WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods cross-sectional analysis

  1. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana; Rocha, Hélio F. da

    2017-01-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  2. Analytical methods for analysis of neutron cross sections of amino acids and proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Carvalheira, Luciana, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Chaffin@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luciana@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Hélio F. da, E-mail: helionutro@gmail.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2017-07-01

    Two unpublished analytical processes were developed at IEN-CNEN-RJ for the analysis of neutron cross sections of chemical compounds and complex molecules, the method of data parceling and grouping (P and G) and the method of data equivalence and similarity (E and S) of cross-sections. The former allows the division of a complex compound or molecule so that the parts can be manipulated to construct a value of neutron cross section for the compound or the entire molecule. The second method allows by comparison obtain values of neutron cross-sections of specific parts of the compound or molecule, as the amino acid radicals or its parts. The processes were tested for the determination of neutron cross-sections of the 20 human amino acids and a small database was built for future use in the construction of neutron cross-sections of proteins and other components of the human being cells, also in other industrial applications. (author)

  3. An analysis of MCNP cross-sections and tally methods for low-energy photon emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, John J; Wallace, Robert E; Boedeker, Kirsten

    2002-04-21

    Monte Carlo calculations are frequently used to analyse a variety of radiological science applications using low-energy (10-1000 keV) photon sources. This study seeks to create a low-energy benchmark for the MCNP Monte Carlo code by simulating the absolute dose rate in water and the air-kerma rate for monoenergetic point sources with energies between 10 keV and 1 MeV. The analysis compares four cross-section datasets as well as the tally method for collision kerma versus absorbed dose. The total photon attenuation coefficient cross-section for low atomic number elements has changed significantly as cross-section data have changed between 1967 and 1989. Differences of up to 10% are observed in the photoelectric cross-section for water at 30 keV between the standard MCNP cross-section dataset (DLC-200) and the most recent XCOM/NIST tabulation. At 30 keV, the absolute dose rate in water at 1.0 cm from the source increases by 7.8% after replacing the DLC-200 photoelectric cross-sections for water with those from the XCOM/NIST tabulation. The differences in the absolute dose rate are analysed when calculated with either the MCNP absorbed dose tally or the collision kerma tally. Significant differences between the collision kerma tally and the absorbed dose tally can occur when using the DLC-200 attenuation coefficients in conjunction with a modern tabulation of mass energy-absorption coefficients.

  4. A Cross-Section Adjustment Method for Double Heterogeneity Problem in VHTGR Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Sung Hwan; Cho, Nam Zin

    2011-01-01

    Very High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (VHTGRs) draw strong interest as candidates for a Gen-IV reactor concept, in which TRISO (tristructuralisotropic) fuel is employed to enhance the fuel performance. However, randomly dispersed TRISO fuel particles in a graphite matrix induce the so-called double heterogeneity problem. For design and analysis of such reactors with the double heterogeneity problem, the Monte Carlo method is widely used due to its complex geometry and continuous-energy capabilities. However, its huge computational burden, even in the modern high computing power, is still problematic to perform wholecore analysis in reactor design procedure. To address the double heterogeneity problem using conventional lattice codes, the RPT (Reactivityequivalent Physical Transformation) method considers a homogenized fuel region that is geometrically transformed to provide equivalent self-shielding effect. Another method is the coupled Monte Carlo/Collision Probability method, in which the absorption and nu-fission resonance cross-section libraries in the deterministic CPM3 lattice code are modified group-wise by the double heterogeneity factors determined by Monte Carlo results. In this paper, a new two-step Monte Carlo homogenization method is described as an alternative to those methods above. In the new method, a single cross-section adjustment factor is introduced to provide self-shielding effect equivalent to the self-shielding in heterogeneous geometry for a unit cell of compact fuel. Then, the homogenized fuel compact material with the equivalent cross-section adjustment factor is used in continuous-energy Monte Carlo calculation for various types of fuel blocks (or assemblies). The procedure of cross-section adjustment is implemented in the MCNP5 code

  5. Evaluation methods for neutron cross section standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Methods used to evaluate the neutron cross section standards are reviewed and their relative merits, assessed. These include phase-shift analysis, R-matrix fit, and a number of other methods by Poenitz, Bhat, Kon'shin and the Bayesian or generalized least-squares procedures. The problems involved in adopting these methods for future cross section standards evaluations are considered, and the prospects for their use, discussed. 115 references, 5 figures, 3 tables

  6. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Jae Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis.

  7. A Preliminary Study on Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis with Statistic Method: Uncertainty Analysis with Cross Section Sampling from Lognormal Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Sub; Kim, Song Hyun; Kim, Jong Kyung; Noh, Jae Man

    2013-01-01

    The uncertainty evaluation with statistical method is performed by repetition of transport calculation with sampling the directly perturbed nuclear data. Hence, the reliable uncertainty result can be obtained by analyzing the results of the numerous transport calculations. One of the problems in the uncertainty analysis with the statistical approach is known as that the cross section sampling from the normal (Gaussian) distribution with relatively large standard deviation leads to the sampling error of the cross sections such as the sampling of the negative cross section. Some collection methods are noted; however, the methods can distort the distribution of the sampled cross sections. In this study, a sampling method of the nuclear data is proposed by using lognormal distribution. After that, the criticality calculations with sampled nuclear data are performed and the results are compared with that from the normal distribution which is conventionally used in the previous studies. In this study, the statistical sampling method of the cross section with the lognormal distribution was proposed to increase the sampling accuracy without negative sampling error. Also, a stochastic cross section sampling and writing program was developed. For the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis, the cross section sampling was pursued with the normal and lognormal distribution. The uncertainties, which are caused by covariance of (n,.) cross sections, were evaluated by solving GODIVA problem. The results show that the sampling method with lognormal distribution can efficiently solve the negative sampling problem referred in the previous studies. It is expected that this study will contribute to increase the accuracy of the sampling-based uncertainty analysis

  8. Biomedical journals lack a consistent method to detect outcome reporting bias: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, L N; Tejani, A M; Egan, G

    2014-10-01

    An increasing amount of recently published literature has implicated outcome reporting bias (ORB) as a major contributor to skewing data in both randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews; however, little is known about the current methods in place to detect ORB. This study aims to gain insight into the detection and management of ORB by biomedical journals. This was a cross-sectional analysis involving standardized questions via email or telephone with the top 30 biomedical journals (2012) ranked by impact factor. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was excluded leaving 29 journals in the sample. Of 29 journals, 24 (83%) responded to our initial inquiry of which 14 (58%) answered our questions and 10 (42%) declined participation. Five (36%) of the responding journals indicated they had a specific method to detect ORB, whereas 9 (64%) did not have a specific method in place. The prevalence of ORB in the review process seemed to differ with 4 (29%) journals indicating ORB was found commonly, whereas 7 (50%) indicated ORB was uncommon or never detected by their journal previously. The majority (n = 10/14, 72%) of journals were unwilling to report or make discrepancies found in manuscripts available to the public. Although the minority, there were some journals (n = 4/14, 29%) which described thorough methods to detect ORB. Many journals seemed to lack a method with which to detect ORB and its estimated prevalence was much lower than that reported in literature suggesting inadequate detection. There exists a potential for overestimation of treatment effects of interventions and unclear risks. Fortunately, there are journals within this sample which appear to utilize comprehensive methods for detection of ORB, but overall, the data suggest improvements at the biomedical journal level for detecting and minimizing the effect of this bias are needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Interference analysis of fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshkov, S.A.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1976-01-01

    The formula for the reaction cross-section based on the R-matrix formalism considering the interference between the two neighbouring resonances, referred to the same value of total momentum was used for the analysis of the cross-section of resonance neutron induced fission of 230Pu. The experimental resolution and thermal motion of the target nuclei were accounted for numerical integration

  10. Cross section and method uncertainties: the application of sensitivity analysis to study their relationship in radiation transport benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbi, C.R.; Oblow, E.M.; Ching, J.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.; Drischler, J.

    1975-08-01

    Sensitivity analysis is applied to the study of an air transport benchmark calculation to quantify and distinguish between cross-section and method uncertainties. The boundary detector response was converged with respect to spatial and angular mesh size, P/sub l/ expansion of the scattering kernel, and the number and location of energy grid boundaries. The uncertainty in the detector response due to uncertainties in nuclear data is 17.0 percent (one standard deviation, not including uncertainties in energy and angular distribution) based upon the ENDF/B-IV ''error files'' including correlations in energy and reaction type. Differences of approximately 6 percent can be attributed exclusively to differences in processing multigroup transfer matrices. Formal documentation of the PUFF computer program for the generation of multigroup covariance matrices is presented. (47 figures, 14 tables) (U.S.)

  11. Cross section recondensation method via generalized energy condensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, Steven; Rahnema, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new method is presented which corrects for core environment error from specular boundaries at the lattice cell level. → Solution obtained with generalized energy condensation provides improved approximation to the core level fine-group flux. → Iterative recondensation of the cross sections and unfolding of the flux provides on-the-fly updating of the core cross sections. → Precomputation of energy integrals and fine-group cross sections allows for easy implementation and efficient solution. → Method has been implemented in 1D and shown to correct the environment error, particularly in strongly heterogeneous cores. - Abstract: The standard multigroup method used in whole-core reactor analysis relies on energy condensed (coarse-group) cross sections generated from single lattice cell calculations, typically with specular reflective boundary conditions. Because these boundary conditions are an approximation and not representative of the core environment for that lattice, an error is introduced in the core solution (both eigenvalue and flux). As current and next generation reactors trend toward increasing assembly and core heterogeneity, this error becomes more significant. The method presented here corrects for this error by generating updated coarse-group cross sections on-the-fly within whole-core reactor calculations without resorting to additional cell calculations. In this paper, the fine-group core flux is unfolded by making use of the recently published Generalized Condensation Theory and the cross sections are recondensed at the whole-core level. By iteratively performing this recondensation, an improved core solution is found in which the core-environment has been fully taken into account. This recondensation method is both easy to implement and computationally very efficient because it requires precomputation and storage of only the energy integrals and fine-group cross sections. In this work, the theoretical basis and development

  12. Methods for calculating anisotropic transfer cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Shaohui; Zhang, Yixin.

    1985-01-01

    The Legendre moments of the group transfer cross section, which are widely used in the numerical solution of the transport calculation can be efficiently and accurately constructed from low-order (K = 1--2) successive partial range moments. This is convenient for the generation of group constants. In addition, a technique to obtain group-angle correlation transfer cross section without Legendre expansion is presented. (author)

  13. The method of purging applied to repeated cross-sectional data: Practical applications using logistic and linear regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Eisinga, R.N.; Scheepers, P.L.H.

    2004-01-01

    In cross-sectional survey research, it is quite common to estimate the(standardized) effect of independent variable(s) on a dependent variable. However, if repeated cross-sectional data are available, much is to be gained if the consequences of these effects on longitudinal social change are

  14. Comparative analysis among several cross section sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Critical parameters were calculated using the one dimensional multigroup transport theory for several cross section sets. Calculations have been performed for water mixtures of uranium metal, plutonium metal and uranium-thorium oxide, and for metallics systems, to determine the critical dimensions of geometries (sphere and cylinder). For this aim, the following cross section sets were employed: 1) multigroup cross section sets obtained from the GAMTEC-II code; 2) the HANSEN-ROACH cross section sets; 3) cross section sets from the ENDF/B-IV, processed by the NJOY code. Finally, we have also calculated the corresponding critical radius using the one dimensional multigroup transport DTF-IV code. The numerical results agree within a few percent with the critical values obtained in the literature (where the greatest discrepancy occured in the critical dimensions of water mixtures calculated with the values generated by the NJOY code), a very good results in comparison with similar works. (Author) [pt

  15. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.

    2005-03-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross sections for five different sizes of the solid angles in steps from 99.1 to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  16. pp production cross sections and the constraint method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjos, J.C.; Santoro, A.F.S.; Souza, M.H.G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of constructing production cross sections that satisfy the constraints represented by the first few moments is shown to give an excellent account of the data when applied to the high energy pp production cross section ν sub(n) (s) plotted as functions of n. (Author) [pt

  17. Functional analysis of the cross-section form and X-ray density of human ulnae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilgen, B.

    1981-01-01

    On 20 ulnae the form of the cross sections and distribution of the X-ray density were investigated in five different cross-section heights. The analysis of the cross-section forms was carried through using plane contraction figures, the X-ray density was established by means of the equidensity line method. (orig.) [de

  18. A method for measuring light ion reaction cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.F.; Ingemarsson, A.; Lantz, M.; Arendse, G.J.; Auce, A.; Cox, A.J.; Foertsch, S.V.; Jacobs, N.M.; Johansson, R.; Nyberg, J.; Peavy, J.; Renberg, P.-U.; Sundberg, O.; Stander, J.A.; Steyn, G.F.; Tibell, G.; Zorro, R.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental procedure for measuring reaction cross-sections of light ions in the energy range 20-50 MeV/nucleon, using a modified attenuation technique, is described. The detection method incorporates a forward detector that simultaneously measures the reaction cross-sections for five different sizes of the solid angle in steps from 99.1% to 99.8% of the total solid angle. The final reaction cross-section values are obtained by extrapolation to the full solid angle

  19. Applications of the BEam Cross section Analysis Software (BECAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral; Bitsche, Robert; Fedorov, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used for the gener......A newly developed framework is presented for structural design and analysis of long slender beam-like structures, e.g., wind turbine blades. The framework is based on the BEam Cross section Analysis Software – BECAS – a finite element based cross section analysis tool. BECAS is used...... for the generation of beam finite element models which correctly account for effects stemming from material anisotropy and inhomogeneity in cross sections of arbitrary geometry. These type of modelling approach allows for an accurate yet computationally inexpensive representation of a general class of three...

  20. Method Development for Binding Media Analysis in Painting Cross-Sections by Desorption Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Kristen; Lagalante, Anthony

    2018-06-06

    Art conservation science is in need of a relatively nondestructive way of rapidly identifying the binding media within a painting cross-section and isolating binding media to specific layers within the cross-section. Knowledge of the stratigraphy of cross-sections can be helpful for removing possible unoriginal paint layers on the artistic work. Desorption electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was used in ambient mode to study cross-sections from mock-up layered paint samples and samples from a 17th century baroque painting. The DESI spray was raster scanned perpendicular to the cross-section layers to maximize lateral resolution then analyzed with a triple quadrupole mass analyzer in linear ion trap mode. From these scans, isobaric mass maps were created to map the locations of masses indicative of particular binding media onto the cross-sections. Line paint-outs of pigments in different binding media showed specific and unique ions to distinguish between the modern acrylic media and the lipid containing binding media. This included: OP (EO) 9 surfactant in positive ESI for acrylic (m/z 621), and oleic (m/z 281), stearic (m/z 283), and azelaic (m/z 187) acids in negative ESI for oil and egg tempera. DESI-MS maps of mock-up cross-sections of layered pigmented binding media showed correlation between these ions and the layers with a spatial resolution of 100 μm. DESI-MS is effective in monitoring binding media within an intact painting cross-section via mass spectrometric methods. This includes distinguishing between lipid-containing and modern binding materials present in a known mockup cross section matrix as well as identifying lipid binding media in a 17th century baroque era painting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Neutron-induced cross-sections via the surrogate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.

    2011-11-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining neutron-induced cross sections through transfer or inelastic scattering reactions. This method presents the advantage that in some cases the target material is stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. The method is based on the hypothesis that the excited nucleus is a compound nucleus whose decay depends essentially on its excitation energy and on the spin and parity state of the populated compound state. Nevertheless, the spin and parity population differences between the compound-nuclei produced in the neutron and transfer-induced reactions may be different. This work reviews the surrogate method and its validity. Neutron-induced fission cross sections obtained with the surrogate method are in general good agreement. However, it is not yet clear to what extent the surrogate method can be applied to infer radiative capture cross sections. We performed an experiment to determine the gamma decay probabilities for 176 Lu and 173 Yb by using the surrogate reactions 174 Yb( 3 He,pγ) 176 Lu * and 174 Yb( 3 He,αγ) 173 Yb * , respectively, and compare them with the well-known corresponding probabilities obtained in the 175 Lu(n,γ) and 172 Yb(n,γ) reactions. This experiment provides answers to understand why, in the case of gamma-decay, the surrogate method gives significant deviations compared to the corresponding neutron-induced reaction. In this work, we have also assessed whether the surrogate method can be applied to extract capture probabilities in the actinide region. Previous experiments on fission have also been reinterpreted. Thus, this work provides new insights into the surrogate method. This work is organised in the following way: in chapter 1, the theoretical aspects related to the surrogate method will be introduced. The validity of the surrogate method will be investigated by means of statistical model calculations. In chapter 2, a review on

  2. The analysis and evaluation by the method of reduction of total photoneutron reaction cross sections in the range of giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V.V.; Efimkin, N.G.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Sapunenko, V.V.; Stepanov, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The method based on the method of reduction is proposed for the evaluation of photonuclear reaction cross sections have been obtained at significant systematic uncertainties (different apparatus functions, calibration and normalization uncertainties). The evaluation method consists of using the real apparatus function (photon spectrum) of each individual experiment to reduce the data to a representation generated by an apparatus function of better quality. The task is to find the most reasonably achievable monoenergetic representation (MRAMR) of the information about cross section contained in different experiment observables and to take into account the experimental uncertainties of calibration and normalization procedures. The method was used to obtain the evaluated total photoneutron (γ, xn) reaction cross sections for 16 O, 28 Si, nat Cu, 141 Pr, and 208 Pb are presented. 79 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Development of radar cross section analysis system of naval ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kookhyun Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A software system for a complex object scattering analysis, named SYSCOS, has been developed for a systematic radar cross section (RCS analysis and reduction design. The system is based on the high frequency analysis methods of physical optics, geometrical optics, and physical theory of diffraction, which are suitable for RCS analysis of electromagnetically large and complex targets as like naval ships. In addition, a direct scattering center analysis function has been included, which gives relatively simple and intuitive way to discriminate problem areas in design stage when comparing with conventional image-based approaches. In this paper, the theoretical background and the organization of the SYSCOS system are presented. To verify its accuracy and to demonstrate its applicability, numerical analyses for a square plate, a sphere and a cylinder, a weapon system and a virtual naval ship have been carried out, of which results have been compared with analytic solutions and those obtained by the other existing software.

