WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods describe procedures

  1. Procedure to describe clavicular motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez Delgado, Guivey; De Beule, Matthieu; Ortega Cardentey, Dolgis R; Segers, Patrick; Iznaga Benítez, Arsenio M; Rodríguez Moliner, Tania; Verhegghe, Benedict; Palmans, Tanneke; Van Hoof, Tom; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    For many years, researchers have attempted to describe shoulder motions by using different mathematical methods. The aim of this study was to describe a procedure to quantify clavicular motion. The procedure proposed for the kinematic analysis consists of 4 main processes: 3 transcortical pins in the clavicle, motion capture, obtaining 3-dimensional bone models, and data processing. Clavicular motion by abduction (30° to 150°) and flexion (55° to 165°) were characterized by an increment of retraction of 27° to 33°, elevation of 25° to 28°, and posterior rotation of 14° to 15°, respectively. In circumduction, clavicular movement described an ellipse, which was reflected by retraction and elevation. Kinematic analysis shows that the articular surfaces move by simultaneously rolling and sliding on the convex surface of the sternum for the 3 movements of abduction, flexion, and circumduction. The use of 3 body landmarks in the clavicle and the direct measurement of bone allowed description of the osteokinematic and arthrokinematic movement of the clavicle. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi, Ivan; Johnson, Sherri L.; Dunham, Jason B.

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical moments (skewness and kurtosis) to examine potential changes of empirical distributions at decadal extents. Second, we adapt a statistical procedure combining a non-metric multidimensional scaling technique and higher density region plots to detect potentially anomalous years. We illustrate the use of these approaches by examining long-term stream temperature data from minimally and highly human-influenced streams. In particular, we contrast predictions about thermal regime responses to changing climates and human-related water uses. Using these methods, we effectively diagnose years with unusual thermal variability and patterns in variability through time, as well as spatial variability linked to regional and local factors that influence stream temperature. Our findings highlight the complexity of responses of thermal regimes of streams and reveal their differential vulnerability to climate warming and human-related water uses. The two approaches presented here can be applied with a variety of other continuous phenomena to address historical changes, extreme events, and their associated ecological responses.

  3. Technical Note: Higher-order statistical moments and a procedure that detects potentially anomalous years as two alternative methods describing alterations in continuous environmental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Arismendi; S. L. Johnson; J. B. Dunham

    2015-01-01

    Statistics of central tendency and dispersion may not capture relevant or desired characteristics of the distribution of continuous phenomena and, thus, they may not adequately describe temporal patterns of change. Here, we present two methodological approaches that can help to identify temporal changes in environmental regimes. First, we use higher-order statistical...

  4. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Chemical compounds present different types of isomer- ism. When two isomers differ by ... of DFT methods to describe intramolecular hydrogen shifts. Three small ..... qualitative descriptions of intramolecular hydrogen shifts when large basis ...

  5. A formal language to describe a wide class of failure detection and signal validation procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-01-01

    In the present article we make the first step towards the implementation of a user-friendly, object-oriented system devoted to failure detection and signal validation purposes. After overviewing different signal modelling, residual making and hypothesis testing procedures, a mathematical tool is suggested to describe a general failure detection problem. Three different levels of the abstraction are distinguished; direct examination, preliminary decision support mechanism and indirect examination. Possible scenarios are introduced depending both on the objective properties of the investigated signal and the particular requirements prescribed by the expert himself. Finally it is showed how to build up systematically a complete, general failure detection procedure. (author).

  6. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Brian D.

    2000-09-26

    Representing samll-scale features can be a challenge when one wants to model unsaturated flow in large domains. In this report, the various upscaling techniques are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: stochastic methods, renormalization methods, volume averaging and homogenization methods. In addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed.

  7. Performance of density functional theory methods to describe ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fukui function shows a small dependence with both the exchange and correlation functional and the basis set. Evolution of the Fukui function along the reaction path describes important changes in the basic sites of the corresponding molecules. These results are in agreement with the chemical behavior of those species.

  8. Review of Upscaling Methods for Describing Unsaturated Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BD Wood

    2000-09-26

    The representation of small-scale features can be a challenge when attempting to model unsaturated flow in large domains. Upscaling methods offer the possibility of reducing the amount of resolution required to adequately simulate such a problem. In this report, the various upscaling techniques that are discussed in the literature are reviewed. The following upscaling methods have been identified from the literature: (1) stochastic methods, (2) renormalization methods, and (3) volume averaging and homogenization methods; in addition, a final technique, full resolution numerical modeling, is also discussed. Each of these techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. The trade-off is a reduction in accuracy in favor of a method that is easier to employ. For practical applications, the most reasonable approach appears to be one in which any of the upscaling methods identified above maybe suitable for upscaling in regions where the variations in the parameter fields are small. For regions where the subsurface structure is more complex, only the homogenization and volume averaging methods are probably suitable. With the continual increases in computational capacity, fill-resolution numerical modeling may in many instances provide a tractable means of solving the flow problem in unsaturated systems.

  9. Methods and procedures of succession of generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homann, A.; Bendzko, R.

    2001-01-01

    The presentation describes the methods and procedures of the succession of generations in the nuclear industry. The industrial development required specialised knowledge and creativity on a changing level. The relations ship between knowledge-transfer and transfer of the responsibility must be taken into account. The knowledge-transfer has to be planned as an investment. (authors)

  10. A Systematic Procedure to Describe Shale Gas Permeability Evolution during the Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Tsau, J. S.; Barati, R.

    2017-12-01

    Gas flow behavior in shales is complex due to the multi-physics nature of the process. Pore size reduces as the in-situ stress increases during the production process, which will reduce intrinsic permeability of the porous media. Slip flow/pore diffusion enhances gas apparent permeability, especially under low reservoir pressures. Adsorption not only increases original gas in place but also influences gas flow behavior because of the adsorption layer. Surface diffusion between free gas and adsorption phase enhances gas permeability. Pore size reduction and the adsorption layer both have complex impacts on gas apparent permeability and non-Darcy flow might be a major component in nanopores. Previously published literature is generally incomplete in terms of coupling of all these four physics with fluid flow during gas production. This work proposes a methodology to simultaneously take them into account to describe a permeability evolution process. Our results show that to fully describe shale gas permeability evolution during gas production, three sets of experimental data are needed initially: 1) intrinsic permeability under different in-situ stress, 2) adsorption isotherm under reservoir conditions and 3) surface diffusivity measurement by the pulse-decay method. Geomechanical effects, slip flow/pore diffusion, adsorption layer and surface diffusion all play roles affecting gas permeability. Neglecting any of them might lead to misleading results. The increasing in-situ stress during shale gas production is unfavorable to shale gas flow process. Slip flow/pore diffusion is important for gas permeability under low pressures in the tight porous media. They might overwhelm the geomechanical effect and enhance gas permeability at low pressures. Adsorption layer reduces the gas permeability by reducing the effective pore size, but the effect is limited. Surface diffusion increases gas permeability more under lower pressures. The total gas apparent permeability might

  11. Comparison of three sequential extraction procedures to describe metal fractionation in anaerobic granular sludges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hullebusch, van E.D.; Sudarno, S.; Zandvoort, M.H.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2005-01-01

    In the last few decades. several sequential extraction procedures have been developed to quantify the chemical status of metals in the solid phase. In this study. three extraction techniques (modified [A. Tessier, P.G.C. Campbell, M. Bisson, Anal. Chem. 51 (1979) 844]: [R.C. Stover. L.E. Sommers,

  12. A method for describing the doses delivered by transmission x-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shope, T.B.; Gagne, R.M.; Johnson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    A method for describing the absorbed dose delivered by x-ray transmission computed tomography (CT) is proposed which provides a means to characterize the dose resulting from CT procedures consisting of a series of adjacent scans. The dose descriptor chosen is the average dose at several locations in the imaged volume of the central scan of the series. It is shown that this average dose, as defined, for locations in the central scan of the series can be obtained from the integral of the dose profile perpendicular to the scan plane at these same locations for a single scan. This method for estimating the average dose from a CT procedure has been evaluated as a function of the number of scans in the multiple scan procedure and location in the dosimetry phantom using single scan dose profiles obtained from five different types of CT systems. For the higher dose regions in the phantoms, the multiple scan dose descriptor derived from the single scan dose profiles overestimates the multiple scan average dose by no more than 10%, provided the procedure consists of at least eight scans

  13. Methods for testing the logical structure of plant procedure documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horne, C.P.; Colley, R.; Fahley, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing EPRI project to investigate computer based methods to improve the development, maintenance, and verification of plant operating procedures. This project began as an evaluation of the applicability of structured software analysis methods to operating procedures. It was found that these methods offer benefits, if procedures are transformed to a structured representation to make them amenable to computer analysis. The next task was to investigate methods to transform procedures into a structured representation. The use of natural language techniques to read and compile the procedure documents appears to be viable for this purpose and supports conformity to guidelines. The final task was to consider possibilities of automated verification methods for procedures. Methods to help verify procedures were defined and information requirements specified. These methods take the structured representation of procedures as input. The software system being constructed in this project is called PASS, standing for Procedures Analysis Software System

  14. Method Validation Procedure in Gamma Spectroscopy Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.

    2008-01-01

    The present work describes the methodology followed for the application of ISO 17025 standards in gamma spectroscopy laboratory at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission including the management and technical requirements. A set of documents, written procedures and records were prepared to achieve the management part. The technical requirements, internal method validation was applied through the estimation of trueness, repeatability , minimum detectable activity and combined uncertainty, participation in IAEA proficiency tests assure the external method validation, specially that the gamma spectroscopy lab is a member of ALMERA network (Analytical Laboratories for the Measurements of Environmental Radioactivity). Some of these results are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Standard nomenclature and methods for describing the condition of pavements draft TRH 6

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Curtayne, PC

    2009-01-26

    Full Text Available The need for describing the condition of pavements occurs frequently in highway engineering. Accurate descriptions are a prerequisite for establishing procedures with which to evaluate the various aspects of the pavement condition. A variety...

  16. 25 CFR 900.58 - Do the same accountability and control procedures described above apply to Federal property?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do the same accountability and control procedures described above apply to Federal property? 900.58 Section 900.58 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS... Organization Management Systems Property Management System Standards § 900.58 Do the same accountability and...

  17. Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenomenological Research Method, Design and Procedure: A Phenomenological Investigation of the Phenomenon of Being-in-Community as Experienced by Two Individuals Who Have Participated in a Community Building Workshop.

  18. DESCRIBING FUNCTION METHOD FOR PI-FUZZY CONTROLLED SYSTEMS STABILITY ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan PREITL

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a global stability analysis method dedicated to fuzzy control systems containing Mamdani PI-fuzzy controllers with output integration to control SISO linear / linearized plants. The method is expressed in terms of relatively simple steps, and it is based on: the generalization of the describing function method for the considered fuzzy control systems to the MIMO case, the approximation of the describing functions by applying the least squares method. The method is applied to the stability analysis of a class of PI-fuzzy controlled servo-systems, and validated by considering a case study.

  19. Describing the organization of dominance relationships by dominance-directed tree method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izar, Patrícia; Ferreira, Renata G; Sato, Takechi

    2006-02-01

    Methods to describe dominance hierarchies are a key tool in primatology studies. Most current methods are appropriate for analyzing linear and near-linear hierarchies; however, more complex structures are common in primate groups. We propose a method termed "dominance-directed tree." This method is based on graph theory and set theory to analyze dominance relationships in social groups. The method constructs a transitive matrix by imposing transitivity to the dominance matrix and produces a graphical representation of the dominance relationships, which allows an easy visualization of the hierarchical position of the individuals, or subsets of individuals. The method is also able to detect partial and complete hierarchies, and to describe situations in which hierarchical and nonhierarchical principles operate. To illustrate the method, we apply a dominance tree analysis to artificial data and empirical data from a group of Cebus apella. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  1. A Porosity Method to Describe Complex 3D-Structures Theory and Application to an Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-F. Robbe

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical method was developed to be able to describe the influence of structures of complex shape on a transient fluid flow without meshing the structures. Structures are considered as solid pores inside the fluid and act as an obstacle for the flow. The method was specifically adapted to fast transient cases.The porosity method was applied to the simulation of a Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident in a small-scale replica of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor. A 2D-axisymmetrical simulation of the MARS test was performed with the EUROPLEXUS code. Whereas the central internal structures of the mock-up could be described with a classical shell model, the influence of the 3D peripheral structures was taken into account with the porosity method

  2. Parametric methods of describing and extrapolating the characteristics of long-term strength of refractory materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvilyuk, I.S.; Avramenko, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper carries out the comparative analysis of the suitability of parametric methods for describing and extrapolating the results of longterm tests on refractory materials. Diagrams are presented of the longterm strength of niobium based alloys tested in a vacuum of 1.3 X 10 -3 Pa. The predicted values and variance of the estimate of endurance of refractory alloys are presented by parametric dependences. The longterm strength characteristics can be described most adequately by the Manson-Sakkop and Sherby-Dorn methods. Several methods must be used to ensure the reliable extrapolation of the longterm strength characteristics to the time period an order of magnitude longer than the experimental data. The most suitable method cannot always be selected on the basis of the correlation ratio

  3. A Novel Method Describing the Space Charge Limited Region in a Planar Diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Ghergherehchi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A novel and rather simple method is presented to describe the physics of space-charge region in a planar diode. The method deals with the issue in the time domain and as a consequence transient time behavior can be achieved. Potential distributions and currents obtained using this technique, supposing zero initial velocity for electrons, reveal absolute agreement with Child's results. Moreover, applying the method for non-zero uniform initial velocity for electrons, gives results which are in good agreement with previous works

  4. Fractional exclusion statistics: the method for describing interacting particle systems as ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anghel, Dragoş-Victor

    2012-01-01

    I show that if the total energy of a system of interacting particles may be written as a sum of quasiparticle energies, then the system of quasiparticles can be viewed, in general, as an ideal gas with fractional exclusion statistics (FES). The general method for calculating the FES parameters is also provided. The interacting particle system cannot be described as an ideal gas of Bose and Fermi quasiparticles except in trivial situations.

  5. Methods and procedures for shielding analyses for the SNS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, I.; Ferguson, F.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Iverson, E.; Lu, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In order to provide radiologically safe Spallation Neutron Source operation, shielding analyses are performed according to Oak Ridge National Laboratory internal regulations and to comply with the Code of Federal Regulations. An overview of on-going shielding work for the accelerator facility and neutrons beam lines, methods used for the analyses, and associated procedures and regulations are presented. Methods used to perform shielding analyses are described as well. (author)

  6. Hybrid finite element method for describing the electrical response of biological cells to applied fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Wenjun; Henriquez, Craig S

    2007-04-01

    A novel hybrid finite element method (FEM) for modeling the response of passive and active biological membranes to external stimuli is presented. The method is based on the differential equations that describe the conservation of electric flux and membrane currents. By introducing the electric flux through the cell membrane as an additional variable, the algorithm decouples the linear partial differential equation part from the nonlinear ordinary differential equation part that defines the membrane dynamics of interest. This conveniently results in two subproblems: a linear interface problem and a nonlinear initial value problem. The linear interface problem is solved with a hybrid FEM. The initial value problem is integrated by a standard ordinary differential equation solver such as the Euler and Runge-Kutta methods. During time integration, these two subproblems are solved alternatively. The algorithm can be used to model the interaction of stimuli with multiple cells of almost arbitrary geometries and complex ion-channel gating at the plasma membrane. Numerical experiments are presented demonstrating the uses of the method for modeling field stimulation and action potential propagation.

  7. Stepwise Procedure for Development and Validation of a Multipesticide Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrus, A. [Hungarian Food Safety Office, Budapest (Hungary)

    2009-07-15

    The stepwise procedure for development and the validation of so called multi-pesticide methods are described. Principles, preliminary actions, criteria for the selection of chromatographic separation, detection and performance verification of multi-pesticide methods are outlined. Also the long term repeatability and reproducibility, as well as the necessity for the documentation of laboratory work are highlighted. Appendix I hereof describes in detail the calculation of calibration parameters, whereas Appendix II focuses on the calculation of the significance of differences of concentrations obtained on two different separation columns. (author)

  8. A method to describe inelastic gamma field distribution in neutron gamma density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Quanying; Liu, Juntao; Wang, Xinguang; Wu, He; Jia, Wenbao; Ti, Yongzhou; Qiu, Fei; Zhang, Xiaoyang

    2017-11-01

    Pulsed neutron gamma density logging (NGD) is of great significance for radioprotection and density measurement in LWD, however, the current methods have difficulty in quantitative calculation and single factor analysis for the inelastic gamma field distribution. In order to clarify the NGD mechanism, a new method is developed to describe the inelastic gamma field distribution. Based on the fast-neutron scattering and gamma attenuation, the inelastic gamma field distribution is characterized by the inelastic scattering cross section, fast-neutron scattering free path, formation density and other parameters. And the contribution of formation parameters on the field distribution is quantitatively analyzed. The results shows the contribution of density attenuation is opposite to that of inelastic scattering cross section and fast-neutron scattering free path. And as the detector-spacing increases, the density attenuation gradually plays a dominant role in the gamma field distribution, which means large detector-spacing is more favorable for the density measurement. Besides, the relationship of density sensitivity and detector spacing was studied according to this gamma field distribution, therefore, the spacing of near and far gamma ray detector is determined. The research provides theoretical guidance for the tool parameter design and density determination of pulsed neutron gamma density logging technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Standardized methods for photography in procedural dermatology using simple equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hexsel, Doris; Hexsel, Camile L; Dal'Forno, Taciana; Schilling de Souza, Juliana; Silva, Aline F; Siega, Carolina

    2017-04-01

    Photography is an important tool in dermatology. Reproducing the settings of before photos after interventions allows more accurate evaluation of treatment outcomes. In this article, we describe standardized methods and tips to obtain photographs, both for clinical practice and research procedural dermatology, using common equipment. Standards for the studio, cameras, photographer, patients, and framing are presented in this article. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. The effects of interaction with the device described by procedural text on recall, true/false, and task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, V A; Mills, C B

    1995-11-01

    In two experiments, subjects interacted to different extents with relevant devices while reading two complex multistep procedural texts and were then tested with task performance time, true/false, and recall measures. While reading, subjects performed the task (read and do), saw the experimenter perform the task (read and see experimenter do), imagined doing the task (read and imagine), looked at the device while reading (read and see), or only read (read only). Van Dijk and Kintsch's (1983) text representation theory led to the prediction that exposure to the task device (in the read-and-do, read-and-see, and read-and-see-experimenter-do conditions) would lead to the development of a stronger situation model and therefore faster task performance, whereas the read-only and read-and-see conditions would lead to a better textbase, and therefore better performance on the true/false and recall tasks. Paivio's (1991) dual coding theory led to the opposite prediction for recall. The results supported the text representation theory with task performance and recall. The read-and-see condition produced consistently good performance on the true/false measure. Amount of text study time contributed to recall performance. These findings support the notion that information available while reading leads to differential development of representations in memory, which, in turn, causes differences in performance on various measures.

  11. Equation of motion method to describe quasiparticle structures in transitional and deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doenau, F.

    1985-01-01

    The development of the experimental techniques will supply one with more and more complete level schemes and transition matrix elements. This is a great challenge for the theorists to put the right questions and to work out the models accordingly. In this respect the method of equation of motion (EQM) seems to be a sulitable approach the inherent possibilities of which are yet not fully explored. The EQM is sketched for the case of one-quasiparticle (1qp) excitation in odd-mass nuclei. The coupling of a particle to the quasrupole and pair field is treated using the IBA for the collective degrees of freedom. Physical implications are shortly discussed. The selfconsistent aspects of the theory are considered. A perturbational treatment is proposed to construct the physical subspace that is necessary to perform selfconsistent calculations of the collective core energies. The EQM is formulated for the two-quasiparticle (2qp) excitations in transitional nuclei inclusive the coupling to the collective excitations (0 qp space). EQM can be widely applied to describe the complicated interplay between collective degrees of freedom and quasiparticle configurations are concluded

  12. Social relationships among adolescents as described in an electronic diary: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila, Katriina I; Anttila, Minna J; Kurki, Marjo H; Välimäki, Maritta A

    2017-01-01

    Social relationships among adolescents with mental disorders are demanding. Adolescents with depressive symptoms may have few relationships and have difficulties sharing their problems. Internet may offer reliable and easy to use tool to collect real-time information from adolescents. The aim of this study is to explore how adolescents describe their social relationships with an electronic diary. Mixed methods were used to obtain a broad picture of adolescents' social relationships with the data gathered from network maps and reflective texts written in an electronic diary. Adolescents who visited an outpatient clinic and used an intervention (N=70) designed for adolescents with signs of depression were invited to use the electronic diary; 29 did so. The quantitative data gathered in the electronic diary were summarized with descriptive statistics, and the qualitative data were categorized using a thematic analysis with an inductive approach. We found that social relationships among adolescents with signs of depression can vary greatly in regards to the number of existing relationships (from lacking to 21) and the quality of the relationships (from trustful to difficult). However, the relationships may change, and the adolescents are also willing to build up their social relationships. Professionals need to be aware of the diversity of adolescents' social relationships and their need for personalized support.

  13. Method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Jing; Fang Yonggang; Lu Yan; Zhang Yue; Sun Zaozhan; Zou Mingzhong

    2014-01-01

    As an example, the fatigue analysis for the upper head of the pressurizer in one NPP was carried out by using ANSYS, a finite element method analysis software. According to RCC-M code, only two kinds of typical transients of temperature and pressure were considered in the fatigue analysis. Meanwhile, the influence of earthquake was taken into account. The method and procedure of fatigue analysis for nuclear safety equipment were described in detail. This paper provides a reference for fatigue analysis and assessment of nuclear safety grade equipment and pipe. (authors)

  14. Antimicrobial Testing Methods & Procedures Developed by EPA's Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    We develop antimicrobial testing methods and standard operating procedures to measure the effectiveness of hard surface disinfectants against a variety of microorganisms. Find methods and procedures for antimicrobial testing.

  15. Describing wildland surface fuel loading for fire management: A review of approaches, methods and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fuelbeds are exceptionally complex, consisting of diverse particles of many sizes, types and shapes with abundances and properties that are highly variable in time and space. This complexity makes it difficult to accurately describe, classify, sample and map fuels for wildland fire research and management. As a result, many fire behaviour and effects software...

  16. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  17. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    OpenAIRE

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Fl?vio Eduardo Guillin; Abr?o, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by m...

  18. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: robsonpetroni@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  19. Practical procedure for method validation in INAA- A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the procedure employed by the Neutron Activation Laboratory at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP) for validation of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods. According to recommendations of ISO/IEC 17025 the method performance characteristics (limit of detection, limit of quantification, trueness, repeatability, intermediate precision, reproducibility, selectivity, linearity and uncertainties budget) were outline in an easy, fast and convenient way. The paper presents step by step how to calculate the required method performance characteristics in a process of method validation, what are the procedures, adopted strategies and acceptance criteria for the results, that is, how to make a method validation in INAA. In order to exemplify the methodology applied, obtained results for the method validation of mass fraction determination of Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, Se and Zn in biological matrix samples, using an internal reference material of mussel tissue were presented. It was concluded that the methodology applied for validation of INAA methods is suitable, meeting all the requirements of ISO/IEC 17025, and thereby, generating satisfactory results for the studies carried at LAN, IPEN - CNEN/SP. (author)

  20. Generating quantitative models describing the sequence specificity of biological processes with the stabilized matrix method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sette Alessandro

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many processes in molecular biology involve the recognition of short sequences of nucleic-or amino acids, such as the binding of immunogenic peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC molecules. From experimental data, a model of the sequence specificity of these processes can be constructed, such as a sequence motif, a scoring matrix or an artificial neural network. The purpose of these models is two-fold. First, they can provide a summary of experimental results, allowing for a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved in sequence recognition. Second, such models can be used to predict the experimental outcome for yet untested sequences. In the past we reported the development of a method to generate such models called the Stabilized Matrix Method (SMM. This method has been successfully applied to predicting peptide binding to MHC molecules, peptide transport by the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP and proteasomal cleavage of protein sequences. Results Herein we report the implementation of the SMM algorithm as a publicly available software package. Specific features determining the type of problems the method is most appropriate for are discussed. Advantageous features of the package are: (1 the output generated is easy to interpret, (2 input and output are both quantitative, (3 specific computational strategies to handle experimental noise are built in, (4 the algorithm is designed to effectively handle bounded experimental data, (5 experimental data from randomized peptide libraries and conventional peptides can easily be combined, and (6 it is possible to incorporate pair interactions between positions of a sequence. Conclusion Making the SMM method publicly available enables bioinformaticians and experimental biologists to easily access it, to compare its performance to other prediction methods, and to extend it to other applications.

  1. Method for determining the work hardening function to describe plasticity of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    A method for obtaining a constitutive relation that relates the flow stress to the equivalent plastic strain is developed. The method uses simple tension test data to suggest a functional form. This form is then used as a constitutive model in a computer program that simulates the tension test. The calculated results are compared with the experimental results and the functional form is refined until agreement is obtained between calculations and experiments. The importance of knowing the relationship between the flow stress and the plastic strain is discussed. A work hardening function is calibrated for 6061 T6 aluminum

  2. Using logic model methods in systematic review synthesis: describing complex pathways in referral management interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan K; Blank, Lindsay; Woods, Helen Buckley; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Goyder, Elizabeth

    2014-05-10

    There is increasing interest in innovative methods to carry out systematic reviews of complex interventions. Theory-based approaches, such as logic models, have been suggested as a means of providing additional insights beyond that obtained via conventional review methods. This paper reports the use of an innovative method which combines systematic review processes with logic model techniques to synthesise a broad range of literature. The potential value of the model produced was explored with stakeholders. The review identified 295 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The papers consisted of 141 intervention studies and 154 non-intervention quantitative and qualitative articles. A logic model was systematically built from these studies. The model outlines interventions, short term outcomes, moderating and mediating factors and long term demand management outcomes and impacts. Interventions were grouped into typologies of practitioner education, process change, system change, and patient intervention. Short-term outcomes identified that may result from these interventions were changed physician or patient knowledge, beliefs or attitudes and also interventions related to changed doctor-patient interaction. A range of factors which may influence whether these outcomes lead to long term change were detailed. Demand management outcomes and intended impacts included content of referral, rate of referral, and doctor or patient satisfaction. The logic model details evidence and assumptions underpinning the complex pathway from interventions to demand management impact. The method offers a useful addition to systematic review methodologies. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013004037.

  3. A Bayesian method for construction of Markov models to describe dynamics on various time-scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Emily K; Andersen, Hans C

    2010-10-14

    The dynamics of many biological processes of interest, such as the folding of a protein, are slow and complicated enough that a single molecular dynamics simulation trajectory of the entire process is difficult to obtain in any reasonable amount of time. Moreover, one such simulation may not be sufficient to develop an understanding of the mechanism of the process, and multiple simulations may be necessary. One approach to circumvent this computational barrier is the use of Markov state models. These models are useful because they can be constructed using data from a large number of shorter simulations instead of a single long simulation. This paper presents a new Bayesian method for the construction of Markov models from simulation data. A Markov model is specified by (τ,P,T), where τ is the mesoscopic time step, P is a partition of configuration space into mesostates, and T is an N(P)×N(P) transition rate matrix for transitions between the mesostates in one mesoscopic time step, where N(P) is the number of mesostates in P. The method presented here is different from previous Bayesian methods in several ways. (1) The method uses Bayesian analysis to determine the partition as well as the transition probabilities. (2) The method allows the construction of a Markov model for any chosen mesoscopic time-scale τ. (3) It constructs Markov models for which the diagonal elements of T are all equal to or greater than 0.5. Such a model will be called a "consistent mesoscopic Markov model" (CMMM). Such models have important advantages for providing an understanding of the dynamics on a mesoscopic time-scale. The Bayesian method uses simulation data to find a posterior probability distribution for (P,T) for any chosen τ. This distribution can be regarded as the Bayesian probability that the kinetics observed in the atomistic simulation data on the mesoscopic time-scale τ was generated by the CMMM specified by (P,T). An optimization algorithm is used to find the most

  4. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  5. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    OpenAIRE

    Rigo, Manuel D; Grivas, Theodoros B

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods ar...

  6. Performance of Several Density Functional Theory Methods on Describing Hydrogen-Bond Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Li; Ke, Hongwei; Fu, Gang; Xu, Xin; Yan, Yijing

    2009-01-13

    We have investigated eleven density functionals, including LDA, PBE, mPWPW91, TPSS, B3LYP, X3LYP, PBE0, O3LYP, B97-1, MPW1K, and TPSSh, for their performances on describing hydrogen bond (HB) interactions. The emphasis has been laid not only on their abilities to calculate the intermolecular hydrogen bonding energies but also on their performances in predicting the relative energies of intermolecular H-bonded complexes and the conformer stabilities due to intramolecular hydrogen bondings. As compared to the best theoretical values, we found that although PBE and PBE0 gave the best estimation of HB strengths, they might fail to predict the correct order of relative HB energies, which might lead to a wrong prediction of the global minimum for different conformers. TPSS and TPSSh did not always improve over PBE and PBE0. B3LYP was found to underestimate the intermolecular HB strengths but was among the best performers in calculating the relative HB energies. We showed here that X3LYP and B97-1 were able to give good values for both absolute HB strengths and relative HB energies, making these functionals good candidates for HB description.

  7. Posterior Urethroplasty Complexity and Prognosis Can be Described by a Novel Method: Posterior Urethral Stenosis Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Lv, Xiangguo; Jin, Chongrui; Guo, Hailin; Shu, Huiquan; Fu, Qiang; Sa, Yinglong

    2018-02-01

    To develop a standardized PU-score (posterior urethral stenosis score), with the goal of using this scoring system as a preliminary predictor of surgical complexity and prognosis of posterior urethral stenosis. We retrospectively reviewed records of all patients who underwent posterior urethral surgery at our institution from 2013 to 2015. The PU-score is based on 5 components, namely etiology (1 or 2 points), location (1-3 points), length (1-3 points), urethral fistula (1 or 2 points), and posterior urethral false passage (1 point). We calculated the score of all patients and analyzed its association with surgical complexity, stenosis recurrence, intraoperative blood loss, erectile dysfunction, and urinary incontinence. There were 144 patients who underwent low complexity urethral surgery (direct vision internal urethrotomy, anastomosis with or without crural separation) with a mean score of 5.1 points, whereas 143 underwent high complexity urethroplasty (anastomosis with inferior pubectomy or urethrorectal fistula repair, perineal or scrotum skin flap urethroplasty, bladder flap urethroplasty) with a mean score of 6.9 points. The increase of PU-score was predictive of higher surgical complexity (P = .000), higher recurrence (P = .002), more intraoperative blood loss (P = .000), and decrease of preoperative (P = .037) or postoperative erectile function (P = .047). However, no association was observed between PU-score and urinary incontinence (P = .213). The PU-score is a novel and meaningful scoring system that describes the essential factors in determining the complexity and prognosis for posterior urethral stenosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Advanced Optical Diagnostic Methods for Describing Fuel Injection and Combustion Flowfield Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Randy J.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Anderson, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    resulted from this feedback. Alternate diagnostic methods are constantly being evaluated as to their suitability as a diagnostic tool in these environments. A new method currently under examination is background oriented Schlieren (BOS) for examining the fuel/air mixing processes. While ratioing the Stokes and anti-Stokes nitrogen lines obtained from spontaneous Raman is being refined for temperature measurement. While the primary focus of the GRC diagnostic work remains optical species measurement and flow stream characterization, an increased emphasis has been placed on our involvement in flame code validation efforts. A functional combustor code should shorten and streamline future combustor design. Quantitative measurements of flow parameters such as temperature, species concentration, drop size and velocity using such methods as Raman and phase Doppler anemometry will provide data necessary in this effort.

  9. "Rehabilitation schools for scoliosis" thematic series: describing the methods and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivas Theodoros B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Scoliosis Rehabilitation model begins with the correct diagnosis and evaluation of the patient, to make treatment decisions oriented to the patient. The treatment is based on observation, education, scoliosis specific exercises, and bracing. The state of research in the field of conservative treatment is insufficient. There is some evidence supporting scoliosis specific exercises as a part of the rehabilitation treatment, however, the evidence is poor and the different methods are not known by most of the scientific community. The only way to improve the knowledge and understanding of the different physiotherapy methodologies (specific exercises, integrated into the whole rehabilitation program, is to establish a single and comprehensive source of information about it. This is what the SCOLIOSIS Journal is going to do through the "Rehabilitation Schools for Scoliosis" Thematic Series, where technical papers coming from the different schools will be published.

  10. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Steven

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the

  11. The ACTwatch project: methods to describe anti-malarial markets in seven countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Policy makers, governments and donors are faced with an information gap when considering ways to improve access to artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and malaria diagnostics including rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). To help address some of these gaps, a five-year multi-country research project called ACTwatch was launched. The project is designed to provide a comprehensive picture of the anti-malarial market to inform national and international anti-malarial drug policy decision-making. Methods The project is being conducted in seven malaria-endemic countries: Benin, Cambodia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Nigeria, Uganda and Zambia from 2008 to 2012. ACTwatch measures which anti-malarials are available, where they are available and at what price and who they are used by. These indicators are measured over time and across countries through three study components: outlet surveys, supply chain studies and household surveys. Nationally representative outlet surveys examine the market share of different anti-malarials passing through public facilities and private retail outlets. Supply chain research provides a picture of the supply chain serving drug outlets, and measures mark-ups at each supply chain level. On the demand side, nationally representative household surveys capture treatment seeking patterns and use of anti-malarial drugs, as well as respondent knowledge of anti-malarials. Discussion The research project provides findings on both the demand and supply side determinants of anti-malarial access. There are four key features of ACTwatch. First is the overlap of the three study components where nationally representative data are collected over similar periods, using a common sampling approach. A second feature is the number and diversity of countries that are studied which allows for cross-country comparisons. Another distinguishing feature is its ability to measure trends over time. Finally, the project aims to disseminate

  12. Application of Statistical Method of Path Analysis to Describe Soil Biological Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kooch

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among the collection of natural resources in the world, soil is considered as one of the most important components of the environment. Protect and improve the properties of this precious resource, requires a comprehensive and coordinated action that only through a deep understanding of quantitative (not only recognition of the quality the origin, distribution and functionality in a natural ecosystem is possible. Many researchers believe that due to the quick reactions of soil organisms to environmental changes, soil biological survey to estimate soil quality is more important than the chemical and physical properties. For this reason, in many studies the nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration indices are regarded. The aim of the present study were to study the direct and indirect effects of soil physicochemical characteristics on the most important biological indicators (nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration, which has not been carefully considered up to now. This research is the first study to provide evidence to the future planning and management of soil sciences. Materials and Methods: For this, a limitation of 20 ha area of Experimental Forest Station of Tarbiat Modares University was considered. Fifty five soil samples, from the top 15 cm of soil, were taken, from which bulk density, texture, organic C, total N, cation exchange capacity (CEC, nitrogen mineralization and microbial respiration were determined at the laboratory. The data stored in Excel as a database. To determine the relationship between biological indices and soil physicochemical characteristics, correlation analysis and factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA were employed. To investigate all direct and indirect relationships between biological indices and different soil characteristics, path analysis (path analysis was used. Results and Discussion: Results showed significant positive relations between biological indices

  13. 40 CFR 76.15 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test methods and procedures. 76.15 Section 76.15 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.15 Test methods and procedures. (a) The...

  14. Measuring fuel moisture content in Alaska: standard methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodney A. Norum; Melanie. Miller

    1984-01-01

    Methods and procedures are given for collecting and processing living and dead plant materials for the purpose of determining their water content. Wild-land fuels in Alaska are emphasized, but the methodology is applicable elsewhere. Guides are given for determining the number of samples needed to attain a chosen precision. Detailed procedures are presented for...

  15. 20 CFR 652.208 - How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are core services and intensive services related to the methods of service delivery described in § 652.207(b)(2)? 652.208 Section 652.208 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND...

  16. Comparing the methods plot and point-centered quarter to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmino Cardoso Pereira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the effectiveness of the methods fixed area plots (AP and point-centered quarters (PQ to describe a woody community from typical Cerrado. We used 10 APs and 140 PQs, distributed into 5 transects. We compared the density of individuals, floristic composition, richness of families, genera, and species, and vertical and horizontal vegetation structure. The AP method was more effective to sample the density of individuals. The PQ method was more effective for characterizing species richness, vertical vegetation structure, and record of species with low abundance. The composition of families, genera, and species, as well as the species with higher importance value index in the community were similarly determined by the 2 methods. The methods compared are complementary. We suggest that the use of AP, PQ, or both methods may be aimed at the vegetation parameter under study.

  17. Describing control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouet, J.M.; Starynkevitch, B.

    1987-01-01

    Incremental development and maintenance of large systems imply that control be clearly separated from knowledge. Finding efficient control for a given class of knowledge is itself a matter of expertise, to which knowledge-based methods may and should be applied. We present here two attempts at building root systems that may later be tuned by knowledge engineers, using the semantics of each particular application. These systems are given heuristics in a declarative manner, which they use to control the application of heuristics. Eventually, some heuristics may be used to compile others (or themselves) into efficient pieces of programmed code

  18. Compensating customer-generators: a taxonomy describing methods of compensating customer-generators for electricity supplied to the grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry; Bell, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    The increasing popularity of on-site power generation is driving the demand for methods to compensate customer-generators that supply electricity to the grid. Although many practices exist for providing such compensation, confusion surrounds the terms often used to describe such practices (notably, net metering and net billing). To help clarify this situation, the following paper proposes a taxonomy that distinguishes between 16 distinct compensation practices

  19. Evaluation of Patient Radiation Dose during Cardiac Interventional Procedures: What Is the Most Effective Method?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, K.; Saito, H.; Ishibashi, T.; Zuguchi, M.; Kagaya, Y.; Takahashi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac interventional radiology has lower risks than surgical procedures. This is despite the fact that radiation doses from cardiac intervention procedures are the highest of any commonly performed general X-ray examination. Maximum radiation skin doses (MSDs) should be determined to avoid radiation-associated skin injuries in patients undergoing cardiac intervention procedures. However, real-time evaluation of MSD is unavailable for many cardiac intervention procedures. This review describes methods of determining MSD during cardiac intervention procedures. Currently, in most cardiac intervention procedures, real-time measuring of MSD is not feasible. Thus, we recommend that physicians record the patient's total entrance skin dose, such as the dose at the interventional reference point when it can be monitored, in order to estimate MSD in intervention procedures

  20. Current Human Reliability Analysis Methods Applied to Computerized Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring

    2012-06-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no US nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room (Fink et al., 2009). Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of enhanced ease of use and easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  1. On a computational method for modelling complex ecosystems by superposition procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shanyu.

    1986-12-01

    In this paper, the Superposition Procedure is concisely described, and a computational method for modelling a complex ecosystem is proposed. With this method, the information contained in acceptable submodels and observed data can be utilized to maximal degree. (author). 1 ref

  2. A rapid numerical method for solving Serre-Green-Naghdi equations describing long free surface gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.

    2017-07-01

    A new numerical method for solving the Serre-Green-Naghdi (SGN) equations describing dispersive waves on shallow water is proposed. From the mathematical point of view, the SGN equations are the Euler-Lagrange equations for a ‘master’ lagrangian submitted to a differential constraint which is the mass conservation law. One major numerical challenge in solving the SGN equations is the resolution of an elliptic problem at each time instant. This is the most time-consuming part of the numerical method. The idea is to replace the ‘master’ lagrangian by a one-parameter family of ‘augmented’ lagrangians, depending on a greater number of variables, for which the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations are hyperbolic. In such an approach, the ‘master’ lagrangian is recovered by the augmented lagrangian in some limit (for example, when the corresponding parameter is large). The choice of such a family of augmented lagrangians is proposed and discussed. The corresponding hyperbolic system is numerically solved by a Godunov type method. Numerical solutions are compared with exact solutions to the SGN equations. It appears that the computational time in solving the hyperbolic system is much lower than in the case where the elliptic operator is inverted. The new method is applied, in particular, to the study of ‘Favre waves’ representing non-stationary undular bores produced after reflection of the fluid flow with a free surface at an immobile wall.

  3. A Survey of Procedural Methods for Terrain Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelik, R.M.; Kraker, J.K. de; Groenewegen, S.A.; Tutenel, T.; Bidarra, R.

    2009-01-01

    Procedural methods are a promising but underused alternative to manual content creation. Commonly heard drawbacks are the randomness of and the lack of control over the output and the absence of integrated solutions, although more recent publications increasingly address these issues. This paper

  4. A Unique Method to Describe the Bonding Strength in a Bonded Solid–Solid Interface by Contact Acoustic Nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian-Jun, Chen; De, Zhang; Yi-Wei, Mao; Jian-Chun, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    We present a unique method to describe the bonding strength at a bonded solid–solid interface in a multilayered composite material by contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) parameter. A CAN model on the bonded solid–solid interface is depicted. It can be seen from the model that CAN parameter is very sensitive to the bonding strength at the interface. When an incident focusing acoustic longitudinal wave scans the interface in two dimensions, the transmitted wave can be used to extract CAN parameter. The contour of the bonding strength for a sample is obtained by CAN parameter. The results show that the region with weak bonding strength can be easily distinguished from the contour

  5. Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, Geertruida E; Kleijnen, Jos

    2008-11-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation.The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, 'the institute' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes.The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V ( http://www.sozialgesetzbuch.de ), Sects. 35b ( section 1), 139a ( section 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To implement a scoping

  6. [Procedures and methods of benefit assessments for medicines in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekkering, G E; Kleijnen, J

    2008-12-01

    The Federal Joint Committee (FJC; Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) defines the health-care elements that are to be reimbursed by sickness funds. To define a directive, the FJC can commission benefit assessments, which provide an overview of the scientific evidence regarding the efficacy and benefits of an intervention. This paper describes the operational implementation of the legal requirements with regard to the benefit assessments of medicines. Such benefit assessments are sometimes referred to as "isolated benefit assessments," to distinguish them from benefit assessments as part of a full economic evaluation. The FJC has the freedom to commission these assessments from any agency; however, to date the majority have commissioned the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG). Nevertheless, the content of this paper applies integrally to any institute commissioned for such assessments. In this report, "the institute"' is used when the text refers to any of these institutes. The legal framework for benefit assessments is laid out in the German Social Code Book version V (http://www. sozialgesetzbuch.de), Sects. 35b ( section sign 1), 139a ( section sign 4-6) and Sect. 139b ( section sign 3). It is specified that: The institute must guarantee high transparency. The institute must provide appropriate participation of relevant parties for the commission-related development of assessments, and opportunity for comment on all important segments of the assessment procedure. The institute has to report on the progress and results of the work at regular intervals. The institute is held to giving the commission to external experts. Based on the legal framework, the institute must guarantee a high procedural transparency. Transparency of the whole process should be achieved, which is evidenced by clear reporting of procedures and criteria in all phases undertaken in the benefit assessment. The most important means of enhancing transparency are: 1. To

  7. Methods for implementing revisions to emergency operating procedures. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, L.B.; Bell, A.J.

    1984-05-01

    In response to the Three Mile Island (TMI) accident, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published the TMI Action Plan. The TMI Action Plan Item I.C.1 called for the upgrading of Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) at nuclear power plants. The program developed from this Action Plan item has resulted in utility efforts to: (1) revise EOPs; (2) train personnel in the use of the EOPs; and (3) implement the revised EOPs. The NRC supported the study presented in this report to identify factors which influence the effectiveness of training and implementation of revised EOPs. The NRC's major concern was the possible effects of negative transfer of training. The report includes a summary of existing methods for implementing revisions to procedures based on interviews of plant personnel, a review of the training literature applicable to the effect of previously learned procedures on the learning of and performance with revised procedures (i.e., negative transfer) and recommendations of methods and schedules for implementing revised EOPs. While the study found that the concern over negative transfer of training was not as great as anticipated, several recommendations were made. These include: (1) overtraining of operators to reduce the effect of observed negative transfer; and (2) implementation of the revised EOPs as soon as possible after training to minimize the time operators must rely upon the old EOPs after having been trained on the revised EOPs. The results of the study should be useful both to the utilities and the NRC in the development and review of EOP implementation programs

  8. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S.

    2011-01-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  9. New procedure for criticality search using coarse mesh nodal methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wanderson F.; Silva, Fernando C. da; Martinez, Aquilino S., E-mail: wneto@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: fernando@con.ufrj.b, E-mail: Aquilino@lmp.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The coarse mesh nodal methods have as their primary goal to calculate the neutron flux inside the reactor core. Many computer systems use a specific form of calculation, which is called nodal method. In classical computing systems that use the criticality search is made after the complete convergence of the iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. In this paper, we proposed a new method for the calculation of criticality, condition which will be over very iterative process of calculating the neutron flux. Thus, the processing time for calculating the neutron flux was reduced by half compared with the procedure developed by the Nuclear Engineering Program of COPPE/UFRJ (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ). (author)

  10. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuchinke, W.; Ohmann, C.; Verheij, R.A.; Veen, E.B. van; Arvanitis, T.N.; Taweel, A.; Delaney, B.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data

  11. A comparative study of molecular and morphological methods of describing relationships between perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roldán-Ruiz, I.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.; Gilliland, T.J.; Dubreuil, P.; Dillmann, C.; Lallemand, J.; Loose, De M.; Baril, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample set of registered perennial ryegrass varieties was used to compare how morphological characterisation and AFLP® (AFLP® is a registered trademark of Keygene N.V.) and STS molecular markers described variety relationships. All the varieties were confirmed as morphologically distinct, and both

  12. Describing Case Study Method and Identifying the Factors that Contribute to the Successful Conduct of Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad H. Juma'h; Mustafa Cavus

    2001-01-01

    This article has attempted to describe case study, the limitations and critiques on case study methodology and how the proponents have responded to these. Our special focus have been on the debate on theory building from case study research, and a framework for conducting case study research as well as the factors for a successful case study research. The overall conclusion is that the case study has been inappropriately used to generate theories.

