interaction and exchange of ideas and information among the 40 participants. To facilitate this activity the workshop participants were divided into five discussions groups. These groups reviewed selected subjects and reported back to the main body with summaries of their considerations. Over the 3 days the 5 discussion groups were requested to focus on the following subjects: the characteristics and capabilities of 'good' organisations; how to ensure sufficient resources; how to ensure competence within the organisation; how to demonstrate organisational suitability; the regulatory oversight processes - including their strengths and weaknesses. A list of the related questions that were provided to the discussion groups can be found in Appendix 3. Also included in Appendix 3 are copies of the slides the groups prepared that summarised their considerations

  6. Focus group discussions

    CERN Document Server

    Hennink, Monique M

    2014-01-01

    The Understanding Research series focuses on the process of writing up social research. The series is broken down into three categories: Understanding Statistics, Understanding Measurement, and Understanding Qualitative Research. The books provide researchers with guides to understanding, writing, and evaluating social research. Each volume demonstrates how research should be represented, including how to write up the methodology as well as the research findings. Each volume also reviews how to appropriately evaluate published research. Focus Group Discussions addresses the challenges associated with conducting and writing focus group research. It provides detailed guidance on the practical and theoretical considerations in conducting focus group discussions including: designing the discussion guide, recruiting participants, training a field team, moderating techniques and ethical considerations. Monique Hennink describes how a methodology section is read and evaluated by others, such as journal reviewers or ...

  7. Discussion 2: David Dobbs

    OpenAIRE

    Dobbs, David; Murray-Rust, Peter; Hatcher, Jordan; Pollock, Rufus

    2010-01-01

    David Dobbs writes on science, medicine and culture. He has contributed to a diversity of publications, including Scientific American, Slate magazine, Wired, Audubon, Atlantic Monthly, and the New York Times magazine. He has also authored a number of books. Other participants in this discussion were Peter Murray-Rust, Jordan Hatcher, and Rufus Pollock.

  8. Assessing the Applicability of Currently Available Methods for Attributing Foodborne Disease to Sources, Including Food and Food Commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro

    2013-01-01

    on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological...

  9. IMPROVING THE STUDENTS’ COMPETENCE IN DEVELOPING A PARAGRAPH OF DISCUSSION TEXTS USING THEMATIC PROGRESSION PATTERNS WITH COOPERATIVE LEARNING METHOD (TP-CL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farikah Farikah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the effectiveness of thematic progression patterns with cooperative learning method (TP-CL in teaching the students’ competence in developing a paragraph of discussion texts and the effectiveness of teaching-learning activities of paragraph writing class. This mixed method research was conducted in the English Department of Tidar University of Magelang in the academic year of 2011/2012. The sample of this research were the fourth semester students of UTM. To collect the research data, writing test, observation and interview were used while to analyze the data, she used descriptive and inferential statistics for quantitative data and constant comparative method for qualitative data. The first result shows that implementing TP-CL is effective for teaching the students’ competence in developing a paragraph of discussion texts. It can be seen from the results of writing tests. Based on Brown and Bailey’s theory in Brown (2004, it can be seen that the mean score of organization element in pretest is 10.77 and the post test of paragraph writing is 16.73. The second result shows that there is an improvement of the effectiveness of teaching-learning activity of writing class by implementing TP-CL. The effectiveness can be seen from the indicators of effective teaching based on Blum in Nunan and Lamb (1996 and Creemer’s theory (1994. The results suggest that writing lecturers should introduce to develop a paragraph to the students in order that they can write paragraphs coherently and various theme in order that they can write the paragraph artistically.

  10. Prescription for natural cures: a self-care guide for treating health problems with natural remedies including diet, nutrition, supplements, and other holistic methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balch, James F; Stengler, Mark; Young-Balch, Robin

    2011-01-01

    .... You'll find easy-to-understand discussions of the symptoms and root causes of each health problem along with a proven, natural, customized prescription that may include supplements, herbal medicine...

  11. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye; Khashab, Niveen M.; Tao, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets

  12. Evaluation, including effects of storage and repeated freezing and thawing, of a method for measurement of urinary creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, J

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate to what extent storage and repeated freezing and thawing influenced the concentration of creatinine in urine samples and to evaluate the method for determination of creatinine in urine. The creatinine method was based on the well-known Jaffe's reaction...... and measured on a COBAS Mira autoanalyser from Roche. The main findings were that samples for analysis of creatinine should be kept at a temperature of -20 degrees C or lower and frozen and thawed only once. The limit of detection, determined as 3 x SD of 20 determinations of a sample at a low concentration (6...

  13. Theory of linear physical systems theory of physical systems from the viewpoint of classical dynamics, including Fourier methods

    CERN Document Server

    Guillemin, Ernst A

    2013-01-01

    An eminent electrical engineer and authority on linear system theory presents this advanced treatise, which approaches the subject from the viewpoint of classical dynamics and covers Fourier methods. This volume will assist upper-level undergraduates and graduate students in moving from introductory courses toward an understanding of advanced network synthesis. 1963 edition.

  14. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length and methods for sighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn

    2011-08-16

    Sighting optics include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in a spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus for a user images of the front sight and the target.

  15. Compositions of graphene materials with metal nanostructures and microstructures and methods of making and using including pressure sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ye

    2017-01-26

    Composition comprising at least one graphene material and at least one metal. The metal can be in the form of nanoparticles as well as microflakes, including single crystal microflakes. The metal can be intercalated in the graphene sheets. The composition has high conductivity and flexibility. The composition can be made by a one-pot synthesis in which a graphene material precursor is converted to the graphene material, and the metal precursor is converted to the metal. A reducing solvent or dispersant such as NMP can be used. Devices made from the composition include a pressure sensor which has high sensitivity. Two two- dimension materials can be combined to form a hybrid material.

  16. Difference in target definition using three different methods to include respiratory motion in radiotherapy of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth Møller, Ditte; Knap, Marianne Marquard; Nyeng, Tine Bisballe

    2017-01-01

    : PTVσ yields the smallest volumes but does not ensure coverage of tumor during the full respiratory motion due to tumor deformation. Incorporating the respiratory motion in the delineation (PTVdel) takes into account the entire respiratory cycle including deformation, but at the cost, however, of larger...

  17. On Numerical Methods for Including the Effect of Capillary Pressure Forces on Two-phase, Immiscible Flow in a Layered Porous Medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, B.G.

    1996-05-01

    This mathematical doctoral thesis contains the theory, algorithms and numerical simulations for a heterogeneous oil reservoir. It presents the equations, which apply to immiscible and incompressible two-phase fluid flow in the reservoir, including the effect of capillary pressure forces, and emphasises in particular the interior boundary conditions at the interface between two sediments. Two different approaches are discussed. The first approach is to decompose the computational domain along the interior boundary and iterate between the subdomains until mass balance is achieved. The second approach accounts for the interior boundary conditions in the basis in which the solution is expanded, the basis being discontinuous over the interior boundaries. An overview of the construction of iterative solvers for partial differential equations by means of Schwartz methods is given, and the algorithm for local refinement with Schwartz iterations as iterative solver is described. The theory is then applied to a core plug problem in one and two space dimensions and the results of different methods compared. A general description is given of the computer simulation model, which is implemented in C++. 64 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Shining a light on LAMP assays--a comparison of LAMP visualization methods including the novel use of berberine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Jens; Xander, Nina Carolin; Frohme, Marcus; Glökler, Jörn Felix

    2015-04-01

    The need for simple and effective assays for detecting nucleic acids by isothermal amplification reactions has led to a great variety of end point and real-time monitoring methods. Here we tested direct and indirect methods to visualize the amplification of potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and compared features important for one-pot in-field applications. We compared the performance of magnesium pyrophosphate, hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB), calcein, SYBR Green I, EvaGreen, and berberine. All assays could be used to distinguish between positive and negative samples in visible or UV light. Precipitation of magnesium-pyrophosphate resulted in a turbid reaction solution. The use of HNB resulted in a color change from violet to blue, whereas calcein induced a change from orange to yellow-green. We also investigated berberine as a nucleic acid-specific dye that emits a fluorescence signal under UV light after a positive LAMP reaction. It has a comparable sensitivity to SYBR Green I and EvaGreen. Based on our results, an optimal detection method can be chosen easily for isothermal real-time or end point screening applications.

  19. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  20. A Quadrature Method of Moments for Polydisperse Flow in Bubble Columns Including Poly-Celerity, Breakup and Coalescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Acher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A simulation model for 3D polydisperse bubble column flows in an Eulerian/Eulerian framework is presented. A computationally efficient and numerically stable algorithm is created by making use of quadrature method of moments (QMOM functionalities, in conjunction with appropriate breakup and coalescence models. To account for size dependent bubble motion, the constituent moments of the bubble size distribution function are transported with individual velocities. Validation of the simulation results against experimental and numerical data of Hansen [1] show the capability of the present model to accurately predict complex gas-liquid flows.

  1. Principles of cobalt-60 teletherapy including an introduction to the compendium. Guidelines for the documentation of radiation treatment methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.

    1984-01-01

    A great deal of thought has been given in recent years to the documentation of individual patients and their diseases, especially since the computerization of registry sytems facilitates the storage and retrieval of large amounts of data, but the documentation of radiation treatment methods has received surprisingly little attention. The guidelines which follow are intended for use both internally (within radiotherapy centres) and externally when a treatment method is reported in the literature or transferred from one centre to another. The amount of detail reported externally will, of course, depend on the circumstances: for example, a published paper will usually mention only the most important of the radiation and physical parameters, but it is important for the department of origin to list all parameters in a separate document, available on request. These guidelines apply specifically to the documentation of treatment by external radiation beams, although many of the suggestions would also apply to treatment by small sealed sources (brachytherapy) and by unsealed radionuclides. Treatment techniques which involve a combination of external and internal sources (e.g. Ca. cervix uteri treatd by intracavitary sources plus external beam therapy) require particularly careful documentation to indicate the relationship bwtween dose distribution (in both space and time) achieved by the two modalities

  2. Method to Determine Appropriate Source Models of Large Earthquakes Including Tsunami Earthquakes for Tsunami Early Warning in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanioka, Yuichiro; Miranda, Greyving Jose Arguello; Gusman, Aditya Riadi; Fujii, Yushiro

    2017-08-01

    Large earthquakes, such as the Mw 7.7 1992 Nicaragua earthquake, have occurred off the Pacific coasts of El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America and have generated distractive tsunamis along these coasts. It is necessary to determine appropriate fault models before large tsunamis hit the coast. In this study, first, fault parameters were estimated from the W-phase inversion, and then an appropriate fault model was determined from the fault parameters and scaling relationships with a depth dependent rigidity. The method was tested for four large earthquakes, the 1992 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2001 El Salvador earthquake (Mw7.7), the 2004 El Astillero earthquake (Mw7.0), and the 2012 El Salvador-Nicaragua earthquake (Mw7.3), which occurred off El Salvador and Nicaragua in Central America. The tsunami numerical simulations were carried out from the determined fault models. We found that the observed tsunami heights, run-up heights, and inundation areas were reasonably well explained by the computed ones. Therefore, our method for tsunami early warning purpose should work to estimate a fault model which reproduces tsunami heights near the coast of El Salvador and Nicaragua due to large earthquakes in the subduction zone.

  3. Innovative Methods for Estimating Densities and Detection Probabilities of Secretive Reptiles Including Invasive Constrictors and Rare Upland Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-30

    home range  maintenance  or attraction to or avoidance of  landscape features, including  roads  (Morales et al. 2004, McClintock et al. 2012). For example...radiotelemetry and extensive road survey data are used to generate the first density estimates available for the species. The results show that southern...secretive snakes that combines behavioral observations of snake road crossing speed, systematic road survey data, and simulations of spatial

  4. Staphylococcus aureus strains associated with food poisoning outbreaks in France: comparison of different molecular typing methods, including MLVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Sophie; Felix, Benjamin; Vingadassalon, Noémie; Grout, Joël; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine; Guillier, Laurent; Brisabois, Anne; Auvray, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks (SFPOs) are frequently reported in France. However, most of them remain unconfirmed, highlighting a need for a better characterization of isolated strains. Here we analyzed the genetic diversity of 112 Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from 76 distinct SFPOs that occurred in France over the last 30 years. We used a recently developed multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) protocol and compared this method with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), spa-typing and carriage of genes (se genes) coding for 11 staphylococcal enterotoxins (i.e., SEA, SEB, SEC, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, SEI, SEJ, SEP, SER). The strains known to have an epidemiological association with one another had identical MLVA types, PFGE profiles, spa-types or se gene carriage. MLVA, PFGE and spa-typing divided 103 epidemiologically unrelated strains into 84, 80, and 50 types respectively demonstrating the high genetic diversity of S. aureus strains involved in SFPOs. Each MLVA type shared by more than one strain corresponded to a single spa-type except for one MLVA type represented by four strains that showed two different-but closely related-spa-types. The 87 enterotoxigenic strains were distributed across 68 distinct MLVA types that correlated all with se gene carriage except for four MLVA types. The most frequent se gene detected was sea, followed by seg and sei and the most frequently associated se genes were sea-seh and sea-sed-sej-ser. The discriminatory ability of MLVA was similar to that of PFGE and higher than that of spa-typing. This MLVA protocol was found to be compatible with high throughput analysis, and was also faster and less labor-intensive than PFGE. MLVA holds promise as a suitable method for investigating SFPOs and tracking the source of contamination in food processing facilities in real time. PMID:26441849

  5. Use of spectrophotometric readout method for free radical dosimetry in radiation processing including low energy electrons and bremsstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    Our laboratory maintains standards for high doses in India. The glutamine powder dosimeter (spectrophotometric readout) is used for this purpose. Present studies show that 20 mg of unirradiated/irradiated glutamine dissolved in freshly prepared 10 ml of aerated aqueous acidic FX solution containing 2 x 10 -3 mol dm -3 ferrous ammonium sulphate and 10 -4 mol dm -3 xylenol orange in 0.033 mol dm -3 sulphuric acid is suitable for the dosimetry in the dose range of 0.1-100 kGy. Normally no corrections are required for the post-irradiation fading of the irradiated glutamine. The response of glutamine dosimeter is independent of irradiation temperature in the range of about 23-30 deg. C and at other temperatures, a correction is necessary. The dose intercomparison results for photon, electron and bremsstrahlung radiations show that glutamine can be used as a reference standard dosimeter. The use of flat polyethylene bags containing glutamine powder has proved very successful for electron dosimetry of wide energies. Several other amino acids like alanine, valine and threonine can also be used to cover wide range of doses using spectrophotometric readout method. (author)

  6. Analysis of alternative transportation methods for radioactive materials shipments including the use of special trains for spent fuel and wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Luna, R.E.; Taylor, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Two studies were completed which evaluate the environmental impact of radioactive material transport. The first was a generic study which evaluated all radioactive materials and all transportation modes; the second addressed spent fuel and fuel-cycle wastes shipped by truck, rail and barge. A portion of each of those studies dealing with the change in impact resulting from alternative shipping methods is presented in this paper. Alternatives evaluated in each study were mode shifts, operational constraints, and, in generic case, changes in material properties and package capabilities. Data for the analyses were obtained from a shipper survey and from projections of shipments that would occur in an equilibrium fuel cycle supporting one hundred 1000-MW(e) reactors. Population exposures were deduced from point source radiation formulae using separation distances derived for scenarios appropriate to each shipping mode and to each exposed population group. Fourteen alternatives were investigated for the generic impact case. All showed relatively minor changes in the overall radiological impact. Since the radioactive material transport is estimated to be fewer than 3 latent cancer fatalities (LCF) for each shipment year (compared to some 300,000 yearly cancer fatalities or 5000 LCF's calculated for background radiation using the same radiological effects model), a 15% decrease caused by shifting from passenger air to cargo air is a relatively small effect. Eleven alternatives were considered for the fuel cycle/special train study, but only one produced a reduction in total special train baseline LCF's (.047) that was larger than 5%

  7. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

  8. Age correction in monitoring audiometry: method to update OSHA age-correction tables to include older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobie, Robert A; Wojcik, Nancy C

    2015-07-13

    The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Noise Standard provides the option for employers to apply age corrections to employee audiograms to consider the contribution of ageing when determining whether a standard threshold shift has occurred. Current OSHA age-correction tables are based on 40-year-old data, with small samples and an upper age limit of 60 years. By comparison, recent data (1999-2006) show that hearing thresholds in the US population have improved. Because hearing thresholds have improved, and because older people are increasingly represented in noisy occupations, the OSHA tables no longer represent the current US workforce. This paper presents 2 options for updating the age-correction tables and extending values to age 75 years using recent population-based hearing survey data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Both options provide scientifically derived age-correction values that can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to include older workers. Regression analysis was used to derive new age-correction values using audiometric data from the 1999-2006 US NHANES. Using the NHANES median, better-ear thresholds fit to simple polynomial equations, new age-correction values were generated for both men and women for ages 20-75 years. The new age-correction values are presented as 2 options. The preferred option is to replace the current OSHA tables with the values derived from the NHANES median better-ear thresholds for ages 20-75 years. The alternative option is to retain the current OSHA age-correction values up to age 60 years and use the NHANES-based values for ages 61-75 years. Recent NHANES data offer a simple solution to the need for updated, population-based, age-correction tables for OSHA. The options presented here provide scientifically valid and relevant age-correction values which can be easily adopted by OSHA to expand their regulatory guidance to

  9. Optimal Control as a method for Diesel engine efficiency assessment including pressure and NO_x constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardiola, Carlos; Climent, Héctor; Pla, Benjamín; Reig, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimal Control is applied for heat release shaping in internal combustion engines. • Optimal Control allows to assess the engine performance with a realistic reference. • The proposed method gives a target heat release law to define control strategies. - Abstract: The present paper studies the optimal heat release law in a Diesel engine to maximise the indicated efficiency subject to different constraints, namely: maximum cylinder pressure, maximum cylinder pressure derivative, and NO_x emission restrictions. With this objective, a simple but also representative model of the combustion process has been implemented. The model consists of a 0D energy balance model aimed to provide the pressure and temperature evolutions in the high pressure loop of the engine thermodynamic cycle from the gas conditions at the intake valve closing and the heat release law. The gas pressure and temperature evolutions allow to compute the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. The comparison between model and experimental results shows that despite the model simplicity, it is able to reproduce the engine efficiency and NO_x emissions. After the model identification and validation, the optimal control problem is posed and solved by means of Dynamic Programming (DP). Also, if only pressure constraints are considered, the paper proposes a solution that reduces the computation cost of the DP strategy in two orders of magnitude for the case being analysed. The solution provides a target heat release law to define injection strategies but also a more realistic maximum efficiency boundary than the ideal thermodynamic cycles usually employed to estimate the maximum engine efficiency.

  10. Multiscale approach including microfibril scale to assess elastic constants of cortical bone based on neural network computation and homogenization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkaoui, Abdelwahed; Chamekh, Abdessalem; Merzouki, Tarek; Hambli, Ridha; Mkaddem, Ali

    2014-03-01

    The complexity and heterogeneity of bone tissue require a multiscale modeling to understand its mechanical behavior and its remodeling mechanisms. In this paper, a novel multiscale hierarchical approach including microfibril scale based on hybrid neural network (NN) computation and homogenization equations was developed to link nanoscopic and macroscopic scales to estimate the elastic properties of human cortical bone. The multiscale model is divided into three main phases: (i) in step 0, the elastic constants of collagen-water and mineral-water composites are calculated by averaging the upper and lower Hill bounds; (ii) in step 1, the elastic properties of the collagen microfibril are computed using a trained NN simulation. Finite element calculation is performed at nanoscopic levels to provide a database to train an in-house NN program; and (iii) in steps 2-10 from fibril to continuum cortical bone tissue, homogenization equations are used to perform the computation at the higher scales. The NN outputs (elastic properties of the microfibril) are used as inputs for the homogenization computation to determine the properties of mineralized collagen fibril. The mechanical and geometrical properties of bone constituents (mineral, collagen, and cross-links) as well as the porosity were taken in consideration. This paper aims to predict analytically the effective elastic constants of cortical bone by modeling its elastic response at these different scales, ranging from the nanostructural to mesostructural levels. Our findings of the lowest scale's output were well integrated with the other higher levels and serve as inputs for the next higher scale modeling. Good agreement was obtained between our predicted results and literature data. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Method and apparatus for enhanced sensitivity filmless medical x-ray imaging, including three-dimensional imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sherwood

    1995-01-01

    A filmless X-ray imaging system includes at least one X-ray source, upper and lower collimators, and a solid-state detector array, and can provide three-dimensional imaging capability. The X-ray source plane is distance z.sub.1 above upper collimator plane, distance z.sub.2 above the lower collimator plane, and distance z.sub.3 above the plane of the detector array. The object to be X-rayed is located between the upper and lower collimator planes. The upper and lower collimators and the detector array are moved horizontally with scanning velocities v.sub.1, v.sub.2, v.sub.3 proportional to z.sub.1, z.sub.2 and z.sub.3, respectively. The pattern and size of openings in the collimators, and between detector positions is proportional such that similar triangles are always defined relative to the location of the X-ray source. X-rays that pass through openings in the upper collimator will always pass through corresponding and similar openings in the lower collimator, and thence to a corresponding detector in the underlying detector array. Substantially 100% of the X-rays irradiating the object (and neither absorbed nor scattered) pass through the lower collimator openings and are detected, which promotes enhanced sensitivity. A computer system coordinates repositioning of the collimators and detector array, and X-ray source locations. The computer system can store detector array output, and can associate a known X-ray source location with detector array output data, to provide three-dimensional imaging. Detector output may be viewed instantly, stored digitally, and/or transmitted electronically for image viewing at a remote site.

  12. X-points in the spectral emissivity of solid and liquid refractory transition metals measured by multichannel pyrometry. Discussion of the experimental method and physical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J.P.; Hyland, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    The spectral emissivities of some refractory Transition metals (Hf, Mo, Nb, Re, V, W and Zr) have been measured from about 2500 K up to temperatures above the melting point T m . The experimental method adopted is based on multiwavelength pyrometric measurements, where the determination of the spectral emissivity is implicitly related to the evaluation of temperature through the radiation emission law and an assumed relationship between the spectral emissivity ε and the wavelength λ. Heating was produced with a pulsed laser in times of the order of 100 ms. A specially constructed pyrometer was used which enabled measurements at six different wavelengths to be carried out at time intervals of the order of 0.1 ms. A model for the evaluation of temperature and spectral emissivities has been developed and its limitations due to statistical and systematic errors are discussed. Our experiments confirm the existence of a unique wavelength, λ-x for each metal to which different ε λ -isotherms converge for λ x and from which they diverge for λ>λ x and at which ε λ is independent of T, and thus equal, in particular, to its value at T m , indicate that λ x is preserved through T m and reveal that at T m these metals are effectively 'grey'. Detailed theoretical investigations reveal that the occurrence of the λ x points is intimately connected with the particular T and λ dependences of the interband contribution to the imaginary part of the complex dielectric function entailed by specific features of the electronic band-structure of the Transition metals concerned. Finally, in connection with the 'grey' phenomenon at T m , it should be stressed that this is not found in the case of the Noble metals, although, like Transition metals, they exhibit λ x points, despite their quite different band-structures. (author). 56 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  13. Modeling plant density and ponding water effects on flooded rice evapotranspiration and crop coefficients: critical discussion about the concepts used in current methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschonitis, Vassilis; Diamantopoulou, Maria; Papamichail, Dimitris

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the study is to propose new modeling approaches for daily estimations of crop coefficient K c for flooded rice ( Oryza sativa L., ssp. indica) under various plant densities. Non-linear regression (NLR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) were used to predict K c based on leaf area index LAI, crop height, wind speed, water albedo, and ponding water depth. Two years of evapotranspiration ET c measurements from lysimeters located in a Mediterranean environment were used in this study. The NLR approach combines bootstrapping and Bayesian sensitivity analysis based on a semi-empirical formula. This approach provided significant information about the hidden role of the same predictor variables in the Levenberg-Marquardt ANN approach, which improved K c predictions. Relationships of production versus ET c were also built and verified by data obtained from Australia. The results of the study showed that the daily K c values, under extremely high plant densities (e.g., for LAI max > 10), can reach extremely high values ( K c > 3) during the reproductive stage. Justifications given in the discussion question both the K c values given by FAO and the energy budget approaches, which assume that ET c cannot exceed a specific threshold defined by the net radiation. These approaches can no longer explain the continuous increase of global rice yields (currently are more than double in comparison to the 1960s) due to the improvement of cultivars and agriculture intensification. The study suggests that the safest method to verify predefined or modeled K c values is through preconstructed relationships of production versus ET c using field measurements.

  14. Discussion about decision support systems using continuous multi-criteria methods for planning in areas with hydro-basins, agriculture and forests, from examples in Argentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, J. M.; Grau, J. B.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.; Cisneros, J. M.; Sanchez, E.