  4. High order effects in cross section sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.; Gilai, D.

    1978-01-01

    Two types of high order effects associated with perturbations in the flux shape are considered: Spectral Fine Structure Effects (SFSE) and non-linearity between changes in performance parameters and data uncertainties. SFSE are investigated in Part I using a simple single resonance model. Results obtained for each of the resolved and for representative unresolved resonances of 238 U in a ZPR-6/7 like environment indicate that SFSE can have a significant contribution to the sensitivity of group constants to resonance parameters. Methods to account for SFSE both for the propagation of uncertainties and for the adjustment of nuclear data are discussed. A Second Order Sensitivity Theory (SOST) is presented, and its accuracy relative to that of the first order sensitivity theory and of the direct substitution method is investigated in Part II. The investigation is done for the non-linear problem of the effect of changes in the 297 keV sodium minimum cross section on the transport of neutrons in a deep-penetration problem. It is found that the SOST provides a satisfactory accuracy for cross section uncertainty analysis. For the same degree of accuracy, the SOST can be significantly more efficient than the direct substitution method

  5. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Longitudinal Mediation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Laughlin, Kristine D; Martin, Monica J; Ferrer, Emilio

    2018-01-01

    Statistical mediation analysis can help to identify and explain the mechanisms behind psychological processes. Examining a set of variables for mediation effects is a ubiquitous process in the social sciences literature; however, despite evidence suggesting that cross-sectional data can misrepresent the mediation of longitudinal processes, cross-sectional analyses continue to be used in this manner. Alternative longitudinal mediation models, including those rooted in a structural equation modeling framework (cross-lagged panel, latent growth curve, and latent difference score models) are currently available and may provide a better representation of mediation processes for longitudinal data. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, we provide a comparison of cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models; second, we advocate using models to evaluate mediation effects that capture the temporal sequence of the process under study. Two separate empirical examples are presented to illustrate differences in the conclusions drawn from cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation analyses. Findings from these examples yielded substantial differences in interpretations between the cross-sectional and longitudinal mediation models considered here. Based on these observations, researchers should use caution when attempting to use cross-sectional data in place of longitudinal data for mediation analyses.

  6. Perturbation analysis for Monte Carlo continuous cross section models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Chris B.; Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.

    2011-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis, including both its forward and adjoint applications, collectively referred to hereinafter as Perturbation Analysis (PA), is an essential tool to complete Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) and Data Assimilation (DA). PA-assisted UQ and DA have traditionally been carried out for reactor analysis problems using deterministic as opposed to stochastic models for radiation transport. This is because PA requires many model executions to quantify how variations in input data, primarily cross sections, affect variations in model's responses, e.g. detectors readings, flux distribution, multiplication factor, etc. Although stochastic models are often sought for their higher accuracy, their repeated execution is at best computationally expensive and in reality intractable for typical reactor analysis problems involving many input data and output responses. Deterministic methods however achieve computational efficiency needed to carry out the PA analysis by reducing problem dimensionality via various spatial and energy homogenization assumptions. This however introduces modeling error components into the PA results which propagate to the following UQ and DA analyses. The introduced errors are problem specific and therefore are expected to limit the applicability of UQ and DA analyses to reactor systems that satisfy the introduced assumptions. This manuscript introduces a new method to complete PA employing a continuous cross section stochastic model and performed in a computationally efficient manner. If successful, the modeling error components introduced by deterministic methods could be eliminated, thereby allowing for wider applicability of DA and UQ results. Two MCNP models demonstrate the application of the new method - a Critical Pu Sphere (Jezebel), a Pu Fast Metal Array (Russian BR-1). The PA is completed for reaction rate densities, reaction rate ratios, and the multiplication factor. (author)

  7. R-matrix analysis of the 239Pu cross sections up to 1 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.; Larson, N.M.; Macklin, R.L.

    1986-06-01

    The results are reported of an R-matrix resonance analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1 keV. After a description of the method of analysis the nearly 1600 resonance parameters obtained are listed and extensive graphical and numerical comparisons between calculated and measured cross-section and transmission date are presented. 47 refs., 47 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Multivariate survivorship analysis using two cross-sectional samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M E

    1999-11-01

    As an alternative to survival analysis with longitudinal data, I introduce a method that can be applied when one observes the same cohort in two cross-sectional samples collected at different points in time. The method allows for the estimation of log-probability survivorship models that estimate the influence of multiple time-invariant factors on survival over a time interval separating two samples. This approach can be used whenever the survival process can be adequately conceptualized as an irreversible single-decrement process (e.g., mortality, the transition to first marriage among a cohort of never-married individuals). Using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (Ruggles and Sobek 1997), I illustrate the multivariate method through an investigation of the effects of race, parity, and educational attainment on the survival of older women in the United States.

  9. Errors analysis in the evaluation of particle concentration by PDA on a turbulent two-phase jet: application for cross section and transit time methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, Esteban; Garcia, Juan A.; Garcia, Ignacio; Aisa, Luis A. [University of Zaragoza, Area de Mecanica de Fluidos, Centro Politecnico Superior, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) is a powerful tool for two-phase flow measurements and testing. Particle concentration and mass flux can also be evaluated using the raw particle data supplied by this technique. The calculation starts from each particle velocity, diameter, transit time data, and the total measurement time. There are two main evaluation strategies. The first one uses the probe volume effective cross section, and it is usually simplified assuming that particles follow quasi one-directional trajectories. In the text, it will be called the cross section method. The second one includes a set of methods which will be denoted as ''Generalized Integral Methods'' (GIM). Concentration algorithms such as the transit time method (TTM) and the integral volume method (IVM) are particular cases of the GIM. In any case, a previous calibration of the measurement volume geometry is necessary to apply the referred concentration evaluation methods. In this study, concentrations and mass fluxes both evaluated by the cross-section method and the TTM are compared. Experimental data are obtained from a particle-laden jet generated by a convergent nozzle. Errors due to trajectory dispersion, burst splitting, and multi-particle signals are discussed. (orig.)

  10. A method to obtain new cross-sections transport equivalent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmiotti, G.

    1988-01-01

    We present a method, that allows the calculation, by the mean of variational principle, of equivalent cross-sections in order to take into account the transport and mesh size effects on reactivity variation calculations. The method validation has been made in two and three dimensions geometries. The reactivity variations calculated in three dimensional hexagonal geometry with seven points by subassembly using two sets of equivalent cross-sections for control rods are in a very good agreement with the ones of a transport, extrapolated to zero mesh size, calculation. The difficulty encountered in obtaining a good flux distribution has lead to the utilisation of a single set of equivalent cross-sections calculated by starting from an appropriated R-Z model that allows to take into account also the axial transport effects for the control rod followers. The global results in reactivity variations are still satisfactory with a good performance for the flux distribution. The main interest of the proposed method is the possibility to simulate a full 3D transport calculation, with fine mesh size, using a 3D diffusion code, with a larger mesh size. The results obtained should be affected by uncertainties, which do not exceed ± 4% for a large LMFBR control rod worth and for very different rod configurations. This uncertainty is by far smaller than the experimental uncertainties. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs, 9 tabs

  11. Errors analysis in the evaluation of particle concentration by PDA on a turbulent two-phase jet: application for cross section and transit time methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; García, Juan A.; García, Ignacio; Aísa, Luis A.

    2009-09-01

    Phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) is a powerful tool for two-phase flow measurements and testing. Particle concentration and mass flux can also be evaluated using the raw particle data supplied by this technique. The calculation starts from each particle velocity, diameter, transit time data, and the total measurement time. There are two main evaluation strategies. The first one uses the probe volume effective cross section, and it is usually simplified assuming that particles follow quasi one-directional trajectories. In the text, it will be called the cross section method. The second one includes a set of methods which will be denoted as “Generalized Integral Methods” (GIM). Concentration algorithms such as the transit time method (TTM) and the integral volume method (IVM) are particular cases of the GIM. In any case, a previous calibration of the measurement volume geometry is necessary to apply the referred concentration evaluation methods. In this study, concentrations and mass fluxes both evaluated by the cross-section method and the TTM are compared. Experimental data are obtained from a particle-laden jet generated by a convergent nozzle. Errors due to trajectory dispersion, burst splitting, and multi-particle signals are discussed.

  12. Shielding Factor Method for producing effective cross sections: MINX/SPHINX and the CCCC interface system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacFarlane, R.E.; Weisbin, C.R.; Paik, N.C.

    1978-01-01

    The Shielding Factor Method (SFM) is an economical designer-oriented method for producing the coarse-group space and energy self-shielded cross sections needed for reactor-core analysis. Extensive experience with the ETOX/1DX and ENDRUN/TDOWN systems has made the SFM the method of choice for most US fast-reactor design activities. The MINX/SPHINX system was designed to expand upon the capabilities of the older SFM codes and to incorporate the new standard interfaces for fast-reactor cross sections specified by the Committee for Computer Code Coordination (CCCC). MINX is the cross-section processor. It generates multigroup cross sections, shielding factors, and group-to-group transfer matriccs from ENDF/B-IV and writes them out as CCCC ISOTXS and BRKOXS files. It features detailed pointwise resonance reconstruction, accurate Doppler broadening, and an efficient treatment of anisotropic scattering. SPHINX is the space-and-energy shielding code. It uses specific mixture and geometry information together with equivalence principles to construct shielded macroscopic multigroup cross sections in as many as 240 groups. It then makes a flux calculation by diffusion or transport methods and collapses to an appropriate set of cell-averaged coarse-group effective cross sections. The integration of MINX and SPHINX with the CCCC interface system provides an efficient, accurate, and convenient system for producing effective cross sections for use in fast-reactor problems. The system has also proved useful in shielding and CTR applications. 3 figures, 4 tables

  13. Event history analysis and the cross-section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Examples are given of problems in event history analysis, where several time origins (generating calendar time, age, disease duration, time on study, etc.) are considered simultaneously. The focus is on complex sampling patterns generated around a cross-section. A basic tool is the Lexis diagram....

  14. Automated Cross-Sectional Measurement Method of Intracranial Dural Venous Sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lublinsky, S; Friedman, A; Kesler, A; Zur, D; Anconina, R; Shelef, I

    2016-03-01

    MRV is an important blood vessel imaging and diagnostic tool for the evaluation of stenosis, occlusions, or aneurysms. However, an accurate image-processing tool for vessel comparison is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to develop and test an automated technique for vessel cross-sectional analysis. An algorithm for vessel cross-sectional analysis was developed that included 7 main steps: 1) image registration, 2) masking, 3) segmentation, 4) skeletonization, 5) cross-sectional planes, 6) clustering, and 7) cross-sectional analysis. Phantom models were used to validate the technique. The method was also tested on a control subject and a patient with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (4 large sinuses tested: right and left transverse sinuses, superior sagittal sinus, and straight sinus). The cross-sectional area and shape measurements were evaluated before and after lumbar puncture in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. The vessel-analysis algorithm had a high degree of stability with <3% of cross-sections manually corrected. All investigated principal cranial blood sinuses had a significant cross-sectional area increase after lumbar puncture (P ≤ .05). The average triangularity of the transverse sinuses was increased, and the mean circularity of the sinuses was decreased by 6% ± 12% after lumbar puncture. Comparison of phantom and real data showed that all computed errors were <1 voxel unit, which confirmed that the method provided a very accurate solution. In this article, we present a novel automated imaging method for cross-sectional vessels analysis. The method can provide an efficient quantitative detection of abnormalities in the dural sinuses. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. A high precision method for normalization of cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera R, E.F.; Vega C, J.J.; Martinez Q, E.; Kolata, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    It was developed a system of 4 monitors and a program to eliminate, in the process of normalization of cross sections, the dependence of the alignment of the equipment and those condition of having centered of the beam. It was carried out a series of experiments with the systems 27 Al + 70, 72, 74, 76 Ge, 35 Cl + 58 Ni, 37 Cl + 58, 60, 62, 64 Ni and ( 81 Br, 109 Rh) + 60 Ni. For these experiments the typical precision of 1% was obtained in the normalization. It is demonstrated theoretical and experimentally the advantage of this method on those that use 1 or 2 monitors. (Author)

  16. Partial wave analysis for folded differential cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machacek, J. R.; McEachran, R. P.

    2018-03-01

    The value of modified effective range theory (MERT) and the connection between differential cross sections and phase shifts in low-energy electron scattering has long been recognized. Recent experimental techniques involving magnetically confined beams have introduced the concept of folded differential cross sections (FDCS) where the forward (θ ≤ π/2) and backward scattered (θ ≥ π/2) projectiles are unresolved, that is the value measured at the angle θ is the sum of the signal for particles scattered into the angles θ and π - θ. We have developed an alternative approach to MERT in order to analyse low-energy folded differential cross sections for positrons and electrons. This results in a simplified expression for the FDCS when it is expressed in terms of partial waves and thereby enables one to extract the first few phase shifts from a fit to an experimental FDCS at low energies. Thus, this method predicts forward and backward angle scattering (0 to π) using only experimental FDCS data and can be used to determine the total elastic cross section solely from experimental results at low-energy, which are limited in angular range.

  17. MC2-3: Multigroup Cross Section Generation Code for Fast Reactor Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. H. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Yang, W. S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-08

    The MC2-3 code is a Multigroup Cross section generation Code for fast reactor analysis, developed by improving the resonance self-shielding and spectrum calculation methods of MC2-2 and integrating the one-dimensional cell calculation capabilities of SDX. The code solves the consistent P1 multigroup transport equation using basic neutron data from ENDF/B data files to determine the fundamental mode spectra for use in generating multigroup neutron cross sections. A homogeneous medium or a heterogeneous slab or cylindrical unit cell problem is solved in ultrafine (~2000) or hyperfine (~400,000) group levels. In the resolved resonance range, pointwise cross sections are reconstructed with Doppler broadening at specified isotopic temperatures. The pointwise cross sections are directly used in the hyperfine group calculation whereas for the ultrafine group calculation, self-shielded cross sections are prepared by numerical integration of the pointwise cross sections based upon the narrow resonance approximation. For both the hyperfine and ultrafine group calculations, unresolved resonances are self-shielded using the analytic resonance integral method. The ultrafine group calculation can also be performed for two-dimensional whole-core problems to generate region-dependent broad-group cross sections. Multigroup cross sections are written in the ISOTXS format for a user-specified group structure. The code is executable on UNIX, Linux, and PC Windows systems, and its library includes all isotopes of the ENDF/BVII. 0 data.

  18. R-matrix analysis of the /sup 239/Pu neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saussure, G. de; Perez, R.B.; Macklin, R.L.

    1986-03-01

    /sup 239/Pu neutron cross-section data in the resolved resonance region were analyzed with the R-Matrix Bayesian Program SAMMY. Below 30 eV the cross sections computed with the multilevel parameters are consistent with recent fission and transmission measurements as well as with older capture and alpha measurements. Above 30 eV no suitable transmission data were available and only fission cross-section measurements were analyzed. However, since the analysis conserves the complete covariance matrix, the analysis can be updated by the Bayes method as transmission measurements become available. To date, the analysis of the fission measurements has been completed up to 300 eV.

  19. Investigation on macroscopic cross section model for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis - 118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, T.; Tada, K.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamane, Y.; Kosaka, S.; Hirano, G.

    2010-01-01

    A cross section model used in the pin-by-pin core analysis for BWR is investigated. In the pin-by-pin core calculation method, pin-cell averaged cross sections are calculated for many combinations of state and history variables that have influences on the cross section and are tabulated prior to the core calculations. Variation of a cross section in a core simulator is classified into two different types, i.e., the instantaneous effect and the history effect. The instantaneous effect is incorporated by the variation of cross section which is caused by the instantaneous change of state variables. For this effect, the exposure, the void fraction, the fuel temperature, the moderator temperature and the control rod are used as indexes. The history effect is the cumulative effect of state variables. We treat this effect with a unified approach using the spectral history. To confirm accuracy of the cross section model, the pin-by-pin fission rate distribution and the k-infinity of fuel assembly which are obtained with the tabulated and the reference cross sections are compared. For the instantaneous effect, the present cross section model well reproduces the reference results for all off-nominal conditions. For the history effect, however, considerable differences both on the pin-by-pin fission rate distribution and the k-infinity are observed at high exposure points. (authors)

  20. Comparative analysis of the neutron cross-sections of iron from various evaluated data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, V.M.; Vozyakov, V.V.; Manokhin, V.N.; Smoll, F.; Resner, P.; Seeliger, D.; Hermsdorf, D.