  13. An analytical method for solving exact solutions of a nonlinear evolution equation describing the dynamics of ionic currents along microtubules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nur Alam

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, a variety of solitary wave solutions are observed for microtubules (MTs. We approach the problem by treating the solutions as nonlinear RLC transmission lines and then find exact solutions of Nonlinear Evolution Equations (NLEEs involving parameters of special interest in nanobiosciences and biophysics. We determine hyperbolic, trigonometric, rational and exponential function solutions and obtain soliton-like pulse solutions for these equations. A comparative study against other methods demonstrates the validity of the technique that we developed and demonstrates that our method provides additional solutions. Finally, using suitable parameter values, we plot 2D and 3D graphics of the exact solutions that we observed using our method. Keywords: Analytical method, Exact solutions, Nonlinear evolution equations (NLEEs of microtubules, Nonlinear RLC transmission lines

  14. A standardised graphic method for describing data privacy frameworks in primary care research using a flexible zone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchinke, Wolfgang; Ohmann, Christian; Verheij, Robert A; van Veen, Evert-Ben; Arvanitis, Theodoros N; Taweel, Adel; Delaney, Brendan C

    2014-12-01

    To develop a model describing core concepts and principles of data flow, data privacy and confidentiality, in a simple and flexible way, using concise process descriptions and a diagrammatic notation applied to research workflow processes. The model should help to generate robust data privacy frameworks for research done with patient data. Based on an exploration of EU legal requirements for data protection and privacy, data access policies, and existing privacy frameworks of research projects, basic concepts and common processes were extracted, described and incorporated into a model with a formal graphical representation and a standardised notation. The Unified Modelling Language (UML) notation was enriched by workflow and own symbols to enable the representation of extended data flow requirements, data privacy and data security requirements, privacy enhancing techniques (PET) and to allow privacy threat analysis for research scenarios. Our model is built upon the concept of three privacy zones (Care Zone, Non-care Zone and Research Zone) containing databases, data transformation operators, such as data linkers and privacy filters. Using these model components, a risk gradient for moving data from a zone of high risk for patient identification to a zone of low risk can be described. The model was applied to the analysis of data flows in several general clinical research use cases and two research scenarios from the TRANSFoRm project (e.g., finding patients for clinical research and linkage of databases). The model was validated by representing research done with the NIVEL Primary Care Database in the Netherlands. The model allows analysis of data privacy and confidentiality issues for research with patient data in a structured way and provides a framework to specify a privacy compliant data flow, to communicate privacy requirements and to identify weak points for an adequate implementation of data privacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  15. The use of "mixing" procedure of mixed methods in health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Creswell, John

    2013-08-01

    Mixed methods research has emerged alongside qualitative and quantitative approaches as an important tool for health services researchers. Despite growing interest, among health services researchers, in using mixed methods designs, little has been done to identify the procedural aspects of doing so. To describe how mixed methods researchers mix the qualitative and quantitative aspects of their studies in health services research. We searched the PubMed for articles, using mixed methods in health services research, published between January 1, 2006 and December 30, 2010. We identified and reviewed 30 published health services research articles on studies in which mixed methods had been used. We selected 3 articles as illustrations to help health services researcher conceptualize the type of mixing procedures that they were using. Three main "mixing" procedures have been applied within these studies: (1) the researchers analyzed the 2 types of data at the same time but separately and integrated the results during interpretation; (2) the researchers connected the qualitative and quantitative portions in phases in such a way that 1 approach was built upon the findings of the other approach; and (3) the researchers mixed the 2 data types by embedding the analysis of 1 data type within the other. "Mixing" in mixed methods is more than just the combination of 2 independent components of the quantitative and qualitative data. The use of "mixing" procedure in health services research involves the integration, connection, and embedding of these 2 data components.

  16. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe, and Explain Differences Among Intact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonenboom, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a qualitative perspective, in which differences among…

  17. A Method and a Model for Describing Competence and Adjustment: A Preschool Version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Earl S.; Edgerton, Marianna D.

    A preschool version of the Classroom Behavior Inventory which provides a method for collecting valid data on a child's classroom behavior from day care and preschool teachers, was developed to complement the earlier form which was developed and validated for elementary school populations. The new version was tested with a pilot group of twenty-two…

  18. The Multilevel Mixed Intact Group Analysis: A Mixed Method to Seek, Detect, Describe and Explain Differences Between Intact Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, J.I.

    2014-01-01

    Educational innovations often involve intact subgroups, such as school classes or university departments. In small-scale educational evaluation research, typically involving 1 to 20 subgroups, differences among these subgroups are often neglected. This article presents a mixed method from a

  19. Symphony: A case study for exploring and describing design methods and guidelines for learner-centered design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Christopher

    Learner-centered design is an evolving software design perspective addressing the needs of learners---a specific audience trying to work in and understand new work practices in which they have a novice or naive understanding. Learner-centered design involves designing software that incorporates work support features (or scaffolding features) informed by social constructivist learning theories. By adopting a constructivist "learning by doing" perspective, scaffolds should support learners so they can mindfully engage in previously inaccessible work activity, which in turn allows those learners to progressively gain a better understanding of the new work. While there is an intuitive notion of "learner-centered design", there is less specific design information for developing learner-centered software. As a result, learner-centered software results from "educated guesses" and ad-hoc design approaches rather than from systematic design methods. Thus there is a need for specific design guidance to facilitate the development of learner-centered tools that help learners see the tasks, terminology, tools, etc. in the new work context and engage in that work. The research in this dissertation provides a more specific base of learner-centered design descriptions, methods, and guidelines to analyze work practices and design and evaluate scaffolds. The research approach involves using the development of Symphony---a scaffolded integrated tool environment for high-school students learning the work of computational science inquiry---as a case study to develop the learner-centered design approach. Symphony incorporates a variety of science tools with process scaffolding to support students in performing complex air pollution investigations. Six ninth-grade students used Symphony to investigate air quality questions for several weeks in an environmental science class. The student testing helped assess the effectiveness of the software scaffolding and in turn, the learner

  20. Variational method for inverting the Kohn-Sham procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadantsev, Eugene S.; Stott, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    A procedure based on a variational principle is developed for determining the local Kohn-Sham (KS) potential corresponding to a given ground-state electron density. This procedure is applied to calculate the exchange-correlation part of the effective Kohn-Sham (KS) potential for the neon atom and the methane molecule

  1. New method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures in radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K.B.; Lee, Jong-Man; Park, Tae Soon; Oh, J.S.; Oh, Pil-Jei

    2016-01-01

    We discuss a new method to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares procedures. The new method is based on an extension of the likelihood function from which a conventional least-squares function is derived. The extended likelihood function is the product of the original likelihood function with additional PDFs (Probability Density Functions) that characterize the Type B uncertainties. The PDFs are considered to describe one's incomplete knowledge on correction factors being called nuisance parameters. We use the extended likelihood function to make point and interval estimations of parameters in the basically same way as the least-squares function used in the conventional least-squares method is derived. Since the nuisance parameters are not of interest and should be prevented from appearing in the final result, we eliminate such nuisance parameters by using the profile likelihood. As an example, we present a case study for a linear regression analysis with a common component of Type B uncertainty. In this example we compare the analysis results obtained from using our procedure with those from conventional methods. - Highlights: • A new method proposed to incorporate Type B uncertainty into least-squares method. • The method constructed from the likelihood function and PDFs of Type B uncertainty. • A case study performed to compare results from the new and the conventional method. • Fitted parameters are consistent but with larger uncertainties in the new method.

  2. Primer on consumer marketing research : procedures, methods, and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The Volpe Center developed a marketing research primer which provides a guide to the approach, procedures, and research tools used by private industry in predicting consumer response. The final two chapters of the primer focus on the challenges of do...

  3. Procedure Redesign Methods : E3-Control: a redesign methodology for control procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Hofman, W.J.; Tan, Y.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter highlights the core research methodology, e3-control, that is applied throughout the ITAIDE project for the purpose of control procedure redesign. We present the key concept of the e3-control methodology and its technical guidelines. Based on the output of this chapter, domain experts

  4. Procedures of water desalination with solar energy and f-chart method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Andrija A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rapid population growth, and climate change caused by environmental pollution needs for drinking water are increasing while amount of freshwater are decreasing. However possible solution for freshwater scarcity can be found in water desalination procedures. In this article three representative water desalination solar powered plants are described. Except explanation of processes it is also mentioned basic advantages and disadvantages of humidification, reverse osmosis and desalination evaporation by using solar energy. Simulation of the solar desalination system is analyzed with f-chart method monthly, located on located 42 degrees north latitude.

  5. 40 CFR 60.583 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Flexible Vinyl... following procedures: (1) Determine and record the VOC content and amount of each ink used at the print head...' formulation data along with plant blending records (if plant blending is done) may be used to determine VOC...

  6. European wind turbine procedure development blade test methods and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulder, B H; Dam, J J.D. van; Delft, D R.V. van [and others

    1999-03-01

    In this paper the preliminary results obtained by performing the second task of the `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development` project are presented. This project is performed within and with financial support of the Standards, Measurements and Testing programme of the European Commission. (au)

  7. Control of Risks Through the Use of Procedures: A Method for Evaluating the Change in Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praino, Gregory T.; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    not. The model used for describing the Failure Likelihood considers how well a task was established by evaluating that task on five components. The components selected to define a well established task are: that it be defined, assigned to someone capable, that they be trained appropriately, that the actions be organized to enable proper completion and that some form of independent monitoring be performed. Validation of the method was based on the information provided by a group of experts in Space Shuttle ground processing when they were presented with 5 scenarios that identified a clause from a procedure. For each scenario, they recorded their perception of how important the associated rule was and how likely it was to fail. They then rated the components of Control Value and Failure Likelihood for all the scenarios. The order in which each reviewer ranked the scenarios Control Value and Failure Likelihood was compared to the order in which they ranked the scenarios for each of the associated components; inevitability and opportunity for Control Value and definition, assignment, training, organization and monitoring for Failure Likelihood. This order comparison showed how the components contributed to a relative relationship to the substitute risk element. With the relationship established for Space Shuttle ground processing, this method can be used to gauge if the introduction or removal of a particular rule will increase or decrease the .risk associated with the hazard it is intended to control.

  8. State Token Petri Net modeling method for formal verification of computerized procedure including operator's interruptions of procedure execution flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Goo; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The Computerized Procedure System (CPS) is one of the primary operating support systems in the digital Main Control Room. The CPS displays procedure on the computer screen in the form of a flow chart, and displays plant operating information along with procedure instructions. It also supports operator decision making by providing a system decision. A procedure flow should be correct and reliable, as an error would lead to operator misjudgement and inadequate control. In this paper we present a modeling for the CPS that enables formal verification based on Petri nets. The proposed State Token Petri Nets (STPN) also support modeling of a procedure flow that has various interruptions by the operator, according to the plant condition. STPN modeling is compared with Coloured Petri net when they are applied to Emergency Operating Computerized Procedure. A converting program for Computerized Procedure (CP) to STPN has been also developed. The formal verification and validation methods of CP with STPN increase the safety of a nuclear power plant and provide digital quality assurance means that are needed when the role and function of the CPS is increasing.

  9. Research note: Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  10. 25 CFR 900.73 - Is a lease with the Secretary the only method available to recover the types of cost described in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Is a lease with the Secretary the only method available to recover the types of cost described in § 900.70? 900.73 Section 900.73 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... by the Secretary § 900.73 Is a lease with the Secretary the only method available to recover the...

  11. 2 CFR 801.437 - What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What method do I use to communicate to a participant the requirements described in the OMB guidance at 2 CFR 180.435? 801.437 Section 801.437 Grants... NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Responsibilities of Federal Agency Officials Regarding Transactions § 801...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1257 - Test methods and compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or properties... flow rate and concentration; temperature; and the reaction kinetics of the constituents with the... Method 8260 or 8270 in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical Methods,” EPA...

  13. A Simple Method for Identifying the Acromioclavicular Joint During Arthroscopic Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Javed, Saqib; Heasley, Richard; Ravenscroft, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Arthroscopic acromioclavicular joint excision is performed via an anterior portal and is technically demanding. We present a simple method for identifying the acromioclavicular joint during arthroscopic procedures.

  14. Radon in air calibration procedure: A primary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F.; Markun, F.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for preparing 3- to 9-iota volumes of air under natural conditions with a known concentration of /sup 222/Rn to be used for calibrating radon systems. Air is passed into a plastic bag through a standard /sup 226/Ra solution (prepared by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) contained in an emanation flask. This plastic bag retains /sup 222/Rn with little loss into or through the bag walls. The mean ratios of the /sup 222/Rn in the air at 2 and 7 days after filling to that immediately after filling were -.992 +- 0.006 and 0.969 +- 0.008, which suggests a rate of radon loss into the bag of 0.4 +- 0.1%/day

  15. 40 CFR 63.750 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... method in production on actual production parts or assemblies for a period of time sufficient to coat an... a laboratory or pilot production area, using parts and coatings representative of the process(es) where the alternative method is to be used. The laboratory test will use the same part configuration(s...

  16. 40 CFR 60.46 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... material balance over the steam generating system shall be used to confirm the rate. (d) The owner or...-Fired Steam Generators for Which Construction Is Commenced After August 17, 1971 § 60.46 Test methods... D2015, or D5865 (solid fuels), D240 (liquid fuels), or D1826 (gaseous fuels) (all of these methods are...

  17. A Method of Separation Assurance for Instrument Flight Procedures at Non-Radar Airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sheila R.; Consiglio, Maria

    2002-01-01

    A method to provide automated air traffic separation assurance services during approach to or departure from a non-radar, non-towered airport environment is described. The method is constrained by provision of these services without radical changes or ambitious investments in current ground-based technologies. The proposed procedures are designed to grant access to a large number of airfields that currently have no or very limited access under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), thus increasing mobility with minimal infrastructure investment. This paper primarily addresses a low-cost option for airport and instrument approach infrastructure, but is designed to be an architecture from which a more efficient, albeit more complex, system may be developed. A functional description of the capabilities in the current NAS infrastructure is provided. Automated terminal operations and procedures are introduced. Rules of engagement and the operations are defined. Results of preliminary simulation testing are presented. Finally, application of the method to more terminal-like operations, and major research areas, including necessary piloted studies, are discussed.

  18. Performance assessment of semiempirical molecular orbital methods in describing halogen bonding: quantum mechanical and quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical-molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud A A

    2011-10-24

    The performance of semiempirical molecular-orbital methods--MNDO, MNDO-d, AM1, RM1, PM3 and PM6--in describing halogen bonding was evaluated, and the results were compared with molecular mechanical (MM) and quantum mechanical (QM) data. Three types of performance were assessed: (1) geometrical optimizations and binding energy calculations for 27 halogen-containing molecules complexed with various Lewis bases (Two of the tested methods, AM1 and RM1, gave results that agree with the QM data.); (2) charge distribution calculations for halobenzene molecules, determined by calculating the solvation free energies of the molecules relative to benzene in explicit and implicit generalized Born (GB) solvents (None of the methods gave results that agree with the experimental data.); and (3) appropriateness of the semiempirical methods in the hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) scheme, investigated by studying the molecular inhibition of CK2 protein by eight halobenzimidazole and -benzotriazole derivatives using hybrid QM/MM molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with the inhibitor described at the QM level by the AM1 method and the rest of the system described at the MM level. The pure MM approach with inclusion of an extra point of positive charge on the halogen atom approach gave better results than the hybrid QM/MM approach involving the AM1 method. Also, in comparison with the pure MM-GBSA (generalized Born surface area) binding energies and experimental data, the calculated QM/MM-GBSA binding energies of the inhibitors were improved by replacing the G(GB,QM/MM) solvation term with the corresponding G(GB,MM) term.

  19. Procedures and Methods for Cross-community Online Deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Velikanov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce our model of self-regulated mass online deliberation, and apply it to a context of cross-border deliberation involving translation of contributions between participating languages, and then to a context of cross-community online deliberation for dispute resolution, e.g. between opposing ethnic or religious communities. In such a cross-border or cross-community context, online deliberation should preferably progress as a sequence of segmented phases each followed by a combining phase. In a segmented phase, each community deliberates separately, and selects their best contributions for being presented to all other communities. Selection is made by using our proposed mechanism of mutual moderation and appraisal of contributions by participants themselves. In the subsequent combining phase, the selected contributions are translated (by volunteering or randomly selected participants among those who have specified appropriate language skills and presented to target segments for further appraisal and commenting. Our arguments in support of the proposed mutual moderation and appraisal procedures remain mostly speculative, as the whole subject of mass online self-regulatory deliberation still remains largely unexplored, and there exist no practical realisation of it .

  20. 40 CFR 60.547 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for the Rubber Tire...) Method 24 or formulation data for the determination of the VOC content of cements or green tire spray... green tire spray sample shall be a 1-liter sample collected in a 1-liter container at a point where the...

  1. Method and structure for an improved data reformatting procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Siddhartha [Yorktown Heights, NY; Gunnels, John A [Brewster, NY; Gustavson, Fred Gehrung [Briarcliff Manor, NY

    2009-06-30

    A method (and structure) of managing memory in which a low-level mechanism is executed to signal, in a sequence of instructions generated at a higher level, that at least a portion of a contiguous area of memory is permitted to be overwritten.

  2. 40 CFR 60.664 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., respectively, dry basis, ppm by volume. Mij, Moj=Molecular weight of sample component “j” of the gas stream at... sites. The control device inlet sampling site for determination of vent stream molar composition or TOC... after the recovery system. (2) Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate, for determination of the gas...

  3. 40 CFR 60.704 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sites. The control device inlet sampling site for determination of vent stream molar composition or TOC... after the recovery system. (2) Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D, as appropriate, for determination of the gas...=Concentration of TOC corrected to 3 percent O2, dry basis, ppm by volume. CTOC=Concentration of TOC (minus...

  4. 40 CFR 63.425 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum allowable 5-minute pressure increase is 130 mm H2 O (5 in. H2 O). (f) Leak detection test. The leak detection test shall be performed using Method 21, appendix A, 40 CFR part 60, except omit section... between each leak detection. The duration of the purge shall be in excess of two instrument response times...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1046 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Oil-Water Separators and Organic-Water Separators § 63.1046 Test methods... vapor leakage could occur) on the cover and associated closure devices shall be checked. Potential leak... test, the cover and closure devices shall be secured in the closed position. (3) The detection...

  6. 40 CFR 60.85 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... flow rate of the effluent gas, dscm/hr (dscf/hr). P=production rate of 100 percent H2SO4, metric ton/hr... the volumetric flow rate and production rate: (i) The integrated technique of Method 3 is used to... mist and SO2 concentrations (C's) and the volumetric flow rate (Qsd) of the effluent gas. The moisture...

  7. 20 CFR 361.13 - Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. 361.13 Section 361.13 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD INTERNAL ADMINISTRATION... § 361.13 Procedures for salary offset: Methods of collection. (a) General. A debt will be collected by...

  8. 7 CFR 400.138 - Procedures for salary offset; methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset; methods of collection. 400.138 Section 400.138 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL... Management-Regulations for the 1986 and Succeeding Crop Years § 400.138 Procedures for salary offset; methods...

  9. 7 CFR 3.83 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 3.83 Section 3.83 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DEBT MANAGEMENT Federal Salary Offset § 3.83 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. (a) General. A debt will be collected...

  10. 24 CFR 17.136 - Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection. 17.136 Section 17.136 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary... the Government Salary Offset Provisions § 17.136 Procedures for salary offset: methods of collection...

  11. Test of a mosquito eggshell isolation method and subsampling procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, P A; Streever, W J

    1997-03-01

    Production of Aedes vigilax, the common salt-marsh mosquito, can be assessed by determining eggshell densities found in soil. In this study, 14 field-collected eggshell samples were used to test a subsampling technique and compare eggshell counts obtained with a flotation method to those obtained by direct examination of sediment (DES). Relative precision of the subsampling technique was assessed by determining the minimum number of subsamples required to estimate the true mean and confidence interval of a sample at a predetermined confidence level. A regression line was fitted to cube-root transformed eggshell counts obtained from flotation and DES and found to be significant (P eggshells present. Eggshells obtained with the flotation method can be used to predict those from DES using the following equation: DES count = [1.386 x (flotation count)0.33 - 0.01]3.

  12. Suprapubic cystostomy for neurogenic bladder using Lowsley retractor method: a procedure revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edokpolo, Leonard U; Foster, Harris E

    2011-11-01

    To report our experience with the Lowsley retractor method for suprapubic cystostomy (SPC) in patients with neurogenic bladder (NGB). A retrospective study was performed of 44 patients with NGB who underwent SPC with the Lowsley retractor method. The subjects were selected from 90 patients undergoing SPC by 1 surgeon from 1995 to 2010. The age, sex, indication, anesthesia type, catheter type, blood loss, fluids administered, and duration and complications were recorded. A total of 49 primary catheter placements were performed in 44 patients. A total of 23 men and 21 women were included. The etiology of NGB was spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis in 38 subjects (86%). The mean age was 44 years (range 18-86). The cases were performed under general anesthesia, except for 8 (16%) that were successfully performed with local and monitored anesthesia. The operation time documented in 19 cases (39%) was 20.2 ± 5.5 minutes (range 11-31). The Foley catheter size ranged from 16F to 22F. The blood loss was minimal, and there were no intraoperative complications or incorrect catheter placements. One patient returned with significant hematuria 1 day after the procedure. No other minor or major complications were noted. Patients with NGB have been shown to have a greater risk of complication during percutaneous suprapubic catheter placement. SPC using the Lowsley retractor was described by Zeidman et al in 1988. Their report did not detail the patient characteristics or operative experience. To our knowledge, no other institutional experience with the technique has been reported. The present report describes the Lowsley retractor method as a quick and safe ambulatory procedure for patients with NGB. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. 40 CFR 61.245 - Test methods and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: EC15NO91.055 Where: HT = Net heating value of the sample, MJ/scm (BTU/scf); where the net enthalpy per mole....740 × 10 7 (g-mole) (MJ)/(ppm-scm-kcal) (metric units); or 4.674 × 108 ((g-mole) (Btu)/(ppm-scf-kcal)) (English units) Ci = Concentration of sample component “i” in ppm, as measured by Method 18 of appendix A...

  14. Quality assurance manual plutonium liquid scintillation methods and procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.

    1997-01-01

    Nose swipe analysis is a very important tool for Radiation Protection personnel. Nose swipe analysis is a very fast and accurate method for (1) determining if a worker has been exposed to airborne plutonium contamination and (2) Identifying the area where there has been a possible plutonium release. Liquid scintillation analysis techniques have been effectively applied to accurately determine the plutonium alpha activity on nose swipe media. Whatman-40 paper and Q-Tips are the only two media which have been evaluated and can be used for nose swipe analysis. Presently, only Q-Tips are used by Group HSE-1 Radiation Protection Personnel. However, both swipe media will be discussed in this report

  15. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  16. Repairing methods of steam turbine blades using welding procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, Z.; Cristalinas, V.; Kubiak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The steam turbine blades are subjected to the natural permanent wear or damage, which may be of mechanical or metallurgical origin. The typical damage occurring during the lifetime of turbine blading may be erosion, corrosion, foreign objects damage, rubbing and cracking caused by high cycle fatigue and creep crack growth. The nozzle and diaphragm vanes (stationary blades) of the steam turbine are elements whose damage is commonly occurring and they require special repair processes. The damage of the blade trailing edge of nozzle and diaphragm vanes, due to the former causes, may be refurbished by welding deposits or stainless steel inserts welded to the blades. Both repair methods of the stationary steam turbine blades are presented. The results of the blades refurbishment are an increase of the turbine availability, reliability and efficiency, and a decrease of the risk that failure will occur. Also, the repair cost versus the spare blades cost represent significant reduction of expenditure. 7 refs

  17. Methods for qualification of highly reliable software - international procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersken, M.

    1997-01-01

    Despite the advantages of computer-assisted safety technology, there still is some uneasyness to be observed with respect to the novel processes, resulting from absence of a body of generally accepted and uncontentious qualification guides (regulatory provisions, standards) for safety evaluation of the computer codes applied. Warranty of adequate protection of the population, operators or plant components is an essential aspect in this context, too - as it is in general with reliability and risk assessment of novel technology - so that, due to appropriate legislation still missing, there currently is a licensing risk involved in the introduction of digital safety systems. Nevertheless, there is some extent of agreement within the international community and utility operators about what standards and measures should be applied for qualification of software of relevance to plant safety. The standard IEC 880/IEC 86/ in particular, in its original version, or national documents based on this standard, are applied in all countries using or planning to install those systems. A novel supplement to this standard, document /IEC 96/, is in the process of finalization and defines the requirements to be met by modern methods of software engineering. (orig./DG) [de

  18. Methods of Investigation of Equations that Describe Waves in Tubes with Elastic Walls and Application of the Theory of Reversible and Weak Dissipative Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Various models of a tube with elastic walls are investigated: with controlled pressure, filled with incompressible fluid, filled with compressible gas. The non-linear theory of hyperelasticity is applied. The walls of a tube are described with complete membrane model. It is proposed to use linear model of plate in order to take the bending resistance of walls into account. The walls of the tube were treated previously as inviscid and incompressible. Compressibility of material of walls and viscosity of material, either gas or liquid are considered. Equations are solved numerically. Three-layer time and space centered reversible numerical scheme and similar two-layer space reversible numerical scheme with approximation of time derivatives by Runge-Kutta method are used. A method of correction of numerical schemes by inclusion of terms with highorder derivatives is developed. Simplified hyperbolic equations are derived.

  19. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number method: How to mend a wrong soil moisture accounting procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Claude; Andréassian, Vazken; Perrin, Charles

    2005-02-01

    This paper unveils major inconsistencies in the age-old and yet efficient Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) procedure. Our findings are based on an analysis of the continuous soil moisture accounting procedure implied by the SCS-CN equation. It is shown that several flaws plague the original SCS-CN procedure, the most important one being a confusion between intrinsic parameter and initial condition. A change of parameterization and a more complete assessment of the initial condition lead to a renewed SCS-CN procedure, while keeping the acknowledged efficiency of the original method.

  20. Proposal for an Evaluation Method for the Performance of Work Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mouda; Mébarek, Djebabra; Wafa, Boulagouas; Makhlouf, Chati

    2016-12-01

    Noncompliance of operators with work procedures is a recurrent problem. This human behavior has been said to be situational and studied by many different approaches (ergonomic and others), which consider the noncompliance with work procedures to be obvious and seek to analyze its causes as well as consequences. The object of the proposed method is to solve this problem by focusing on the performance of work procedures and ensuring improved performance on a continuous basis. This study has multiple results: (1) assessment of the work procedures' performance by a multicriteria approach; (2) the use of a continuous improvement approach as a framework for the sustainability of the assessment method of work procedures' performance; and (3) adaptation of the Stop-Card as a facilitator support for continuous improvement of work procedures. The proposed method emphasizes to put in value the inputs of continuous improvement of the work procedures in relation with the conventional approaches which adopt the obvious evidence of the noncompliance to the working procedures and seek to analyze the cause-effect relationships related to this unacceptable phenomenon, especially in strategic industry.

  1. Risk Control Through the Use of Procedures - A Method for Evaluating the Change in Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praino, Gregory; Sharit, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Organizations use procedures to influence or control the behavior of their workers, but often have no basis for determining whether an additional rule, or procedural control will be beneficial. This paper outlines a proposed method for determining if the addition or removal of procedural controls will impact the occurrences of critical consequences. The proposed method focuses on two aspects: how valuable the procedural control is, based on the inevitability of the consequence and the opportunity to intervene; and how likely the control is to fail, based on five procedural design elements that address how well the rule or control has been Defined, Assigned, Trained, Organized and Monitored-referred to as the DATOM elements

  2. Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the radon grab-sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1986-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Remedial Action and Waste Technology established the Technical Measurements Center to provide standardization, calibration, comparability, verification of data, quality assurance, and cost-effectiveness for the measurement requirements of DOE remedial action programs. One of the remedial-action measurement needs is the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration. One method for accomplishing such estimations in support of DOE remedial action programs is the radon grab-sampling method. This manual describes procedures for radon grab sampling, with the application specifically directed to the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in highly ventilated structures. This particular application of the measurement method is for cases where RDC estimates derived from long-term integrated measurements under occupied conditions are below the standard and where the structure being evaluated is considered to be highly ventilated. The radon grab-sampling method requires that sampling be conducted under standard maximized conditions. Briefly, the procedure for radon grab sampling involves the following steps: selection of sampling and counting equipment; sample acquisition and processing, including data reduction; calibration of equipment, including provisions to correct for pressure effects when sampling at various elevations; and incorporation of quality-control and assurance measures. This manual describes each of the above steps in detail and presents an example of a step-by-step radon grab-sampling procedure using a scintillation cell

  3. Quality-assurance procedures: Method 5G determination of particulate emissions from wood heaters from a dilution tunnel sampling location

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, T.E.; Hartman, M.W.; Olin, R.C.; Rives, G.D.

    1989-06-01

    Quality-assurance procedures are contained in this comprehensive document intended to be used as an aid for wood-heater manufacturers and testing laboratories in performing particulate matter sampling of wood heaters according to EPA protocol, Method 5G. These procedures may be used in research and development, and as an aid in auditing and certification testing. A detailed, step-by-step quality assurance guide is provided to aid in the procurement and assembly of testing apparatus, to clearly describe the procedures, and to facilitate data collection and reporting. Suggested data sheets are supplied that can be used as an aid for both recordkeeping and certification applications. Throughout the document, activity matrices are provided to serve as a summary reference. Checklists are also supplied that can be used by testing personnel. Finally, for the purposes of ensuring data quality, procedures are outlined for apparatus operation, maintenance, and traceability. These procedures combined with the detailed description of the sampling and analysis protocol will help ensure the accuracy and reliability of Method 5G emission-testing results.

  4. A Mixed Methods Small Pilot Study to Describe the Effects of Upper Limb Training Using a Virtual Reality Gaming System in People with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Stockley

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This small pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an upper limb rehabilitation system (the YouGrabber in a community rehabilitation centre, qualitatively explore participant experiences, and describe changes after using it. Methods and Material. Chronic stroke participants attending a community rehabilitation centre in the UK were randomised to either a YouGrabber or a gym group and completed 18 training sessions over 12 weeks. The motor activity log, box and block, and fatigue severity score were administered by a blinded assessor before and after the intervention. Semistructured interviews were used to ascertain participants’ views about using the YouGrabber. Results. Twelve participants (6 females with chronic stroke were recruited. All adhered to the intervention. There were no adverse events, dropouts, or withdrawal. There were no significant differences between the YouGrabber and gym groups although there were significant within group improvements on the motor activity log (median change: 0.59, range: 0.2–1.25; p<0.05 within the YouGrabber group. Participants reported that the YouGrabber was motivational but they expressed frustration with technical challenges. Conclusions. The YouGrabber appeared practical and may improve upper limb activities in people several months after stroke. Future work could examine cognition, cost effectiveness, and different training intensities.

  5. A Mixed Methods Small Pilot Study to Describe the Effects of Upper Limb Training Using a Virtual Reality Gaming System in People with Chronic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockley, Rachel C; O'Connor, Deborah A; Smith, Phil; Moss, Sylvia; Allsop, Lizzie; Edge, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction . This small pilot study aimed to examine the feasibility of an upper limb rehabilitation system (the YouGrabber) in a community rehabilitation centre, qualitatively explore participant experiences, and describe changes after using it. Methods and Material . Chronic stroke participants attending a community rehabilitation centre in the UK were randomised to either a YouGrabber or a gym group and completed 18 training sessions over 12 weeks. The motor activity log, box and block, and fatigue severity score were administered by a blinded assessor before and after the intervention. Semistructured interviews were used to ascertain participants' views about using the YouGrabber. Results . Twelve participants (6 females) with chronic stroke were recruited. All adhered to the intervention. There were no adverse events, dropouts, or withdrawal. There were no significant differences between the YouGrabber and gym groups although there were significant within group improvements on the motor activity log (median change: 0.59, range: 0.2-1.25; p < 0.05) within the YouGrabber group. Participants reported that the YouGrabber was motivational but they expressed frustration with technical challenges. Conclusions . The YouGrabber appeared practical and may improve upper limb activities in people several months after stroke. Future work could examine cognition, cost effectiveness, and different training intensities.

  6. A new method to describe two-phase solvent extraction based on net transport potential derived as linear combinations of forward and reverse constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, Masahiro

    1998-01-01

    With the view to avoiding the difficulties encountered in estimating thermodynamic activities of the multiple chemical species in two-phase liquid system, a set of forward, reverse, net and total transport potentials are defined to represent the chemical state of a transferring solute during transient using bulk concentrations. The net transport potential corresponds to that in the conventional two-film model of diffusion-controlled processes. The overall driving forces of mass transport are redefined as the derivatives of the relevant transport potentials differentiated with respect to a state variable newly defined in terms of the bulk concentrations of the solute contained in both phases. Net and total quantities, i.e. transport potentials, overall driving forces and the molar fluxes are obtained as linear combinations of those for forward and reverse directions. The topical features presented by these quantities and their mutual relations are discussed in detail. The experimental new overall transport coefficient for U(VI) varied in accord with the changes in the theoretical net transport potential and overall driving force. The present method permits describing the extractive mass transport consistently both to forward and reverse directions of transport. (author)

  7. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed method design related to the use of a combination of methods, usually quantitative and qualitative, is increasingly used for the investigation of complex phenomena. This review discusses the book, "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures," by Janice M. MORSE and Linda NIEHAUS. A distinctive feature of their approach is the consideration of mixed methods design out of a core and a supplemental component. In order to define these components they emphasize the overall conceptual dir...

  8. HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS FOR COMPUTERIZED PROCEDURES, PART TWO: APPLICABILITY OF CURRENT METHODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2012-10-01

    Computerized procedures (CPs) are an emerging technology within nuclear power plant control rooms. While CPs have been implemented internationally in advanced control rooms, to date no U.S. nuclear power plant has implemented CPs in its main control room. Yet, CPs are a reality of new plant builds and are an area of considerable interest to existing plants, which see advantages in terms of easier records management by omitting the need for updating hardcopy procedures. The overall intent of this paper is to provide a characterization of human reliability analysis (HRA) issues for computerized procedures. It is beyond the scope of this document to propose a new HRA approach or to recommend specific methods or refinements to those methods. Rather, this paper serves as a review of current HRA as it may be used for the analysis and review of computerized procedures.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1365 - Test methods and initial compliance procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... permit limit applicable to the process vent. (D) Design analysis based on accepted chemical engineering... concentration, temperature, and the reaction kinetics of the constituents with the scrubbing liquid. The design... procedures specified in Method 8260 or 8270 in “Test Methods for Evaluating Solid Waste, Physical/Chemical...

  10. A method for risk informing procedures at operating nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P. F.; Martin del Campo, C., E-mail: pnelson_007@yahoo.com [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Paseo Cuauhnahuac No. 8532, Col. Progreso, 62550 Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-10-15

    The technical approach presented establishes a framework intended to provide the necessary elements for a deployable human performance monitoring program that incorporates insights from plant specific probabilistic risk assessments, human reliability analysis, as well as the development of plant specific human failure data. A human performance monitoring program of this structure would be used to provide the ability to risk inform procedures (e.g., operations or maintenance) to determine the operational risk significance of procedural performance (i.e., precautions, prerequisites, procedure steps), the likelihood of consequential human error dur the performance of the procedure, and the identification of procedure specific barriers to reduce or eliminate consequential human errors. The program would provide the means to assess procedures prior to execution and the means to record and trend human failure events leading to a plant specific human failure database for human activities characterized as pre-initiator. The technical methods and data processing for each of these areas are developed and presented, as well as an example application of an operational procedure error leading to a plant level event (i.e, plant trip). (Author)

  11. Parallel iterative procedures for approximate solutions of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Parallel iterative procedures based on domain decomposition techniques are defined and analyzed for the numerical solution of wave propagation by finite element and finite difference methods. For finite element methods, in a Lagrangian framework, an efficient way for choosing the algorithm parameter as well as the algorithm convergence are indicated. Some heuristic arguments for finding the algorithm parameter for finite difference schemes are addressed. Numerical results are presented to indicate the effectiveness of the methods.

  12. Pharmacobezoars described and demystified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Serge-Emile

    2011-02-01

    A bezoar is a concretion of foreign material that forms and persists in the gastrointestinal tract. Bezoars are classified by their material origins. Phytobezoars contain plant material, trichobezoars contain hair, lactobezoars contain milk proteins, and pharmacobezoars contain pharmaceutical products. Tablets, suspensions, and even insoluble drug delivery vehicles can, on rare occasions, and sometimes under specific circumstances, form pharmacobezoars. The goal of this review is to catalog and examine all of the available reports in the English language medical literature that convincingly describe the formation and management of pharmacobezoars. Articles included in this review were identified by performing searches using the terms "bezoar," "pharmacobezoar," and "concretion" in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, and JSTOR. The complete MEDLINE and JSTOR holdings were included in the search without date ranges. The results were limited to English language publications. Articles that described nonmedication bezoars were not included in the review. Articles describing phytobezoars, food bezoars, fecal impactions, illicit drug packet ingestions, enteral feeding material bezoars, and hygroscopic diet aid bezoars were excluded. The bibliographic references within the articles already accumulated were then examined in order to gather additional pharmacobezoar cases. The cases are grouped by pharmaceutical agent that formed the bezoar, and groupings are arranged in alphabetical order. Discussions and conclusions specific to each pharmaceutical agent are included in that agent's subheading. Patterns and themes that emerged in the review of the assembled case reports are reviewed and presented in a more concise format. Pharmacobezoars form under a wide variety of circumstances and in a wide variety of patients. They are difficult to diagnose reliably. Rules for suspecting, diagnosing, and properly managing a pharmacobezoar are highly dependent on the

  13. [Deep mycoses rarely described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, D

    1986-01-01

    Beside deep mycoses very well known: histoplasmosis, candidosis, cryptococcosis, there are other mycoses less frequently described. Some of them are endemic in some countries: South American blastomycosis in Brazil, coccidioidomycosis in California; some others are cosmopolitan and may affect everyone: sporotrichosis, or may affect only immunodeficient persons: mucormycosis. They do not spare Africa, we may encounter basidiobolomycosis, rhinophycomycosis, dermatophytosis, sporotrichosis and, more recently reported, rhinosporidiosis. Important therapeutic progresses have been accomplished with amphotericin B and with antifungus imidazole compounds (miconazole and ketoconazole). Surgical intervention is sometime recommended in chromomycosis and rhinosporidiosis.

  14. The International Classification of Disability, Functioning and Health (ICF) - an example of research methods and language in describing 'social functioning' in medical research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte

    2016-01-01

    Medical research ventures into the area of social life with a holistic approach to health and disabilities. However, the specific language developed for this kind of research in the 'ICF' model (adopted by the UN) loses sight of the very phenomena it aims at describing. By contrast, based...

  15. THE PROCEDURE OF REALIZATION OF THE DIDACTIC PRINCIPLE OF VISUAL METHOD IN AN EDUCATIONAL LABORATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatolii H. Protasov

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the procedure of realization of the main didactic principle – use visual method which becomes an essential factor of student perception of educational sources. The procedure is realized with series of laboratory works which are based on the principle – “device-computer-software”. The transformers of a physical magnitude into electrical signal are used in laboratory works. The combination of these transformers and a computer form the device which can measure a physical magnitude. The software allows reconstructing a virtual field distribution of this magnitude in area and observing its history. MATLAB is used as software and it provides with computation of different physical processes. The proposed procedure provides with a direct visual method and an indirect one as well. This matter promotes forming future specialists’ professional competence.

  16. How Mathematics Describes Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    The circle of life is something we have all heard of from somewhere, but we don't usually try to calculate it. For some time we have been working on analyzing a predator-prey model to better understand how mathematics can describe life, in particular the interaction between two different species. The model we are analyzing is called the Holling-Tanner model, and it cannot be solved analytically. The Holling-Tanner model is a very common model in population dynamics because it is a simple descriptor of how predators and prey interact. The model is a system of two differential equations. The model is not specific to any particular set of species and so it can describe predator-prey species ranging from lions and zebras to white blood cells and infections. One thing all these systems have in common are critical points. A critical point is a value for both populations that keeps both populations constant. It is important because at this point the differential equations are equal to zero. For this model there are two critical points, a predator free critical point and a coexistence critical point. Most of the analysis we did is on the coexistence critical point because the predator free critical point is always unstable and frankly less interesting than the coexistence critical point. What we did is consider two regimes for the differential equations, large B and small B. B, A, and C are parameters in the differential equations that control the system where B measures how responsive the predators are to change in the population, A represents predation of the prey, and C represents the satiation point of the prey population. For the large B case we were able to approximate the system of differential equations by a single scalar equation. For the small B case we were able to predict the limit cycle. The limit cycle is a process of the predator and prey populations growing and shrinking periodically. This model has a limit cycle in the regime of small B, that we solved for

  17. New Described Dermatological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müzeyyen Gönül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many advances in dermatology have been made in recent years. In the present review article, newly described disorders from the last six years are presented in detail. We divided these reports into different sections, including syndromes, autoinflammatory diseases, tumors, and unclassified disease. Syndromes included are “circumferential skin creases Kunze type” and “unusual type of pachyonychia congenita or a new syndrome”; autoinflammatory diseases include “chronic atypical neutrophilic dermatosis with lipodystrophy and elevated temperature (CANDLE syndrome,” “pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PASH syndrome,” and “pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and hidradenitis suppurativa (PAPASH syndrome”; tumors include “acquired reactive digital fibroma,” “onychocytic matricoma and onychocytic carcinoma,” “infundibulocystic nail bed squamous cell carcinoma,” and “acral histiocytic nodules”; unclassified disorders include “saurian papulosis,” “symmetrical acrokeratoderma,” “confetti-like macular atrophy,” and “skin spicules,” “erythema papulosa semicircularis recidivans.”

  18. Comparison of Six DNA Extraction Procedures and the Application of Plastid DNA Enrichment Methods in Selected Non-photosynthetic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Yi Shyu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA was isolated using three DNA extraction commercial kits and three CTAB-based methods for two non-photosynthetic plants, Balanophora japonica and Mitrastemon kanehirai. The quality of the isolated DNA was evaluated and subjected to following restriction enzyme digestions. All six procedures yielded DNA of sufficient quality for PCR, and the method described by Barnwell et al. (1998 performed well in isolating DNA from both species for restriction enzyme digestion. In addition, we succeeded to enrich plastid DNA content by using the methods depending on a high salt buffer to deplete nuclear material. The ‘high salt’ methods based on protocol presented by Milligan (1989 were able to increase plastid DNA effectively and significantly reduce nuclear DNA from M. kanehirai. The plastid DNA enrichment protocols are inexpensive and not time-consuming, and may be applicable to other non-photosynthetic plants.

  19. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  20. 40 CFR 63.645 - Test methods and procedures for miscellaneous process vents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... analysis based on accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or... for a new source, Method 18 may be used to determine any non-VOC hydrocarbons that may be deducted to calculate the TOC (minus non-VOC hydrocarbons) concentration and mass flow rate. The following procedures...

  1. 40 CFR 60.50Da - Compliance determination procedures and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... probe and filter holder heating system in the sampling train may be set to provide an average gas... correction factor, integrated or grab sampling and analysis procedures of Method 3B of appendix A of this... fuel oil, etc.), coal pulverizers, and bottom and fly ash interactions. This determination is optional...

  2. General procedure to initialize the cyclic soil water balance by the Thornthwaite and Mather method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dourado-Neto, D.; Lier, van Q.D.; Metselaar, K.; Reichardt, K.; Nielsen, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The original Thornthwaite and Mather method, proposed in 1955 to calculate a climatic monthly cyclic soil water balance, is frequently used as an iterative procedure due to its low input requirements and coherent estimates of water balance components. Using long term data sets to establish a

  3. Package of procedures for the decision of optimization tasks by the method of branches and borders

    OpenAIRE

    Nestor, Natalia

    2012-01-01

    The practical aspects of realization of method of branches and borders are examined. The structure of package of procedures is pointed for implementation of basic operations at the decision of optimization tasks. A package is projected as a programmatic kernel which can be used for the various tasks of exhaustive search with returning.

  4. Assessment procedure and probability determination methods of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Qiyan; Zhang Lijun; Huang Weiqi; Yin Qingliao

    2010-01-01

    Assessment procedure of aircraft crash events in siting for nuclear power plants, and the methods of probability determination in two different stages of prelimi- nary screening and detailed evaluation are introduced in this paper. Except for general air traffic, airport operations and aircraft in the corridor, the probability of aircraft crash by military operation in the military airspaces is considered here. (authors)

  5. Review: Janice M. Morse & Linda Niehaus (2009). Mixed method design: principles and procedures

    OpenAIRE

    Öhlen, Joakim

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Method-Designs, in denen quantitative und qualitative Methoden Verwendung finden, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit für die Untersuchung komplexer Phänomene. Die vorliegende Besprechung beschäftigt sich in diesem Zusammenhang mit dem Buch "Mixed Method Design: Principles and Procedures" von Janice M. MORSE und Linda NIEHAUS, die für solche Designs Kern- und Ergänzungskomponenten zu identifizieren versuchen. Hierzu differenzieren sie zwischen Projekten, die einer eher deduktiven oder...

  6. Using mixed methods effectively in prevention science: designs, procedures, and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqing; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2014-10-01

    There is growing interest in using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to generate evidence about the effectiveness of health prevention, services, and intervention programs. With the emerging importance of mixed methods research across the social and health sciences, there has been an increased recognition of the value of using mixed methods for addressing research questions in different disciplines. We illustrate the mixed methods approach in prevention research, showing design procedures used in several published research articles. In this paper, we focused on two commonly used mixed methods designs: concurrent and sequential mixed methods designs. We discuss the types of mixed methods designs, the reasons for, and advantages of using a particular type of design, and the procedures of qualitative and quantitative data collection and integration. The studies reviewed in this paper show that the essence of qualitative research is to explore complex dynamic phenomena in prevention science, and the advantage of using mixed methods is that quantitative data can yield generalizable results and qualitative data can provide extensive insights. However, the emphasis of methodological rigor in a mixed methods application also requires considerable expertise in both qualitative and quantitative methods. Besides the necessary skills and effective interdisciplinary collaboration, this combined approach also requires an open-mindedness and reflection from the involved researchers.