    2012-04-01

    The authors were involved last years in projects considering diverse decision problems on the use of some regions in Argentine, and also related to rivers or rural services in them. They used sets of multi-criteria decision methods, first discrete when the problem included few distinct alternatives, such as e.g. forestry, traditional or intensive agriculture. For attributes they were different effects, classified then in environmental, economic and social criteria. Extending to other gentler areas, such as at South of the Province of Córdoba, Arg., they have balanced more delicately effects of continuous levels of actions, with a combination of Goal Programming linked methods, and they adopted compromises to have precise solutions. That has shown, and in part open, a line of research, as the setting of such models require various kinds of definitions and valuations, including optimizations, goals with penalties in deviations and restrictions. That can be in diverse detail level and horizon, in presence of various technical and human horizons, and that can influence politics of use of terrain and production that will require public and private agents. The research will consider consideration of use and conservation of soils, human systems and agro productions, and hence models for optimization, preferably in such Goal Programming ways. That will require considering various systems of models, first in theory to be reliable, and then in different areas to evaluate the quality of conclusions, and maybe that successively if results are found advantageous. The Bayesian ways will be considered, but they would require a prospective of sets of precise future states of nature or markets with elicited probabilities, which are neither evident nor decisive for the moment, as changes may occur in years but will be very unexpected or uncertain. The results will be lines of models to aid to establish policies of use of territories, by public agencies setting frames for private

  15. Improving English Speaking Ability Through Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Afrizal, M

    2015-01-01

    Speaking is one of important parts in teaching language because it includes one of four basic language skills. Nevertheless, in MA NU BANAT Kudus, the writer found that most of students there still get the difficulties in studying speaking. It may be caused by the method used in teaching English, especially speaking. Classroom Discussion is a method that can be applied in teaching English, especially to improve the ability of speaking. In this method, hopefully, the students get a big opportu...

  16. Panel discussion: Nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaiger, M.

    1991-01-01

    The panel discussion opened with a question concerning whether true quantification of myocardial sympathetic presynaptic function or receptor density can be obtained with currently available radiopharmaceuticals. What are the relative advantages of the two general approaches that have been proposed for quantification: (1) The assessment of tracer distribution volume in tissue following bolus injection and (2) quantification based on tracer displacement kinetics following administration of excess unlabeled tracer. It was pointed out that tracer kinetics for the delineation of presynaptic and postsynaptic binding sites by radiopharmaceuticals or radiolabeled receptor antagonists are rather complex, reflecting several physiologic processes that are difficult to separate. Several approaches were examined. The possibility of regional definition of receptor density by PET was questioned and it was noted that regions of interest can be applied to calculate regional receptor kinetics. However, due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, only average transmural values can be determined. The discussion then turned to the discrepancy between the known sparse parasympathetic innervation of the heart and the high density of muscarinic receptors observed with PET. Experiences with MIBG imaging were reported, including uptake in the transplanted heart and interaction of drugs with MIBG uptake

  17. Stakeholders' perception on including broader economic impact of vaccines in economic evaluations in low and middle income countries: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Putten, Ingeborg M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond C W

    2015-04-10

    Current health economic evaluation guidelines mainly concentrate on immediate health gains and cost savings for the individual involved in the intervention. However, it has been argued that these guidelines are too narrow to capture the full impact of vaccination in low and middle income countries. The inclusion of broader economic impact of vaccines (BEIV) has therefore been proposed. Some examples of these are productivity-related gains, macro-economic impact, and different externalities. Despite their potency, the extent to which such benefits can and should be incorporated into economic evaluations of vaccination is still unclear. This mixed methods study aims to assess the relevance of BEIV to different stakeholders involved in the vaccine introduction decision making process. In this mixed method study an internet based survey was sent to attendees of the New and Underutilized Vaccines Initiative meeting in Montreux, Switzerland in 2011. Additionally, semi-structured interviews of 15 minutes each were conducted during the meeting. Study participants included decision makers, experts and funders of vaccines and immunization programs in low and middle income countries. Descriptive analysis of the survey, along with identification of common themes and factors extracted from the interviews and open survey questions was undertaken. Evidence on macro-economic impact, burden of disease and ecological effects were perceived as being most valuable towards aiding decision making for vaccine introduction by the 26 survey respondents. The 14 interviewees highlighted the importance of burden of disease and different types of indirect effects. Furthermore, some new interpretations of BEIVs were discussed, such as the potential negative impact of wastage during immunization programs and the idea of using vaccines as a platform for delivering other types of health interventions. Interviewees also highlighted the importance of using a broader perspective in connection to

  18. Technical meeting on lessons learned with respect to SAT implementation, including development of trainers and use of cost effective training methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    presentation and discussion on experience in the implementation of national training programmes including the use of cost effective training methods and development of trainers. The meeting was attended by 35 participants from 12 countries (Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, France, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, and USA). In the course of five sessions 20 technical presentations were made to share experience on SAT implementation, training effectiveness concepts, techniques to evaluate training programmes, principles and indicators. In respect of the trainers development the papers were presented on competency development, performance monitoring and career development. Two technical tours were organized: the first one - through the Tecnatom training facilities including the BWR/PWR/KWU Simulators, Maintenance Training Center and In-service Inspection Facilities; the second - Technical visit to CIEMAT, where Fusion Experimental Facilities and Alternative Energies Experimental Facilities were shown

  19. Fuel ethanol discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In recognition of the potential benefits of ethanol and the merits of encouraging value-added agricultural development, a committee was formed to develop options for the role of the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food in the further development of the ethanol industry in Ontario. A consultation with interested parties produced a discussion paper which begins with an outline of the role of ethanol as an alternative fuel. Ethanol issues which require industry consideration are presented, including the function of ethanol as a gasoline oxygenate or octane enhancer, environmental impacts, energy impacts, agricultural impacts, trade and fiscal implications, and regulation. The ethanol industry and distribution systems in Ontario are then described. The current industry consists of one ethanol plant and over 30 retail stations. The key issue for expanding the industry is the economics of producing ethanol. At present, production of ethanol in the short term depends on tax incentives amounting to 23.2 cents/l. In the longer term, a significant reduction in feedstock costs and a significant improvement in processing technology, or equally significant gasoline price increases, will be needed to create a sustainable ethanol industry that does not need incentives. Possible roles for the Ministry are identified, such as support for ethanol research and development, financial support for construction of ethanol plants, and active encouragement of market demand for ethanol-blended gasolines

  20. Traditional methods v. new technologies - dilemmas for dietary assessment in large-scale nutrition surveys and studies: a report following an international panel discussion at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, 3 September 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoutzopoulos, B; Steer, T; Roberts, C; Cade, J E; Boushey, C J; Collins, C E; Trolle, E; de Boer, E J; Ziauddeen, N; van Rossum, C; Buurma, E; Coyle, D; Page, P

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to summarise current and future applications of dietary assessment technologies in nutrition surveys in developed countries. It includes the discussion of key points and highlights of subsequent developments from a panel discussion to address strengths and weaknesses of traditional dietary assessment methods (food records, FFQ, 24 h recalls, diet history with interviewer-assisted data collection) v. new technology-based dietary assessment methods (web-based and mobile device applications). The panel discussion 'Traditional methods v. new technologies: dilemmas for dietary assessment in population surveys', was held at the 9th International Conference on Diet and Activity Methods (ICDAM9), Brisbane, September 2015. Despite respondent and researcher burden, traditional methods have been most commonly used in nutrition surveys. However, dietary assessment technologies offer potential advantages including faster data processing and better data quality. This is a fast-moving field and there is evidence of increasing demand for the use of new technologies amongst the general public and researchers. There is a need for research and investment to support efforts being made to facilitate the inclusion of new technologies for rapid, accurate and representative data.

  1. Enhancing Academic Achievement and Retention in Senior Secondary School Chemistry through Discussion and Lecture Methods: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Gboko, Benue State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omwirhiren, Efe M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was initiated to determine how academic achievement and retention in chemistry is enhanced using the two instructional methods among SSII students and ascertained the differential performance of male and female students in chemistry with a view of improving student performance in chemistry. The study adopted a non-equivalent…

  2. Selected nutrient contents, fatty acid composition, including conjugated linoleic acid, and retention values in separable lean from lamb rib loins as affected by external fat and cooking method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Anna; Montellato, Lara; Bochicchio, Davide; Anfossi, Paola; Zanardi, Emanuela; Maranesi, Magda

    2004-08-11

    Proximate composition and fatty acid profile, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers included, were determined in separable lean of raw and cooked lamb rib loins. The cooking methods compared, which were also investigated for cooking yields and true nutrient retention values, were dry heating of fat-on cuts and moist heating of fat-off cuts; the latter method was tested as a sort of dietetic approach against the more traditional former type. With significantly (P cooking losses, dry heating of fat-on rib-loins produced slightly (although only rarely significantly) higher retention values for all of the nutrients considered, including CLA isomers. On the basis of the retention values obtained, both techniques led to a minimum migration of lipids into the separable lean, which was higher (P cooking of the class of CLA isomers (including that of the nutritionally most important isomer cis-9,trans-11) was more similar to that of the monounsaturated than the polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  3. Learning through Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Robert A.; Calvo, Rafael; Levy, David; Tan, Kelvin

    2004-01-01

    Students studying a third-year e-commerce subject experienced face-to-face and online discussions as an important part of their learning experience. The quality of the students' experiences of learning through those discussions is investigated in this study. This study uses qualitative approaches to investigate the variation in the students'…

  4. Application of molecular biological methods in groundwater and drinking water analysis. Papers and discussions; Anwendung molekularbiologischer Verfahren in der Grund- und Trinkwasseranalytik. Textbeitraege und Diskussionsergebnisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhlmann, B.; Preuss, G. (eds.)

    2000-07-01

    Water management and water supply make demands on microbiology which so far were difficult to meet. However, new molecular-biological methods were developed by ecologically oriented scientists which open up new options in groundwater and freshwater analysis. [German] Aus dem Bereich der Wasserwirtschaft und -versorgung werden vermehrt Anforderungen und Fragen an die Mikrobiologie gestellt, die bisher aufgrund der eingeschraenkten methodischen Moeglichkeiten nur unzureichend beantwortet werden konnten. In unterschiedlichen, meist oekologisch orientierten Forschungsbereichen wurden jedoch neue, im Wesentlichen molekularbiologische Methoden entwickelt, die auch in Hinblick auf die mikrobiologische Untersuchung des Grund- und Trinkwassers neue Perspektiven eroeffneten. (orig.)

  5. Discussion on the environmental protection acceptance method and the critical issues of the completion of projects about radiation usage in the hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2014-01-01

    It is widely used in the world that the hospitals take advantages of radiation technology. Practically it is involved radioactive isotope, sealed source and the usage of ray device. Based on the environmental protection acceptance of the finished projects, this article is aimed at the actual characteristics of the medical practice and differentiating the major factors of environmental effects, choosing the monitoring criteria and method of environmental protection acceptance and exploring the critical issues in the course of acceptance. Finally this essay is intended to provide theory evidence and technical support in the acceptance of the above projects. (author)

  6. Discussion on resin conversion related problems in the process of using ion exchange method to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Suqin; Du Yuhai; Long Qing; Han Wei; Que Weimin

    2012-01-01

    Ion exchange method was used to recover uranium from carbonate lixivium in a uranium mine, lean resin was converted by sodium bicarbonate solution. Because of high sodium bicarbonate, chlorine and uranium concentration in the converted solution, it is difficult to effectively use. Combined with the production practices of the mine, the resin conversion related problems were analyzed. Some measures were taken for improving utilization rate of the converted solution, and good results were obtained. The utilization rate of the converted solution increased to about 20% from less than lO%, and the consumption of sodium bicarbonate reduced by about 30%. (authors)

  7. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D.; McIlvaine , J.; Fonorow, K.; Martin, E.

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing. Interior ducts result from bringing the duct work inside a home's thermal and air barrier. Architects, designers, builders, and new home buyers should thoroughly investigate any opportunity for energy savings that is as easy to implement during construction, such as the opportunity to construct interior duct work. In addition to enhanced energy efficiency, interior ductwork results in other important advantages, such as improved indoor air quality, increased system durability and increased homeowner comfort. While the advantages of well-designed and constructed interior duct systems are recognized, the implementation of this approach has not gained a significant market acceptance. This guideline describes a variety of methods to create interior ducts including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces. As communication of the intent of an interior duct system, and collaboration on its construction are paramount to success, this guideline details the critical design, planning, construction, inspection, and verification steps that must be taken. Involved in this process are individuals from the design team; sales/marketing team; and mechanical, insulation, plumbing, electrical, framing, drywall and solar contractors.

  8. Method Of Bonding A Metal Connection To An Electrode Including A Core Having A Fiber Or Foam Type Structure For An Electrochemical Cell, An

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loustau, Marie-Therese; Verhoog, Roelof; Precigout, Claude

    1996-09-24

    A method of bonding a metal connection to an electrode including a core having a fiber or foam-type structure for an electrochemical cell, in which method at least one metal strip is pressed against one edge of the core and is welded thereto under compression, wherein, at least in line with the region in which said strip is welded to the core, which is referred to as the "main core", a retaining core of a type analogous to that of the main core is disposed prior to the welding.

  9. #fitspo on Instagram: A mixed-methods approach using Netlytic and photo analysis, uncovering the online discussion and author/image characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarossa, Sara; Coyne, Paige; Lisinski, Carly; Woodruff, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    The #fitspo 'tag' is a recent trend on Instagram, which is used on posts to motivate others towards a healthy lifestyle through exercise/eating habits. This study used a mixed-methods approach consisting of text and network analysis via the Netlytic program ( N = 10,000 #fitspo posts), and content analysis of #fitspo images ( N = 122) was used to examine author and image characteristics. Results suggest that #fitspo posts may motivate through appearance-mediated themes, as the largest content categories (based on the associated text) were 'feeling good' and 'appearance'. Furthermore, #fitspo posts may create peer influence/support as personal (opposed to non-personal) accounts were associated with higher popularity of images (i.e. number of likes/followers). Finally, most images contained posed individuals with some degree of objectification.

  10. Discussion on the Methods of Heavy Metals Determination in Water Quality Inspection%水质检验中的重金属测定方式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霁

    2016-01-01

    The water quality test is closely linked people's life,if the tap water or drinking water contains a lot of heavy metal elements,wil seriously affect human health. Moreover it is lead to anemia and other conditions. At this point,before using the water,it is necessary to purify the water,and to measure the heavy metal in the water quality,so as to provide guarantee for the clean and safe water quality. This article first analyzes the significance of determination of heavy metals ,the biochemical method,atomic absorption spectrometry and electrochemical method was developed for the determination of heavy metals,to provide theoretical support for related research.%水质检验与人们生活紧密联系,若自来水或饮用水中含有诸多重金属元素,会严重影响人体健康,甚至导致贫血等疾病,至此,用水前需对其实施净化处理,测定水质中的重金属,进而为水质的洁净及安全提供保证。本文首先对重金属测定的意义进行分析,探讨生物化学法、原子吸收光谱法及电化学法等测定重金属的方法,以此为相关研究提供理论支撑。

  11. Session 1 - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, C.; Richards, K.M.; McKerrow, J.F.

    1991-01-01

    This discussion session of the Landfill Gas-Energy and Environment 90 Conference covered the landfill gas potential, the setting up of the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation; anticipated developments in the post 1998 period, the problem of smell for those who live near a landfill, and the length of time a landfill site is productive in terms of gas evolution. Relevant regulations in California are briefly discussed. (author)

  12. A sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 35 micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valls-Cantenys, Carme; Scheurer, Marco; Iglesias, Mònica; Sacher, Frank; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Salvadó, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    A sensitive, multi-residue method using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed to determine a representative group of 35 analytes, including corrosion inhibitors, pesticides and pharmaceuticals such as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs, five iodinated contrast media, β-blockers and some of their metabolites and transformation products in water samples. Few other methods are capable of determining such a broad range of contrast media together with other analytes. We studied the parameters affecting the extraction of the target analytes, including sorbent selection and extraction conditions, their chromatographic separation (mobile phase composition and column) and detection conditions using two ionisation sources: electrospray ionisation (ESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI). In order to correct matrix effects, a total of 20 surrogate/internal standards were used. ESI was found to have better sensitivity than APCI. Recoveries ranging from 79 to 134 % for tap water and 66 to 144 % for surface water were obtained. Intra-day precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, was below 34 % for tap water and below 21 % for surface water, groundwater and effluent wastewater. Method quantification limits (MQL) were in the low ng L(-1) range, except for the contrast agents iomeprol, amidotrizoic acid and iohexol (22, 25.5 and 17.9 ng L(-1), respectively). Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 56 real water samples as part of the validation procedure. All of the compounds were detected in at least some of the water samples analysed. Graphical Abstract Multi-residue method for the determination of micropollutants including pharmaceuticals, iodinated contrast media and pesticides in waters by LC-MS/MS.

  13. Analysis of the Possibilities for Discussing Questions of Global Justice in Geography Classes on the Use of Methods of Empirical Social Research When Analyzing the Teaching of Geography in Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applis, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    This study examines students' orientations with regard to questions on the implementation of justice in production structures of the global textile industry. The students worked with the Mystery Method from the Thinking Through Geography approach by David Leat and with Lawrence Kohlberg's Method of Dilemma Discussion. During this process, the…

  14. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation. [Includes external environmental and societal costs and methods of evaluating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  15. Plutonium roundtable discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penneman, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The roundtable discussion began with remarks by the chairman who pointed out the complicated nature of plutonium chemistry. Judging from the papers presented at this symposium, he noticed a pattern which indicated to him the result of diminished funding for investigation of basic plutonium chemistry and funding focused on certain problem areas. Dr. G.L. silver pointed to plutonium chemists' erroneous use of a simplified summary equation involving the disproportionation of Pu(EV) and their each of appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his appreciation of alpha coefficients. To his charges, Dr. J.T. Bell spoke in defense of the chemists. This discussion was followed by W.W. Schulz's comments on the need for experimental work to determine solubility data for plutonium in its various oxidation states under geologic repository conditions. Discussion then turned to plutonium pyrachemical process with Dana C. Christensen as the main speaker. This paper presents edited versions of participants' written version

  16. Discussion on Papers 5 - 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongman, C.P.; Jones, R.; Moorhead, H.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in discussion included: the performance of the generator sets; the movement of sediments and the effect on beach levels; monitoring near-bed sediments; the erosion of barrage materials by suspended solids; sediment transport models; the accuracy of hydrographic and other surveys; the relative ornithological importance of the estuary with respect to others in the United Kingdom. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  17. Discussion on nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrlova, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of the radioactive waste and utilisation of the ionisation radiation. Interesting contributions to two topics appeared in conference of Slovak Nuclear Society in Casta-Papiernicka in May 2012. The members from the female section 'Women in nuclear sector; were discussing in particular of the mind-set of Europeans to radioactive waste and novelties in nuclear medicine. (author)

  18. Summary of discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides summaries of the discussions occurred during the second international workshop on the indemnification of nuclear damage. It concerns the second accident scenario: a fire on board of a ship transporting enriched uranium hexafluoride along the Danube River. (A.L.B.)

  19. Summary and Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes and discusses results of the longitudinal study that comprises this monograph issue. Results concern: (1) marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships in families with single and remarried mothers; (2) the relationship between parenting style and adolescent adjustment; and (3) the relationship between marital transitions and…

  20. WORKSHOP: Discussion, debate, deliberation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeliazkova, Margarita I.

    2014-01-01

    Discussing, deliberating and debating are a core part of any democratic process. To organise these processes well, a great deal of knowledge and skill is required. It is not simple to find a good balance between a number of elements: appropriate language and terminology; paying attention to solid

  1. A combined DFT and restricted open-shell configuration interaction method including spin-orbit coupling: Application to transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemelt, Michael; Maganas, Dimitrios; Neese, Frank [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); DeBeer, Serena [Max-Planck Institute for Chemical Energy Conversion, Stiftstrasse 34-36, D-45470 Muelheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-05-28

    transition metals. These parameters are universal and transferable. Hence, there are no adjustable parameters that are used to fit experimental X-ray absorption spectra. Thus, the new approach classifies as a predictive first-principles method rather than an analysis tool. A series of calculations on transition metal compounds containing Cu, Ti, Fe, and Ni in various oxidation and spin states is investigated and a detailed comparison to experimental data is reported. In most cases, the approach yields good to excellent agreement with experiment. In addition, the origin of the observed spectral features is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the investigated compounds.

  2. A Study on the quantification of hydration and the strength development mechanism of cementitious materials including amorphous phases by using XRD/Rietveld method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Hoshino, Seiichi; Hirao, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Hiroki

    2008-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD)/Rietveld method was applied to measure the phase composition of cement. The quantative analysis concerning the progress of hydration was accomplished in an error of about the maximum 2-3% in spite of including amorphous materials such as blast furnace slag, fly ash, silica fume and C-S-H. The influence of the compressive strength on the lime stone fine powder mixture material was studied from the hydration analysis by Rietveld method. The two stages were observed in the strength development mechanism of cement; the hydration promotion of C 3 S in the early stage and the filling of cavities by carbonate hydrate for the longer term. It is useful to use various mixture materials for the formation of the resource recycling society and the durability improvement of concrete. (author)

  3. An optimized method for fatty acid analysis, including quantification of trans fatty acids, in human adipose tissue by gas-liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Cold, S; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    1999-01-01

    Considering the need for a quick direct method for measurement of the fatty acid composition including trans isomers ofhuman adipose tissue we have developed a procedure using gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) alone, which is thussuitable for validation of fatty acid status in epidemiological studies...... for 25 min, and finally raised at 25 degrees C/min to 225 degrees C. The trans and cis isomers of18:1 were well separated from each other, as shown by silver-ion thin-layer chromatography. Verification by standardsshowed that the trans 18:1 isomers with a double bond in position 12 or lower were...

  4. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  5. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  6. Discussion with CERN Directorate

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Please note that the Discussion with CERN Directorate will be transmitted also in the following rooms: Council Chamber - 503-1-001 IT Amphitheatre - 31-3-004 Prevessin 774-R-013 Simultaneous interpreting into French and English will be available in the Main Auditorium. Une interprétation simultanée en français et en anglais sera disponible dans l'amphithéâtre principal.

  7. Discussion Club "Profitable Heritage"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors and participants of the project and the expert community analyze the problems related to the realization of a big-scale concept of renovation of the historical center “Irkutsk Quarters”. They discuss preservation of wooden architecture of the city, changes in social functions of the territory, inclusion of the new facilities in the fabric of the area, as well as the problems of the territory’s tourist function and preservation of the identity of Irkutsk downtown.

  8. Empowerment: a conceptual discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengland, Per-Anders

    2008-06-01

    The concept of 'empowerment' is used frequently in a number of professional areas, from psychotherapy to social work. But even if the same term is used, it is not always clear if the concept denotes the same goals or the same practice in these various fields. The purpose of this paper is to clarify the discussion and to find a plausible and useful definition of the concept that is suitable for work in various professions. Several suggestions are discussed in the paper, for example control over life or health, autonomy, ability, self-efficacy, self-esteem, and freedom, and it is concluded that there are two plausible complementary uses, one as a goal and one as a process or approach. Empowerment as a goal is to have control over the determinants of one's quality of life, and empowerment as a process is to create a professional relation where the client or community takes control over the change process, determining both the goals of this process and the means to use.

  9. LGBT Roundtable Discussion: Meet-up and Mentoring Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The LGBT+ Physicists group welcomes those who identify as gender sexual minorities, as LGBTQQIAAP+, or as allies to participate in a round-table discussion on mentoring physicists. The session will provide an opportunity to learn and discuss successful mentoring strategies at different career stages for physicists in all environments, including academia, industry, etc. Attendees are encouraged to attend a social event to follow the panel to continue to network. Allies are especially welcome at this event to learn how to support and mentor LGBT+ physicists.

  10. [Commissioning of the newly constructed Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC, Beijing, China, and visit to SRRC to discuss magnet manufacturing and measurement methods, Taipei, Taiwan, November 11--27, 1988]: Foreign trip report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.

    1988-01-01

    The traveller was invited to IHEP to participate in the commissioning of the newly constructed Beijing electron-positron collider BEPC, give a status report on the AGS Booster Project and to assess the feasibility of sub-contracting booster sextupoles to IHEP. The trip to SRRC was undertaken to discuss magnet manufacturing and measurement methods

  11. The Analysis and Discussion in the Effective Application of the Dispatcher Training Based on Case Teaching Method with the Cause from the Action of the Gap Protection of Main Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuanyuan, Xu; Zhengmao, Zhang; Xiang, Fang; Yuanshuai, Xu; Xinxin, Song

    2018-03-01

    The combination of theory and practice is a difficult problem on dispatcher training. Through a typical example of case, this paper provides an effective case teaching method for dispatcher training, and combines the theoretical discussion of the rule of experience with cases and achieves vividness. It helps students to understand and catch the key points of the theory, and improve their practical skills.