    1983-09-01

    The comparative analysis of neutron cross-sections of iron from evaluated nuclear data libraries SOKRATOR, KEDAK, ENDL is done in energy interval from 0.025 eV to 20 MeV. Some of iron cross-sections from SOKRATOR library are revised and new data, which are obtained by using new experimental data and more comprehensive theoretical methods, are recommended. As a result the new version of the iron neutron cross-section file (BNF-2012) is produced for SOKRATOR library. (author)

  1. Cross section homogenization analysis for a simplified Candu reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pounders, Justin; Rahnema, Farzad; Mosher, Scott; Serghiuta, Dumitru; Turinsky, Paul; Sarsour, Hisham

    2008-01-01

    The effect of using zero current (infinite medium) boundary conditions to generate bundle homogenized cross sections for a stylized half-core Candu reactor problem is examined. Homogenized cross section from infinite medium lattice calculations are compared with cross sections homogenized using the exact flux from the reference core environment. The impact of these cross section differences is quantified by generating nodal diffusion theory solutions with both sets of cross sections. It is shown that the infinite medium spatial approximation is not negligible, and that ignoring the impact of the heterogeneous core environment on cross section homogenization leads to increased errors, particularly near control elements and the core periphery. (authors)

  2. SCALE system cross-section validation for criticality safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hathout, A.M.; Westfall, R.M.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test selected data from three cross-section libraries for use in the criticality safety analysis of UO 2 fuel rod lattices. The libraries, which are distributed with the SCALE system, are used to analyze potential criticality problems which could arise in the industrial fuel cycle for PWR and BWR reactors. Fuel lattice criticality problems could occur in pool storage, dry storage with accidental moderation, shearing and dissolution of irradiated elements, and in fuel transport and storage due to inadequate packing and shipping cask design. The data were tested by using the SCALE system to analyze 25 recently performed critical experiments

  3. Formulation and Analysis of the Quantum Radar Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandsema, Matthew J.

    In radar, the amount of returns that an object sends back to the receiver after being struck by an electromagnetic wave is characterized by what is known as the radar cross section, denoted by sigma typically. There are many mechanisms that affect how much radiation is reflected back in the receiver direction, such as reflectivity, physical contours and dimensions, attenuation properties of the materials, projected cross sectional area and so on. All of these characteristics are lumped together in a single value of sigma, which has units of m2. Stealth aircrafts for example are designed to minimize its radar cross section and return the smallest amount of radiation possible in the receiver direction. A new concept has been introduced called quantum radar, that uses correlated quantum states of photons as well as the unique properties of quantum mechanics to ascertain information on a target at a distance. At the time of writing this dissertation, quantum radar is very much in its infancy. There still exist fundamental questions about the feasibility of its implementation, especially in the microwave spectrum. However, what has been theoretically determined, is that quantum radar has a fundamental advantage over classical radar in terms of resolution and returns in certain regimes. Analogous to the classical radar cross section (CRCS), the concept of the quantum radar cross section (QRCS) has been introduced. This quantity measures how an object looks to a quantum radar be describing how a single photon, or small cluster of photons scatter off of a macroscopic target. Preliminary simulations of the basic quantum radar cross section equation have yielded promising results showing an advantage in sidelobe response in comparison to the classical RCS. This document expands upon this idea by providing insight as to where this advantage originates, as well as developing more rigorous simulation analysis, and greatly expanding upon the theory. The expanded theory presented

  4. Neutron cross section libraries for analysis of fusion neutronics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Kazuaki; Oyama, Yukio; Maekawa, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomoo

    1988-03-01

    We have prepared two computer code systems producing neutron cross section libraries to analyse fusion neutronics experiments. First system produces the neutron cross section library in ANISN format, i.e., the multi-group constants in group independent format. This library can be obtained by using the multi-group constant processing code system MACS-N and the ANISN format cross section compiling code CROKAS. Second system is for the continuous energy cross section library for the MCNP code. This library can be obtained by the nuclear data processing system NJOY which generates pointwise energy cross sections and the cross section compiling code MACROS for the MCNP library. In this report, we describe the production procedures for both types of the cross section libraries, and show six libraries with different conditions in ANISN format and a library for the MCNP code. (author)

  5. Sensitivity analysis of U238 cross section in thermal nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. do; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de; Moura Neto, C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis system is developed for assessing the implication of uncertainties in nuclear data and related computational methods for light water power reactor. Sensitivies, at equilibrium cycle condition, are carried out for the few group macroscopic cross section of the U 238 with respect to their 35 group microscopic absorption cross section using the batch depletion code SENTEAV similar to those calculation methods used in the industry. This investigation indicates that improvements are requested on specific range of energy. These results point out the direction for worth while experimental measurements based on an analysis of costs and economic benefits. (Author) [pt

  6. Simultaneous analysis of fission and capture cross section with Adler-Adler resonance formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hengdao; Qiu Guochun

    1989-01-01

    The method of simultaneous analysis of fission and capture cross section for fissile nuclide with Adler-Adler resonance formula and the corresponding computer code are presented. A simple and convenient method to correct parameters μ, γ simultaneously is given in order to acquire optimized parameters. The results are satisfactory

  7. Effective inelastic scattering cross-sections for background analysis in HAXPES of deeply buried layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risterucci, P., E-mail: paul.risterucci@gmail.com [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Renault, O., E-mail: olivier.renault@cea.fr [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Zborowski, C. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Bertrand, D.; Torres, A. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS, UMR 7614, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, F-75005, Paris (France); Ceolin, D. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, L' Orme des Merisiers Saint-Aubin, BP 48 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Grenet, G. [Université de Lyon, Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, 36 avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134 Ecully (France); Tougaard, S. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • An effective approach for quantitative background analysis in HAXPES spectra of buried layer underneath complex overlayer structures is proposed. • The approach relies on using a weighted sum of inelastic scattering cross section of the pure layers. • The method is validated by the study of an advanced power transistor stack after successive annealing steps. • The depth distribution of crucial elements (Ti, Ga) is determined reliably at depths up to nearly 50 nm. - Abstract: Inelastic background analysis of HAXPES spectra was recently introduced as a powerful method to get access to the elemental distribution in deeply buried layers or interfaces, at depth up to 60 nm below the surface. However the accuracy of the analysis highly relies on suitable scattering cross-sections able to describe effectively the transport of photoelectrons through overlayer structures consisting of individual layers with potentially very different scattering properties. Here, we show that within Tougaard’s practical framework as implemented in the Quases-Analyze software, the photoelectron transport through thick (25–40 nm) multi-layer structures with widely different cross-sections can be reliably described with an effective cross-section in the form of a weighted sum of the individual cross-section of each layer. The high-resolution core-level analysis partly provides a guide for determining the nature of the individual cross-sections to be used. We illustrate this novel approach with the practical case of a top Al/Ti bilayer structure in an AlGaN/GaN power transistor device stack before and after sucessive annealing treatments. The analysis provides reliable insights on the Ti and Ga depth distributions up to nearly 50 nm below the surface.

  8. Neutron cross-sections database for amino acids and proteins analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin, E-mail: dante@ien.gov.br, E-mail: fferreira@ien.gov.br, E-mail: Chaffin@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Helio F. da, E-mail: hrocha@gbl.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IPPMG/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Pediatria

    2015-07-01

    Biological materials may be studied using neutrons as an unconventional tool of analysis. Dynamics and structures data can be obtained for amino acids, protein and others cellular components by neutron cross sections determinations especially for applications in nuclear purity and conformation analysis. The instrument used for this is the crystal spectrometer of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN-RJ), the only one in Latin America that uses neutrons for this type of analyzes and it is installed in one of the reactor Argonauta irradiation channels. The experimentally values obtained are compared with calculated values using literature data with a rigorous analysis of the chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. A neutron cross-section database was constructed to assist in determining molecular dynamic, structure and formulae of biological materials. The database contains neutron cross-sections values of all amino acids, chemical elements, molecular groups, auxiliary radicals, as well as values of constants and parameters necessary for the analysis. An unprecedented analytical procedure was developed using the neutron cross section parceling and grouping method for data manipulation. This database is a result of measurements obtained from twenty amino acids that were provided by different manufactories and are used in oral administration in hospital individuals for nutritional applications. It was also constructed a small data file of compounds with different molecular groups including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, all linked to hydrogen atoms. A review of global and national scene in the acquisition of neutron cross sections data, the formation of libraries and the application of neutrons for analyzing biological materials is presented. This database has further application in protein analysis and the neutron cross-section from the insulin was estimated. (author)

  9. Neutron cross-sections database for amino acids and proteins analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2015-01-01

    Biological materials may be studied using neutrons as an unconventional tool of analysis. Dynamics and structures data can be obtained for amino acids, protein and others cellular components by neutron cross sections determinations especially for applications in nuclear purity and conformation analysis. The instrument used for this is the crystal spectrometer of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN-CNEN-RJ), the only one in Latin America that uses neutrons for this type of analyzes and it is installed in one of the reactor Argonauta irradiation channels. The experimentally values obtained are compared with calculated values using literature data with a rigorous analysis of the chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. A neutron cross-section database was constructed to assist in determining molecular dynamic, structure and formulae of biological materials. The database contains neutron cross-sections values of all amino acids, chemical elements, molecular groups, auxiliary radicals, as well as values of constants and parameters necessary for the analysis. An unprecedented analytical procedure was developed using the neutron cross section parceling and grouping method for data manipulation. This database is a result of measurements obtained from twenty amino acids that were provided by different manufactories and are used in oral administration in hospital individuals for nutritional applications. It was also constructed a small data file of compounds with different molecular groups including carbon, nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen, all linked to hydrogen atoms. A review of global and national scene in the acquisition of neutron cross sections data, the formation of libraries and the application of neutrons for analyzing biological materials is presented. This database has further application in protein analysis and the neutron cross-section from the insulin was estimated. (author)

  10. Cross-sectional dependence in panel data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarafidis, V.; Wansbeek, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the existing literature on panel data models with error cross-sectional dependence (CSD). We distinguish between weak and strong CSD and link these concepts to the spatial and factor structure approaches. We consider estimation under strong and weak exogeneity of

  11. Commentary: Mediation Analysis, Causal Process, and Cross-Sectional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrout, Patrick E.

    2011-01-01

    Maxwell, Cole, and Mitchell (2011) extended the work of Maxwell and Cole (2007), which raised important questions about whether mediation analyses based on cross-sectional data can shed light on longitudinal mediation process. The latest article considers longitudinal processes that can only be partially explained by an intervening variable, and…

  12. Elemental composition of paint cross sections by nuclear microprobe analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nens, B.; Trocellier, P.; Engelmann, C.; Lahanier, C.

    1982-09-01

    Physico-chemical characterization of pigments used in artistic painting give precious indications on age of paintings and sometimes on geographical origin of ores. After recalling the principle of protons microprobe, first results obtained by microanalysis of painting cross sections for non destructive microanalysis of impurities in white lead are given [fr

  13. A macroscopic cross-section model for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Tatsuya; Endo, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Akio

    2014-01-01

    A macroscopic cross-section model used in boiling water reactor (BWR) pin-by-pin core analysis is studied. In the pin-by-pin core calculation method, pin-cell averaged cross sections are calculated for many combinations of core state and depletion history variables and are tabulated prior to core calculations. Variations of cross sections in a core simulator are caused by two different phenomena (i.e. instantaneous and history effects). We treat them through the core state variables and the exposure-averaged core state variables, respectively. Furthermore, the cross-term effect among the core state and the depletion history variables is considered. In order to confirm the calculation accuracy and discuss the treatment of the cross-term effect, the k-infinity and the pin-by-pin fission rate distributions in a single fuel assembly geometry are compared. Some cross-term effects could be negligible since the impacts of them are sufficiently small. However, the cross-term effects among the control rod history (or the void history) and other variables have large impacts; thus, the consideration of them is crucial. The present macroscopic cross-section model, which considers such dominant cross-term effects, well reproduces the reference results and can be a candidate in practical applications for BWR pin-by-pin core analysis on the normal operations. (author)

  14. Boltzmann equation analysis of electron-molecule collision cross sections in water vapor and ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, M.; Benabdessadok, M.D.

    1996-01-01

    Sets of electron-molecule collision cross sections for H 2 O and NH 3 have been determined from a classical technique of electron swarm parameter unfolding. This deconvolution method is based on a simplex algorithm using a powerful multiterm Boltzmann equation analysis established in the framework of the classical hydrodynamic approximation. It is well adapted for the simulation of the different classes of swarm experiments (i.e., time resolved, time of flight, and steady state experiments). The sets of collision cross sections that exist in the literature are reviewed and analyzed. Fitted sets of cross sections are determined for H 2 O and NH 3 which exhibit features characteristic of polar molecules such as high rotational excitation collision cross sections. The hydrodynamic swarm parameters (i.e., drift velocity, longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients, ionization and attachment coefficients) calculated from the fitted sets are in excellent agreement with the measured ones. These sets are finally used to calculate the transport and reaction coefficients needed for discharge modeling in two cases of typical gas mixtures for which experimental swarm data are very sparse or nonexistent (i.e., flue gas mixtures and gas mixtures for rf plasma surface treatment). copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.; Kitsos, S.; Aldama, D.L.; Zefran, B.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5 th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  16. Neutron-induced capture cross sections via the surrogate reaction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Aiche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Dassie, D.; Haas, B.; Mathieu, L.; Meot, V.; Bail, A.; Bauge, E.; Daugas, J. M.; Faul, T.; Gaudefroy, L.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Roig, O.; Romain, P.; Taieb, J.; Theroine, C.; Burke, J.T.; Companis, I.; Derkx, X.; Gunsing, F.; Matea, I.; Tassan-Got, L.; Porquet, M.G.; Serot, O.

    2011-01-01

    The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique enables neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for nuclear reactions on short-lived unstable nuclei that otherwise can not be measured. This technique has been successfully applied to determine the neutron-induced fission cross sections of several short-lived nuclei. In this work, we investigate whether this powerful technique can also be used to determine of neutron-induced capture cross sections. For this purpose we use the surrogate reaction 174 Yb( 3 He, pγ) 176 Lu to infer the well known 175 Lu(n, γ) cross section and compare the results with the directly measured neutron-induced data. This surrogate experiment has been performed in March 2010. The experimental technique used and the first preliminary results will be presented. (authors)

  17. Uncertainty Analysis of Few Group Cross Sections Based on Generalized Perturbation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Tae Young; Lee, Hyun Chul; Noh, Jae Man

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the methodology of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code based on GPT was described and the preliminary verification calculations on the PMR200 pin cell problem were carried out. As a result, they are in a good agreement when compared with the results by TSUNAMI. From this study, it is expected that MUSAD code based on GPT can produce the uncertainty of the homogenized few group microscopic cross sections for a core simulator. For sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for general core responses, a two-step method is available and it utilizes the generalized perturbation theory (GPT) for homogenized few group cross sections in the first step and stochastic sampling method for general core responses in the second step. The uncertainty analysis procedure based on GPT in the first step needs the generalized adjoint solution from a cell or lattice code. For this, the generalized adjoint solver has been integrated into DeCART in our previous work. In this paper, MUSAD (Modues of Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis for DeCART) code based on the classical perturbation theory was expanded to the function of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for few group cross sections based on GPT. First, the uncertainty analysis method based on GPT was described and, in the next section, the preliminary results of the verification calculation on a VHTR pin cell problem were compared with the results by TSUNAMI of SCALE 6.1

  18. A global analysis of inclusive diffractive cross sections at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royon, C.; Schoeffel, L. [Service de Physique des Particules, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sapeta, S. [M. Smoluchowski Institue of Physics Jagellonian University Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Peschanski, R. [Service de Physique Theorique, CE-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Sauvan, E. [CPPM, IN2P3-CNRS et Universitie de la Mediterranee, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2006-10-15

    We describe the most recent data on the diffractive structure functions from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA using four models. First, a Pomeron Structure Function (PSF) model, in which the Pomeron is considered as an object with parton distribution functions. Then, the Bartels Ellis Kowalski Wuesthoff (BEKW) approach is discussed, assuming the simplest perturbative description of the Pomeron using a two-gluon ladder. A third approach, the Bialas Peschanski (BP) model, based on the dipole formalism is then described. Finally, we discuss the Golec-Biernat-Wuesthoff (GBW) saturation model which takes into account saturation effects. The best description of all available measurements can be achieved with either the PSF based model or the BEKW approach. In particular, the BEKW prediction allows to include the highest {beta} measurements, which are dominated by higher twists effects and provide an efficient and compact parametrisation of the diffractive cross section. The two other models also give a good description of cross section measurements at small x with a small number of parameters. The comparison of all predictions allows us to identify interesting differences in the behaviour of the effective pomeron intercept and in the shape of the longitudinal component of the diffractive structure functions. In this last part, we present some features that can be discriminated by new experimental measurements, completing the HERA program. (authors)

  19. A global analysis of inclusive diffractive cross sections at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royon, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Sapeta, S.; Peschanski, R.; Sauvan, E.

    2006-10-01

    We describe the most recent data on the diffractive structure functions from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations at HERA using four models. First, a Pomeron Structure Function (PSF) model, in which the Pomeron is considered as an object with parton distribution functions. Then, the Bartels Ellis Kowalski Wuesthoff (BEKW) approach is discussed, assuming the simplest perturbative description of the Pomeron using a two-gluon ladder. A third approach, the Bialas Peschanski (BP) model, based on the dipole formalism is then described. Finally, we discuss the Golec-Biernat-Wuesthoff (GBW) saturation model which takes into account saturation effects. The best description of all available measurements can be achieved with either the PSF based model or the BEKW approach. In particular, the BEKW prediction allows to include the highest β measurements, which are dominated by higher twists effects and provide an efficient and compact parametrisation of the diffractive cross section. The two other models also give a good description of cross section measurements at small x with a small number of parameters. The comparison of all predictions allows us to identify interesting differences in the behaviour of the effective pomeron intercept and in the shape of the longitudinal component of the diffractive structure functions. In this last part, we present some features that can be discriminated by new experimental measurements, completing the HERA program. (authors)

  20. A survey of cross-section sensitivity analysis as applied to radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, H.

    1977-01-01

    Cross section sensitivity studies revolve around finding the change in the value of an integral quantity, e.g. transmitted dose, for a given change in one of the cross sections. A review is given of the principal methodologies for obtaining the sensitivity profiles-principally direct calculations with altered cross sections, and linear perturbation theory. Some of the varied applications of cross section sensitivity analysis are described, including the practice, of questionable value, of adjusting input cross section data sets so as to provide agreement with integral experiments. Finally, a plea is made for using cross section sensitivity analysis as a powerful tool for analysing the transport mechanisms of particles in radiation shields and for constructing models of how cross section phenomena affect the transport. Cross section sensitivities in the shielding area have proved to be highly problem-dependent. Without the understanding afforded by such models, it is impossible to extrapolate the conclusions of cross section sensitivity analysis beyond the narrow limits of the specific situations examined in detail. Some of the elements that might be of use in developing the qualitative models are presented. (orig.) [de

  1. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE

  2. Precision measurement of the e+e- → π+π-(γ) cross-section with ISR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.L.

    2009-05-01

    Vacuum polarization integral involves the vector spectral functions which can be experimentally determined. As the dominant uncertainty source to the integral, the precision measurement of the cross section of e + e - → π + π - (γ) as a function of energy from 2π threshold to 3 GeV is performed by taking the ratio of e + e - → π + π - (γ) cross section to e + e - → μ + μ - (γ) cross section which are both measured with BABAR data using ISR method in one analysis. Besides that taking the ratio of the cross sections of the two processes can cancel several systematic uncertainties, the acceptance differences between data and Monte Carlo results are measured using the same data, and the corresponding corrections are applied on the efficiencies predicted by Monte Carlo method which can control the uncertainties. The achieved final uncertainty of the born cross section of e + e - → π + π - (γ) in ρ mass region (0.6 ∼ 0.9 GeV) is 0.54%. As a consequence of the new vacuum polarization calculation using the new precision result of the e + e - π + π - (γ) cross section, the impact on the standard model prediction of muon anomalous magnetic moment g - 2 is presented, which is also compared with other data based predictions and direct measurement. (author)

  3. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel P.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  4. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  5. α -induced reactions on 115In: Cross section measurements and statistical model analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, G. G.; Szücs, T.; Mohr, P.; Török, Zs.; Huszánk, R.; Gyürky, Gy.; Fülöp, Zs.

    2018-05-01

    Background: α -nucleus optical potentials are basic ingredients of statistical model calculations used in nucleosynthesis simulations. While the nucleon+nucleus optical potential is fairly well known, for the α +nucleus optical potential several different parameter sets exist and large deviations, reaching sometimes even an order of magnitude, are found between the cross section predictions calculated using different parameter sets. Purpose: A measurement of the radiative α -capture and the α -induced reaction cross sections on the nucleus 115In at low energies allows a stringent test of statistical model predictions. Since experimental data are scarce in this mass region, this measurement can be an important input to test the global applicability of α +nucleus optical model potentials and further ingredients of the statistical model. Methods: The reaction cross sections were measured by means of the activation method. The produced activities were determined by off-line detection of the γ rays and characteristic x rays emitted during the electron capture decay of the produced Sb isotopes. The 115In(α ,γ )119Sb and 115In(α ,n )Sb118m reaction cross sections were measured between Ec .m .=8.83 and 15.58 MeV, and the 115In(α ,n )Sb118g reaction was studied between Ec .m .=11.10 and 15.58 MeV. The theoretical analysis was performed within the statistical model. Results: The simultaneous measurement of the (α ,γ ) and (α ,n ) cross sections allowed us to determine a best-fit combination of all parameters for the statistical model. The α +nucleus optical potential is identified as the most important input for the statistical model. The best fit is obtained for the new Atomki-V1 potential, and good reproduction of the experimental data is also achieved for the first version of the Demetriou potentials and the simple McFadden-Satchler potential. The nucleon optical potential, the γ -ray strength function, and the level density parametrization are also

  6. What can be learnt from the channel analysis of the 232Th neutron fission cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Yehia, H.; Jary, J.; Trochon, J.; Boldeman, J.W.; Musgrove, A.R. de L.