  7. How young people describe the impact of living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis: feasibility of using social media as a research method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, F; Hibbins, S; Grew, T; Morgan, S; Pearce, S; Stark, D; Fern, L A

    2016-11-01

    Young people with cancer exhibit unique needs. During a time of normal physical and psychological change, multiple disease and treatment-related symptoms cause short and long-term physical and psychosocial effects. Little is known about how young people cope with the impact of cancer and its treatment on daily routines and their strategies to manage the challenges of cancer and treatments. We aimed to determine how young people describe these challenges through a social media site. Using the principles of virtual ethnography and watching videos on a social media site we gathered data from young people describing their cancer experience. Qualitative content analysis was employed to analyse and interpret the narrative from longitudinal 'video diaries' by 18 young people equating to 156 films and 27 h and 49 min of recording. Themes were described then organized and clustered into typologies grouping commonalities across themes. Four typologies emerged reflective of the cancer trajectory: treatment and relenting side effects, rehabilitation and getting on with life, relapse, facing more treatment and coming to terms with dying. This study confirms the need for young people to strive towards normality and creating a new normal, even where uncertainty prevailed. Strategies young people used to gain mastery over their illness and the types of stories they choose to tell provide the focus of the main narrative. Social Media sites can be examined as a source of data, to supplement or instead of more traditional routes of data collection known to be practically challenging with this population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Development of interim test methods and procedures for determining the performance of small photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, P.; Kroposki, B.; Hansen, R.; Algra, K.; DeBlasio, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is developing tests and procedures that will determine if the configuration of a small photovoltaic (PV) system is suitable for its intended use, and if the system will perform as specified. An overview of these procedures is presented in this paper. Development of standard test procedures will allow designers, manufacturers, system integrators, users, and independent laboratories to assess the performance of PV systems under outdoor prevailing conditions. An NREL Technical Report detailing the procedures is under way, and the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 21 (SCC21) has established a project on this subject. The work will be submitted to the IEEE SCC21 and International Electrotechnical Commission Technical Committee 82 (IEC TC82) for consideration as a consensus standard. Certification bodies such as PowerMark and PV Global Approval Program (PVGAP) may adopt the IEC and IEEE documents when testing systems. Developing standardized test methods and procedures at NREL to evaluate the outdoor performance of PV systems will encourage product quality and promote PV standards development. Standardized tests will assure people that PV systems will perform as specified for their intended applications. As confidence in PV systems increases, the successful commercialization of PV will grow internationally.

  9. Classical density functional theory and the phase-field crystal method using a rational function to describe the two-body direct correlation function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisutha-Arnond, N; Chan, V W L; Iyer, M; Gavini, V; Thornton, K

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to represent a two-body direct correlation function (DCF) in order to alleviate the computational demand of classical density functional theory (CDFT) and enhance the predictive capability of the phase-field crystal (PFC) method. The approach utilizes a rational function fit (RFF) to approximate the two-body DCF in Fourier space. We use the RFF to show that short-wavelength contributions of the two-body DCF play an important role in determining the thermodynamic properties of materials. We further show that using the RFF to empirically parametrize the two-body DCF allows us to obtain the thermodynamic properties of solids and liquids that agree with the results of CDFT simulations with the full two-body DCF without incurring significant computational costs. In addition, the RFF can also be used to improve the representation of the two-body DCF in the PFC method. Last, the RFF allows for a real-space reformulation of the CDFT and PFC method, which enables descriptions of nonperiodic systems and the use of nonuniform and adaptive grids.

  10. Procedure manual for the estimation of average indoor radon-daughter concentrations using the filtered alpha-track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, J.L.

    1988-04-01

    One of the measurement needs of US Department of Energy (DOE) remedial action programs is the estimation of the annual-average indoor radon-daughter concentration (RDC) in structures. The filtered alpha-track method, using a 1-year exposure period, can be used to accomplish RDC estimations for the DOE remedial action programs. This manual describes the procedure used to obtain filtered alpha-track measurements to derive average RDC estimates from the measurrements. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control programs are also presented. The ''prompt'' alpha-track method of exposing monitors for 2 to 6 months during specific periods of the year is also briefly discussed in this manual. However, the prompt alpha-track method has been validated only for use in the Mesa County, Colorado, area. 3 refs., 3 figs

  11. Are Self-study Procedural Teaching Methods Effective? A Pilot Study of a Family Medicine Residency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffenbacher, Brandy; Langner, Shannon; Khodaee, Morteza

    2017-11-01

    A family medicine residency is a unique training environment where residents are exposed to care in multiple settings, across all ages. Procedures are an integral part of family medicine practice. Family medicine residency (FMR) programs are tasked with the job of teaching these skills at a level of intensity and frequency that allows a resident to achieve competency of such skills. In an environment that is limited by work hour restrictions, self-study teaching methods are one way to ensure all residents receive the fundamental knowledge of how to perform procedures. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a self-study procedure teaching method and procedure evaluation checklist. A self-study procedure teaching intervention was created, consisting of instructional articles and videos on three procedures. To assess the efficacy of the intervention, and the competency of the residents, pre- and postintervention procedure performance sessions were completed. These sessions were reviewed and scored using a standardized procedure performance checklist. All 24 residents participated in the study. Overall, the resident procedure knowledge increased on two of the three procedures studied, and ability to perform procedure according to expert-validated checklist improved significantly on all procedures. A self-study intervention is a simple but effective way to increase and improve procedure training in a way that fits the complex scheduling needs of a residency training program. In addition, this study demonstrates that the procedure performance checklists are a simple and reliable way to increase assessment of resident procedure performance skills in a residency setting.

  12. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, T.; Dunbabin, P.; Antoniou, I.; Frandsen, S.; Klug, H.; Albers, A.; Lee, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard for wind turbine power performance testing. The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project it describes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support of fundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle anemometry, multi-variate regression analysis and density normalisation. (au)

  13. Describing Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation based on Compton profiles: Two models suited for the Monte Carlo method

    CERN Document Server

    Bohlen, TT; Patera, V; Sala, P R

    2012-01-01

    An accurate description of the basic physics processes of Compton scattering and positron annihilation in matter requires the consideration of atomic shell structure effects and, in specific, the momentum distributions of the atomic electrons. Two algorithms which model Compton scattering and two-quanta positron annihilation at rest accounting for shell structure effects are proposed. Two-quanta positron annihilation is a physics process which is of particular importance for applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Both models use a detailed description of the processes which incorporate consistently Doppler broadening and binding effects. This together with the relatively low level of complexity of the models makes them particularly suited to be employed by fast sampling methods for Monte Carlo particle transport. Momentum distributions of shell electrons are obtained from parametrized one-electron Compton profiles. For conduction electrons, momentum distributions are derived in the framework...

  14. A comparative study of methods for describing non-adiabatic coupling: diabatic representation of the 1Sigma +/1Pi HOH and HHO conical intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbyn, Abigail J.; Knowles, Peter J.

    A number of established techniques for obtaining diabatic electronic states in small molecules are critically compared for the example of the X and B states in the water molecule, which contribute to the two lowest-energy conical intersections. Integration of the coupling matrix elements and analysis of configuration mixing coefficients both produce reliable diabatic states globally. Methods relying on diagonalization of dipole moment and angular momentum operators are shown to fail in large regions of coordinate space. However, the use of transition angular momentum matrix elements involving the A state, which is degenerate with B at the conical intersections, is successful globally, provided that an appropriate choice of coordinates is made. Long range damping of non-adiabatic coupling to give correct asymptotic mixing angles also is investigated.

  15. Laboratory methods used for testing the effect of radiation sterilization and preservation procedures on bone allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziedzic-Goclawska, A.

    1999-01-01

    Sterilization of tissue allografts with ionizing radiation introduced in the mid of 1950s is more and more frequently used in tissue banking practice. The dose of 25 kGy is currently recommended and commonly used by many tissue banks in the world with the exception of the Central Tissue Bank in Warsaw where the dose of 33 kGy + 10 % has been routinely used since 1963, and from 1997 the dose of 35 kGy + 10 % has been introduced. To study the effect of radiation-sterilization on bone allografts the interdisciplinary investigations have been undertaken and several techniques have been implemented in our tissue bank. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the amount, origin and stability of free radicals and other paramagnetic entities induced in radiation-sterilized bone allografts. This technique has been also utilized for quantitative evaluation of remodeling process of radiation-sterilized bone allografts and for estimation of the absorbed dose of ionizing radiation using bone tissue as a dosimeter. A model of heterotopically induced osteogenesis after transplantation of devitalized bone matrix into the muscle (described by Urist in 1965) is very useful in tissue banking practice. It allows one to determine the contribution the graft itself makes to osteogenesis. This model is routinely used in our tissue bank to evaluate the effect of various sterilization and preservation procedures on osteoinductive properties of bone allografts. The solubility in vitro of collagen - a carrier for bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPS) and a major constituent of bone and the other connective tissue grafts, has been studied by measuring the amount of extracted neutral, acid and total soluble collagen from bone grafts preserved by different methods at irradiated at vanous experimental conditions. A positive correlation between collagen solubility in vitro and the rate of graft resorption in vivo has been observed. The high doses of

  16. An assessment of methods for monitoring entrance surface dose in fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, J.C.; Fitzgerald, M.

    2001-01-01

    In the light of a growing awareness of the risks of inducing skin injuries as a consequence of fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures (FGIPs), this paper compares three methods of monitoring entrance surface dose (ESD). It also reports measurements of ESDs made during the period August 1998 to June 1999 on 137 patients undergoing cardiac, neurological and general FGIPs. Although the sample is small, the results reinforce the need for routine assessments to be made of ESDs in FGIPs. At present, the most reliable and accurate form of ESD measurement would seem to be arrays of TLDs. However, transducer based methods, although likely to be less accurate, have considerable advantages in relation to a continuous monitoring programme. It is also suggested that there may be the potential locally for threshold dose area product (DAP) values to be set for specific procedures. These could be used to provide early warning of the potential for skin injuries. (author)

  17. Introducing GAMER: A Fast and Accurate Method for Ray-tracing Galaxies Using Procedural Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneboom, N. E.; Dahle, H.

    2014-03-01

    We developed a novel approach for fast and accurate ray-tracing of galaxies using procedural noise fields. Our method allows for efficient and realistic rendering of synthetic galaxy morphologies, where individual components such as the bulge, disk, stars, and dust can be synthesized in different wavelengths. These components follow empirically motivated overall intensity profiles but contain an additional procedural noise component that gives rise to complex natural patterns that mimic interstellar dust and star-forming regions. These patterns produce more realistic-looking galaxy images than using analytical expressions alone. The method is fully parallelized and creates accurate high- and low- resolution images that can be used, for example, in codes simulating strong and weak gravitational lensing. In addition to having a user-friendly graphical user interface, the C++ software package GAMER is easy to implement into an existing code.

  18. Introducing GAMER: A fast and accurate method for ray-tracing galaxies using procedural noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneboom, N. E.; Dahle, H.

    2014-01-01

    We developed a novel approach for fast and accurate ray-tracing of galaxies using procedural noise fields. Our method allows for efficient and realistic rendering of synthetic galaxy morphologies, where individual components such as the bulge, disk, stars, and dust can be synthesized in different wavelengths. These components follow empirically motivated overall intensity profiles but contain an additional procedural noise component that gives rise to complex natural patterns that mimic interstellar dust and star-forming regions. These patterns produce more realistic-looking galaxy images than using analytical expressions alone. The method is fully parallelized and creates accurate high- and low- resolution images that can be used, for example, in codes simulating strong and weak gravitational lensing. In addition to having a user-friendly graphical user interface, the C++ software package GAMER is easy to implement into an existing code.

  19. Introducing GAMER: A fast and accurate method for ray-tracing galaxies using procedural noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneboom, N. E.; Dahle, H., E-mail: nicolaag@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2014-03-10

    We developed a novel approach for fast and accurate ray-tracing of galaxies using procedural noise fields. Our method allows for efficient and realistic rendering of synthetic galaxy morphologies, where individual components such as the bulge, disk, stars, and dust can be synthesized in different wavelengths. These components follow empirically motivated overall intensity profiles but contain an additional procedural noise component that gives rise to complex natural patterns that mimic interstellar dust and star-forming regions. These patterns produce more realistic-looking galaxy images than using analytical expressions alone. The method is fully parallelized and creates accurate high- and low- resolution images that can be used, for example, in codes simulating strong and weak gravitational lensing. In addition to having a user-friendly graphical user interface, the C++ software package GAMER is easy to implement into an existing code.

  20. Note: Photopyroelectric measurement of thermal effusivity of transparent liquids by a method free of fitting procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, R.; Marín, E.; Villa, J.; Hernández Aguilar, C.; Domínguez Pacheco, A.; Hernández Garrido, S.

    2016-02-01

    In a recent paper published in this journal [R. Ivanov et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 86, 064902 (2015)], a methodology free of fitting procedures for determining the thermal effusivity of liquids using the electropyroelectric technique was reported. Here the same measurement principle is extended to the well-known photopyroelectric technique. The theoretical basis and experimental basis of the method are presented and its usefulness is demonstrated with measurements on test samples.

  1. Primary health care service delivery networks for the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes: using social network methods to describe interorganisational collaboration in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Julie; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Harris, Mark Fort

    2011-01-01

    Adults with type 2 diabetes or with behavioural risk factors require comprehensive and well coordinated responses from a range of health care providers who often work in different organisational settings. This study examines three types of collaborative links between organisations involved in a rural setting. Social network methods were employed using survey data on three types of links, and data was collected from a purposive sample of 17 organisations representing the major provider types. The analysis included a mix of unconfirmed and confirmed links, and network measures. General practices were the most influential provider group in initiating referrals, and they referred to the broadest range of organisations in the network. Team care arrangements formed a small part of the general practice referral network. They were used more for access to private sector allied health care providers and less for sharing care with public sector health services. Involvement in joint programs/activities was limited to public and non-government sector services, with no participation from the private sector. The patterns of interactions suggest that informal referral networks provide access to services and coordination of care for individual patients with diabetes. Two population subgroups would benefit from more proactive approaches to ensure equitable access to services and coordination of care across organisational boundaries: people with more complex health care needs and people at risk of developing diabetes.

  2. Benchmarking Post-Hartree–Fock Methods To Describe the Nonlinear Optical Properties of Polymethines: An Investigation of the Accuracy of Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction (ADC) Approaches

    KAUST Repository

    Knippenberg, Stefan

    2016-10-07

    Third-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of polymethine dyes have been widely studied for applications such as all-optical switching. However, the limited accuracy of the current computational methodologies has prevented a comprehensive understanding of the nature of the lowest excited states and their influence on the molecular optical and NLO properties. Here, attention is paid to the lowest excited-state energies and their energetic ratio, as these characteristics impact the figure-of-merit for all-optical switching. For a series of model polymethines, we compare several algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC) schemes for the polarization propagator with approximate second-order coupled cluster (CC2) theory, the widely used INDO/MRDCI approach and the symmetry-adapted cluster configuration interaction (SAC-CI) algorithm incorporating singles and doubles linked excitation operators (SAC-CI SD-R). We focus in particular on the ground-to-excited state transition dipole moments and the corresponding state dipole moments, since these quantities are found to be of utmost importance for an effective description of the third-order polarizability γ and two-photon absorption spectra. A sum-overstates expression has been used, which is found to quickly converge. While ADC(3/2) has been found to be the most appropriate method to calculate these properties, CC2 performs poorly.

  3. Behaviour change techniques: the development and evaluation of a taxonomic method for reporting and describing behaviour change interventions (a suite of five studies involving consensus methods, randomised controlled trials and analysis of qualitative data).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Wood, Caroline E; Johnston, Marie; Abraham, Charles; Francis, Jill J; Hardeman, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Meeting global health challenges requires effective behaviour change interventions (BCIs). This depends on advancing the science of behaviour change which, in turn, depends on accurate intervention reporting. Current reporting often lacks detail, preventing accurate replication and implementation. Recent developments have specified intervention content into behaviour change techniques (BCTs) - the 'active ingredients', for example goal-setting, self-monitoring of behaviour. BCTs are 'the smallest components compatible with retaining the postulated active ingredients, i.e. the proposed mechanisms of change. They can be used alone or in combination with other BCTs' (Michie S, Johnston M. Theories and techniques of behaviour change: developing a cumulative science of behaviour change. Health Psychol Rev 2012;6:1-6). Domain-specific taxonomies of BCTs have been developed, for example healthy eating and physical activity, smoking cessation and alcohol consumption. We need to build on these to develop an internationally shared language for specifying and developing interventions. This technology can be used for synthesising evidence, implementing effective interventions and testing theory. It has enormous potential added value for science and global health. (1) To develop a method of specifying content of BCIs in terms of component BCTs; (2) to lay a foundation for a comprehensive methodology applicable to different types of complex interventions; (3) to develop resources to support application of the taxonomy; and (4) to achieve multidisciplinary and international acceptance for future development. Four hundred participants (systematic reviewers, researchers, practitioners, policy-makers) from 12 countries engaged in investigating, designing and/or delivering BCIs. Development of the taxonomy involved a Delphi procedure, an iterative process of revisions and consultation with 41 international experts; hierarchical structure of the list was developed using inductive

  4. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwman, R; Broeders, M; Van Engen, R; Young, K; Lazzari, B; Ravaglia, V

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does not discriminate sufficiently between systems with and without additional noise besides quantum noise. This paper attempts to give an alternative and relatively simple method for noise analysis which can divide noise into electronic noise, structured noise and quantum noise. Quantum noise needs to be the dominant noise source in clinical images for optimal performance of a digital mammography system, and therefore the amount of electronic and structured noise should be minimal. For several digital mammography systems, the noise was separated into components based on the measured pixel value, standard deviation (SD) of the image and the detector entrance dose. The results showed that differences between systems exist. Our findings confirm that the proposed method is able to discriminate systems based on their noise performance and is able to detect possible quality problems. Therefore, we suggest to replace the current method for noise analysis as described in the European Guidelines by the alternative method described in this paper.

  5. Apparatus and method for supporting and positioning the body to facilitate radiographic mammography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasky, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    A stretcher-like table or cradle for use as a body support during radiological examination is described. The table includes means whereby it may be arcuately pivotally manipulated about each of two mutually perpendicular horizontal axes. For specific uses in mammographic procedures, the support surface or web of the table is provided with a cut-away areal zone through which the gravitationally suspended breast of the female subject depends. Selective and controlled pivotal tilting of the table makes precise orientational positioning of the suspended tissue feasible, so as to provide improved fidelity and enhanced diagnostic value for the radiographic film images produced

  6. Soil Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  7. Comparison of Bristow procedure and Bankart arthroscopic method as the treatment of recurrent shoulder instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Zarezade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common major joint dislocation. In patients with recurrent shoulder dislocation, surgical intervention is necessary. In this study, two methods of treatment, Bankart arthroscopic method and open Bristow procedure, were compared. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial survey had been done in the orthopedic department of Alzahra and Kashani hospitals of Isfahan during 2008-2011. Patients with recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation who were candidates for surgical treatment were randomly divided into two groups, one treated by Bankart arthroscopic technique and the other treated by Bristow method. All the patients were assessed after the surgery using the criteria of ROWE, CONSTANT, UCLA, and ASES. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: Six patients (16.22% had inappropriate condition with ROWE score (score less than 75; of them, one had been treated with Bristow and five with Bankart (5.26 vs. 27.78. Nine patients (24.32% had appropriate condition, which included six from Bristow group and three treated by Bankart technique (31.58 vs. 16.67. Finally, 22 patients (59.46% showed great improvement with this score, which included 12 from Bristow and 10 from Bankart groups (63.16 vs. 55.56. According to Fisher′s exact test, there were no significant differences between the two groups (P = 0.15. Conclusion: The two mentioned techniques did not differ significantly, although some parameters such as level of performance, pain intensity, use of analgesics, and range of internal rotation showed more improvement in Bristow procedure. Therefore, if there is no contraindication for Bristow procedure, it is preferred to use this method.

  8. Describing the Corneal Shape after Wavefront-Optimized Photorefractive Keratectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Tim; Wijdh, Robert H. J.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a procedure for describing wavefront-optimized photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) corneas and to characterize PRK-induced changes in shape. METHODS: We analyzed preoperative and postoperative corneal elevation data of 41 eyes of 41 patients (mean [±SD] age, 38 [±11] years) who

  9. Novel purification procedure and derivatization method of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzinger, Michael; Hirsch, Andreas; Bernier, Patrick; Duesberg, Georg S.; Burghard, Marko

    2000-01-01

    A new purification procedure is introduced, which uses the advantages of both, column-chromatography and vacuum-filtration. Potassium polyacrylate was used as a stationary phase. This method is based on the idea that the size of the existing cavities in the polymer increases during a swelling process in distilled water. The cavities are big enough to entrap nanoparticles, but allow for a free movement of nanotubes and bundles. The procedure starts with an oxidation step to remove part of catalyst and nanoparticles. In this step a chemical modification of the SWNTs occurs, namely the oxidation of cage carbon atoms to carboxylic groups as well as to hydroxyl- and carbonyl-groups. In contrast to Haddon, we use an alternative derivatziation of carboxylic acid groups in making amides in water. AFM images of the reaction products show clearly that the SWNTs have also been oxidized on their sidewalls

  10. Supplement to procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinkl, R.J.; Kearl, P.M.

    1988-09-01

    This report is a supplement to Procedures, Analysis, and Comparison of Groundwater Velocity Measurement Methods for Unconfined Aquifers and provides computer program descriptions, type curves, and calculations for the analysis of field data in determining groundwater velocity in unconfined aquifers. The computer programs analyze bail or slug tests, pumping tests, Geoflo Meter data, and borehole dilution data. Appendix A is a description of the code, instructions for using the code, an example data file, and the calculated results to allow checking the code after installation on the user's computer. Calculations, development of formulas, and correction factors for the various programs are presented in Appendices B through F. Appendix G provides a procedure for calculating transmissivity and specific yield for pumping tests performed in unconfined aquifers

  11. Processes of aggression described by kinetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, V. V.; Ilyin, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France and USSR based on the kinetic theory. We model this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for the two-element kinetic equations with spatial initial conditions. The solution of the problem is given in the form of traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a frontline depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the frontline velocities are complied with the historical data.

  12. Processes of aggression described by kinetic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aristov, V. V.; Ilyin, O.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France and USSR based on the kinetic theory. We model this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for the two-element kinetic equations with spatial initial conditions. The solution of the problem is given in the form of traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a frontline depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the frontline velocities are complied with the historical data

  13. Processes of aggression described by kinetic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aristov, V. V.; Ilyin, O. [Dorodnicyn Computing Centre of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilova str. 40, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    In the last decades many investigations have been devoted to theoretical models in new areas concerning description of different biological, sociological and historical processes. In the present paper we suggest a model of the Nazi Germany invasion of Poland, France and USSR based on the kinetic theory. We model this process with the Cauchy boundary problem for the two-element kinetic equations with spatial initial conditions. The solution of the problem is given in the form of traveling wave. The propagation velocity of a frontline depends on the quotient between initial forces concentrations. Moreover it is obtained that the general solution of the model can be expressed in terms of quadratures and elementary functions. Finally it is shown that the frontline velocities are complied with the historical data.

  14. Procedures, analysis, and comparison of groundwater velocity measurement methods for unconfined aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearl, P.M.; Dexter, J.J.; Price, J.E.

    1988-09-01

    Six methods for determining the average linear velocity of ground- water were tested at two separate field sites. The methods tested include bail tests, pumping tests, wave propagation, tracer tests, Geoflo Meter/reg sign/, and borehole dilution. This report presents procedures for performing field tests and compares the results of each method on the basis of application, cost, and accuracy. Comparisons of methods to determine the ground-water velocity at two field sites show certain methods yield similar results while other methods measure significantly different values. The literature clearly supports the reliability of pumping tests for determining hydraulic conductivity. Results of this investigation support this finding. Pumping tests, however, are limited because they measure an average hydraulic conductivity which is only representative of the aquifer within the radius of influence. Bail tests are easy and inexpensive to perform. If the tests are conducted on the majority of wells at a hazardous waste site, then the heterogeneity of the site aquifer can be assessed. However, comparisons of bail-test results with pumping-test and tracer-test results indicate that the accuracy of the method is questionable. Consequently, the principal recommendation of this investigation, based on cost and reliability of the ground-water velocity measurement methods, is that bail tests should be performed on all or a majority of monitoring wells at a site to determine the ''relative'' hydraulic conductivities

  15. 40 CFR 63.9915 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin/furan emission limits? 63.9915 Section 63.9915....9915 What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with dioxin... limit for dioxins/furans in Table 1 to this subpart, you must follow the test methods and procedures...

  16. Drawing up of a procedure for vanadium determination in mussels using the neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Daniele; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A.; Saiki, Mitiko; Catharino, Marilia G.M.; Moreira, Edson G.; Sousa, Eduinetty C.P.M. de; Pereira, Camilo D.S.

    2009-01-01

    This work establishes an adequate procedure for obtaining reliable results for determination of vanadium in mussels, leg by leg by the neutron activation analysis (NAA), viewing the posterior application on the bio monitoring the coastal pollution, particularly near the petroleum terminals.For the evaluation of result quality concerning to the quality of those results, the work analysed the reference material certification NIST SRM 1566b Oyster Tissue. The precision of the results were also analysed using repetitions of mussel samples collected at the coastal of northern Sao Paulo state, Brazil. The NAA procedure consisted of 200 mg of sample and a synthetic standard of vanadium during a period of 8 s and under a thermal neutron flux of 6.6 x 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 at the pneumatic station 4 of the IEA-R1 nuclear reactor of IPEN-CNEN/SP. After a 3 min decay, the measurements of the gamma activities of the sample and the standard were done using a Ge hyper pure semi-conductor detector, connected to gamma ray multichannel analyser. The vanadium were determined by the measurement of the gamma activity of the 52 V through the 1434.08 keV peak, and half-life time of 3.75 min. The concentration of V were calculated by the comparative method. The obtained results indicated the viability of the NAA procedure established for the determination of vanadium in mussels

  17. Application of revised procedure on determining large excess reactivity of operating reactor. Fuel addition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    The fuel addition method or the neutron absorption substitution method have been used for determination of large excess multiplication factor of large sized reactors. It has been pointed out, however, that all the experimental methods are possibly not free from the substantially large systematic error up to 20%, when the value of the excess multiplication factor exceeds about 15%Δk. Then, a basic idea of a revised procedure was proposed to cope with the problem, which converts the increase of multiplication factor in an actual core to that in a virtual core by calculation, because its value is in principle defined not for the former but the latter core. This paper proves that the revised procedure is able to be applicable for large sized research and test reactors through the theoretical analyses on the measurements undertaken at the JMTRC and JMTR cores. The values of excess multiplication factor are accurately determined utilizing the whole core calculation by the Monte Carlo code MCNP4A. (author)

  18. Completely automated modal analysis procedure based on the combination of different OMA methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Bussini, Alberto; Resta, Ferruccio

    2018-03-01

    In this work a completely automated output-only Modal Analysis procedure is presented and all its benefits are listed. Based on the merging of different Operational Modal Analysis methods and a statistical approach, the identification process has been improved becoming more robust and giving as results only the real natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes of the system. The effect of the temperature can be taken into account as well, leading to the creation of a better tool for automated Structural Health Monitoring. The algorithm has been developed and tested on a numerical model of a scaled three-story steel building present in the laboratories of Politecnico di Milano.

  19. Developing best practices teaching procedures for skinfold assessment: observational examination using the Think Aloud method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Michael E; Verba, Steven D; Lynn, Jeffrey S

    2015-12-01

    Skinfold assessment is valid and economical; however, it has a steep learning curve, and many programs only include one exposure to the technique. Increasing the number of exposures to skinfold assessment within an undergraduate curriculum would likely increase skill proficiency. The present study combined observational and Think Aloud methodologies to quantify procedural and cognitive characteristics of skinfold assessment. It was hypothesized that 1) increased curricular exposure to skinfold assessment would improve proficiency and 2) the combination of an observational and Think Aloud analysis would provide quantifiable areas of emphasis for instructing skinfold assessment. Seventy-five undergraduates with varied curricular exposure performed a seven-site skinfold assessment on a test subject while expressing their thoughts aloud. A trained practitioner recorded procedural observations, with transcripts generated from audio recordings to capture cognitive information. Skinfold measurements were compared with a criterion value, and bias scores were generated. Participants whose total bias fell within ±3.5% of the criterion value were proficient, with the remainder nonproficient. An independent-samples t-test was used to compare procedural and cognitive observations across experience and proficiency groups. Additional curricular exposure improved performance of skinfold assessment in areas such as the measurement of specific sites (e.g., chest, abdomen, and thigh) and procedural (e.g., landmark identification) and cognitive skills (e.g., complete site explanation). Furthermore, the Think Aloud method is a valuable tool for determining curricular strengths and weaknesses with skinfold assessment and as a pedagogical tool for individual instruction and feedback in the classroom. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  20. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  1. An angularly refineable phase space finite element method with approximate sweeping procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kophazi, J.; Lathouwers, D.

    2013-01-01

    An angularly refineable phase space finite element method is proposed to solve the neutron transport equation. The method combines the advantages of two recently published schemes. The angular domain is discretized into small patches and patch-wise discontinuous angular basis functions are restricted to these patches, i.e. there is no overlap between basis functions corresponding to different patches. This approach yields block diagonal Jacobians with small block size and retains the possibility for S n -like approximate sweeping of the spatially discontinuous elements in order to provide efficient preconditioners for the solution procedure. On the other hand, the preservation of the full FEM framework (as opposed to collocation into a high-order S n scheme) retains the possibility of the Galerkin interpolated connection between phase space elements at arbitrary levels of discretization. Since the basis vectors are not orthonormal, a generalization of the Riemann procedure is introduced to separate the incoming and outgoing contributions in case of unstructured meshes. However, due to the properties of the angular discretization, the Riemann procedure can be avoided at a large fraction of the faces and this fraction rapidly increases as the level of refinement increases, contributing to the computational efficiency. In this paper the properties of the discretization scheme are studied with uniform refinement using an iterative solver based on the S 2 sweep order of the spatial elements. The fourth order convergence of the scalar flux is shown as anticipated from earlier schemes and the rapidly decreasing fraction of required Riemann faces is illustrated. (authors)

  2. Methodological Challenges in Sustainability Science: A Call for Method Plurality, Procedural Rigor and Longitudinal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik von Wehrden

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability science encompasses a unique field that is defined through its purpose, the problem it addresses, and its solution-oriented agenda. However, this orientation creates significant methodological challenges. In this discussion paper, we conceptualize sustainability problems as wicked problems to tease out the key challenges that sustainability science is facing if scientists intend to deliver on its solution-oriented agenda. Building on the available literature, we discuss three aspects that demand increased attention for advancing sustainability science: 1 methods with higher diversity and complementarity are needed to increase the chance of deriving solutions to the unique aspects of wicked problems; for instance, mixed methods approaches are potentially better suited to allow for an approximation of solutions, since they cover wider arrays of knowledge; 2 methodologies capable of dealing with wicked problems demand strict procedural and ethical guidelines, in order to ensure their integration potential; for example, learning from solution implementation in different contexts requires increased comparability between research approaches while carefully addressing issues of legitimacy and credibility; and 3 approaches are needed that allow for longitudinal research, since wicked problems are continuous and solutions can only be diagnosed in retrospect; for example, complex dynamics of wicked problems play out across temporal patterns that are not necessarily aligned with the common timeframe of participatory sustainability research. Taken together, we call for plurality in methodologies, emphasizing procedural rigor and the necessity of continuous research to effectively addressing wicked problems as well as methodological challenges in sustainability science.

  3. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional

  4. The Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, G.; Pearson, L.; Crosby, C. [Alaska Dept. of Environmental Conservation, Soldotna, AK (United States); DeCola, E.; Robertson, T. [Nuka Research and Planning Group, Seldovia, AK (United States)

    2006-07-01

    A comprehensive water quality sampling program was conducted in response to the oil spill that occurred when the M/V Selendang Ayu ship ran aground near a major fishing port at Unalaska Island, Alaska in December 2004. In particular, the sampling program focused on the threat of spilled oil to the local commercial fisheries resources. Spill scientists were unable to confidently model the movement of oil away from the wreck because of limited oceanographic data. In order to determine which fish species were at risk of oil contamination, a real-time assessment of how and where the oil was moving was needed, because the wreck became a continual source of oil release for several weeks after the initial grounding. The newly developed methods and procedures used to detect whole oil during the sampling program will be presented in the Alaska Commercial Fisheries Water Quality Sampling Methods and Procedures Manual which is currently under development. The purpose of the manual is to provide instructions to spill managers while they try to determine where spilled oil has or has not been encountered. The manual will include a meaningful data set that can be analyzed in real time to assess oil movement and concentration. Sections on oil properties and processes will be included along with scientific water quality sampling methods for whole and dissolved phase oil to assess potential contamination of commercial fishery resources and gear in Alaska waters during an oil spill. The manual will present a general discussion of factors that should be considered when designing a sampling program after a spill. In order to implement Alaska's improved seafood safety measures, the spatial scope of spilled oil must be known. A water quality sampling program can provide state and federal fishery managers and food safety inspectors with important information as they identify at-risk fisheries. 11 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Modified prepubic TVT-obturator tape procedure versus the conventional method: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Cheng-Yu; Wu, Ming-Ping; Wang, Chiu-Lin; Lin, Kun-Ling; Liu, Cheng-Min; Wu, Shu-Hui; Juan, Yung-Shun

    2013-12-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of the modified prepubic tension-free vaginal tape-obturator (PTVT-O) system procedure with the original TVT-O methods. One hundred and ninety women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) were included in this study (93 cases in the TVT-O group and 97 in the PTVT-O group). Clinical assessments before and one year after surgery included urinalyses, 1-h pad tests, urodynamic studies, and a personal interview with the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) questionnaire. There were no differences between the two groups in mean age, parity, menopausal status, mean operative time and subjective cure rates (P>0.05), but the efficacy of surgery (cure and improvement) in the PTVT-O group was significantly higher than that in the TVT-O group (P=0.038). Complication rates and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were found to be similar (P>0.05). OABSS decreased significantly after surgery in both groups (P0.05). Our modified procedure is a safe and effective treatment for female USI. It has an advantage over the original TVT-O with better surgical efficacy and comparable postoperative pain, although the follow-up times in this study are different. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods.

  7. Method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yingsheng; Yang Renjie; Li Minghua; Chen Weixiong; Shang Kezhong; Zhuang Qixin; Xu Jianrong; Chen Niwei; Zhu Yude

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study method selection and evaluation of midtrimester and long-term therapeutic efficiency of achalasia with three methods of interventional procedure. Method: 50 cases achalasia with 30 cases performing with balloon dilation (group A) and 5 cases with permanent metallic internal stent dilation (group B) and 15 cases with temporary metallic internal stent dilation (group C) under fluoroscopy. Results: 30 cases of group A had 56 times of dilations (mean 1.9 times). The mean diameter of cardia was (2.4 +- 1.2) mm before dilation and (9.7 +- 3.0) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were 2.4 +- 1.2 grades before dilation and 1.0 +- 0.3 grades after dilation. Complications in 30 cases included chest pain (n = 9), reflux (n = 8) and bleeding (n = 3). 18(60%) of 30 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 18(90%) of 20 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 5 uncovered expandable metal stents were permanently placed in 5 cases of group B. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.2 +- 2.0) mm before dilation and (18.4 +- 1.7) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.4 +- 1.1) grade before dilation and (0.4 +- 0.2) grade after dilation. Complications in 5 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 4), bleeding (n = 1) and hyperplasia of granulation tissue (n 2). 3(60%) in 5 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6 months, 1(50%) in 2 cases were dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 12 months. 15 covered expandable metal stents were temporarily placed in 15 cases of group C and drawn out at the 3-7 days via gastroscopy. The mean diameter of cardia was (3.4 +- 2.9) mm before dilation and (14.7 +- 2.9) mm after dilation. The mean dysphagia scores were (2.5 +- 1.1) grades before dilation and (0.6 +- 0.3) grades after dilation. Complications in 15 cases included chest pain (n = 3), reflux (n = 3) and bleeding (n = 2). 3(20%) in 15 cases showed dysphagia relapse during follow-up over 6

  8. Effectiveness of Visual Methods in Information Procedures for Stem Cell Recipients and Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çağla Sarıtürk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Obtaining informed consent from hematopoietic stem cell recipients and donors is a critical step in the transplantation process. Anxiety may affect their understanding of the provided information. However, use of audiovisual methods may facilitate understanding. In this prospective randomized study, we investigated the effectiveness of using an audiovisual method of providing information to patients and donors in combination with the standard model. Materials and Methods: A 10-min informational animation was prepared for this purpose. In total, 82 participants were randomly assigned to two groups: group 1 received the additional audiovisual information and group 2 received standard information. A 20-item questionnaire was administered to participants at the end of the informational session. Results: A reliability test and factor analysis showed that the questionnaire was reliable and valid. For all participants, the mean overall satisfaction score was 184.8±19.8 (maximum possible score of 200. However, for satisfaction with information about written informed consent, group 1 scored significantly higher than group 2 (p=0.039. Satisfaction level was not affected by age, education level, or differences between the physicians conducting the informative session. Conclusion: This study shows that using audiovisual tools may contribute to a better understanding of the informed consent procedure and potential risks of stem cell transplantation.

  9. Practical implications of procedures developed in IDEA project - Comparison with traditional methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.; Bouvier, C.; Brandl, A.; De Carlan, L.; Fischer, H.; Franck, D.; Hoellriegl, V.; Li, W. B.; Oeh, U.; Ritt, J.; Roth, P.; Schlagbauer, M.; Schmitzer, Ch; Wahl, W.; Zombori, P.

    2007-01-01

    The idea of the IDEA project aimed to improve assessment of incorporated radionuclides through developments of more reliable and possibly faster in vivo and bioassay monitoring techniques and making use of such enhancements for improvements in routine monitoring. In direct in vivo monitoring technique the optimum choice of the detectors to be applied for different monitoring tasks has been investigated in terms of material, size and background in order to improve conditions namely to increase counting efficiency and reduce background. Detailed studies have been performed to investigate the manifold advantageous applications and capabilities of numerical simulation method for the calibration and optimisation of in vivo counting systems. This calibration method can be advantageously applied especially in the measurement of low-energy photon emitting radionuclides, where individual variability is a significant source of uncertainty. In bioassay measurements the use of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can improve considerably both the measurement speed and the lower limit of detection currently achievable with alpha spectrometry for long-lived radionuclides. The work carried out in this project provided detailed guidelines for optimum performance of the technique of ICP-MS applied mainly for the determination of uranium and thorium nuclides in the urine including sampling procedure, operational parameters of the instruments and interpretation of the measured data. The paper demonstrates the main advantages of investigated techniques in comparison with the performances of methods commonly applied in routine monitoring practice. (authors)

  10. Establishing the analytical procedure for acetate in water by ion chromatography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thi Hong Thinh; Ha Lan Anh; Vo Thi Anh

    2015-01-01

    In recent studies of contamination sources of arsenic, ammonium, iron, organic carbon in groundwater, acetate is measured a lot because it is the main decomposition product of organic compounds from sediment into groundwater. In order to better support for the study of the origin and mobilization mechanism of the pollutants, acetate was studied analysis method in Isotopes Hydrology Laboratory using ion chromatography technique. Project Researchers used Ion Chromatography system - DX-600 including IonPac ICE-AS1 column for separating acetate and conductivity detector CD 25 to quantify acetate in water samples. The study results showed that project team has successfully developed analytical procedures of acetate in water with acetate’s retention time is 12 minutes, limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.01 ppm. The accuracy of the method was established by calculating the precision and bias of 10 analysis times of a standard sample at content levels 1 ppm and 8 ppm. The results of the 10 measurements are satisfiable about precision and bias with repeated standard deviation coefficient CVR were 1.3% and 0.2% and the recoveries R were 99.92% and 101.72%. (author)

  11. "INTRODUCING A FULL VALIDATED ANALYTICAL PROCEDURE AS AN OFFICIAL COMPENDIAL METHOD FOR FENTANYL TRANSDERMAL PATCHES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mehdizadeh

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive and specific HPLC method and also a simple and fast extraction procedure were developed for quantitative analysis of fentanyl transdermal patches. Chloroform, methanol and ethanol were used as extracting solvents with recovery percent of 92.1, 94.3 and 99.4% respectively. Fentanyl was extracted with ethanol and the eluted fentanyl through the C18 column was monitored by UV detection at 230 nm. The linearity was at the range of 0.5-10 µg/mL with correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.9992. Both intra and inter-day accuracy and precision were within acceptable limits. The detection limit (DL and quantitation limit (QL were 0.15 and 0.5 µg/mL, respectively. Other validation characteristics such as selectivity, robustness and ruggedness were evaluated. Following method validation, a system suitability test (SST including capacity factor (k´, plate number (N, tailing factor (T, and RSD was defined for routine test.

  12. Comparison of midwifery students' satisfaction with direct observation of procedural skills and current methods in evaluation of procedural skills in Mashhad Nursing and Midwifery School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseini, Bibi Leila; Mazloum, Seyed Reza; Jafarnejad, Farzaneh; Foroughipour, Mohsen

    2013-03-01

    The clinical evaluation, as one of the most important elements in medical education, must measure students' competencies and abilities. The implementation of any assessment tool is basically dependent on the acceptance of students. This study tried to assess midwifery students' satisfaction with Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) and current clinical evaluation methods. This quasi-experimental study was conducted in the university hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. The subjects comprised 67 undergraduate midwifery students selected by convenience sampling and allocated to control and intervention groups according to the training transposition. Current method was performed in the control group, and DOPS was conducted in the intervention group. The applied tools included DOPS rating scales, logbook, and satisfaction questionnaires with clinical evaluation methods. Validity and reliability of these tools were approved. At the end of training, students' satisfaction with the evaluation methods was assessed by the mentioned tools. The data were analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistics. Satisfaction mean scores of midwifery students with DOPS and current methods were 76.7 ± 12.9 and 62.6 ± 14.7 (out of 100), respectively. DOPS students' satisfaction mean score was significantly higher than the score obtained in current method (P satisfactory domains in the current method were "consistence with learning objectives" (71.2 ± 14.9) and "objectiveness" in DOPS (87.9 ± 15.0). In contrast, the least satisfactory domains in the current method were "interested in applying the method" (57.8 ± 26.5) and "number of assessments for each skill" (58.8 ± 25.9) in DOPS method. This study showed that DOPS method is associated with greater students' satisfaction. Since the students' satisfaction with the current method was also acceptable, we recommend combining this new clinical evaluation method with the current method, which covers

  13. Guide for Regional Integrated Assessments: Handbook of Methods and Procedures, Version 5.1. Appendix 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, Cynthia E.; Jones, James W.; Hatfield, Jerry; Antle, John; Ruane, Alex; Boote, Ken; Thorburn, Peter; Valdivia, Roberto; Porter, Cheryl; Janssen, Sander; hide

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to describe recommended methods for a trans-disciplinary, systems-based approach for regional-scale (local to national scale) integrated assessment of agricultural systems under future climate, bio-physical and socio-economic conditions. An earlier version of this Handbook was developed and used by several AgMIP Regional Research Teams (RRTs) in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and South Asia (SA)(AgMIP handbook version 4.2, www.agmip.org/regional-integrated-assessments-handbook/). In contrast to the earlier version, which was written specifically to guide a consistent set of integrated assessments across SSA and SA, this version is intended to be more generic such that the methods can be applied to any region globally. These assessments are the regional manifestation of research activities described by AgMIP in its online protocols document (available at www.agmip.org). AgMIP Protocols were created to guide climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology components of its projects.

  14. The effects of predictor method factors on selection outcomes: A modular approach to personnel selection procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Filip; Sackett, Paul R

    2017-01-01

    Past reviews and meta-analyses typically conceptualized and examined selection procedures as holistic entities. We draw on the product design literature to propose a modular approach as a complementary perspective to conceptualizing selection procedures. A modular approach means that a product is broken down into its key underlying components. Therefore, we start by presenting a modular framework that identifies the important measurement components of selection procedures. Next, we adopt this modular lens for reviewing the available evidence regarding each of these components in terms of affecting validity, subgroup differences, and applicant perceptions, as well as for identifying new research directions. As a complement to the historical focus on holistic selection procedures, we posit that the theoretical contributions of a modular approach include improved insight into the isolated workings of the different components underlying selection procedures and greater theoretical connectivity among different selection procedures and their literatures. We also outline how organizations can put a modular approach into operation to increase the variety in selection procedures and to enhance the flexibility in designing them. Overall, we believe that a modular perspective on selection procedures will provide the impetus for programmatic and theory-driven research on the different measurement components of selection procedures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Atmospheric Deposition: Sampling Procedures, Analytical Methods, and Main Recent Findings from the Scientific Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amodio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The atmosphere is a carrier on which some natural and anthropogenic organic and inorganic chemicals are transported, and the wet and dry deposition events are the most important processes that remove those chemicals, depositing it on soil and water. A wide variety of different collectors were tested to evaluate site-specificity, seasonality and daily variability of settleable particle concentrations. Deposition fluxes of POPs showed spatial and seasonal variations, diagnostic ratios of PAHs on deposited particles, allowed the discrimination between pyrolytic or petrogenic sources. Congener pattern analysis and bulk deposition fluxes in rural sites confirmed long-range atmospheric transport of PCDDs/Fs. More and more sophisticated and newly designed deposition samplers have being used for characterization of deposited mercury, demonstrating the importance of rain scavenging and the relatively higher magnitude of Hg deposition from Chinese anthropogenic sources. Recently biological monitors demonstrated that PAH concentrations in lichens were comparable with concentrations measured in a conventional active sampler in an outdoor environment. In this review the authors explore the methodological approaches used for the assessment of atmospheric deposition, from the analysis of the sampling methods, the analytical procedures for chemical characterization of pollutants and the main results from the scientific literature.

  16. Manure sampling procedures and nutrient estimation by the hydrometer method for gestation pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Ndegwa, Pius M; Zhang, Zhijian

    2004-05-01

    Three manure agitation procedures were examined in this study (vertical mixing, horizontal mixing, and no mixing) to determine the efficacy of producing a representative manure sample. The total solids content for manure from gestation pigs was found to be well correlated with the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in the manure, with highly significant correlation coefficients of 0.988 and 0.994, respectively. Linear correlations were observed between the TN and TP contents and the manure specific gravity (correlation coefficients: 0.991 and 0.987, respectively). Therefore, it may be inferred that the nutrients in pig manure can be estimated with reasonable accuracy by measuring the liquid manure specific gravity. A rapid testing method for manure nutrient contents (TN and TP) using a soil hydrometer was also evaluated. The results showed that the estimating error increased from +/-10% to +/-30% with the decrease in TN (from 1000 to 100 ppm) and TP (from 700 to 50 ppm) concentrations in the manure. Data also showed that the hydrometer readings had to be taken within 10 s after mixing to avoid reading drift in specific gravity due to the settling of manure solids.