  12. Evolution of poor reporting and inadequate methods over time in 20 920 randomised controlled trials included in Cochrane reviews: research on research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechartres, Agnes; Trinquart, Ludovic; Atal, Ignacio; Moher, David; Dickersin, Kay; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Altman, Douglas G; Ravaud, Philippe

    2017-06-08

    Objective  To examine how poor reporting and inadequate methods for key methodological features in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have changed over the past three decades. Design  Mapping of trials included in Cochrane reviews. Data sources  Data from RCTs included in all Cochrane reviews published between March 2011 and September 2014 reporting an evaluation of the Cochrane risk of bias items: sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. Data extraction  For each RCT, we extracted consensus on risk of bias made by the review authors and identified the primary reference to extract publication year and journal. We matched journal names with Journal Citation Reports to get 2014 impact factors. Main outcomes measures  We considered the proportions of trials rated by review authors at unclear and high risk of bias as surrogates for poor reporting and inadequate methods, respectively. Results  We analysed 20 920 RCTs (from 2001 reviews) published in 3136 journals. The proportion of trials with unclear risk of bias was 48.7% for sequence generation and 57.5% for allocation concealment; the proportion of those with high risk of bias was 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. For blinding and incomplete outcome data, 30.6% and 24.7% of trials were at unclear risk and 33.1% and 17.1% were at high risk, respectively. Higher journal impact factor was associated with a lower proportion of trials at unclear or high risk of bias. The proportion of trials at unclear risk of bias decreased over time, especially for sequence generation, which fell from 69.1% in 1986-1990 to 31.2% in 2011-14 and for allocation concealment (70.1% to 44.6%). After excluding trials at unclear risk of bias, use of inadequate methods also decreased over time: from 14.8% to 4.6% for sequence generation and from 32.7% to 11.6% for allocation concealment. Conclusions  Poor reporting and inadequate methods have decreased over time, especially for sequence generation

  13. Results and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The author deals with the experimental study of sorption, desorption and vertical migration of radionuclides in Sr-85 and Cs-137 in selected soil samples from around of NPP Bohunice and NPP Mochovce and other localities of the Slovakia. The influence of different materials [concurrent ions (K + , Ca 2+ , NH 4 + , pH), organic matter (peat) and zeolite, humidity] on kinetic of sorption and desorption of strontium and cesium as well as distribution coefficient (K D ) and transfer coefficients in followed samples of soils were followed. Obtained adsorption isotherm are presented and discussed. Using the Tessiere's sequential extraction analysis a gross variability in binding of radionuclides on soils was found. The obtained results were processed with the correlation analysis and the compartment model

  14. Strategies for Stimulating Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    such as Army leader education. The Army currently trains and educates Soldiers and Civilians from diverse backgrounds through career -long learning...techniques is sparse and largely anecdotal. Typically the exercise concepts in the literature are presented as ideas that can be included in a toolkit

  15. Development of new method and protocol for cryopreservation related to embryo and oocytes freezing in terms of fertilization rate: A comparative study including review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Mayadhar; Bajpai, Minu; Patnaik, Santosh; Mishra, Pravash; Behera, Priyamadhaba; Dwivedi, Sada Nanda

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation is basically related to meritorious thin samples or small clumps of cells that are cooled quickly without loss. Our main objective is to establish and formulate an innovative method and protocol development for cryopreservation as a gold standard for clinical uses in laboratory practice and treatment. The knowledge regarding usefulness of cryopreservation in clinical practice is essential to carry forward the clinical practice and research. We are trying to compare different methods of cryopreservation (in two dozen of cells) at the same time we compare the embryo and oocyte freezing interms of fertilization rate according to the International standard protocol. The combination of cryoprotectants and regimes of rapid cooling and rinsing during warming often allows successful cryopreservation of biological materials, particularly cell suspensions or thin tissue samples. Examples include semen, blood, tissue samples like tumors, histological cross-sections, human eggs and human embryos. Although presently many studies have reported that the children born from frozen embryos or "frosties," show consistently positive results with no increase in birth defects or development abnormalities is quite good enough and similar to our study (50-85%). We ensure that cryopreservation technology provided useful cell survivability, tissue and organ preservation in a proper way. Although it varies according to different laboratory conditions, it is certainly beneficial for patient's treatment and research. Further studies are needed for standardization and development of new protocol.

  16. Derivatization method of free cyanide including cyanogen chloride for the sensitive analysis of cyanide in chlorinated drinking water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hye-In; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2015-01-20

    A novel derivatization method of free cyanide (HCN + CN(-)) including cyanogen chloride in chlorinated drinking water was developed with d-cysteine and hypochlorite. The optimum conditions (0.5 mM D-cysteine, 0.5 mM hypochlorite, pH 4.5, and a reaction time of 10 min at room temperature) were established by the variation of parameters. Cyanide (C(13)N(15)) was chosen as an internal standard. The formed β-thiocyanoalanine was directly injected into a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer without any additional extraction or purification procedures. Under the established conditions, the limits of detection and the limits of quantification were 0.07 and 0.2 μg/L, respectively, and the interday relative standard deviation was less than 4% at concentrations of 4.0, 20.0, and 100.0 μg/L. The method was successfully applied to determine CN(-) in chlorinated water samples. The detected concentration range and detection frequency of CN(-) were 0.20-8.42 μg/L (14/24) in source drinking water and 0.21-1.03 μg/L (18/24) in chlorinated drinking water.

  17. Panel discussion. Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, B.R.

    1986-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify problems that need research and development work in order to advance low-level radioactive waste technology and to put the industry in a better position in five to ten years, or even twenty-five years from now. Attention is focused on disposal methods, operating procedures, the effects of the establishment of the state compact, and de minimis criteria

  18. Final plenary discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federline, M.

    2004-01-01

    Rapporteur, chose to highlight other themes and issues from the seminar that appeared to be: - important for successful D and D; - worth further work in an international context; - controversial and worthy of further debate. The five main themes selected were as follows: - stakeholder involvement and communication; - strategy selection; - waste management and clearance; - funding and costs; - satisfying social demands. Various issues were identified under each one of these five themes and, in order to make best use of the time available for discussion, participants were invited to vote on the issues of most importance to them. Subsequent discussion was then focussed on the issues so identified. (author)

  19. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  20. 石子表观密度简易检测新方法探讨%The discussion of new methods about the apparent density of stones with simple method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵清; 李进; 袁慧; 程煜

    2015-01-01

    The paper introduces some stone apparent density detection methods. Through comparing it to liquid balance method,overflow channel method and improved wild-mouth bottle method,it concludes that stone apparent density detection method is a kind of new method,and explores stone detection accuracy for stones with various diameters and stones with similar diameters and various testing times,and finally points out that:the improved wild-mouth bottle method is the most efficient and accurate stone apparent density detection method.%介绍了几种检测石子表观密度的方法,通过比较液体天平法、溢流水槽法和改进的广口瓶法,得出了检测石子表观密度的一种新方法———改进的广口瓶法,进而探讨了该方法对不同粒径的石子和相同粒径不同试验次数的石子检测的准确性,指出改进的广口瓶法是一种更高效、准确的石子表观密度检测方法。

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRODYNAMIC MODEL OF A HYDROCYCLONE INCLUDING THE SIMULATION OF AIR-CORE EFFECT, USING THE FINITE VOLUME METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Felipe Aguilera

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The hydrocyclone is one of the most used classification equipment in industry, particularly in mineral processing. Maybe its main characteristic is to be a hydrodynamic separation equipment, whereby it has a high production capability and different levels of efficiency are depending on the geometrical configuration, operational parameters and the type of material to be processed. Nevertheless, there are a few successful studies regarding the modelling and simulation of its hydrodynamic principles, because the flow behavior inside is quite complex. Most of the current models are empirical and they are not applicable to all cases and types of minerals. One of the most important problems to be solved, besides the cut size and the effect of the physical properties of the particles, is the distribution of the flow inside the hydrocyclone, because if the work of the equipment is at low slurry densities, very clear for small hydrocyclones, its mechanic behavior is a consequence of the kind of liquid used as continuous phase, being water the most common liquid. This work shows the modelling and simulation of the hydrodynamic behavior of a suspension inside a hydrocyclone, including the air core effect, through the use of finite differences method. For the developing of the model, the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM for the evaluation of turbulence, and the Volume of Fluid (VOF to study the interaction between water and air were used. Finally, the model shows to be significant for experimental data, and for different conditions of an industrial plant.

  2. Scientists Shaping the Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, J. A.; Weymann, R.; Mandia, S. A.; Ashley, M.

    2011-12-01

    Scientific studies which directly impact the larger society require an engagement between the scientists and the larger public. With respect to research on climate change, many third-party groups report on scientific findings and thereby serve as an intermediary between the scientist and the public. In many cases, the third-party reporting misinterprets the findings and conveys inaccurate information to the media and the public. To remedy this, many scientists are now taking a more active role in conveying their work directly to interested parties. In addition, some scientists are taking the further step of engaging with the general public to answer basic questions related to climate change - even on sub-topics which are unrelated to scientists' own research. Nevertheless, many scientists are reluctant to engage the general public or the media. The reasons for scientific reticence are varied but most commonly are related to fear of public engagement, concern about the time required to properly engage the public, or concerns about the impact to their professional reputations. However, for those scientists who are successful, these engagement activities provide many benefits. Scientists can increase the impact of their work, and they can help society make informed choices on significant issues, such as mitigating global warming. Here we provide some concrete steps that scientists can take to ensure that their public engagement is successful. These steps include: (1) cultivating relationships with reporters, (2) crafting clear, easy to understand messages that summarize their work, (3) relating science to everyday experiences, and (4) constructing arguments which appeal to a wide-ranging audience. With these steps, we show that scientists can efficiently deal with concerns that would otherwise inhibit their public engagement. Various resources will be provided that allow scientists to continue work on these key steps.

  3. Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittleman, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    The positive energy projection operators, just described by Prof. Sucher, convert the sick Hamiltonian, H/sub DC/, into a more robust one which can support bound states. They are however still a subject of some controversy. Prof. Grant pointed out that existing computer codes produce remarkable accuracy in numerical calculations which start from H/sub DC/ (with no projection operators) and so he questioned whether these operators were indeed necessary. In response, it was pointed out by several people in the audience that the codes implicitly limit the Dirac-Hartee-Fock wave functions to a normalizable sub-space and that this operation can be described as a projection operator which has the effect of eliminating the negative energy states which are not normalizable. This operation is however, not any of the three projection operators described by Sucher and so the question arises as to the sensitivity of the results (for the energy and wave functions) to the particular projection operators which are used. This appears to be an open question

  4. Electrolyte for a lithium/thionyl chloride electric cell, a method of preparing said electrolyte and an electric cell which includes said electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabano, J.

    1983-03-01

    An electrolyte for an electric cell whose negative active material is constituted by lithium and whose positive active material is constituted by thionyl chloride. The electrolyte contains at least one solvent and at least one solute, said solvent being thionyl chloride and said solute being chosen from the group which includes lithium tetrachloroaluminate and lithium hexachloroantimonate. According to the invention said electrolyte further includes a complex chosen from the group which includes AlCl/sub 3/,SO/sub 2/ and SbCl/sub 5/,SO/sub 2/. The voltage rise of electric cells which include such an electrolyte takes negligible time.

  5. Particle size distribution in soils and marine sediments by laser diffraction using Malvern Mastersizer 2000—method uncertainty including the effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, Ingeborg; Keck, Hannes; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest

    2018-01-01

    with less than 1% C and some marine sediments. Materials and methods: The method uncertainty for particle size analysis by the laser diffraction method using or not using H2O2 pretreatment followed by 2 min ultrasound and 1-mm sieving was determined for two soil samples and two aquatic sediments......Purpose: Methods for particle size distribution (PSD) determination by laser diffraction are not standardized and differ between disciplines and sectors. The effect of H2O2 pretreatment before a sonication treatment in laser diffraction analysis of soils and marine sediments was examined on soils...... pretreatment on the PSD was small and not significant. The standard deviation (std) in particle size fractions increased with particle size. PSDs and std for some samples were presented for future reference. Similar to other studies, the content of clay and silt (by sieving/hydrometer, SHM) was lower...

  6. 同一控制下吸收合并会计处理方法探讨%The Discussion of Accounting Methods of Consolidation by Merger Under the Common Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许仁青; 潘施情

    2012-01-01

    本文讨论了同一控制下吸收合并会计处理的两种方法,指出了二者的本质区别在于“是否保留被合并企业的留存收益”,并提出了自己的看法.%The paper discusses two accounting methods of consolidation by merger under the common control . It points out that the essential difference between them is whether the combined enterprise' s retained earnings should be retained and puts forward its own views.

  7. Analysis of the impact of climate change on groundwater related hydrological fluxes: a multi-model approach including different downscaling methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change related modifications in the spatio-temporal distribution of precipitation and evapotranspiration will have an impact on groundwater resources. This study presents a modelling approach exploiting the advantages of integrated hydrological modelling and a broad climate model basis. We applied the integrated MIKE SHE model on a perialpine, small catchment in northern Switzerland near Zurich. To examine the impact of climate change we forced the hydrological model with data from eight GCM-RCM combinations showing systematic biases which are corrected by three different statistical downscaling methods, not only for precipitation but also for the variables that govern potential evapotranspiration. The downscaling methods are evaluated in a split sample test and the sensitivity of the downscaling procedure on the hydrological fluxes is analyzed. The RCMs resulted in very different projections of potential evapotranspiration and, especially, precipitation. All three downscaling methods reduced the differences between the predictions of the RCMs and all corrected predictions showed no future groundwater stress which can be related to an expected increase in precipitation during winter. It turned out that especially the timing of the precipitation and thus recharge is very important for the future development of the groundwater levels. However, the simulation experiments revealed the weaknesses of the downscaling methods which directly influence the predicted hydrological fluxes, and thus also the predicted groundwater levels. The downscaling process is identified as an important source of uncertainty in hydrological impact studies, which has to be accounted for. Therefore it is strongly recommended to test different downscaling methods by using verification data before applying them to climate model data.

  8. Beginning German in Grade Three: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching Conversational German to Third-Grade Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittman, Nora E.; And Others

    This guide is planned to help the FLES teacher develop pleasurable language learning experiences in spoken German for children at the third-grade level. Experiences included in this guide present German in life situations, as well as insight into German culture. The guide offers suggestions for classroom procedures, and detailed directions are…

  9. A simple method to evaluate the fission gas release at fuel grain boundary including the grain growth both at constant and at transient power histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraschiv, M.; Paraschiv, A.

    1991-01-01

    A method to rewrite Fick's second law for a region with a moving boundary when the moving law in time of this boundary is known, has been proposed. This method was applied to Booth's sphere model for radioactive and stable fission product diffusion from the oxide fuel grain in order to take into account the grain growth. The solution of this new equation was presented in the mathematical formulation for power histories from ANS 5.4 model for the stable species. It is very simple to apply and very accurate. The results obtained with this solution for constant and transient temperatures show that the fission gas release (FGR) at grain boundary is strongly dependent on kinetics of grain growth. The utilization of two semiempirical grain growth laws, from published information, shows that the fuel microstructural properties need to be multicitly considered in the fission gas release for every manufacturer of fuel. (orig.)

  10. Method of data mining including determining multidimensional coordinates of each item using a predetermined scalar similarity value for each item pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Charles E.; Davidson, George S.; Johnson, David K.; Hendrickson, Bruce A.; Wylie, Brian N.

    1999-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related items in a multidimensional space. Distance between items in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the items. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the items.

  11. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Summaries of discussion groups and closeout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Beam Instrumentation Workshop registrants selected the following topics for group discussions: Commercial technology and beam instrumentation, 4th generation light source instrumentation, feedback systems, beam loss monitors, calibration methods, high resolution and highly stable BPM methods, challenges in beam profiling. Summaries of these discussion sessions are listed in the article that follows

  13. Novel Method To Identify Source-Associated Phylogenetic Clustering Shows that Listeria monocytogenes Includes Niche-Adapted Clonal Groups with Distinct Ecological Preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nightingale, K. K.; Lyles, K.; Ayodele, M.

    2006-01-01

    population are identified (TreeStats test). Analysis of sequence data for 120 L. monocytogenes isolates revealed evidence of clustering between isolates from the same source, based on the phylogenies inferred from actA and inlA (P = 0.02 and P = 0.07, respectively; SourceCluster test). Overall, the Tree...... are biologically valid. Overall, our data show that (i) the SourceCluster and TreeStats tests can identify biologically meaningful source-associated phylogenetic clusters and (ii) L. monocytogenes includes clonal groups that have adapted to infect specific host species or colonize nonhost environments......., including humans, animals, and food. If the null hypothesis that the genetic distances for isolates within and between source populations are identical can be rejected (SourceCluster test), then particular clades in the phylogenetic tree with significant overrepresentation of sequences from a given source...

  14. Determination of point isotropic buildup factors of gamma rays including incoherent and coherent scattering for aluminum, iron, lead, and water by discrete ordinates method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsos, S.; Assad, A.; Diop, C.M.; Nimal, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure and energy absorption buildup factors for aluminum, iron, lead, and water are calculated by the SNID discrete ordinates code for an isotropic point source in a homogeneous medium. The calculation of the buildup factors takes into account the effects of both bound-electron Compton (incoherent) and coherent (Rayleigh) scattering. A comparison with buildup factors from the literature shows that these two effects greatly increase the buildup factors for energies below a few hundred kilo-electron-volts, and thus the new results are improved relative to the experiment. This greater accuracy is due to the increase in the linear attenuation coefficient, which leads to the calculation of the buildup factors for a mean free path with a smaller shield thickness. On the other hand, for the same shield thickness, exposure increases when only incoherent scattering is included and decreases when only coherent scattering is included, so that the exposure finally decreases when both effects are included. Great care must also be taken when checking the approximations for gamma-ray deep-penetration transport calculations, as well as for the cross-section treatment and origin

  15. Discussion of several problems in nuclear instrument scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xuezhen; Zhou Sichun; Xiao Caijin

    2005-01-01

    The equipment scale is the first problem in measurement, including nuclear apparatus, otherwise there are different methods of equipment scale, then how to get the best way to seek the scale equation is the keystone of study. The article discusses several methods to get scale equation from the angle of error transformation, and compares their superiority, then gets the most precision method--Deming method, in addition, there is another simple and applied method, that is method of the mean, in the end, validates the theory through X fluorescence equipment scale. (authors)

  16. Method and device for detecting impact events on a security barrier which includes a hollow rebar allowing insertion and removal of an optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pies, Ross E.

    2016-03-29

    A method and device for the detection of impact events on a security barrier. A hollow rebar is farmed within a security barrier, whereby the hollow rebar is completely surrounded by the security barrier. An optical fiber passes through the interior of the hollow rebar. An optical transmitter and an optical receiver are both optically connected to the optical fiber and connected to optical electronics. The optical electronics are configured to provide notification upon the detection of an impact event at the security barrier based on the detection of disturbances within the optical fiber.

  17. Efficacy and prospects for cryopreserved thyroid gland transplantation as a method for treatment of different forms of primary hypothyroidism including postradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachentsev, Yu.I.; Lyakh, I.A.; Khasiev, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    It was established that auto-and allo transplantation of cryopreserved thyroid is a physiologically well grounded technique of treatment and can be an alternative to substitution hormonotherapy of hypothyroidism and can be a main method of treatment in cases when hormone treatment is not effective or is contraindicated.Talking into account the efficiency of cryopreserved thyroid transplantation in patients with primary hypothyroidism,it is possible to predict its positive effect for c postradiation hypothyroidism treatment,if substitution hormonotherapy is not effective

  18. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  19. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rong Xing; Du Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of 90 Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for 90 Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as 90 Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In 90 Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative 90 Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were derived for

  20. A method for energy window optimization for quantitative tasks that includes the effects of model-mismatch on bias: application to Y-90 bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Xing; Du, Yong; Frey, Eric C

    2012-06-21

    Quantitative Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging has shown great potential to provide reliable estimates of (90)Y activity distribution for targeted radionuclide therapy dosimetry applications. One factor that potentially affects the reliability of the activity estimates is the choice of the acquisition energy window. In contrast to imaging conventional gamma photon emitters where the acquisition energy windows are usually placed around photopeaks, there has been great variation in the choice of the acquisition energy window for (90)Y imaging due to the continuous and broad energy distribution of the bremsstrahlung photons. In quantitative imaging of conventional gamma photon emitters, previous methods for optimizing the acquisition energy window assumed unbiased estimators and used the variance in the estimates as a figure of merit (FOM). However, for situations, such as (90)Y imaging, where there are errors in the modeling of the image formation process used in the reconstruction there will be bias in the activity estimates. In (90)Y bremsstrahlung imaging this will be especially important due to the high levels of scatter, multiple scatter, and collimator septal penetration and scatter. Thus variance will not be a complete measure of reliability of the estimates and thus is not a complete FOM. To address this, we first aimed to develop a new method to optimize the energy window that accounts for both the bias due to model-mismatch and the variance of the activity estimates. We applied this method to optimize the acquisition energy window for quantitative (90)Y bremsstrahlung SPECT imaging in microsphere brachytherapy. Since absorbed dose is defined as the absorbed energy from the radiation per unit mass of tissues in this new method we proposed a mass-weighted root mean squared error of the volume of interest (VOI) activity estimates as the FOM. To calculate this FOM, two analytical expressions were

  1. Open discussions on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    In the first part, economic prospects in the world and in the European Community and their repercussions on energy demand are examined. Supply structure and growth scenari are outlined. Present and potential contribution of nuclear energy to energy supply is developed. The pros and cons are given. In the second part is examined how the production and use of various form of energy including nuclear energy, can affect health and the environment, with special reference to waste of all kinds. Safety problems and risk of accidents are examined in both non nuclear and nuclear sectors. Prospects for a low energy society and economic and social implications of the use of new forms of energy are also discussed

  2. The effects of using concept mapping as an artifact to engender metacognitive thinking in first-year medical students' problem-based learning discussions: A mixed-methods investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoop, Glenda Hostetter

    Attention in medical education is turning toward instruction that not only focuses on knowledge acquisition, but on developing the medical students' clinical problem-solving skills, and their ability to critically think through complex diseases. Metacognition is regarded as an important consideration in how we teach medical students these higher-order, critical thinking skills. This study used a mixed-methods research design to investigate if concept mapping as an artifact may engender metacognitive thinking in the medical student population. Specifically the purpose of the study is twofold: (1) to determine if concept mapping, functioning as an artifact during problem-based learning, improves learning as measured by scores on test questions; and (2) to explore if the process of concept mapping alters the problem-based learning intragroup discussion in ways that show medical students are engaged in metacognitive thinking. The results showed that students in the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups used more metacognitive thinking patterns than those in the problem-based learning discussion-only group, particularly in the monitoring component. These groups also engaged in a higher level of cognitive thinking associated with reasoning through mechanisms-of-action and breaking down complex biochemical and physiologic principals. The students disclosed in focus-group interviews that concept mapping was beneficial to help them understand how discrete pieces of information fit together in a bigger structure of knowledge. They also stated that concept mapping gave them some time to think through these concepts in a larger conceptual framework. There was no significant difference in the exam-question scores between the problem-based learning concept-mapping groups and the problem-based learning discussion-only group.

  3. Material equations for rock salt under mechanical and thermal load including treatment of boundary value problems by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olschewski, J.; Stein, E.; Wagner, W.; Wetjen, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a first step in the development of thermodynamically consistent material equations for inelastic materials, such as polycrystalline rock salt. In this context it is of particular importance to reduce the number and the structure of the internal variables, in order to allow for a fit with available experimental data. As an example this is demonstrated in detail in the case of the so-called dislocation model. As physical non-linearities and in addition also geometrical non-linearities lead to an inhomogeneous deformation - and stress state even in the case of simple samples, boundary value problems have to be studied, in order to test the material equations. For this purpose the finite element method has been used. (orig./HP) [de

  4. Large A.C. machines theory and investigation methods of currents and losses in stator and rotor meshes including operation with nonlinear loads

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawsky, Iliya; Hayakawa, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    In this monograph the authors solve the modern scientific problems connected with A.C. motors and generators, based first on the detailed consideration of their physical phenomena. The authors describe the theory and investigative methods they developed and applied in practice, which are considered to be of essential interest for specialists in the field of the electrical engineering industry in European countries, the USA, Argentina, and Brazil, as well as in such countries as India, China, and Iran. This book will be of interest to engineers specialized in the field of the manufacture, operation, and repair of A.C. machines (motors and generators) as well as electric drives; to professors, lecturers, and post-graduate students of technical universities, who are specializing in the field of electric machine engineering and electric drives; and to students who are engaged in the field of high current techniques, electric drives, and electric machine engineering.