    1979-10-01

    Channel analyses of the neutron fission cross section of 232 Th have been made in two laboratories. The calculated fission cross sections and fission fragment anisotropies are compared with the experimental data. Despite some differences in the methods used, the conclusions on the physical aspects of the fission process are very similar

  7. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F., E-mail: francesco.napolitano@uniroma1.it [Sapienza Università di Roma, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale (Italy); Alfonso, L. [Hydroinformatics Chair Group, UNESCO-IHE, Delft (Netherlands); Di Baldassarre, G. [Department of Earth Sciences, Program for Air, Water and Landscape Sciences, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2016-06-08

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  8. Optimal cross-sectional sampling for river modelling with bridges: An information theory-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridolfi, E.; Napolitano, F.; Alfonso, L.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-01-01

    The description of river topography has a crucial role in accurate one-dimensional (1D) hydraulic modelling. Specifically, cross-sectional data define the riverbed elevation, the flood-prone area, and thus, the hydraulic behavior of the river. Here, the problem of the optimal cross-sectional spacing is solved through an information theory-based concept. The optimal subset of locations is the one with the maximum information content and the minimum amount of redundancy. The original contribution is the introduction of a methodology to sample river cross sections in the presence of bridges. The approach is tested on the Grosseto River (IT) and is compared to existing guidelines. The results show that the information theory-based approach can support traditional methods to estimate rivers’ cross-sectional spacing.

  9. Sensitivity analysis of U238 cross sections in fast nuclear systems-SENSEAV-R computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, E.S. de; D'Oliveira, A.B.; Oliveira, E.C. de

    1981-01-01

    For many performance parameters of reactors the tabulated ratio calculation/experiment indicate that some potential problems may exist either in the cross section data or in the calculation models used to investigate the critical experimental data. A first step toward drawing a more definite conclusion is to perform a selective analysis of sensitivity profiles and covariance data files for the cross section data used in the calculation. Many works in the current literature show that some of these uncertainties come from uncertainties in 238 U(n,γ), 238 U(n,f) 239 Pu(n,f). Perturbation methods were developed to analyze the effects of finite changes in a large number of cross sections and summarize the investigation by a group dependent sensitivity coefficient. As an application, the results of this investigation indicates that improvements should be done only on the medium and low energy ranges of 238 U(n,γ) based on an analysis of cost and economic benefits. (Author) [pt

  10. Monostatic Radar Cross Section Estimation of Missile Shaped Object Using Physical Optics Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi Bhushana Rao, G.; Nambari, Swathi; Kota, Srikanth; Ranga Rao, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    Stealth Technology manages many signatures for a target in which most radar systems use radar cross section (RCS) for discriminating targets and classifying them with regard to Stealth. During a war target’s RCS has to be very small to make target invisible to enemy radar. In this study, Radar Cross Section of perfectly conducting objects like cylinder, truncated cone (frustum) and circular flat plate is estimated with respect to parameters like size, frequency and aspect angle. Due to the difficulties in exactly predicting the RCS, approximate methods become the alternative. Majority of approximate methods are valid in optical region and where optical region has its own strengths and weaknesses. Therefore, the analysis given in this study is purely based on far field monostatic RCS measurements in the optical region. Computation is done using Physical Optics (PO) method for determining RCS of simple models. In this study not only the RCS of simple models but also missile shaped and rocket shaped models obtained from the cascaded objects with backscatter has been computed using Matlab simulation. Rectangular plots are obtained for RCS in dbsm versus aspect angle for simple and missile shaped objects using Matlab simulation. Treatment of RCS, in this study is based on Narrow Band.

  11. Angular finite volume method for solving the multigroup transport equation with piecewise average scattering cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calloo, A.; Vidal, J.F.; Le Tellier, R.; Rimpault, G., E-mail: ansar.calloo@cea.fr, E-mail: jean-francois.vidal@cea.fr, E-mail: romain.le-tellier@cea.fr, E-mail: gerald.rimpault@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2011-07-01

    This paper deals with the solving of the multigroup integro-differential form of the transport equation for fine energy group structure. In that case, multigroup transfer cross sections display strongly peaked shape for light scatterers and the current Legendre polynomial expansion is not well-suited to represent them. Furthermore, even if considering an exact scattering cross sections representation, the scattering source in the discrete ordinates method (also known as the Sn method) being calculated by sampling the angular flux at given directions, may be wrongly computed due to lack of angular support for the angular flux. Hence, following the work of Gerts and Matthews, an angular finite volume solver has been developed for 2D Cartesian geometries. It integrates the multigroup transport equation over discrete volume elements obtained by meshing the unit sphere with a product grid over the polar and azimuthal coordinates and by considering the integrated flux per solid angle element. The convergence of this method has been compared to the S{sub n} method for a highly anisotropic benchmark. Besides, piecewise-average scattering cross sections have been produced for non-bound Hydrogen atoms using a free gas model for thermal neutrons. LWR lattice calculations comparing Legendre representations of the Hydrogen scattering multigroup cross section at various orders and piecewise-average cross sections for this same atom are carried out (while keeping a Legendre representation for all other isotopes). (author)

  12. Angular finite volume method for solving the multigroup transport equation with piecewise average scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calloo, A.; Vidal, J.F.; Le Tellier, R.; Rimpault, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the solving of the multigroup integro-differential form of the transport equation for fine energy group structure. In that case, multigroup transfer cross sections display strongly peaked shape for light scatterers and the current Legendre polynomial expansion is not well-suited to represent them. Furthermore, even if considering an exact scattering cross sections representation, the scattering source in the discrete ordinates method (also known as the Sn method) being calculated by sampling the angular flux at given directions, may be wrongly computed due to lack of angular support for the angular flux. Hence, following the work of Gerts and Matthews, an angular finite volume solver has been developed for 2D Cartesian geometries. It integrates the multigroup transport equation over discrete volume elements obtained by meshing the unit sphere with a product grid over the polar and azimuthal coordinates and by considering the integrated flux per solid angle element. The convergence of this method has been compared to the S_n method for a highly anisotropic benchmark. Besides, piecewise-average scattering cross sections have been produced for non-bound Hydrogen atoms using a free gas model for thermal neutrons. LWR lattice calculations comparing Legendre representations of the Hydrogen scattering multigroup cross section at various orders and piecewise-average cross sections for this same atom are carried out (while keeping a Legendre representation for all other isotopes). (author)

  13. Evaluation of photonuclear reaction cross-sections using the reduction method for large systematic uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varlamov, V.V.; Efimkin, N.G.; Ishkhanov, B.S.; Sapunenko, V.V.

    1994-12-01

    The authors describe a method based on the reduction method for the evaluation of photonuclear reaction cross-sections obtained under conditions where there are large systematic uncertainties (different instrumental functions, calibration and normalization errors). The evaluation method involves using the actual instrumental function (photon spectrum) of each individual experiment to reduce the data to a representation generated by an instrumental function of better quality. The objective is to find the most reasonably achievable monoenergetic representation of the information on the reaction cross-section derived from the results of various experiments and to take into account the calibration and normalization errors in these experiments. The method was used to obtain the evaluated total photoneutron reaction cross-section (γ,xn) for a large number of nuclei. Data obtained for 16 O and 208 Pb are presented. (author). 36 refs, 6 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Analysis of Sodium-23 Data Cross-Sections for Coolant on Generation IV Reactor - SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Zuhair

    2009-01-01

    The integral tests of sodium-23 neutron cross-sections for coolant contained in JENDL-3.3, ENDF/B-VII.0, BROND-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 files have been performed. Cross-sections analysis of sodium-23 such as total cross-sections, elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering and radiative capture cross-sections for several temperature i.e. 300K, 800K and 1500K. The sodium-23 total cross-sections analysis based on MAEKER, R.E. experimental result through Broomstick experiment calculation. Differences between among other evaluated nuclear data file for elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering and radiative capture cross-sections were done analyzed and compared to ENDF/B-VII.0 as standard reference. Analysis of total cross-sections sodium-23 through broomstick calculation show JENDL-3.3 file give the best result on C/E statistical average value is 1.1043 compared to another nuclear data files. Differences sodium-23 total cross-sections on JEFF-3.1 file for all temperature work specially for energy 40keV and 1MeV-2MeV is about 0.2%. Meanwhile, relative small differences on in-elastic total scattering cross-sections are shown for all temperatures are about ±0.1% in JENDL-3.3. On the other hand, BROND-2.2 file give ±6% higher on sodium-23 in-elastic total scattering cross sections for energy range 450keV-550keV. Clearly significant differences on sodium-23 radiative capture cross sections for BROND-2.2 file especially in energy 109.659keV is somewhat higher than 446%, otherwise JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1 give 16% higher than ENDF/B-VII.0 file. Overall result show that JENDL-3.3, ENDFB-VII.0, BROND-2.2 and JEFF-3.1 have little bit differences in total, elastic scattering, in-elastic scattering total cross sections, except BROND-2.2 file due to radiative capture cross-sections with larger discrepancies. (author)

  15. Resonance analysis and evaluation of the 235U neutron induced cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.

    1990-06-01

    Neutron cross sections of fissile nuclei are of considerable interest for the understanding of parameters such as resonance absorption, resonance escape probability, resonance self-shielding,and the dependence of the reactivity on temperature. In the present study, new techniques for the evaluation of the 235 U neutron cross sections are described. The Reich-Moore formalism of the Bayesian computer code SAMMY was used to perform consistent R-matrix multilevel analyses of the selected neutron cross-section data. The Δ 3 -statistics of Dyson and Mehta, along with high-resolution data and the spin-separated fission cross-section data, have provided the possibility of developing a new methodology for the analysis and evaluation of neutron-nucleus cross sections. The results of the analysis consists of a set of resonance parameters which describe the 235 U neutron cross sections up to 500 eV. The set of resonance parameters obtained through a R-matrix analysis are expected to satisfy statistical properties which lead to information on the nuclear structure. The resonance parameters were tested and showed good agreement with the theory. It is expected that the parametrization of the 235 U neutron cross sections obtained in this dissertation represents the current state of art in data as well as in theory and, therefore, can be of direct use in reactor calculations. 44 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs

  16. Analysis of the 239Pu neutron cross sections from 300 to 2000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrien, H.; de Saussure, G.

    1990-01-01

    A recent high-resolution measurement of the neutron fission cross section of 239 Pu has allowed the extension from 1 to 2 keV of a previously reported resonance analysis of the neutron cross sections, and an improvement of the previous analysis in the range 0.3 to 1 keV. This report analyzes this region. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  17. Graphs of neutron cross sections in JSD1000 for radiation shielding safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamano, Naoki

    1984-03-01

    Graphs of neutron cross sections and self-shielding factors in the JSD1000 library are presented for radiation shielding safety analysis. The compilation contains various reaction cross sections for 42 nuclides from 1 H to 241 Am in the energy range from 3.51 x 10 -4 eV to 16.5 MeV. The Bondarenko-type self-shielding factors of each reaction are given by the background cross sections from σ 0 = 0 to σ 0 = 10000. (author)

  18. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tveten G. M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method for extracting capture cross sections has to be investigated. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutroninduced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. First results are presented and discussed.

  19. Subtraction method of computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trócsányi, Zoltán; Somogyi, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    We present a general subtraction method for computing radiative corrections to QCD jet cross sections at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. The steps needed to set up this subtraction scheme are the same as those used in next-to-leading order computations. However, all steps need non-trivial modifications, which we implement such that that those can be defined at any order in perturbation theory. We give a status report of the implementation of the method to computing jet cross sections in electron-positron annihilation at the next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy.

  20. Subtraction method of computing QCD jet cross sections at NNLO accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trocsanyi, Zoltan [University of Debrecen and Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen P.O.Box 51 (Hungary)], E-mail: Zoltan.Trocsanyi@cern.ch; Somogyi, Gabor [University of Zuerich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: sgabi@physik.unizh.ch

    2008-10-15

    We present a general subtraction method for computing radiative corrections to QCD jet cross sections at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy. The steps needed to set up this subtraction scheme are the same as those used in next-to-leading order computations. However, all steps need non-trivial modifications, which we implement such that that those can be defined at any order in perturbation theory. We give a status report of the implementation of the method to computing jet cross sections in electron-positron annihilation at the next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy.

  1. Financial bubbles analysis with a cross-sectional estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Abergel, Frederic; Huth, Nicolas; Toke, Ioane Muni

    2009-01-01

    We highlight a very simple statistical tool for the analysis of financial bubbles, which has already been studied in [1]. We provide extensive empirical tests of this statistical tool and investigate analytically its link with stocks correlation structure.

  2. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  3. Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed

  4. Methods and procedures for evaluation of neutron-induced activation cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, M.A.

    1981-09-01

    One cannot expect measurements alone to supply all of the neutron-induced activation cross-section data required by the fission reactor, fusion reactor, and nuclear weapons development communities, given the wide ranges of incident neutron energies, the great variety of possible reaction types leading to activation, and targets both stable and unstable. Therefore, the evaluator must look to nuclear model calculations and systematics to aid in fulfilling these cross-section data needs. This review presents some of the recent developments and improvements in the prediction of neutron activation cross sections, with specific emphasis on the use of empirical and semiempirical methods. Since such systematics require much less nuclear informaion as input and much less computational time than do the multistep Hauser-Feshbach codes, they can often provide certain cross-section data at a sufficient level of accuracy within a minimum amount of time. The cross-section information that these systematics can and cannot provide and those cases in which they can be used most reliably are discussed.

  5. Measurement and analysis of the $^{243}$Am neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Mendoza, E; Guerrero, C; Berthoumieux, E; Abbondanno, U; Aerts, G; Alvarez-Velarde, F; Andriamonje, S; Andrzejewski, J; Assimakopoulos, P; Audouin, L; Badurek, G; Balibrea, J; Baumann, P; Becvar, F; Belloni, F; Calvino, F; Calviani, M; Capote, R; Carrapico, C; Carrillo de Albornoz, A; Cennini, P; Chepel, V; Chiaveri, E; Colonna, N; Cortes, G; Couture, A; Cox, J; Dahlfors, M; David, S; Dillmann, I; Dolfini, R; Domingo-Pardo, C; Dridi, W; Duran, I; Eleftheriadis, C; Ferrant†, L; Ferrari, A; Ferreira-Marques, R; Fitzpatrick, L; Frais-Koelbl, H; Fujii, K; Furman, W; Goncalves, I; Gonz alez-Romero, E; Goverdovski, A; Gramegna, F; Griesmayer, E; Gunsing, F; Haas, B; Haight, R; Heil, M; Herrera-Martinez, A; Igashira, M; Isaev, S; Jericha, E; Kappeler, F; Kadi, Y; Karadimos, D; Karamanis, D; Ketlerov, V; Kerveno, M; Koehler, P; Konovalov, V; Kossionides, E; Krticka, M; Lampoudis, C; Leeb, H; Lindote, A; Lopes, I; Lossito, R; Lozano, M; Lukic, S; Marganiec, J; Marques, L; Marrone, S; Martınez, T; Massimi, C; Mastinu, P; Mengoni, A; Milazzo, P M; Moreau, C; Mosconi, M; Neves, F; Oberhummer, H; O’Brien, S; Oshima, M; Pancin, J; Papachristodoulou, C; Papadopoulos, C; Paradela, C; Patronis, N; Pavlik, A; Pavlopoulos, P; Perrot, L; Pigni, M T; Plag, R; Plompen, A; Plukis, A; Poch, A; Praena, J; Pretel, C; Quesada, J; Rauscher, T; Reifarth, R; Rosetti, M; Rubbia, C; Rudolf, G; Rullhusen, P; Salgado, J; Santos, C; Sarchiapone, L; Savvidis, I; Stephan, C; Tagliente, G; Tain, J L; Tassan-Got, L; Tavora, L; Terlizzi, R; Vannini, G; Vaz, P; Ventura, A; Villamarin, D; Vicente, M C; Vlachoudis, V; Vlastou, R; Voss, F; Walter, S; Wendler, H; Wiescher, M; Wisshak, K

    2014-01-01

    Background:The design of new nuclear reactors and transmutation devices requires to reduce the present neutron cross section uncertainties of minor actinides. Purpose: Reduce the $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section uncertainty. Method: The $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with a BaF$_{2}$ Total Absorption Calorimeter, in the energy range between 0.7 eV and 2.5 keV. Results: The $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section has been successfully measured in the mentioned energy range. The resolved resonance region has been extended from 250 eV up to 400 eV. In the unresolved resonance region our results are compatible with one of the two incompatible capture data sets available below 2.5 keV. The data available in EXFOR and in the literature has been used to perform a simple analysis above 2.5 keV. Conclusions: The results of this measurement contribute to reduce the $^{243}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section uncertainty and suggest that this cross section is underestimate...

  6. RFUNC, Diffusion Cross-Sections Data Analysis for Resonance Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: RFUNC is used to analyze high resolution differential elastic-scattering data from spin zero nuclides in the resonance energy region at ORELA. 2 - Method of solution: RFUNC is based upon the real R-function formalism which ignores the capture reaction channel since only resonances having neutron widths much larger than their capture widths are observed in the differential scattering data. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: RFUNC only deals with scattering from spin zero nuclides

  7. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions obtained by activation method

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, V; Svoboda, O; Vrzalová, J; Majerle, M; Krása, A; Chudoba, P; Honusek, M; Kugler, A; Adam, J; Baldin, A; Furman, W; Kadykov, M; Khushvaktov, J; Sol-nyskhin, A; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V; Závorka, L; Tyutyunnikov, S; Vladimirova, N

    2014-01-01

    The cross-sections of relativistic deuteron reactions on natural copper were studied in detail by means of activation method. The copper foils were irradiated during experiments with the big Quinta uranium target at Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. The deuteron beams with energies ranging from 1 GeV up to 8 GeV were produced by JINR Nuclotron. Residual nuclides were identified by the gamma spectrometry. Lack of such experimental cross-section values prevents the usage of copper foils from beam integral monitoring.