  17. Solving groundwater flow problems by conjugate-gradient methods and the strongly implicit procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Mary C.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the preconditioned conjugate-gradient method with three preconditioners is compared with the strongly implicit procedure (SIP) using a scalar computer. The preconditioners considered are the incomplete Cholesky (ICCG) and the modified incomplete Cholesky (MICCG), which require the same computer storage as SIP as programmed for a problem with a symmetric matrix, and a polynomial preconditioner (POLCG), which requires less computer storage than SIP. Although POLCG is usually used on vector computers, it is included here because of its small storage requirements. In this paper, published comparisons of the solvers are evaluated, all four solvers are compared for the first time, and new test cases are presented to provide a more complete basis by which the solvers can be judged for typical groundwater flow problems. Based on nine test cases, the following conclusions are reached: (1) SIP is actually as efficient as ICCG for some of the published, linear, two-dimensional test cases that were reportedly solved much more efficiently by ICCG; (2) SIP is more efficient than other published comparisons would indicate when common convergence criteria are used; and (3) for problems that are three-dimensional, nonlinear, or both, and for which common convergence criteria are used, SIP is often more efficient than ICCG, and is sometimes more efficient than MICCG.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of a radionuclide transfer model describing contaminated vegetation in Fukushima prefecture, using Morris and Sobol' - Application of sensitivity analysis on a radionuclides transfer model in the environment describing weeds contamination in Fukushima Prefecture, using Morris method and Sobol' indices indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicoulaud-Gouin, V.; Metivier, J.M.; Gonze, M.A. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire-PRP-ENV/SERIS/LM2E (France); Garcia-Sanchez, L. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire-PRPENV/SERIS/L2BT (France)

    2014-07-01

    The increasing spatial and temporal complexity of models demands methods capable of ranking the influence of their large numbers of parameters. This question specifically arises in assessment studies on the consequences of the Fukushima accident. Sensitivity analysis aims at measuring the influence of input variability on the output response. Generally, two main approaches are distinguished (Saltelli, 2001, Iooss, 2011): - Screening approach, less expensive in computation time and allowing to identify non influential parameters; - Measures of importance, introducing finer quantitative indices. In this category, there are regression-based methods, assuming a linear or monotonic response (Pearson coefficient, Spearman coefficient), and variance-based methods, without assumptions on the model but requiring an increasingly prohibitive number of evaluations when the number of parameters increases. These approaches are available in various statistical programs (notably R) but are still poorly integrated in modelling platforms of radioecological risk assessment. This work aimed at illustrating the benefits of sensitivity analysis in the course of radioecological risk assessments This study used two complementary state-of-art global sensitivity analysis methods: - The screening method of Morris (Morris, 1991; Campolongo et al., 2007) based on limited model evaluations with a one-at-a-time (OAT) design; - The variance-based Sobol' sensitivity analysis (Saltelli, 2002) based a large number of model evaluations in the parameter space with a quasi-random sampling (Owen, 2003). Sensitivity analyses were applied on a dynamic Soil-Plant Deposition Model (Gonze et al., submitted to this conference) predicting foliar concentration in weeds after atmospheric radionuclide fallout. The Soil-Plant Deposition Model considers two foliage pools and a root pool, and describes foliar biomass growth with a Verhulst model. The developed semi-analytic formulation of foliar concentration

  19. Quality assurance methods and procedures for accepting radioactive waste for final storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, R.

    1992-01-01

    The concept of quality assurance for the final storage of radioactive materials is presented together with the procedure, characterisation, procedural development and documentation involved. Other topics include the assessment of the material to find its suitability for final storage and the tests for transport. 4 figs., 9 refs

  20. Critical Emergency Medicine Procedural Skills: A Comparative Study of Methods for Teaching and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Dane M.; And Others

    Three critical procedural skills in emergency medicine were evaluated using three assessment modalities--written, computer, and animal model. The effects of computer practice and previous procedure experience on skill competence were also examined in an experimental sequential assessment design. Subjects were six medical students, six residents,…

  1. Soil Gas Sampling Operating Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) document that describes general and specific procedures, methods, and considerations when collecting soil gas samples for field screening or laboratory analysis.

  2. A procedure for assessing seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes and its application. III. A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enescu, D.; Enescu, B.D.

    2007-01-01

    A method for developing isoseismal and isoacceleration maps assumedly valid for future strong earthquakes (M GR > 6.7) is described as constituting the third stage of a procedure for assessing the seismic hazard generated by Vrancea earthquakes. The method relies on the results of the former two stages given by Enescu et al., and on further developments that are presented in this paper. Moreover, it is based on instrument recording data. Major earthquakes taking place in Vrancea (November 10, 1940 - M GR 7.4, March 4, 1977 - M GR = 7.2 and the strongest possible) were examined as a way to test the method. The method is also applied for an earthquake of magnitude M GR = 6.7. Given the successful results of the tests, the method can by used for predicting isoseismal and isoacceleration maps for future Vrancea earthquakes of various magnitudes M GR ≥ 6.7. (authors)

  3. Five Describing Factors of Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Vorst, Harrie C. M.; Oort, Frans J.

    2016-01-01

    Two subtypes of dyslexia (phonological, visual) have been under debate in various studies. However, the number of symptoms of dyslexia described in the literature exceeds the number of subtypes, and underlying relations remain unclear. We investigated underlying cognitive features of dyslexia with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. A…

  4. An alternative method for noise analysis using pixel variance as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Young, K.; Lazzari, B.; Ravaglia, V.; Broeders, M.J.M.; Engen, R. van

    2009-01-01

    According to the European Guidelines for quality assured breast cancer screening and diagnosis, noise analysis is one of the measurements that needs to be performed as part of quality control procedures on digital mammography systems. However, the method recommended in the European Guidelines does

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 425 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit 1 C Appendix C to Part 425 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE...

  6. The "SAFARI" Method of Collection Study and Cooperative Acquisition for a Multi-Library Cooperative. A Manual of Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Dorothy

    This document examines the importance and difficulties in resource sharing and acquisition by libraries and introduces the procedures of the Site Appraisal for Area Resources Inventory (SAFARI) system as a method of comparative evaluation of subject collections among a group of libraries. Resource, or collection, sharing offers specific…

  7. Identifying complications of interventional procedures from UK routine healthcare databases: a systematic search for methods using clinical codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keltie, Kim; Cole, Helen; Arber, Mick; Patrick, Hannah; Powell, John; Campbell, Bruce; Sims, Andrew

    2014-11-28

    Several authors have developed and applied methods to routine data sets to identify the nature and rate of complications following interventional procedures. But, to date, there has been no systematic search for such methods. The objective of this article was to find, classify and appraise published methods, based on analysis of clinical codes, which used routine healthcare databases in a United Kingdom setting to identify complications resulting from interventional procedures. A literature search strategy was developed to identify published studies that referred, in the title or abstract, to the name or acronym of a known routine healthcare database and to complications from procedures or devices. The following data sources were searched in February and March 2013: Cochrane Methods Register, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science, Econlit, EMBASE, Health Management Information Consortium, Health Technology Assessment database, MathSciNet, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-process, OAIster, OpenGrey, Science Citation Index Expanded and ScienceDirect. Of the eligible papers, those which reported methods using clinical coding were classified and summarised in tabular form using the following headings: routine healthcare database; medical speciality; method for identifying complications; length of follow-up; method of recording comorbidity. The benefits and limitations of each approach were assessed. From 3688 papers identified from the literature search, 44 reported the use of clinical codes to identify complications, from which four distinct methods were identified: 1) searching the index admission for specified clinical codes, 2) searching a sequence of admissions for specified clinical codes, 3) searching for specified clinical codes for complications from procedures and devices within the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision (ICD-10) coding scheme which is the methodology recommended by NHS Classification Service, and 4) conducting manual clinical

  8. Plastic freezer bags: a cost-effective method to protect extraction sites in laparoscopic colorectal procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Hai P; Musselman, Reilly P; Trottier, Daniel C; Soto, Claudia M; Poulin, Eric C; Mamazza, Joseph; Boushey, Robin P; Auer, Rebecca C; Moloo, Husein

    2013-10-01

    To review surgical-site infection (SSI) and retrieval-site tumor recurrence rates in laparoscopic colorectal procedures when using a plastic freezer bag as a wound protector. Laparoscopic colorectal procedures where a plastic freezer bag used as a wound protector at the extraction site were reviewed between 1991 and 2008 from a prospectively collected database. χ test was used to compare SSI and tumor recurrence rates between groups. Costing data were obtained from the operating room supplies department. A total of 936 cases with 51 (5.45%) surgical-site infections were identified. SSI rates did not differ when comparing groups based on demographic factors, diagnosis, or location of procedure. Retrieval-site tumor recurrence rate was 0.21% (1/474). Cost of plastic freezer bags including sterilization ranged from $0.25 to $3. Plastic freezer bags as wound protectors in laparoscopic colorectal procedures are cost effective and have SSI and retrieval-site tumor recurrence rates that compare favorably to published data.

  9. 40 CFR 63.1104 - Process vents from continuous unit operations: applicability assessment procedures and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Necessitating that the owner or operator make product in excess of demand. (e) TOC or Organic HAP concentration....306×10 −2 a Use according to procedures outlined in this section. MJ/scm = Mega Joules per standard cubic meter. scm/min = Standard cubic meters per minute. (2) Nonhalogenated process vents. The owner or...

  10. A Numerical Procedure for Analysis of W/R Contact Using Explicit Finite Element Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Y.; Markine, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    Since no effective experimental approaches have been proposed to assess wheel and rail (W/R) contact performance till now, numerical computational analysis is known as an alternative to approximately simulate the W/R interaction. In this paper, one numerical procedure is proposed on the basis of

  11. Measurement method of the distribution coefficient on the sorption process. Basic procedure of the method relevant to the barrier materials used for the deep geological disposal: 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-08-01

    This standard was approved by Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberation of the Subcommittee on the Radioactive Waste Management, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee and the Standard Committee, and after obtaining about 600 comments from specialists of about 30 persons. This document defines the basic measurement procedure of the distribution coefficient (hereafter referred as Kd) to judge the reliability, reproducibility and applications and to provide the requirements for inter-comparison of Kd for a variety of barrier materials used for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The basic measurement procedure of Kd is standardized, following the preceded standard, 'Measurement Method of the Distribution Coefficient on the Sorption Process - Basic Procedure of Batch Method Relevant to the Barrier Materials Used for the Shallow Land Disposal: 2002 (hereafter referred as Standard for the Shallow Land Disposal)', and considering recent progress after its publication and specific issues to the deep geological disposal. (J.P.N.)

  12. Theoretical Frameworks, Methods, and Procedures for Conducting Phenomenological Studies in Educational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Yüksel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of phenomenological research are to seek reality from individuals’ narratives of their experiences and feelings, and to produce in-depth descriptions of the phenomenon. Phenomenological research studies in educational settings generally embody lived experience, perception, and feelings of participants about a phenomenon. This study aims to provide a general framework for researchers who are interested in phenomenological studies especially in educational setting. Additionally, the study provides a guide for researchers on how to conduct a phenomenological research and how to collect and analyze phenomenal data. The first part of the paper explains the underpinnings of the research methodology consisting of methodological framework and key phenomenological concepts. The second part provides guidance for a phenomenological research in education settings, focusing particularly on phenomenological data collection procedure and phenomenological data analysis methods.Keywords: Phenomenology, phenomenological inquiry, phenomenological data analysis Eğitim Ortamlarında Fenomenal Çalışmaları Yürütmek İçin Teorik Çerçeveler, Yöntemler ve ProsedürlerÖzFenomenolojik araştırmaların temel amacı, bireyin deneyimlerinden ve duygularından yola çıkarak belli bir fenomenan üzerinde yaptığı anlatılarında gerçeği aramak ve bu fenomenana yönelik derinlemesine açıklamalar üretmektir. Eğitim ortamlarında fenomenolojik araştırmalar genellikle araştırmaya katılanların belli bir fenomenan hakkında yaşantıları, deneyimleri, algıları ve duyguları somutlaştırmak için kullanılır. Bu çalışma, özellikle eğitim ortamlarında fenomenolojik çalışmalarla ilgilenen araştırmacılar için genel bir çerçeve sunmayı amaçlamaktadır. Ayrıca, çalışmada fenomenolojik araştırmalar için veri toplamak ve bu fenomenal verileri analiz yapmak için araştırmacılara yön gösterici bir k

  13. Fractional Microneedling: A Novel Method for Enhancement of Topical Anesthesia Before Skin Aesthetic Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakahany, Hasan; Medhat, Walid; Abdallah, Fahd; Abdel-Raouf, Hamza; Abdelhakeem, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Skin microneedling or fractional microneedle therapy is a recent approach used for skin rejuvenation or to enhance transdermal delivery of topical medications. The authors evaluated the efficacy of skin microneedling, using an automated device, to enhance the numbing effect of topical anesthesia, used before minimally invasive aesthetic approaches. Fifteen patients, looking for treatment of atrophic acne scars, were subjected to randomized split-face study comparing automated fractional skin microneedling (0.5 mm depth) followed by application of topical anesthetic cream (Lidocaine 2.5% + Prilocaine 2.5%) on one side of face, with topical anesthesia alone on the other side, followed by full face fractional microneedling treatment for postacne scars (2.5 mm depth). The treated sides (fractional needling + topical anesthesia) had significantly lower pain scores when compared with the nontreated sides (topical anesthesia alone). The scores of pain sensation, during the whole procedure, were statistically significantly (p aesthetic procedures can be enhanced with fractional microneedling pretreatment.

  14. European wind turbine testing procedure developments. Task 1: Measurement method to verify wind turbine performance characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, R.; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Dunbabin, P.

    2001-01-01

    There is currently significant standardisation work ongoing in the context of wind farm energy yield warranty assessment and wind turbine power performance testing. A standards maintenance team is revising the current IEC (EN) 61400-12 Ed 1 standard forwind turbine power performance testing....... The standard is being divided into four documents. Two of them are drafted for evaluation and verification of complete wind farms and of individual wind turbines within wind farms. This document, and the project itdescribes, has been designed to help provide a solid technical foundation for this revised...... standard. The work was wide ranging and addressed 'grey' areas of knowledge, regarding existing methodologies or to carry out basic research in support offundamentally new procedures. The work has given rise to recommendations in all areas of the work, including site calibration procedures, nacelle...

  15. Comparison of extraction chromatography and a procedure based on the molecular recognition method as separation methods in the determination of neptunium and plutonium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strisovska, Jana; Galanda, Dusan; Drabova, Veronika; Kuruc, Jozef

    2012-01-01

    The potential of various types of sorbents for separation of radionuclides of plutonium and neptunium were examined. Extraction chromatography and a procedure based on the molecular recognition method were used for the separation. The suitability of the various sorbent types and brands for this purpose was determined. (orig.)

  16. An electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base method; application to electroorganic synthesis of new nitrogen-containing heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, Bahram; Othman, Mohamed Rozali

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of Nitrogen-containing heterocycles has been achieved using chemical and electrochemical methods, respectively. The direct chemical synthesis of nucleophiles proceeds through the Schiff base chemical reaction. This procedure offers an alternate reaction between dicarbonyl compounds and diamines leads to the formation of products. The results indicate that the Schiff base chemical method for synthesis of the product has successfully performed in excellent overall yield. In the electrochemical step, a series of Nitrogen-containing compounds were electrosynthesized. Various parameters such as the applied potential, pH of the electrolytic solution, cell configuration and also purification techniques, were carried out to optimize the yields of corresponding products. New Nitrogen-containing heterocycle derivatives were synthesized using an electrochemical procedure coupled with a Schiff base as a facile, efficient and practical method. The products have been characterized after purification by IR, 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and ESI-MS 2

  17. Dermal and inhalation acute toxic class methods: test procedures and biometric evaluations for the Globally Harmonized Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzhütter, H G; Genschow, E; Diener, W; Schlede, E

    2003-05-01

    The acute toxic class (ATC) methods were developed for determining LD(50)/LC(50) estimates of chemical substances with significantly fewer animals than needed when applying conventional LD(50)/LC(50) tests. The ATC methods are sequential stepwise procedures with fixed starting doses/concentrations and a maximum of six animals used per dose/concentration. The numbers of dead/moribund animals determine whether further testing is necessary or whether the test is terminated. In recent years we have developed classification procedures for the oral, dermal and inhalation routes of administration by using biometric methods. The biometric approach assumes a probit model for the mortality probability of a single animal and assigns the chemical to that toxicity class for which the best concordance is achieved between the statistically expected and the observed numbers of dead/moribund animals at the various steps of the test procedure. In previous publications we have demonstrated the validity of the biometric ATC methods on the basis of data obtained for the oral ATC method in two-animal ring studies with 15 participants from six countries. Although the test procedures and biometric evaluations for the dermal and inhalation ATC methods have already been published, there was a need for an adaptation of the classification schemes to the starting doses/concentrations of the Globally Harmonized Classification System (GHS) recently adopted by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Here we present the biometric evaluation of the dermal and inhalation ATC methods for the starting doses/concentrations of the GHS and of some other international classification systems still in use. We have developed new test procedures and decision rules for the dermal and inhalation ATC methods, which require significantly fewer animals to provide predictions of toxicity classes, that are equally good or even better than those achieved by using the conventional LD(50)/LC

  18. Educational Material for 3D Visualization of Spine Procedures: Methods for Creation and Dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Justin; Quigley, Edward; Hutchins, Troy; Shah, Lubdha

    2017-06-01

    Spine anatomy can be difficult to master and is essential for performing spine procedures. We sought to utilize the rapidly expanding field of 3D technology to create freely available, interactive educational materials for spine procedures. Our secondary goal was to convey lessons learned about 3D modeling and printing. This project involved two parallel processes: the creation of 3D-printed physical models and interactive digital models. We segmented illustrative CT studies of the lumbar and cervical spine to create 3D models and then printed them using a consumer 3D printer and a professional 3D printing service. We also included downloadable versions of the models in an interactive eBook and platform-independent web viewer. We then provided these educational materials to residents with a pretest and posttest to assess efficacy. The "Spine Procedures in 3D" eBook has been downloaded 71 times as of October 5, 2016. All models used in the book are available for download and printing. Regarding test results, the mean exam score improved from 70 to 86%, with the most dramatic improvement seen in the least experienced trainees. Participants reported increased confidence in performing lumbar punctures after exposure to the material. We demonstrate the value of 3D models, both digital and printed, in learning spine procedures. Moreover, 3D printing and modeling is a rapidly expanding field with a large potential role for radiologists. We have detailed our process for creating and sharing 3D educational materials in the hopes of motivating and enabling similar projects.

  19. Prenatal radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has the right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data have shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% (ICRP84, 2000) up to 0.14% per 10 mSv (BEIR-V 1990). In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy (ICRP84, 2000), and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; 1. The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. 2. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period

  20. Describing treatment effects to patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxey, Annette; O'Connell, Dianne; McGettigan, Patricia; Henry, David

    2003-11-01

    To examine the impact of different presentations of equivalent information (framing) on treatment decisions faced by patients. A systematic review of the published literature was conducted. English language publications allocating participants to different frames were retrieved using electronic and bibliographic searches. Two reviewers examined each article for inclusion, and assessed methodological quality. Study characteristics were tabulated and where possible, relative risks (RR; 95% confidence intervals) were calculated to estimate intervention effects. Thirty-seven articles, yielding 40 experimental studies, were included. Studies examined treatment (N = 24), immunization (N = 5), or health behavior scenarios (N = 11). Overall, active treatments were preferred when outcomes were described in terms of relative rather than absolute risk reductions or number needed to treat. Surgery was preferred to other treatments when treatment efficacy was presented in a positive frame (survival) rather than a negative frame (mortality) (relative risk [RR] = 1.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39 to 1.64). Framing effects were less obvious for immunization and health behavior scenarios. Those with little interest in the behavior at baseline were influenced by framing, particularly when information was presented as gains. In studies judged to be of good methodological quality and/or examining actual decisions, the framing effect, although still evident, was less convincing compared to the results of all included studies. Framing effects varied with the type of scenario, responder characteristics, scenario manipulations, and study quality. When describing treatment effects to patients, expressing the information in more than one way may present a balanced view to patients and enable them to make informed decisions.

  1. An Alternative and Rapid Method for the Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Ixodid Ticks by Potassium Acetate Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islay Rodríguez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Four variants of the potassium acetate procedure for DNA extraction from ixodid ticks at different stage of their life cycles were evaluated and compared with phenol-chloroform and ammonium hydroxide methods. The most rapid and most efficient variant was validated in the DNA extraction procedure from the engorged ticks collected from bovine, canine as well as from house ticks for the screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. The ammonium hydroxide procedure was used for non-engorged ticks. All the variants were efficient and allowed obtaining PCR-quality material according to the specific amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragment of the original tick. DNA extracted from the ticks under the study was tested by multiplex PCR for the screening of tick-borne pathogens. Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. amplification products were obtained from 29/48 extracts. Ammonium hydroxide protocol was not efficient for two extracts. Detection of amplification products from the PCR indicated that DNA had been successfully extracted. The potassium acetate procedure could be an alternative, rapid, and reliable method for DNA extraction from the ixodid ticks, mainly for poorly-resourced laboratories.

  2. Three-dimensional Cross-Platform Planning for Complex Spinal Procedures: A New Method Adaptive to Different Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterhon, Michael; Gutenberg, Angelika; Kantelhardt, Sven R; Conrad, Jens; Nimer Amr, Amr; Gawehn, Joachim; Giese, Alf

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study. To develop a method based on the DICOM standard which transfers complex 3-dimensional (3D) trajectories and objects from external planning software to any navigation system for planning and intraoperative guidance of complex spinal procedures. There have been many reports about navigation systems with embedded planning solutions but only few on how to transfer planning data generated in external software. Patients computerized tomography and/or magnetic resonance volume data sets of the affected spinal segments were imported to Amira software, reconstructed to 3D images and fused with magnetic resonance data for soft-tissue visualization, resulting in a virtual patient model. Objects needed for surgical plans or surgical procedures such as trajectories, implants or surgical instruments were either digitally constructed or computerized tomography scanned and virtually positioned within the 3D model as required. As crucial step of this method these objects were fused with the patient's original diagnostic image data, resulting in a single DICOM sequence, containing all preplanned information necessary for the operation. By this step it was possible to import complex surgical plans into any navigation system. We applied this method not only to intraoperatively adjustable implants and objects under experimental settings, but also planned and successfully performed surgical procedures, such as the percutaneous lateral approach to the lumbar spine following preplanned trajectories and a thoracic tumor resection including intervertebral body replacement using an optical navigation system. To demonstrate the versatility and compatibility of the method with an entirely different navigation system, virtually preplanned lumbar transpedicular screw placement was performed with a robotic guidance system. The presented method not only allows virtual planning of complex surgical procedures, but to export objects and surgical plans to any navigation or

  3. Evaluation of occupational exposure in interventionist procedures using Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Belinato, Walmir; Maia, Ana F.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a computational model of exposure for a patient, cardiologist and nurse in a typical scenario of cardiac interventional procedures. In this case a set of conversion coefficient (CC) for effective dose (E) in terms of kerma-area product (KAP) for all individuals involved using seven different energy spectra and eight beam projections. The CC was also calculated for the entrance skin dose (ESD) normalized to the PKA for the patient. All individuals were represented by anthropomorphic phantoms incorporated in a radiation transport code based on Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  4. The Pelleve procedure: an effective method for facial wrinkle reduction and skin tightening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampar, Michael

    2011-05-01

    Devices using radiofrequency (RF) energy and electrical energy to deliver a controlled thermal injury to heat skin have proliferated within the nonablative skin treatment market since the introduction of Thermage in 2002. By delivering continuous monopolar RF energy, rather than pulsed heating, and repeatedly bringing the skin to therapeutic temperatures until maximal contraction is obtained, the Pelleve Procedure can give obvious cosmetic results confluently over all treated areas painlessly and with no downtime. In this article, the technique, mechanism of continuous RF heating, and apparent treatment requirements to produce these results are presented. Some controversies are also addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prenatal Radiation exposures at diagnostic procedures: methods to identify exposed pregnant patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, H.; Sandborg, M.; Nilsson, J.; Olsson, S.; Hellman, S.; Helmrot, E.; Persliden, J.; Cederlund, T.

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge about frequency and doses to embryo/foetus from diagnostic radiology is of great importance both in the sense of estimating the radiation risks but also for optimizing the diagnostic procedures and making decisions regarding alternative procedures. In addition, the pregnant patient has a right to know the magnitude and type of radiation risks expected as a result of foetus exposure. From a risk perspective epidemiological data has shown that the embryo/foetus together with children experience higher radiation sensitivity in terms of induced leukemia and cancer compared to an adult population. Recent estimates give cancer excess lifetime mortality risks for whole body exposures of children and foetus (0-15 y age) of 0.06% up to 0.14% per 10 mSv. In addition to the risk of cancer induction effects of cell killing, e.g. CNS abnormalities, cataracts, malformations, growth retardation, may occur. However, these effects are believed to have a threshold, about 100-200 mGy, and such foetus doses are rarely reached in diagnostic radiology procedures. There are 2 principal situations where foetus exposures may occur in diagnostic radiology; The pregnancy of the patient is known at the time of examination, but due to the medical indications the examination can not be postponed or put forward in time, and there are no suitable alternative non-radiological procedures. The pregnancy of the patient is not known at the time of examination, either due to the fact that the patient is unaware of her pregnancy or the medical personnel failed to obtain this information. The former situation may occur during the first few weeks from conception, whereas the latter situation may cover a greater gestation period. The frequency of foetus exposure is not well documented. In Sweden, there are well-established routines to track down pregnant patients before examinations are being performed. However, there are no general obligations or routines to document the cases either (i) when

  6. Developing site-specific interactive environmental management tools: An exciting method of communicating training, procedures, and other information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeckels, J.M.

    1999-07-01

    Environmental managers are faced with numerous programs that must be communicated throughout their organizations. Among these are regulatory training programs, internal environmental policy, regulatory guidance/procedures and internal guidance/procedures. Traditional methods of delivering this type of information are typically confined to written materials and classroom training. There are many challenges faced by environmental managers with these traditional approaches including: determining if recipients of written plans or procedures are reading and comprehending the information; scheduling training sessions to reach all affected people across multiple schedules/shifts; and maintaining adequate training records. In addition, current trends toward performance-based or competency-based training requires a more consistent method of measuring and documenting performance. The use of interactive computer applications to present training or procedural information is a new and exciting tool for delivering environmental information to employees. Site-specific pictures, text, sound, and even video can be combined with multimedia software to create informative and highly interactive applications. Some of the applications that can be produced include integrated environmental training, educational pieces, and interactive environmental procedures. They can be executed from a CD-ROM, hard drive, network or a company Intranet. Collectively, the authors refer to these as interactive environmental management tools (IEMTs). This paper focuses on site-specific, interactive training as an example of an IEMT. Interactive training not only delivers a highly effective message, but can also be designed to focus on site-specific environmental issues that are unique to each company. Interactive training also lends itself well to automated record keeping functions and to reaching all affected employees.

  7. An improved method for determination of technetium-99m half-life for the quality assurance procedures of radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Jalil Abd Hamid; Juhari Mohd Yusof; Zakaria Ibrahim; Wan Mohd Ferdaus Wan Ishak; Mohamad Hafiz Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    An improve method for identity tests of technetium-99m for the quality assurance procedures are presented. Computerized methods based on the least-squares of decay curve fitting for half-life estimation of technetium-99m was tested. Thus, least-squares method was employ as a decay curve fitting procedures in our software. Theoretical calculated half-life of technetium-99m for evaluation was performed for comparison. In Fig. 3 is shown, the decay curve fitting of a sample over one second counting time interval. The R2 value of the curve suggests that the time of the study was too short to obtain acceptable value. A similar measurement for another data set was done for a longer period of time and in Table 1 is shown a representative decay curve fitting. The value was found to be 6.006 hours with a discrepancy of -0.28% from the value taken from the literature. The value is in agreement with the literature for time interval greater than 2 seconds. The results obtained by this method show that the used of least-squares method for decay curve fitting are appropriate for routine identity tests. This confirmed that the least-squares method applied in our decay curve fitting software are remarkably improved and convenient for routine identity tests purposes. (Author)

  8. The configuration-driven table CI method and comparison with integral-driven CI procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenker, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    A new configuration-driven CI algorithm is outlined which eliminates the need for explicit comparison of pairs of Slater determinants through the use of a series of compact tables. In this scheme each pair of configurations is either shown to be non-interacting or to fall into one of nine cases, each of which is characterized fully once certain orbital permutations are determined. The program is divided into three parts: a case structure analysis step including integral label generation, a sort of the required electron repulsion integrals, and finally a procedure in which the foregoing information is combined with tabulated directions for the evaluation of the necessary Hamiltonian matrix elements over spin-adapted functions. Timing improvements of up to more than a factor of four have been achieved with the new algorithm

  9. Application of the Bow Tie method for evaluation of safety in the procedure of logging wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonso Pallares, C; Perez Reyes, Y.; Sarabia Molina, I.I.

    2013-01-01

    This work consists of an assessment of security in the practice of logging of oil wells, using the method of Bow Tie for being a simple method of evaluation of the risk, which makes it possible in a structured way to set priorities to manage risk

  10. METHODS AND PROCEDURES FOR COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSIS OF RISKS OF THE ENTERPRISES OF REAL SECTOR OF ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Medvedeva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article covers a conceptually new method of industrial Company Risks’ complex Diagnosis. This method orders the possibility of diagnosing these risks as events resulting from each of the factors and leading to the changes of the company and company’s systems/subdivisions activities’ results.

  11. Method to determine the radioactivity of radioactive waste packages. Basic procedure of the method used to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-03-01

    This document describes the procedures adopted in order to determine the radioactivity of low-level radioactive waste packages generated at nuclear power plants in Japan. The standards applied have been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan after deliberations by the Subcommittee on the Radioactivity Verification Method for Waste Packages, the Nuclear Cycle Technical Committee, and the Standards Committee. The method for determining the radioactivity of the low-level radioactive waste packages was based on procedures approved by the Nuclear Safety Commission in 1992. The scaling factor method and other methods of determining radioactivity were then developed on the basis of various investigations conducted, drawing on extensive accumulated knowledge. Moreover, the international standards applied as common guidelines for the scaling factor method were developed by Technical Committee ISO/TC 85, Nuclear Energy, Subcommittee SC 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology. Since the application of accumulated knowledge to future radioactive waste disposal is considered to be rational and justified, such body of knowledge has been documented in a standardized form. The background to this standardization effort, the reasoning behind the determination method as applied to the measurement of radioactivity, as well as other related information, are given in the Annexes hereto. This document includes the following Annexes. Annex 1: (reference) Recorded items related to the determination of the scaling factor. Annex 2 (reference): Principles applied to the determining the radioactivity of waste packages. (author)

  12. Procedures and methods that increase reliability and reproducibility of the transplanted kidney perfusion index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokvina, A.

    1994-01-01

    At different times following surgery and during various complications, 119 studies were performed on 57 patients. In many patients studies were repeated several times. Twenty-three studies were performed in as many patients, in whom a normal function of the transplanted kidney was established by other diagnostic methods and retrospective analysis. Comparison was made of the perfusion index results obtained by the Hilson et al. method from 1978 and the ones obtained by my own modified method, which for calculating the index also takes into account: the time difference in appearance of the initial portions of the artery and kidney curves; the positioning of the region of interest over the distal part of the aorta; the bolus injection into the arteriovenous shunt of the forearm with high specific activity of small volumes of Tc-99m labelled agents; a fast 0.5 seconds study of data collection; and a standard for normalization of numerical data. The reliability of one or the other method tested by simulated time shift of the peak of arterial curves shows that the deviation percentage from the main index value in the unmodified method is 2-5 times greater than in the modified method. The normal value of the perfusion index applying the modified method is 91-171. (author)

  13. Method for placing fuel rods in individual cells, and device for performing this procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabsen, F S

    1972-10-16

    A lattice grid is described in which an egg box type assembly is formed by metal plates deformed to form spring loaded spacers which retain the fuel pins in their correct position. In order to be able to insert the fuel pins without causing scratches on their surfaces, which could lead to corrosion, the springs are displaced outwards by inserting and rotating a square-sectioned rod with rounded corners which when rotated acts as a cam, pressing the springs out. The springs are held in this position by inserting keys horizontally between the lattice plates, through holes for this purpose. The cam rod is then withdrawn, the fuel pins inserted, and the keys withdrawn. Hydraulic equipment for carrying out these operations for a large number of fuel rods simultaneously is also described.

  14. Economics definitions, methods, models, and analysis procedures for Homeland Security applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Loose, Verne William; Vargas, Vanessa N.; Smith, Braeton J.; Warren, Drake E.; Downes, Paula Sue; Eidson, Eric D.; Mackey, Greg Edward

    2010-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the types of economic methodologies and models used by Sandia economists in their consequence analysis work for the National Infrastructure Simulation & Analysis Center and other DHS programs. It describes the three primary resolutions at which analysis is conducted (microeconomic, mesoeconomic, and macroeconomic), the tools used at these three levels (from data analysis to internally developed and publicly available tools), and how they are used individually and in concert with each other and other infrastructure tools.

  15. 40 CFR 246.200-5 - Recommended procedures: Methods of separation and collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... individual facility, the ease of collection, and the projected cost effectiveness of using various methods... located in an area the worker frequents in the normal course of business. (3) In locations where computer...

  16. Justification of methodical procedures for the optimization of radiation protection in reproductive women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberman, A.N.; Zynova, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    Scientific information on the influence of low-dose ionizing radiation on human embryos and fetuses is analyzed and the risk of irradiation in the different weeks of pregnancy is estimated quantitatively. Program and methods of follow-up in occupationally exposed reproductive women are justified. Emphasis is laid on methods estimating the condition of reproductiveness. Measures concerning prophylaxis and radiation protection of occupationally exposed women are investigated

  17. Method matters: systematic effects of testing procedure on visual working memory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal; Watson, Leah M; Koutstaal, Wilma; Jiang, Yuhong V

    2010-11-01

    Visual working memory (WM) is traditionally considered a robust form of visual representation that survives changes in object motion, observer's position, and other visual transients. This article presents data that are inconsistent with the traditional view. We show that memory sensitivity is dramatically influenced by small variations in the testing procedure, supporting the idea that representations in visual WM are susceptible to interference from testing. In the study, participants were shown an array of colors to remember. After a short retention interval, memory for one of the items was tested with either a same-different task or a 2-alternative-forced-choice (2AFC) task. Memory sensitivity was much lower in the 2AFC task than in the same-different task. This difference was found regardless of encoding similarity or of whether visual WM required a fine or coarse memory resolution. The 2AFC disadvantage was reduced when participants were informed shortly before testing which item would be probed. The 2AFC disadvantage diminished in perceptual tasks and was not found in tasks probing visual long-term memory. These results support memory models that acknowledge the labile nature of visual WM and have implications for the format of visual WM and its assessment. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  18. A probabilistic assessment procedure for evaluating and comparing various NDT methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauer, R.; Guo, W.F.; Schall, M.

    2005-01-01

    By applying NDT methodologies to assess the integrity of a certain structure, it is strictly recommended to have knowledge about the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods. Especially when new technologies shall be applied, the final question always will be: What is the influence on the overall integrity of the structure? Here, different Probability of Detection (PoD) capacities in combination with different accuracies in sizing a flaw and in combination with different initial crack distributions e.g. resulting from various fabrication methods yield to different values regarding false call rate, rejection rate, and failure rate. So the final goal must be to select the most appropriate and efficient methodology as well as a suitable acceptance criteria addressing the specific advantages and disadvantages of each method. Usually these acceptance criteria are given in the relevant codes. However, often there are various levels of acceptance given, depending on the criticality of the service conditions. In other cases, more information is needed about the consequences of those acceptance criteria to a specific structure. Another application might be the evaluation of a 'new' NDT technology in comparison to an established one. For this purpose, we present a probabilistic evaluation method starting with the initial failure distribution and taking into account PoD and sizing capacities of certain NDT-methods. Finally, Failure Rate, False Call Rate, and Rejection Rate can be presented with respect to the acceptance criteria chosen. (authors)

  19. Look-ahead procedures for Lanczos-type product methods based on three-term recurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutknecht, M.H.; Ressel, K.J. [Swiss Center for Scientific Computing, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Lanczos-type product methods for the solution of large sparse non-Hermitian linear systems either square the Lanczos process or combine it with a local minimization of the residual. They inherit from the underlying Lanczos process the danger of breakdown. For various Lanczos-type product methods that are based on the Lanczos three-term recurrence, look-ahead versions are presented, which avoid such breakdowns or near breakdowns with a small computational overhead. Different look-ahead strategies are discussed and their efficiency is demonstrated in several numerical examples.

  20. Application of Hplc-Pda Method Using Two Different Extraction Procedures for the Determination of Alkylresorcinols in Cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gailāne Natālija

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals, especially barley, are an important source of vitamins, minerals, dietary fibre and various phytochemicals, such as alkylresorcinols (ARs. Cereal ARs are a group of phenolic lipids located in the outer parts of grain, particularly in rye and wheat, but not found in refined flour or in refined products from cereals. This study focuses on the comparison of different extraction procedures applied for the determination of the content of ARs (C15:0 - C23:0 in grain of Latvian barley genotypes. The content of ARs in 1 rye and 16 barley samples grown with different amounts of fertilier was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography method with Photodiode Array detection (HPLC-PDA developed by us. Two different extraction methods were compared: accelerated Soxhlet extraction and 24-hour extraction. Aside from validation of the extraction procedures, validation parameters for the HPLC-PDA based quantitation method were provided. The coefficients of variation for repeatability and intermediate precision were < 9% and < 3%, respectively. The content of ARs determined with the HPLC-PDA method in conjunction with accelerated Soxhlet extraction was up to 1.5 times higher than using 24-hour extraction. AR content varied from 2.11 ± 0.04 to 3.80 ± 0.10 mg·100 g-1 for 24-hour extraction and from 2.66 ± 0.06 to 5.70 ± 0.20 mg·100 g-1 for accelerated Soxhlet extraction, indicating the increased efficiency of this procedure in analysis of ARs.

  1. Methods and procedures for the verification and validation of artificial neural networks

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    Neural networks are members of a class of software that have the potential to enable intelligent computational systems capable of simulating characteristics of biological thinking and learning. This volume introduces some of the methods and techniques used for the verification and validation of neural networks and adaptive systems.

  2. 40 CFR 63.705 - Performance test methods and procedures to determine initial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... per gram-mole. 24.055 = Ideal gas molar volume at 293° Kelvin and 760 millimeters of mercury, liters... consideration of the potential presence of interfering gases. Except as indicated in paragraphs (b)(3) (i) and... used for velocity and volumetric flow rates. (6) EPA Method 3 of appendix A of part 60 is used for gas...

  3. 24 CFR 1000.54 - What procedures apply to complaints arising out of any of the methods of providing for Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What procedures apply to complaints arising out of any of the methods of providing for Indian preference? 1000.54 Section 1000.54 Housing and... ACTIVITIES General § 1000.54 What procedures apply to complaints arising out of any of the methods of...

  4. 40 CFR 60.4212 - What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an owner or operator of a stationary CI...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What test methods and other procedures... Requirements for Owners and Operators § 60.4212 What test methods and other procedures must I use if I am an... CFR 94.8, as applicable, must not exceed the NTE numerical requirements, rounded to the same number of...

  5. Status of JENDL High Energy File. Evaluation method, tools, specification, release procedure, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-11-01

    The ENDF-6 format file should be kept as a standard distribution file and it is not difficult to convert into some other form for code`s libraries. From this point of view, status of JENDL High Energy File is introduced in this report as well as evaluation strategy, recommended specification, stored nuclides and quantities, a format structure, evaluation methods and tools, and release plan. (author)

  6. Structural evaluation method study and procedure development for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yixiong; Yu Xiaofei; Ai Honglei

    2014-01-01

    Thermal stratification phenomenon of pressurizer surge line can lead potential threaten to plant safety. Base on the mechanism of thermal stratification occurrence, Fr number is used to judge whether the stratification occurs or not. Also the method of calculating heat transfer coefficient is investigated. Theoretically the 3-dimension thermal stress induced by thermal stratification is decoupled to 1-dimension global stress and 2-dimension local stress, and the complex 3-dimension problem is simplified into a combination of 1-dimension and 2-dimension to compute the stress. Comply with criterion RCC-M, the complete structure integrity evaluation is accomplished after combining the stress produced by thermal stratification and the stresses produced by the other loadings. In order to match the above combined analysis method, Code SYSTUS and ROCOCO are developed. By means of aforesaid evaluation method and corresponding analysis program, surge line thermal stratification of Qinshan Phase II Extension project is investigated in this paper. And the results show that structural integrity of the pressurizer surge line affected by thermal stratification still satisfies criterion RCC-M. (authors)

  7. Analysis of the IEA-R1 reactor start-up procedures - an application of the HazOp method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, Maria Eugenia Lago Jacques

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of technological catastrophic events that took place in this century shows that human failure and vulnerability of risk management programs are the main causes for the occurrence of accidents. As an example, plants and complex systems where the interface man-machine is close, the frequency of failures tends to be higher. Thus, a comprehensive knowledge of how a specific process can be potentially hazardous is a sine qua non condition to the operators training, as well as to define and implement more efficient plans for loss prevention and risk management. A study of the IEA-R1 research reactor start-up procedures was carried out, based upon the methodology Hazard and Operability Study (HazOp). The analytical and qualitative multidisciplinary HazOp approach provided means to a comprehensive review of the reactor start-up procedures, contributing to improve the understanding of the potential hazards associated to deviations on performing this routine. The present work includes a historical summary and a detailed description of the HazOp technique, as well as case studies in the process industries and the use of expert systems in the application of the method. An analysis of 53 activities of the IEA-R1 reactor start-up procedures was made, resulting in 25 recommendations of changes covering aspects of the project, operation and safety of the reactor. Eleven recommendations have been implemented. (author)

  8. Evaluation of F/E·DOI method as an approximate estimate of skin dose during percutaneous coronary intervention procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Makoto; Yoshino, Akira; Kitano, K.; Yamaguchi, M.; Morone, Takayuki; Tani, K.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluoroscopy time/total exposure times exposure times · in direction of interest (F/E·DOI) method as an approximate estimate of skin dose during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure. Up to March 10, 2004, fifty-seven patients (male: 46 cases, female: 11 cases, age range 38-85 years; mean age 67±11 years) had undergone PCI and 157 directions of exposure was measured using X-ray films (KONICA MINOLTA SR-DUP) placed under the back of each patient during the procedure. The fluoroscopy time (minutes), the times of exposure in each direction during the procedure, and the thickness of chest (cm) was recorded. The relation of the skin dose to fluoroscopic time, exposure times in direction of interest, and F/E·DOI was assessed. The relationship between fluoroscopy time and skin dose was shown as y=0.02x+0.22 (r=0.54, p<0.0001, m.e=0.00±0.71 Gy, e.a=-2.19∼l.53 Gy). In addition, the relation of skin dose to exposure times in the direction of interest was y=0.07x+0.27 (r=0.77, p<0.0001, m.e=-0.00±0.53 Gy, e.a=-2.45∼1.76 Gy). The relationship between skin dose and F/E·DOI was y=0.06x+0.30 (r=0.85, p<0.0001, m.e=-0.00±0.44 Gy, e.a=-1.28∼1.06 Gy). Moreover, the relationship between skin dose and (F/E·DOI x 0.06+0.30) x coefficient of direction x coefficient in thickness of chest was y=0.99x-0.02 (r=0.89, p<0.0001, m.e=0.00±0.38 Gy, e.a=-1.12∼l.27 Gy). The calculated results corresponded to the skin dose during the procedure. F/E·DOI method was simple and effective, moreover, that enabled us to inform the skin dose during the PCI procedure to the interventionalist easily. (authors)

  9. A novel design procedure for tractor clutch fingers by using optimization and response surface methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogan, Oguz; Karpat, Fatih; Yuce, Celalettin; Kaya, Necmettin; Yavuz, Nurettin [Uludag University, Gorukle (Turkmenistan); Sen, Hasan [Valeo A. S., Bursa (Turkmenistan)

    2016-06-15

    This paper presents a methodology for re-designing a failed tractor transmission component subjected to cyclic loading. Unlike other vehicles, tractors cope with tough working conditions. Thus, it is necessary to re-design components by using modern optimization techniques. To extend their service life, we present a design methodology for a failed tractor clutch power take-off finger. The finger was completely re-designed using topology and shape optimization approach. Stress-life based fatigue analyses were performed. Shape optimization and response surface methodology were conducted to obtain optimum dimensions of the finger. Two design parameters were selected for the design of experiment method and 15 cases were analyzed. By using design of the experiment method, three responses were obtained: Maximum stresses, mass, and displacement depending on the selected the design parameters. After solving the optimization problem, we achieved a maximum stress and mass reduction of 14% and 6%, respectively. The stiffness was improved up to 31.6% compared to the initial design.

  10. Indications and organisational methods for autologous blood transfusion procedures in Italy: results of a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Liviana; Campolongo, Alessandra; Caponera, Maurizio; Berzuini, Alessandra; Bontadini, Andrea; Furlò, Giuseppe; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Liumbruno, Giancarlo M

    2014-10-01

    Pre-operative donation of autologous blood is a practice that is now being abandoned. Alternative methods of transfusing autologous blood, other than predeposited blood, do however play a role in limiting the need for transfusion of allogeneic blood. This survey of autologous blood transfusion practices, promoted by the Italian Society of Transfusion Medicine and Immunohaematology more than 2 years after the publication of national recommendations on the subject, was intended to acquire information on the indications for predeposit in Italy and on some organisational aspects of the alternative techniques of autotransfusion. A structured questionnaire consisting of 22 questions on the indications and organisational methods of autologous blood transfusion was made available on a web platform from 15 January to 15 March, 2013. The 232 Transfusion Services in Italy were invited by e-mail to complete the online survey. Of the 232 transfusion structures contacted, 160 (69%) responded to the survey, with the response rate decreasing from the North towards the South and the Islands. The use of predeposit has decreased considerably in Italy and about 50% of the units collected are discarded because of lack of use. Alternative techniques (acute isovolaemic haemodilution and peri-operative blood salvage) are used at different frequencies across the country. The data collected in this survey can be considered representative of national practice; they show that the already very limited indications for predeposit autologous blood transfusion must be adhered to even more scrupulously, also to avoid the notable waste of resources due to unused units.Users of alternative autotransfusion techniques must be involved in order to gain a full picture of the degree of use of such techniques; multidisciplinary agreement on the indications for their use is essential in order for these indications to have an effective role in "patient blood management" programmes.