  5. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  6. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

  7. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another

  8. RD and D-Programme 2004. Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste, including social science research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co), which is owned by the companies that operate the Swedish nuclear power plants, has been assigned the task of managing and disposing of the spent nuclear fuel from the reactors. The Nuclear Activities Act requires a programme of comprehensive research and development and other measures that are needed to manage and dispose of nuclear waste in a safe manner and to decommission and dismantle the nuclear power plants. SKB is now presenting RD and D-Programme 2004 in fulfilment of this requirement. The programme describes SKB's plans for the period 2005-2010. The period of immediate concern is 2005-2007. The level of detail for the three subsequent years is naturally lower.The programme provides a basis for designing systems for safe management and disposal of the radioactive waste from the nuclear power plants. SKB's plan is to implement deep disposal of the spent fuel in accordance with the KBS-3 method. In the RD and D-Programme we describe our activities and planning for this line of action and the work that is being conducted on alternative methods. Review of the programme can contribute valuable outside viewpoints. The regulatory authorities and the Government can clarify how they look upon different parts of the programme and stipulate guidelines for the future. Municipalities and other stakeholders can, after studying the programme, offer their viewpoints to SKB, the regulatory authorities or the Government.The goal for the period up to the end of 2008 is to be able to submit permit applications for the encapsulation plant and the deep repository. This RD and D-Programme therefore differs from the preceding ones in that it concentrates on questions relating to technology development for these facilities. The programmes for safety assessment and research on the long-term processes that take place in the deep repository are then linked together with the programmes for technology development. Another new

  9. Evaluation of elemental profiling methods, including laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), for the differentiation of Cannabis plant material grown in different nutrient solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deftar, Moteaa M; Robertson, James; Foster, Simon; Lennard, Chris

    2015-06-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is an emerging atomic emission based solid sampling technique that has many potential forensic applications. In this study, the analytical performance of LIBS, as well as that of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and X-ray microfluorescence (μXRF), was evaluated for the ability to conduct elemental analyses on Cannabis plant material, with a specific investigation of the possible links between hydroponic nutrients and elemental profiles from associated plant material. No such study has been previously published in the literature. Good correlation among the four techniques was observed when the concentrations or peak areas of the elements of interest were monitored. For Cannabis samples collected at the same growth time, the elemental profiles could be related to the use of particular commercial nutrients. In addition, the study demonstrated that ICP-MS, LA-ICP-MS and LIBS are suitable techniques for the comparison of Cannabis samples from different sources, with high discriminating powers being achieved. On the other hand, μXRF method was not suitable for the discrimination of Cannabis samples originating from different growth nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Solving the competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of competitor with a hybrid algorithm including Tabu Search and exact method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherinejad, Jafar; Niknam, Azar

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a leader-follower competitive facility location problem considering the reactions of the competitors is studied. A model for locating new facilities and determining levels of quality for the facilities of the leader firm is proposed. Moreover, changes in the location and quality of existing facilities in a competitive market where a competitor offers the same goods or services are taken into account. The competitor could react by opening new facilities, closing existing ones, and adjusting the quality levels of its existing facilities. The market share, captured by each facility, depends on its distance to customer and its quality that is calculated based on the probabilistic Huff's model. Each firm aims to maximize its profit subject to constraints on quality levels and budget of setting up new facilities. This problem is formulated as a bi-level mixed integer non-linear model. The model is solved using a combination of Tabu Search with an exact method. The performance of the proposed algorithm is compared with an upper bound that is achieved by applying Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions. Computational results show that our algorithm finds near the upper bound solutions in a reasonable time.

  11. More Than Just Accuracy: A Novel Method to Incorporate Multiple Test Attributes in Evaluating Diagnostic Tests Including Point of Care Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Matthew; Weigl, Bernhard; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Ide, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Current frameworks for evaluating diagnostic tests are constrained by a focus on diagnostic accuracy, and assume that all aspects of the testing process and test attributes are discrete and equally important. Determining the balance between the benefits and harms associated with new or existing tests has been overlooked. Yet, this is critically important information for stakeholders involved in developing, testing, and implementing tests. This is particularly important for point of care tests (POCTs) where tradeoffs exist between numerous aspects of the testing process and test attributes. We developed a new model that multiple stakeholders (e.g., clinicians, patients, researchers, test developers, industry, regulators, and health care funders) can use to visualize the multiple attributes of tests, the interactions that occur between these attributes, and their impacts on health outcomes. We use multiple examples to illustrate interactions between test attributes (test availability, test experience, and test results) and outcomes, including several POCTs. The model could be used to prioritize research and development efforts, and inform regulatory submissions for new diagnostics. It could potentially provide a way to incorporate the relative weights that various subgroups or clinical settings might place on different test attributes. Our model provides a novel way that multiple stakeholders can use to visualize test attributes, their interactions, and impacts on individual and population outcomes. We anticipate that this will facilitate more informed decision making around diagnostic tests.

  12. A simple, generalizable method for measuring individual research productivity and its use in the long-term analysis of departmental performance, including between-country comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, Richard

    2013-01-14

    A simple, generalizable method for measuring research output would be useful in attempts to build research capacity, and in other contexts. A simple indicator of individual research output was developed, based on grant income, publications and numbers of PhD students supervised. The feasibility and utility of the indicator was examined by using it to calculate research output from two similarly-sized research groups in different countries. The same indicator can be used to assess the balance in the research "portfolio" of an individual researcher. Research output scores of 41 staff in Research Department A had a wide range, from zero to 8; the distribution of these scores was highly skewed. Only about 20% of the researchers had well-balanced research outputs, with approximately equal contributions from grants, papers and supervision. Over a five-year period, Department A's total research output rose, while the number of research staff decreased slightly, in other words research productivity (output per head) rose. Total research output from Research Department B, of approximately the same size as A, was similar, but slightly higher than Department A. The proposed indicator is feasible. The output score is dimensionless and can be used for comparisons within and between countries. Modeling can be used to explore the effect on research output of changing the size and composition of a research department. A sensitivity analysis shows that small increases in individual productivity result in relatively greater increases in overall departmental research output. The indicator appears to be potentially useful for capacity building, once the initial step of research priority setting has been completed.

  13. Round Table Discussion on EASTWEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Tkacheva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The discussion is focused on various aspects of interrelations between East and West. Its participants discuss the problems of the increasing tourist flows from China and the specific characteristics of Chinese tourists. The future development of tourism in the Baikal region is formulated, and the peculiarities of ethno tourism and its prospects are discussed.

  14. A Discussion of Art Therapy as a Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda M.

    1998-01-01

    Examines four factors that may cause art therapists to reject the scientific method. Gives an overview of historical developments in science to provide a background for a discussion of each factor. Includes material from anthropology, psychoanalysis, and alternative health care. Offers suggestions for training art therapists in scientific…

  15. The metal failure cases discussed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupton, P

    1978-06-05

    The metal failure cases discussed by P. Gupton (Monsanto Chem. Co.) at a joint meeting of the American Society of Metals (ASM) and the National Association of Corrosion Engineers Calgary Section (Calgary 1978) include a high-temperature (1775/sup 0/-1800/sup 0/F) failure in an HK 40 outside heater tube in a synthesis gas steam-methane reformer, resulting in two major fissures caused by carbonization and oxide deposits with high carbon and lead contents due to the use of remelt scrap material with high lead content; separation of a support pad from a 30 in. pipeline due to corrosion caused by molybdenum-peroxide action; oxidation of a section of 180/sup 0/ U-bend in a thermal ethylene cracking furnace due to fluxing reaction of a high sodium and calcium feed which collected in the return bed; stress corrosion cracking of an austenitic stainless cracker tube from high temperature and electrolytic attack; and other cases of metal failure caused by weld quality problems, use of contaminated material and inadequate designs, processing, and fabrication.

  16. Emission trading: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Emission trading is a market-based incentive program designed to control air emissions in which a cap is placed on the total quantity of pollutants allowed to be emitted in an airshed. Appropriate shares of this amount are allocated among participating emission sources, and participants can buy or sell their shares. Advantages of emission trading include its potential to achieve air emission targets at a lower cost than the traditional command and control approach, and its ability to accommodate economic growth without compromising environmental quality. A study was conducted to evaluate the potential use of emission trading programs to achieve emission reduction goals set for nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds (VOC), and sulfur oxides. Emission trading programs in the USA are reviewed and a set of factors important for the success of emission trading are identified. Key policy and design issues related to an emission trading program are identified, explained, and discussed. Administrative issues are then analyzed, such as legislative authority, monitoring and enforcement requirements, and trading between jurisdictions. A preliminary assessment of emission trading for control of NOx and VOC in the Lower Fraser Valley indicates that emission trading would be feasible, but legislative authority to implement such a program would have to be introduced

  17. [Analysis of knee joint injuries of competitive volleyball players in selected sports clubs of Poznan city--biomechanical context. Synthesis--proposal for the usage of physiotherapy methods in the prevention of the discussed injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworak, Lechosław B; Rzepnicka, Agata; Wilkosz, Piotr; Szczesny, Łukasz

    2010-01-01

    Volleyball is a source of direct injuries and chronic overloads of the joints, which indirectly results in traumas and permanent dysfunctions. This applies particularly to: knee joints, ankle joints, shoulder joints and small joints of the hand, as well as the joints of the lower spine regions. Each league team should employ a physiotherapist who would be responsible for the implementation of an injury prevention program as well as for choosing the right training loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the frequency and the type of knee joint injuries occurring in people practicing Volleyball at competitive level as well as to propose the usage of elements of modern physiotherapy in order to prevent these injuries. The tests were performed over a group of 19 volleyball players from Poznan. In order to propose measures that would prevent injuries, the authors carried out a review of modern physiotherapy methods and suggested the implementation of certain therapeutic techniques for the region of the knee joint. RESULT ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION: As much as 79% of the subjects reported having chronic pain and knee joint injuries in the past. All of them, due to their conditions, declared having used various forms of physiotherapy treatment. It seems that in a professional sports club not only the presence of a massage therapist but first of all a qualified physiotherapist is indispensable.

  18. Public Energy Education: Issues for Discussion. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Energy Education Task Force.

    This paper was intended to stimulate discussion of energy education issues at a conference on energy issues. The discussion ranges through numerous topics at issue in energy education including public energy awareness, definition of public education, the distinction between public education and public relations, and the presentation of a model…

  19. To discuss illicit nuclear trafficking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balatsky, Galya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Severe, William R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wallace, Richard K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The Illicit nuclear trafficking panel was conducted at the 4th Annual INMM workshop on Reducing the Risk from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials on February 2-3, 2010 in Washington DC. While the workshop occurred prior to the Nuclear Security Summit, April 12-13 2010 in Washington DC, some of the summit issues were raised during the workshop. The Communique of the Washington Nuclear Security Summit stated that 'Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to international security, and strong nuclear security measures are the most effective means to prevent terrorists, criminals, or other unauthorized actors from acquiring nuclear materials.' The Illicit Trafficking panel is one means to strengthen nuclear security and cooperation at bilateral, regional and multilateral levels. Such a panel promotes nuclear security culture through technology development, human resources development, education and training. It is a tool which stresses the importance of international cooperation and coordination of assistance to improve efforts to prevent and respond to incidents of illicit nuclear trafficking. Illicit trafficking panel included representatives from US government, an international organization (IAEA), private industry and a non-governmental organization to discuss illicit nuclear trafficking issues. The focus of discussions was on best practices and challenges for addressing illicit nuclear trafficking. Terrorism connection. Workshop discussions pointed out the identification of terrorist connections with several trafficking incidents. Several trafficking cases involved real buyers (as opposed to undercover law enforcement agents) and there have been reports identifying individuals associated with terrorist organizations as prospective plutonium buyers. Some specific groups have been identified that consistently search for materials to buy on the black market, but no criminal groups were identified that specialize in nuclear materials or isotope

  20. Discussion on Papers 11 - 13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haws, E.; Matthews, M.E.; Wilson, E.M.; Charles-Jones, S.; Allen, R.F.; Young, R.M.; O'Connor, B.

    1992-01-01

    The discussion covered the following topics: the nature of boulder clay for foundations; navigation through the barrage; the construction of sluice caissons; government subsidies for construction costs; the effect of wave action on river banks; allowances for reflected energy in hydrodynamic models; water quality in impounded pools; sediment deposition. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  1. Emotional discussions reduce memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleti, Emanuela; Wright, Daniel B; Curci, Antonietta

    2017-05-01

    People often discuss events they have seen and these discussions can influence later recollections. We investigated the effects of factual, emotional, and free retelling discussion on memory recollections of individuals who have witnessed an event. Participants were shown a video, made an initial individual recall, participated in one of the three retelling conditions (emotional versus factual versus free) or a control condition, and then recalled the event individually again. Participants in the factual and free retelling conditions reported more items not previously recalled than participants in the control condition did, while the emotional condition did not show the same advantage. Participants in all three retelling conditions failed to report more previously recalled items as compared with the control condition. Finally, a memory conformity effect was observed for all three retelling conditions. These findings suggest that eyewitnesses' discussions may influence the accuracy of subsequent memory reports, especially when these discussions are focused on emotional details and thoughts.

  2. Including climate change in energy investment decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ybema, J.R.; Boonekamp, P.G.M.; Smit, J.T.J.

    1995-08-01

    To properly take climate change into account in the analysis of energy investment decisions, it is required to apply decision analysis methods that are capable of considering the specific characteristics of climate change (large uncertainties, long term horizon). Such decision analysis methods do exist. They can explicitly include evolving uncertainties, multi-stage decisions, cumulative effects and risk averse attitudes. Various methods are considered in this report and two of these methods have been selected: hedging calculations and sensitivity analysis. These methods are applied to illustrative examples, and its limitations are discussed. The examples are (1a) space heating and hot water for new houses from a private investor perspective and (1b) as example (1a) but from a government perspective, (2) electricity production with an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (ICGCC) with or without CO 2 removal, and (3) national energy strategy to hedge for climate change. 9 figs., 21 tabs., 42 refs., 1 appendix

  3. The Social Studies Should Include More Discussion of International Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torney, Judith V.

    1980-01-01

    Students need more exposure to the concept of human rights. They need to know The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the subsequent covenants. Also, they need to know that substantial agreement exists in the international community about what constitutes human rights. (Author/KC)

  4. Animating Geometry Discussions with Flexigons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintock, Ruth

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities with 10- and 4-straw flexigons, an object created by stringing together lengths of plastic drinking straws with nylon fishing line. Discusses several geometric theorems that can be demonstrated with flexigons. (MKR)

  5. Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    chantal Taylor

    Page 1. Description: Lunch to discuss IDRC's programming. Date: 2017-02-10. Attendees: 2 (IDRC 1). Location: Ottawa. Total: $79.92. Comments: 2016-2017 Hospitality Expense. Reports for Jean Lebel, President.

  6. Open Education Week Panel Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Peter; Hart, Heath; Hartman, Greg; Seyam, Mohammed; Walz, Anita R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction by Julie Speer, Associate Dean for Research & Informatics. Open remarks by Anita Walz, Assessment, Open Education & Online Learning Environments Librarian. Mohammed Seyam discusses the value of openly licensed material as a student, research, and graduate assistant. Heath Hart reflects on his adoption of an open educational resource and a (subscribed) online textbook in, “A Rousing Success and an Unmitigated Disaster.” Greg Hartman discusses his experiences authoring open-source ...

  7. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Michael Allan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005 from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188 of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188 of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188 of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005 and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02. Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009 or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02. Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. CONCLUSION: While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  8. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of the total phosphorus by a Kjeldahl digestion method and an automated colorimetric finish that includes dialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Charles J.; Truitt, Earl P.

    1992-01-01

    A method to determine total phosphorus (TP) in the same digests prepared for total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) determinations is desribed. The batch, high-temperature (block digester), HG(II)-catalyzed digestion step is similar to U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2552-85/I-4552-85 and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 365.4 except that sample and reagent volumes are halved. Prepared digests are desolvated at 220 degrees Celsius and digested at 370 degrees Celsius in separate block digesters set at these temperatures, rather than in a single, temperature-programmed block digester. This approach is used in the method escribed here, which permits 40 calibrants, reference waters, and smaples to be digested and resolvated in about an hour. Orthophosphate ions originally present in samples, along with those released during the digestion step, are determined colorimetrically at a rate of 90 tests per hour by an automated version of the phosphoantimonylmolybdenum blue procedure. About 100 microliters of digest are required per determination. The upper concentration limit is 2 milligrams per liter (mg/L) with a method detection limt of 0.01 mg/L. Repeatability for a sample containing approximately 1.6 mg/L of TP in a high suspended-solids matrix is 0.7 percent. Between-day precision for the same sample is 5.0 percent. A dialyzer in the air-segmented continuous flow analyzer provides on-line digest cleanup, eliminated particulates that otherwise would interfere in the colorimetric finish. An single-channel analyzer can process the resolvated digests from two pairs of block digesters each hour. Paired t-test analysis of TP concentrations for approximately 1,600 samples determined by the new method (U.S. Geologial Survey methods I-2610-91 and I-4610-91) and the old method (U.S. Geological Survey methods I-2600-85 and I-4600-85) revealed positive bias in the former of 0.02 to 0.04 mg/L for surface-water samples in agreement with previous studies. Concentrations of total

  9. Discussion on Papers 8 - 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.; Wilson, E.A.; Gibson, P.

    1992-01-01

    Questions raised in the discussion are reported. These concerned: the Treasury discount rate for the construction of such a project; the CO 2 benefits of tidal schemes in developing countries; the criteria for deciding the total installed capacity of the scheme; the Government review of the cost-benefit analysis; the benefit arising from the elimination of nitrogen and sulphur oxides; security of supply; carbon tax projections. The only response reported is on the question of criteria for deciding the total installed capacity. Separate abstracts have been prepared on the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  10. Discussion on teaching reform of environmental planning and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiugen; Chen, Suhua; Xie, Yu; Wei, Li'an; Ding, Yuan

    2018-05-01

    The curriculum of environmental planning and management is an environmental engineering major curriculum established by the teaching steering committee of environmental science and engineering of Education Ministry, which is the core curriculum of Chinese engineering education professional certification. It plays an important role in cultivating environmental planning and environmental management ability of environmental engineering major. The selection and optimization of the course teaching content of environmental planning and management were discussed which including curriculum teaching content updating and optimizing and teaching resource system construction. The comprehensive application of teaching method was discussed which including teaching method synthesis and teaching method. The final combination of the assessment method was also discussed which including the formative assessment normal grades and the final result of the course examination. Through the curriculum comprehensive teaching reform, students' knowledge had been broadened, the subject status and autonomy of learning had been enhanced, students' learning interest had been motivated, the ability of students' finding, analyzing and solving problems had been improved. Students' innovative ability and positive spirit had been well cultivated.

  11. General discussion of feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calori, F.

    1976-01-01

    Fundamentals, objectives and parameters of feasibility studies in the field of nuclear power project planning are discussed in a general way. Technical and economic problems to be considered are pointed out. In special cases, IAEA offers its aid and support. (UA) [de

  12. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Julie

    2016-01-01

    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  13. Another Discussion about Academic Corruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changgeng, Li

    2007-01-01

    Academic corruption is a commonplace matter about which all people are clearly aware. However, people often overlook many hidden or latent manifestations of academic corruption. This article discusses eight of these manifestations: indiscriminate use of the academic team spirit, the proliferation of "word games," deliberate attacks on…

  14. Learning through synchronous electronic discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanselaar, G.; Veerman, A.L.; Andriessen, J.E.B.

    2000-01-01

    This article reports a study examining university student pairs carrying out an electronic discussion task in a synchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) system (NetMeeting). The purpose of the assignment was to raise students' awareness concerning conceptions that characterise effective

  15. Choice Orientations, Discussions, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raywid, Mary Anne

    1992-01-01

    Examining the contemporary school choice debate yields arguments that are education, economics, governance, and policy driven. To "break the exclusive franchise," school districts are increasingly sponsoring school operation and education services supplied by multiple sources, and states are discussing sponsorship of schools by entities…

  16. Discussion paper (presented during meeting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.

    1975-01-01

    A method of particle localization for gas chambers (backgammon game method) is presented. The cathode is geometrically cut in such a way that it is possible to establish a simple relation between the signal amplitude on the different parts of the cathode and the position of the nuclear event. The results obtained in the case of x-ray detectors are presented. The application of this method to the localization of neutrons is presently studied [fr

  17. Discussion on Papers 14 - 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles-Jones, S.; Muirhead, S.; Wilson, E.A.; Jefferson, M.; Binnie, C.J.A.; O'Connor, B.A.; Rothwell, P.; Cowie, D.

    1992-01-01

    Further observations were made on the great potential for tidal power developments in NW Australia. Discussion on the Severn Barrage paper and environmental effects of tidal power plants centred mainly around the impact on bird populations. The topics covered were: the adaptability of birds to changes in their environment with particular reference to the importance of inter-tidal areas for wildfowl and wading birds in the United Kingdom; the creation of mudflats as replacement feeding areas for wading birds; whether there is a danger that pressure from the construction industry might result in a barrage being built before the uncertainties in the environmental impact assessment are removed. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the three papers under discussion. (UK)

  18. Discussion of Minos Mine operating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, B.

    1991-10-01

    The MINOS (mine operating system), which is used in the majority of British collieries, provides central control at the surface for the machinery and environmental equipment distributed throughout the mine. Installed equipment, including face machinery, conveyors, pumps, fans and sensors are connected to local outstations which all communicate with the control system via a single run of signal cable. The article discusses the system particularly its use in the Automated Control System of Underground Mining Locomotives (ACSUML). The discussion includes the use of MINOS to improve wagon identification, the operating principle of ACSUML and the possibilities of a driverless locomotive. 2 figs.

  19. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  20. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  1. Summary of presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Mitsuo

    2008-01-01

    In December 2007, the Forum on Stakeholder Confidence discussed its theme entitled 'Link between research, development and demonstration (RD and D) and stakeholder confidence'. It was remarked that regulators need a technical demonstration to aid in evaluating the safety case. Local stakeholders appreciate the opportunity to visualise technological arrangements. In both cases, demonstration adds to confidence in the feasibility of solutions. Some believe there is an important role for analogues in communication with stakeholders, if handled with integrity. To explore and benchmark current practices, it was decided to hold a topical session at the 9. regular meeting of the FSC on 4 June 2008 regarding the use of analogues for confidence building. The session opened with an introductory presentation by the session rapporteur. This incorporated input provided for the purpose by FSC members in cooperation with their country's representative to the NEA RWMC 'Integration Group on the Safety Case'. Three speakers then presented the various uses of analogues by implementers, regulators and scientists to build their own confidence; a fourth speaker dealt with the experience of using natural analogues in public information. The presentations addressed the use of analogues in the field of geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate level (ILW-LL) radioactive waste. Then the FSC participants split into two working groups for discussion. The outcome of these discussions was reported in plenary on 6 June 2008 and it was agreed to publish proceedings of the session. The present summary, prepared by the session rapporteur with input from the NEA Secretariat, captures the main points heard in the course of the event. It combines data from the formal presentations and remarks made in discussion. The latter represent viewpoints expressed by a group whose primary focus is not natural analogues but rather stakeholder interests. The summary and viewpoints

  2. Qualitative discussion of quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, H.; Motz, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    Since radiography yields an image that can be easily related to the tested object, it is superior to many nondestructive testing techniques in revealing the size, shape, and location of certain types of discontinuities. The discussion is limited to a description of the radiographic process, examination of some of the quantitative aspects of radiography, and an outline of some of the new ideas emerging in radiography. The advantages of monoenergetic x-ray radiography and neutron radiography are noted

  3. A discussion on establishment of GIP management system for food irradiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiang; Shi Hua; Li Ruisong; Li Shurong; Zhou Hongjie; Ha Yiming

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses the hazard factors and selects Critical Control Point (CCP) for food irradiation process (including staff, facilities and processing) using HACCP version. The principles and method of GIP system for food irradiation plant are also discussed. (authors)

  4. Assessing Online Discussions: A Holistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-mei; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2017-01-01

    This article reports a holistic approach to assessing online discussions. This holistic approach integrates three assessment methods: assessment of learning, assessment for learning, and assessment as learning. Assessment of learning directly examines students' learning products to decide whether they have achieved the expected learning through…

  5. Oversight and Influencing of Licensee Leadership and Management for Safety, Including Safety Culture - Regulatory Approaches and Methods. Proceedings of an NEA/IAEA Workshop, Chester, United Kingdom, 26-28 September 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Both regulators and the nuclear industry recognise the need for licensees to develop a strong, positive safety culture to support successful and sustainable nuclear safety performance. A number of reports have been issued by the IAEA and the NEA on the role of the regulator in relation to oversight of safety culture (References 1 to 5). There has been less clarity on how this should be achieved - in particular, with regard to strategies and practical approaches for maintaining oversight of, and influencing, those facets of licensee leadership and management which have a profound influence on safety culture. In recognition of this, the CSNI Working Group on Human and Organisational Factors (WGHOF), together with the CNRA Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) and the IAEA, organised a workshop in Chester, United Kingdom, in May 2007 to provide a forum for gathering and sharing international experience, including good practices and learning points. The results of the workshop are reported in Reference 6. Workshop participants agreed that, in view of the rapidly developing approaches in this area, it would be sensible to hold a further workshop ('Chester 2') in 3-5 years in order to discuss how regulatory approaches have moved on and to share lessons learned from their application. In 2010, the WGIP hosted a workshop which included regulatory approaches for the assessment of licensee safety culture as a discussion topic. The outputs of the workshop included a list of commendable practices for monitoring and evaluating licensee safety culture (Reference 7). The 'Chester 2' workshop took place in September 2011. This report sets out the findings of the workshop, organised by the UK Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) on behalf of the CSNI/WGHOF and the IAEA. The workshop was attended by over 40 representatives of nuclear regulatory bodies and licensees from 15 countries plus IAEA and NEA. The workshop featured keynote papers on learning from major events, and from

  6. Earth Summit Science, policy discussed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, Audrey T.

    The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, the “Earth Summit,” convenes in Rio de Janeiro on June 3. President Bush has pledged to attend part of the 2-week conference. The highlight of the summit will be the signing of an international framework convention to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The final elements of the agreement were negotiated in New York last week by representative of 143 countries. In anticipation of the Rio conference, the Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources held two standing-roomonly hearings, reviewing the scientific basis for global warming due to greenhouse gases and discussing the details of the proposed convention.