  8. Reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambadauro, Pietro; Navaratnarajah, Ramesan

    2015-02-01

    The reporting of embryo transfer methods in IVF research was assessed through a cross-sectional analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 2010 and 2011. A systematic search identified 325 abstracts; 122 RCTs were included in the study. Embryo transfer methods were described in 42 out of 122 articles (34%). Catheters (32/42 [76%]) or ultrasound guidance (31/42 [74%]) were most frequently mentioned. Performer 'blinding' (12%) or technique standardization (7%) were seldom reported. The description of embryo transfer methods was significantly more common in trials published by journals with lower impact factor (less than 3, 39.6%; 3 or greater, 21.5%; P = 0.037). Embryo transfer methods were reported more often in trials with pregnancy as the main end-point (33% versus 16%) or with positive outcomes (37.8% versus 25.0%), albeit not significantly. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that RCTs published in higher impact factor journals are less likely to describe embryo transfer methods (OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.143 to 0.964). Registered trials, trials conducted in an academic setting, multi-centric studies or full-length articles were not positively associated with embryo transfer methods reporting rate. Recent reports of randomized IVF trials rarely describe embryo transfer methods. The under-reporting of research methods might compromise reproducibility and suitability for meta-analysis. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of (n,2n) cross-section measurements for nuclei up to mass 238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, W.G.; Goin, R.W.; Ross, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    All suitable measurements of the energy dependence of (n,2n) cross sections of all isotopes up to mass 238 have been analyzed. The objectives were to display the quality of the measured data for each isotope and to examine the systematic dependence of the (n,2n) cross section upon N, Z, and A. Graphs and tables are presented of the ratio of the asymptotic (n,2n) and nonelastic cross section to the neutron-asymmetry parameter (N--Z)/A. Similar data are presented for the derived nuclear temperature, T, and level-density parameter, α, as a function of N, Z, and A. This analysis of the results of over 145 experiments on 61 isotopes is essentially a complete review of the current status of (n,2n) cross-section measurements

  10. R matrix analysis of 239Pu neutron cross sections in the energy range up to 1000 eV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an R matrix analysis of the 239 Pu neutron cross sections up to 1000-eV neutron energy. The analysis was performed with the multilevel multichannel Reich-Moore code SAMMY. The method of analysis is describe, and the selection of experimental data is discussed. Some tabular and graphical comparisons between calculated and measured cross sections and transmissions are presented. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are examined. The resonance parameters are proposed for the new evaluated data files ENDF/B-VI and JEF2

  11. Statistical analysis of correlated experimental data and neutron cross section evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badikov, S.A.

    1998-01-01

    The technique for evaluation of neutron cross sections on the basis of statistical analysis of correlated experimental data is presented. The most important stages of evaluation beginning from compilation of correlation matrix for measurement uncertainties till representation of the analysis results in the ENDF-6 format are described in details. Special attention is paid to restrictions (positive uncertainty) on covariation matrix of approximate parameters uncertainties generated within the method of least square fit which is derived from physical reasons. The requirements for source experimental data assuring satisfaction of the restrictions mentioned above are formulated. Correlation matrices of measurement uncertainties in particular should be also positively determined. Variants of modelling the positively determined correlation matrices of measurement uncertainties in a situation when their consequent calculation on the basis of experimental information is impossible are discussed. The technique described is used for creating the new generation of estimates of dosimetric reactions cross sections for the first version of the Russian dosimetric file (including nontrivial covariation information)

  12. Comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution uncertainty analysis for a fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; LaBauve, R.J.; Young, P.G.

    1980-05-01

    On the example of General Atomic's well-documented Power Generating Fusion Reactor (PGFR) design, this report exercises a comprehensive neutron cross-section and secondary energy distribution (SED) uncertainty analysis. The LASL sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code SENSIT is used to calculate reaction cross-section sensitivity profiles and integral SED sensitivity coefficients. These are then folded with covariance matrices and integral SED uncertainties to obtain the resulting uncertainties of three calculated neutronics design parameters: two critical radiation damage rates and a nuclear heating rate. The report documents the first sensitivity-based data uncertainty analysis, which incorporates a quantitative treatment of the effects of SED uncertainties. The results demonstrate quantitatively that the ENDF/B-V cross-section data files for C, H, and O, including their SED data, are fully adequate for this design application, while the data for Fe and Ni are at best marginally adequate because they give rise to response uncertainties up to 25%. Much higher response uncertainties are caused by cross-section and SED data uncertainties in Cu (26 to 45%), tungsten (24 to 54%), and Cr (up to 98%). Specific recommendations are given for re-evaluations of certain reaction cross-sections, secondary energy distributions, and uncertainty estimates

  13. Neutron-induced cross sections of actinides via the surrogate-reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducasse Q.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The surrogate-reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This technique may enable neutron-induced cross sections to be extracted for short-lived nuclei that otherwise cannot be measured. However, the validity of the surrogate method has to be investigated. In particular, the absence of a compound nucleus formation and the Jπ dependence of the decay probabilities may question the method. In this work we study the reactions 238U(d,p239U, 238U(3He,t238Np, 238U(3He,4He237U as surrogates for neutron-induced reactions on 238U, 237Np and 236U, respectively, for which good quality data exist. The experimental set-up enabled the measurement of fission and gamma-decay probabilities. The first results are hereby presented.

  14. Methods of calculation of cross section of reaction 115In(gamma, n)114mIn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhaba, V.I.; Parlag, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The cross section of reaction 115 In(gamma, n) 114m In is expected by different methods. Results of the got cross section it is well comported inter se the Penfold-Leiss and Tikhonov's methods. The calculation of cross section is conducted the Penfold-Leiss method with smoothing out by the method of iterations. Number of iterations n = 1; 3; 5. In the programmatic package of TALYS-1.4 got cross section for five models of closeness of levels. Theoretical and experimental results well coincide in a maximum.

  15. Composite Beam Cross-Section Analysis by a Single High-Order Element Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated by applic......An analysis procedure of general cross-section properties is presented. The formulation is based on the stress-strain states in the classic six equilibrium modes of a beam by considering a finite thickness slice modelled by a single layer of 3D finite elements. The theory is illustrated...

  16. Challenges of sample preparation for cross sectional EBSD analysis of electrodeposited nickel films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Pantleon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Thorough microstructure and crystallographic orientation analysis of thin films by means of electron backscatter diffraction requires cross section preparation of the film-substrate compound. During careful preparation, changes of the rather non-stable as-deposited microstructure must be avoided....... Different procedures for sample preparation including mechanical grinding and polishing, electropolishing and focused ion beam milling have been applied to a nickel film electrodeposited on top of an amorphous Ni-P layer on a Cu-substrate. Reliable EBSD analysis of the whole cross section can be obtained...

  17. Differential cross-section measurements at the University of Kentucky - Adventures in analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhoy, J.R.; Garza, E.A.; Steves, J.L.; Hicks, S.F.; Henderson, S.L.; Sidwell, L.C.; Champine, B.R.; Crider, B.P.; Liu, S.H.; Peters, E.E.; Prados-Estevez, F.M.; McEllistrem, M.T.; Ross, T.J.; Yates, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections are determined at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory (UKAL) 1 using time-of-flight techniques at incident energies in the fast neutron region. Measurements have been completed for scattering from 23 Na and for the 23 Na(n,n'γ) reaction; similar measurements are in progress for 54 Fe. Commencing in the summer of 2014, measurements will address 56 Fe. An overview of the facilities and instrumentation at UKAL is given, and our measurement and analysis procedures are outlined. Of particular concern are portions of the analysis which limit the accuracy and precision of the measurements. We briefly examine detector efficiencies derived from the 3 H(p,n) cross-sections, attenuation and multiple scattering corrections, and neutron and γ-ray cross-sections standardizations. (authors)

  18. Theoretical methods for the calculation of the multiphoton ionisation cross-section of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moccia, R.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the available theoretical methods to compute the two-photon ionisation cross-section of many-electron systems are reviewed. In particular the problems concerning the computation of (i) reliable approximations for the transition matrix elements and the excitation energies; and (ii) accurate results pertaining to the electronic continuum by the use of L 2 basis functions are considered. (author). 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  19. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for fusion reactor blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrechts, M.J.

    1982-02-01

    A two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for the heating of the TF coil for the FED (fusion engineering device) blanket was performed. The uncertainties calculated are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from a one-dimensional analysis. The largest uncertainties were caused by the cross section uncertainties for chromium

  20. Analysis of rosen piezoelectric transformers with a varying cross-section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, H; Yang, J; Hu, Y

    2008-07-01

    We study the effects of a varying cross-section on the performance of Rosen piezoelectric transformers operating with length extensional modes of rods. A theoretical analysis is performed using an extended version of a one-dimensional model developed in a previous paper. Numerical results based on the theoretical analysis are presented.

  1. Combined Measurement and QCD Analysis of the Inclusive ep Scattering Cross Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Abt, I.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Alexa, C.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antonioli, P.; Antonov, A.; Antunovic, B.; Arneodo, M.; Aushev, V.; Bachynska, O.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Bamberger, A.; Barakbaev, A.N.; Barbagli, G.; Bari, G.; Barreiro, F.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bartsch, D.; Basile, M.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behr, J.; Behrens, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Belousov, A.; Bertolin, A.; Bhadra, S.; Bindi, M.; Bizot, J.C.; Blohm, C.; Bold, T.; Boos, E.G.; Borodin, M.; Borras, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bot, D.; Boudry, V.; Boutle, S.K.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brock, I.; Brownson, E.; Brugnera, R.; Brummer, N.; Bruncko, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brzozowska, B.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bussey, P.J.; Butterworth, J.M.; Bylsma, B.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Capua, M.; Carlin, R.; Catterall, C.D.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekanov, S.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Coppola, N.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Costa, M.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; D'Agostini, G.; Dainton, J.B.; Dal Corso, F.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Favereau, J.; Delcourt, B.; del Peso, J.; Delvax, J.; Dementiev, R.K.; De Pasquale, S.; Derrick, M.; Devenish, R.C.E.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobur, D.; Dodonov, V.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dossanov, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Drugakov, V.; Dubak, A.; Durkin, L.S.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eisenberg, Y.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Ermolov, P.F.; Eskreys, A.; Falkiewicz, A.; Fang, S.; Favart, L.; Fazio, S.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrero, M.I.; Figiel, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Forrest, M.; Foster, B.; Fourletov, S.; Gabathuler, E.; Galas, A.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gialas, I.; Gladilin, L.K.; Gladkov, D.; Glasman, C.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu.A.; Gottlicher, P.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grell, B.R.; Grigorescu, G.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gwenlan, C.; Haas, T.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Hamatsu, R.; Hart, J.C.; Hartmann, H.; Hartner, G.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilger, E.; Hiller, K.H.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Holm, U.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Horton, K.; Hreus, T.; Huttmann, A.; Iacobucci, G.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ingbir, R.; Ishitsuka, M.; Jacquet, M.; Jakob, H.P.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jimenez, M.; Jones, T.W.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Jungst, M.; Kadenko, I.; Kahle, B.; Kamaluddin, B.; Kananov, S.; Kanno, T.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Karstens, F.; Katkov, I.I.; Katzy, J.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kenyon, I.R.; Keramidas, A.; Khein, L.A.; Kiesling, C.; Kim, J.Y.; Kisielewska, D.; Kitamura, S.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Koffeman, E.; Kogler, R.; Kollar, D.; Kooijman, P.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kulinski, P.; Kuprash, O.; Kutak, K.; Kuze, M.; Kuzmin, V.A.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, A.; Lendermann, V.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Li, G.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Ling, T.Y.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lohmann, W.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Loizides, J.H.; Loktionova, N.; Long, K.R.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lukasik, J.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Luzniak, P.; Maeda, J.; Magill, S.; Makankine, A.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Mankel, R.; Marage, P.; Margotti, A.; Marini, G.; Marti, Ll.; Martin, J.F.; Martyn, H.U.; Mastroberardino, A.; Matsumoto, T.; Mattingly, M.C.K.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Miglioranzi, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.D.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Musgrave, B.; Nagano, K.; Namsoo, T.; Nania, R.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Nicholass, D.; Niebuhr, C.; Nigro, A.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Ning, Y.; Noor, U.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nowak, R.J.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Oh, B.Y.; Okazaki, N.; Oliver, K.; Olkiewicz, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Osman, S.; Ota, O.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Papageorgiu, K.; Parenti, A.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Paul, E.; Pawlak, J.M.; Pawlik, B.; Pejchal, O.; Pelfer, P.G.; Pellegrino, A.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Perrey, H.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Plucinski, P.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polifka, R.; Polini, A.; Povh, B.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Raval, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reeder, D.D.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Ren, Z.; Repond, J.; Ri, Y.D.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, A.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roloff, P.; Ron, E.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Salek, D.; Salii, A.; Samson, U.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sartorelli, G.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Savin, A.A.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schleper, P.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schonberg, V.; Schoning, A.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwartz, J.; Sciulli, F.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shehzadi, R.; Shimizu, S.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Sloan, T.; Slominski, W.; Smiljanic, I.; Smith, W.H.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Son, D.; Sopicki, P.; Sorokin, Iu.; Sosnovtsev, V.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spiridonov, A.; Stadie, H.; Stanco, L.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stewart, T.P.; Stifutkin, A.; Stoicea, G.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Suchkov, S.; Sunar, D.; Susinno, G.; Suszycki, L.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tapper, A.D.; Tassi, E.; Tchoulakov, V.; Terron, J.; Theedt, T.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Tiecke, H.; Tokushuku, K.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tomaszewska, J.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Urban, K.; Uribe-Estrada, C.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vazquez, M.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, V.; Vinokurova, S.; Vlasov, N.N.; Volchinski, V.; Volynets, O.; von den Driesch, M.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wegener, D.; Whitmore, J.J.; Whyte, J.; Wiggers, L.; Wing, M.; Wissing, Ch.; Wlasenko, M.; Wolf, G.; Wolfe, H.; Wrona, K.; Wunsch, E.; Yagues-Molina, A.G.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yoshida, R.; Youngman, C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zeniaev, O.; Zeuner, W.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhokin, A.; Zhou, C.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zolko, M.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2010-01-01

    A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised ep scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q^2, and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions HERAPDF1.0 with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result.

  2. Optimization of multi-group cross sections for fast reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, M. R.; Manalo, K. L.; Edgar, C. A.; Paul, J. N.; Molinar, M. P.; Redd, E. M.; Yi, C.; Sjoden, G. E.

    2013-01-01

    The selection of the number of broad energy groups, collapsed broad energy group boundaries, and their associated evaluation into collapsed macroscopic cross sections from a general 238-group ENDF/B-VII library dramatically impacted the k eigenvalue for fast reactor analysis. An analysis was undertaken to assess the minimum number of energy groups that would preserve problem physics; this involved studies using the 3D deterministic transport parallel code PENTRAN, the 2D deterministic transport code SCALE6.1, the Monte Carlo based MCNP5 code, and the YGROUP cross section collapsing tool on a spatially discretized MOX fuel pin comprised of 21% PUO 2 -UO 2 with sodium coolant. The various cases resulted in a few hundred pcm difference between cross section libraries that included the 238 multi-group reference, and cross sections rendered using various reaction and adjoint weighted cross sections rendered by the YGROUP tool, and a reference continuous energy MCNP case. Particular emphasis was placed on the higher energies characteristic of fission neutrons in a fast spectrum; adjoint computations were performed to determine the average per-group adjoint fission importance for the MOX fuel pin. This study concluded that at least 10 energy groups for neutron transport calculations are required to accurately predict the eigenvalue for a fast reactor system to within 250 pcm of the 238 group case. In addition, the cross section collapsing/weighting schemes within YGROUP that provided a collapsed library rendering eigenvalues closest to the reference were the contribution collapsed, reaction rate weighted scheme. A brief analysis on homogenization of the MOX fuel pin is also provided, although more work is in progress in this area. (authors)

  3. Amino acids analysis by total neutron cross-sections determinations: part V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante L.; Ferreira, Francisco de O.; Rocha, Helio F. da

    2013-01-01

    Total neutron cross-sections of twenty essential and non-essential amino acids to human were determined using crystal spectrometer installed on the Argonauta reactor of IEN (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (CNEN-RJ) and compared with data generated by parceling and grouping methodologies developed at this institution. For each amino acid was calculated the respective neutron cross-section by molecular structure, conformation and chemistry analysis. The results obtained for eighteen of twenty amino acids confirm the specifications and product formulations indicated by manufactures. These initial results allow to build a neutron cross-sections database as part of quality control of the amino supplied to hospitals for production of nutriments for parenteral or enteral formulations used in critical patients dependent on artificial feed, and for application in future studies of structure and dynamics for more complex molecules, including proteins, enzymes, fatty acids, membranes, organelles and other cell components. (author)

  4. Method of measurement of cross sections of heavy nuclei fission induced by intermediate energy protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotov, Alexander; Chtchetkovski, Alexander; Fedorov, Oleg; Gavrikov, Yuri; Chestnov, Yuri; Poliakov, Vladimir; Vaishnene, Larissa; Vovchenko, Vil; Fukahori, Tokio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this work is experimental studies of the energy dependence of the fission cross sections of heavy nuclei, nat Pb, 209 Bi, 232 Th, 233 U, 235 U, 238 U, 237 Np and 239 Pu, by protons at the energies from 200 to 1000 MeV. At present experiment the method based on use of the gas parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) for registration of complementary fission fragments in coincidence and the telescope of scintillation counters for direct counting of the incident protons on the target has been used. First preliminary results of the energy dependences of proton induced fission cross sections for nat Pb, 209 Bi, 235 U and 238 U are reported. (author)

  5. Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed

  6. Analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1989-01-01

    Using recent high-resolution measurements of the neutron transmission of 235 U and the spin-separated fission cross-section data of Moore et al., a multilevel analysis of the 235 U neutron cross sections was performed up to 300 eV. The Dyson Metha Δ 3 statistics were used to help locate small levels above 100 eV where resonances are not clearly resolved even in the best resolution measurements available. The statistical properties of the resonance parameters are discussed. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Amino acids analysis using grouping and parceling of neutrons cross sections techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz Voi; Rocha, Helio Fenandes da

    2002-01-01

    Amino acids used in parenteral administration in hospital patients with special importance in nutritional applications were analyzed to compare with the manufactory data. Individual amino acid samples of phenylalanine, cysteine, methionine, tyrosine and threonine were measured with the neutron crystal spectrometer installed at the J-9 irradiation channel of the 1 kW Argonaut Reactor of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN). Gold and D 2 O high purity samples were used for the experimental system calibration. Neutron cross section values were calculated from chemical composition, conformation and molecular structure analysis of the materials. Literature data were manipulated by parceling and grouping neutron cross sections. (author)

  8. A simple method to approximate liver size on cross-sectional images using living liver models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, D.; Mueller, M.A.; Karlo, C.; Fornaro, J.; Marincek, B.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether a simple. diameter-based formula applicable to cross-sectional images can be used to calculate the total liver volume. Materials and methods: On 119 cross-sectional examinations (62 computed tomography and 57 magnetic resonance imaging) a simple, formula-based method to approximate the liver volume was evaluated. The total liver volume was approximated measuring the largest craniocaudal (cc), ventrodorsal (vd), and coronal (cor) diameters by two readers and implementing the equation: Vol estimated =ccxvdxcorx0.31. Inter-rater reliability, agreement, and correlation between liver volume calculation and virtual liver volumetry were analysed. Results: No significant disagreement between the two readers was found. The formula correlated significantly with the volumetric data (r > 0.85, p < 0.0001). In 81% of cases the error of the approximated volume was <10% and in 92% of cases <15% compared to the volumetric data. Conclusion: Total liver volume can be accurately estimated on cross-sectional images using a simple, diameter-based equation.