  11. Analytical procedures used by the uranium - radon - radium geochemistry group; Methodes d'analyses utilisees par la section de geochimie uranium, radon, radium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthollet, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-07-01

    The analytical methods described are applied to the geochemical prospecting of uranium. The nature of the material under investigation, which may be soil, alluvium, rock, plant or water, and the particular requirements of geochemical exploration, have prompted us to adjust the widely used conventional methods to the demands of large scale operation, without lowering their standards of accuracy and reliability. These procedures are explained in great detail. Though most of this technical information may appear superfluous to the chemical engineer well versed in trace element determination, it will, however, serve a useful purpose both with the operator in charge of routine testing and with the chemist called upon to interpret results. (author) [French] Les methodes d'analyses decrites sont utilisees pour la prospection geochimique de l'uranium. La nature des materiaux: sols, alluvions, roches, vegetaux, eaux, et les exigences propres a la prospection geochimique, nous ont conduit a adapter des methodes classique couramment utilisees pour les rendre aptes a etre executees en grande serie, sans abandonner leurs qualites de precision et de fidelite. Ces methodes sont presentees avec un maximum de details operatoires qui paraitront superflus aux chimistes habitues aux dosages de traces, mais seront utiles aussi bien aux manipulateurs charges des analyses qu'aux geochimistes appeles a exploiter les resultats. (auteur)

  12. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  13. Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed

  14. Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed.

  15. Methods, forms, procedures and education systems on a conception of teaching as art by José M. Zamora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Lucía OROZCO GÓMEZ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, core pedagogic categories and its problematic elements such as: methods, forms, procedures, systems and laws are recreated. All this, as part of the pedagogical memory recovery through the discourse, in relation to this field of knowledge, that is done in the developments of José M. Zamora, as a reform that inspired the pedagogical practices during a period of the History of Education, the 20s, and especially inspired by the first German pedagogical mission.In the Manual of Pedagogy of Zamora, possibilities and visions from a hopeful World from the Education are seen. Some components arrive at the present time to be evaluated. The author distinguishes into three educational methods: physical, intellectual and moral; Pedagogical forms are classified into four: interrogative, expository, heuristics and narrative. The pedagogical procedures are divided in ten, whereas the educational systems in three: mutual or reciprocal, conferences and discussion. Finally, the pedagogical laws are divided in: physical, intellectual and moral. All of them are important elements in the contemporary pedagogical analysis.

  16. A practical procedure to improve the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry. A integration with a correction method of uniformity correction and a red/blue correction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Ryuzo; Tachibana, Hidenobu; Ito, Yasushi; Yoshino, Shinichi; Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Sato, Tomoharu

    2013-01-01

    It has been reported that the light scattering could worsen the accuracy of dose distribution measurement using a radiochromic film. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of two different films, EDR2 and EBT2, as film dosimetry tools. The effectiveness of a correction method for the non-uniformity caused from EBT2 film and the light scattering was also evaluated. In addition the efficacy of this correction method integrated with the red/blue correction method was assessed. EDR2 and EBT2 films were read using a flatbed charge-coupled device scanner (EPSON 10000 G). Dose differences on the axis perpendicular to the scanner lamp movement axis were within 1% with EDR2, but exceeded 3% (Maximum: +8%) with EBT2. The non-uniformity correction method, after a single film exposure, was applied to the readout of the films. A corrected dose distribution data was subsequently created. The correction method showed more than 10%-better pass ratios in dose difference evaluation than when the correction method was not applied. The red/blue correction method resulted in 5%-improvement compared with the standard procedure that employed red color only. The correction method with EBT2 proved to be able to rapidly correct non-uniformity, and has potential for routine clinical intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose verification if the accuracy of EBT2 is required to be similar to that of EDR2. The use of red/blue correction method may improve the accuracy, but we recommend we should use the red/blue correction method carefully and understand the characteristics of EBT2 for red color only and the red/blue correction method. (author)

  17. [A practical procedure to improve the accuracy of radiochromic film dosimetry: a integration with a correction method of uniformity correction and a red/blue correction method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ryuzo; Tachibana, Hidenobu; Ito, Yasushi; Yoshino, Shinichi; Matsubayashi, Fumiyasu; Sato, Tomoharu

    2013-06-01

    It has been reported that the light scattering could worsen the accuracy of dose distribution measurement using a radiochromic film. The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of two different films, EDR2 and EBT2, as film dosimetry tools. The effectiveness of a correction method for the non-uniformity caused from EBT2 film and the light scattering was also evaluated. In addition the efficacy of this correction method integrated with the red/blue correction method was assessed. EDR2 and EBT2 films were read using a flatbed charge-coupled device scanner (EPSON 10000G). Dose differences on the axis perpendicular to the scanner lamp movement axis were within 1% with EDR2, but exceeded 3% (Maximum: +8%) with EBT2. The non-uniformity correction method, after a single film exposure, was applied to the readout of the films. A corrected dose distribution data was subsequently created. The correction method showed more than 10%-better pass ratios in dose difference evaluation than when the correction method was not applied. The red/blue correction method resulted in 5%-improvement compared with the standard procedure that employed red color only. The correction method with EBT2 proved to be able to rapidly correct non-uniformity, and has potential for routine clinical IMRT dose verification if the accuracy of EBT2 is required to be similar to that of EDR2. The use of red/blue correction method may improve the accuracy, but we recommend we should use the red/blue correction method carefully and understand the characteristics of EBT2 for red color only and the red/blue correction method.

  18. Measurement of consumption of sevoflurane for short pediatric anesthetic procedures: Comparison between dion′s method and dragger algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preet Mohinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Methodology: One hundred pediatric patients scheduled for ophthalmological examination under anesthesia were included in the study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using sevoflurane with oxygen and nitrous oxide (1:1 on Primus workstation (Drager Inc., Germany. Total sevoflurane consumed for each procedure was calculated using Dion′s equation and the values obtained from Drager Primus were noted and compared. Results: Both methods showed a very strong correlation (0.895 [P < 0.001]. Dion′s method underestimated consumption by 2.59 ml with limits of agreement between 5.188 ml and −0.008 ml. Both test results showed a strong correlation, but poor concordance. Conclusions: Dion′s method strongly correlates with Drager protocol although concordance between the two methods for measuring anesthetic gas consumption is poor. Dion′s method underestimates the consumption and with slight modification addressing this underestimation, it can be electronically incorporated in other workstations to overcome limitations of real-time measurement of inhalation agent consumption.

  19. An evaluation of risk methods for prioritizing fire protection features: a procedure for fire barrier penetration seals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper generally evaluates risk methods available for prioritizing fire protection features. Risk methods involving both the use of qualitative insights, and quantitative results from a fire probabilistic risk analysis are reviewed. The applicability of these methods to develop a prioritized list of fire barrier penetration seals in a plant based on risk significance is presented as a procedure to illustrate the benefits of the methods. The paper concludes that current fire risk assessment methods can be confidently used to prioritize plant fire protection features, specifically fire barrier penetration seals. Simple prioritization schemes, using qualitative assessments and insights from fire PRA methodology may be implemented without the need for quantitative results. More elaborate prioritization schemes that allow further refinements to the categorization process may be implemented using the quantitative results of the screening processes in good fire PRAs. The use of the quantitative results from good fire PRAs provide several benefits for risk prioritization of fire protection features at plants, mainly from the plant systems analyses conducted for a fire PRA

  20. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  1. Comparison of measurement methods with a mixed effects procedure accounting for replicated evaluations (COM3PARE): method comparison algorithm implementation for head and neck IGRT positional verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anuradha; Fuller, Clifton D; Rosenthal, David I; Thomas, Charles R

    2015-08-28

    Comparison of imaging measurement devices in the absence of a gold-standard comparator remains a vexing problem; especially in scenarios where multiple, non-paired, replicated measurements occur, as in image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT). As the number of commercially available IGRT presents a challenge to determine whether different IGRT methods may be used interchangeably, an unmet need conceptually parsimonious and statistically robust method to evaluate the agreement between two methods with replicated observations. Consequently, we sought to determine, using an previously reported head and neck positional verification dataset, the feasibility and utility of a Comparison of Measurement Methods with the Mixed Effects Procedure Accounting for Replicated Evaluations (COM3PARE), a unified conceptual schema and analytic algorithm based upon Roy's linear mixed effects (LME) model with Kronecker product covariance structure in a doubly multivariate set-up, for IGRT method comparison. An anonymized dataset consisting of 100 paired coordinate (X/ measurements from a sequential series of head and neck cancer patients imaged near-simultaneously with cone beam CT (CBCT) and kilovoltage X-ray (KVX) imaging was used for model implementation. Software-suggested CBCT and KVX shifts for the lateral (X), vertical (Y) and longitudinal (Z) dimensions were evaluated for bias, inter-method (between-subject variation), intra-method (within-subject variation), and overall agreement using with a script implementing COM3PARE with the MIXED procedure of the statistical software package SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). COM3PARE showed statistically significant bias agreement and difference in inter-method between CBCT and KVX was observed in the Z-axis (both p - value<0.01). Intra-method and overall agreement differences were noted as statistically significant for both the X- and Z-axes (all p - value<0.01). Using pre-specified criteria, based on intra-method agreement, CBCT was deemed

  2. Elaboration and validation of the method for the quantification of the emetic toxin of Bacillus cereus as described in EN-ISO 18465 - Microbiology of the food chain - Quantitative determination of emetic toxin (cereulide) using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 't Veld, P H; van der Laak, L F J; van Zon, M; Biesta-Peters, E G

    2018-04-12

    A method for the quantification of the Bacillus cereus emetic toxin (cereulide) was developed and validated. The method principle is based on LC-MS as this is the most sensitive and specific method for cereulide. Therefore the study design is different from the microbiological methods validated under this mandate. As the method had to be developed a two stage validation study approach was used. The first stage (pre-study) focussed on the method applicability and the experience of the laboratories with the method. Based on the outcome of the pre-study and comments received during voting at CEN and ISO level a final method was agreed to be used for the second stage the (final) validation of the method. In the final (validation) study samples of cooked rice (both artificially contaminated with cereulide or contaminated with B. cereus for production of cereulide in the rice) and 6 other food matrices (fried rice dish, cream pastry with chocolate, hotdog sausage, mini pancakes, vanilla custard and infant formula) were used. All these samples were spiked by the participating laboratories using standard solutions of cereulide supplied by the organising laboratory. The results of the study indicate that the method is fit for purpose. Repeatability values were obtained of 0.6 μg/kg at low level spike (ca. 5 μg/kg) and 7 to 9.6 μg/kg at high level spike (ca. 75 μg/kg). Reproducibility at low spike level ranged from 0.6 to 0.9 μg/kg and from 8.7 to 14.5 μg/kg at high spike level. Recovery from the spiked samples ranged between 96.5% for mini-pancakes to 99.3% for fries rice dish. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Pearson's Functions to Describe FSW Weld Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, D.; Coupard, D.; Tcherniaeff, S.; Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminium alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this study, the geometry of the weld has been investigated and modelled using Pearson's functions. It has been demonstrated that the Pearson's parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and geometric constant) can be used to characterize the weld geometry and the tensile strength of the weld assembly. Pearson's parameters and process parameters are strongly correlated allowing to define a control process procedure for FSW assemblies which make radiographic or ultrasonic controls unnecessary. Finally, an optimisation using a Generalized Gradient Method allows to determine the geometry of the weld which maximises the assembly tensile strength.

  4. A Bayesian nonrigid registration method to enhance intraoperative target definition in image-guided prostate procedures through uncertainty characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pursley, Jennifer; Risholm, Petter; Fedorov, Andriy; Tuncali, Kemal; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Wells, William M. III; Tempany, Clare M.; Cormack, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces a probabilistic nonrigid registration method for use in image-guided prostate brachytherapy. Intraoperative imaging for prostate procedures, usually transrectal ultrasound (TRUS), is typically inferior to diagnostic-quality imaging of the pelvis such as endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MR images contain superior detail of the prostate boundaries and provide substructure features not otherwise visible. Previous efforts to register diagnostic prostate images with the intraoperative coordinate system have been deterministic and did not offer a measure of the registration uncertainty. The authors developed a Bayesian registration method to estimate the posterior distribution on deformations and provide a case-specific measure of the associated registration uncertainty. Methods: The authors adapted a biomechanical-based probabilistic nonrigid method to register diagnostic to intraoperative images by aligning a physician's segmentations of the prostate in the two images. The posterior distribution was characterized with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method; the maximum a posteriori deformation and the associated uncertainty were estimated from the collection of deformation samples drawn from the posterior distribution. The authors validated the registration method using a dataset created from ten patients with MRI-guided prostate biopsies who had both diagnostic and intraprocedural 3 Tesla MRI scans. The accuracy and precision of the estimated posterior distribution on deformations were evaluated from two predictive distance distributions: between the deformed central zone-peripheral zone (CZ-PZ) interface and the physician-labeled interface, and based on physician-defined landmarks. Geometric margins on the registration of the prostate's peripheral zone were determined from the posterior predictive distance to the CZ-PZ interface separately for the base, mid-gland, and apical regions of the prostate. Results: The authors observed

  5. A methodology to describe process control requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carcagno, R.; Ganni, V.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology to describe process control requirements for helium refrigeration plants. The SSC requires a greater level of automation for its refrigeration plants than is common in the cryogenics industry, and traditional methods (e.g., written descriptions) used to describe process control requirements are not sufficient. The methodology presented in this paper employs tabular and graphic representations in addition to written descriptions. The resulting document constitutes a tool for efficient communication among the different people involved in the design, development, operation, and maintenance of the control system. The methodology is not limited to helium refrigeration plants, and can be applied to any process with similar requirements. The paper includes examples

  6. Emergency procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Emergency Procedures: emergency equipment, emergency procedures; emergency procedure involving X-Ray equipment; emergency procedure involving radioactive sources

  7. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan; Bi, Linfeng; Popov, Peter; Efendiev, Yalchin; Espedal, Magne

    2010-01-01

    , fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling

  8. Study on the estimation method of uplift during the late Quaternary by using river terraces (3). Tectonic movement described by last 100,000 years uplift distribution in an inland area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hataya, Ryuta

    2006-01-01

    Uplift for the last 100,000 years, which is estimated in both side of the Ayashi fault in Miyagi prefecture and the Sekiya fault in Tochigi Prefecture by using the relative height of river terraces is almost equal to vertical displacements of these faults for the last 100,000 years. Hence, the method using fluvial terraces is available for estimating the uplift for the last 100,000 years in an inland area quantatively. Furthermore, significance of the uplift obtained by the proposed methodology in this study is emphasized. It is possible to find the geotectonic feature that were so far overlooked as deformed zones along active fault, tectonic style of uplift and subsidence by obtaining the 3-dimensional distribution of uplift in last 100,000 years. Methodology and concept proposed in this study give practical survey method of late Quaternary 3-dimensional uplift characteristics for the long-term safety of geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste. By applying this method to Quaternary research, new insights on the Quaternary tectonic movement may be given. (author)

  9. Evaluation of methods to produce an image library for automatic patient model localization for dose mapping during fluoroscopically guided procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilian-Meneghin, Josh; Xiong, Z.; Rudin, S.; Oines, A.; Bednarek, D. R.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to evaluate methods for producing a library of 2D-radiographic images to be correlated to clinical images obtained during a fluoroscopically-guided procedure for automated patient-model localization. The localization algorithm will be used to improve the accuracy of the skin-dose map superimposed on the 3D patient- model of the real-time Dose-Tracking-System (DTS). For the library, 2D images were generated from CT datasets of the SK-150 anthropomorphic phantom using two methods: Schmid's 3D-visualization tool and Plastimatch's digitally-reconstructed-radiograph (DRR) code. Those images, as well as a standard 2D-radiographic image, were correlated to a 2D-fluoroscopic image of a phantom, which represented the clinical-fluoroscopic image, using the Corr2 function in Matlab. The Corr2 function takes two images and outputs the relative correlation between them, which is fed into the localization algorithm. Higher correlation means better alignment of the 3D patient-model with the patient image. In this instance, it was determined that the localization algorithm will succeed when Corr2 returns a correlation of at least 50%. The 3D-visualization tool images returned 55-80% correlation relative to the fluoroscopic-image, which was comparable to the correlation for the radiograph. The DRR images returned 61-90% correlation, again comparable to the radiograph. Both methods prove to be sufficient for the localization algorithm and can be produced quickly; however, the DRR method produces more accurate grey-levels. Using the DRR code, a library at varying angles can be produced for the localization algorithm.

  10. Alternative methods for the median lethal dose (LD(50)) test: the up-and-down procedure for acute oral toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispin, Amy; Farrar, David; Margosches, Elizabeth; Gupta, Kailash; Stitzel, Katherine; Carr, Gregory; Greene, Michael; Meyer, William; McCall, Deborah

    2002-01-01

    The authors have developed an improved version of the up-and-down procedure (UDP) as one of the replacements for the traditional acute oral toxicity test formerly used by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development member nations to characterize industrial chemicals, pesticides, and their mixtures. This method improves the performance of acute testing for applications that use the median lethal dose (classic LD50) test while achieving significant reductions in animal use. It uses sequential dosing, together with sophisticated computer-assisted computational methods during the execution and calculation phases of the test. Staircase design, a form of sequential test design, can be applied to acute toxicity testing with its binary experimental endpoints (yes/no outcomes). The improved UDP provides a point estimate of the LD50 and approximate confidence intervals in addition to observed toxic signs for the substance tested. It does not provide information about the dose-response curve. Computer simulation was used to test performance of the UDP without the need for additional laboratory validation.

  11. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  12. A method to investigate the effect of shoe-hole size on surface marker movement when describing in-shoe joint kinematics using a multi-segment foot model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Chris; Arnold, John B; Fraysse, Francois; Thewlis, Dominic

    2015-01-01

    To investigate in-shoe foot kinematics, holes are often cut in the shoe upper to allow markers to be placed on the skin surface. However, there is currently a lack of understanding as to what is an appropriate size. This study aimed to demonstrate a method to assess whether different diameter holes were large enough to allow free motion of marker wands mounted on the skin surface during walking using a multi-segment foot model. Eighteen participants underwent an analysis of foot kinematics whilst walking barefoot and wearing shoes with different size holes (15 mm, 20mm and 25 mm). The analysis was conducted in two parts; firstly the trajectory of the individual skin-mounted markers were analysed in a 2D ellipse to investigate total displacement of each marker during stance. Secondly, a geometrical analysis was conducted to assess cluster deformation of the hindfoot and midfoot-forefoot segments. Where movement of the markers in the 15 and 20mm conditions were restricted, the marker movement in the 25 mm condition did not exceed the radius at any anatomical location. Despite significant differences in the isotropy index of the medial and lateral calcaneus markers between the 25 mm and barefoot conditions, the differences were due to the effect of footwear on the foot and not a result of the marker wands hitting the shoe upper. In conclusion, the method proposed and results can be used to increase confidence in the representativeness of joint kinematics with respect to in-shoe multi-segment foot motion during walking. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of experimental method for self-wastage behavior in sodium-water reaction. Development of test rig (SWAT-2R) and study for experimental procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yuta; Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Kurihara, Akikazu

    2014-07-01

    In case of water leak from a penetrated crack on a tube of steam generator in the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR), self-wastage, that increases the size of leak, may take place by corrosion related to chemical reaction between sodium and water. If the self-wastage continues in a certain period of time, the intact tube bundle may be damaged as a result of enlarged leak. For the safety evaluation of the accident, JAEA has been developing the analytical method of self-wastage using the multi-dimensional sodium-water reaction code. Experiments conducted so far used mainly crack-type test pieces. However, reproducibility was limited and it was difficult to evaluate individual effects of the phenomena in detail. This report describes the development of new experimental rig (SWAT-2R). SWAT-2R enables to examine corrosion effecting factors that were ambiguous in the previous studies. The report includes description of development of micro-leak test piece, examination of experimental procedure. The results will provide fundamental data for validation of the self-wastage analytical method. (author)

  14. Storage method, drying processes and extraction procedures strongly affect the phenolic fraction of rosemary leaves: an HPLC/DAD/MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, N; Innocenti, M; Bellumori, M; Giaccherini, C; Martini, V; Michelozzi, M

    2011-07-15

    The Rosmarinus officinalis L. is widely known for its numerous applications in the food field but also for the increasing interest in its pharmaceutical properties. Two groups of compounds are mainly responsible for the biological activities of the plant: the volatile fraction and the phenolic constituents. The latter group is mainly constituted by rosmarinic acid, by a flavonoidic fraction and by some diterpenoid compounds structurally derived from the carnosic acid. The aim of our work was to optimize the extractive and analytical procedure for the determination of all the phenolic constituents. Moreover the chemical stability of the main phenols, depending on the storage condition, the different drying procedures and the extraction solvent, have been evaluated. This method allowed to detect up to 29 different constituents at the same time in a relatively short time. The described procedure has the advantage to being able to detect and quantify several classes of compounds, among them numerous minor flavonoids, thus contributing to improving knowledge of the plant. The findings from this study have demonstrated that storing the raw fresh material in the freezer is not appropriate for rosemary, mainly due to the rapid disappearing of the rosmarinic acid during the freezing/thawing process. Regarding the flavonoidic fraction, consistent decrements, were highlighted in the dried samples at room temperature if compared with the fresh leaf. Rosmarinic acid, appeared very sensitive also to mild drying processes. The total diterpenoidic content undergoes to little changes when the leaves are freeze dried or frozen and limited losses are observed working on dried leaves at room temperature. Nevertheless it can be taken in account that this fraction is very sensitive to the water presence during the extraction that favors the conversion of carnosic acid toward it oxidized form carnosol. From our findings, it appear evident that when evaluating the phenolic content in

  15. A general procedure to generate models for urban environmental-noise pollution using feature selection and machine learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torija, Antonio J; Ruiz, Diego P

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of environmental noise in urban environments requires the solution of a complex and non-linear problem, since there are complex relationships among the multitude of variables involved in the characterization and modelling of environmental noise and environmental-noise magnitudes. Moreover, the inclusion of the great spatial heterogeneity characteristic of urban environments seems to be essential in order to achieve an accurate environmental-noise prediction in cities. This problem is addressed in this paper, where a procedure based on feature-selection techniques and machine-learning regression methods is proposed and applied to this environmental problem. Three machine-learning regression methods, which are considered very robust in solving non-linear problems, are used to estimate the energy-equivalent sound-pressure level descriptor (LAeq). These three methods are: (i) multilayer perceptron (MLP), (ii) sequential minimal optimisation (SMO), and (iii) Gaussian processes for regression (GPR). In addition, because of the high number of input variables involved in environmental-noise modelling and estimation in urban environments, which make LAeq prediction models quite complex and costly in terms of time and resources for application to real situations, three different techniques are used to approach feature selection or data reduction. The feature-selection techniques used are: (i) correlation-based feature-subset selection (CFS), (ii) wrapper for feature-subset selection (WFS), and the data reduction technique is principal-component analysis (PCA). The subsequent analysis leads to a proposal of different schemes, depending on the needs regarding data collection and accuracy. The use of WFS as the feature-selection technique with the implementation of SMO or GPR as regression algorithm provides the best LAeq estimation (R(2)=0.94 and mean absolute error (MAE)=1.14-1.16 dB(A)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Waste Fund cash management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act if 1982 (NWPA) provided for the Office of Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) to adopt financial and accounting methods comparable to those used by private industry, including borrowing and investing authority. This document describes the procedures OCRWM follows to meet its borrowing and investing authority under the NWPA. These procedures are a supplement to, and are, therefore, not intended to supersede, existing Departmental policies and procedures

  17. Development of procedures for calculating stiffness and damping properties of elastomers in engineering applications. Part 1: Verification of basic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, T.; Tessarzik, J. M.; Badgley, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The primary aim of this investigation was verification of basic methods which are to be used in cataloging elastomer dynamic properties (stiffness and damping) in terms of viscoelastic model constants. These constants may then be used to predict dynamic properties for general elastomer shapes and operating conditions, thereby permitting optimum application of elastomers as energy absorption and/or energy storage devices in the control of vibrations in a broad variety of applications. The efforts reported involved: (1) literature search; (2) the design, fabrication and use of a test rig for obtaining elastomer dynamic test data over a wide range of frequencies, amplitudes, and preloads; and (3) the reduction of the test data, by means of a selected three-element elastomer model and specialized curve fitting techniques, to material properties. Material constants thus obtained have been used to calculate stiffness and damping for comparison with measured test data. These comparisons are excellent for a number of test conditions and only fair to poor for others. The results confirm the validity of the basic approach of the overall program and the mechanics of the cataloging procedure, and at the same time suggest areas in which refinements should be made.

  18. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Burgdorf

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM. Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05 from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05. The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  19. A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, R J; Laing, M D; Morris, C D; Jamal-Ally, S F

    2014-01-01

    Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.

  20. A novel method of lengthening the accessory nerve for direct coaptation during nerve repair and nerve transfer procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Maldonado, Andrés A; Stoves, Yolanda; Fries, Fabian N; Li, Rong; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Spinner, Robert J

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The accessory nerve is frequently repaired or used for nerve transfer. The length of accessory nerve available is often insufficient or marginal (under tension) for allowing direct coaptation during nerve repair or nerve transfer (neurotization), necessitating an interpositional graft. An attractive maneuver would facilitate lengthening of the accessory nerve for direct coaptation. The aim of the present study was to identify an anatomical method for such lengthening. METHODS In 20 adult cadavers, the C-2 or C-3 connections to the accessory nerve were identified medial to the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle and the anatomy of the accessory nerve/cervical nerve fibers within the SCM was documented. The cervical nerve connections were cut. Lengths of the accessory nerve were measured. Samples of the cut C-2 and C-3 nerves were examined using immunohistochemistry. RESULTS The anatomy and adjacent neural connections within the SCM are complicated. However, after the accessory nerve was "detethered" from within the SCM and following transection, the additional length of the accessory nerve increased from a mean of 6 cm to a mean of 10.5 cm (increase of 4.5 cm) after cutting the C-2 connections, and from a mean of 6 cm to a mean length of 9 cm (increase of 3.5 cm) after cutting the C-3 connections. The additional length of accessory nerve even allowed direct repair of an infraclavicular target (i.e., the proximal musculocutaneous nerve). The cervical nerve connections were shown not to contain motor fibers. CONCLUSIONS An additional length of the accessory nerve made available in the posterior cervical triangle can facilitate direct repair or neurotization procedures, thus eliminating the need for an interpositional nerve graft, decreasing the time/distance for regeneration and potentially improving clinical outcomes.

  1. Acceptance and Divergence from Engineering Design Procedures Implicating Knowledge Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Kjeldal; Ahmed, Saeema

    2009-01-01

    of explicit procedures and; 3) implicit procedures supporting needs that are not catered for by the explicit procedures. In this understanding, a procedure can be any kind of method, tool or framework used to support design engineers. Furthermore, the study discusses a variety of recommended actions......When developing procedures such as tools, methods and frameworks to support the development of new products, one of the challenges is ensuring their successful implementation. This paper describes a study of the development and use of such design-procedures with primary focus on the new product...

  2. Chemical Reactivity as Described by Quantum Chemical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De Proft

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Density Functional Theory is situated within the evolution of Quantum Chemistry as a facilitator of computations and a provider of new, chemical insights. The importance of the latter branch of DFT, conceptual DFT is highlighted following Parr's dictum "to calculate a molecule is not to understand it". An overview is given of the most important reactivity descriptors and the principles they are couched in. Examples are given on the evolution of the structure-property-wave function triangle which can be considered as the central paradigm of molecular quantum chemistry to (for many purposes a structure-property-density triangle. Both kinetic as well as thermodynamic aspects can be included when further linking reactivity to the property vertex. In the field of organic chemistry, the ab initio calculation of functional group properties and their use in studies on acidity and basicity is discussed together with the use of DFT descriptors to study the kinetics of SN2 reactions and the regioselectivity in Diels Alder reactions. Similarity in reactivity is illustrated via a study on peptide isosteres. In the field of inorganic chemistry non empirical studies of adsorption of small molecules in zeolite cages are discussed providing Henry constants and separation constants, the latter in remarkable good agreement with experiments. Possible refinements in a conceptual DFT context are presented. Finally an example from biochemistry is discussed : the influence of point mutations on the catalytic activity of subtilisin.

  3. Quantum Monte Carlo Methods Describe Noncovalent Interactions with Subchemical Accuracy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dubecký, M.; Jurečka, P.; Derian, R.; Hobza, Pavel; Otyepka, M.; Mitas, L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 10 (2013), s. 4287-4292 ISSN 1549-9618 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Grant - others:Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0058; Operational Program Education for Competitiveness(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0004; Operational Program Education for Competitiveness(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0058 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Gaussian-basis sets * wave-functions * electronic-structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.310, year: 2013

  4. A Methods and procedures to apply probabilistic safety Assessment (PSA) techniques to the cobalt-therapy process. Cuban experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.; Ferro Fernandez, R.; Lozano Lima, B; De la Fuente Puch, A.; Dumenigo Gonzalez, C.; Troncoso Fleitas, M.; Perez Reyes, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) to the Cobalt Therapy Process, which was performed as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to Investigate Appropriate Methods and Procedures to Apply Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) Techniques to Large Radiation Sources. The primary methodological tools used in the analysis were Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Event Trees and Fault Trees. These tools were used to evaluate occupational, public and medical exposures during cobalt therapy treatment. The emphasis of the study was on the radiological protection of patients. During the course of the PSA, several findings were analysed concerning the cobalt treatment process. In relation with the Undesired Events Probabilities, the lowest exposures probabilities correspond to the public exposures during the treatment process (Z21); around 10-10 per year, being the workers exposures (Z11); around 10-4 per year. Regarding to the patient, the Z33 probabilities prevail (not desired dose to normal tissue) and Z34 (not irradiated portion to target volume). Patient accidental exposures are also classified in terms of the extent to which the error is likely to affect individual treatments, individual patients, or all the patients treated on a specific unit. Sensitivity analyses were realised to determine the influence of certain tasks or critical stages on the results. As a conclusion the study establishes that the PSA techniques may effectively and reasonably determine the risk associated to the cobalt-therapy treatment process, though there are some weaknesses in its methodological application for this kind of study requiring further research. These weaknesses are due to the fact that the traditional PSA has been mainly applied to complex hardware systems designed to operate with a high automation level, whilst the cobalt therapy treatment is a relatively simple hardware system with a

  5. A “Cookbook” Cost Analysis Procedure for Medical Information Systems*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Janice L.; Torrance, George W.; Covvey, H. Dominic

    1983-01-01

    A costing procedure for medical information systems is described. The procedure incorporates state-of-the-art costing methods in an easy to follow “cookbook” format. Application of the procedure consists of filling out a series of Mac-Tor EZ-Cost forms. The procedure and forms have been field tested by application to a cardiovascular database system. This article describes the major features of the costing procedure. The forms and other details are available upon request.

  6. Classification of radiological procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A classification for departments in Danish hospitals which use radiological procedures. The classification codes consist of 4 digits, where the first 2 are the codes for the main groups. The first digit represents the procedure's topographical object and the second the techniques. The last 2 digits describe individual procedures. (CLS)

  7. Manual for the GAW Precipitation Chemistry Programme: Guidelines, Data Quality Objectives and Standard Operating Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allan, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    This is a manual for the Global Atmosphere Watch Precipitation Chemistry (GAW-PC) Programme. Where possible, it describes standard operating procedures and otherwise provides guidance on methods and procedures...

  8. Surgeon-patient communication during awake procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire S; Guyton, Kristina; Pariser, Joseph J; Siegler, Mark; Schindler, Nancy; Langerman, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    Surgeons are increasingly performing procedures on awake patients. Communication during such procedures is complex and underexplored in the literature. Surgeons were recruited from the faculty of 2 hospitals to participate in an interview regarding their approaches to communication during awake procedures. Three researchers used the constant comparative method to transcribe, code, and review interviews until saturation was reached. Twenty-three surgeons described the advantages and disadvantages of awake procedures, their communication with the awake patient, their interactions with staff and with trainees, the environment of awake procedures, and how communication in this context is taught and learned. Surgeons recognized communication during awake procedures as important and reported varied strategies for ensuring patient comfort in this context. However, they also acknowledged challenges with multiparty communication during awake procedures, especially in balancing commitments to teaching with their duty to comfort the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Radiochemical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    The modern counting instrumentation has largely obviated the need for separation processes in the radiochemical analysis but problems in low-level radioactivity measurement, environmental-type analyses, and special situations caused in the last years a renaissance of the need for separation techniques. Most of the radiochemical procedures, based on the classic works of the Manhattan Project chemists of the 1940's, were published in the National Nuclear Energy Series (NNES). Improvements such as new solvent extraction and ion exchange separations have been added to these methods throughout the years. Recently the Los Alamos Group have reissued their collected Radiochemical Procedures containing a short summary and review of basic inorganic chemistry - 'Chemistry of the Elements on the Basis of Electronic Configuration'. (A.L.)

  10. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2k experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G.

    2013-01-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2 k experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  11. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis method by means of 2{sup k} experimental design technique aiming the validation of analytical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petroni, Robson; Moreira, Edson G., E-mail: rpetroni@ipen.br, E-mail: emoreira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this study optimization of procedures and standardization of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) methods were carried out for the determination of the elements arsenic, chromium, cobalt, iron, rubidium, scandium, selenium and zinc in biological materials. The aim is to validate the analytical methods for future accreditation at the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO). The 2{sup k} experimental design was applied for evaluation of the individual contribution of selected variables of the analytical procedure in the final mass fraction result. Samples of Mussel Tissue Certified Reference Material and multi-element standards were analyzed considering the following variables: sample decay time, counting time and sample distance to detector. The standard multi-element concentration (comparator standard), mass of the sample and irradiation time were maintained constant in this procedure. By means of the statistical analysis and theoretical and experimental considerations it was determined the optimized experimental conditions for the analytical methods that will be adopted for the validation procedure of INAA methods in the Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory (LAN) of the Research Reactor Center (CRPq) at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN - CNEN/SP). Optimized conditions were estimated based on the results of z-score tests, main effect and interaction effects. The results obtained with the different experimental configurations were evaluated for accuracy (precision and trueness) for each measurement. (author)

  12. Grade 11 Students' Interconnected Use of Conceptual Knowledge, Procedural Skills, and Strategic Competence in Algebra: A Mixed Method Study of Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate grade 11 university/college stream mathematics students' difficulties in applying conceptual knowledge, procedural skills, strategic competence, and algebraic thinking in solving routine (instructional) algebraic problems. A standardized algebra test was administered to thirty randomly…

  13. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 76 - Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedures and Methods for Estimating Costs of Nitrogen Oxides Controls Applied to Group 1, Boilers B Appendix B to Part 76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES...

  14. Describing pediatric dysphonia with nonlinear dynamic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Morgan L.; Theis, Shannon M.; McMurray, J. Scott; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Jack J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective Nonlinear dynamic analysis has emerged as a reliable and objective tool for assessing voice disorders. However, it has only been tested on adult populations. In the present study, nonlinear dynamic analysis was applied to normal and dysphonic pediatric populations with the goal of collecting normative data. Jitter analysis was also applied in order to compare nonlinear dynamic and perturbation measures. This study’s findings will be useful in creating standards for the use of nonlinear dynamic analysis as a tool to describe dysphonia in the pediatric population. Methods The study included 38 pediatric subjects (23 children with dysphonia and 15 without). Recordings of sustained vowels were obtained from each subject and underwent nonlinear dynamic analysis and percent jitter analysis. The resulting correlation dimension (D2) and percent jitter values were compared across the two groups using t-tests set at a significance level of p = 0.05. Results It was shown that D2 values covary with the presence of pathology in children. D2 values were significantly higher in dysphonic children than in normal children (p = 0.002). Standard deviations indicated a higher level of variation in normal children’s D2 values than in dysphonic children’s D2 values. Jitter analysis showed markedly higher percent jitter in dysphonic children than in normal children (p = 0.025) and large standard deviations for both groups. Conclusion This study indicates that nonlinear dynamic analysis could be a viable tool for the detection and assessment of dysphonia in children. Further investigations and more normative data are needed to create standards for using nonlinear dynamic parameters for the clinical evaluation of pediatric dysphonia. PMID:18947887

  15. Design, Development and Evaluation of Collaborative Team Training Method in Virtual Worlds for Time-Critical Medical Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Prabal

    2014-01-01

    Medical students acquire and enhance their clinical skills using various available techniques and resources. As the health care profession has move towards team-based practice, students and trainees need to practice team-based procedures that involve timely management of clinical tasks and adequate communication with other members of the team.…

  16. Assessment of dietary intake of flavouring substances within the procedure for their safety evaluation: advantages and limitations of estimates obtained by means of a per capita method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcella, D; Leclercq, C

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for the safety evaluation of flavourings adopted by the European Commission in order to establish a positive list of these substances is a stepwise approach which was developed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) and amended by the Scientific Committee on Food. Within this procedure, a per capita amount based on industrial poundage data of flavourings, is calculated to estimate the dietary intake by means of the maximised survey-derived daily intake (MSDI) method. This paper reviews the MSDI method in order to check if it can provide conservative intake estimates as needed at the first steps of a stepwise procedure. Scientific papers and opinions dealing with the MSDI method were reviewed. Concentration levels reported by the industry were compared with estimates obtained with the MSDI method. It appeared that, in some cases, these estimates could be orders of magnitude (up to 5) lower than those calculated considering concentration levels provided by the industry and regular consumption of flavoured foods and beverages. A critical review of two studies which had been used to support the statement that MSDI is a conservative method for assessing exposure to flavourings among high consumers was performed. Special attention was given to the factors that affect exposure at high percentiles, such as brand loyalty and portion sizes. It is concluded that these studies may not be suitable to validate the MSDI method used to assess intakes of flavours by European consumers due to shortcomings in the assumptions made and in the data used. Exposure assessment is an essential component of risk assessment. The present paper suggests that the MSDI method is not sufficiently conservative. There is therefore a clear need for either using an alternative method to estimate exposure to flavourings in the procedure or for limiting intakes to the levels at which the safety was assessed.

  17. A method to reduce patient's eye lens dose in neuro-interventional radiology procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safari, M.J.; Wong, J.H.D.; Kadir, K.A.A.; Sani, F.M.; Ng, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    Complex and prolonged neuro-interventional radiology procedures using the biplane angiography system increase the patient's risk of radiation-induced cataract. Physical collimation is the most effective way of reducing the radiation dose to the patient's eye lens, but in instances where collimation is not possible, an attenuator may be useful in protecting the eyes. In this study, an eye lens protector was designed and fabricated to reduce the radiation dose to the patients’ eye lens during neuro-interventional procedures. The eye protector was characterised before being tested on its effectiveness in a simulated aneurysm procedure on an anthropomorphic phantom. Effects on the automatic dose rate control (ADRC) and image quality are also evaluated. The eye protector reduced the radiation dose by up to 62.1% at the eye lens. The eye protector is faintly visible in the fluoroscopy images and increased the tube current by a maximum of 3.7%. It is completely invisible in the acquisition mode and does not interfere with the clinical procedure. The eye protector placed within the radiation field of view was able to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens by direct radiation beam of the lateral x-ray tube with minimal effect on the ADRC system. - Highlights: • The eye protector can considerably reduce the patient's eye lens dose during neuro-interventional procedures. • This protector does not significantly perturb the fluoroscopy image and was completely invisible on the acquisition image due to image subtraction. • The eye protector does not significantly change the exposure parameters (kV and mAs).

  18. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Three very accurate (definitive) methods by RNAA for the determination of Se, As and Fe respectively, which were recently elaborated in our laboratory, are reviewed and their use in certification of reference materials and in checking the assigned values in proficiency tests is demonstrated on several examples. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMPs with their expanded uncertainties of 2.7-3.6 % are comparable to ID-MS methods and are the only methods of such high metrological quality which can be used for the determination of trace amounts of monoisotopic elements. (author)

  19. Development of a modified cortisol extraction procedure for intermediately sized fish not amenable to whole-body or plasma extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Taylor W; Blaylock, Reginald B; Evans, Andrew N

    2016-02-01

    The corticosteroid hormone cortisol is the central mediator of the teleost stress response. Therefore, the accurate quantification of cortisol in teleost fishes is a vital tool for addressing fundamental questions about an animal's physiological response to environmental stressors. Conventional steroid extraction methods using plasma or whole-body homogenates, however, are inefficient within an intermediate size range of fish that are too small for phlebotomy and too large for whole-body steroid extractions. To assess the potential effects of hatchery-induced stress on survival of fingerling hatchery-reared Spotted Seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus), we developed a novel extraction procedure for measuring cortisol in intermediately sized fish (50-100 mm in length) that are not amenable to standard cortisol extraction methods. By excising a standardized portion of the caudal peduncle, this tissue extraction procedure allows for a small portion of a larger fish to be sampled for cortisol, while minimizing the potential interference from lipids that may be extracted using whole-body homogenization procedures. Assay precision was comparable to published plasma and whole-body extraction procedures, and cortisol quantification over a wide range of sample dilutions displayed parallelism versus assay standards. Intra-assay %CV was 8.54%, and average recovery of spiked samples was 102%. Also, tissue cortisol levels quantified using this method increase 30 min after handling stress and are significantly correlated with blood values. We conclude that this modified cortisol extraction procedure provides an excellent alternative to plasma and whole-body extraction procedures for intermediately sized fish, and will facilitate the efficient assessment of cortisol in a variety of situations ranging from basic laboratory research to industrial and field-based environmental health applications.

  20. Describing phytotoxic effects on cumulative germination

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Phytotoxic studies strongly depend on evaluation of germination responses, which implies the need for adequate procedures to account for distinct aspects of the germinative process. For this, indices, comparisons among treatments at various times, and model fitting have been proposed. The objective of this work is to compare the three approaches and select the one providing greater insight and precision. Speed of germination, speed of accumulated germination, the coefficient of the rate of ge...

  1. Efficacy of Distraction Methods on Procedural Pain and Anxiety by Applying Distraction Cards and Kaleidoscope in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejla Canbulat, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The distraction cards were the most effective method for pain and anxiety relief of children during phlebotomy. Also the distraction method with kaleidoscope was an effective method for pain and anxiety relief during phlebotomy in children.

  2. ASTM F739 method for testing the permeation resistance of protective clothing materials: critical analysis with proposed changes in procedure and test-cell design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, D H; Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1998-08-01

    ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Method F739-96 specifies a test-cell design and procedures for measuring the permeation resistance of chemical protective clothing. Among the specifications are open-loop collection stream flow rates of 0.050 to 0.150 L/min for a gaseous medium. At elevated temperatures the test must be maintained within 1 degree C of the set point. This article presents a critical analysis of the effect of the collection stream flow rate on the measured permeation rate and on the temperature uniformity within the test cell. Permeation tests were conducted on four polymeric glove materials with 44 solvents at 25 degrees C. Flow rates > 0.5 L/min were necessary to obtain accurate steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) values in 25 percent of the tests. At the lower flow rates the true SSPR typically was underestimated by a factor of two or less, but errors of up to 33-fold were observed. No clear relationship could be established between the need for a higher collection stream flow rate and either the vapor pressure or the permeation rate of the solvent, but test results suggest that poor mixing within the collection chamber was a contributing factor. Temperature gradients between the challenge and collection chambers and between the bottom and the top of the collection chamber increased with the water-bath temperature and the collection stream flow rate. Use of a test cell modified to permit deeper submersion reduced the gradients to < or = 0.5 degrees C. It is recommended that all SSPR measurements include verification of the adequacy of the collection stream flow rate. For testing at nonambient temperatures, the modified test cell described here could be used to ensure temperature uniformity throughout the cell.

  3. Phenomenological approach to describe logistic growth and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-18

    Oct 18, 2016 ... Gompertz function, used to describe biological growth processes undergoing atrophy or a demographic and ... recognizing the characteristic feature of a system and .... demonstrated with the help of a thought experiment by.

  4. describing a collaborative clothing design process between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 43, 2015. Designing success: describing a ... PROCESS BETWEEN APPRENTICE DESIGNERS AND EXPERT DESIGN .... 5 Evaluation and decisions. (a) Outcomes.

  5. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  6. Evaluation of solution procedures for material and/or geometrically nonlinear structural analysis by the direct stiffness method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricklin, J. A.; Haisler, W. E.; Von Riesemann, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the solution procedures available for the analysis of inelastic and/or large deflection structural behavior. A literature survey is given which summarized the contribution of other researchers in the analysis of structural problems exhibiting material nonlinearities and combined geometric-material nonlinearities. Attention is focused at evaluating the available computation and solution techniques. Each of the solution techniques is developed from a common equation of equilibrium in terms of pseudo forces. The solution procedures are applied to circular plates and shells of revolution in an attempt to compare and evaluate each with respect to computational accuracy, economy, and efficiency. Based on the numerical studies, observations and comments are made with regard to the accuracy and economy of each solution technique.

  7. Procedural pain in children with Cystic Fibrosis: an international survey on the methods used by CF centres to prevent and reduce it

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Festini, Filippo; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2006-01-01

    do to prevent pain and fear in CF children. A 14-item questionnaire in 5 languages was sent to 441 CFCs' email addresses worldwide and posted on the INSG-CF web site. It regarded the methods used by CF Centres to control pain and fear during invasive procedures (e.g.: blood drawing, vein cannulation......Procedural pain is an additional burden for children with CE If not adequately prevented and treated procedural pain may result in anxiety and fear bound to the visits at the CF Centre (CFC) and it may affect patients' future compliance to treatments. Aim: To collect data on what CFCs in the world......, throat swab). Completed questionnaires were sent back by 50 CFCs from 12 countries (UK, USA, Canada, New Zealand, Israel, Italy, Belgium, The Netherlands, Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark) which take care of 4577 CF children overall. Results: 46% of CFCs collaborate with a local Pain Therapy Unit...

  8. Function Allocation in Complex Socio-Technical Systems: Procedure usage in nuclear power and the Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Kara Anne

    This research aims to prove that strict adherence to procedures and rigid compliance to process in the US Nuclear Industry may not prevent incidents or increase safety. According to the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations, the nuclear power industry has seen a recent rise in events, and this research claims that a contributing factor to this rise is organizational, cultural, and based on peoples overreliance on procedures and policy. Understanding the proper balance of function allocation, automation and human decision-making is imperative to creating a nuclear power plant that is safe, efficient, and reliable. This research claims that new generations of operators are less engaged and thinking because they have been instructed to follow procedures to a fault. According to operators, they were once to know the plant and its interrelations, but organizationally more importance is now put on following procedure and policy. Literature reviews were performed, experts were questioned, and a model for context analysis was developed. The Context Analysis Method for Identifying Design Solutions (CAMIDS) Model was created, verified and validated through both peer review and application in real world scenarios in active nuclear power plant simulators. These experiments supported the claim that strict adherence and rigid compliance to procedures may not increase safety by studying the industry's propensity for following incorrect procedures, and when it directly affects the outcome of safety or security of the plant. The findings of this research indicate that the younger generations of operators rely highly on procedures, and the organizational pressures of required compliance to procedures may lead to incidents within the plant because operators feel pressured into following the rules and policy above performing the correct actions in a timely manner. The findings support computer based procedures, efficient alarm systems, and skill of the craft matrices. The solution to

  9. Algorithm describing pressure distribution of non-contact TNT explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kiciński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [b]Abstract[/b]. The aim of this study is to develop a computational algorithm, describing the shock wave pressure distribution in the space induced by non-contact TNT explosion. The procedure describes pressure distribution on a damp surface of the hull. Simulations have been carried out using Abaqus/CAE. The study also shows the pressure waveform descriptions provided by various authors and presents them in charts. The formulated conclusions convince efficiency of the algorithm application.[b]Keywords:[/b] Underwater explosion, shock wave, CAE, TNT, Kobben class submarine

  10. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Methods Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot...... more challenging by the interviewers. Conclusions Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey...