  7. Axelrod model: accepting or discussing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartlomiej; Mitarai, Namiko; Sneppen, Kim

    2012-10-01

    Agents building social systems are characterized by complex states, and interactions among individuals can align their opinions. The Axelrod model describes how local interactions can result in emergence of cultural domains. We propose two variants of the Axelrod model where local consensus is reached either by listening and accepting one of neighbors' opinion or two agents discuss their opinion and achieve an agreement with mixed opinions. We show that the local agreement rule affects the character of the transition between the single culture and the multiculture regimes.

  8. Batteries not included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-09-08

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge.

  9. Batteries not included

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.

    2001-01-01

    This article traces the development of clockwork wind-up battery chargers that can be used to recharge mobile phones, laptop computers, torches or radio batteries from the pioneering research of the British inventor Trevor Baylis to the marketing of the wind-up gadgets by Freeplay Energy who turned the idea into a commercial product. The amount of cranking needed to power wind-up devices is discussed along with a hand-cranked charger for mobile phones, upgrading the phone charger's mechanism, and drawbacks of the charger. Details are given of another invention using a hand-cranked generator with a supercapacitor as a storage device which has a very much higher capacity for storing electrical charge

  10. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  11. High heterogeneity in methods used for the laboratory confirmation of pertussis diagnosis among European countries, 2010: integration of epidemiological and laboratory surveillance must include standardisation of methodologies and quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q; Barkoff, A M; Mertsola, J; Glismann, S; Bacci, S

    2012-08-09

    Despite extensive childhood immunisation, pertussis remains one of the world’s leading causes of vaccine preventable deaths. The current methods used for laboratory diagnosis of pertussis include bacterial culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) serology. We conducted a questionnaire survey to identify variations in the laboratory methods and protocols used among participating countries included in the European surveillance network for vaccine-preventable diseases(EUVAC.NET). In February 2010, we performed the survey using a web-based questionnaire and sent it to the country experts of 25 European Union countries,and two European Economic Area (EEA) countries,Norway and Iceland. The questionnaire consisted of 37 questions which covered both general information on surveillance methods and detailed laboratory methods used. A descriptive analysis was performed.Questionnaires were answered by all 27 contacted countries. Nineteen countries had pertussis reference laboratories at the national level; their functions varied from performing diagnosis to providing technical advice for routine microbiology laboratories. Culture,PCR and serology were used in 17, 18 and 20 countries,respectively. For PCR, nine laboratories used insertion sequence IS481 as the target gene, which is present in multiple copies in the Bordetella pertussis genome and thus has a greater sensitivity over single copy targets, but has been proved not to be specific for B.pertussis. Antibodies directed against pertussis toxin(PT) are specific for B. pertussis infections. For ELISA serology, only 13 countries’ laboratories used purified PT as coating antigen and 10 included World Health Organization (WHO) or Food and Drug Administration (FDA) reference sera in their tests. This present survey shows that methods used for laboratory confirmation of pertussis differ widely among European countries and that there is a great heterogeneity of the reference

  12. Discuss on luminescence dose data analysis technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Xinhua; Xiao Wuyun; Ai Xianyun; Shi Zhilan; Liu Ying

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology. General design planning of luminescence dose data measurement and processing technology is put forward with the diverse demands. The emphasis is focused on dose data processing method, luminescence curve analysis method, using of network, mechanics of communication among computers, data base management system of individual dose in this paper. The main methods and skills used in this technology as well as their advantages are also discussed. And it offers general design references for development luminescence dose data processing software. (authors)

  13. Forum for discussion and debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The application of statistical methods to meteorological data for which there are long, compatible series, and where known trend changes took place were suggested. The effects of optical wedge deterioration, atmospheric aerosol variation, solar irradiance variations, etc., are evaluated. It is recommended that coupled satellite ground based observational system is required to determine global long term trends.

  14. NetMHCIIpan-3.0, a common pan-specific MHC class II prediction method including all three human MHC class II isotypes, HLA-DR, HLA-DP and HLA-DQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karosiene, Edita; Rasmussen, Michael; Blicher, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) molecules play an important role in cell-mediated immunity. They present specific peptides derived from endosomal proteins for recognition by T helper cells. The identification of peptides that bind to MHCII molecules is therefore of great importa......MHCIIpan-3.0 method is the first pan-specific predictor covering all HLA class II molecules with known sequences including HLA-DR, HLA-DP, and HLA-DQ. The NetMHCpan-3.0 method is available at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetMHCIIpan-3.0....

  15. Discussing epigenetics in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    With the goal of discussing how epigenetic control and chromatin remodeling contribute to the various processes that lead to cellular plasticity and disease, this symposium marks the collaboration between the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) in France and the University of California, Irvine (UCI). Organized by Paolo Sassone-Corsi (UCI) and held at the Beckman Center of the National Academy of Sciences at the UCI campus December 15–16, 2011, this was the first of a series of international conferences on epigenetics dedicated to the scientific community in Southern California. The meeting also served as the official kick off for the newly formed Center for Epigenetics and Metabolism at the School of Medicine, UCI (http://cem.igb.uci.edu). PMID:22414797

  16. COINCO Strategy 2025 - Discussion Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Per Homann; Jensen, Anne; Stroschein, Christoph

     The regions and cities in the COINCO-corridor Oslo-Göteborg-Malmö-Copenhagen-Berlin have worked out a strategy proposal which is presented in this discussion paper. Behind the strategy is a political will to utilize mutual strengths and together become a leading player in a globalized world, based...... on matters essential to development - ‘hard' issues such as transport infrastructure and ‘soft' issues on improving cooperation within business, administration and knowledge production. The synergy of COINCO will have to come from collaboration among businesses. Supporting cooperation between existing...... to be institutionally supported. Therefore a number of knowledge institutions have to be formed organized around the ‘triple helix'-principle - a tight collaboration between business, administration and knowledge producers, especially universities. Also new ways of collaboration have to be explored - ‘network...

  17. Discussion on project financing risk management methods of urban rail traffic%城市轨道交通项目融资风险管理方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔长俊

    2011-01-01

    In the basis of project financing risk identification of urban rail traffic, this paper introduced the evaluation matrix method, analytic hierarchy process, fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method, the estimates and evaluation method of project financing ri%在城市轨道交通项目融资风险辨识的基础上,介绍了评估矩阵法、层次分析法及模糊综合评判法和城市轨道交通项目融资风险的估计和评价方法,并对风险管理有效控制进行了探讨,为城市轨道交通项目融资风险管理提供了一定指导。

  18. Uranium, fuel for thought - discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the arguments in a paper by R. Phillips on the safety of the nuclear industry are criticised. Areas covered include reactor safety and radiation hazards. The author considers that a choice should be made on economic grounds which point to coal and nuclear being used as complimentary energy sources

  19. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  20. How to apply the Score-Function method to standard discrete event simulation tools in order to optimise a set of system parameters simultaneously: A Job-Shop example will be discussed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2000-01-01

    During the last 1-2 decades, simulation optimisation of discrete event dynamic systems (DEDS) has made considerable theoretical progress with respect to computational efficiency. The score-function (SF) method and the infinitesimal perturbation analysis (IPA) are two candidates belonging to this ...

  1. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montemayor, V.

    2016-01-01

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  2. SU-A-BRA-05: Panel Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montemayor, V. [Germantown Academy (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Vic Montemayor - No one has been more passionate about improving the quality and effectiveness of the teaching of Medical Physics than Bill Hendee. It was in August of 2008 that the first AAPM Workshop on Becoming a Better Teacher of Medical Physics was held, organized and run by Bill Hendee. This was followed up in July of 2010 with a summer school on the same topic, again organized by Bill. There has been continued interest in alternate approaches to teaching medical physics since those initial gatherings. The momentum established by these workshops is made clear each year in the annual Innovation in Medical Physics Education session, which highlights work being done in all forms of medical physics education, from one-on-one residencies or classroom presentations to large-scale program revisions and on-line resources for international audiences. This symposium, presented on behalf of the Education Council, highlights the work of three finalists from past Innovation in Education sessions. Each will be presenting their approaches to and innovations in teaching medical physics. It is hoped that audience members interested in trying something new in their teaching of medical physics will find some of these ideas and approaches readily applicable to their own classrooms. Rebecca Howell - The presentation will discuss ways to maximize classroom learning, i.e., increasing the amount of material covered while also enhancing students’ understanding of the broader implications of the course topics. Specifically, the presentation will focus on two teaching methodologies, project based learning and flip learning. These teaching methods will be illustrated using an example of graduate medical physics course where both are used in conjunction with traditional lectures. Additionally, the presentation will focus on our experience implementing these methods including challenges that were overcome. Jay Burmeister - My presentation will discuss the incorporation of active

  3. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogg, Peter; Hogg, Dianne; Henwood, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills

  4. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  5. Consultant radiographer leadership - A discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogg, Peter [Directorate of Radiography, University of Salford, Allerton Building, Frederick Road, Salford, Greater Manchester M6 6PU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.hogg@salford.ac.uk; Hogg, Dianne [Henwood Associates (South East) Ltd, Company Number: 513796, Registered Office: 2 Lakeview Stables, Lower St Clere, Kemsing, Kent, TN15 6NL (United Kingdom); Henwood, Suzanne [East Lancashire Primary Care Trust, Linden Business Centre, Linden Road, Colne. BB8 9BA (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    Effective leadership can be defined in many ways and is an essential element of successful organisations; poor leadership can result in problems such as low staff morale, high staff turnover and reduced productivity. Effective leadership behaviours are well documented in the literature and various leadership models have been proposed that illustrate these behaviours. This discussion paper does not focus on any particular model. Instead it considers the 'Leadership Qualities Framework' which was developed specifically for use within the UK National Health Service. This framework draws upon a range of leadership models and as such it gives a broad indication of leadership behaviours. The framework comprises three components - 'personal qualities', 'setting direction' and 'delivering the service'. This paper commences with an argument as to why effective leadership is important in organisations generally, and specifically within healthcare organisations. Various examples of leadership are illustrated from within and outside the NHS in order to demonstrate effective leadership behaviours. The Leadership Qualities Framework is then examined, along with scenarios to illustrate effective leadership behaviours in context (i.e. within a healthcare organisation). Subsequent reflections on the scenarios aim to identify leadership behaviours that are explained within the framework. The final element of this paper draws on [limited] published evidence of where consultant radiographers have demonstrated effective leadership behaviours. In this section the published evidence is examined and reflected upon. At the end of the article we indicate additional reading for those who wish to further develop their theoretical and practical leadership skills.

  6. An exploratory discussion on business files compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chunying

    2014-01-01

    Business files compilation for an enterprise is a distillation and recreation of its spiritual wealth, from which the applicable information can be available to those who want to use it in a fast, extensive and precise way. Proceeding from the effects of business files compilation on scientific researches, productive constructions and developments, this paper in five points discusses the way how to define topics, analyze historical materials, search or select data and process it to an enterprise archives collection. Firstly, to expound the importance and necessity of business files compilation in production, operation and development of an company; secondly, to present processing methods from topic definition, material searching and data selection to final examination and correction; thirdly, to define principle and classification in order to make different categories and levels of processing methods available to business files compilation; fourthly, to discuss the specific method how to implement a file compilation through a documentation collection upon principle of topic definition gearing with demand; fifthly, to address application of information technology to business files compilation in view point of widely needs for business files so as to level up enterprise archives management. The present discussion focuses on the examination and correction principle of enterprise historical material compilation and the basic classifications as well as the major forms of business files compilation achievements. (author)

  7. 浅谈培养学生音乐记忆力的方法与途径%A Brief Discussion on the Methods and Approaches of Cultivating Students' Music Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建芬

    2013-01-01

    音乐记忆力指的是对音乐作品的记忆能力,也是我们学生学习音乐必须具备的基本能力,正确的音乐记忆应遵循记忆的规律,讲究方法,在学习中加以培养。本文旨在如何培养学生良好的音乐记忆能力上做了一些尝试。%Music memory, students' basic ability in learning mu-sic, is the memorizing ability of music works. A correct music memory obeys the rules and methods of memory and should be cultivated in learning. This paper attempts to cultivate students' correct music memory ability.

  8. Designing museum exhibits that facilitate visitor reflection and discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Andersen, Hanne Møller; King, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire and inte......This paper explores how four design principles (curiosity, challenge, narratives and participation) facilitate reflection and discussion among young visitors in the issues-based exhibition Dear, Difficult Body. The investigation is based on a mixed-method approach combining questionnaire...... and interview data. The implementation of design principles resulted in a variety of exhibits which variously prompted reflection and discussion on the part of visitors. Exhibits with narratives, for example, here defined as both personal and expert narratives, were found to be effective in facilitating...... personal reflection but also prompted discussion. Participation, defined as including both physical interaction with exhibits, and dialogic interaction between visitors, facilitated the sharing of ideas and feelings between visitors. Exhibits with elements of curiosity and challenge were found to attract...

  9. 广西地方院校大学生多元文化素质培养途径与方法探讨%Discussion on Approaches and Methods for Multicultural Quality Training of Guangxi Local College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴声军

    2012-01-01

    In the context of CAFTA,Guangxi local colleges should exert their advantages and features,building the multicultural curriculum system,developing multiculturalism quality teachers, building a national mutual respect and recognition of university culture, implementing various forms of multicultural classroom teaching and strengthening international cooperation exchanges and other methods to strengthen the multicultural education of all ethnic groups in Guangxi and ASEAN countries multicultural education, To enhance the multicultural quality of college students and cultivate the high-quality international talents.%面对CAFTA的背景,广西地方院校应该发挥自身的优势和特点。通过构建多元文化课程体系、培养合理的师资队伍、建设民族互尊与认同的校园文化、实施形式多样的多元文化课堂教学以及加强国际合作交流等途径和方法,加强广西各民族与东盟各国多元文化教育,全面提升在校大学生多元文化素质,培养高素质的国际化人才。

  10. Panel discussion on laboratory accelerator programs: present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, B.

    1986-09-01

    The present SLAC accelerator program is summarized briefly, and the future of electron-positron colliders is discussed. Present activities discussed include the PEP storage ring, the SPEAR storage ring, the Linear Accelerator, and the SLAC Linear Collider (SLC) project. Future prospects include a larger scale linear collider. The stability requirements on acceleration are briefly discussed

  11. Scaffolding scientific discussion using socially relevant representations in networked multimedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoadley, Christopher M.

    1999-11-01

    How do students make use of social cues when learning on the computer? This work examines how students in a middle-school science course learned through on-line peer discussion. Cognitive accounts of collaboration stress interacting with ideas, while socially situated accounts stress the interpersonal context. The design of electronic environments allows investigation into the interrelation of cognitive and social dimensions. I use on-line peer discussion to investigate how socially relevant representations in interfaces can aid learning. First, I identify some of the variables that affect individual participation in on-line discussion, including interface features. Individual participation is predicted by student attitudes towards learning from peers. Second, I describe the range of group outcomes for these on-line discussions. There is a large effect of discussion group on learning outcomes which is not reducible to group composition or gross measures of group process. Third, I characterize how students (individually) construct understanding from these group discussions. Learning in the on-line discussions is shown to be a result of sustained interaction over time, not merely encountering or expressing ideas. Experimental manipulations in the types of social cues available to students suggest that many students do use socially relevant representations to support their understanding of multiple viewpoints and science reasoning. Personalizing scientific disputes can afford reflection on the nature of scientific discovery and advance. While there are many individual differences in how social representations are used by students in learning, overall learning benefits for certain social representations can be shown. This work has profound implications for design of collaborative instructional methods, equitable access to science learning, design of instructional technology, and understanding of learning and cognition in social settings.

  12. Axial nonimaging characteristics of imaging lenses: discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siew, Ronian

    2016-05-01

    At observation planes away from the image plane, an imaging lens is a nonimaging optic. We examine the variation of axial irradiance with distance in image space and highlight the following little-known observation for discussion: On a per-unit-area basis, the position of the highest concentration in image space is generally not at the focal plane. This characteristic is contrary to common experience, and it offers an additional degree of freedom for the design of detection systems. Additionally, it would also apply to lenses with negative refractive index. The position of peak concentration and its irradiance is dependent upon the location and irradiance of the image. As such, this discussion also includes a close examination of expressions for image irradiance and explains how they are related to irradiance calculations beyond the image plane. This study is restricted to rotationally symmetric refractive imaging systems with incoherent extended Lambertian sources.

  13. Discussion of participation possibilities at KEK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    A group of physicists at TRIUMF have been meeting regularly to discuss options for involvement in experiments that relate closely to the physics that would be undertaken at the KAON Factory. At a meeting held to discuss possibilities for work at KEK in the light of the new facilities that are under construction or proposed as part of the JHP, the topics considered ranged from the ion source to kaon beams. They included measurements of kaon-nucleon elastic and inelastic scattering in the 1600 to 2000 MeV range; transport of polarized proton beams through synchrotrons; the development of laser pumped polarized ion sources and volume cusp H - sources; studies of the problems that high intensity beams will present for the maintenance of H - stripping foils; collaboration on radioactive beam facilities; production of hypernuclei; low energy kaon scattering; and new types of detectors

  14. D 3.6 Africa: Discussion report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in general, sub-matter experts, experts on peace and conflict studies, and practitioners in crisis management. A total of eighteen speakers explored the effectiveness of international assistance to the four African examples from different perspectives, drawing a rather pessimistic picture of the current......One round-table event was organised within the framework of Work Package III, part of the IECEU project. The events focused on the WP3’s four case studies: Libya, CAR, South Sudan and DRC. This report provides information on the round-table event and presents the main points of discussion...... that emerged during it. The round-table discussion and the subsequent seminar on the Effectiveness of International Assistance and Local Ownership in the four case studies was organised by the Royal Danish Defence College on 31 October-1. November 2016. The round-table participants included experts on Africa...

  15. Structures and Technology Encouraging Discussion in Human Sexuality Courses: Strategies to Engage a Range of Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angera, Jeffrey J.; Latty, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Human sexuality courses are common across many college/university campuses. The methods of instruction typically encourage discussion to increase knowledge and critical thinking about self, relationships, and professional pathways. However, often the pedagogical practices do not include methods to draw out students with a range of personalities,…

  16. Discussion of some issues in risk study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Jingyuan; Liu Yuanzhong

    1998-01-01

    The concept of risk, the methods for assessing risk and the acceptability of risk are discussed. The emphasis was laid on the three components for complete description of a risk: scenario, probability and consequence of an event. The disadvantages of the concept and presentation of risk used in some risk analysis were pointed out. The paper emphasized that it is necessary to explicitly consider the multi-dimensionality of risk in the assessment and management of risk. Several important factors influencing the acceptability of risk and the methodology for evaluating the acceptability of risk were also described

  17. Radon measurements-discussion of error estimates for selected methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhukovsky, Michael; Onischenko, Alexandra; Bastrikov, Vladislav

    2010-01-01

    The main sources of uncertainties for grab sampling, short-term (charcoal canisters) and long term (track detectors) measurements are: systematic bias of reference equipment; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during calibration; random Poisson and non-Poisson errors during measurements. The origins of non-Poisson random errors during calibration are different for different kinds of instrumental measurements. The main sources of uncertainties for retrospective measurements conducted by surface traps techniques can be divided in two groups: errors of surface 210 Pb ( 210 Po) activity measurements and uncertainties of transfer from 210 Pb surface activity in glass objects to average radon concentration during this object exposure. It's shown that total measurement error of surface trap retrospective technique can be decreased to 35%.

  18. Statistical Discourse Analysis: A Method for Modelling Online Discussion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ming Ming; Fujita, Nobuko

    2014-01-01

    Online forums (synchronous and asynchronous) offer exciting data opportunities to analyze how people influence one another through their interactions. However, researchers must address several analytic difficulties involving the data (missing values, nested structure [messages within topics], non-sequential messages), outcome variables (discrete…

  19. Testing a consensus conference method by discussing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    First, parents and teachers should be provided with guidelines or instructions about self-care following trauma. Second, teaching on the management of traumatic dental injuries at training institutions should be emphasised and third, dental practitioners at dental clinics in the country should get continuing education about ...

  20. Performance-based regulation. Panel Discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert; Bier, Vicki M.; Bukowski, Richard W.; Prasad Kadambi, N.; Koonce, James F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Performance-based regulation is a part of the NRC's Strategic Plan and is realizing steady progress in conceptual development for actual applications. For example, high-level, conceptual guidelines have been proposed that would apply to reactors, materials, and waste areas. Performance-based approaches are also being applied in other regulated industries such as FAA and OSHA. The discussion will include comments from speakers from different parts of the nuclear industry and other industries regarding benefits and weaknesses of performance-based regulation. (authors)

  1. Panel discussion: In vivo pet modeling and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    Following the first afternoon session on in vivo PET modeling and data analysis, a panel assembled to discuss in greater detail some of the issues pertinent to the kinetic analysis of PET data. The discussion was opened with a comment on some of the diofficulties of PET imaging in the study of neurotransmitter and receptor systems, including resolution limitations, image distortions, and levels of nonspecific binding. Dr. Hutchins reiterated that the imaging distortions predicted by his simulation studies include both open-quotes scaleclose quotes and open-quotes shape open-quotes distortions. Then the panel discussed the issue of registration of functional (PET) and anatomic (MRI or CT) images. The use of an anatomic image as a road map or guide to where one is in the physiologic PET image is a very important part of performing PET studies. It is at least as important to align a dynamic PET sequence internally, from frame to frame, as it is to align the PET study to an anatomic study. If a dynamic imaging procedure will take 30-90 min or more, a method is needed to assure that the patient has not moved substantially during the procedure or that the movement can be accounted for. Several possibilities were discussed. The next topic considered the issue of model complexity versus model reduction. If a model is too complex, it cannot provide accurate estimates of the model parameters due to the lack of identifiability of individual parameters. Modeling approaches such as simplifying the model to two parameters and changing the experimental protocol to provide more information so model simplification is not necessary were discussed on the basis of the tradeoff between procedural complexity and quality of information

  2. Round table discussion during session 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, C.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the second session of the FSC Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Do local stakeholders have, internally or externally, all the expertise they need in order to address the issues raised by radioactive waste management projects? - Do institutional stakeholders have all the expertise they need to take local impacts into account? - What kinds of expert input are sought and attained by the different stakeholders? - Were any formal methods used to aid local partnerships perform technology assessments? Or other types of assessment? - How to maintain the knowledge and expertise achieved by the stakeholders? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. As in Session I, most of the round table discussion focussed specifically on the experience of the local partnerships. Many insights were shared about the nature and role of expertise in complex decision making. They are summarised below, on the basis of the feedback provided to the plenary by each round table. Some of these insights can be generalised to other contexts. All in all, a profile emerged of the local partnerships as a unique and effective tool to deal with knowledge issues in managing risk. (author)

  3. Focus group discussion in mathematical physics learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellianawati; Rudiana, D.; Sabandar, J.; Subali, B.

    2018-03-01

    The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) activity in Mathematical Physics learning has helped students perform the stages of problem solving reflectively. The FGD implementation was conducted to explore the problems and find the right strategy to improve the students' ability to solve the problem accurately which is one of reflective thinking component that has been difficult to improve. The research method used is descriptive qualitative by using single subject response in Physics student. During the FGD process, one student was observed of her reflective thinking development in solving the physics problem. The strategy chosen in the discussion activity was the Cognitive Apprenticeship-Instruction (CA-I) syntax. Based on the results of this study, it is obtained the information that after going through a series of stages of discussion, the students' reflective thinking skills is increased significantly. The scaffolding stage in the CA-I model plays an important role in the process of solving physics problems accurately. Students are able to recognize and formulate problems by describing problem sketches, identifying the variables involved, applying mathematical equations that accord to physics concepts, executing accurately, and applying evaluation by explaining the solution to various contexts.

  4. Accelerating Cleanup: Focus on 2006. Discussion draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This executive summary addresses the activities associated with the National Transuranic (TRU) Program managed by the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO). The CAO programmatically reports to the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management and receives administrative support through the Albuquerque Operations Office. The mission of the Carlsbad Area Office (CAO) is to protect human health and the environment by opening and operating the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for site disposal of TRU waste and by establishing an effective system for management of TRU waste from generation to disposal. It includes personnel assigned to the CAO, the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site operations, and other activities associated with the National TRU Program. The CAO develops and directs implementation of the program, while the DOE Headquarters establishes policy and guidelines. The CAO assesses compliance with the program guidance, as well as the commonality of activities and assumptions among all the sites. Since the development of the February 28, 1997, database used to develop this Discussion Draft, the opening of the WIPP facility for receipt of Contact Handled waste has been delayed from November 1997 to May 1998. This slippage is significant enough to require a change in the milestones and volumes included in the documents to be reviewed by our stakeholders. Changes have been incorporated into this Discussion Draft and its supporting Project Baseline Summaries (PBSs)

  5. Stimulating Collaboration and Discussion in Online Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the advantages of online learning environments (OLEs) for distance education focuses on the importance of collaboration and discussion to make the students feel more central to the learning process. Presents methods to stimulate collaboration and discussion in OLEs. (Author/LRW)

  6. RAPP, a systematic e-assessment of postoperative recovery in patients undergoing day surgery: study protocol for a mixed-methods study design including a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, U; Jaensson, M; Dahlberg, K; Odencrants, S; Grönlund, Å; Hagberg, L; Eriksson, M

    2016-01-13

    Day surgery is a well-established practice in many European countries, but only limited information is available regarding postoperative recovery at home though there is a current lack of a standard procedure regarding postoperative follow-up. Furthermore, there is also a need for improvement of modern technology in assessing patient-related outcomes such as mobile applications. This article describes the Recovery Assessment by Phone Points (RAPP) study protocol, a mixed-methods study to evaluate if a systematic e-assessment follow-up in patients undergoing day surgery is cost-effective and improves postoperative recovery, health and quality of life. This study has a mixed-methods study design that includes a multicentre, two-group, parallel, single-blind randomised controlled trial and qualitative interview studies. 1000 patients >17 years of age who are undergoing day surgery will be randomly assigned to either e-assessed postoperative recovery follow-up daily in 14 days measured via smartphone app including the Swedish web-version of Quality of Recovery (SwQoR) or to standard care (ie, no follow-up). The primary aim is cost-effectiveness. Secondary aims are (A) to explore whether a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery has a positive effect on postoperative recovery, health-related quality of life (QoL) and overall health; (B) to determine whether differences in postoperative recovery have an association with patient characteristic, type of surgery and anaesthesia; (C) to determine whether differences in health literacy have a substantial and distinct effect on postoperative recovery, health and QoL; and (D) to describe day surgery patient and staff experiences with a systematic e-assessment follow-up after day surgery.The primary aim will be measured at 2 weeks postoperatively and secondary outcomes (A-C) at 1 and 2 weeks and (D) at 1 and 4 months. NCT02492191; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  7. Brain plasticity, memory, and aging: a discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, E.L.; Rosenzweig, M.R.