  9. Understanding the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing : a cross-sectional analysis of English primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, David R M; Dolk, F Christiaan K; Smieszek, Timo; Robotham, Julie V; Pouwels, Koen B

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore the causes of the gender gap in antibiotic prescribing, and to determine whether women are more likely than men to receive an antibiotic prescription per consultation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of routinely collected electronic medical records from The Health

  10. Risk Factors for Premature Births: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk Factors for Premature Births: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Hospital Records in a Cameroonian Health Facility. Andreas Chiabi, Evelyn M Mah, Nicole Mvondo, Seraphin Nguefack, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Karen K Kamga, Shiyuan Zhang, Emile Mboudou, Pierre F Tchokoteu, Elie Mbonda ...

  11. Exploring Students' Conceptions of Science Learning via Drawing: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wen-Min; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional study explored students' conceptions of science learning via drawing analysis. A total of 906 Taiwanese students in 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th grade were asked to use drawing to illustrate how they conceptualise science learning. Students' drawings were analysed using a coding checklist to determine the presence or absence…

  12. Estimating Total Fusion Cross Sections by Using a Coupled-Channel Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki-Seok; Cheoun, Myung-Ki [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. S. [Korea Aerospace University, Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T. H.; So, W. Y. [Kangwon National University at Dogye, Samcheok (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    We calculate the total fusion cross sections for the {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi, {sup 6}Li + {sup 209}Bi,{sup 9}Be + {sup 208}Pb, {sup 10}Be + {sup 209}Bi, and {sup 11}Li + {sup 208}Pb systems by using a coupled-channel (CC) method and compare the results with the experimental data. In the CC approach for the total fusion cross sections, we exploit a globally determined Wood-Saxon potential with Aky¨uz-Winther parameters and couplings of the ground state to the low-lying excited states in the projectile and the target nuclei. The total fusion cross sections obtained with the CC are compared with those obtained without the CC couplings. The latter approach is tantamount to a one-dimensional barrier penetration model. Finally, our approach is applied to understand new data for the {sup 11}Li+{sup 208}Pb system. Possible ambiguities inherent in those approaches are discussed in detail for further applications to the fusion system of halo and/or neutron-rich nuclei.

  13. Two-dimensional cross-section and SED uncertainty analysis for the Fusion Engineering Device (FED)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrechts, M.J.; Urban, W.T.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of two-dimensional cross-section and secondary-energy-distribution (SED) sensitivity was implemented by developing a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code, SENSIT-2D. Analyses of the Fusion Engineering Design (FED) conceptual inboard shield indicate that, although the calculated uncertainties in the 2-D model are of the same order of magnitude as those resulting from the 1-D model, there might be severe differences. The more complex the geometry, the more compulsory a 2-D analysis becomes. Specific results show that the uncertainty for the integral heating of the toroidal field (TF) coil for the FED is 114.6%. The main contributors to the cross-section uncertainty are chromium and iron. Contributions to the total uncertainty were smaller for nickel, copper, hydrogen and carbon. All analyses were performed with the Los Alamos 42-group cross-section library generated from ENDF/B-V data, and the COVFILS covariance matrix library. The large uncertainties due to chromium result mainly from large convariances for the chromium total and elastic scattering cross sections

  14. Equilibrium Configurations of the Noncircular Cross-Section Elastic Rod Model with the Elliptic KB Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical deformation of DNA is very important in many biological processes. In this paper, we consider the reduced Kirchhoff equations of the noncircular cross-section elastic rod characterized by the inequality of the bending rigidities. One family of exact solutions is obtained in terms of rational expressions for classical Jacobi elliptic functions. The present solutions allow the investigation of the dynamical behavior of the system in response to changes in physical parameters that concern asymmetry. The effects of the factor on the DNA conformation are discussed. A qualitative analysis is also conducted to provide valuable insight into the topological configuration of DNA segments.

  15. Combination and QCD analysis of charm production cross section measurements in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). School of Physics; Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Abt, I. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Adamczyk, L. [AGH-Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland). Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science] [and others; Collaboration: H1 and ZEUS Collaboration

    2012-10-15

    Measurements of open charm production cross sections in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA from the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations are combined. Reduced cross sections {sigma}{sup c} {sup anti} {sup c}{sub red} for charm production are obtained in the kinematic range of photon virtuality 2.5 {<=} Q{sup 2} {<=} 2000 GeV{sup 2} and Bjorken scaling variable 3.10{sup -5}{<=}x{<=}5.10{sup -2}. The combination method accounts for the correlations of the systematic uncertainties among the different data sets. The combined charm data together with the combined inclusive deepinelastic scattering cross sections from HERA are used as input for a detailed NLO QCD analysis to study the influence of different heavy flavour schemes on the parton distribution functions. The optimal values of the charm mass as a parameter in these different schemes are obtained. The implications on the NLO predictions for W{sup {+-}} and Z production cross sections at the LHC are investigated. Using the fixed flavour number scheme, the running mass of the charm quark is determined.

  16. Sample size methods for estimating HIV incidence from cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konikoff, Jacob; Brookmeyer, Ron

    2015-12-01

    Understanding HIV incidence, the rate at which new infections occur in populations, is critical for tracking and surveillance of the epidemic. In this article, we derive methods for determining sample sizes for cross-sectional surveys to estimate incidence with sufficient precision. We further show how to specify sample sizes for two successive cross-sectional surveys to detect changes in incidence with adequate power. In these surveys biomarkers such as CD4 cell count, viral load, and recently developed serological assays are used to determine which individuals are in an early disease stage of infection. The total number of individuals in this stage, divided by the number of people who are uninfected, is used to approximate the incidence rate. Our methods account for uncertainty in the durations of time spent in the biomarker defined early disease stage. We find that failure to account for this uncertainty when designing surveys can lead to imprecise estimates of incidence and underpowered studies. We evaluated our sample size methods in simulations and found that they performed well in a variety of underlying epidemics. Code for implementing our methods in R is available with this article at the Biometrics website on Wiley Online Library. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  17. Radar cross-section (RCS) analysis of high frequency surface wave radar targets

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKIR, Gonca; SEVGİ, Levent

    2010-01-01

    Realistic high frequency surface wave radar (HFSWR) targets are investigated numerically in terms of electromagnetic wave -- target interactions. Radar cross sections (RCS) of these targets are simulated via both the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method and the Method of Moments (MoM). The virtual RCS prediction tool that was introduced in previous work is used for these investigations. The virtual tool automatically creates the discrete FDTD model of the target under investi...

  18. Micro/nano analysis of tooth microstructures by Focused Ion Beam (FIB cross-sectioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem Sezen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Since dental structures are hard and fragile, cross-sectioning of these materials using ultramicrotomy and other techniques and following micro and nano analysis cause problems. The use of FIB-SEM dual beam platforms is the most convenient solution for investigating the microstructures, site-specifically and in certain geometries. Dual beam platforms allow for imaging at high magnifications and resolutions and simultaneous elemental analysis. In this study, the micro/nano-structural and chemical differences were revealed in dentin and enamel samples. The investigation of dental tissues having different morphologies and chemical components by ion-cross-sectioning is important for the use of FIB-SEM platforms in dentistry in Turkey.

  19. Determination of the total neutron cross section using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. О. Gritzay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the technique for determination of the total neutron cross sections from the measurements of sample transmission by filtered neutrons, scattered on hydrogen is described. One of the methods of the transmission determination TH52Cr from the measurements of 52Cr sample, using average energy shift method for filtered neutron beam is presented. Using two methods of the experimental data processing, one of which is presented in this paper (another in [1], there is presented a set of transmissions, obtained for different samples and for different measurement angles. Two methods are fundamentally different; therefore, we can consider the obtained processing results, using these methods as independent. In future, obtained set of transmissions is planned to be used for determination of the parameters E0, Гn and R/ of the resonance 52Cr at the energy of 50 keV.

  20. Measurement and QCD analysis of diffractive jet cross sections in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mozer, M.U.

    2006-07-24

    Differential cross sections for the production of two jets in diffractive deep inelastic scattering (DIS) at HERA are presented. The process studied is of the type ep{yields}eXY, where the central hadronic system X contains at least two jets and is separated from the system Y by a gap in rapidity. The forward system Y consists of an elastically scattered proton or a low mass dissociation system. The data were taken with the H1 detector during the years of 1999 and 2000 and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 51.5 pb{sup -1}. The measured cross sections are compared to fixed order NLO QCD predictions, that use diffractive parton densities which have previously been determined by a NLO QCD analysis of inclusive diffractive DIS at H1. The prediction and the data show significant differences. However, the dijet cross section is dominated by the diffractive gluon density, which can be extracted by the above mentioned analysis only with considerable uncertainty. Hence a combined QCD analysis of the previously published inclusive diffractive data and the dijet data is performed. This combined fit analysis allows the determination of diffractive quark and gluon densities with comparable precision. The common description of inclusive diffractive data and the dijet data confirms QCD factorization. (orig.)

  1. The cross-section dividing method and a stochastic interpretation of the moliere expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, T.; Okei, K.

    2004-01-01

    Properties of Moliere scattering process are investigated through the cross-section dividing method. We divide the single-scattering at an adequate angle into the moderate scattering and the large-angle scattering. We have found the expansion parameter or the shape parameter B of Moliere, which corresponds to the splitting angle of the single scattering at e B/2 times the screening angle, acts as the probability parameter to receive the large-angle scattering. A mathematical formulation to derive the angular distribution through the cross-section dividing method is proposed. Small distortions from the gaussian distribution were found in the central distribution produced by the moderate scattering of Moliere, due to the higher Fourier components. Smaller splitting angles than Moliere, e.g. the one-scattering angle χ C , will be effective for rapid sampling sequences of Moliere angular distribution, giving almost gaussian central distributions as the product of moderate scattering and low-frequent single-scatterings as the product of large-angle scatterings. (author)

  2. A statistical method to estimate low-energy hadronic cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balassa, Gábor; Kovács, Péter; Wolf, György

    2018-02-01

    In this article we propose a model based on the Statistical Bootstrap approach to estimate the cross sections of different hadronic reactions up to a few GeV in c.m.s. energy. The method is based on the idea, when two particles collide a so-called fireball is formed, which after a short time period decays statistically into a specific final state. To calculate the probabilities we use a phase space description extended with quark combinatorial factors and the possibility of more than one fireball formation. In a few simple cases the probability of a specific final state can be calculated analytically, where we show that the model is able to reproduce the ratios of the considered cross sections. We also show that the model is able to describe proton-antiproton annihilation at rest. In the latter case we used a numerical method to calculate the more complicated final state probabilities. Additionally, we examined the formation of strange and charmed mesons as well, where we used existing data to fit the relevant model parameters.

  3. Group cross-section processing method and common nuclear group cross-section library based on JENDL-3 nuclear data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira

    1991-01-01

    A common group cross-section library has been developed in JAERI. This system is called 'JSSTDL-295n-104γ (neutron:295 gamma:104) group constants library system', which is composed of a common 295n-104γ group cross-section library based on JENDL-3 nuclear data file and its utility codes. This system is applicable to fast and fusion reactors. In this paper, firstly outline of group cross-section processing adopted in Prof. GROUCH-G/B system is described in detail which is a common step for all group cross-section library generation. Next available group cross-section libraries developed in Japan based on JENDL-3 are briefly reviewed. Lastly newly developed JSSTDL library system is presented with some special attention to the JENDL-3 data. (author)

  4. ORACLE: an adjusted cross-section and covariance library for fast-reactor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeivin, Y.; Marable, J.H.; Weisbin, C.R.; Wagschal, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    Benchmark integral-experiment values from six fast critical-reactor assemblies and two standard neutron fields are combined with corresponding calculations using group cross sections based on ENDF/B-V in a least-squares data adjustment using evaluated covariances from ENDF/B-V and supporting covariance evaluations. Purpose is to produce an adjusted cross-section and covariance library which is based on well-documented data and methods and which is suitable for fast-reactor design. By use of such a library, data- and methods-related biases of calculated performance parameters should be reduced and uncertainties of the calculated values minimized. Consistency of the extensive data base is analyzed using the chi-square test. This adjusted library ORACLE will be available shortly

  5. Cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the FNG copper benchmark experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kodeli, I., E-mail: ivan.kodeli@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kondo, K. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho-mura (Japan); Perel, R.L. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, IL-91904 Jerusalem (Israel); Fischer, U. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Postfach 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    A neutronics benchmark experiment on copper assembly was performed end 2014–beginning 2015 at the 14-MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG) of ENEA Frascati with the objective to provide the experimental database required for the validation of the copper nuclear data relevant for ITER design calculations, including the related uncertainties. The paper presents the pre- and post-analysis of the experiment performed using cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty codes, both deterministic (SUSD3D) and Monte Carlo (MCSEN5). Cumulative reaction rates and neutron flux spectra, their sensitivity to the cross sections, as well as the corresponding uncertainties were estimated for different selected detector positions up to ∼58 cm in the copper assembly. This permitted in the pre-analysis phase to optimize the geometry, the detector positions and the choice of activation reactions, and in the post-analysis phase to interpret the results of the measurements and the calculations, to conclude on the quality of the relevant nuclear cross-section data, and to estimate the uncertainties in the calculated nuclear responses and fluxes. Large uncertainties in the calculated reaction rates and neutron spectra of up to 50%, rarely observed at this level in the benchmark analysis using today's nuclear data, were predicted, particularly high for fast reactions. Observed C/E (dis)agreements with values as low as 0.5 partly confirm these predictions. Benchmark results are therefore expected to contribute to the improvement of both cross section as well as covariance data evaluations.

  6. Gender differences in the use of health care in China: cross-sectional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yan; Bian, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differences between women and men in education, employment, political and economic empowerment have been well-documented in China due to the long traditional culture that male is superior to female. This study is to explore whether the similar gender differences exist in the use of health care by analyzing hospital admission, duration of hospitalization and medical expense of both genders in a Chinese hospital. Methods This cross-sectional study evaluated the gender differences i...

  7. Defect analysis in GaN films of HEMT structure by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Yasuhiro; Hung, Hung; Oasa, Kohei; Ono, Tasuku; Onizawa, Takashi; Yoshioka, Akira; Takada, Yoshiharu; Saito, Yasunobu; Sugiyama, Naoharu; Tsuda, Kunio; Sugiyama, Toru; Mizushima, Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Defect analysis of GaN films in high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures by cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (X-CL) is demonstrated as a useful technique for improving the current collapse of GaN-HEMT devices, and the relationship between crystal quality and device characteristics is also investigated. The crystal quality of intrinsic-GaN (i-GaN) and carbon-doped GaN produced clearly different peak intensities of blue luminescence (BL), yellow luminescence (YL), and band-edge emission (BE), which is independently detected by X-CL. Current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices is found to be determined by the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios at the top of the i-GaN layer, which is close to the channel. Moreover, the i-GaN thickness required in order to minimize the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios and the thickness dependency of GaN for minimizing the BL/BE and YL/BE ratios depending on the growth conditions can be evaluated by X-CL. However, there is no correlation between current collapse in GaN-HEMT devices and the YL/BE ratio by conventional photoluminescence because HEMT devices consist of multiple GaN layers and the YL signal is detected from the carbon-doped GaN layer. Thus, the X-CL analysis method is a useful technique for device design in order to suppress current collapse.

  8. Application of sensitivity analysis to a quantitative assessment of neutron cross-section requirements for the TFTR: an interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Muir, D.W.

    1975-09-01

    A computational method to determine cross-section requirements quantitatively is described and applied to the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). In order to provide a rational basis for the priorities assigned to new cross-section measurements or evaluations, this method includes quantitative estimates of the uncertainty of currently available data, the sensitivity of important nuclear design parameters to selected cross sections, and the accuracy desired in predicting nuclear design parameters. Perturbation theory is used to combine estimated cross-section uncertainties with calculated sensitivities to determine the variance of any nuclear design parameter of interest

  9. Method and apparatus for determination of temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagelatos, Nicholas; Steinman, Donald K.; John, Joseph; Young, Jack C.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear method and apparatus determines the temperature of a medium by injecting fast neutrons into the medium and detecting returning slow neutrons in three first energy ranges by producing three respective detection signals. The detection signals are combined to produce three derived indicia each systematically related to the population of slow neutrons returning from the medium in a respective one of three second energy ranges, specifically exclusively epithermal neutrons, exclusively substantially all thermal neutrons and exclusively a portion of the thermal neutron spectrum. The derived indicia are compared with calibration indicia similarly systematically related to the population of slow neutrons in the same three second energy ranges returning from similarly irradiated calibration media for which the relationships temperature, neutron absorption cross section and neutron moderating power to such calibration indicia are known. The comparison indicates the temperature at which the calibration indicia correspond to the derived indicia and consequently the temperature of the medium. The neutron absorption cross section and moderating power of the medium can be identified at the same time.

  10. Role of ''standard'' fine-group cross section libraries in shielding analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisbin, C.R.; Roussin, R.W.; Oblow, E.M.; Cullen, D.E.; White, J.E.; Wright, R.Q.

    1977-01-01

    The Divisions of Magnetic Fusion Energy (DMFE) and Reactor Development and Demonstration (DRDD) of the United States Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have jointly sponsored the development of a 171 neutron, 36 gamma ray group pseudo composition independent cross section library based upon ENDF/B-IV. This library (named VITAMIN-C and packaged by RSIC as DLC-41) is intended to be generally applicable to fusion blanket and LMFBR core and shield analysis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate this library as a possible candidate for specific designation as a ''standard'' in light of American Nuclear Society standards for fine-group cross section data sets. The rationale and qualification procedure for such a standard are discussed. Finally, current limitations and anticipated extensions to this processed data file are described

  11. Modeling and Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Varying Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiara Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the modeling and on the experimental verification of electromechanically coupled beams with varying cross-sectional area for piezoelectric energy harvesting. The governing equations are formulated using the Rayleigh-Ritz method and Euler-Bernoulli assumptions. A load resistance is considered in the electrical domain for the estimate of the electric power output of each geometric configuration. The model is first verified against the analytical results for a rectangular bimorph with tip mass reported in the literature. The experimental verification of the model is also reported for a tapered bimorph cantilever with tip mass. The effects of varying cross-sectional area and tip mass on the electromechanical behavior of piezoelectric energy harvesters are also discussed. An issue related to the estimation of the optimal load resistance (that gives the maximum power output on beam shape optimization problems is also discussed.