  11. Sensorimotor Interference When Reasoning About Described Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Marios N.; Kyranidou, Melina-Nicole

    The influence of sensorimotor interference was examined in two experiments that compared pointing with iconic arrows and verbal responding in a task that entailed locating target-objects from imagined perspectives. Participants studied text narratives describing objects at locations around them in a remote environment and then responded to targets from memory. Results revealed only minor differences between the two response modes suggesting that bodily cues do not exert severe detrimental interference on spatial reasoning from imagined perspective when non-immediate described environments are used. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Post ablation recanalization of varicose veins of the limbs: Comparison ablation method of mechanochemical and laser procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhartono, R.; Irfan, W.; Wangge, G.; Moenadjat, Y.; Destanto, W. I.

    2017-08-01

    Endovenous ablation has been performed for varicose veins of the limbs in Indonesia since 2010. Endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) therapy has been performed in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (RSCM) in Jakarta, and mechanochemical ablation (MOCA) has been conducted in Fatmawati Hospital. This was a descriptive analytical study, with a cross-sectional design to analyze post-ablation recanalization after MOCA and EVLA procedures. Patients who had undergone MOCA or EVLA treatment were interviewed 3-18 months after the procedures. All the patients underwent vascular ultrasonography (USG) of the operated limb to assess recanalization. Secondary presurgery data were obtained from the patients’ from patients’ medical records. The clinical characteristics of the subjects were recorded to compare the potential correlation between these characteristics and recanalization post-MOCA and EVLA procedures. All the data were analyzed using SPSS ver. 20.0. The study consisted of 43 limbs: 24 treated by MOCA and 19 treated by EVLA. Most subjects in the MOCA group were 7 mm in 13/19 extremities. In the MOCA group, total recanalization occurred in 2/24 extremities, and partial recanalization occurred in 8/24 extremities. In the EVLA group, total recanalization occurred in 1/19 extremities, and partial recanalization occurred in 3/19 extremities. The association between the clinical characteristics of the patients and recanalization was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The recanalization tendency was higher in the MOCA group than in the EVLA group. Although there was no statistically significant association between the clinical characteristics of the patients and recanalization, the largest diameter of the VSM presurgery (>7 mm) was higher in 3/4 extremities in the MOCA group, as compared to 3/13 extremities in the EVLA group.

  13. 40 CFR 63.7732 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) of this section. (i) Method 1 or 1A to select sampling port locations and the number of traverse...) Method 3, 3A, or 3B to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (iv) Method 4 to determine... of exhaust gas, dry standard cubic feet per minute (dscfm); Mcharge = Mass of metal charged during...

  14. 40 CFR 63.7322 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. (i) Method 1 to select sampling port locations and the number of traverse...) Method 3, 3A, or 3B to determine the dry molecular weight of the stack gas. (iv) Method 4 to determine.... Collect a minimum sample volume of 30 dry standard cubic feet of gas during each test run. Three valid...

  15. Delphi Method Validation of a Procedural Performance Checklist for Insertion of an Ultrasound-Guided Internal Jugular Central Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Nicholas; Wittler, Mary; Askew, Kim; Manthey, David

    2016-01-01

    Placement of ultrasound-guided central lines is a critical skill for physicians in several specialties. Improving the quality of care delivered surrounding this procedure demands rigorous measurement of competency, and validated tools to assess performance are essential. Using the iterative, modified Delphi technique and experts in multiple disciplines across the United States, the study team created a 30-item checklist designed to assess competency in the placement of ultrasound-guided internal jugular central lines. Cronbach α was .94, indicating an excellent degree of internal consistency. Further validation of this checklist will require its implementation in simulated and clinical environments. © The Author(s) 2014.

  16. Controlling chaos in dynamical systems described by maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispin, Y.; Marduel, C.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of suppressing chaotic behavior in dynamical systems is treated using a feedback control method with limited control effort. The proposed method is validated on archetypal systems described by maps, i.e. discrete-time difference equations. The method is also applicable to dynamical systems described by flows, i.e. by systems of ordinary differential equations. Results are presented for the one-dimensional logistic map and for a two-dimensional Lotka-Volterra map describing predator-prey population dynamics. It is shown that chaos can be suppressed and the system stabilized about a period-1 fixed point of the maps

  17. Stochastic GARCH dynamics describing correlations between stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat-Ortega, G.; Savel'ev, S. E.

    2014-09-01

    The ARCH and GARCH processes have been successfully used for modelling price dynamics such as stock returns or foreign exchange rates. Analysing the long range correlations between stocks, we propose a model, based on the GARCH process, which is able to describe the main characteristics of the stock price correlations, including the mean, variance, probability density distribution and the noise spectrum.

  18. How Digital Native Learners Describe Themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Penny

    2015-01-01

    Eight university students from the "digital native" generation were interviewed about the connections they saw between technology use and learning, and also their reactions to the popular press claims about their generation. Themes that emerged from the interviews were coded to show patterns in how digital natives describe themselves.…

  19. Analytical Solutions To Describe Juxtaposed Sands | Adeniji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mathematical (linear diffusion) equations are presented for two pseudoreservoir regions intersected by fault that describe the effects of partial communicating fault on pressure transient behaviour for each fault block. Green's and source function technique solve these equations. A two-well system is considered for the ...

  20. Using fundamental equations to describe basic phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    When the fundamental thermodynamic balance equations (mass, energy, and momentum) are used to describe the processes in a simple refrigeration system, then one finds that the resulting equation system will have a degree of freedom equal to one. Further investigations reveal that it is the equatio...

  1. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Four points function fitted and first derivative procedure for determining the end points in potentiometric titration curves: statistical analysis and method comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholeif, S A

    2001-06-01

    A new method that belongs to the differential category for determining the end points from potentiometric titration curves is presented. It uses a preprocess to find first derivative values by fitting four data points in and around the region of inflection to a non-linear function, and then locate the end point, usually as a maximum or minimum, using an inverse parabolic interpolation procedure that has an analytical solution. The behavior and accuracy of the sigmoid and cumulative non-linear functions used are investigated against three factors. A statistical evaluation of the new method using linear least-squares method validation and multifactor data analysis are covered. The new method is generally applied to symmetrical and unsymmetrical potentiometric titration curves, and the end point is calculated using numerical procedures only. It outperforms the "parent" regular differential method in almost all factors levels and gives accurate results comparable to the true or estimated true end points. Calculated end points from selected experimental titration curves compatible with the equivalence point category of methods, such as Gran or Fortuin, are also compared with the new method.

  3. Procedural Media Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Henrysson, Anders

    2002-01-01

    We present a concept for using procedural techniques to represent media. Procedural methods allow us to represent digital media (2D images, 3D environments etc.) with very little information and to render it photo realistically. Since not all kind of content can be created procedurally, traditional media representations (bitmaps, polygons etc.) must be used as well. We have adopted an object-based media representation where an object can be represented either with a procedure or with its trad...

  4. Generating and Describing Affective Eye Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xia; Li, Zheng

    The manner of a person's eye movement conveys much about nonverbal information and emotional intent beyond speech. This paper describes work on expressing emotion through eye behaviors in virtual agents based on the parameters selected from the AU-Coded facial expression database and real-time eye movement data (pupil size, blink rate and saccade). A rule-based approach to generate primary (joyful, sad, angry, afraid, disgusted and surprise) and intermediate emotions (emotions that can be represented as the mixture of two primary emotions) utilized the MPEG4 FAPs (facial animation parameters) is introduced. Meanwhile, based on our research, a scripting tool, named EEMML (Emotional Eye Movement Markup Language) that enables authors to describe and generate emotional eye movement of virtual agents, is proposed.

  5. How do consumers describe wine astringency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Leticia; Giménez, Ana; Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Ares, Gastón

    2015-12-01

    Astringency is one of the most important sensory characteristics of red wine. Although a hierarchically structured vocabulary to describe the mouthfeel sensations of red wine has been proposed, research on consumers' astringency vocabulary is lacking. In this context, the aim of this work was to gain an insight on the vocabulary used by wine consumers to describe the astringency of red wine and to evaluate the influence of wine involvement on consumers' vocabulary. One hundred and twenty-five wine consumers completed and on-line survey with five tasks: an open-ended question about the definition of wine astringency, free listing the sensations perceived when drinking an astringent wine, free listing the words they would use to describe the astringency of a red wine, a CATA question with 44 terms used in the literature to describe astringency, and a wine involvement questionnaire. When thinking about wine astringency consumers freely elicited terms included in the Mouth-feel Wheel, such as dryness and harsh. The majority of the specific sub-qualities of the Mouth-feel Wheel were not included in consumer responses. Also, terms not classified as astringency descriptors were elicited (e.g. acid and bitter). Only 17 out of the 31 terms from the Mouth-feel Wheel were used by more than 10% of participants when answering the CATA question. There were no large differences in the responses of consumer segments with different wine involvement. Results from the present work suggest that most of the terms of the Mouth-feel Wheel might not be adequate to communicate the astringency characteristics of red wine to consumers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Method of neutralising the effects of electromagnetic radiation in a radiation detector and a radiation detector applying the procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gripentog, W.G.

    1972-01-01

    Circuitry is described by means of which radiation detectors of the Neher-White type, employing ionisation chambers can be unaffected by electromagnetic radiation which would otherwise cause inductive effects leading to erroneous signals. It is therefore unnecessary to use shielded cables for these instruments. (JIW)

  7. Improved procedure for the computation of Lamb’s coefficients in the physalis method for particle simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gudmundsson, K.; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The physalis method was designed for the simulation of flows with suspended spherical particles. It differs from standard immersed boundary methods due to the use of a local spectral representation of the solution in the neighborhood of each particle, which is used to bridge the gap between the

  8. Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Priami, Corrado; Qualia, Paola

    2005-01-01

    Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005.......Model checking biological systems described using ambient calculus. In Proc. of the second International Workshop on Computational Methods in Systems Biology (CMSB04), Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics 3082:85-103, Springer, 2005....

  9. Uncovering Voter Preference Structures Using a Best-Worst Scaling Procedure: Method and Empirical Example in the British General Election of 2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Savigny, Heather

    Best-Worst scaling (BWS) is a method that can provide insights into the preference structures of voters. By asking voters to select the ‘best’ and ‘worst’ option (‘most important’ and ‘least important’ media in our investigation) from a short list of alternatives it is possible to uncover the rel...... the least information. We furthermore investigate group differences using an ANOVA procedure to demonstrate how contextual variables can enrich our empirical investigations using the BWS method....

  10. Maintenance procedure upgrade programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.J.; Zimmerman, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a systematic approach to upgrading nuclear power plant maintenance procedures. The approach consists of four phases: diagnosis, program planning, program implementation, and program evaluation. Each phase is explained as a series of steps to ensure that all factors in a procedure upgrade program are considered

  11. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  12. Acute Procedural Pain in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Helle Nygård; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Haslund-Thomsen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hospitalized children often describe needle-related procedures as the worst pain possible and such procedures may be emotionally traumatic. The use of hospital clowns related to painful medical procedures in children may offer pain relief, but this has not been systematically...... evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a therapeutic clown in comparison to standard care on the experience of pain for children receiving venipuncture. METHODS: A sample of 116 children aged 4-15 years consecutively admitted to the hospital was allocated to either......: Without the clown present, the mean pain score (2.7±2.8) was not significantly different between the two age groups. Children aged 7-15 years had lower pain scores when the clown was present compared to the control group (P=0.025). Children aged 4-6 years had higher pain scores with the clown present...

  13. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A

    2009-05-27

    Method validation is the process of evaluating whether an analytical method is acceptable for its intended purpose. For pharmaceutical methods, guidelines from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH), and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) provide a framework for performing such valications. In general, methods for regulatory compliance must include studies on specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, range, detection limit, quantitation limit, and robustness. Elements of these guidelines are readily adapted to the issue of validation for beryllium sampling and analysis. This document provides a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers and books reviewed is given in the Appendix. Available validation documents and guides are listed therein; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approches to validation and varying descriptions of the valication process at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on valication and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all referenced documents were published in English.

  14. Using neural networks to describe tracer correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Lary

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks are ideally suited to describe the spatial and temporal dependence of tracer-tracer correlations. The neural network performs well even in regions where the correlations are less compact and normally a family of correlation curves would be required. For example, the CH4-N2O correlation can be well described using a neural network trained with the latitude, pressure, time of year, and methane volume mixing ratio (v.m.r.. In this study a neural network using Quickprop learning and one hidden layer with eight nodes was able to reproduce the CH4-N2O correlation with a correlation coefficient between simulated and training values of 0.9995. Such an accurate representation of tracer-tracer correlations allows more use to be made of long-term datasets to constrain chemical models. Such as the dataset from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE which has continuously observed CH4  (but not N2O from 1991 till the present. The neural network Fortran code used is available for download.

  15. On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Borissov Pericliev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available On Redundancy in Describing Linguistic Systems The notion of system of linguistic elements figures prominently in most post-Saussurian linguistics up to the present. A “system” is the network of the contrastive (or, distinctive features each element in the system bears to the remaining elements. The meaning (valeur of each element in the system is the set of features that are necessary and jointly sufficient to distinguish this element from all others. The paper addresses the problems of “redundancy”, i.e. the occurrence of features that are not strictly necessary in describing an element in a system. Redundancy is shown to smuggle into the description of linguistic systems, this infelicitous practice illustrated with some examples from the literature (e.g. the classical phonemic analysis of Russian by Cherry, Halle, and Jakobson, 1953. The logic and psychology of the occurrence of redundancy are briefly sketched and it is shown that, in addition to some other problems, redundancy leads to a huge and unresolvable ambiguity of descriptions of linguistic systems (the Buridan’s ass problem.

  16. Is an eclipse described in the Odyssey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikouzis, Constantino; Magnasco, Marcelo O

    2008-07-01

    Plutarch and Heraclitus believed a certain passage in the 20th book of the Odyssey ("Theoclymenus's prophecy") to be a poetic description of a total solar eclipse. In the late 1920s, Schoch and Neugebauer computed that the solar eclipse of 16 April 1178 B.C.E. was total over the Ionian Islands and was the only suitable eclipse in more than a century to agree with classical estimates of the decade-earlier sack of Troy around 1192-1184 B.C.E. However, much skepticism remains about whether the verses refer to this, or any, eclipse. To contribute to the issue independently of the disputed eclipse reference, we analyze other astronomical references in the Epic, without assuming the existence of an eclipse, and search for dates matching the astronomical phenomena we believe they describe. We use three overt astronomical references in the epic: to Boötes and the Pleiades, Venus, and the New Moon; we supplement them with a conjectural identification of Hermes's trip to Ogygia as relating to the motion of planet Mercury. Performing an exhaustive search of all possible dates in the span 1250-1115 B.C., we looked to match these phenomena in the order and manner that the text describes. In that period, a single date closely matches our references: 16 April 1178 B.C.E. We speculate that these references, plus the disputed eclipse reference, may refer to that specific eclipse.

  17. Describing Product Variety Using Set Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Three capabilities: solution space development, robust process design, and choice navigation are critical for mass customizers. In order to become and stay competitive, it is proposed to establish assessment methods for these capabilities. This paper investigates the usage of set theory as a mean...

  18. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  19. Cognition and procedure representational requirements for predictive human performance models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corker, K.

    1992-01-01

    Models and modeling environments for human performance are becoming significant contributors to early system design and analysis procedures. Issues of levels of automation, physical environment, informational environment, and manning requirements are being addressed by such man/machine analysis systems. The research reported here investigates the close interaction between models of human cognition and models that described procedural performance. We describe a methodology for the decomposition of aircrew procedures that supports interaction with models of cognition on the basis of procedures observed; that serves to identify cockpit/avionics information sources and crew information requirements; and that provides the structure to support methods for function allocation among crew and aiding systems. Our approach is to develop an object-oriented, modular, executable software representation of the aircrew, the aircraft, and the procedures necessary to satisfy flight-phase goals. We then encode in a time-based language, taxonomies of the conceptual, relational, and procedural constraints among the cockpit avionics and control system and the aircrew. We have designed and implemented a goals/procedures hierarchic representation sufficient to describe procedural flow in the cockpit. We then execute the procedural representation in simulation software and calculate the values of the flight instruments, aircraft state variables and crew resources using the constraints available from the relationship taxonomies. The system provides a flexible, extensible, manipulative and executable representation of aircrew and procedures that is generally applicable to crew/procedure task-analysis. The representation supports developed methods of intent inference, and is extensible to include issues of information requirements and functional allocation. We are attempting to link the procedural representation to models of cognitive functions to establish several intent inference methods

  20. Recent advances in ratio primary reference measurement procedures (definitive methods) and their use in certification of reference materials and controlling assigned values in proficiency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczyñski, R.S.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Chajduk, E.; Danko, B.; Pyszynska, M.

    2014-01-01

    The idea of definitive methods based on radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA), consists in combination of neutron activation with the highly selective and quantitative post-irradiation isolation of the desired radionuclide by column chromatography followed by γ-ray spectrometric measurement. The principles of construction of such methods, which were devised in the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, are reminded and the significance of these methods for analytical quality assurance is emphasized. According to VIM 3 nomenclature these methods may be called: ratio primary reference measurement procedures (RPRMPs). RPRMP for the determination of Se is briefly presented and its use for checking the accuracy of 'assigned values' established by expert laboratories in some proficiency tests, is demonstrated

  1. Efficacy of aprons equivalent to 0.5 mm of lead in PET procedures using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, R.B.; Amaral, A.; Campos, L.

    2012-01-01

    In positron emission tomography (PET), health staff is exposed to 511-keV photons, which is a result of the positron annihilation process. This energy is about four times greater than the 140 keV commonly found in studies based on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Besides this different level of energy, 0.5 mm lead-equivalent aprons have being used either in SPECT or PET procedures. In this context, this work was designed for evaluating the effectiveness of such aprons in individual radioprotection of health professionals involved in positron emission tomography. For this, by using MCNP4C-based Monte Carlo simulations, the average energy delivered per particle to the regions corresponding to operational quantities Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) were calculated for two conditions of individual exposures: wearing and not wearing a 0.05 mm lead-equivalent apron. The results obtained pointed out that Hp(10) has similar value in both situations. On the other hand, for the region corresponding to Hp(0.07), wearing this lead apron will improve this dose in about 26%. On the basis of this work, 0.5 mm lead equivalent aprons do not offer adequate protection for medical staff working on positron emission tomography. (author)

  2. Multicenter study on evaluation of the entrance skin dose by a direct measurement method in cardiac interventional procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mamoru; Chida, Koichi; Moritake, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Deterministic effects have been reported in cardiac interventional procedures. To prevent radiation skin injuries in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), it is necessary to measure accurate patient entrance skin dose (ESD) and maximum skin absorbed dose (MSD). We measured the MSD on 62 patients in four facilities by using the Chest-RADIREC system. The correlation between MSD and fluoroscopic time, dose area product (DAP), and cumulative air kerma (AK) showed good results, with the correlation between MSD and AK being the strongest. The regression lines using MSD as an outcome value (y) and AK as predictor variables (x) was y=1.18x (R 2 =0.787). From the linear regression equation, MSD is estimated to be about 1.18 times that of AK in real time. The Japan diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) 2015 for IVR was established by the use of dose rates using acrylic plates (20 cm thick) at the interventional reference point. Preliminary reference levels proposed by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were provided using DAP. In this study, AK showed good correlation most of all. Hence we think that Japanese DRLs for IVR should reconsider by clinical patients' exposure dose such as AK. (author)

  3. Frameworks for understanding and describing business models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides in a chronological fashion an introduction to six frameworks that one can apply to describing, understanding and also potentially innovating business models. These six frameworks have been chosen carefully as they represent six very different perspectives on business models...... and in this manner “complement” each other. There are a multitude of varying frameworks that could be chosen from and we urge the reader to search and trial these for themselves. The six chosen models (year of release in parenthesis) are: • Service-Profit Chain (1994) • Strategic Systems Auditing (1997) • Strategy...... Maps (2001) • Intellectual Capital Statements (2003) • Chesbrough’s framework for Open Business Models (2006) • Business Model Canvas (2008)...

  4. Does Guru Granth Sahib describe depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Gurvinder; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Sikhism is a relatively young religion, with Guru Granth Sahib as its key religious text. This text describes emotions in everyday life, such as happiness, sadness, anger, hatred, and also more serious mental health issues such as depression and psychosis. There are references to the causation of these emotional disturbances and also ways to get out of them. We studied both the Gurumukhi version and the English translation of the Guru Granth Sahib to understand what it had to say about depression, its henomenology, and religious prescriptions for recovery. We discuss these descriptions in this paper and understand its meaning within the context of clinical depression. Such knowledge is important as explicit descriptions about depression and sadness can help encourage culturally appropriate assessment and treatment, as well as promote public health through education.

  5. Describing chaotic attractors: Regular and perpetual points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkowski, Dawid; Prasad, Awadhesh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    2018-03-01

    We study the concepts of regular and perpetual points for describing the behavior of chaotic attractors in dynamical systems. The idea of these points, which have been recently introduced to theoretical investigations, is thoroughly discussed and extended into new types of models. We analyze the correlation between regular and perpetual points, as well as their relation with phase space, showing the potential usefulness of both types of points in the qualitative description of co-existing states. The ability of perpetual points in finding attractors is indicated, along with its potential cause. The location of chaotic trajectories and sets of considered points is investigated and the study on the stability of systems is shown. The statistical analysis of the observing desired states is performed. We focus on various types of dynamical systems, i.e., chaotic flows with self-excited and hidden attractors, forced mechanical models, and semiconductor superlattices, exhibiting the universality of appearance of the observed patterns and relations.

  6. VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS AND INSTRUMENTATION FOR BERYLLIUM MEASUREMENT: REVIEW AND SUMMARY OF AVAILABLE GUIDES, PROCEDURES, AND PROTOCOLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekechukwu, A.

    2008-12-17

    This document proposes to provide a listing of available sources which can be used to validate analytical methods and/or instrumentation for beryllium determination. A literature review was conducted of available standard methods and publications used for method validation and/or quality control. A comprehensive listing of the articles, papers, and books reviewed is given in Appendix 1. Available validation documents and guides are listed in the appendix; each has a brief description of application and use. In the referenced sources, there are varying approaches to validation and varying descriptions of validation at different stages in method development. This discussion focuses on validation and verification of fully developed methods and instrumentation that have been offered up for use or approval by other laboratories or official consensus bodies such as ASTM International, the International Standards Organization (ISO) and the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). This review was conducted as part of a collaborative effort to investigate and improve the state of validation for measuring beryllium in the workplace and the environment. Documents and publications from the United States and Europe are included. Unless otherwise specified, all documents were published in English.

  7. Describing gluons at zero and finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maas, A.

    2010-01-01

    Any description of gluons requires a well-defined gauge. This is complicated non-perturbatively by Gribov copies. A possible method-independent gauge definition to resolve this problem is presented and afterwards used to study the properties of gluons at any temperature. It is found that only chromo-electric properties reflect the phase transition. From these the gauge-invariant phase transition temperature is determined for SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory independently. (author)

  8. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design Using Describing Function Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nassirharand, Amir

    2012-01-01

    A systematic computer-aided approach provides a versatile setting for the control engineer to overcome the complications of controller design for highly nonlinear systems. Computer-aided Nonlinear Control System Design provides such an approach based on the use of describing functions. The text deals with a large class of nonlinear systems without restrictions on the system order, the number of inputs and/or outputs or the number, type or arrangement of nonlinear terms. The strongly software-oriented methods detailed facilitate fulfillment of tight performance requirements and help the designer to think in purely nonlinear terms, avoiding the expedient of linearization which can impose substantial and unrealistic model limitations and drive up the cost of the final product. Design procedures are presented in a step-by-step algorithmic format each step being a functional unit with outputs that drive the other steps. This procedure may be easily implemented on a digital computer with example problems from mecha...

  9. Reliability of application of inspection procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murgatroyd, R A

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the reliability of application of inspection procedures. A method to ensure that the inspection of defects thanks to fracture mechanics is reliable is described. The Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Analysis (SHERPA) methodology is applied to every task performed by the inspector to estimate the possibility of error. It appears that it is essential that inspection procedures should be sufficiently rigorous to avoid substantial errors, and that the selection procedures and the training period for inspectors should be optimised. (TEC). 3 refs.

  10. Reliability of application of inspection procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murgatroyd, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    This document deals with the reliability of application of inspection procedures. A method to ensure that the inspection of defects thanks to fracture mechanics is reliable is described. The Systematic Human Error Reduction and Prediction Analysis (SHERPA) methodology is applied to every task performed by the inspector to estimate the possibility of error. It appears that it is essential that inspection procedures should be sufficiently rigorous to avoid substantial errors, and that the selection procedures and the training period for inspectors should be optimised. (TEC)

  11. Procedure for identifying models for the heat dynamics of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    This report describes a new method for obtaining detailed information about the heat dynamics of a building using frequent reading of the heat consumption. Such a procedure is considered to be of uttermost importance as a key procedure for using readings from smart meters, which is expected...

  12. Validated Test Method 1314: Liquid-Solid Partitioning as a Function of Liquid-Solid Ratio for Constituents in Solid Materials Using An Up-Flow Percolation Column Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes procedures written based on the assumption that they will be performed by analysts who are formally trained in at least the basic principles of chemical analysis and in the use of the subject technology.

  13. Procedures and practices for abnormal occurrences and emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaesig, H.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture contains the concept of the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs) of German power plants. As the procedures depend on the technique of the plant the level of automation and the types of information are described first. After this, the method to diagnose a transient or accident, following entry into an emergency procedure is explained. An overview about the design basis accidents and the aim of the actions in the procedures is given basing on the existing rules and regulations. Finally the theoretical principles are explained taking the corresponding procedures and examples of two German PWRs. (orig.)

  14. Assessing the reliability of the borderline regression method as a standard setting procedure for objective structured clinical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mortaz Hejri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the methods used for standard setting is the borderline regression method (BRM. This study aims to assess the reliability of BRM when the pass-fail standard in an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was calculated by averaging the BRM standards obtained for each station separately. Materials and Methods: In nine stations of the OSCE with direct observation the examiners gave each student a checklist score and a global score. Using a linear regression model for each station, we calculated the checklist score cut-off on the regression equation for the global scale cut-off set at 2. The OSCE pass-fail standard was defined as the average of all station′s standard. To determine the reliability, the root mean square error (RMSE was calculated. The R2 coefficient and the inter-grade discrimination were calculated to assess the quality of OSCE. Results: The mean total test score was 60.78. The OSCE pass-fail standard and its RMSE were 47.37 and 0.55, respectively. The R2 coefficients ranged from 0.44 to 0.79. The inter-grade discrimination score varied greatly among stations. Conclusion: The RMSE of the standard was very small indicating that BRM is a reliable method of setting standard for OSCE, which has the advantage of providing data for quality assurance.

  15. 40 CFR 63.115 - Process vent provisions-methods and procedures for process vent group determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this section. (2) The gas volumetric flow rate shall be determined using Method 2, 2A, 2C, or 2D of 40... accepted chemical engineering principles, measurable process parameters, or physical or chemical laws or...)(3) of this section. (i) The vent stream volumetric flow rate (Qs), in standard cubic meters per...

  16. Evaluation of ASME code flaw analysis procedure using the influence function method for application to PWR primary piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.Y.; Yeater, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses stress intensity factor calculations and fatigue analysis for a PWR primary coolant piping system. The influence function method is applied to evaluate ASME Code Section XI Appendix A ''analysis of flaw indication'' for the application to a PWR primary piping. Results of the analysis are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  17. Development of a benchtop baking method for chemically leavened crackers. I. Identification of a diagnostic formula and procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A benchtop baking method has been developed to predict the contribution of gluten functionality to overall flour performance for chemically leavened crackers. In order to identify a diagnostic cracker formula, the effects of leavening system (sodium bicarbonate, monocalcium phosphate, and ammonium b...

  18. 40 CFR 63.7822 - What test methods and other procedures must I use to demonstrate initial compliance with the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... select sampling port locations and the number of traverse points. Sampling ports must be located at the... determine the volumetric flow rate of the stack gas. (iii) Method 3, 3A, or 3B to determine the dry... filterable catch only). (2) Collect a minimum sample volume of 60 dry standard cubic feet (dscf) of gas...

  19. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napoli Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. Methods The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity and in operational (during surgery. Results The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256 and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7 for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  20. A comparison of procedures to select important variables for describing datasets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Andrade, J. M.; Holík, M.; Halámek, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 4 (2004), s. 865-872 ISSN 0039-9140 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/02/0553 Keywords : procrustes rotation * robustness * multicollinearity Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.532, year: 2004

  1. A common short-term memory retrieval rate may describe many cognitive procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie eVergauwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between response speed and the number of items in short-term memory in four different paradigms and find evidence for a similar high-speed processing rate of about 25 to 30 items per second (~35 to 40 ms/item. We propose that the similarity of the processing rates across paradigms reflects the operation of a very basic covert memory process, high-speed retrieval, that is involved in both the search for information in STM and the reactivation or refreshing of information that keeps it in STM. We link this process to a specific pattern of rhythmic, repetitive neural activity in the brain (gamma oscillations. This proposal generates ideas for research and calls for an integrative approach that combines neuroscientific measures with behavioral cognitive techniques.

  2. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  3. Describing and Enhancing Collaboration at the Computer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Beatty

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer-based learning materials differ from classroom practice in that they seldom explicitly offer opportunities for collaboration. Despite this, students do collaborate, helping one another through the content and affordances of computer materials. But, in doing so, students meet with challenges. Paradoxically, these challenges can either inspire or discourage learning and second-language acquisition. This paper, based on research with twenty Hong Kong university students in a controlled experiment, evaluates challenges to collaboration at the computer as evidenced by discourse. The students were videotaped and their discourse transcribed and evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively, according to a set of discourse markers created to describe collaborative, non-collaborative and ambiguous strategies. The paper begins by exploring the differences between collaboration and similar terms such as teamwork and cooperative learning then goes on to define collaboration in the context of computer-assisted learning. It ends by presenting practical suggestions for software designers, teachers and students to enhance collaboration at the computer.

  4. Connectivity among computer-aided engineering methods, procedures, and tools used in developing the SSC collider magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallas, N.; Jalloh, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The accomplishment of functional productivity for the computer aided engineering (CAE) environment at the magnet engineering department (ME) of the magnet systems division (MSD) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) involves most of the basic aspects of information engineering. It is highly desirable to arrive at a software and hardware topology that offers total, two-way (back and forth), automatic and direct software and hardware connectivity among computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), analysis codes, and office automation tools applicable to the disciplines involved. This paper describes the components, data flow, and practices employed in the development of the CAE environment from a systems engineering aspect rather than from the analytical angle. When appropriate, references to case studies are made in order to demonstrate the connectivity of the techniques used

  5. Connectivity among computer-aided engineering methods, procedures, and tools used in developing the SSC collider magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallas, N.; Jalloh, A.R.

    1992-03-01

    The accomplishment of functional productivity for the computer aided engineering (CAE) environment at the magnet engineering department (ME) of the magnet systems divisions (MSD) at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL) involves most of the basic aspects of information engineering. It is highly desirable to arrive at a software and hardware topology that offers total, two-way (back and forth), automatic and direct software and hardware connectivity among computer-aided design and drafting (CADD), analysis codes, and office automation tools applicable to the disciplines involved. This paper describes the components, data flow, and practices employed in the development of the CAE environment from a systems engineering aspect rather than from the analytical angle. When appropriate, references to case studies are made in order to demonstrate the connectivity of the techniques used

  6. Pretreatment procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    It is frequently in the patient's best interest that radiation treatments are initiated soon after the decision to treat is made. However, it is essential to good radiation therapy that the patient's treatment course be planned and beam-modifying devices be fabricated with utmost care prior to treatment. The objectives of the treatment, along with the treatment parameters and techniques necessary to achieve these objectives, must be discussed prior to initiating planning procedures. Determination of the target volume is made by the radiation oncologist; this is based on knowledge of the history of the tumor, the patterns of spread of the disease, and on diagnostic findings during the work-up of each patient. It is then necessary to obtain several measurements of the patient and also to identify the position of the target volume and of adjacent normal organs with respect to known external skin marks before the actual treatment planning is begun. Such localization can be done through several methods. The two most commonly used methods are radiographic and computed tomography (CT), both of which are discussed in this chapter. The measurements often include contours of the patient's external surface, usually in the axial plane of the central axis of the beam, and often in multiple levels within the region to be treated. Three dimensional localization and treatment planning requires thorough understanding of geometry as well as of patient positioning and immobilization. This chapter attempts to clarify some of these complicated but essential preparations for treatment

  7. Describing function theory as applied to thermal and neutronic problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassersharif, B.

    1983-01-01

    Describing functions have traditionally been used to obtain the solutions of systems of ordinary differential equations. In this work the describing function concept has been extended to include nonlinear, distributed parameter partial differential equations. A three-stage solution algorithm is presented which can be applied to any nonlinear partial differential equation. Two generalized integral transforms were developed as the T-transform for the time domain and the B-transform for the spatial domain. The thermal diffusion describing function (TDDF) is developed for conduction of heat in solids and a general iterative solution along with convergence criteria is presented. The proposed solution method is used to solve the problem of heat transfer in nuclear fuel rods with annular fuel pellets. As a special instance the solid cylindrical fuel pellet is examined. A computer program is written which uses the describing function concept for computing fuel pin temperatures in the radial direction during reactor transients. The second problem investigated was the neutron diffusion equation which is intrinsically different from the first case. Although, for most situations, it can be treated as a linear differential equation, the describing function method is still applicable. A describing function solution is derived for two possible cases: constant diffusion coefficient and variable diffusion coefficient. Two classes of describing functions are defined for each case which portray the leakage and absorption phenomena. For the specific case of a slab reactor criticality problem the comparison between analytical and describing function solutions revealed an excellent agreement

  8. Air sampling procedures to evaluate microbial contamination: a comparison between active and passive methods in operating theatres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Marcotrigiano, Vincenzo; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2012-08-02

    Since air can play a central role as a reservoir for microorganisms, in controlled environments such as operating theatres regular microbial monitoring is useful to measure air quality and identify critical situations. The aim of this study is to assess microbial contamination levels in operating theatres using both an active and a passive sampling method and then to assess if there is a correlation between the results of the two different sampling methods. The study was performed in 32 turbulent air flow operating theatres of a University Hospital in Southern Italy. Active sampling was carried out using the Surface Air System and passive sampling with settle plates, in accordance with ISO 14698. The Total Viable Count (TVC) was evaluated at rest (in the morning before the beginning of surgical activity) and in operational (during surgery). The mean TVC at rest was 12.4 CFU/m3 and 722.5 CFU/m2/h for active and passive samplings respectively. The mean in operational TVC was 93.8 CFU/m3 (SD = 52.69; range = 22-256) and 10496.5 CFU/m2/h (SD = 7460.5; range = 1415.5-25479.7) for active and passive samplings respectively. Statistical analysis confirmed that the two methods correlate in a comparable way with the quality of air. It is possible to conclude that both methods can be used for general monitoring of air contamination, such as routine surveillance programs. However, the choice must be made between one or the other to obtain specific information.

  9. 48 CFR 515.7002 - Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 515.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Use of Samples 515.7002 Procedures. (a) Unsolicited... characteristics that you cannot adequately describe in the specification, you may list and evaluate objective...

  10. Procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radicella Andrea Chiaramonte

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After having described gear wheels with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes and their importance in engineering applications, we stress the need for an efficient procedure for the automatic mesh generation of innovative gear teeth. First, we describe the procedure for the subdivision of the tooth profile in the various possible cases, then we show the method for creating the subdivision mesh, defined by two series of curves called meridians and parallels. Finally, we describe how the above procedure for automatic mesh generation is able to solve specific cases that may arise when dealing with teeth having the two sides constituted by different involutes.

  11. Possible Overestimation of Surface Disinfection Efficiency by Assessment Methods Based on Liquid Sampling Procedures as Demonstrated by In Situ Quantification of Spore Viability ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I.; Bellon-Fontaine, M.-N.; Herry, J.-M.; Hilaire, D.; Moriconi, F.-X.; Naïtali, M.

    2011-01-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the “damaged/undamaged” status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures. PMID:21742922

  12. Possible overestimation of surface disinfection efficiency by assessment methods based on liquid sampling procedures as demonstrated by in situ quantification of spore viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grand, I; Bellon-Fontaine, M-N; Herry, J-M; Hilaire, D; Moriconi, F-X; Naïtali, M

    2011-09-01

    The standard test methods used to assess the efficiency of a disinfectant applied to surfaces are often based on counting the microbial survivors sampled in a liquid, but total cell removal from surfaces is seldom achieved. One might therefore wonder whether evaluations of microbial survivors in liquid-sampled cells are representative of the levels of survivors in whole populations. The present study was thus designed to determine the "damaged/undamaged" status induced by a peracetic acid disinfection for Bacillus atrophaeus spores deposited on glass coupons directly on this substrate and to compare it to the status of spores collected in liquid by a sampling procedure. The method utilized to assess the viability of both surface-associated and liquid-sampled spores included fluorescence labeling with a combination of Syto 61 and Chemchrome V6 dyes and quantifications by analyzing the images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The principal result of the study was that the viability of spores sampled in the liquid was found to be poorer than that of surface-associated spores. For example, after 2 min of peracetic acid disinfection, less than 17% ± 5% of viable cells were detected among liquid-sampled cells compared to 79% ± 5% or 47% ± 4%, respectively, when the viability was evaluated on the surface after or without the sampling procedure. Moreover, assessments of the survivors collected in the liquid phase, evaluated using the microscopic method and standard plate counts, were well correlated. Evaluations based on the determination of survivors among the liquid-sampled cells can thus overestimate the efficiency of surface disinfection procedures.

  13. New constitutive equations to describe infinitesimal elastic-plastic deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boecke, B.; Link, F.; Schneider, G.; Bruhns, O.T.

    1983-01-01

    A set of constitutive equations is presented to describe infinitesimal elastic-plastic deformations of austenitic steel in the range up to 600 deg C. This model can describe the hardening behaviour in the case of mechanical loading and hardening, and softening behaviour in the case of thermal loading. The loading path can be either monotonic or cyclic. For this purpose, the well-known isotropic hardening model is continually transferred into the kinematic model according to Prager, whereby suitable internal variables are chosen. The occurring process-dependent material functions are to be determined by uniaxial experiments. The hardening function g and the translation function c are determined by means of a linearized stress-strain behaviour in the plastic range, whereby a coupling condition must be taken into account. As a linear hardening process is considered to be too unrealistic, nonlinearity is achieved by introducing a small function w, the determination procedure of which is given. (author)

  14. Microbiological method for radiation sterilization (II). Identification procedure of gram positive bacteria by using BBL CRYSTAL GP identification kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshikawa, Tomihiko

    2004-01-01

    The part II in this title series describes details of the commercially available BBL CRYSTAL GP Identification Kit with the software (Becton, Dickinson and Co., Ltd.), by which identification of Gram positive bacteria as well as their number becoming easier in the radiation sterilization of medical devices. Isolation of a bacterium has to be confirmed by microscopy and its Gram positive property, by the Gram staining. The exponentially growing bacteria are to be inoculated in the Kit and cultured for 18-24 hr at 37 deg C with the lid attached by substrates for identification. Reactions to substrates are to be judged by CRYSTAL auto-reader, which is further to be searched by the computer software (code-book) for final identification. For possible misidentification, re-isolation of the bacterium, prolonged culture, concentrated inoculation and re-consideration for ranking of identification the software provides are necessary as well as other identification approaches. Representative bacteria as the bioburden are spp. of Bacilli, Corynebacteria, Staphylococci and Micrococci. (N.I.)

  15. Stabilization of the ulnar stump using modified Breen method after the Sauve-Kapandji procedure in rheumatoid wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanino, Yoshihiko; Yabe, Yutaka; Yamauchi, Kenji; Ikegami, Hiroyasu; Ichikawa, Tooru

    2006-01-01

    We report on the utility of the modified Breen method in addition to the Sauve-Kapandji operation for the treatment of instability and pain in the proximal ulnar stump in rheumatoid arthrities (RA) wrist. We treated a total of 15 hands in 12 patients with disturbances due to instability and pain at the proximal ulnar stump. The average follow-up period was 47 months. We evaluated the range of motion, grip strength, radioulnar distance, and the radioulnar distance at the stump using CT during pronation, supination, and neutral positions of the forearm in 11 of the 15 operated hands. We observed that none of the patients showed any signs of pain at the proximal ulnar stump and no scallop sign was observed. In all the cases, the line connecting the center of the radial head to the proximal ulnar stump served as the axis of rotation for the forearm; this was confirmed by the CT images. We concluded that our operative method resulted in stabilization of the proximal ulnar stump and recovery of powerful grip without pain during forearm rotation. (author)

  16. The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, D.L.; Yoo, S.; Kowalok, M.; Mackie, T.R.; Thomadsen, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-meter from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum

  17. Procedure for the creation of reproducible acoustic coupling using the ultrasonic contact method for nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomilov, B.V.

    1979-01-01

    The transducer is pressed to the specimen, a lubricating coating being applied as an intermediate layer. By means of a vibrator belonging to the transducer there are generated vibrations, the growth rate of the amplitude of the reflected signal picked up being observed. This growth rate is monotonously decreasing. If the growth rate is abruptly decreasing or if the amplitude of the measured signal remains constant the vibrator is turned off, because now good acoustic contact is established. After a short time of waiting for the residual stress of the transducer to decay, recording of the ultrasonic parameters may then be taken up. The method can be applied to thickness measurements and inhomogeneous materials with low surface quality. (RW) [de

  18. A multi-step method with signal quality assessment and fine-tuning procedure to locate maternal and fetal QRS complexes from abdominal ECG recordings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chengyu; Li, Peng; Zhao, Lina; Di Maria, Costanzo; Zhang, Henggui; Chen, Zhiqing

    2014-01-01

    Non-invasive monitoring of fetal electrocardiogram (fECG) plays an important role in detecting and diagnosing fetal diseases. This study aimed to develop a multi-step method for locating both maternal and fetal QRS complexes from abdominal ECG (aECG) recordings. The proposed method included four major steps: abdominal ECG pre-processing, maternal QRS complex locating, maternal ECG cancellation and fetal QRS complex locating. Signal quality assessment (SQA) and fine-tuning for maternal ECG (FTM) were implemented in the first and third steps, respectively. The method was then evaluated using 75 non-invasive 4-channel aECG recordings provided by the PhysioNet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013. The F 1 measure, which is a new index introduced by Behar et al (2013 Proc. Comput. Cardiol. 40 297–300), was used to assess the locating accuracy. The other two indices, mean squared error of heart rate (MSE H R) between the fetal HR signals estimated from the reference and our method (MSE H R in bpm 2 ) and root mean squared difference between the corresponding fetal RR intervals (MSE R R in ms) were also used to assess the locating accuracy. Overall, for the maternal QRS complex, the F 1 measure was 98.4% from the method without the implementation of SQA, and it was improved to 99.8% with SQA. For the fetal QRS complex, the F 1 measure, MSE H R and MSE R R were 84.9%, 185.6 bpm 2 and 19.4 ms for the method without both SQA and FTM procedures. They were improved to 93.9%, 47.5 bpm 2 and 7.6 ms with both SQA and FTM procedures. These improvements were observed from each individual subject. It can be concluded that implementing both SQA and FTM procedures could achieve better performance for locating both maternal and fetal QRS complexes. (paper)

  19. Use of conformal mapping to describe MHD wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Pegoraro, F.

    1993-01-01

    A method is proposed for finding explicit exact solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic equations describing the propagation of magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma in a magnetic potential that depends on two spatial coordinates. This method is based on the use of conformal mappings to transform the wave equation into an equation describing the propagation of waves in a uniform magnetic field. The basic properties of magnetoacoustic and Alfven waves near the critical points, magnetic separatrices, and in configuration with magnetic islands are discussed. Expressions are found for the dimensionless parameters which determine the relative roles of the plasma pressure, nonlinearity, and dissipation near the critical points. 30 refs

  20. Lyophilization Cycle Design for Dual Chamber Cartridges and a Method for Online Process Control: The "DCC LyoMate" Procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpus, Christoph; Friess, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    Freeze-drying process design is a challenging task that necessitates a profound understanding of the complex interrelation among critical process parameters (e.g., shelf temperature and chamber pressure), heat transfer characteristics of the involved materials (e.g., product containers and holder devices), and critical quality attributes of the product (e.g., collapse temperatures). The Dual Chamber Cartridge "(DCC) LyoMate" (from lyophilization and automated) is a manometric temperature measurement-based process control strategy that was developed within this study to streamline this complicated task. It was successfully applied using 5% sucrose formulations with 0.5 and 1 mL fill volumes. The system was further challenged using 2, 20, and 100 mg/mL monoclonal antibody formulations. The DCC LyoMate method did not only produce pharmaceutically acceptable cakes but was also able to maintain the desired product temperature irrespective of formulation and protein content. It enabled successful process design even at high protein concentrations and aided the design and online control of the lyophilization process for drying in DCCs within a single development run. Thus, it helps to reduce development cost and the DCC LyoMate can also be easily installed on every freeze-dryer capable of performing a manometric temperature measurement, without the need for hardware modification. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. FT-IR spectra of the anti-HIV nucleoside analogue d4T (Stavudine). Solid state simulation by DFT methods and scaling by different procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcolea Palafox, M.; Kattan, D.; Afseth, N. K.