    1977-12-01

    It is generally assumed that memory faculties decline with age. A discussion of the relationship of memory and aging and the possibility of retarding the potential decline is hampered by the fact that no satisfactory explanation of memory is available in either molecular or anatomical terms. However, this lack of description of memory does not mean that there is a lack of suggested mechanisms for long-term memory storage. Present theories of memory usually include first, neurophysiological or electrical events, followed by a series of chemical events which ultimately lead to long-lasting anatomical changes in the brain. Evidence is increasing for the biochemical and anatomical plasticity of the nervous system and its importance in the normal functioning of the brain. Modification of this plasticity may be an important factor in senescence. This discussion reports experiments which indicate that protein synthesis and anatomical changes may be involved in long-term memory storage. Environmental influences can produce quantitative differences in brain anatomy and in behavior. In experimental animals, enriched environments lead to more complex anatomical patterns than do colony or impoverished environments. This raises fundamental questions about the adequacy of the isolated animal which is frequently being used as a model for aging research. A more important applied question is the role of social and intellectual stimulation in influencing aging of the human brain.

  8. Do randomized controlled trials discuss healthcare costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Korownyk, Christina; LaSalle, Kate; Vandermeer, Ben; Ma, Victoria; Klein, Douglas; Manca, Donna

    2010-08-23

    Healthcare costs, particularly pharmaceutical costs, are a dominant issue for most healthcare organizations, but it is unclear if randomized controlled trials (RCTs) routinely discuss costs. Our objective was to assess the frequency and factors associated with the inclusion of costs in RCTs. We randomly sampled 188 RCTs spanning three years (2003-2005) from six high impact journals. The sample size for RCTs was based on a calculation to estimate the inclusion of actual drug costs with a precision of +/-3%. Two reviewers independently extracted cost data and study characteristics. Frequencies were calculated and potential characteristics associated with the inclusion of costs were explored. Actual drug costs were included in 4.7% (9/188) of RCTs; any actual costs were included in 7.4% (14/188) of RCTs; and any mention of costs was included in 27.7% (52/188) of RCTs. As the amount of industry funding increased across RCTs, from non-profit to mixed to fully industry funded RCTs, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of RCTs with any actual costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.005) and any mention of costs (Cochran-Armitage test, p = 0.02). Logistic regression analysis also indicated funding was associated with the inclusion of any actual cost (OR = 0.34, p = 0.009) or any mention of costs (OR = 0.63, p = 0.02). Journal, study conclusions, study location, primary author's country and product age were not associated with inclusion of cost information. While physicians are encouraged to consider costs when prescribing drugs for their patients, actual drug costs were provided in only 5% of RCTs and were not mentioned at all in 72% of RCTs. Industry funded trials were less likely to include cost information. No other factors were associated with the inclusion of cost information.

  9. Discussion on water resources value accounting and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Biying; Huang, Xiaorong; Ma, Kai; Gao, Linyun; Wang, Yanqiu

    2018-06-01

    The exploration of the compilation of natural resources balance sheet has been proposed since 2013. Several elements of water resources balance sheet have been discussed positively in China, including basic concept, framework and accounting methods, which focused on calculating the amount of water resources with statistical methods but lacked the analysis of the interrelationship between physical volume and magnitude of value. Based on the study of physical accounting of water resources balance sheet, the connotation of water resources value is analyzed in combination with research on the value of water resources in the world. What's more, the theoretical framework, form of measurement and research methods of water resources value accounting are further explored. Taking Chengdu, China as an example, the index system of water resources balance sheet in Chengdu which includes both physical and valuable volume is established to account the depletion of water resources, environmental damage and ecological water occupation caused by economic and social water use. Moreover, the water resources balance sheet in this region which reflects the negative impact of the economy on the environment is established. It provides a reference for advancing water resources management, improving government and social investment, realizing scientific and rational allocation of water resources.

  10. Toxicological comments to the discussion about REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greim, Helmut; Arand, Michael; Autrup, Herman; Bolt, Hermann M; Bridges, James; Dybing, Erik; Glomot, Rémi; Foa, Vito; Schulte-Hermann, Rolf

    2006-03-01

    It is the ultimate goal of the intended REACH process (Registration, Evaluation and Authorization of Chemicals) of the European Union to identify substances of hazardous properties and to evaluate the risks of human and environmental exposure. During the last few months there has been a controversial discussion as to what extent in vitro studies and consideration of structure activity relationship provide sufficient information to waive repeated exposure studies. Industry as well as certain regulatory agencies or NGOs support this approach and propose that repeated dose studies may only be required beyond 100 t/a. From a toxicological point of view it has to be stressed that this discussion primarily considers the cost reduction and protection of animals, whereas protection of human health and the environment are secondary. In vitro studies only allow identification of specific hazardous properties which can be detected by the specific test system. Moreover, appropriate information on the dose response of adverse effects, identification of thresholds and NOELs that are essential for risk characterization cannot be obtained from these studies. Consequently, identification of all relevant hazardous properties and endpoints of adverse effects can only be determined in the intact animal by repeated dose studies such as 28-day or 90-day studies. In the absence of such information the hazard identification is incomplete and there is no basis for appropriate risk assessment of human exposure. Thus, any waiving of repeated dose studies in animals bears the probability of unforeseen effects in case of acute or continuous human exposure. From this the undersigning European Toxicologists conclude: 1. The intention of REACH is to identify hazardous properties in order that a reliable risk assessment can be made and measures taken to deal with chemicals posing a significant risk. 2. The recent debate has centered on ways in which the well established in vivo methods for risk

  11. [Qualitative Research in Health Services Research - Discussion Paper, Part 3: Quality of Qualitative Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, M; Güthlin, C; Holmberg, C; Karbach, U; Patzelt, C; Meyer, T

    2015-12-01

    The third and final discussion paper of the German Network of Health Services Research's (DNVF) "Qualitative Methods Working Group" demonstrates methods for the evaluation and quality of qualitative research in health services research. In this paper we discuss approaches described in evaluating qualitative studies, including: an orientation to the general principles of empirical research, an approach-specific course of action, as well as procedures based on the research-process and criteria-oriented approaches. Divided into general and specific aspects to be considered in a qualitative study quality evaluation, the central focus of the discussion paper undertakes an extensive examination of the process and criteria-oriented approaches. The general aspects include the participation of relevant groups in the research process as well as ethical aspects of the research and data protection issues. The more specific aspects in evaluating the quality of qualitative research include considerations about the research interest, research questions, and the selection of data collection methods and types of analyses. The formulated questions are intended to guide reviewers and researchers to evaluate and to develop qualitative research projects appropriately. The intention of this discussion paper is to ensure a transparent research culture, and to reflect on and discuss the methodological and research approach of qualitative studies in health services research. With this paper we aim to initiate a discussion on high quality evaluation of qualitative health services research. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. A Model for Establishing an Astronomy Education Discussion Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Grace; Hayes-Gehrke, M.; Zauderer, B. A.; Bovill, M. S.; DeCesar, M.

    2010-01-01

    In October 2005, a group of astronomy faculty and graduate students met to establish departmental support for participants in the UM Center for Teaching Excellence University Teaching and Learning Program. This program seeks to increase graduate students’ understanding of effective teaching methods, awareness of student learning, and appreciation of education as a scholarly pursuit. Our group has facilitated the submission of successful graduate student educational development grant proposals to the Center for Teaching Excellence (CTE). Completion of the CTE program results in a notation on the graduate student's transcript. Our discussion group met monthly during the first two years. The Astronomy Education Review, The Physics Teacher, The Washington Post, The Chronicle of Higher Education, and National Research Council publications were used to provide background for discussion. Beginning in 2007, the group began sponsoring monthly astronomy education lunches during the academic year to which the entire department was invited. Over the past two years, speakers have included graduate students, faculty, and guests, such as Jay Labov from the National Research Council. Topics have included the Astronomy Diagnostic Test, intelligent design versus evolution, active learning techniques, introducing the use of lecture tutorials, using effective demonstrations, confronting student misconceptions, engagement through clickers (or cards), and fostering critical thinking with ranking tasks. The results of an informal evaluation will be presented.

  13. Summary of the presentations and discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massaut, Vincent

    2006-01-01

    key points can be highlighted: The main question seems to be: 'What are the elements making the funding system safer?' This can be looked at through different aspects: cost estimate; control of the funding and money collection; control of investment of the money; how to cope with uncertainties (including early shutdown and bankruptcy). The stability of the funding system over the time is a key factor for securing the funding (a good counter-example is the UK story). The decommissioning exercise should start before the plant is in operation; i.e. when a plant is constructed. An important aspect is also the information exchange with people having participated to actual D and D projects. Discussions by session: At the plenary discussions the following items were also recorded: the possibility of having an international body managing decommissioning funds; how far the present generation would need to go today to protect future generations from a virtual risk and how far do these ethical considerations need to be covered by the funds; the use of ethical values in the discussion with the public and the stakeholders; the pros and cons of segregated funds; the management and control of funds

  14. Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes Discussing Diabetes with Your Healthcare Provider Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Diabetes Medicines—Always Discuss Them with Your Healthcare Provider ...

  15. The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points The Science of Drug Use: Discussion Points Email Facebook Twitter ... was last updated February 2017 Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal ...

  16. Climate Prediction Center: ENSO Diagnostic Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Search Go Search the CPC Go Expert Assessments ENSO Diagnostic Discussion Archive About Us Our Assessments > ENSO Diagnostic Discussion El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Diagnostic Discussion PDF : English Version Spanish Version Adobe PDF Reader (Click icon for Adobe PDF Reader) Word: English Version

  17. Ontology-based topic clustering for online discussion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongheng; Cao, Kening; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2013-03-01

    With the rapid development of online communities, mining and extracting quality knowledge from online discussions becomes very important for the industrial and marketing sector, as well as for e-commerce applications and government. Most of the existing techniques model a discussion as a social network of users represented by a user-based graph without considering the content of the discussion. In this paper we propose a new multilayered mode to analysis online discussions. The user-based and message-based representation is combined in this model. A novel frequent concept sets based clustering method is used to cluster the original online discussion network into topic space. Domain ontology is used to improve the clustering accuracy. Parallel methods are also used to make the algorithms scalable to very large data sets. Our experimental study shows that the model and algorithms are effective when analyzing large scale online discussion data.

  18. The Play Curricular Activity Reflection Discussion Model for Game-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates the process of game-based learning in classrooms through the use of the Play Curricular activity Reflection Discussion (PCaRD) model. A mixed-methods study was conducted at a high school to implement three games with the PCaRD model in a year-long elective course. Data sources included interviews and observations for…

  19. Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Veteläinen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine how men who have perpetrated violence toward their partners and participated in batterer group talked about being a father and how they perceived their own fatherhood. The discussion in the group was analyzed qualitatively by using the methods of content analysis. In traditional fatherhood, they talked about avoidant, passiveness, distant, indifference, and authoritative controlling ways of acting. These men also created an image of themselves as active and caring fathers, thus including empathy and nurture in the concept of fatherhood. This new fatherhood was considered an achieved goal and an objective for the men as being a father. Talking about fatherhood in these groups is important as fatherhood and relations to children are both an important motivator toward nonviolence.

  20. Peer Observation of Rounds Leads to Collegial Discussion of Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, J Rush; Rendón, Patrick; Rao, Deepti

    2018-01-01

    Faculty in the Division of Hospital Medicine provide most of the clinical teaching for learners at our institution. The majority of these faculty are Assistant Professors with limited formal instruction in clinical teaching. Previous Divisional strategies to improve clinical teaching ability included discussion of effective teaching behaviors, developing written expectations for teaching faculty, and instituting seminars on effective clinical teaching. Heretofore, the Division had not utilized a direct observation exercise. We developed a direct observation exercise to encourage discussion of teaching techniques and contemplation of change. Using a social learning model, we developed a peer-to-peer observation followed by a nonevaluative discussion. We created a tool for describing teaching behaviors in 5 domains that were similar to or different from the usual behavior of the observing peer: learner presentations, team leadership, bedside teaching, professionalism, and other. After the observation, the observing and observed faculty met to discuss observed teaching behaviors. Both faculty members discussed and then recorded any teaching behaviors that they planned to adopt or change. We implemented this intervention in a 22-member Academic Division of Hospital Medicine at a tertiary care medical center in the United States. A high proportion were junior faculty and graduates of our residency program. We reviewed records of 28 of 31 observations that were completed during the initial 9-month period of implementation and later surveyed faculty. The exercise resulted in planned changes in teaching behaviors that included instituting new methods to improve teaching team leadership, triaging of patients seen on rounds, faculty behaviors during oral presentations, giving real-time feedback, use of technology and humor, demonstrating physical examination findings, and modeling professional behaviors. Faculty later reported adoption of new teaching behaviors that were

  1. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository

  2. Review Statement and Evaluation of the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co's RDandD Programme 2004. Programme for Research, Development and Demonstration of Methods for the Management and Disposal of Nuclear Waste, including Social Science Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    verify the models in time prior to a licence application. Furthermore, the authorities assume that more long-term biosphere issues are being taken into account in SKB's new plan of action. - In its biosphere research, SKB should take into account the possibility of using radionuclide concentrations and flows as complementary safety indicators. - SKB should more clearly explain how it will ensure that studied climate scenarios will shed light on the most important climate-related stresses on the barrier function. - It is justifiable for the research conducted by SKB and Sweden in the area of PandT to maintain its current level so that international developments can be followed and to maintain and develop scientific and technical expertise in areas of importance for nuclear safety. - A clarification of the account of deep boreholes prior to the ultimate choice of a method and prior to licensing under the Environmental Code is needed. A comparison should be made with the KBS-3 method which utilizes safety assessment methodology including simple calculations. - SKB needs to intensify the work on decommissioning issues and in order to present detailed plans and considerations in RDandD Programme 2007. - SKB should investigate the shortest time required for the start of a licensing process for the disposal of decommissioning waste. - In the next RDandD programme, SKB should provide a more detailed description of the programme for long-lived low and intermediate-level waste. - SKB should take into account the viewpoint that long-term interim storage of waste while waiting for the construction of a repository should, as far as possible, be avoided and take this into consideration in its planning. - It is positive that SKB has incorporated social science research into its programme, since the findings from the research should be useful for the stakeholders to apply the research findings in ongoing and future consultation processes for an encapsulation plant and repository.

  3. Classroom Voting Questions to Stimulate Discussions in Precalculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Kelly; Zullo, Holly; Huckaby, David A.; Storm, Christopher; Stewart, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Classroom voting can be an effective way to stimulate student discussions. In this pedagogy, the instructor poses a multiple-choice question to the class, and then allows a few minutes for consideration and small-group discussion before students vote, either with clickers, cell phones, or a non-electronic method. After the vote the instructor…

  4. Increasing Student Participation in Online Group Discussions via Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    A comparison study between two different methods of conducting online discussions in an introductory astronomy course was performed to determine if the use of Facebook as an online discussion tool has an impact on student participation as well as student response time. This study shows that students using Facebook for their online discussions…

  5. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  6. Cost allocation review : staff discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This report addressed the need for updated cost allocation studies filed by local electricity distribution companies because they ensure that distribution rates for each customer class remain just and reasonable. According to the 2001 Electricity Distribution Rate Handbook, the Ontario Energy Board requires new cost allocation studies before implementing any future incentive regulation plans. A review of cost allocations allows the Board to consider the need for adjustments to the current share of distribution costs paid by different classes of ratepayers. This report included 14 sections to facilitate consultations with stakeholders on financial information requirements for cost allocation; directly assignable costs; functionalization; categorization; allocation methods; allocation of other costs; load data requirements; cost allocation implementation issues; addition of new rate class and rate design for scattered unmetered loads; addition of new rate class for larger users; rates to charge embedded distributors; treatment of the rate sub-classification identified as time-of-use; and, rate design implementation issues. 1 fig., 7 appendices

  7. Should We Expand the Toolbox of Psychiatric Treatment Methods to Include Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)? A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of rTMS in Psychiatric Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slotema, Christina W.; Blom, Jan Dirk; Hoek, Hans W.; Sommer, Iris E. C.

    Objective: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a safe treatment method with few side effects However, efficacy for various psychiatric disorders is currently not clear Data sources: A literature search was performed from 1966 through October 2008 using PubMed, Ovid Medline, Embase

  8. Safety goals for nuclear power plants: a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report includes a proposed policy statement on safety goals for nuclear power plants published by the Commission for public comment and a supporting discussion paper. Proposed qualitative goals and associated numerical guidelines for nuclear power-plant accident risks are presented. The significance of the goals and guidelines, their bases and rationale, and their proposed mode of implementation are discussed

  9. Discussion Strategies for the Inclusion of ALL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2015-01-01

    Student-centered discussion strategies are described in this article in pursuance of insuring that ALL student voices have a chance to be heard in the classroom. Discussion strategies that are presented include the following: The 10 Second Rule, Think-Pair-Share, Quick Writes, Recorder-Reporter, and K-W-L.

  10. Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid prototyping of microchannel gain lots of attention from researchers along with the rapid development of microfluidic technology. The conventional methods carried few disadvantages such as high cost, time consuming, required high operating pressure and temperature and involve expertise in operating the equipment. In this work, new method adapting xurography method is introduced to replace the conventional method of fabrication of microchannels. The novelty in this study is replacing the adhesion film with clear plastic film which was used to cut the design of the microchannel as the material is more suitable for fabricating more complex microchannel design. The microchannel was then mold using polymethyldisiloxane (PDMS and bonded with a clean glass to produce a close microchannel. The microchannel produced had a clean edge indicating good master mold was produced using the cutting plotter and the bonding between the PDMS and glass was good where no leakage was observed. The materials used in this method is cheap and the total time consumed is less than 5 hours where this method is suitable for rapid prototyping of microchannel.

  11. Are You Ready To Discuss IT Outsourcing on Your Campus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Explores why the idea of outsourcing campus information technology (IT) services rouses opinions and passions best handled by informed dialogue. Discusses how to conduct this dialog, including common myths about outsourcing and useful lessons. (EV)

  12. Identification of Eight Synthetic Cannabinoids, Including 5F-AKB48 in Seized Herbal Products Using DART-TOF-MS and LC-QTOF-MS as Nontargeted Screening Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Katherine N; Garvin, Demetra; Thomas, Brian F; Grabenauer, Megan

    2017-09-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids are sprayed onto plant material and smoked for their marijuana-like effects. Clandestine manufacturers modify synthetic cannabinoid structures by creating closely related analogs. Forensic laboratories are tasked with detection of these analog compounds, but targeted analytical methods are often thwarted by the structural modifications. Here, direct analysis in real time coupled to accurate mass time-of-flight mass spectrometry (DART-TOF-MS) in combination with liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) are presented as a screening and nontargeted confirmation method, respectively. Methanol extracts of herbal material were run using both methods. Spectral data from four different herbal products were evaluated by comparing fragmentation pattern, accurate mass and retention time to available reference standards. JWH-018, JWH-019, AM2201, JWH-122, 5F-AKB48, AKB48-N-(4-pentenyl) analog, UR144, and XLR11 were identified in the products. Results demonstrate that DART-TOF-MS affords a useful approach for rapid screening of herbal products for the presence and identification of synthetic cannabinoids. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Pilot monitoring program: geologic input for the hillslope component (includes a discussion of Caspar Creek geology and geomorphology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. E. Spittler

    1995-01-01

    The California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology (DMG) is submitting this report and accompanying maps to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (CDF) to fulfill Interagency Agreement number 8CA38400, Pilot Monitoring Program -- Geologic Input for the Hillslope Component. Under this agreement, DMG has assisted CDF in the...

  14. Pulsar velocity observations: Correlations, interpretations, and discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helfand, D.J.; Tademaru, E.

    1977-01-01

    From an examination of the current sample of 12 pulsars with measured proper motions and the z-distribution of the much larger group of over 80 sources with measured period derivatives, we develop a self-consistent picture of pulsar evolution. The apparent tendency of pulsars to move parallel to the galactic plane is explained as the result of various selection effects. A method for calculating the unmeasurable radial velocity of a pulsar is presented; it is shown that the total space velocities thus obtained are consistent with the assumption of an extreme Population I origin for pulsars which subsequently move away from the plane with a large range of velocities. The time scale for pulsar magnetic field decay is derived from dynamical considerations. A strong correlation of the original pulsar field strength with the magnitude of pulsar velocity is discussed. This results in the division of pulsars into two classes: Class A sources characterized by low space velocities, a small scale height, and low values of P 0 P 0 ; and Class B sources with a large range of velocities (up to 1000 km s -1 ), a much greater scale height, and larger values of initial field strength. It is postulated that Class A sources originate in tight binaries where their impulse acceleration at birth is insufficient to remove them from the system, while the Class B sources arise from single stars or loosely bound binaries and are accelerated to high velocities by their asymmetric radiation force. The evolutionary picture which is developed is shown to be consistent with a number of constraints imposed by supernova rates, the relative frequency of massive binaries and Class A sources, theoretical field-decay times, and the overall pulsar galactic distribution

  15. The Use of Dream Discussions in Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the historical underpinnings of dream theories and suggests that discussions of dreams in counseling can aid in setting up and maintaining therapeutic contact with clients. A number of theoretical positions on the function of dreams are discussed. Specific dream counseling techniques are also delineated. (JAC)

  16. Online discussion: Enhancing students' critical thinking skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling

    2017-10-01

    Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.

  17. 33 CFR 240.5 - Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CREDIT FOR FLOOD CONTROL § 240.5 Discussion. Discussion of this legislation is contained in the Conference Report, H.R. Rpt. No. 99-1013, which accompanies H.R. 6. The House passed version of the bill... compatible work completed by local interests. The Senate passed version authorized crediting of compatible...

  18. Three discussions on object-oriented typing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors.......This paper summarizes three discussions conducted at the ECOOP'91 W5 Workshop on "Types, Inheritance, and Assignments" Tuesday July 16, 1991 in Geneva, Switzerland, organized by the authors....

  19. Discussion paper 'Natural Gas for Sale'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    The information in this report must support a discussion on policy starting points for the structure of natural gas tariffs in the Netherlands. The discussion will be held within EnergieNed (the association for energy distribution companies in the Netherlands) in the light of recent developments in the energy distribution sector in Europe

  20. Discussion on Soft Computing at FLINS '96

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruan, D.; Wal, A.J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This is a report on the discussion about soft computing (SC) during FLINS'96. The discussion is based on the five questions formulated by X. Li, viz. (1) What is SC? (2) What are the characteristics of SC? (3) What are the principal achievements of SC? (4) What are the typical problems of SC and

  1. Intertextuality in Text-Based Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hamidah Mohd; Majid, Faizah Abd

    2011-01-01

    One of the main issues often discussed among academics is how to encourage active participation by students during classroom discussions. This applies particularly to students at the tertiary level who are expected to possess creative and critical thinking skills. Hence, this paper reports on a study that examined how these skills were…

  2. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  3. Analyzing Social Media Relationships in Context with Discussion Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiciman, Emre; Choudhury, Munmun De; Counts, Scott

    2013-01-01

    We present discussion graphs, a hyper-graph-based representation of social media discussions that captures both the structural features of the relationships among entities as well as the context of the discussions from which they were derived. Building on previous analyses of social media network...... and pseudo-cliques, when applied to the analysis of textual social media content. We apply our framework across several domains captured in Twitter, including the mining of peoples' statements about their locations and activities and discussions of the U.S. 2012 elections....

  4. Online discussions with pregnant and parenting adolescents: perspectives and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta K; Sword, Wendy A

    2005-10-01

    The Internet is an innovative strategy to increase public participation. It is important to include pregnant and parenting teens' perspectives when planning programs to meet their needs. This qualitative study explored online discussions as a strategy to enhance participation by this population. Findings showed that online communication was preferred over face-to-face group discussions. Being anonymous online encouraged open and honest feedback. Participants experienced various forms of social support, however, there was an overall lack of teen involvement online. Strategies to engage adolescents in online discussions and reduce barriers are discussed. Strategies included the use of teen moderators, home computer access, technical support, and engagement in naturally flowing online discussions to meet social support needs. Blending researchers' with teens' needs for social support in an online environment is encouraged. With careful planning and design, online communications can result in mutual benefits for researchers, service providers, and pregnant and parenting adolescents.