  12. The use of cross-section warping functions in composite rotor blade analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmatka, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    During the contracted period, our research was concentrated into three areas. The first was the development of an accurate and a computationally efficient method for predicting the cross-section warping functions in an arbitrary cross-section composed of isotropic and/or anisotropic materials. The second area of research was the development of a general higher-order one-dimensional theory for anisotropic beams. The third area of research was the development of an analytical model for assessing the extension-bend-twist coupling behavior of nonhomogeneous anisotropic beams with initial twist. In the remaining six chapters of this report, the three different research areas and associated sub-research areas are covered independently including separate introductions, theoretical developments, numerical results, and references.

  13. Muon-neutrino-induced charged-current cross section without pions: Theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosel, U.; Gallmeister, K.

    2018-04-01

    We calculate the charged-current cross sections obtained at the T2K near detector for νμ-induced events without pions in the final state. The method used is quantum-kinetic transport theory. Results are shown first, as a benchmark, for electron-inclusive cross sections on 12C and 16O to be followed with a detailed comparison with the data measured by the T2K Collaboration on C8H8 and H2O targets. The contribution of 2p2h processes is found to be relevant mostly for backward angles; their theoretical uncertainties are within the experimental uncertainties. Particular emphasis is then put on a discussion of events in which pions are first created but then reabsorbed. Their contribution is found to be essential at forward angles.

  14. Extraction of astrophysical cross sections in the Trojan-Horse method

    CERN Document Server

    Typel, S

    2000-01-01

    The Trojan-horse method has been proposed to extract S-matrix elements of a two-body reaction at astrophysical energies from a related reaction with three particles in the final case. This should be useful in cases where the direct measurement of the two-body reaction at the necessary low energie is experimentally difficult. The formalism of the Trojan-horse method for nuclear reactions is developed in detail from basic scattering theory including spin degrees of freedom of the nuclei and we specify the necessary approximations. The energy dependence of the three-body reaction is determined by characteristic functions that represent the theoretical ingredients for the method. In a plane-wave Born approximation of the T-matrix the differential cross section assumes a simple structure. Refs. 17 (author)

  15. Microneedle fabrication using the plane pattern to cross-section transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumpuang, Sommawan; Horade, Mitsuhiro; Fujioka, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, microneedle fabrication using the PCT (plane pattern to cross-section transfer) method is summarized. Three types of microneedle array have been developed: the single-tip, quadruplet, and hollow microneedle arrays. A brief introduction to the fabrication process using PCT and detailed design concepts for optimizing the fabrication steps for shape improvement of the three types of microneedle are provided. The microneedle structures have controllable angled sidewalls, exhibiting an extraordinarily geometrical level of accuracy compared to what is achieved using other existing fabrication methods based on deep x-ray lithography by synchrotron radiation. Furthermore, the improvements reported in this work as compared to the results from the existing methods are: sharper tips for the single-tip microneedles, strength improvement for the quadruplet microneedles, and cost reduction for the hollow microneedles. Each type of microneedle was designed to serve a different biomedical need.

  16. QCD analysis of neutral and charged current cross sections and search for contact interactions at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirumov, Hayk

    2013-11-15

    A QCD analysis of the inclusive deep inelastic ep scattering cross section measured by the H1 experiment at HERA is presented. The data correspond to a total integrated luminosity of about 0.5 fb{sup -1} and covers a kinematic range of 0.5 GeV{sup 2} - 30000 GeV{sup 2} in the negative four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} and 3 . 10{sup -5} - 0.65 in Bjorken x. The performed QCD analysis of the double differential neutral and charged current cross sections results in a set of parton distribution functions H1PDF 2012. The precise data from HERA II period in the kinematic region of high Q{sup 2} considerably improve the accuracy of the PDFs at the high x. In addition a search for signs of new physics using single differential neutral current cross section measurements at high Q{sup 2} is performed. The observed good agreement of the analysed data with the Standard Model predictions allows to set constraints on various new physics models within the framework of contact interactions. Limits are derived on the compositeness scale for general contact interactions, on the ratio of mass to the Yukawa coupling for heavy leptoquark models, on the effective Plank-mass scale in the large extra dimension models and on the quark radius.

  17. SENSIT: a cross-section and design sensitivity and uncertainty analysis code. [In FORTRAN for CDC-7600, IBM 360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstl, S.A.W.

    1980-01-01

    SENSIT computes the sensitivity and uncertainty of a calculated integral response (such as a dose rate) due to input cross sections and their uncertainties. Sensitivity profiles are computed for neutron and gamma-ray reaction cross sections of standard multigroup cross section sets and for secondary energy distributions (SEDs) of multigroup scattering matrices. In the design sensitivity mode, SENSIT computes changes in an integral response due to design changes and gives the appropriate sensitivity coefficients. Cross section uncertainty analyses are performed for three types of input data uncertainties: cross-section covariance matrices for pairs of multigroup reaction cross sections, spectral shape uncertainty parameters for secondary energy distributions (integral SED uncertainties), and covariance matrices for energy-dependent response functions. For all three types of data uncertainties SENSIT computes the resulting variance and estimated standard deviation in an integral response of interest, on the basis of generalized perturbation theory. SENSIT attempts to be more comprehensive than earlier sensitivity analysis codes, such as SWANLAKE.

  18. Measurement and QCD analysis of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.

    2006-05-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep→eXY, where Y is a proton or a low mass proton excitation carrying a fraction 1-x P >0.95 of the incident proton longitudinal momentum and the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex satisfies t 2 . Using data taken by the H1 experiment, the cross section is measured for photon virtualities in the range 3.5 ≤Q 2 ≤1600 GeV 2 , triple differentially in x P , Q 2 and β=x/x P , where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. At low x P , the data are consistent with a factorisable x P dependence, which can be described by the exchange of an effective pomeron trajectory with intercept α P (0)=1.118 ±0.008(exp.) +0.029 -0.010 (model). Diffractive parton distribution functions and their uncertainties are determined from a next-to-leading order DGLAP QCD analysis of the Q 2 and β dependences of the cross section. The resulting gluon distribution carries an integrated fraction of around 70% of the exchanged momentum in the Q 2 range studied. Total and differential cross sections are also measured for the diffractive charged current process e + p → anti ν e XY and are found to be well described by predictions based on the diffractive parton distributions. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive neutral current ep cross sections is studied. Over most of the kinematic range, this ratio shows no significant dependence on Q 2 at fixed x P and x or on x at fixed Q 2 and β. (Orig.)

  19. Measurement and QCD analysis of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering cross section at HERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J. C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J. G.; Coughlan, J. A.; Coppens, Y. R.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; de Roeck, A.; de Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B. R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, C. L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Krüger, K.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakytė, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A. J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R. N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T. N.; Truöl, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y. C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-12-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process ep→eXY, where Y is a proton or a low mass proton excitation carrying a fraction 1-xIP>0.95 of the incident proton longitudinal momentum and the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex satisfies |t|<1 GeV2. Using data taken by the H1 experiment, the cross section is measured for photon virtualities in the range 3.5≤Q2≤1600 GeV2, triple differentially in xIP, Q2 and β=x/xIP, where x is the Bjorken scaling variable. At low xIP, the data are consistent with a factorisable xIP dependence, which can be described by the exchange of an effective pomeron trajectory with intercept αIP(0)=1.118±0.008(exp.)+0.029 -0.010(model). Diffractive parton distribution functions and their uncertainties are determined from a next-to-leading order DGLAP QCD analysis of the Q2 and β dependences of the cross section. The resulting gluon distribution carries an integrated fraction of around 70% of the exchanged momentum in the Q2 range studied. Total and differential cross sections are also measured for the diffractive charged current process e+p→ν¯eXY and are found to be well described by predictions based on the diffractive parton distributions. The ratio of the diffractive to the inclusive neutral current ep cross sections is studied. Over most of the kinematic range, this ratio shows no significant dependence on Q2 at fixed xIP and x or on x at fixed Q2 and β.

  20. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, A. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, T. [Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyuez-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions {sup 16}O + {sup 70}Ge and {sup 28}Si + {sup 100}Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data. (orig.)

  1. Supplier-induced demand: re-examining identification and misspecification in cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Stuart J; Richardson, Jeffrey R J

    2007-09-01

    This paper re-examines criticisms of cross-sectional methods used to test for supplier-induced demand (SID) and re-evaluates the empirical evidence using data from Australian medical services. Cross-sectional studies of SID have been criticised on two grounds. First, and most important, the inclusion of the doctor supply in the demand equation leads to an identification problem. This criticism is shown to be invalid, as the doctor supply variable is stochastic and depends upon a variety of other variables including the desirability of the location. Second, cross-sectional studies of SID fail diagnostic tests and produce artefactual findings due to model misspecification. Contrary to this, the re-evaluation of cross-sectional Australian data indicate that demand equations that do not include the doctor supply are misspecified. Empirical evidence from the re-evaluation of Australian medical services data supports the notion of SID. Demand and supply equations are well specified and have very good explanatory power. The demand equation is identified and the desirability of a location is an important predictor of the doctor supply. Results show an average price elasticity of demand of 0.22 and an average elasticity of demand with respect to the doctor supply of 0.46, with the impact of SID becoming stronger as the doctor supply rises. The conclusion we draw from this paper is that two of the main criticisms of the empirical evidence supporting the SID hypothesis have been inappropriately levelled at the methods used. More importantly, SID provides a satisfactory, and robust, explanation of the empirical data on the demand for medical services in Australia.

  2. Analysis of the effectiveness of various cross-sections in large-span post-tensioned ceilings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, K.

    2018-03-01

    The correct construction of large span, slim post-tensioned concrete slabs is conditioned by an appropriate cross-section selection. It is generally accepted that the thinnest slab can be constructed using the full cross-section as the largest compression stress storage. However, completely different cross-sections may help to overcome large spans. The paper presents the results of the computational analysis of several types of cross-sections (full, with internal relieving inserts and ribbed) in the application to a post-tensioned slab with a span of 15.0m. Based on the results presented, appropriate conclusions were drawn.

  3. Gender differences in clinicoepidemiological features of vitiligo: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sharmila; Gautam, Manjyot; Nadkarni, Nitin; Saboo, Neha; Godse, Kiran; Setia, Maninder Singh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Vitiligo has important clinical and social consequences particularly in the pigmented skin. The present study was conducted to assess the differences in clinicoepidemiological presentation of vitiligo in males and females and to understand the factors associated with spread of vitiligo in them. Methods. This is a cross-sectional analysis of secondary clinical data of 168 vitiligo patients at a tertiary medical centre at Navi Mumbai. We used logistic regression models to estimate the association between gender and clinical characteristics of vitiligo and to evaluate the factors associated with spread of vitiligo. Results. There were no significant differences between the mean ages of males and females; however, males reported a longer duration of disease (6.9 (10.4) years) compared with females (4.9 (7.4) years). Males were significantly more likely to report a family history of vitiligo compared with females (adjusted OR (aOR): 16.87, 95% CI: 2.16 to 131.69). Even though females were more likely to report spread of lesions, the association was not statistically significant (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.62 to 2.36). Discussion. The differences in the clinical presentations between genders highlight the need to understand the different factors (possibly genetic) that may play a part in the pathogenesis of this multifactorial disease in males and females.

  4. Methods of Experimental Investigation of Cavitation in a Convergent - Divergent Nozzle of Rectangular Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jablonská Jana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation is a phenomenon with both positive and negative effects and with dynamic manifestations in hydraulic, food, chemical and other machinery. This article deals with the detection and dynamic behavior of cavitation clouds in water flows through a rectangular cross-section convergent-divergent nozzle. Cavitation was measured by methods applicable in engineering practice. Pressure, flow rate, noise, vibration, and amount of air dissolved in the liquid were measured and cavitation region was recorded with a high-speed camera. Evaluation of acquired images in connection with measured pressure pulsations and mechanical vibrations was performed with the use of the FFT method. In certain cases, dimensionless parameters were used to generalize the measurements. The results will be used to specify multiphase mathematical cavitation model parameters.

  5. Analysis of neutron cross sections using the coupled-channel theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Shigeya

    1975-01-01

    Fast neutron total and scattering cross sections calculated with the coupled-channel theory and the spherical optical model are compared with experimental data. The optical-potential parameters used in both the calculations were obtained from comparison of calculations with scattering data for 209 Bi. The calculations for total cross sections were made for thirty-five nuclides from 23 Na to 239 Pu in the energy range of 0.25 to 15 MeV, and good results were obtained with the coupled-channel calculations. The comparisons of the calculations with the elastic data for about twenty nuclides were made at incident energies of 8 and 14 MeV. In general, the coupled-channel calculations at 8 MeV have given better agreements with the experimental data than the spherical optical-model calculations. At 14 MeV, differences between both the calculations were small. The analysis was also made for the elastic and inelastic scattering by several nuclei such as Fe, Ni, 120 Sn, Pu in the low energy region, and good results have been given by the coupled-channel calculations. Thus, it is demonstrated that the coupled-channel calculations with one set of the optical parameters well reproduce the total and scattering cross sections over a wide energy and mass region. (auth.)

  6. Measurement and QCD Analysis of Neutral and Charged Current Cross Sections at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Anthonis, T.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, C.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Bohme, J.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Chekelian, V.; Clarke, D.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coppens, Y.R.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Grab, C.; Grabski, V.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Katzy, J.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Kjellberg, P.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Koutov, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kuhr, T.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loginov, A.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, T.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Portheault, B.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vassiliev, S.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vichnevski, A.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Wallny, R.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wiesand, S.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Woehrling, E.E.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; zur Nedden, M.

    2003-01-01

    The inclusive e^+ p single and double differential cross sections for neutral and charged current processes are measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The data were taken in 1999 and 2000 at a centre-of-mass energy of \\sqrt{s} = 319 GeV and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 65.2 pb^-1. The cross sections are measured in the range of four-momentum transfer squared Q^2 between 100 and 30000 GeV^2 and Bjorken x between 0.0013 and 0.65. The neutral current analysis for the new e^+ p data and the earlier e^- p data taken in 1998 and 1999 is extended to small energies of the scattered electron and therefore to higher values of inelasticity y, allowing a determination of the longitudinal structure function F_L at high Q^2 (110 - 700 GeV^2). A new measurement of the structure function x F_3 is obtained using the new e^+ p and previously published e^\\pm p neutral current cross section data at high Q^2. These data together with H1 low Q^2 precision data are further used to perform new next-to-leading order QCD ...

  7. Sensitivity Analysis of Nuclide Importance to One-Group Neutron Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Yoshikane

    2001-01-01

    The importance of nuclides is useful when investigating nuclide characteristics in a given neutron spectrum. However, it is derived using one-group microscopic cross sections, which may contain large errors or uncertainties. The sensitivity coefficient shows the effect of these errors or uncertainties on the importance.The equations for calculating sensitivity coefficients of importance to one-group nuclear constants are derived using the perturbation method. Numerical values are also evaluated for some important cases for fast and thermal reactor systems.Many characteristics of the sensitivity coefficients are derived from the derived equations and numerical results. The matrix of sensitivity coefficients seems diagonally dominant. However, it is not always satisfied in a detailed structure. The detailed structure of the matrix and the characteristics of coefficients are given.By using the obtained sensitivity coefficients, some demonstration calculations have been performed. The effects of error and uncertainty of nuclear data and of the change of one-group cross-section input caused by fuel design changes through the neutron spectrum are investigated. These calculations show that the sensitivity coefficient is useful when evaluating error or uncertainty of nuclide importance caused by the cross-section data error or uncertainty and when checking effectiveness of fuel cell or core design change for improving neutron economy

  8. Cross-sectional analysis of ferroelectric domains in PZT capacitors via piezoresponse force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, J S [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang City (China); Zeng, H Z [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Kholkin, A L [Department of Ceramic and Glass Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal)

    2007-11-21

    Ferroelectric domains have been investigated on the cross-section of Pb(Zr{sub 0.55}Ti{sub 0.45})O{sub 3} (PZT) thin film capacitors by scanning probe microscopy. The static domain images on the cross-section were obtained by the lateral piezoresponse force microscopy (LPFM) method, in which the ac voltage used to induce the converse piezoelectric effect was applied between the conductive tip and the bottom electrode. The polarization component normal to the substrate could be characterized via both d{sub 33} and d{sub 15} piezoelectric coefficients, which resulted in a high resolution of LPFM images. After a variable dc bias was applied between the top and the bottom electrodes, the variations of domain image on the cross-section were recorded by the LPFM immediately. Upon the application of low bias, new domain sites appeared near the PZT/Pt interface opposite to the initial polarization. Forward stretch of new domains was facilitated under the dc field approaching the coercive field E{sub c}. Under a very high field (about three times of the E{sub c}), the sidewise expansion of columnar domains was observed. However, the domains were only partially switched even though a very high field was applied. The observed domain growth process indicated a lower energy barrier for nucleation compared with that of domain wall motion. Possible reasons for the incomplete switching are the substantial influences of the interface and depolarization in thin film capacitors.

  9. Post graduate clinical placements: evaluating benefits and challenges with a mixed methods cross sectional design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiend, Jenny; Tracy, Derek K; Sreenan, Brian; Cardi, Valentina; Foulkes, Tina; Koutsantoni, Katerina; Kravariti, Eugenia; Tchanturia, Kate; Willmott, Lucy; Shergill, Sukhi; Reedy, Gabriel

    2016-02-16

    Systematic evaluations of clinical placements are rare, especially when offered alongside academic postgraduate courses. An evidence-based approach is important to allow pedagogically-driven provision, rather than that solely governed by opinion or market demand. Our evaluation assessed a voluntary clinical placement scheme allied to a mental health course. Data were collected over academic years 2010/11- 2013/14, from participating students (n = 20 to 58) and clinician supervisors (n = 10-12), using a mixed-methods cross-sectional design. Quantitative evaluation captured information on uptake, dropout, resource use, attitudes and experience, using standardized (the Placement Evaluation Questionnaire; the Scale To Assess the Therapeutic Relationship - Clinical version and the University of Toronto Placement Supervisor Evaluation) and bespoke questionnaires and audit data. Qualitative evaluation comprised two focus groups (5 clinicians, 5 students), to investigate attitudes, experience, perceived benefits, disadvantages and desired future developments. Data were analysed using framework analysis to identify a priori and emergent themes. High uptake (around 70 placements per annum), low dropout (2-3 students per annum; 5 %) and positive focus group comments suggested placements successfully provided added value and catered sufficiently to student demand. Students' responses confirmed that placements met expectations and the perception of benefit remained after completion with 70 % (n = 14) reporting an overall positive experience, 75 % (n = 15) reporting a pleasant learning experience, 60 % (n = 12) feeling that their clinical skills were enhanced and 85 % (n = 17) believing that it would benefit other students. Placements contributed the equivalent of seven full time unskilled posts per annum to local health care services. While qualitative data revealed perceived 'mutual benefit' for both students and clinicians, this was qualified by

  10. Sum rule for bremsstrahlung cross section for 6Li in the resonating-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodhi, M.A.K.; Wood, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    In the method of resonating-group structure, the wave function of 6 Li is assumed to have a single channel of alpha and deuteron substructures in the ground state. It is shown that the intercluster exchange of nucleons is an important effect which causes significant change in the root mean square radius and the dipole transition cross section. Due to lack of symmetry in space coordinates of 6 Li, the dipole operator is not identical to the mean square operator for this sum rule calculation and is expected to display like behavior in similar systems. It is also shown that the deuteron substructure in this nucleus is substantially larger than the alpha substructure. (orig.)