    2018-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental vibrational study of the anti-HIV d4T (stavudine or Zerit) nucleoside analogue was carried out. The predicted spectra in the three most stable conformers in the biological active anti-form of the isolated state were compared. Comparison of the conformers with those of the natural nucleoside thymidine was carried out. The calculated spectra were scaled by using different scaling procedures and three DFT methods. The TLSE procedure leads to the lowest error and is thus recommended for scaling. With the population of these conformers the IR gas-phase spectra were predicted. The crystal unit cell of the different polymorphism forms of d4T were simulated through dimer forms by using DFT methods. The scaled spectra of these dimer forms were compared. The FT-IR spectrum was recorded in the solid state in the 400-4000 cm-1 range. The respective vibrational bands were analyzed and assigned to different normal modes of vibration by comparison with the scaled vibrational values of the different dimer forms. Through this comparison, the polymorphous form of the solid state sample was identified. The study indicates that d4T exist only in the ketonic form in the solid state. The results obtained were in agreement with those determined in related anti-HIV nucleoside analogues.

  2. Comparison of a novel spray congealing procedure with emulsion-based methods for the micro-encapsulation of water-soluble drugs in low melting point triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Paul A; Donnelly, Ryan F; Al-Kassas, Rasil

    2008-09-01

    The particle size characteristics and encapsulation efficiency of microparticles prepared using triglyceride materials and loaded with two model water-soluble drugs were evaluated. Two emulsification procedures based on o/w and w/o/w methodologies were compared to a novel spray congealing procedure. After extensive modification of both emulsification methods, encapsulation efficiencies of 13.04% tetracycline HCl and 11.27% lidocaine HCl were achievable in a Witepsol-based microparticle. This compares to much improved encapsulation efficiencies close to 100% for the spray congealing method, which was shown to produce spherical particles of approximately 58 microm. Drug release studies from a Witepsol formulation loaded with lidocaine HCl showed a temperature-dependent release mechanism, which displayed diffusion-controlled kinetics at temperatures approximately 25 degrees C, but exhibited almost immediate release when triggered using temperatures close to that of skin. Therefore, such a system may find application in topical semi-solid formulations, where a temperature-induced burst release is preferred.

  3. X-ray computerized tomography based on the method of reciprocal projection with filtration by double differentiation. Procedure and information peculiarities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajnberg, Eh.I.; Kazak, I.A.; Fajngojz, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The results of experimental evaluation of procedure and information peculiarities of the method of reciprocal projection with filtration of projections by double differentiation (RPFDD) for the monitoring of industrial products are generalized. Succession of stages n the RPFDD method permits to separately optimize reconstruction of high-frequeny and low-frequency tomogram structure which sharply reduces the acuteness of contradictions of conventional scheme between the required increase of accuracy and intolerable growth of computerized charges. High accuracy of evaluation of the linear attenuation factor of low-frequency structures in a wide range of densities at the last stage of RPFDD scheme is attained despite the non-conventionally small range of values at earlier stages of computerized processing

  4. An Efficient Upscaling Procedure Based on Stokes-Brinkman Model and Discrete Fracture Network Method for Naturally Fractured Carbonate Karst Reservoirs

    KAUST Repository

    Qin, Guan

    2010-01-01

    Naturally-fractured carbonate karst reservoirs are characterized by various-sized solution caves that are connected via fracture networks at multiple scales. These complex geologic features can not be fully resolved in reservoir simulations due to the underlying uncertainty in geologic models and the large computational resource requirement. They also bring in multiple flow physics which adds to the modeling difficulties. It is thus necessary to develop a method to accurately represent the effect of caves, fractures and their interconnectivities in coarse-scale simulation models. In this paper, we present a procedure based on our previously proposed Stokes-Brinkman model (SPE 125593) and the discrete fracture network method for accurate and efficient upscaling of naturally fractured carbonate karst reservoirs.

  5. Quality assurance of radiopharmaceuticals-specifications and test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldas, J.; Bonnyman, J.; Pojer, P.M.

    1981-08-01

    This report is a compilation of test methods used and specifications adopted for the Radiopharmaceutical Quality Assurance Test Programme conducted by the Australian Radiation Laboratory. In some cases test procedures described have been taken from various Pharmacopoeias or methods published in the literature. In other cases test methods have been developed at the ARL

  6. Handbook of radiologic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedgcock, M.

    1986-01-01

    This book is organized around radiologic procedures with each discussed from the points of view of: indications, contraindications, materials, method of procedures and complications. Covered in this book are: emergency radiology chest radiology, bone radiology, gastrointestinal radiology, GU radiology, pediatric radiology, computerized tomography, neuroradiology, visceral and peripheral angiography, cardiovascular radiology, nuclear medicine, lymphangiography, and mammography

  7. The optimization of essential oils supercritical CO2 extraction from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic steps procedure and semi-continuous technique using response surface method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hossein; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin; Golmakani, Ebrahim; Nematollahi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate crucial variables in essential oils extraction process from Lavandula hybrida through static-dynamic and semi-continuous techniques using response surface method. Materials and Methods: Essential oil components were extracted from Lavandula hybrida (Lavandin) flowers using supercritical carbon dioxide via static-dynamic steps (SDS) procedure, and semi-continuous (SC) technique. Results: Using response surface method the optimum extraction yield (4.768%) was obtained via SDS at 108.7 bar, 48.5°C, 120 min (static: 8×15), 24 min (dynamic: 8×3 min) in contrast to the 4.620% extraction yield for the SC at 111.6 bar, 49.2°C, 14 min (static), 121.1 min (dynamic). Conclusion: The results indicated that a substantial reduction (81.56%) solvent usage (kg CO2/g oil) is observed in the SDS method versus the conventional SC method. PMID:25598636

  8. New design procedure development of future reactor critical power estimation. (1) Practical design-by-analysis method for BWR critical power design correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Mitsutake, Toru

    2007-01-01

    For present BWR fuels, the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test, such as the critical power measurement test, pressure drop measurement test and so on, has been needed. However, the full mock-up test required the high costs and large-scale test facility. At present, there are only a few test facilities to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test in the world. Moreover, for future BWR, the bundle size tends to be larger, because of reducing the plant construction costs and minimizing the routine check period. For instance, AB1600, improved ABWR, was proposed from Toshiba, whose bundle size was 1.2 times larger than the conventional BWR fuel size. It is too expensive and far from realistic to perform the full mock-up thermal-hydraulic test for such a large size fuel bundle. The new design procedure is required to realize the large scale bundle design development, especially for the future reactor. Therefore, the new design procedure, Practical Design-by-Analysis (PDBA) method, has been developed. This new procedure consists of the partial mock-up test and numerical analysis. At present, the subchannel analysis method based on three-fluid two-phase flow model only is a realistic choice. Firstly, the partial mock-up test is performed, for instance, the 1/4 partial mock-up bundle. Then, the first-step critical power correlation coefficients are evaluated with the measured data. The input data, such as the spacer effect model coefficient, on the subchannel analysis are also estimated with the data. Next, the radial power effect on the critical power of the full-bundle size was estimated with the subchannel analysis. Finally, the critical power correlation is modified by the subchannel analysis results. In the present study, the critical power correlation of the conventional 8x8 BWR fuel was developed with the PDBA method by 4x4 partial mock-up tests and the subchannel analysis code. The accuracy of the estimated critical power was 3.8%. The several themes remain to

  9. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. I. A review of Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromý, Vratislav; Vinklárková, Bára; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava

    2015-01-01

    We found previously that albumin-calibrated total protein in certified reference materials causes unacceptable positive bias in analysis of human sera. The simplest way to cure this defect is the use of human-based serum/plasma standards calibrated by the Kjeldahl method. Such standards, commutative with serum samples, will compensate for bias caused by lipids and bilirubin in most human sera. To find a suitable primary reference procedure for total protein in reference materials, we reviewed Kjeldahl methods adopted by laboratory medicine. We found two methods recommended for total protein in human samples: an indirect analysis based on total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. The methods found will be assessed in a subsequent article.

  10. Nuclear materials management procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veevers, K.; Silver, J.M.; Quealy, K.J.; Steege, E. van der.

    1987-10-01

    This manual describes the procedures for the management of nuclear materials and associated materials at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories. The procedures are designed to comply with Australia's nuclear non-proliferation obligations to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), bilateral agreements with other countries and ANSTO's responsibilities under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation (Safeguards) Act, 1987. The manual replaces those issued by the Australian Atomic Energy Commission in 1959, 1960 and 1969

  11. HASL procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    Addition and corrections to the following sections of the HASL Procedures Manual are provided: Table of Contents; Bibliography; Fallout Collection Methods; Wet/Dry Fallout Collection; Fluoride in Soil and Sediment; Strontium-90; Natural Series; Alpha Emitters; and Gamma Emitters

  12. Comparison of different cleanup procedures for oil crops based on the development of a trace analytical method for the determination of pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinglu; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Cheng, Youpu; Chen, Zenglong; Liu, Na; Chen, Xixi; Tao, Yan; Zheng, Yongquan

    2014-12-01

    The effects of different cleanup procedures in removing high-molecular-mass lipids and natural colorants from oil-crop extracts, including dispersive solid-phase extraction, low-temperature precipitation and gel permeation chromatography, were studied. The pigment removal, lipid quantity, and matrix effects of the three cleanup methods were evaluated. Results indicated that the gel permeation chromatography method is the most effective way to compare the dispersive solid-phase extraction and low-temperature precipitation. Pyraclostrobin and epoxiconazole applied extensively in oil-crop production were selected as typical pesticides to study and a trace analytical method was developed by gel permeation chromatography and ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Average recoveries of the target pesticides at three levels (10, 50, and 100 μg/kg) were in the range of 74.7-96.8% with relative standard deviation values below 9.2%. The limits of detection did not exceed 0.46 μg/kg, whereas the limits of quantification were below 1.54 μg/kg and much lower than maximum residue limit in all matrices. This study may provide the essential data for optimizing the analytical method of pesticides in oil-crop samples. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Atomic-orbital expansion model for describing ion-atom collisions at intermediate and low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.D.; Fritsch, W.

    1983-01-01

    In the description of inelastic processes in ion-atom collisions at moderate energies, the semiclassical close-coupling method is well established as the standard method. Ever since the pioneering work on H + + H in the early 60's, the standard procedure is to expand the electronic wavefunction in terms of molecular orbitals (MO) or atomic orbitals (AO) for describing collisions at, respectively, low or intermediate velocities. It has been recognized since early days that traveling orbitals are needed in the expansions in order to represent the asymptotic states in the collisions correctly. While the adoption of such traveling orbitals presents no conceptual difficulties for expansions using atomic orbitals, the situation for molecular orbitals is less clear. In recent years, various forms of traveling MO's have been proposed, but conflicting results for several well-studied systems have been reported

  14. A systematic procedure to optimise dose and image quality for the measurement of inter-vertebral angles from lateral spinal projections using Cobb and superimposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Qaroot, Bashar; Hogg, Peter; Twiste, Martin; Howard, David

    2014-01-01

    Patients with vertebral column deformations are exposed to high risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. Risks are further increased due to the serial X-ray images that are needed to measure and asses their spinal deformation using Cobb or superimposition methods. Therefore, optimising such X-ray practice, via reducing dose whilst maintaining image quality, is a necessity. With a specific focus on lateral thoraco-lumbar images for Cobb and superimposition measurements, this paper outlines a systematic procedure to the optimisation of X-ray practice. Optimisation was conducted based on suitable image quality from minimal dose. Image quality was appraised using a visual-analogue-rating-scale, and Monte-Carlo modelling was used for dose estimation. The optimised X-ray practice was identified by imaging healthy normal-weight male adult living human volunteers. The optimised practice consisted of: anode towards the head, broad focus, no OID or grid, 80 kVp, 32 mAs and 130 cm SID. Images of suitable quality for laterally assessing spinal conditions using Cobb or superimposition measurements were produced from an effective dose of 0.05 mSv, which is 83% less than the average effective dose used in the UK for lateral thoracic/lumbar exposures. This optimisation procedure can be adopted and use for optimisation of other radiographic techniques.

  15. Applying Petroleum the Pressure Buildup Well Test Procedure on Thermal Response Test—A Novel Method for Analyzing Temperature Recovery Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The theory of Thermal Response Testing (TRT is a well-known part of the sizing process of the geothermal exchange system. Multiple parameters influence the accuracy of effective ground thermal conductivity measurement; like testing time, variable power, climate interferences, groundwater effect, etc. To improve the accuracy of the TRT, we introduced a procedure to additionally analyze falloff temperature decline after the power test. The method is based on a premise of analogy between TRT and petroleum well testing, since the origin of both procedures lies in the diffusivity equation with solutions for heat conduction or pressure analysis during radial flow. Applying pressure build-up test interpretation techniques to borehole heat exchanger testing, greater accuracy could be achieved since ground conductivity could be obtained from this period. Analysis was conducted on a coaxial exchanger with five different power steps, and with both direct and reverse flow regimes. Each test was set with 96 h of classical TRT, followed by 96 h of temperature decline, making for almost 2000 h of cumulative borehole testing. Results showed that the ground conductivity value could vary by as much as 25%, depending on test time, seasonal period and power fluctuations, while the thermal conductivity obtained from the falloff period provided more stable values, with only a 10% value variation.

  16. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  17. Defect assessment procedures at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment procedure for the high-temperature response of structures is being produced. The procedure is referred to as R5 and is written as a series of step-by-step instructions in a number of volumes. This paper considers in detail those parts of R5 which address the behaviour of defects. The defect assessment procedures may be applied to defects found in service, postulated defects, or defects formed during operation as a result of creep-fatigue loading. In the last case, a method is described for deducing from endurance data the number of cycles to initiate a crack of a specified size. Under steady loading, the creep crack tip parameter C * is used to assess crack growth. Under cyclic loading, the creep crack growth during dwell periods is stiell governed by C * but crack growth due to cyclic excursions must also be included. This cyclic crack growth is described by an effective stress intensity factor range. A feature of the R5 defect assessment procedures in that they are based on simplified methods and approximate reference stress methods are described which enable C * in a component to be evaluated. It is shown by comparison with theoretical calculations and experimental data that reliable estimates of C * and the associated crack growth are obtained provided realistic creep strain rate date are used in the reference stress approximation. (orig./HP)

  18. LC-MS/MS methods for albendazole analysis in feed and its metabolite residues in fish fillet and a leaching study in feed after an alternative procedure for drug incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, Zenaís; da Silva, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of analytical methods for the quantification of albendazole (ABZ) in fish feed and ABZ and its main known metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone and albendazole aminosulfone) in fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical methods, evaluation was undertaken as recommended by related guides proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture for analytical method validation. The calibration curve for ABZ quantification in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV  0.99) for all analytes, precision (CV < 13%) and trueness around 100%, with CCα < 122 ng g - 1 and CCβ < 145 ng g - 1 . Besides, by aiming to avoid the risk of ABZ leaching from feed into the aquatic environment during fish medication via the oral route, a promising procedure for drug incorporation in the feed involving coating feed pellets with ethyl cellulose polymer containing ABZ was also evaluated. The medicated feed had good homogeneity (CV < 3%) and a lower release of ABZ (< 0.2%) from feed to water when the medicated feed stayed in the water for up to 15 min.

  19. Aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for micro uav

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Anai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the automatic aerial photogrammetry procedure optimized for Micro UAV that has ability of autonomous flight. The most important goal of our proposed method is the reducing the processing cost for fully automatic reconstruction of DSM from a large amount of image obtained from Micro UAV. For this goal, we have developed automatic corresponding point generation procedure using feature point tracking algorithm considering position and attitude information, which obtained from onboard GPS-IMU integrated on Micro UAV. In addition, we have developed the automatic exterior orientation and registration procedure from the automatic generated corresponding points on each image and position and attitude information from Micro UAV. Moreover, in order to reconstruct precise DSM, we have developed the area base matching process which considering edge information. In this paper, we describe processing flow of our automatic aerial photogrammetry. Moreover, the accuracy assessment is also described. Furthermore, some application of automatic reconstruction of DSM will be desired.

  20. Robot-assisted procedures in pediatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Benedictis, Alessandro; Trezza, Andrea; Carai, Andrea; Genovese, Elisabetta; Procaccini, Emidio; Messina, Raffaella; Randi, Franco; Cossu, Silvia; Esposito, Giacomo; Palma, Paolo; Amante, Paolina; Rizzi, Michele; Marras, Carlo Efisio

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE During the last 3 decades, robotic technology has rapidly spread across several surgical fields due to the continuous evolution of its versatility, stability, dexterity, and haptic properties. Neurosurgery pioneered the development of robotics, with the aim of improving the quality of several procedures requiring a high degree of accuracy and safety. Moreover, robot-guided approaches are of special interest in pediatric patients, who often have altered anatomy and challenging relationships between the diseased and eloquent structures. Nevertheless, the use of robots has been rarely reported in children. In this work, the authors describe their experience using the ROSA device (Robotized Stereotactic Assistant) in the neurosurgical management of a pediatric population. METHODS Between 2011 and 2016, 116 children underwent ROSA-assisted procedures for a variety of diseases (epilepsy, brain tumors, intra- or extraventricular and tumor cysts, obstructive hydrocephalus, and movement and behavioral disorders). Each patient received accurate preoperative planning of optimal trajectories, intraoperative frameless registration, surgical treatment using specific instruments held by the robotic arm, and postoperative CT or MR imaging. RESULTS The authors performed 128 consecutive surgeries, including implantation of 386 electrodes for stereo-electroencephalography (36 procedures), neuroendoscopy (42 procedures), stereotactic biopsy (26 procedures), pallidotomy (12 procedures), shunt placement (6 procedures), deep brain stimulation procedures (3 procedures), and stereotactic cyst aspiration (3 procedures). For each procedure, the authors analyzed and discussed accuracy, timing, and complications. CONCLUSIONS To the best their knowledge, the authors present the largest reported series of pediatric neurosurgical cases assisted by robotic support. The ROSA system provided improved safety and feasibility of minimally invasive approaches, thus optimizing the surgical

  1. Comparison between the triglycerides standardization of routine methods used in Japan and the chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the CDC Lipid Standardization Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Noda, Hiroyuki; Kiyama, Masahiko; Sato, Shinichi; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-01

    Background The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ensured adequate performance of the routine triglycerides methods used in Japan by a chromotropic acid reference measurement procedure used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme as a reference point. We examined standardized data to clarify the performance of routine triglycerides methods. Methods The two routine triglycerides methods were the fluorometric method of Kessler and Lederer and the enzymatic method. The methods were standardized using 495 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference pools with 98 different concentrations ranging between 0.37 and 5.15 mmol/L in 141 survey runs. The triglycerides criteria for laboratories which perform triglycerides analyses are used: accuracy, as bias ≤5% from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value and precision, as measured by CV, ≤5%. Results The correlation of the bias of both methods to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference method was: y (%bias) = 0.516 × (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference value) -1.292 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.018). Triglycerides bias at medical decision points of 1.13, 1.69 and 2.26 mmol/L was -0.71%, -0.42% and -0.13%, respectively. For the combined precision, the equation y (CV) = -0.398 × (triglycerides value) + 1.797 ( n = 495, R 2  = 0.081) was used. Precision was 1.35%, 1.12% and 0.90%, respectively. It was shown that triglycerides measurements at Osaka were stable for 36 years. Conclusions The epidemiologic laboratory in Japan met acceptable accuracy goals for 88.7% of all samples, and met acceptable precision goals for 97.8% of all samples measured through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention lipid standardization programme and demonstrated stable results for an extended period of time.

  2. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi H.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. Objective: The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. Method: A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. Results: The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. Conclusion: There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal

  3. The Kjeldahl method as a primary reference procedure for total protein in certified reference materials used in clinical chemistry. II. Selection of direct Kjeldahl analysis and its preliminary performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinklárková, Bára; Chromý, Vratislav; Šprongl, Luděk; Bittová, Miroslava; Rikanová, Milena; Ohnútková, Ivana; Žaludová, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    To select a Kjeldahl procedure suitable for the determination of total protein in reference materials used in laboratory medicine, we reviewed in our previous article Kjeldahl methods adopted by clinical chemistry and found an indirect two-step analysis by total Kjeldahl nitrogen corrected for its nonprotein nitrogen and a direct analysis made on isolated protein precipitates. In this article, we compare both procedures on various reference materials. An indirect Kjeldahl method gave falsely lower results than a direct analysis. Preliminary performance parameters qualify the direct Kjeldahl analysis as a suitable primary reference procedure for the certification of total protein in reference laboratories.

  4. Statistical models describing the energy signature of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik; Thavlov, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Approximately one third of the primary energy production in Denmark is used for heating in buildings. Therefore efforts to accurately describe and improve energy performance of the building mass are very important. For this purpose statistical models describing the energy signature of a building, i...... or varying energy prices. The paper will give an overview of statistical methods and applied models based on experiments carried out in FlexHouse, which is an experimental building in SYSLAB, Risø DTU. The models are of different complexity and can provide estimates of physical quantities such as UA......-values, time constants of the building, and other parameters related to the heat dynamics. A method for selecting the most appropriate model for a given building is outlined and finally a perspective of the applications is given. Aknowledgements to the Danish Energy Saving Trust and the Interreg IV ``Vind i...

  5. Determination of Total Solids and Ash in Algal Biomass: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wychen, Stefanie; Laurens, Lieve M. L.

    2016-01-13

    This procedure describes the methods used to determine the amount of moisture or total solids present in a freeze-dried algal biomass sample, as well as the ash content. A traditional convection oven drying procedure is covered for total solids content, and a dry oxidation method at 575 deg. C is covered for ash content.

  6. method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Kimball

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an interior point algorithm to solve the multiperiod hydrothermal economic dispatch (HTED. The multiperiod HTED is a large scale nonlinear programming problem. Various optimization methods have been applied to the multiperiod HTED, but most neglect important network characteristics or require decomposition into thermal and hydro subproblems. The algorithm described here exploits the special bordered block diagonal structure and sparsity of the Newton system for the first order necessary conditions to result in a fast efficient algorithm that can account for all network aspects. Applying this new algorithm challenges a conventional method for the use of available hydro resources known as the peak shaving heuristic.

  7. A Development Method of Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Cooperation among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators in Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Seong, No Kyu; Jung, Yeon Sub

    2014-01-01

    Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of steam generator, safety injection system and other various systems and devices in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors can be improved by the human error prevention techniques such as self-check, peer-check, concurrent verification and etc. Another important technique is to share work information among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. It is expected that the proposed mobile CPS can enhance the reduction of human errors by supporting human error prevention techniques and information sharing. This paper describes the technical issues of the mobile CPS (mobile CPS) in the initial development stage. Based on the design of APR1400, CRI CPS has been developed and operated for SKN 3 and 4 HFE V and V and license test for the MCR operating staff. Therefore the mobile CPS will be developed by upgrading the CRI CPS with improved features

  8. A Development Method of Mobile Computerized Procedure System for the Cooperation among Field Workers and Main Control Room Operators in Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sun Jin; Seong, No Kyu; Jung, Yeon Sub [KHNP ,Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Human errors can occur during the test and maintenance of steam generator, safety injection system and other various systems and devices in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Most of human errors can be improved by the human error prevention techniques such as self-check, peer-check, concurrent verification and etc. Another important technique is to share work information among main control room (MCR) operators and field workers. Various field service automation tools have been developed with recent information technology in many countries. APR1400 computerized procedure system (CPS) has been developed for the MCR operators of Shin-Kori 3 and 4 units. Especially, the concurrent verification support design is applied in the construction project of Shin-Hanul 1 and 2 CPS. It is expected that the proposed mobile CPS can enhance the reduction of human errors by supporting human error prevention techniques and information sharing. This paper describes the technical issues of the mobile CPS (mobile CPS) in the initial development stage. Based on the design of APR1400, CRI CPS has been developed and operated for SKN 3 and 4 HFE V and V and license test for the MCR operating staff. Therefore the mobile CPS will be developed by upgrading the CRI CPS with improved features.

  9. Effect of Gold Nanoparticles on Prostate Dose Distribution under Ir-192 Internal and 18 MV External Radiotherapy Procedures Using Gel Dosimetry and Monte Carlo Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, H; Hashemi, B; Mahdavi, S R; Hejazi, P

    2015-03-01

    Gel polymers are considered as new dosimeters for determining radiotherapy dose distribution in three dimensions. The ability of a new formulation of MAGIC-f polymer gel was assessed by experimental measurement and Monte Carlo (MC) method for studying the effect of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in prostate dose distributions under the internal Ir-192 and external 18MV radiotherapy practices. A Plexiglas phantom was made representing human pelvis. The GNP shaving 15 nm in diameter and 0.1 mM concentration were synthesized using chemical reduction method. Then, a new formulation of MAGIC-f gel was synthesized. The fabricated gel was poured in the tubes located at the prostate (with and without the GNPs) and bladder locations of the phantom. The phantom was irradiated to an Ir-192 source and 18 MV beam of a Varian linac separately based on common radiotherapy procedures used for prostate cancer. After 24 hours, the irradiated gels were read using a Siemens 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner. The absolute doses at the reference points and isodose curves resulted from the experimental measurement of the gels and MC simulations following the internal and external radiotherapy practices were compared. The mean absorbed doses measured with the gel in the presence of the GNPs in prostate were 15% and 8 % higher than the corresponding values without the GNPs under the internal and external radiation therapies, respectively. MC simulations also indicated a dose increase of 14 % and 7 % due to presence of the GNPs, for the same experimental internal and external radiotherapy practices, respectively. There was a good agreement between the dose enhancement factors (DEFs) estimated with MC simulations and experiment gel measurements due to the GNPs. The results indicated that the polymer gel dosimetry method as developed and used in this study, can be recommended as a reliable method for investigating the DEF of GNPs in internal and external radiotherapy practices.

  10. A very efficient approach for pricing barrier options on an underlying described by the mixed fractional Brownian motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, Luca Vincenzo; Pacelli, Graziella; Radi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We deal with the problem of pricing barrier options on an underlying described by the mixed fractional Brownian model. To this aim, we consider the initial-boundary value partial differential problem that yields the option price and we derive an integral representation of it in which the integrand functions must be obtained solving Volterra equations of the first kind. In addition, we develop an ad-hoc numerical procedure to solve the integral equations obtained. Numerical simulations reveal that the proposed method is extremely accurate and fast, and performs significantly better than the finite difference method.

  11. Method for automatic localization of MR-visible markers using morphological image processing and conventional pulse sequences: feasibility for image-guided procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, Harald; Trampel, Robert; Gründer, Wilfried; Moche, Michael; Kahn, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of an automated method to determine the 3D position of MR-visible markers. Inductively coupled RF coils were imaged in a whole-body 1.5T scanner using the body coil and two conventional gradient echo sequences (FLASH and TrueFISP) and large imaging volumes up to (300 mm(3)). To minimize background signals, a flip angle of approximately 1 degrees was used. Morphological 2D image processing in orthogonal scan planes was used to determine the 3D positions of a configuration of three fiducial markers (FMC). The accuracies of the marker positions and of the orientation of the plane defined by the FMC were evaluated at various distances r(M) from the isocenter. Fiducial marker detection with conventional equipment (pulse sequences, imaging coils) was very reliable and highly reproducible over a wide range of experimental conditions. For r(M) method is found to be useful for image-guided procedures. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. A Novel Choice Procedure of Magnetic Component Values for Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converters with a Variable Dead-Time Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic components are important parts of the phase shifted full bridge (PSFB converter. During the dead-time of switches located in the same leg, the converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS by using the energies stored in magnetic components to discharge or charge the output capacitances of switches. Dead-time is usually calculated under a given set of pre-defined load condition which results in that the available energies are insufficient and ZVS capability is lost at light loads. In this paper, the PSFB converter is controlled by variable dead-time method and thus full advantage can be taken of the energies stored in magnetic components. Considering that dead-time has a great effect on ZVS, the relationship between available energies and magnetic component values is formulated by analyzing the equivalent circuits during dead-time intervals. Magnetic component values are chosen based on such relationship. The proposed choice procedure can make the available energies greater than the required energies for ZVS operation over a wide range of load conditions. Moreover, the burst mode control is adopted in order to reduce the standby power loss. Experimental results coincide with the theoretical analysis. The proposed method is a simple and practical solution to extend the ZVS range.

  13. Environmental procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The European Bank has pledged in its Agreement to place environmental management at the forefront of its operations to promote sustainable economic development in central and eastern Europe. The Bank's environmental policy is set out in the document titled, Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach. This document, Environmental Procedures, presents the procedures which the European Bank has adopted to implement this policy approach with respect to its operations. The environmental procedures aim to: ensure that throughout the project approval process, those in positions of responsibility for approving projects are aware of the environmental implications of the project, and can take these into account when making decisions; avoid potential liabilities that could undermine the success of a project for its sponsors and the Bank; ensure that environmental costs are estimated along with other costs and liabilities; and identify opportunities for environmental enhancement associated with projects. The review of environmental aspects of projects is conducted by many Bank staff members throughout the project's life. This document defines the responsibilities of the people and groups involved in implementing the environmental procedures. Annexes contain Environmental Management: The Bank's Policy Approach, examples of environmental documentation for the project file and other ancillary information

  14. The MSINDO-sCIS and MSINDO-UCIS methods. Procedures for the calculation of properties of excited states in molecules and periodic systems by a semiempirical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadaczek, Immanuel Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical background, parameterization and performance of the newly developed semiempirical configuration interaction singles (CIS) method MSINDO-sCIS (scaled configuration interaction singles) are presented. The CIS Hamiltonian is modified by scaling of the Coulomb and exchange integrals and a semiempirical correction of the diagonal elements. For a recently proposed benchmark set of 28 medium-sized organic molecules, vertical excitation energies for singlet and triplet states have been calculated and statistically evaluated. A full reparameterization of the MSINDO method for both ground and excited state properties was performed. The results of the reparameterized MSINDO-sCIS method are compared to the currently best semiempirical method for excited states, OM3-CISDTQ by Thiel et al., and to other standard methods, such as time-dependent density- functional theory. The mean absolute deviation with respect to the theoretical best estimates (TBEs) for MSINDO-sCIS is 0.44 eV, comparable to the OM3 method but significantly smaller than for Zerner's INDO/S. The computational effort is strongly reduced compared to OM3-CISDTQ and OM3-MRCISD, since only single excitations are taken into account. Higher excitations are implicitly included by parameterization and the empirical correction term. By application of the Davidson-Liu block diagonalization method high computational efficiency is achieved. Furthermore it is demonstrated, that the MSINDO-sCIS method correctly describes charge-transfer (CT) states, that represent a crucial problem for time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Additionally this method is extended to open-shell systems by the UCIS (unrestricted CIS) approach. MSINDO allows the calculation of periodic systems via the cyclic cluster model (CCM) which is a direct-space approach and therefore can be in principle combined with all molecular quantum-chemical techniques. The sCIS/UCIS equations are solved for a cluster with periodic

  15. Modified arthroscopic Brostrom procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-09-01

    The open modified Brostrom anatomic repair technique is widely accepted as the reference standard for lateral ankle stabilization. However, there is high incidence of intra-articular pathologies associated with chronic lateral ankle instability which may not be addressed by an isolated open Brostrom procedure. Arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with suture anchor has been described for anatomic repair of chronic lateral ankle instability and management of intra-articular lesions. However, the complication rates seemed to be higher than open Brostrom procedure. Modification of the arthroscopic Brostrom procedure with the use of bone tunnel may reduce the risk of certain complications. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty, W.J.

    1979-11-01

    An aspect of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's nuclear waste management R and D programs has been to develop an evaluation procedure for radioactive waste treatment processes. This report describes the process evaluation method. Process worth is expressed as a numerical index called the Figure-of-Merit (FOM), which is computed using a hierarchial, linear, additive, scoring model with constant criteria weights and nonlinear value functions. A numerical example is used to demonstrate the procedure and to point out some of its strengths and weaknesses. Potential modifications and extensions are discussed, and an extensive reference list is included

  17. Experiments with Cloze Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gordon; Haastrup, Kirsten

    1976-01-01

    The Nordic Test Development Group prepared proficiency tests of English designed to provide reliable information on which to base decisions as to whether a candidate would be able to function in a job as described or whether he could be trained to do so. Two subtests used a modified cloze procedure. (Author/CFM)

  18. LC-MS/MS methods for sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim analysis in feed and fish fillet and a leaching study for feed after alternative procedures for the incorporation of drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Ana Paula; Franco, Rodolfo Scarpino Barboza; da Silva, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the method development for sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and ormetoprim (OMP) quantitation in fish feed and fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical method, valuation was undertaken as recommended by guidelines proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. The calibration curve for the quantification of both drugs in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV  0.99), precision (CV < 16%) and trueness around 100%, with CCα < 100.2 ng g - 1 and CCβ < 100.4 ng g - 1 . With a goal of avoiding the risk of drug leaching from feed into the aquatic environment during fish medication via the oral route, different procedures for drug incorporation into feed were evaluated. Coating feed pellets with ethyl cellulose polymer containing the drug showed promising results. In this case, medicated feed released drugs to water at a level below 6% when the medicated feed stayed in the water for up to 15 min.

  19. EML procedures manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchok, H.L.; de Planque, G.

    1982-01-01

    This manual contains the procedures that are used currently by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory of the US Department of Energy. In addition a number of analytical methods from other laboratories have been included. These were tested for reliability at the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory under contract with the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research of the AEC. These methods are clearly distinguished. The manual is prepared in loose leaf form to facilitate revision of the procedures and inclusion of additional procedures or data sheets. Anyone receiving the manual through EML should receive this additional material automatically. The contents are as follows: (1) general; (2) sampling; (3) field measurements; (4) general analytical chemistry; (5) chemical procedures; (6) data section; (7) specifications

  20. Simple multicomponent batch distillation procedure with a variable reflux policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a shortcut procedure for batch distillation simulation with a variable reflux policy. The procedure starts from a shortcut method developed by Sundaram and Evans in 1993 and uses an iterative cycle to calculate the reflux ratio at each moment. The functional relationship between the concentrations at the bottom and the dome is evaluated using the Fenske equation and is complemented with the equations proposed by Underwood and Gilliland. The results of this procedure are consistent with those obtained using a fast method widely validated in the relevant literature.

  1. Reconciling taxonomy and phylogenetic inference: formalism and algorithms for describing discord and inferring taxonomic roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsen Frederick A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although taxonomy is often used informally to evaluate the results of phylogenetic inference and the root of phylogenetic trees, algorithmic methods to do so are lacking. Results In this paper we formalize these procedures and develop algorithms to solve the relevant problems. In particular, we introduce a new algorithm that solves a "subcoloring" problem to express the difference between a taxonomy and a phylogeny at a given rank. This algorithm improves upon the current best algorithm in terms of asymptotic complexity for the parameter regime of interest; we also describe a branch-and-bound algorithm that saves orders of magnitude in computation on real data sets. We also develop a formalism and an algorithm for rooting phylogenetic trees according to a taxonomy. Conclusions The algorithms in this paper, and the associated freely-available software, will help biologists better use and understand taxonomically labeled phylogenetic trees.

  2. Models for describing the thermal characteristics of building components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez, M.J.; Madsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    , for example. For the analysis of these tests, dynamic analysis models and methods are required. However, a wide variety of models and methods exists, and the problem of choosing the most appropriate approach for each particular case is a non-trivial and interdisciplinary task. Knowledge of a large family....... The characteristics of each type of model are highlighted. Some available software tools for each of the methods described will be mentioned. A case study also demonstrating the difference between linear and nonlinear models is considered....... of these approaches may therefore be very useful for selecting a suitable approach for each particular case. This paper presents an overview of models that can be applied for modelling the thermal characteristics of buildings and building components using data from outdoor testing. The choice of approach depends...

  3. Technical procedures for implementation of background environmental radioactivity site studies, Deaf Smith County site, Texas: Environmental Field Program: Preliminary draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this technical procedure is to describe the method for performing field maintenance on low-volume air samplers and the associated topics of personnel and organization, procedure preparation, documentation, and quality assurance. The scope of this procedure includes the maintenance of low-volume air samplers in the field and does not encompass maintenance performed by the manufacturer

  4. Vaspar broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    West, S E; Wilkins, T D

    1980-01-01

    A modification of the Wilkins-Thiel broth-disk procedure for antibiotic susceptibility testing of anaerobic bacteria is described. This method utilizes an aerobically prepared medium overlaid with molten vaspar. Specialized anaerobic techniques or prereduced media are not required.

  5. Left ventricular volume analysis as a basic tool to describe cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhof, Peter L M; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Ali, Rania; Handly, Neal

    2018-03-01

    The heart is often regarded as a compression pump. Therefore, determination of pressure and volume is essential for cardiac function analysis. Traditionally, ventricular performance was described in terms of the Starling curve, i.e., output related to input. This view is based on two variables (namely, stroke volume and end-diastolic volume), often studied in the isolated (i.e., denervated) heart, and has dominated the interpretation of cardiac mechanics over the last century. The ratio of the prevailing coordinates within that paradigm is termed ejection fraction (EF), which is the popular metric routinely used in the clinic. Here we present an insightful alternative approach while describing volume regulation by relating end-systolic volume (ESV) to end-diastolic volume. This route obviates the undesired use of metrics derived from differences or ratios, as employed in previous models. We illustrate basic principles concerning ventricular volume regulation by data obtained from intact animal experiments and collected in healthy humans. Special attention is given to sex-specific differences. The method can be applied to the dynamics of a single heart and to an ensemble of individuals. Group analysis allows for stratification regarding sex, age, medication, and additional clinically relevant covariates. A straightforward procedure derives the relationship between EF and ESV and describes myocardial oxygen consumption in terms of ESV. This representation enhances insight and reduces the impact of the metric EF, in favor of the end-systolic elastance concept advanced 4 decades ago.

  6. biDCG: a new method for discovering global features of DNA microarray data via an iterative re-clustering procedure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Pei Chen

    Full Text Available Biclustering techniques have become very popular in cancer genetics studies, as they are tools that are expected to connect phenotypes to genotypes, i.e. to identify subgroups of cancer patients based on the fact that they share similar gene expression patterns as well as to identify subgroups of genes that are specific to these subtypes of cancer and therefore could serve as biomarkers. In this paper we propose a new approach for identifying such relationships or biclusters between patients and gene expression profiles. This method, named biDCG, rests on two key concepts. First, it uses a new clustering technique, DCG-tree [Fushing et al, PLos One, 8, e56259 (2013] that generates ultrametric topological spaces that capture the geometries of both the patient data set and the gene data set. Second, it optimizes the definitions of bicluster membership through an iterative two-way reclustering procedure in which patients and genes are reclustered in turn, based respectively on subsets of genes and patients defined in the previous round. We have validated biDCG on simulated and real data. Based on the simulated data we have shown that biDCG compares favorably to other biclustering techniques applied to cancer genomics data. The results on the real data sets have shown that biDCG is able to retrieve relevant biological information.

  7. A procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhouse, Andy T; Waddington, David C; Adams, Mags D

    2009-09-01

    The development and application of a procedure for the assessment of low frequency noise (LFN) complaints are described. The development of the assessment method included laboratory tests addressing low frequency hearing threshold and the effect on acceptability of fluctuation, and field measurements complemented with interview-based questionnaires. Environmental health departments then conducted a series of six trials with genuine "live" LFN complaints to test the workability and usefulness of the procedure. The procedure includes guidance notes and a pro-forma report with step-by-step instructions. It does not provide a prescriptive indicator of nuisance but rather gives a systematic procedure to help environmental health practitioners to form their own opinion. Examples of field measurements and application of the procedure are presented. The procedure and examples are likely to be of particular interest to environmental health practitioners involved in the assessment of LFN complaints.

  8. Feasibility of dietary assessment methods, other tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among infants, toddlers and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocké, Marga; Brants, Henny; Dofkova, Marcela; Freisling, Heinz; van Rossum, Caroline; Ruprich, Jiri; Slimani, Nadia; Temme, Elisabeth; Trolle, Ellen; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Huybrechts, Inge; de Boer, Evelien

    2015-08-01

    To test the feasibility of tools and procedures for a pan-European food consumption survey among children 0-10 years and to recommend one of two tested dietary assessment methods. Two pilot studies including 378 children were conducted in Belgium and the Czech Republic in the Pilot studies for Assessment of Nutrient intake and food Consumption among Kids in Europe. One protocol included a 3-day food diary which was checked with a parent, and data were entered afterwards using EPIC-Soft. The alternative protocol consisted of two non-consecutive 1-day food diaries followed by EPIC-Soft completion interviews. Both protocols included general and food propensity questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. The protocols were compared using evaluation questionnaires among the participating parents and study personnel. The parents found the questionnaires and instructions for filling in the food diaries understandable. Food description and food quantification was evaluated as problematic by 29 and 15% of the participants for the 3-day diaries versus 15 and 12% for the 1-day diaries. The protocol with 1-day food diaries was evaluated as less burdensome by the parents and logistically more challenging by the interviewers. Both dietary assessment methods with related tools and administration protocols were evaluated as feasible. The administration protocol with two 1-day food diaries with completion interviews offers more advantages for the future pan-European survey in children 0-10 years. The positive evaluation of feasibility of tools and materials is an important step towards harmonised food consumption data at European level among the younger age groups.

  9. Fabrication of targets for transmutation of americium : synthesis of inertial matrix by sol-gel method. Procedure study on the infiltration of a radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Carretero, A.

    2002-01-01

    Transmutation and incineration are innovative options in the management and disposal of fission products and actinides. nevertheless, the fabrication of targets for transmutation and incineration of actinides and fission products require a reconsideration of conventional processes (mechanical blending) and the development of new procedures compatible with the high activity of these materials. This work presents th R and D of a new fabrication method called INRAM (Infiltration of Radioactive Materials) based on the infiltration of an actinide solution in a porous non radiotoxic material in the form of a pellet (up to 12% An), or beads (up to 40% An) produced by sol-gel. The first method have been used for the fabrication of spinel (MgAl 2 O 4 ) targets containing 11% Am, which have been irradiated in HFR-Petten (358.4 full power days). Post-test burn-up calculations showed that at the end of the irradiation the initial Am-241 concentration was reduced to 4%. The fraction of the initial americum atoms that have been fissioned is 28%. The main advantage of the INRAM method is that matrices with low or zero activity can be fabricated and formed into the required shape in an unshielded facility. This method offers other advantages over conventional ones, such as the active wastes are reduced, is easy to automate, adoptable to telemanipulation and dust free, which facilitate operator intervention and minimise radiation exposure to the personal. In addition, the infiltrant needs only be present in liquid form, i. e. it could be transferred directly from the reprocessing plant for fabrication into targets without conversion into-solid form. In order to optimise the infiltration process in depth investigations of all important process parameters, e. g. infiltration kinetics and metal (pu, Am) concentration in the feed solution, and also on extensive study or powder metallurgy parameters for the preparation of high quality fuel pellets with a high density, have been made. In

  10. Two heuristic approaches to describe periodicities in genomic microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Aßmus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the first part we discuss the filtering of panels of time series based on singular value decomposition. The discussion is based on an approach where this filtering is used to normalize microarray data. We point out effects on the periodicity and phases for time series panels. In the second part we investigate time dependent periodic panels with different phases. We align the time series in the panel and discuss the periodogram of the aligned time series with the purpose of describing the periodic structure of the panel. The method is quite powerful assuming known phases in the model, but it deteriorates rapidly for noisy data.  

  11. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges.

  12. Procedures for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Lyul; Chung, K. K.; Lee, J. I.; Chang, S. Y.; Lee, T. Y

    2007-11-15

    This technical report describes the procedure and work responsibility along with the regulation and standard necessary for the safe transport of radioactive or contaminated materials. This report, therefore, can be effectively used to secure the public safety as well as to prevent the disastrous event which might be resulted from the transport process of radioactive materials by establishing a procedure and method on the safe packing, handling and transport of radioactive materials.

  13. Procedures for determining stream flowrate using radioisotope method in Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia. Prosedur untuk mengukur kadar-alir sungai menggunakan kaedah radioisotop di Sungai Pesanggrahan, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-01

    River flow measurements either by a current meter or a tracer dilution are established elsewhere. This report describes the experimental method, calibrations of NaI detector, preparation of radioisotopes and equipment, and safety aspect considerations as well as results interpretation in determining stream flowrate of Pesanggrahan River, Indonesia in which radioisotopes /sup 82/Br and /sup 51/Cr complexed with EDTA were used as tracers. The total count technique of stream flow D=AF/N, developed by Hull, was simplified for the ease of field work purposes and adopted in this study. Discharge results at different water levels during low flows gauged using both radioisotope tracers are comparable. The relationship between water level and discharge value is also plotted although the available data is insufficient.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging as a diagnostic method for assessing function. New procedures for the non-invasive quantification of cerebral blood volume and blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueckel, F.; Rempp, K.; Becker, G.; Koepke, J.; Loose, R.; Brix, G.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a brief introduction to the current status of cerebral blood volume and blood flow imaging with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. A new method for the quantitative assessment of regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) on the basis of the indicator dilution theory is described and preliminary quantitative results from healthy volunteers are presented. The mean values for the rCBV are 8,27±1,85 ml/100 g for grey matter and 3,78±1,34 ml/100 g for white matter. The mean values for the rCBF are 44,8±11,29 ml/min/100 g for the grey matter and 20,88±8,42 ml/min/100 g for the white matter. These results are in good agreement with PET results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  15. Methods for the accountability of uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephens, F.B.; Gutmacher, R.G.; Ernst, K.; Harrar, J.E.; Turel, S.P.

    1975-06-01

    Procedures for the determination of the total U and the amount of 235 U isotope in UO 2 powder and pellets are given. Methods for U determination include coulometry, titration, and gravimetry. Surface-ionization mass spectroscopy is described for 235 U measurement. Spectrometric procedures are described for determining the impurity content in the UO 2 . (U.S.)