  5. Chinese women's participation in fertility discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L

    1993-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the process through which the family planning (FP) programs and socioeconomic developments in China affect fertility, women's participation in fertility discussions with their husbands are examined as an intermediate factor in a study based on results of a random survey of 6654 ever-married women of reproductive age from 7 cities and 30 counties of Guangdong. First, it must be noted that Chinese couples do have individual choices (albeit quite limited ones) about their fertility; they can choose to follow or ignore government policy or they can choose to remain childless. The present study has 3 major hypotheses: 1) the more a woman is involved in fertility discussions with her husband, the fewer children she will have; 2) urban women with a higher educational status will be more likely to have such discussions; and 3) women who are contacted individually by FP personnel are more likely to be involved in fertility discussions. After a discussion of data collection and variables (number of living children, education of wife and husband, age at marriage, residence, living with parents, contacted by FP personnel, and discussion with husband), the results are presented in terms of zero-order correlation coefficients indicating their relationships. The bivariate analysis supported the hypotheses. Multiple regression analysis showed that age at marriage, education of wives and husbands, FP contacts, and participation in discussions remain significant fertility determinants (but the correlation between fertility and residence becomes trivial). A further regression model indicated that a woman's educational attainment is the most significant positive indication of their participation in fertility discussions. These results imply that as women's status continues to improve in China and the deeply-rooted patriarchal tradition loses hold, increased gender equity and education will influence a fertility decline. FP personnel could also

  6. Prediction of binding modes between protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase and peptide substrates including isomerized aspartic acid residues using in silico analytic methods for the substrate screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Akifumi; Noji, Ikuhiko; Fukuyoshi, Shuichi; Takahashi, Ohgi

    2015-12-10

    Because the aspartic acid (Asp) residues in proteins are occasionally isomerized in the human body, not only l-α-Asp but also l-β-Asp, D-α-Asp and D-β-Asp are found in human proteins. In these isomerized aspartic acids, the proportion of D-β-Asp is the largest and the proportions of l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp found in human proteins are comparatively small. To explain the proportions of aspartic acid isomers, the possibility of an enzyme able to repair l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp is frequently considered. The protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferase (PIMT) is considered one of the possible repair enzymes for l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp. Human PIMT is an enzyme that recognizes both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp, and catalyzes the methylation of their side chains. In this study, the binding modes between PIMT and peptide substrates containing l-β-Asp or D-α-Asp residues were investigated using computational protein-ligand docking and molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that carboxyl groups of both l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp were recognized in similar modes by PIMT and that the C-terminal regions of substrate peptides were located in similar positions on PIMT for both the l-β-Asp and D-α-Asp peptides. In contrast, for peptides containing l-α-Asp or D-β-Asp residues, which are not substrates of PIMT, the computationally constructed binding modes between PIMT and peptides greatly differed from those between PIMT and substrates. In the nonsubstrate peptides, not inter- but intra-molecular hydrogen bonds were observed, and the conformations of peptides were more rigid than those of substrates. Thus, the in silico analytical methods were able to distinguish substrates from nonsubstrates and the computational methods are expected to complement experimental analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of hardly biodegradable residuals (sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances) during waste water treatment, including the development of analytical methods; Identifizierung von schwer abbaubaren Reststoffen (stickstoff- und schwefelhaltigen Verbindungen) bei der Abwasserbehandlung, einschliesslich analytischer Methodenentwicklung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehle, E; Huber, A; Metzger, J W

    1999-07-01

    Organic residuals in sewage, which are not removed completely by waste water treatment may be relevant in environmental toxicology and may disturb drinking water treatment processes. The organic residuals must be identified before new techniques to eliminate these substances from waste water can be developed and steps can be taken to prevent them from polluting waste waters. In the research project sum parameters of sulfur- and nitrogen-containing substances in municipal waste water were determined. A new method was developed to determine the organic sulfur in compounds absorbed on activated carbon (AOS). The determination of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between total nitrogen and the sum of NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N, NO{sub 3}{sup -}-N and NO{sub 2}{sup -}N. The removal of organic substances from the inorganic matrix was only possible for standard solutions, but not for real samples. More than 60 substances contributing to the sum parameters could be identified with GC-MS and GC-AED, an most of them could be quantified. 30-70% of the sulfur-containing substances detected with GC-AED could be identified. With the GC-MS screening method 21 drugs or drug metabolites could be identified and partly quantified. Hydrophilic organic residuals were identified and quantified with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with UV- and fluorescence detectors and also with a mass detector (ESI-MS-MS). With the methods described only a small percentage of the sum of AOS and DON could be detected, although new materials for the solid phase enrichment and new analytical methods, such as HPLC-MS-MS were used. In order to get information about the degree of elimination (absorption or degradation) of different drugs in a municipal sewage plant, laboratory-scale tests under aerobic conditions were performed. A batch reactor containing drugs in environmentally relevant concentrations and a suspension of activated sludge was coupled online with HPLC

  8. Seq2Logo: a method for construction and visualization of amino acid binding motifs and sequence profiles including sequence weighting, pseudo counts and two-sided representation of amino acid enrichment and depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund; Nielsen, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Seq2Logo is a web-based sequence logo generator. Sequence logos are a graphical representation of the information content stored in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) and provide a compact and highly intuitive representation of the position-specific amino acid composition of binding motifs, active...... related to amino acid enrichment and depletion. Besides allowing input in the format of peptides and MSA, Seq2Logo accepts input as Blast sequence profiles, providing easy access for non-expert end-users to characterize and identify functionally conserved/variable amino acids in any given protein...... sites, etc. in biological sequences. Accurate generation of sequence logos is often compromised by sequence redundancy and low number of observations. Moreover, most methods available for sequence logo generation focus on displaying the position-specific enrichment of amino acids, discarding the equally...

  9. Ab initio calculation of the bcc Fe-Al phase diagram including magnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales-Ormeno, Pablo Guillermo; Petrilli, Helena Maria; Schoen, Claudio Geraldo

    2006-01-01

    The metastable phase diagram of the body-centered cubic-based ordering equilibria in the Fe-Al system has been calculated by the cluster expansion method, through the combination of the full potential-linear augmented plane wave and cluster variation methods. The results are discussed with reference to the effect of including the spin polarizations of Fe in the thermodynamic model

  10. Supporting Teacher Reflection through Online Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiening Ruan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to investigate online discussion as a means to promote critical reflection. The study was conducted during a semester-long graduate course on issues related to literacy instructional strategies. The participants in the study were four reading education candidates. During the semester they participated in online discussion about course readings and reflected on their own teaching experiences. The data sources were the online discussion postings, responses to questionnaires, and interviews. The results suggest that technology-mediated discussion strengthens the learning community, facilitates sharing of professional experience among participants, and enhances teacher reflection. The results also point to the multi-faceted nature of teacher reflection.

  11. Discussion Meetings | Events | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Academy supports discussion meetings of small groups of scientists from within India and outside organized by a ... Conference on Physics and Chemistry of Spintronic Materials ... Recent advances in operator theory and operator algebras

  12. Management's discussion and analysis | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-02

    Nov 2, 2010 ... As discussed later, the variance from budget relates to accounting ... projects or programs (see Note 10 of the Notes to the Financial Statements, page 76). ... is based on generally accepted management accounting principles ...

  13. Facilitators and Barriers to Discussing HIV Prevention With Adolescents: Perspectives of HIV-Infected Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Janet S.; Weber, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV-infected parents’ conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Methods. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Results. Eighty-one percent of parents reported “sometimes” or “often” communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one’s child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Conclusions. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents. PMID:23763390

  14. Discussion on Papers 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.; Haigh, G.W.R.; Jenkins, E.

    1992-01-01

    The topics raised in the discussion covered: the accuracy of the cost estimates for the project; the number of sluices to be used; factors controlling the selection of steel or concrete for caisson construction and the design life of the caissons; the type of gates and lock mechanism; shipping traffic forecasts; and the effect of the barrage on port operations. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the two papers under discussion. (UK)

  15. Discussion groups on the Internet: journaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, J E

    1995-09-01

    Interactive communication on the Internet, as illustrated by the e-mail-based breast cancer discussion group, provides an alternative to the telephone, the fax machine and regular mail, and is a resource for communications research, the potential of which is only beginning to be appreciated. At least some of the messages posted to such discussion groups could be regarded as a form of "journaling". Such messages are eminently suitable for qualitative data analysis.

  16. Umberto Eco on Libraries: A Discussion of "De Biblioteca."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Michael F.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses a scholar's reactions to libraries made by Umberto Eco in "De Biblioteca." Topics addressed include functions of libraries, including collecting; accessibility of materials; the scholar's creative use of libraries, and discovering materials not looked for or known about; North American research libraries; photocopying; and…

  17. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  18. Physician Rating Websites: What Aspects Are Important to Identify a Good Doctor, and Are Patients Capable of Assessing Them? A Mixed-Methods Approach Including Physicians' and Health Care Consumers' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenfluh, Fabia; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-05-01

    Physician rating websites (PRWs) offer health care consumers the opportunity to evaluate their doctor anonymously. However, physicians' professional training and experience create a vast knowledge gap in medical matters between physicians and patients. This raises ethical concerns about the relevance and significance of health care consumers' evaluation of physicians' performance. To identify the aspects physician rating websites should offer for evaluation, this study investigated the aspects of physicians and their practice relevant for identifying a good doctor, and whether health care consumers are capable of evaluating these aspects. In a first step, a Delphi study with physicians from 4 specializations was conducted, testing various indicators to identify a good physician. These indicators were theoretically derived from Donabedian, who classifies quality in health care into pillars of structure, process, and outcome. In a second step, a cross-sectional survey with health care consumers in Switzerland (N=211) was launched based on the indicators developed in the Delphi study. Participants were asked to rate the importance of these indicators to identify a good physician and whether they would feel capable to evaluate those aspects after the first visit to a physician. All indicators were ordered into a 4×4 grid based on evaluation and importance, as judged by the physicians and health care consumers. Agreement between the physicians and health care consumers was calculated applying Holsti's method. In the majority of aspects, physicians and health care consumers agreed on what facets of care were important and not important to identify a good physician and whether patients were able to evaluate them, yielding a level of agreement of 74.3%. The two parties agreed that the infrastructure, staff, organization, and interpersonal skills are both important for a good physician and can be evaluated by health care consumers. Technical skills of a doctor and outcomes

  19. [Computer mediated discussion and attitude polarization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Takashi; Endo, Kimihisa; Yoshida, Fujio

    2002-10-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that computer mediated discussions lead to more extreme decisions than face-to-face (FTF) meeting. Kiesler, Siegel, & McGuire (1984) claimed that computer mediated communication (CMC) tended to be relatively uninhibited, as seen in 'flaming', and that group decisions under CMC using Choice Dilemma Questionnaire tended to be more extreme and riskier than FTF meetings. However, for the same reason, CMC discussions on controversial social issues for which participants initially hold strongly opposing views, might be less likely to reach a consensus, and no polarization should occur. Fifteen 4-member groups discussed a controversial social issue under one of three conditions: FTF, CMC, and partition. After discussion, participants rated their position as a group on a 9-point bipolar scale ranging from strong disagreement to strong agreement. A stronger polarization effect was observed for FTF groups than those where members were separated with partitions. However, no extreme shift from their original, individual positions was found for CMC participants. There results were discussed in terms of 'expertise and status equalization' and 'absence of social context cues' under CMC.

  20. Chemical composition of planetary nebulae : Including ISO results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pottasch, [No Value; Beintema, DA; Salas, JB; Feibelman, WA; Henney, WJ; Franco, J; Martos, M; Pena, M

    2002-01-01

    The method of determining abundances using Infrared Space Observatory spectra is discussed. The results for seven planetary nebula are given. Using these data, a preliminary discussion of their evolution is given.

  1. Examining how discussing underrepresentation may mediate female engagement in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robynne M.; Tompkins, Reganne; Hazari, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large number of female students taking high school physics, only about a fifth of physics bachelor's degrees are awarded to women. In a previous study, we tested five factors commonly proposed to positively impact female students' choice of a physical science career using multivariate matching methods on national survey data. Four of these factors (having a single-sex class, having female scientist guest speakers, having a female physics teacher, and discussing the work of female scientists) were found to have no effect. The only factor found to have a positive effect was the explicit discussion of the underrepresentation of women in physics. In order to explore this further, a case study of the classes of one teacher reported to discuss the underrepresentation of women was conducted. Two classroom underrepresentation discussions were recorded, students and teacher were interviewed, and relevant student work was collected. Analyzing the case study data, we report on how discussing underrepresentation may mediate female engagement in physics.

  2. Computational methods working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.

    1997-09-01

    During the Cold Moderator Workshop several working groups were established including one to discuss calculational methods. The charge for this working group was to identify problems in theory, data, program execution, etc., and to suggest solutions considering both deterministic and stochastic methods including acceleration procedures.

  3. Summary discussion: An integrated advanced tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauthoff, N.R.

    1994-01-01

    The tokamak concept improvement workshop addressed a wide range of issues involved in the development of a more attractive tokamak. The agenda for the workshop progressed from a general discussion of the long-range energy context (with the objective being the identification of a set of criteria and ''figures of merit'' for measuring the attractiveness of a tokamak concept) to particular opportunities for the improvement of the tokamak concept. The discussions concluded with a compilation of research program elements leading to an improved tokamak concept

  4. Including social impacts in LCIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Louise Camilla; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Schierbeck, Jens

    2004-01-01

    Sustainability management in industries is often defined by measuring the performance against the trippel bottom-line, People, Planet and Profit in business decisions. The product chain perspective inherent in LCA is very suitable for sustainability management but LCA methodology only considers...... activities in the product life cycle. Workersø fundamental rights, as defined by the ILO, are used as baseline in the method, and as a consequence, some of the issues addressed by the method are: child labour, discrimination, right to organise, and forced labour....

  5. 33 CFR 214.6 - Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... providing emergency supplies of clean drinking water. Sewage treatment and disposal, and other sanitary... with contamination of water used in its process is not eligible. The drinking water used by the people... SUPPLIES OF DRINKING WATER § 214.6 Discussion. (a) The amendment provides for furnishing emergency supplies...

  6. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    automatically filter cyber discussions from Stack Exchange, Reddit, and Twitter posts written in English. Criminal hackers often use social media...monitoring hackers on Facebook and in private chat rooms. As a result, system administrators were prepared to counter distributed denial-of-service

  7. Group Discussion and Cooperation in Social Dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouas, Kelly S.; Komorita, S. S.

    1996-01-01

    Face-to-face discussion has been shown to increase cooperation behavior in social dilemmas. Two general explanations of this effect were tested: group identity and perception of consensus. Female undergraduate students (N=160) participated in four-person groups in one of four experimental conditions. Findings indicate the most plausible…

  8. Political discussions with family and friends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Klaus; Yndigegn, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Young people's engagement in political discussions with parents and friends represents a significant component of the political socialization process and can be seen as an activity where they learn some very basic democratic skills. Based on data from qualitative interviews and a questionnaire su...

  9. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  10. Women in the workplace: a panel discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, E.V.; Hunt, V.R.; Murray, F.J.; Krekel, S.; Allan, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: problems of women in the workplace; public policy concerning human reproduction; toxic effects of lead in human populations; health hazards of occupational radiation exposure; reproductive hazards on the job; considerations for protecting the unborn; and legal implications

  11. Structural Changes in Online Discussion Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yang; Medaglia, Rony

    2014-01-01

    Social networking platforms in China provide a hugely interesting and relevant source for understanding dynamics of online discussions in a unique socio-cultural and institutional environment. This paper investigates the evolution of patterns of similar-minded and different-minded interactions ov...

  12. A framework for discussion on the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document outlines the measures the government of Canada proposes to take in order to make Canada the world's most environmentally friendly country. The reflection and discussion that this document generates will influence the order of priority in the final action plan

  13. Unseen Discussions: Artist@Hotmail.Com.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huberman, Anthony

    For the recent exhibition "Greater New York: New Art in New York Now," the Education Department at P.S.1 Contemporary Art Center, a large museum located in the Long Island City section of Queens, New York, organized a unique email-based discussion. The museum set up an e-mail address for most participating artists using the free…

  14. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  15. Young Scientists Discuss Recent Advances, Future Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses a National Academy of Science forum at which a group of outstanding young researchers in astronomy, molecular and developmental biology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, atmospheric science, and materials science met for three days of formal presentations and informal conversations. Provides a short synopsis of major speakers. (MVL)

  16. QCD under extreme conditions: an informal discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Fraga, E.S.

    2015-05-22

    We present an informal discussion of some aspects of strong interactions un- der extreme conditions of temperature and density at an elementary level. This summarizes lectures delivered at the 2013 and 2015 CERN – Latin-American Schools of High-Energy Physics and is aimed at students working in experi- mental high-energy physics.

  17. The Problem of Retraction in Critical Discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Erik C. W.

    2001-01-01

    In many contexts a retraction of commitment is frowned upon. For instance, it is not appreciated, generally, if one withdraws a promise or denies an earlier statement. Critical discussion, too, can easily be disrupted by retractions, if these occur too frequently and at critical points. But on the

  18. Maps of student discussions about sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindahl, Mats; Bruun, Jesper; Linder, Cedric

    We use a combination of network analysis (NA), text-mining (TM) techniques, and thematic discourse analysis (TDA) to characterise and compare student discussions about sustainable development. Three student groups at three different times were analysed. The analysis entails an iterative design...

  19. A Discussion of Future Time Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.

    2004-01-01

    A growing area of research in educational psychology is future time perspective and its relationship to desired educational outcomes. This article discusses and critiques five reviews of current research on future time perspective. Key questions addressed are when do individuals begin to articulate a future, how far into the future does this…

  20. Questioning as Facilitating Strategies in Online Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Facilitation of online discussions presents a challenge to online learning instructors. Unlike in face-to-face courses, students in online learning do not have physical contacts with instructors. They might view instructors as authoritarian figures and perceive instructor's comments as impersonal. This article details the author's personal…

  1. Conflicting perspectives compromising discussions on cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, J

    2010-09-01

    Healthcare professionals, patients and their relatives are expected to discuss resuscitation together. This study aims to identify the differences in the knowledge base and understanding of these parties. Questionnaires examining knowledge and opinion on resuscitation matters were completed during interviews of randomly selected doctors, nurses and the general public. 70% doctors, 24% nurses and 0% of a public group correctly estimated survival to discharge following in-hospital resuscitation attempts. Deficiencies were identified in doctor and nurse knowledge of ethics governing resuscitation decisions. Public opinion often conflicts with ethical guidelines. Public understanding of the nature of cardiopulmonary arrests and resuscitation attempts; and of the implications of a \\'Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR)\\' order is poor. Television medical dramas are the primary source of resuscitation knowledge. Deficiencies in healthcare professionals\\' knowledge of resuscitation ethics and outcomes may compromise resuscitation decisions. Educational initiatives to address deficiencies are necessary. Parties involved in discussion on resuscitation do not share the same knowledge base reducing the likelihood of meaningful discussion. Public misapprehensions surrounding resuscitation must be identified and corrected during discussion.

  2. Technical discussions II - Flow cytometric analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cunningham, A; Cid, A; Buma, AGJ

    In this paper the potencial of flow cytometry as applied to the aquatic life sciences is discussed. The use of flow cytometry for studying the ecotoxicology of phytoplankton was introduced. On the other hand, the new flow cytometer EUROPA was presented. This is a multilaser machine which has been

  3. Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch--A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utting, Ian; Cooper, Stephen; Kolling, Michael; Maloney, John; Resnick, Mitchel

    2010-01-01

    This article distills a discussion about the goals, mechanisms, and effects of three environments which aim to support the acquisition and development of computing concepts (problem solving and programming) in pre-University and non-technical students: Alice, Greenfoot, and Scratch. The conversation started in a special session on the topic at the…

  4. Analyzing online political discussions: Methodological considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, M.R.M.; Hermans, E.A.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Online political discussions are thought to lead to more political engagement and empowerment of peripheral groups in society and thereby contributing to deliberative citizenship. Because people have increased opportunities to voice their political opinions and publish these for a potentially large

  5. Workplace Mobbing: A Discussion for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Thomas E.

    2007-01-01

    Workplace mobbing occurs in libraries but is usually unrecognized and unchecked because the phenomenon has not been described and given a name. This discussion provides the library profession with an overview but also with specific background details to assist with recognizing mobbing and preventing severe harm to employees and organizations.

  6. Examining the Doctoral Thesis: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Susan

    2008-01-01

    The examination of doctoral theses controls an important academic threshold, yet practices are often private, codes non-specific, and individuals isolated. This article adds to recent investigation of the examination culture by reporting informal panel discussion amongst a total of 23 University of Auckland (New Zealand) faculty members as to…

  7. Measuring Skill in Games : Several Approaches Discussed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreef, M.R.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.

    2003-01-01

    An aspect of casino games that in general leads to discussions among both participants and spectators, is the relative extent to which a player can positively influence his results by making appropriate strategic choices.This question is closely related to the issue of how to distinguish between

  8. [Discussion on logistics management of medical consumables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Sutong; Wang, Miao; Jiang, Xiali

    2011-09-01

    Management of medical consumables is an important part of modern hospital management. In modern medical behavior, drugs and medical devices act directly on the patient, and are important factors affecting the quality of medical practice. With the increasing use of medical materials, based on practical application, this article proposes the management model of medical consumables, and discusses the essence of medical materials logistics management.

  9. Coal economics and taxation discussed at symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-06-01

    Some of the highlights from the Symposium on Coal Economics and Taxation Symposium, Regina Saskatchewan May 7-9, 1978, sponsored by the Coal Association of Canada are presented. Investment, provincial policy, sources of funds, uncertainty, tax policies, and operating costs are discussed.

  10. Online Discussion about Sexuality Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbear, James T.; Broadbear, Barbara C.

    2012-01-01

    Sexuality education in schools continues to be a controversial issue although public debate has seemingly calmed in recent years. Dialogue about the value and purpose of sexuality education for adolescents can provide health education specialists a better understanding of public opinion and online discussion may be a potentially ideal way to…

  11. Student Partisan Identity and Online Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Christopher H.

    2017-01-01

    Political division in the United States is the subject of much analysis in the fields of political science and psychology. While political partisanship looms large over discussions of the national political climate's influence on schools and classrooms, very little work exists that directly examines the effects of high school students' political…

  12. Principles for Community College Finance: Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Joseph P.

    In preparation for the 1987 demise of the current community college funding mechanism in California, this discussion paper reviews the current fiscal situation in the state and considers the needs that should be addressed in the finance mechanism that would become effective in July 1987. Background information is presented on the history of the…

  13. Perinatal risk factors including malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.

    1991-10-01

    The study gives a survey of the factors most frequently mentioned in the literature as factors likely to adversely affect a pregnancy. One essential aspect is the discussion of those factors that can be counted among the causes of malformations, as among others, prenatal radiation exposure. The study prepared within the framework of the research project 'Radiobiological environmental monitoring in Bavaria' is intended to serve as a basis for a retrospective and prospective evaluation of infant mortality, perinatal conditions and occurrence of malformations in Bavaria, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment - related health survey. The study therefore, in addition to ionizing radiation also takes into account other detectable risks within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or urbanity. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Predicted summary of panel discussion on smart instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorber, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The following is a hypothetical account of a panel discussion on Smart Instruments. It enumerates topics that are likely to covered in the actual discussion. A smart instrument may be defined as one that performs smart functions or as one that contains a computer of some sort. Neither definition is perfect. Smart functions might include, but are not limited to: automated data logging (reading, location, time); transfer (downloading) logged data to outside computer; computer assisted, remote calibration; linearity and dead time correction; performance trending; self diagnosis of faults; detector probe recognition; automated beta factor application; and automatic range selection. These smart functions are discussed

  15. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  16. Analysis of Smart Composite Structures Including Debonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Seeley, Charles E.

    1997-01-01

    Smart composite structures with distributed sensors and actuators have the capability to actively respond to a changing environment while offering significant weight savings and additional passive controllability through ply tailoring. Piezoelectric sensing and actuation of composite laminates is the most promising concept due to the static and dynamic control capabilities. Essential to the implementation of these smart composites are the development of accurate and efficient modeling techniques and experimental validation. This research addresses each of these important topics. A refined higher order theory is developed to model composite structures with surface bonded or embedded piezoelectric transducers. These transducers are used as both sensors and actuators for closed loop control. The theory accurately captures the transverse shear deformation through the thickness of the smart composite laminate while satisfying stress free boundary conditions on the free surfaces. The theory is extended to include the effect of debonding at the actuator-laminate interface. The developed analytical model is implemented using the finite element method utilizing an induced strain approach for computational efficiency. This allows general laminate geometries and boundary conditions to be analyzed. The state space control equations are developed to allow flexibility in the design of the control system. Circuit concepts are also discussed. Static and dynamic results of smart composite structures, obtained using the higher order theory, are correlated with available analytical data. Comparisons, including debonded laminates, are also made with a general purpose finite element code and available experimental data. Overall, very good agreement is observed. Convergence of the finite element implementation of the higher order theory is shown with exact solutions. Additional results demonstrate the utility of the developed theory to study piezoelectric actuation of composite

  17. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  18. CERN in discussions with its neighbours

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    CERN recently invited local partners, elected representatives, and representatives of local administrations and associations to an information and discussion evening, giving those invited an opportunity to raise various topics linked to CERN’s presence in the local area. On Tuesday, 20 October the Globe of Science and Innovation took on a distinctly regional flavour when some 60 representatives of local administrations and public bodies in Switzerland and France as well as teachers, heads of local schools and chairs of local associations attended an information and discussion evening at the invitation of the Director-General. In his opening address, the Director-General underlined CERN’s commitment to transparency and the desire to enhance its communication with the local community. This address was followed by four presentations. Philippe Bloch, head of the Physics Department, explained the scientific goals of the LHC and the L...

  19. Discussion on control room habitability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bing; Chen Yingying; Xiao Jun; Yang Duanjie; Cui Hao

    2014-01-01

    The discussion on control room envelope integrity, source term analysis in habitability assessments and other impact factors for dose consequence is provided combined with regulatory requirements and the current status of domestic NPPs. Considering that the infiltration is an important factor for control room habitability assessment, CRE integrity test should be performed to demonstrate the CRE's infiltration characteristics. The consequence assessment should be performed based on different DBAs and different pathways, such as pathways internal to the plant. (authors)

  20. Discussion on data access services of WAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Aigui; Wang Lu; Wu Wenjing; Chen Gang

    2007-01-01

    Traditional storage system has been unable to meet the demand of computing. WAN storage systems face many problems since the complexity of WAN. This paper in-depth discusses on data interoperability, data prediction, active data service and semantic-based data access according to the characteristics of high energy physics applications. To eliminate isolated island, improve performance and simplify usage, it will be better to meet the demands of high energy physics applications. (authors)

  1. Literacy: a discussion of graphocentrism in microculture

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Donizeth Euzébio; Anderson Jair Goulart; Angelita Darela Mendes

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of graphocentrism in microculture. We aim to describe, based on literacy studies, the presence of written language in the life of socially and historically situated subjects, thematizing the axiological capital of less favored socioeconomic contexts. Subjects are children undergoing schooling process, living in a district of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Discussions on the theme are based on Barton (1994), Barton, Hamilton and Ivanic (2000),...

  2. Finding Malicious Cyber Discussions in Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    reverse engineering, security, malware , blackhat) were labeled as cyber and posts on non- cyber topics (e.g., astronomy, electronics, beer, biology, mu...firewall, hash, infect, inject, install, key, malicious, malware , network, obfuscate, overflow, packet, password, payload, request, risk, scan, script...cyber vulnerabilities (e.g., malware , overflow, attack). The keyword system lacked the keywords used in Heartbleed discussions, and thus suffered from

  3. A licensing discussion: SMRs in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, M.

    2013-01-01

    The CNSC (Canadian AECB) is ready to regulate Small Modular Reactors (SMR) facilities in Canada. The CNSC is well situated to engage with proponents of SMR reactors in design reviews or licensing discussions. A risk-informed (graded) approach is possible in many instances for reactors but it is not a relaxation of requirements. The vendor design review process helps reduce regulatory risks by encouraging early engagement.

  4. Round table discussion during session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebersold, M.

    2004-01-01

    The round table discussions of the first session of the Belgium Workshop addressed the following questions: - Accepting or refusing a person, an institution or a grouping as a legitimate Stakeholder who makes the decision and how? - How are the local partnerships built and organised? - How to obtain community support for the partnership's legitimate decisions/findings? - Experience teaches that no decision is reached solely by formal and legal processes. What role do informal processes play? - How can the informal procedures be accepted? Do they need to be made explicit? Discussion took place after the plenary presentations, at tables grouping Belgian stakeholders and FSC delegates. After the discussion, each table's findings were reported to the plenary. Most of the discussion concerned the local partnerships. Important findings were that the statutes for the partnerships were developed by the partnerships themselves and there were no legally binding rules handed down by the federal level. The partnerships are part of an informal process. A legally binding participation (i.e. within the EIA) will be initiated at a later stage. As the partnerships function outside of the formal legal procedure, they can function in a more flexible way. It was noted that the partnerships make recommendations, but it is not clear what the government will do with these recommendations. It was also argued that the process may cause conflicts between neighboring communities. As in other contexts visited by the FSC, the importance of the right of veto of the community was stressed, although this may cause a conflict between technical suitability and social acceptance. Access of the community to the local partnership is necessary. Finally it was accepted that time is needed to explain the recommendations to the broader community before any decisions are taken. (author)

  5. Strategies in Managing Rapport in Classroom Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Reski Reski

    2018-01-01

    This paper aims to find out the strategies, applied by students in classroom interaction particularly in discussion, to maintain their interpersonal rapport as well as to enhance their rapport management with their fellow students. There are five strategies based on Spencer-Oatey (2008) that the interactants apply in social interactions. The strategies are request, compliments, apologies, gratitude and disagreement. The research is done to see whether the students realize the management of ra...

  6. The Current Discussion on Men and Masculinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past gender specific problems were mainly discussed in a female perspective. In the meantime there is a rising attentiveness in the living conditions of men and their coping strategies within critical life events. In this paper an appropriate frame of reference is outlined which can be used in those areas of social work where men are already discovered as a target group with special difficulties and needs.

  7. NIR - State of the risk discussion today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldermann, C.; Bernhardt, J.H.; Brueggemeyer, H.; Leitgeb, N.; Reichardt, R.; Steinmetz, M.

    2006-01-01

    The actual state of knowledge on health risks of non-ionizing radiation is discussed on an international as well as a national basis. Emphasis is given to EMF risks when using mobile phones on the one hand, and to the dangers from natural and artificial UV radiation on the other. Furthermore, a comprehensive compilation is given of national laws and regulations for telecommunication and mobile phones in Germany. (Orig.)

  8. Discussing three pillars of corporate governance

    OpenAIRE

    Andrei STĂNCULESCU; Eugen MITRICĂ

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a meaningful attempt to critically analyze the cohesion and relationship between three fundamental pillars of the corporate governance system: the shareholders, the board of directors and the employees. We present the characteristics of each pillar and discuss its relevance in corporate governance. A couple of world-renowned corporate governance models are considered. A synthetic conclusion is drawn based on information presented.

  9. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  10. Literature Discussion as Positioning: Examining Positions in Dialogic Discussions in a Third-Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Jongsun

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine positions of students and a teacher in dialogic discussion. In this study, dialogic discussion was defined with Bakhtin's (1981) dialogism, Nystrand's (1997) explanation of dialogically organized instruction, and Mercer's (1995) explanation of Exploratory Talk. Studies about literature discussion in…

  11. The debate about death: an imperishable discussion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FÉLIX BACIGALUPO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this concise review we discuss some of the complex edges of the concept of death that arose after the notorious advances in science and medicine over the last 50 years, in which the classical cardio-pulmonary criteria have led to the neurological criteria of death. New complicated questions like the definition of death and the operational criteria for diagnosing it have arisen and we think that they are far from being adequately and satisfactorily solved. A number of important issues -like the reliability and differences between cardio-pulmonary versus brain based criteria of death, if death is an event or a process, the meaning of integration and irreversibility- have not yet received sufficient attention. Here we have approached the death problem from two (biological complex system perspectives: the organism level and the cellular-molecular level. We also discuss issues from a third systemic approach, that is, the entire society, thus involving legal, religious, bioethical and political aspects of death. Our aim is to integrate new perspectives in order to promote further discussion on these critical yet frequently neglected issues

  12. Nuclear waste under glass, further discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, J. A.; Barkatt, A.; Glass, B. P.; Alterescu, S.

    J. J. Crovisier and J. Honnorez [1988] discuss an article by W. W. Maggs, “Mg May Protect Waste Under Glass” [Maggs, 1988] summarizing work by A. Barkatt (Catholic University, Washington, D.C.), B. P. Glass (University of Delaware, Newark), and S. Alterescu and J. A. O'Keefe (NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Md.). We found that seawater is orders of magnitude less corrosive t h an fresh water in attacking tektite glass; traced the protective effect to the presence of magnesium, at a level of about 1.3 g/L in seawater; and suggested that the effect might be useful in protecting nuclear waste glasses from corrosion.Crovisier and Honnorez first make the point that the rate of corrosion of glass is, in principle, a function of the ratio of surface area 5 to the effective volume V. This concept, which is usually discussed in American literature under the name of S/V effects, is discussed by Crovisier and Honnorez in terms of the “permeability of the environment.” These effects have been carefully considered throughout our work (see, for example, Barkatt et al. [19867rsqb;). It turns out that in the sea the effective S/V is so small that the effects referred to by Crovisier and Honnorez can be ignored.

  13. Facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention with adolescents: perspectives of HIV-infected parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Laura L; Reis, Janet S; Weber, Kathleen M

    2013-08-01

    We examined HIV-infected parents' conversations about HIV prevention with their uninfected children, including what facilitated or hindered communication. Parents with HIV/AIDS (n = 90) who had children aged 10 to 18 years were recruited for a mixed method study from 2009 to 2010. Interviews assessed facilitators and barriers to discussing HIV prevention. A questionnaire identified the frequency and content of conversations, parental confidence level, and perceived importance of discussing preventive topics. Eighty-one percent of parents reported "sometimes" or "often" communicating about HIV prevention. A subset of parents found these conversations difficult; 44% indicated their desire for support. Facilitators to communication included utilizing support, focusing on the benefits of talking, and having a previous relationship with one's child. Barriers to discussions included fear of negative consequences, living in denial, and lacking a parental role model who discussed safer sex. Parents varied as to how they believed their HIV status affected communication. Those who did not disclose their HIV status to their children reported less frequent communication; self-efficacy partially mediated this relationship. Findings highlighted the need for communication skills training that support HIV-infected parents in their efforts to discuss HIV-related information with adolescents.

  14. Embracing service user involvement in radiotherapy education: A discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Gareth; Thompson, Gillian; Willis, Susan; Hodgson, Denyse

    2014-01-01

    Aim: There is currently a drive within cancer services to incorporate user involvement in delivery and education, as such the aim of this article is to investigate the potential role of service users in pre-registration education and how this could impact on radiotherapy programmes. Method: Key databases were searched for terms: patient participation, service user involvement, health care education, student assessment, patient involvement, pre-registration education and training. Suitable literature was reviewed and references within all articles and documents were investigated to ensure as broad and an inclusive search possible. Results: There is little published literature indicating user involvement in radiotherapy education but many studies in nursing, medicine and other allied health professions indicate a rationale for user involvement. Discussion: There are benefits of involving service users, i.e. gaining insight from patients and carers perspectives, challenges stereotypes and assumptions. Disadvantages include the quality of the feedback from users in assessment, resources required, and the ethical considerations. Conclusion: Inclusion of service users in radiotherapy education is recommended in line with cancer care policy, they provide a unique perspective to learning and involvement should be encouraged

  15. Sport Management Taught On-Line: A Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. Stier Jr

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An introduction to the world of on-line courses (distance education/learning is presented. In addition, the world of on-line learning, as it pertains to sport management, is examined within the framework of (a pedagogy, (b finances,(c assessment, and (d choosing to transition from the traditional classroom to on-line learning. Pertinent points relative to each of the four categories are presented from the literature. In an effort to stimulate thought and discussion to the subject of on-line learning for sport management programs/courses the authors provide their reactions to the literature points by presenting their comments/reactions from a sport management perspective. Sport management professors and administrators are encouraged to critically examine the feasibility of such on-line courses (distance education/learning within their own curricula while maintaining an appropriate framework revolving around sound theoretical instructional strategies, methods as well as appropriate use of instructional tools, including but not limited to, computersand the WWW.

  16. Synthesis of the working group discussions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The workshop was an important step in the establishment of a strategy to review the part of SKB's safety case that is devoted to the demonstration of the isolation function of a future spent fuel repository. The emphasis was on identification rather than resolution of issues in this workshop synthesis. Subsequent steps therefore have to be taken within the Swedish regulatory bodies to follow up on this report and suggest activities within the regulators research programmes, as well as organise more detailed issue evaluation for different experts group. Ongoing and planned activities within the SKB programme that are related to the issues identified in this report would have to be reviewed in detail. The great emphasis of isolation of spent nuclear fuel rather than, e.g., radionuclide retardation and dilution, featured in the SR97 performance assessment, suggests that the Swedish regulators have to be prepared to review this part of the coming PAs in greater detail. The specific features of the workshop that contributed to the rather comprehensive description of issues relevant for future licensing activities are: The combined consideration of the areas of the copper canister and bentonite buffer, the assessment of both chemical and mechanical aspects of EBS and canister integrity, the use of a published comprehensive performance assessment (SR-97) as a basis for discussions, the active participation by SKB providing additional information on recent developments. There is an educational value for external consultants and researchers, as well as SKI staff, in addressing the broad subject areas relevant for the EBS isolation function. However, a broad coverage to some extent necessitates rather superficial view of the various issues under consideration. It should be noted that the descriptions in this synthesis can by no means be regarded as fully comprehensive, and that additional key issues may be identified in the SKB programme as well as future regulatory

  17. Report on ISFG SNP Panel Discussion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, John M.; Budowle, B.; Gill, P.

    2008-01-01

    Six scientists presented their views and experience with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, multiplexes, and methods regarding their potential application in forensic identity and relationship testing. Benefits and limitations of SNPs were reviewed, as were different SNP marker...

  18. Evaluating Critical Thinking in Computer Mediated Communication Discussions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faizah Mohamad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of whether computer mediated communication (CMC can develop critical thinking in language classrooms. The research was conducted at a university branch campus in Malaysia over a period of 12 weeks. It involved three groups of learners in which each group was exposed to different discussion modes. The first group was exposed to a CMC discussion mode, the second group was exposed to a mixed mode of CMC and face-to-face (F2F discussions and the third group had only the face-to-face mode of discussion. The critical thinking development in these three conditions was evaluated based on the content analysis method used by Newman, Johnson, Cochrane and Webb (1995. This research reports the findings which hopefully will give some insight to other teaching practitioners who are interested in incorporating IT in their classrooms

  19. Discussion on CRM applications in irradiation processing enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiling; Tang Yuxin; Xiao Rong; Cao Qingsui

    2006-01-01

    The necessity of customer relationship management (CRM) in irradiation processing enterprises is discussed on the basis of the competition status of irradiation industry and the CRM framework. In the meantime, an idiographic method of how to create the CRM system is put forward aimed at the present situation of irradiation industry. (authors)

  20. THE EDUCATIONAL PARK IN NEW YORK CITY, CONCEPT FOR DISCUSSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY.

    CLOSE AND THOROUGH INTEGRATION OF THE LOCAL COMMUNITY IS THE PURPOSE OF EDUCATIONAL PARKS. SOCIAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND ECONOMIC ADVANTAGES OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES ARE THUS MAXIMIZED. THREE ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS ARE DISCUSSED--HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL, AND PYRAMIDAL. THE HORIZONTAL ORGANIZATION WOULD GROUP SEVERAL SCHOOLS OF ONE LEVEL. A VERTICAL…

  1. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  2. Experts' discussion on reactor safety research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The experts' discussion on reactor safety research deals with risk analysis, political realization, man and technics, as well as with the international state of affairs. Inspite of a controversy on individual issues and on the proportion of governmental and industrial involvment in reactor safety research, the continuation and intensification of corresponding research work is said to be necessary. Several participants demanded to consider possible 'conventional accidents' as well as a stronger financial commitment by the industry in this sector. The ratio 'man and technics' being an interface decisive for the proper functioning or failure of complex technical systems requires even more research work to be done. (GL) [de

  3. 9. university discussion meeting on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Eight conference papers are presented which discussed the following topics: 1. Energy and environment - conflict or harmony; 2. A common electricity market within the European Community - from the point of view of the German electricity industry; 3. Radioactive waste in nuclear engineering; 4. Effects of electric and magnetic fields on humans; 5. Classroom ventilation; 6. The polluted atmosphere - potential effects on the global climate; 7. Environment-centered marketing, a challenge to a household appliances supplier; 8. High-temperature superconductors - perspectives for application. (UA) [de

  4. Public Spaces For The Discussion Of Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia E. Milton.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In theaftermath of civil conflict and a truth commission into twenty years of violence (19802000, Peru is presently engaged in the difficult task of establishing overarching narratives that provide frameworks for organizing personal and collective memories in the few public spaces available for the discussion of this recent past. This article looks at two public spaces, a series of performative events in Ayacucho duringthe submission of the truth commission's Final Report, and Lima's memorysite, The Eye that Cries. One contentious memory is over who are appropriate victims and heroes to remember.

  5. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  6. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  7. Discussion meet on electroanalytical techniques and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, S.K.; Gopinath, N.; Govindan, R.

    2008-02-01

    Electrochemistry is truly an interdisciplinary science and plays an important role in different branches of science and technology. The present Discussion Meet on ElectroAnalytical Techniques (DM- ELANTE-2008) is focused on the update of various electroanalytical techniques which have brought out a substantial change in electroanalytical chemistry. The aim of this Discussion Meet is to provide a forum to all the electroanalytical scientists to discuss their recent findings and information, learn from the mutual experiences and interests, and to promote cooperation both nationally and internationally. It is proposed to have tutorial lectures as well as invited talks during the Discussion Meet on various electroanalytical techniques including Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS), Spectro-electrochemistry, Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM), Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM), Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  8. The Role of Oncology Nurses in Discussing Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocke, Susan A; Antognoli, Elizabeth; Daly, Barbara J; Jackson, Brigid; Fulton, Sarah E; Liu, Tasnuva M; Surdam, Jessica; Manne, Sharon; Meropol, Neal J

    2017-09-01

    To describe oncology nurses' experiences discussing clinical trials with their patients, and to assess barriers to these discussions.
. A qualitative study designed to elicit narratives from oncology nurses. 
. Community- and academic-based oncology clinics throughout the United States.
. 33 oncology nurses involved in direct patient care in community-based and large hospital-based settings. The sample was drawn from members of the Oncology Nursing Society. 
. In-depth interviews were conducted and analyzed using a 
immersion/crystallization approach to identify themes and patterns. The analyses highlight specific issues, examples, and contexts that present challenges to clinical trial discussions with patients.
. Oncology nurses view their roles as patient educators and advocates to be inclusive of discussion of clinical trials. Barriers to such discussions include lack of knowledge and strategies for addressing patients' common misconceptions and uncertainty about the timing of discussions.
. These data indicate that enabling nurses to actively engage patients in discussions of clinical trials requires educational interventions to build self-efficacy and close knowledge gaps. 
. Oncology nurses can play a critical role in advancing cancer care by supporting patients in decision making about clinical trial participation. This will require training and education to build their knowledge, reduce barriers, and increase their self-efficacy to fulfill this responsibility in various clinical settings.

  9. Student decision making in large group discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Ptak, Corey; Sayre, Eleanor C.; Franklin, Scott V.

    2015-04-01

    It is increasingly common in physics classes for students to work together to solve problems and perform laboratory experiments. When students work together, they need to negotiate the roles and decision making within the group. We examine how a large group of students negotiates authority as part of their two week summer College Readiness Program at Rochester Institute of Technology. The program is designed to develop metacognitive skills in first generation and Deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) STEM undergraduates through cooperative group work, laboratory experimentation, and explicit reflection exercises. On the first full day of the program, the students collaboratively developed a sign for the word ``metacognition'' for which there is not a sign in American Sign Language. This presentation will focus on three aspects of the ensuing discussion: (1) how the instructor communicated expectations about decision making; (2) how the instructor promoted student-driven decision making rather than instructor-driven policy; and (3) one student's shifts in decision making behavior. We conclude by discussing implications of this research for activity-based physics instruction.

  10. Best Friends’ Discussions of Social Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L.; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2013-01-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend's reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents’ social and moral development. PMID:23666555

  11. Best friends' discussions of social dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kristina L; Malti, Tina; Killen, Melanie; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2014-02-01

    Peer relationships, particularly friendships, have been theorized to contribute to how children and adolescents think about social and moral issues. The current study examined how young adolescent best friends (191 dyads; 53.4% female) reason together about multifaceted social dilemmas and how their reasoning is related to friendship quality. Mutually-recognized friendship dyads were videotaped discussing dilemmas entailing moral, social-conventional and prudential/pragmatic issues. Both dyad members completed a self-report measure of friendship quality. Dyadic data analyses guided by the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model indicated that adolescent and friend reports of friendship qualities were related to the forms of reasoning used during discussion. Friends who both reported that they could resolve conflicts in a constructive way were more likely to use moral reasoning than friends who reported that their conflict resolution was poor or disagreed on the quality of their conflict resolution. The findings provide evidence for the important role that friendship interaction may play in adolescents' social and moral development.

  12. Disgust discussed: introduction to the special section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi

    2013-03-01

    The author introduces a special section of Psychological Bulletin devoted to the study of disgust. After discussing conflicts between its supposed role as a basic emotion and its more recently understood involvement in responding to moral transgressions, the author summarizes 3 articles contained in the special section. Widen and Russell (2013) present a developmental account of disgust highlighting the ages at which children experience, express, understand, verbalize, and recognize disgust. The article shows that disgust is present early but that recognition of disgust in others is considerably delayed. Chapman and Anderson (2013) review evidence pertaining to the question of whether genuine disgust is elicited by moral transgressions. Their review covers data from self-report, brain imaging, facial behavior, and implicit measures gathered from both experimental and correlational studies. They conclude that moral transgressions elicit genuine disgust. Russell and Giner-Sorolla (2013) ask what types of moral transgressions are most likely to elicit pure disgust. They find that moral transgressions involving body violations are more likely than others to elicit such disgust. Moreover, they suggest that disgust elicited by body violations is likely to be more resistant to modification by context, situation, and efforts at rationalization. Taken together, the reviews support the view that rudiments of disgust to physical objects are present early in life but later become adapted to social influence and new moral purposes. Social implications are discussed. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  13. Panel discussion: Chemistry aspects of pet radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    A panel discussion on the radiotracer development process opened with a question regarding the role of toxicological studies in the process of obtaining a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug (IND) for a new radiopharmaceutical. Panel members were uniformly supportive of new radiotracer development, expressing their opinions that the regulatory hurdles were there but could be overcome. Several institutions are actively working with regulatory agencies to determine just what toxicology data are relevant to new radiopharmaceutical development in the PET field. The FDA is beginning to understand that the pharmacology of PET tracer doses may be completely different from what is usually important in drug trials. The second part of the panel discussion centered on the role, if any, of the pharmaceutical companies in new radiotracer development. It was pointed out that what the radiochemist is looking for in a radiopharmaceutical is different from what these companies are searching for in a therapeutic drug. Panel and audience members responded to the question: What would a pharmaceutical company gain from collaboration with radiopharmaceutical research laboratories? Several examples were given such as providing crucial data from humans rather than animals; determining individualized drug doses to maximize the therapeutic index of a new drug regimen; and replacing the large amounts of time and money currently invested by drug companies in the radiolabeling and evaluation of metabolites of new drugs

  14. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  15. Critical Discussion of Essentials of Diagnosis and Recording in Periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Issues to be addressed before writing standards of care for the diagnosis of adult periodontal disease are discussed. These include considerations in screening and examination; arriving at diagnosis and prognosis, informing the patient, and referral; monitoring outcomes using diagnostic signs and tests; and new technology for and approaches to…

  16. A Bargaining Experiment To Motivate a Discussion on Fairness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L.

    2002-01-01

    Employs a classroom version of the research game, the Ultimatum Game, to teach undergraduate students how fairness affects behavior. Focuses on three concepts related to fairness. Finds that classroom results motivate discussion about a downward sloping demand curve for fairness. Provides an appendix that includes instructional materials. (JEH)

  17. Clinical application and assessment of Belotero: a roundtable discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenc, Z Paul; Fagien, Steven; Flynn, Timothy C; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2013-10-01

    In this final article for the Supplement, the authors address the physical and aesthetic characteristics of the latest hyaluronic acid, Belotero Balance. Topics include unique characteristics of the hyaluronic acid, aesthetic indications, administration techniques, adverse events, and differences between Belotero and other hyaluronic acids. The article closes with a brief discussion about nomenclature of hyaluronic acid products.

  18. Discussing a Philosophical Background for the Ethnomathematical Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Denise Silva

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which Wittgenstein's analytical framework may be relevant to philosophical reflection on ethnomathematics. The discussion develops Bill Barton's suggestion that a philosophical basis for the ethnomathematical program should include and explain culturally different mathematics systems, and the coexistence of…

  19. Round table discussion of future Solar Neutrino Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The discussion of the future neutrino program includes a critique of the chlorine-37 experiment and the necessary continued effort, the astronomical and cosmological implications of the various nonstandard models, future programs in laboratory experiments and theoretical calculations on reaction cross sections, opacities, convections, and observations of elemental abundances on the Sun and the meteorites, and lastly the program in solar neutrino research

  20. Learning within Incoherent Structures: The Space of Online Discussion Forums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Matthew J. W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results from a study of undergraduate students' learning outcomes and patterns of interaction within an online discussion forum. Topics include social dynamics of computer-mediated communication versus face-to-face communication; cognitive engagement; critical and reflective thinking; and student interaction. (Author/LRW)