  16. Pollutant Assessments Group procedures manual: Volume 2, Technical procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    This is volume 2 of the manuals that describes the technical procedures currently in use by the Pollution Assessments Group. This manual incorporates new developments in hazardous waste assessment technology and administrative policy. Descriptions of the equipment, procedures and operations of such things as radiation detection, soil sampling, radionuclide monitoring, and equipment decontamination are included in this manual. (MB)

  17. Guidelines for the presentation of emergency operating procedures using advanced information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.; Hollnagel, E.; Niwa, Yuji

    1994-01-01

    New methods of information presentation and interface design are changing the conditions for work in the modern NPP control room. One area receiving considerable attention is that of Emergency Operating Procedures (EOP). Conventionally such procedures are presented using hard copy manuals; however, development in IT means that there are new opportunities for the computerization of such procedures. This paper reports on the development of human factors guidelines for the computerized presentation of EOPs. After identifying the principle stages in the transition from procedures as documents to fully automated procedures, computerised procedure presentation is briefly discussed. Guidelines for the presentation of such procedures are outlined starting with the high level goals for guidelines themselves. Such goals also constitute the criteria against which the computerized procedures are measured during implementation. Six dimensions describing computerized procedure presentation are presented and two are explore in more detail by identifying points along each dimension that characterize different levels of IT sophistication. (author). 8 refs, 1 tab

  18. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  19. DBH Prediction Using Allometry Described by Bivariate Copula Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Hou, Z.; Li, B.; Greenberg, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Forest biomass mapping based on single tree detection from the airborne laser scanning (ALS) usually depends on an allometric equation that relates diameter at breast height (DBH) with per-tree aboveground biomass. The incapability of the ALS technology in directly measuring DBH leads to the need to predict DBH with other ALS-measured tree-level structural parameters. A copula-based method is proposed in the study to predict DBH with the ALS-measured tree height and crown diameter using a dataset measured in the Lassen National Forest in California. Instead of exploring an explicit mathematical equation that explains the underlying relationship between DBH and other structural parameters, the copula-based prediction method utilizes the dependency between cumulative distributions of these variables, and solves the DBH based on an assumption that for a single tree, the cumulative probability of each structural parameter is identical. Results show that compared with the bench-marking least-square linear regression and the k-MSN imputation, the copula-based method obtains better accuracy in the DBH for the Lassen National Forest. To assess the generalization of the proposed method, prediction uncertainty is quantified using bootstrapping techniques that examine the variability of the RMSE of the predicted DBH. We find that the copula distribution is reliable in describing the allometric relationship between tree-level structural parameters, and it contributes to the reduction of prediction uncertainty.

  20. Developing Competency in Payroll Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allen L.

    1975-01-01

    The author describes a sequence of units that provides for competency in payroll procedures. The units could be the basis for a four to six week minicourse and are adaptable, so that the student, upon completion, will be able to apply his learning to any payroll procedures system. (Author/AJ)

  1. An Analytical Cost Estimation Procedure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jayachandran, Toke

    1999-01-01

    Analytical procedures that can be used to do a sensitivity analysis of a cost estimate, and to perform tradeoffs to identify input values that can reduce the total cost of a project, are described in the report...

  2. Kinetic isotope effects and how to describe them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Karandashev

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We review several methods for computing kinetic isotope effects in chemical reactions including semiclassical and quantum instanton theory. These methods describe both the quantization of vibrational modes as well as tunneling and are applied to the ⋅H + H2 and ⋅H + CH4 reactions. The absolute rate constants computed with the semiclassical instanton method both using on-the-fly electronic structure calculations and fitted potential-energy surfaces are also compared directly with exact quantum dynamics results. The error inherent in the instanton approximation is found to be relatively small and similar in magnitude to that introduced by using fitted surfaces. The kinetic isotope effect computed by the quantum instanton is even more accurate, and although it is computationally more expensive, the efficiency can be improved by path-integral acceleration techniques. We also test a simple approach for designing potential-energy surfaces for the example of proton transfer in malonaldehyde. The tunneling splittings are computed, and although they are found to deviate from experimental results, the ratio of the splitting to that of an isotopically substituted form is in much better agreement. We discuss the strengths and limitations of the potential-energy surface and based on our findings suggest ways in which it can be improved.

  3. HERMES: A Model to Describe Deformation, Burning, Explosion, and Detonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reaugh, J E

    2011-11-22

    HERMES (High Explosive Response to MEchanical Stimulus) was developed to fill the need for a model to describe an explosive response of the type described as BVR (Burn to Violent Response) or HEVR (High Explosive Violent Response). Characteristically this response leaves a substantial amount of explosive unconsumed, the time to reaction is long, and the peak pressure developed is low. In contrast, detonations characteristically consume all explosive present, the time to reaction is short, and peak pressures are high. However, most of the previous models to describe explosive response were models for detonation. The earliest models to describe the response of explosives to mechanical stimulus in computer simulations were applied to intentional detonation (performance) of nearly ideal explosives. In this case, an ideal explosive is one with a vanishingly small reaction zone. A detonation is supersonic with respect to the undetonated explosive (reactant). The reactant cannot respond to the pressure of the detonation before the detonation front arrives, so the precise compressibility of the reactant does not matter. Further, the mesh sizes that were practical for the computer resources then available were large with respect to the reaction zone. As a result, methods then used to model detonations, known as {beta}-burn or program burn, were not intended to resolve the structure of the reaction zone. Instead, these methods spread the detonation front over a few finite-difference zones, in the same spirit that artificial viscosity is used to spread the shock front in inert materials over a few finite-difference zones. These methods are still widely used when the structure of the reaction zone and the build-up to detonation are unimportant. Later detonation models resolved the reaction zone. These models were applied both to performance, particularly as it is affected by the size of the charge, and to situations in which the stimulus was less than that needed for reliable

  4. Headache and endovascular procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Biase, Stefano; Longoni, Marco; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Agostoni, Elio

    2017-05-01

    The International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta) includes headache attributed to intracranial endovascular procedures (EVPs). The aim of this review is to describe the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of headache related to vascular lesions and EVPs. Current studies regarding this issue are contradictory, although generally favouring headache improvement after EVPs. Further large studies are needed to adequately assess the effect of EVPs on headache.

  5. Robust procedures in chemometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotwa, Ewelina

    properties of the analysed data. The broad theoretical background of robust procedures was given as a very useful supplement to the classical methods, and a new tool, based on robust PCA, aiming at identifying Rayleigh and Raman scatters in excitation-mission (EEM) data was developed. The results show...

  6. Formalizing physical security procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meadows, C.; Pavlovic, Dusko

    Although the problems of physical security emerged more than 10,000 years before the problems of computer security, no formal methods have been developed for them, and the solutions have been evolving slowly, mostly through social procedures. But as the traffic on physical and social networks is now

  7. Manual on nuclear gauges. Incorporating: Applications guide, procedures guide, basics guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of production of ionizing radiation and to the methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this booklet considers the procedures that should be employed when using nuclear gauges. Applications for such gauges are described and radiation protection procedures discussed

  8. The medical practice of euthanasia in Belgium and The Netherlands: legal notification, control and evaluation procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, T.; Bilsen, J.J.; Cohen, J.; Rurup, M.L.; Keyser, E.; Deliens, L.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare current legal procedures for notifying, controlling and evaluating (NCE-procedures) euthanasia in Belgium and the Netherlands, and to discuss the implications for a safe and controllable euthanasia practice. METHODS: We systematically studied and compared official

  9. Analytical simulation platform describing projections in computed tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hanbean; Kim, Ho Kyung

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the patient dose, several approaches such as spectral imaging using photon counting detectors and statistical image reconstruction, are being considered. Although image-reconstruction algorithms may significantly enhance image quality in reconstructed images with low dose, true signal-to-noise properties are mainly determined by image quality in projections. We are developing an analytical simulation platform describing projections to investigate how quantum-interaction physics in each component configuring CT systems affect image quality in projections. This simulator will be very useful for an improved design or optimization of CT systems in economy as well as the development of novel image-reconstruction algorithms. In this study, we present the progress of development of the simulation platform with an emphasis on the theoretical framework describing the generation of projection data. We have prepared the analytical simulation platform describing projections in computed tomography systems. The remained further study before the meeting includes the following: Each stage in the cascaded signal-transfer model for obtaining projections will be validated by the Monte Carlo simulations. We will build up energy-dependent scatter and pixel-crosstalk kernels, and show their effects on image quality in projections and reconstructed images. We will investigate the effects of projections obtained from various imaging conditions and system (or detector) operation parameters on reconstructed images. It is challenging to include the interaction physics due to photon-counting detectors into the simulation platform. Detailed descriptions of the simulator will be presented with discussions on its performance and limitation as well as Monte Carlo validations. Computational cost will also be addressed in detail. The proposed method in this study is simple and can be used conveniently in lab environment

  10. Can the "standard" unitarized Regge models describe the TOTEM data?

    CERN Document Server

    Alkin, A; Martynov, E

    2013-01-01

    The standard Regge poles are considered as inputs for two unitarization methods: eikonal and U-matrix. It is shown that only models with three input pomerons and two input odderons can describe the high energy data on $pp$ and $\\bar pp$ elastic scattering including the new data from Tevatron and LHC. However, it seems that the both considered models require a further modification (e.g. nonlinear reggeon trajectories and/or nonexponential vertex functions) for a more satisfactory description of the data at 19.0 GeV$\\leq \\sqrt{s}\\leq$ 7 TeV and 0.01 $\\leq |t|\\leq $14.2 GeV$^{2}$.

  11. In their own words: describing Canadian physician leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Anita J; Dickson, Graham; Wirtzfeld, Debrah; Van Aerde, John

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This is the first study to compile statistical data to describe the functions and responsibilities of physicians in formal and informal leadership roles in the Canadian health system. This mixed-methods research study offers baseline data relative to this purpose, and also describes physician leaders' views on fundamental aspects of their leadership responsibility. Design/methodology/approach A survey with both quantitative and qualitative fields yielded 689 valid responses from physician leaders. Data from the survey were utilized in the development of a semi-structured interview guide; 15 physician leaders were interviewed. Findings A profile of Canadian physician leadership has been compiled, including demographics; an outline of roles, responsibilities, time commitments and related compensation; and personal factors that support, engage and deter physicians when considering taking on leadership roles. The role of health-care organizations in encouraging and supporting physician leadership is explicated. Practical implications The baseline data on Canadian physician leaders create the opportunity to determine potential steps for improving the state of physician leadership in Canada; and health-care organizations are provided with a wealth of information on how to encourage and support physician leaders. Using the data as a benchmark, comparisons can also be made with physician leadership as practiced in other nations. Originality/value There are no other research studies available that provide the depth and breadth of detail on Canadian physician leadership, and the embedded recommendations to health-care organizations are informed by this in-depth knowledge.

  12. Application of safeguards procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The earliest applications of safeguards procedures took place in a political and technical climate far different from that of today. In the early 1960's there was a fear of the proliferation possibilities which could arise as more and more countries acquired nuclear power plants. Today nuclear power is being produced in some 20 countries without resulting in nuclear weapons proliferation. The export of equipment and technology for the nuclear fuel cycle, however, has become the subject of current concern. In view of these developments, it is not surprising that techniques in the application of safeguards have also changed. In order to appreciate the nature of these changes, it is important to be aware of the original general attitude towards the technical problems of safeguards applications. Originally, the common attitude was that the objectives of safeguards were self-evident and the methods, while in need of development, were known at least in outline. Today, it has become evident that before a safeguards procedure can be applied, the objectives must first be carefully defined, and the criteria against which success in meeting those objectives can be measured must also be developed. In line with this change, a significant part of the effort of the safeguards inspectorate is concerned with work preliminary and subsequent to the actual inspection work in the field. Over the last two years, for example, a considerable part of the work of experienced safeguards staff has been spent in analysing the possibilities of diverting material at each facility to be safeguarded. These analyses are carried out in depth by a 'facility officer' and are subjected to constructive criticism by teams composed of staff responsible for similar types of facilities as well as other technical experts. The analyses consider the measures currently considered practicable, to meet the diversion possibilities and where necessary list the development work needed to overcome any present

  13. A procedure for safety assessment of components with cracks - Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, P.; Bergman, M.; Brickstad, B.; Dahlberg, L.; Nilsson, F.; Sattari-Far, I.

    1996-01-01

    In this handbook a procedure is described which can be used both for assessment of detected cracks or crack like defects or for defect tolerance analysis. The procedure can be used to calculate possible crack growth due to fatigue or stress corrosion and to calculate the reserve margin for failure due to fracture and plastic collapse. For ductile materials, the procedure gives the reserve margin for initiation of stable crack growth. Thus, an extra reserve margin, unknown to size, exists for failure in components made of ductile materials. The procedure was developed for operative use with the following objectives in mind: The procedure should be able to handle both linear and non-linear problems without any a priori division; The procedure shall ensure uniqueness of the safety assessment; The procedure should be well defined and easy to use; The conservatism of the procedure should be well validated; The handbook that documents the procedure should be so complete that for most assessments access to any other fracture mechanics literature should not be necessary. The method utilized is based on the R6-method developed at Nuclear Electric plc. This method can in principle be used for all metallic materials. It is, however, more extensively verified for steel alloys only. The method is not intended for use in temperatures where creep deformation is of importance. The first edition of the handbook was released in 1990 and the second in 1991. This third edition has been extensively revised. A Windows-based program (SACC) has been developed which can perform the assessments described in the book including calculation of crack growth due to stress corrosion and fatigue. 52 refs., 27 figs., 35 tabs

  14. Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a safe and effective method for intestinal anastomoses following left-sided colonic resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhjalmsson, Dadi; Appelros, Stefan; Toth, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    -sided colonic resection. Time for evacuation of the anastomotic rings, perioperative compression pressure, and adverse effects were recorded. Postoperative blood samples were collected daily, and flexible sigmoidoscopy was performed 8-12 weeks after surgery to examine the anastomoses. RESULTS: Fourteen out......BACKGROUND: Compression anastomotic ring-locking procedure (CARP) is a novel procedure for creating colonic anastomoses. The surgical procedure allows perioperative quantification of the compression pressure between the intestinal ends within the anastomosis and postoperative monitoring...... device evacuated spontaneously in all patients by the natural route after a median of 10 days. Perioperative compression pressure ranged between 85 and 280 mBar (median 130 mBar). Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed smooth anastomoses without signs of pathological inflammation or stenosis in all cases...

  15. Measuring Vocational Preferences: Ranking versus Categorical Rating Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carifio, James

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study to compare the relative validities of ranking v categorical rating procedures for obtaining student vocational preference data in exploratory program assignment situations. Students indicated their vocational program preferences from career clusters, and the frequency of wrong assignments made by each method was analyzed. (MF)

  16. Operating experience and procedures at the tritium systems test assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.V.; Binning, K.E.; Cole, S.P.; Jenkins, E.M.; Wilhelm, R.C.; Cole, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Operating procedures are important for the safe and efficient operation of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA). TSTA has been operating for four years with tritium in a safe and efficient manner. The inventory of tritium in the process loop is 100 grams and several milestone runs have been completed. This paper describes the methods used to operate TSTA. 3 refs., 1 fig

  17. A monthly quality assurance procedure for 3D surface imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, H Omar; Klein, Eric E; Gokhroo, Garima; Santanam, Lakshmi

    2010-12-21

    A procedure for periodic quality assurance of a video surface imaging system is introduced. AlignRT is a video camera-based patient localization system that captures and compares images of a patient's topography to a DICOM-formatted external contour, then calculates shifts required to accurately reposition the patient. This technical note describes the tools and methods implemented in our department to verify correct and accurate operation of the AlignRT hardware and software components. The procedure described is performed monthly and complements a daily calibration of the system.

  18. Revised Unfilling Procedure for Solid Lithium Lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveling, A.

    2003-01-01

    A procedure for unfilling used lithium lenses to has been described in Pbar Note 664. To date, the procedure has been used to disassemble lenses 20, 21, 17, 18, and 16. As a result of this work, some parts of the original procedure were found to be time consuming and ineffective. Modifications to the original procedure have been made to streamline the process and are discussed in this note. The revised procedure is included in this note.

  19. THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE? THE VALUE OF EXPERT ADVICE IN THE PRODUCTION OF EVIDENCE-BASED GUIDANCE: A MIXED METHODS STUDY OF THE NICE INTERVENTIONAL PROCEDURES PROGRAMME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyebode, Oyinlola; Patrick, Hannah; Walker, Alexander; Campbell, Bruce; Powell, John

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the aspects of expert advice that decision makers find most useful in the development of evidence-based guidance and to identify the characteristics of experts providing the most useful advice. First, semi-structured interviews were conducted with seventeen members of the Interventional Procedures Advisory Committee of the UK's National Institute of Health and Care Excellence. Interviews examined the usefulness of expert advice during guidance development. Transcripts were analyzed inductively to identify themes. Second, data were extracted from 211 experts' questionnaires for forty-one consecutive procedures. Usefulness of advice was scored using an index developed through the qualitative work. Associations between usefulness score and characteristics of the expert advisor were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Expert opinion was seen as a valued complement to empirical evidence, providing context and tacit knowledge unavailable in published literature, but helpful for interpreting it. Interviewees also valued advice on the training and experience required to perform a procedure, on patient selection criteria and the place of a procedure within a clinical management pathway. Limitations of bias in expert opinion were widely acknowledged and skepticism expressed regarding the anecdotal nature of advice on safety or efficacy outcomes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the most useful advice was given by clinical experts with direct personal experience of the procedure, particularly research experience. Evidence-based guidance production is often characterized as a rational, pipeline process. This ignores the valuable role that expert opinion plays in guidance development, complementing and supporting the interpretation of empirical data.

  20. Transvaginal mesh procedures for pelvic organ prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Jens-Erik

    2011-02-01

    To provide an update on transvaginal mesh procedures, newly available minimally invasive surgical techniques for pelvic floor repair. The discussion is limited to minimally invasive transvaginal mesh procedures. PubMed and Medline were searched for articles published in English, using the key words "pelvic organ prolapse," transvaginal mesh," and "minimally invasive surgery." Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis, and articles were incorporated in the guideline to May 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on the Preventive Health Care. Recommendations for practice were ranked according to the method described in that report (Table 1). Counselling for the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse should consider all benefits, harms, and costs of the surgical procedure, with particular emphasis on the use of mesh. 1. Patients should be counselled that transvaginal mesh procedures are considered novel techniques for pelvic floor repair that demonstrate high rates of anatomical cure in uncontrolled short-term case series. (II-2B) 2. Patients should be informed of the range of success rates until stronger evidence of superiority is published. (II-2B) 3. Training specific to transvaginal mesh procedures should be undertaken before procedures are performed. (III-C) 4. Patients should undergo thorough preoperative counselling regarding (a) the potential serious adverse sequelae of transvaginal mesh repairs, including mesh exposure, pain, and dyspareunia; and (b) the limited data available

  1. Angular momentum and torque described with the complex octonion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Zi-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to adopt the complex octonion to formulate the angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields. Applying the octonionic representation enables one single definition of angular momentum (or torque, force) to combine some physics contents, which were considered to be independent of each other in the past. J. C. Maxwell used simultaneously two methods, the vector terminology and quaternion analysis, to depict the electromagnetic theory. It motivates the paper to introduce the quaternion space into the field theory, describing the physical feature of electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The spaces of electromagnetic field and of gravitational field can be chosen as the quaternion spaces, while the coordinate component of quaternion space is able to be the complex number. The quaternion space of electromagnetic field is independent of that of gravitational field. These two quaternion spaces may compose one octonion space. Contrarily, one octonion space can be separated into two subspaces, the quaternion space and S-quaternion space. In the quaternion space, it is able to infer the field potential, field strength, field source, angular momentum, torque, and force etc in the gravitational field. In the S-quaternion space, it is capable of deducing the field potential, field strength, field source, current continuity equation, and electric (or magnetic) dipolar moment etc in the electromagnetic field. The results reveal that the quaternion space is appropriate to describe the gravitational features, including the torque, force, and mass continuity equation etc. The S-quaternion space is proper to depict the electromagnetic features, including the dipolar moment and current continuity equation etc. In case the field strength is weak enough, the force and the continuity equation etc can be respectively reduced to that in the classical field theory

  2. Computational and experimental methods for enclosed natural convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Gartling, D.K.; Schimmel, W.P. Jr.

    1977-10-01

    Two computational procedures and one optical experimental procedure for studying enclosed natural convection are described. The finite-difference and finite-element numerical methods are developed and several sample problems are solved. Results obtained from the two computational approaches are compared. A temperature-visualization scheme using laser holographic interferometry is described, and results from this experimental procedure are compared with results from both numerical methods

  3. Calibration and validation of a model describing complete autotrophic nitrogen removal in a granular SBR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mutlu, Ayten Gizem; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A validated model describing the nitritation-anammox process in a granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system is an important tool for: a) design of future experiments and b) prediction of process performance during optimization, while applying process control, or during system scale......-up. RESULTS: A model was calibrated using a step-wise procedure customized for the specific needs of the system. The important steps in the procedure were initialization, steady-state and dynamic calibration, and validation. A fast and effective initialization approach was developed to approximate pseudo...... screening of the parameter space proposed by Sin et al. (2008) - to find the best fit of the model to dynamic data. Finally, the calibrated model was validated with an independent data set. CONCLUSION: The presented calibration procedure is the first customized procedure for this type of system...

  4. Low temperature heat capacities and thermodynamic functions described by Debye-Einstein integrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsjäger, Ernst; Wiessner, Manfred

    2018-01-01

    Thermodynamic data of various crystalline solids are assessed from low temperature heat capacity measurements, i.e., from almost absolute zero to 300 K by means of semi-empirical models. Previous studies frequently present fit functions with a large amount of coefficients resulting in almost perfect agreement with experimental data. It is, however, pointed out in this work that special care is required to avoid overfitting. Apart from anomalies like phase transformations, it is likely that data from calorimetric measurements can be fitted by a relatively simple Debye-Einstein integral with sufficient precision. Thereby, reliable values for the heat capacities, standard enthalpies, and standard entropies at T  = 298.15 K are obtained. Standard thermodynamic functions of various compounds strongly differing in the number of atoms in the formula unit can be derived from this fitting procedure and are compared to the results of previous fitting procedures. The residuals are of course larger when the Debye-Einstein integral is applied instead of using a high number of fit coefficients or connected splines, but the semi-empiric fit coefficients keep their meaning with respect to physics. It is suggested to use the Debye-Einstein integral fit as a standard method to describe heat capacities in the range between 0 and 300 K so that the derived thermodynamic functions are obtained on the same theory-related semi-empiric basis. Additional fitting is recommended when a precise description for data at ultra-low temperatures (0-20 K) is requested.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix B to Part 136 - Definition and Procedure for the Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... calculated method detection limit. To insure that the estimate of the method detection limit is a good...) where: MDL = the method detection limit t(n-1,1- α=.99) = the students' t value appropriate for a 99... Determination of the Method Detection Limit-Revision 1.11 B Appendix B to Part 136 Protection of Environment...

  6. Subsea HIPPS design procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaroe, R.; Lund, B.F.; Onshus, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper is based on a feasibility study investigating the possibilities of using a HIPPS (High Integrity Pressure Protection System) to protect a subsea pipeline that is not rated for full wellhead shut-in pressure. The study was called the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study, and was performed by SINTEF, Norway. Here, OPPS is an acronym for Overpressure Pipeline Protection System. A design procedure for a subsea HIPPS is described, based on the experience and knowledge gained through the ''Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study''. Before a subsea HIPPS can be applied, its technical feasibility, reliability and profitability must be demonstrated. The subsea HIPPS design procedure will help to organize and plan the design activities both with respect to development and verification of a subsea HIPPS. The paper also gives examples of how some of the discussed design steps were performed in the Subsea OPPS Feasibility Study. Finally, further work required to apply a subsea HIPPS is discussed

  7. Describing Earth system simulations with the Metafor CIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Lawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Metafor project has developed a common information model (CIM using the ISO19100 series formalism to describe numerical experiments carried out by the Earth system modelling community, the models they use, and the simulations that result. Here we describe the mechanism by which the CIM was developed, and its key properties. We introduce the conceptual and application versions and the controlled vocabularies developed in the context of supporting the fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5. We describe how the CIM has been used in experiments to describe model coupling properties and describe the near term expected evolution of the CIM.

  8. Radioimmunoassay method for triiodothyronine and thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollander, C.S.

    1975-01-01

    This invention relates to a radioimmunoassay method for triiodothyronine or thyroxine or triiodothyronine and thyroxine present in unextracted serum containing thyroxine binding prealbumin and thyroxine binding globulin. Procedures using 125 I and 131 I are described

  9. A non-linear regression analysis program for describing electrophysiological data with multiple functions using Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Angus M

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this present study was to demonstrate a method for fitting complex electrophysiological data with multiple functions using the SOLVER add-in of the ubiquitous spreadsheet Microsoft Excel. SOLVER minimizes the difference between the sum of the squares of the data to be fit and the function(s) describing the data using an iterative generalized reduced gradient method. While it is a straightforward procedure to fit data with linear functions, and we have previously demonstrated a method of non-linear regression analysis of experimental data based upon a single function, it is more complex to fit data with multiple functions, usually requiring specialized expensive computer software. In this paper we describe an easily understood program for fitting experimentally acquired data, in this case the stimulus-evoked compound action potential from the mouse optic nerve, with multiple Gaussian functions. The program is flexible and can be applied to describe data with a wide variety of user-input functions.

  10. Communication skills training: describing a new conceptual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard F; Bylund, Carma L

    2008-01-01

    Current research in communication in physician-patient consultations is multidisciplinary and multimethodological. As this research has progressed, a considerable body of evidence on the best practices in physician-patient communication has been amassed. This evidence provides a foundation for communication skills training (CST) at all levels of medical education. Although the CST literature has demonstrated that communication skills can be taught, one critique of this literature is that it is not always clear which skills are being taught and whether those skills are matched with those being assessed. The Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Comskil Model for CST seeks to answer those critiques by explicitly defining the important components of a consultation, based on Goals, Plans, and Actions theories and sociolinguistic theory. Sequenced guidelines as a mechanism for teaching about particular communication challenges are adapted from these other methods. The authors propose that consultation communication can be guided by an overarching goal, which is achieved through the use of a set of predetermined strategies. Strategies are common in CST; however, strategies often contain embedded communication skills. These skills can exist across strategies, and the Comskil Model seeks to make them explicit in these contexts. Separate from the skills are process tasks and cognitive appraisals that need to be addressed in teaching. The authors also describe how assessment practices foster concordance between skills taught and those assessed through careful coding of trainees' communication encounters and direct feedback.

  11. The complexity of organizational change: describing communication during organizational turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Organizational researchers and practitioners have been interested in organizational change for some time. Historically, they have directed most of their efforts at improving the efficiency of planned top-down change. These efforts were strategic attempts at altering parameters leading to transformational change. Most efforts failed to meet their intended purposes. Transformational organizational change has not been likely. The legitimate systems have been robust. There has been little systematic investigation of the communication occurring during these efforts. The purpose of this essay is to describe results of a mixed methods research project answering two research questions. (a) How do organizational members communicate during a time of turbulence? (b) What features of this communication suggest the potential for or resistance to transformative change? Comparing the results at the beginning of the period to other periods, gives insight into how social actors communicate and enact the organization during a threshold period where transformational change was possible. Results reveal identifiable patterns of communication as communication strategies, parameters, or basins of attraction. The overall pattern explains how micro communication patterns intersect and how the accumulation of these patterns may resist or accomplish change at a macro level.

  12. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-01-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  13. Standardized Procedure Content And Data Structure Based On Human Factors Requirements For Computer-Based Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, Aaron; Oxstrand, Johanna; Le Blanc, Katya L

    2015-02-01

    Most activities that involve human interaction with systems in a nuclear power plant are guided by procedures. Traditionally, the use of procedures has been a paper-based process that supports safe operation of the nuclear power industry. However, the nuclear industry is constantly trying to find ways to decrease the human error rate, especially the human errors associated with procedure use. Advances in digital technology make computer-based procedures (CBPs) a valid option that provides further enhancement of safety by improving human performance related to procedure use. The transition from paper-based procedures (PBPs) to CBPs creates a need for a computer-based procedure system (CBPS). A CBPS needs to have the ability to perform logical operations in order to adjust to the inputs received from either users or real time data from plant status databases. Without the ability for logical operations the procedure is just an electronic copy of the paper-based procedure. In order to provide the CBPS with the information it needs to display the procedure steps to the user, special care is needed in the format used to deliver all data and instructions to create the steps. The procedure should be broken down into basic elements and formatted in a standard method for the CBPS. One way to build the underlying data architecture is to use an Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema, which utilizes basic elements to build each step in the smart procedure. The attributes of each step will determine the type of functionality that the system will generate for that step. The CBPS will provide the context for the step to deliver referential information, request a decision, or accept input from the user. The XML schema needs to provide all data necessary for the system to accurately perform each step without the need for the procedure writer to reprogram the CBPS. The research team at the Idaho National Laboratory has developed a prototype CBPS for field workers as well as the

  14. Algorithm for Video Summarization of Bronchoscopy Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczuk Mikołaj I

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The duration of bronchoscopy examinations varies considerably depending on the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures used. It can last more than 20 minutes if a complex diagnostic work-up is included. With wide access to videobronchoscopy, the whole procedure can be recorded as a video sequence. Common practice relies on an active attitude of the bronchoscopist who initiates the recording process and usually chooses to archive only selected views and sequences. However, it may be important to record the full bronchoscopy procedure as documentation when liability issues are at stake. Furthermore, an automatic recording of the whole procedure enables the bronchoscopist to focus solely on the performed procedures. Video recordings registered during bronchoscopies include a considerable number of frames of poor quality due to blurry or unfocused images. It seems that such frames are unavoidable due to the relatively tight endobronchial space, rapid movements of the respiratory tract due to breathing or coughing, and secretions which occur commonly in the bronchi, especially in patients suffering from pulmonary disorders. Methods The use of recorded bronchoscopy video sequences for diagnostic, reference and educational purposes could be considerably extended with efficient, flexible summarization algorithms. Thus, the authors developed a prototype system to create shortcuts (called summaries or abstracts of bronchoscopy video recordings. Such a system, based on models described in previously published papers, employs image analysis methods to exclude frames or sequences of limited diagnostic or education value. Results The algorithm for the selection or exclusion of specific frames or shots from video sequences recorded during bronchoscopy procedures is based on several criteria, including automatic detection of "non-informative", frames showing the branching of the airways and frames including pathological lesions. Conclusions

  15. Cancer pancreatis, diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graadal, Oe.; Schlichting, E.; Aasen, A.O.; Stadaas, J.O.

    1990-01-01

    151 patients treated for carcinoma of the pancreas at Ullevaal Hospital (Oslo University) during the period 1980-89 were studied. The most common initial symptom was abdominal pain. Other frequent debut symptoms were loss of weight and jaundice. ERCP and PTC were found to be the best diagnostic procedures. CT or ultrasonography were normal in 10-20% of the patients. Nearly all tumors of the pancreas were found by the ERCP procedure. Also angiography was used to evaluate operability of the pancreas tumor, but was found to be a very uncertain diagnostic method. This method will not be used in the future evaluation of patients with cancer of the pancreas. 13 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  16. Procedures for Sensitive Immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givol, D. [Department of Chemical Immunology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    1970-02-15

    Sensitive immunoassay methods should be applied to small molecules of biological importance, which are non-immunogenic by themselves, such as small peptide hormones (e.g. bradykinin), plant hormones (e.g. indoleacetic acid), nucleotides and other small molecules. Methods of binding these small molecules, as haptens, to immunogenic carriers by various cross-linking agents are described (dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, tolylene-diisocyanate and glutaraldehyde), and the considerations involved in relation to the methods of binding and the specificity of the antibodies formed are discussed. Some uses of antibody bound to bromoacetyl cellulose as an immuno adsorbent convenient for assay of immunoglobulins are described. Finally, the sensitive immunoassay method of chemically modified phage is described. This includes methods of binding small molecules (such as the dinitrophenyl group, penicillin, indoleacetic acid) or proteins (such as insulin, immunoglobulins) to phages. Methods of direct chemical conjugation, or an indirect binding via anti-phage Fab, are described. The phage inactivation method by direct plating and its modifications (such as decision technique and complex inactivation) are compared with the more simple end-point titration method. The inhibition of phage inactivation has some advantages as it does not require radioactive material, or expensive radioactive counters, and avoids the need for separation between bound and unbound antigen. Hence, if developed, it could be used as an alternative to radioimmunoassay. (author)

  17. Evaluation of occupational exposure in interventionist procedures using Monte Carlo Method; Avaliacao das exposicoes dos envolvidos em procedimentos intervencionistas usando metodo Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: williathan@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir; Maia, Ana F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2014-07-01

    This study presents a computational model of exposure for a patient, cardiologist and nurse in a typical scenario of cardiac interventional procedures. In this case a set of conversion coefficient (CC) for effective dose (E) in terms of kerma-area product (KAP) for all individuals involved using seven different energy spectra and eight beam projections. The CC was also calculated for the entrance skin dose (ESD) normalized to the PKA for the patient. All individuals were represented by anthropomorphic phantoms incorporated in a radiation transport code based on Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  18. EPA Method 3135.2I: Cyanide, Total and Amenable in Aqueous and Solid Samples Automated Colorimetric With Manual Digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method describes procedures for preparation and analysis of solid, water and wipe samples for detection and measurement of cyanide amendable to chlorination using acid digestion and spectrophotometry.

  19. Progress in RPV-examination of the Chooz-A vessel (and the French procedures, its new developments (MIS5))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samman, J; Martin, E; Lacroix, R [Electricite de France (EDF), 93 - Saint-Denis (France). Groupe des Labs.

    1988-12-31

    This document deals with the French Chooz-A reactor. It describes the method used for in-service inspection of Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV). The ultrasonic testing procedure is described, showing its advantages and limitations. The supplementary ultrasonic examination is also described, as well as the validation of underclad cracks detection and sizing. Historical data is also provided. (TEC).

  20. 21 CFR 211.150 - Distribution procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR FINISHED PHARMACEUTICALS Holding and Distribution § 211.150 Distribution procedures. Written procedures shall be established, and followed, describing the... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution procedures. 211.150 Section 211.150...

  1. 40 CFR 205.54 - Test procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedures. 205.54 Section 205.54 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.54 Test procedures. The procedures described...

  2. Survey on current status of laboratory test method and experimental consideration for establishing standardized procedure of material containing bentonite. Report of collaboration research between JAEA and CRIEPI (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanai, Kenji; Kikuchi, Hirohito; Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hironaga, Michihiko

    2010-08-01

    In the current concept of repository for radioactive waste disposal, compacted bentonite as well as bentonite based material will be used as an engineered barrier mainly for inhibiting migration of radioactive nuclides. In most cases, properties of bentonite, such as low permeability etc., are obtained by laboratory tests. However, results of laboratory tests of bentonite often vary considerably even if index parameter, such as effective clay density, is constant. One of the causes of the variability is considered to be lack of standardized method of laboratory test for bentonite. Thus standardization of laboratory test methods for bentonite is needed. So, investigation for establishing standardized laboratory test method of bentonite is conducted based on the results of survey on current status of laboratory test method for bentonite. In particular, the literature survey as well as laboratory tests were conducted to find factors affecting the results of laboratory tests for bentonite and to estimate their degree of influence. The following conclusions are obtained through this study. (1) Hydraulic conductivity test. According to the results of literature survey, it is revealed that constant pressure permeability test and consolidation test are currently used for measuring hydraulic conductivity of bentonite and that (a) hydraulic gradient, (b) local seepage flow between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container, (c) water pressure which is applied to the specimen, (d) degree of saturation and (e) size of the specimen possibly affect the results of the constant pressure permeability test, while (f) friction between lateral surface of the specimen and lateral wall of the container accompanied by deformation of the specimen, (g) consolidation pressure together with factors (d), (e) affect the results of the consolidation test. Literature which describes that factors (a), (b) and (e) affect the results of the constant pressure permeability test

  3. Adequate procedures for specific exams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staevie, G.L.G.; Gattringer, D.K.; Dal Mas, C.R.; Tessman, M.

    1996-01-01

    Some ideal procedures for specific radiographic exams are briefly presented. The aim is to improve the quality standard, establishing a specific method for each exam in order to decrease films waste and reduce the patient dose exposure

  4. [Advantages and disadvantages of different methods for the implementation and the support of standard operating procedures: From PDF files to an app- and webbased SOP management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, M; Riech, S; Brandes, I; Waeschle, R M

    2015-11-01

    The quality assurance of care and patient safety, with increasing cost pressure and performance levels is of major importance in the high-risk and high cost area of the operating room (OR). Standard operating procedures (SOP) are an established tool for structuring and standardization of the clinical treatment pathways and show multiple benefits for quality assurance and process optimization. An internal project was initiated in the department of anesthesiology and a continuous improvement process was carried out to build up a comprehensive SOP library. In the first step the spectrum of procedures in anesthesiology was transferred to PDF-based SOPs. The further development to an app-based SOP library (Aesculapp) was due to the high resource expenditure for the administration and maintenance of the large PDF-based SOP collection and to deficits in the mobile availability. The next developmental stage, the SOP healthcare information assistant (SOPHIA) included a simplified and advanced update feature, an archive feature previously missing and notably the possibility to share the SOP library with other departments including the option to adapt each SOP to the individual situation. A survey of the personnel showed that the app-based allocation of SOPs (Aesculapp, SOPHIA) had a higher acceptance than the PDF-based developmental stage SOP form. The SOP management system SOPHIA combines the benefits of the forerunner version Aesculapp with improved options for intradepartmental maintenance and administration of the SOPs and the possibility of an export and editing function for interinstitutional exchange of SOPs.

  5. Effects of different etching methods and bonding procedures on shear bond strength of orthodontic metal brackets applied to different CAD/CAM ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuk, S Kutalmış; Kucukekenci, Ahmet Serkan

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic metal brackets applied to different types of ceramic surfaces treated with different etching procedures and bonding agents. Monolithic CAD/CAM ceramic specimens (N = 120; n = 40 each group) of feldspathic ceramic Vita Mark II, resin nanoceramic Lava Ultimate, and hybrid ceramic Vita Enamic were fabricated (14 × 12 × 3 mm). Ceramic specimens were separated into four subgroups (n = 10) according to type of surface treatment and bonding onto the ceramic surface. Within each group, four subgroups were prepared by phosphoric acid, hydrofluoric acid, Transbond XT primer, and Clearfill Ceramic primer. Mandibular central incisor metal brackets were bonded with light-cure composite. The SBS data were analyzed using three-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests. The highest SBS was found in the Vita Enamic group, which is a hybrid ceramic, etched with hydrofluoric acid and applied Transbond XT Adhesive primer (7.28 ± 2.49 MPa). The lowest SBS was found in the Lava Ultimate group, which is a resin nano-ceramic etched with hydrofluoric acid and applied Clearfill ceramic primer (2.20 ± 1.21 MPa). CAD/CAM material types and bonding procedures affected bond strength ( P .05). The use of Transbond XT as a primer bonding agent resulted in higher SBS.

  6. Procedural confidence in hospital based practitioners: implications for the training and practice of doctors at all grades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsagkaraki Petroula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical doctors routinely undertake a number of practical procedures and these should be performed competently. The UK Postgraduate Medical Education and Training Board (PMETB curriculum lists the procedures trainees should be competent in. We aimed to describe medical practitioner's confidence in their procedural skills, and to define which practical procedures are important in current medical practice. Methods A cross sectional observational study was performed measuring procedural confidence in 181 hospital practitioners at all grades from 2 centres in East Anglia, England. Results Both trainees and consultants provide significant service provision. SpR level doctors perform the widest range and the highest median number of procedures per year. Most consultants perform few if any procedures, however some perform a narrow range at high volume. Cumulative confidence for the procedures tested peaks in the SpR grade. Five key procedures (central line insertion, lumbar puncture, pleural aspiration, ascitic aspiration, and intercostal drain insertion are the most commonly performed, are seen as important generic skills, and correspond to the total number of procedures for which confidence can be maintained. Key determinants of confidence are gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. Conclusion The highest volume of service requirement is for six procedures. The procedural confidence is dependent upon gender, number of procedures performed in the previous year and total number of procedures performed. This has implications for those designing the training curriculum and with regards the move to shorten the duration of training.

  7. Aluminium and Alzheimer's disease: the science that describes the link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Exley, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    ... that has been encircled is the gene for the amyloid precursor protein. (Thanks to Walter Lukiw for supplying this information.) Aluminium and Alzheimer's Disease: The Science that Describes the LinkAluminium and Alzheimer's Disease The Science that Describes the Link Edited by Christopher Exley Birchall Centre for Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Scienc...

  8. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  9. Defects in railway bridges and procedures for maintenance:UIC Code 778-4R

    OpenAIRE

    Elfgren, Lennart

    2009-01-01

    This leaflet gives guidelines and recommendations covering procedures for the maintenance and strengthening of railway bridges. Arrangements and methods for inspection are presented; defects are described; methods for monitoring and assessment are given; and procedures for maintenance, repair, strengthening and renewal are defined.The purpose is to update the 1989 edition of UIC Code 778-4R and to implement results from a European Integrated Research Project (2003-2007) on “Sustainable Bridge...

  10. Measurement of peak discharge at dams by indirect methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsing, Harry

    1967-01-01

    This chapter describes procedures for measuring peak discharges using dams, weirs, and embankments. Field and office procedures limited to this method are described. Discharge coefficients and formulas are given for three general classes of weirs-sharp-crested, broad-crested, and round-crested-and for highway embankments and weirs of unusual shape. The effects of submergence are defined for most forms.

  11. Pretreatment procedures applied to samples to be analysed by neutron activation analysis at CDTN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, Dovenir; Menezes, Maria Angela de Barros Correia

    2009-01-01

    The neutron activation technique - using several methods - has been applied in 80% of the analytical demand of Division for Reactor and Analytical Techniques at CDTN/CNEN, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. This scenario emphasizes the responsibility of the Laboratory to provide and assure the quality of the measurements. The first step to assure the results quality is the preparation of the samples. Therefore, this paper describes the experimental procedures adopted at CDTN/CNEN in order to uniform conditions of analysis and to avoid contaminations by elements present everywhere. Some of the procedures are based on methods described in the literature; others are based on many years of experience preparing samples from many kinds of matrices. The procedures described are related to geological material - soil, sediment, rock, gems, clay, archaeological ceramics and ore - biological materials - hair, fish, plants, food - water, etc. Analytical results in sediment samples are shown as n example pointing out the efficiency of the experimental procedure. (author)

  12. Comparative study of different seeding methods based on a multilayer SIS scaffold: Which is the optimal procedure for urethral tissue engineering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiang-Guo; Feng, Chao; Fu, Qiang; Xie, Hong; Wang, Ying; Huang, Jian-Wen; Xie, Min-Kai; Atala, Anthony; Xu, Yue-Min; Zhao, Wei-Xin

    2016-08-01

    Seeding cells efficiently and uniformly onto three-dimensional scaffolds is key for engineering urological tissue with an ideal histological structure in vitro. Using an optimized seeding technology allows cells to cooperate positively with biomaterials, resulting in successful reconstructive surgery. In this study, we used four different types of seeding methods in a scaffold of small intestinal submucosa (SIS). The efficiency of the sandwich co-culture, layered co-culture, static-agitation seeding, and centrifugation seeding methods were compared. It was demonstrated that dynamic seeding methods, such as static-agitation and centrifugation seeding, had superior cell-matrix infiltration and mechanical properties. The seeding time could be reduced by 5-10 min using the centrifugation method. Furthermore, functional assessment of the barriers revealed that this function was better in the centrifugation seeding method than in any other method. Our study suggests that both the static-agitation and centrifugation methods are suitable for cell seeding on SIS. There is no significant change in surface area of SIS with different seeding methods. These methods reinforce the physiological and mechanical properties of biomaterials and allow for the future in vivo study of tissue-engineered urethral reconstruction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 104B: 1098-1108, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Procedure for coating articles with pyrolytic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.C.; Allen, C.L.; Besenbruch, G.E.A.

    1976-01-01

    A method to coat articles with pyrolytic carbon is described which is particularly suitable for small nuclear fuel particles as one obtains a very homogeneous layer. The pyrolytic carbon is produced according to the invention by decomposing a hydrocarbon gas mixture composed of an inert gas share (20-65 Vol%) and a mixture of acetylene and propylene. It is favourable to have the hydrocarbon mixture contain between 50 and 55 Vol% acetylene. Variations on the known procedure are given. The coating of spherical thorium dioxide particles is mentioned as an example. (UWI) [de

  14. INSITU BLOTTING - A NOVEL METHOD FOR DIRECT TRANSFER OF NATIVE PROTEINS FROM SECTIONED TISSUE TO BLOTTING MEMBRANE - PROCEDURE AND SOME APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKABE, M; NYAKAS, C; BUWALDA, B; LUITEN, PGM

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  15. Procedure for taking physical inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    This session is intended to apprise one of the various aspects of procedures and routines that Exxon Nuclear uses with respect to its nuclear materials physical inventory program. The presentation describes how plant physical inventories are planned and taken. The description includes the planning and preparation for taking the inventory, the clean-out procedures for converting in-process material to measurable items, the administrative procedures for establishing independent inventory teams and for inventorying each inventory area, the verification procedures used to include previously measured tamper-safed items in the inventory, and lastly, procedures used to reconcile the inventory and calculate MUF (materials unaccounted for). The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the planning and pre-inventorty procedures and their importance; (2) understand the need for and the required intensity of clean-out procedures; (3) understand how inventory teams are formed, and how the inventory is conducted; (4) understand the distinction between inventory previously measured tamper-safed items and other materials not so characterized; (5) understand the reconciliation procedures; and (6) calculate a MUF given the book and inventory results

  16. 7 CFR 58.644 - Test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test methods. 58.644 Section 58.644 Agriculture... Procedures § 58.644 Test methods. (a) Microbiological. Microbiological determinations shall be made in accordance with the methods described in the latest edition of Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy...

  17. Typical NRC inspection procedures for model plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaylock, J.

    1984-01-01

    A summary of NRC inspection procedures for a model LEU fuel fabrication plant is presented. Procedures and methods for combining inventory data, seals, measurement techniques, and statistical analysis are emphasized

  18. A procedure for effective Dancoff factor calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a procedure for Dancoff factors calculation based on equivalence principle and its application in the SCALE-4.3 code system is described. This procedure is founded on principle of conservation of neutron absorption for resolved resonance range in a heterogeneous medium and an equivalent medium consisted of an infinite array of two-region pin cells, where the presence of other fuel rods is taken into account through a Dancoff factor. The neutron absorption in both media is obtained using a fine-group elastic slowing-down calculation. This procedure is implemented in a design oriented lattice physics code, which is applicable for any geometry where the method of collision probability is possible to apply to get a flux solution. Proposed procedure was benchmarked for recent exercise that represents a system with a fuel double heterogeneity, i.e., fuel in solid form (pellets) surrounded by fissile material in solution, and for a 5x5 irregular pressurised water reactor assembly, which requires different Dancoff factors. (author)

  19. Storyboard GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Storyboard with mosaicked image of an asteroid and entitled GALILEO CRUISE SCIENCE OPPORTUNITIES describes asteroid objectives. These objectives include: first asteroid encounter; surface geology, composition size, shape, mass; and relation of primitive bodies to meteorites.

  20. Interculture: Some Concepts for Describing the Situation of Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Lars Henric; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to find new ways of describing and analyzing dynamic interactions in country of origin, host country, and immigrant community caused by migration. Analyzes linguistic models, concept of culture, emigration psychology, and identity formation. (Author/BK)