  11. Partial neutron capture cross sections of actinides using cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genreith, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear waste needs to be characterized for its safe handling and storage. In particular long-lived actinides render the waste characterization challenging. The results described in this thesis demonstrate that Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGAA) with cold neutrons is a reliable tool for the non-destructive analysis of actinides. Nuclear data required for an accurate identification and quantification of actinides was acquired. Therefore, a sample design suitable for accurate and precise measurements of prompt γ-ray energies and partial cross sections of long-lived actinides at existing PGAA facilities was presented. Using the developed sample design the fundamental prompt γ-ray data on 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu were measured. The data were validated by repetitive analysis of different samples at two individual irradiation and counting facilities - the BRR in Budapest and the FRM II in Garching near Munich. Employing cold neutrons, resonance neutron capture by low energetic resonances was avoided during the experiments. This is an improvement over older neutron activation based works at thermal reactor neutron energies. 152 prompt γ-rays of 237 Np were identified, as well as 19 of 241 Am, and 127 prompt γ-rays of 242 Pu. In all cases, both high and lower energetic prompt γ-rays were identified. The most intense line of 237 Np was observed at an energy of E γ =182.82(10) keV associated with a partial capture cross section of σ γ =22.06(39) b. The most intense prompt γ-ray lines of 241 Am and of 242 Pu were observed at E γ =154.72(7) keV with σ γ =72.80(252) b and E γ =287.69(8) keV with σ γ =7.07(12) b, respectively. The measurements described in this thesis provide the first reported quantifications on partial radiative capture cross sections for 237 Np, 241 Am and 242 Pu measured simultaneously over the large energy range from 45 keV to 12 MeV. Detailed uncertainty assessments were performed and the validity of the given uncertainties was

  12. A Comparison between Effective Cross Section Calculations using the Intermediate Resonance Approximation and More Exact Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeggblom, H

    1969-02-15

    In order to investigate some aspects of the 'Intermediate Resonance Approximation' developed by Goldstein and Cohen, comparative calculations have been made using this method together with more accurate methods. The latter are as follows: a) For homogeneous materials the slowing down equation is solved in the fundamental mode approximation with the computer programme SPENG. All cross sections are given point by point. Because the spectrum can be calculated for at most 2000 energy points, the energy regions where the resonances are accurately described are limited. Isolated resonances in the region 100 to 240 eV are studied for {sup 238}U/Fe and {sup 238}U/Fe/Na mixtures. In the regions 161 to 251 eV and 701 to 1000 eV, mixtures of {sup 238}U and Na are investigated. {sup 239}Pu/Na and {sup 239}Pu/{sup 238}U/Na mixtures are studied in the region 161 to 251 eV. b) For heterogeneous compositions in slab geometry the integral transport equation is solved using the FLIS programme in 22 energy groups. Thus, only one resonance can be considered in each calculation. Two resonances are considered, namely those belonging to {sup 238}U at 190 and 937 eV. The compositions are lattices of {sup 238}U and Fe plates. The computer programme DORIX is used for the calculations using the Intermediate Resonance Approximation. Calculations of reaction rates and effective cross sections are made at 0, 300 and 1100 deg K for homogeneous media and at 300 deg K for heterogeneous media. The results are compared to those obtained by using the programmes SPENG and FLIS and using the narrow resonance approximation.

  13. Estimating health expectancies from two cross-sectional surveys: The intercensal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Guillot

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Health expectancies are key indicators for monitoring the health of populations, as well as for informing debates about compression or expansion of morbidity. However, current methodologies for estimating them are not entirely satisfactory. They are either of limited applicability because of high data requirements (the multistate method or based on questionable assumptions (the Sullivan method. This paper proposes a new method, called the "intercensal" method, which relies on the multistate framework but uses widely available data. The method uses age-specific proportions "healthy" at two successive, independent cross-sectional health surveys, and, together with information on general mortality, solves for the set of transition probabilities that produces the observed sequence of proportions healthy. The system is solved by making realistic parametric assumptions about the age patterns of transition probabilities. Using data from the Health and Retirement Survey (HRS and from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, the method is tested against both the multistate method and the Sullivan method. We conclude that the intercensal approach is a promising framework for the indirect estimation of health expectancies.

  14. Statistical Model Analysis of (n, α Cross Sections for 4.0-6.5 MeV Neutrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuukhenkhuu G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model based on the Weisskopf-Ewing theory and constant nuclear temperature approximation is used for systematical analysis of the 4.0-6.5 MeV neutron induced (n, α reaction cross sections. The α-clusterization effect was considered in the (n, α cross sections. A certain dependence of the (n, α cross sections on the relative neutron excess parameter of the target nuclei was observed. The systematic regularity of the (n, α cross sections behaviour is useful to estimate the same reaction cross sections for unstable isotopes. The results of our analysis can be used for nuclear astrophysical calculations such as helium burning and possible branching in the s-process.

  15. Patterns of cognitive performance in healthy ageing in Northern Portugal: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Paulo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Minho Integrative Neuroscience Database (MIND-Ageing project aims to identify predictors of healthy cognitive ageing, including socio-demographic factors. In this exploratory analysis we sought to establish baseline cohorts for longitudinal assessment of age-related changes in cognition. METHODS: The population sample (472 individuals was strictly a convenient one, but similar to the Portuguese population in the age profile. Participants older than 55 years of age were included if they did not present defined disabling pathologies or dementia. A standardized clinical interview was conducted to assess medical history and a battery of neuropsychological tests was administered to characterize global cognition (Mini Mental State Examination, memory and executive functions (Selective Reminding Test; Stroop Color and Word Test; and Block Design subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Cross-sectional analysis of the neuropsychological performance with individual characteristics such as age, gender, educational level and setting (retirement home, senior university, day care center or community, allowed the establishment of baseline clusters for subsequent longitudinal studies. RESULTS: Based on different socio-demographic characteristics, four main clusters that group distinctive patterns of cognitive performance were identified. The type of institution where the elders were sampled from, together with the level of formal education, were the major hierarchal factors for individual distribution in the four clusters. Of notice, education seems to delay the cognitive decline that is associated with age in all clusters. CONCLUSIONS: Social-inclusion/engagement and education seem to have a protective effect on mental ageing, although this effect may not be effective in the eldest elders.

  16. Nuclear forensic applications involving high spatial resolution analysis of Trinitite cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, P.H.; Antonio Simonetti; Koeman, E.C.; Sara Mana; University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; Burns, P.C.; University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN

    2015-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive cross-sectional analysis of major and trace element abundances and 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios within vertically oriented Trinitite thin sections. The upper glassy layer (∼2 mm thick) represents fused desert sand combined with devolatilized fallout from the debris cloud. The vertical distribution of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu ratios indicates that residual fuel was incorporated deeper (up to ∼10 mm depth) into Trinitite than previously reported. This requires thorough mixing and disturbance of the upper cm of the blast site prior to or during the initial melting of the desert sand resulting from the nuclear explosion. (author)

  17. Investigating the importance of the local food environment for fruit and vegetable intake in older men and women in 20 UK towns: a cross-sectional analysis of two national cohorts using novel methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkesworth, S; Silverwood, R J; Armstrong, B; Pliakas, T; Nanchahal, K; Sartini, C; Amuzu, A; Wannamethee, G; Atkins, J; Ramsay, S E; Casas, J P; Morris, R W; Whincup, P H; Lock, Karen

    2017-09-18

    Local neighbourhood environments can influence dietary behavior. There is limited evidence focused on older people who are likely to have greater dependence on local areas and may suffer functional limitations that amplify any neighbourhood impact. Using multi-level ordinal regression analysis we investigated the association between multiple dimensions of neighbourhood food environments (captured by fine-detail, foot-based environmental audits and secondary data) and self-reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake. The study was a cross-sectional analysis nested within two nationally representative cohorts in the UK: the British Regional Heart Study and the British Women's Heart and Health Study. Main exposures of interest were density of food retail outlets selling fruits and vegetables, the density of fast food outlets and a novel measure of diversity of the food retail environment. A total of 1124 men and 883 women, aged 69 - 92 years, living in 20 British towns were included in the analysis. There was strong evidence of an association between area income deprivation and fruit and vegetable consumption, with study members in the most deprived areas estimated to have 27% (95% CI: 7, 42) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in the least deprived areas. We found no consistent evidence for an association between fruit and vegetable consumption and a range of other food environment domains, including density of shops selling fruits and vegetables, density of premises selling fast food, the area food retail diversity, area walkability, transport accessibility, or the local food marketing environment. For example, individuals living in areas with greatest fruit and vegetable outlet density had 2% (95% CI: -22, 21) lower odds of being in a higher fruit and vegetable consumption category relative to those in areas with no shops. Although small effect sizes in environment-diet relationships cannot be discounted

  18. Methods for obtaining true particle size distributions from cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, Kristina Alyse [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Sectioning methods are frequently used to measure grain sizes in materials. These methods do not provide accurate grain sizes for two reasons. First, the sizes of features observed on random sections are always smaller than the true sizes of solid spherical shaped objects, as noted by Wicksell [1]. This is the case because the section very rarely passes through the center of solid spherical shaped objects randomly dispersed throughout a material. The sizes of features observed on random sections are inversely related to the distance of the center of the solid object from the section [1]. Second, on a plane section through the solid material, larger sized features are more frequently observed than smaller ones due to the larger probability for a section to come into contact with the larger sized portion of the spheres than the smaller sized portion. As a result, it is necessary to find a method that takes into account these reasons for inaccurate particle size measurements, while providing a correction factor for accurately determining true particle size measurements. I present a method for deducing true grain size distributions from those determined from specimen cross sections, either by measurement of equivalent grain diameters or linear intercepts.

  19. Durability of Vaccine-Induced Immunity Against Tetanus and Diphtheria Toxins: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarlund, Erika; Thomas, Archana; Poore, Elizabeth A.; Amanna, Ian J.; Rynko, Abby E.; Mori, Motomi; Chen, Zunqiu; Slifka, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many adult immunization schedules recommend that tetanus and diphtheria vaccination be performed every 10 years. In light of current epidemiological trends of disease incidence and rates of vaccine-associated adverse events, the 10-year revaccination schedule has come into question. Methods. We performed cross-sectional analysis of serum antibody titers in 546 adult subjects stratified by age or sex. All serological results were converted to international units after calibration with international serum standards. Results. Approximately 97% of the population was seropositive to tetanus and diphtheria as defined by a protective serum antibody titer of ≥0.01 IU/mL. Mean antibody titers were 3.6 and 0.35 IU/mL against tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. Antibody responses to tetanus declined with an estimated half-life of 14 years (95% confidence interval, 11–17 years), whereas antibody responses to diphtheria were more long-lived and declined with an estimated half-life of 27 years (18–51 years). Mathematical models combining antibody magnitude and duration predict that 95% of the population will remain protected against tetanus and diphtheria for ≥30 years without requiring further booster vaccination. Conclusions. These studies demonstrate that durable levels of protective antitoxin immunity exist in the majority of vaccinated individuals. Together, this suggests that it may no longer be necessary to administer booster vaccinations every 10 years and that the current adult vaccination schedule for tetanus and diphtheria should be revisited. PMID:27060790

  20. R-matrix analysis of the 235U neutron cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; de Saussure, G.; Perez, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The ENDFB-V representation of the 235 U neutron cross sections in the resolved resonance region is unsatisfactory: below 1 eV the cross sections are given by ''smooth files'' (file 3) rather than by resonance parameters; above 1 eV the single-level formalism used by ENDFB-V necessitates a structured file 3 contribution consisting of more than 1300 energy points; furthermore, information on level-spins has not been included. Indeed the ENDFB-V 235 U resonance region is based on an analysis done in 1970 for ENDFB-III and therefore does not include the results of high quality measurements done in the past 18 years. The present paper presents the result of an R-matrix multilevel analysis of recent measurements as well as older data. The analysis also extends the resolved resonance region from its ENDFB-V upper limit of 81 eV to 110 eV. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  1. Age-Related Trends in Hip Arthroscopy: A Large Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, David C; Feeley, Brian T; Tay, Bobby; Vail, Thomas P; Zhang, Alan L

    2015-12-01

    To analyze a large national private payer population in the United States for trends over time in hip arthroscopy by age groups and to determine the rate of conversion to total hip arthroplasty (THA) after hip arthroscopy. We performed a retrospective analysis using the PearlDiver private insurance patient record database from 2007 through 2011. Hip arthroscopy procedures including newly introduced codes such as osteochondroplasty of cam and pincer lesions and labral repair were queried. Hip arthroscopy incidence and conversion rates to THA were stratified by age. Chi-squared analysis was used for statistical comparison. Conversion to THA was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. From 2007 through 2011, 20,484,172 orthopaedic patients were analyzed. Hip arthroscopy was performed in 8,227 cases (mean annual incidence, 2.7 cases per 10,000 orthopaedic patients). The incidence of hip arthroscopies increased over 250% from 1.6 cases per 10,000 in 2007 to 4.0 cases per 10,000 in 2011 (P arthroscopy, 17% of patients older than 50 required conversion to THA, compared with arthroscopy procedures are increasing in popularity across all age groups, with patients ages 40 to 49 having the highest incidence in this large cross-sectional population, despite a high rate of early conversion to THA within 2 years in patients over 50. IV, cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transport methods: general. 2. Monte Carlo Particle Transport in Media with Exponentially Varying Time-Dependent Cross Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.; Martin, William R.

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated Monte Carlo schemes for analyzing particle transport through media with exponentially varying time-dependent cross sections. For such media, the cross sections are represented in the form Σ(t) = Σ 0 e -at (1) or equivalently as Σ(x) = Σ 0 e -bx (2) where b = av and v is the particle speed. For the following discussion, the parameters a and b may be either positive, for exponentially decreasing cross sections, or negative, for exponentially increasing cross sections. For most time-dependent Monte Carlo applications, the time and spatial variations of the cross-section data are handled by means of a stepwise procedure, holding the cross sections constant for each region over a small time interval Δt, performing the Monte Carlo random walk over the interval Δt, updating the cross sections, and then repeating for a series of time intervals. Continuously varying spatial- or time-dependent cross sections can be treated in a rigorous Monte Carlo fashion using delta-tracking, but inefficiencies may arise if the range of cross-section variation is large. In this paper, we present a new method for sampling collision distances directly for cross sections that vary exponentially in space or time. The method is exact and efficient and has direct application to Monte Carlo radiation transport methods. To verify that the probability density function (PDF) is correct and that the random-sampling procedure yields correct results, numerical experiments were performed using a one-dimensional Monte Carlo code. The physical problem consisted of a beam source impinging on a purely absorbing infinite slab, with a slab thickness of 1 cm and Σ 0 = 1 cm -1 . Monte Carlo calculations with 10 000 particles were run for a range of the exponential parameter b from -5 to +20 cm -1 . Two separate Monte Carlo calculations were run for each choice of b, a continuously varying case using the random-sampling procedures described earlier, and a 'conventional' case where the

  3. Measurements and analysis of the 127I and 129I neutron capture and total cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguere, G.

    2005-01-01

    Most of the experimental work on the interaction of neutrons with matter has focused on materials important to reactor physics and reactor structures. By comparison, the corresponding data for minor actinides or long-lived fission products are poor. A significant demand has developed for improved neutron cross-section data of these little-studied nuclides due to the surge of interest in the transmutation of nuclear waste. With 400 kg of 129 I produced yearly in the reactors of the EU countries and a very long β - half-life of 1.57 x 10 7 years, iodine requires disposal strategies that will isolate this isotope from the environment for long periods of time. Therefore, 129 I is potentially a key long-lived fission product for transmutation applications, since 129 I transmutes in 130 I after a single neutron capture and decays to 130 Xe with a 12.36 h half-life. Accurate capture cross sections would help to reduce uncertainties in waste management concepts. For that purpose, Time-Of-Flight measurements covering the [0.5 eV-100 keV] energy range have been carried out at the 150 MeV pulsed neutron source GELINA of the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM). Two types of experiments have been performed at the IRMM, namely capture and transmission experiments. They are respectively related to the neutron capture and total cross sections. Since the PbI 2 samples used in this work contain natural and radioactive iodine, extensive measurements of 129 I have been carried out under the same experimental conditions as for the 129 I. The data reduction process was performed with the AGS system, and the resonance parameters were extracted with the SAMMY and REFIT shape analysis codes. In a last step, the parameters have been converted into ENDF-6 format and processed with the NJOY code to produce point-wise and multigroup cross sections, as well as MCNP and ERANOS libraries. (author)

  4. Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-04-26

    Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, >or=16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, >or=22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score >or=16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (>or=22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study.

  5. Measurement and QCD Analysis of the Diffractive Deep-Inelastic Scattering Cross Section at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Antunovic, B.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Coppens, Y.R.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Essenov, S.; Falkewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Franke, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Hreus, T.; Hussain, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, C.L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, A.W.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.I.; Lueders, H.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Marti, L.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mladenov, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, M.U.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, T.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Papadopoulou, T.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peng, H.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schilling, F.P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Stoilov, A.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, K.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wissing, C.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zhu, Y.C.; Zimmermann, J.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2006-01-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the diffractive deep-inelastic scattering process $ep\\to eXY$, where $Y$ is a proton or a low mass proton excitation carrying a fraction $1 - \\xpom > 0.95$ of the incident proton longitudinal momentum and the squared four-momentum transfer at the proton vertex satisfies $|t|<1 {\\rm GeV^2}$. Using data taken by the H1 experiment, the cross section is measured for photon virtualities in the range $3.5 \\leq Q^2 \\leq 1600 \\rm GeV^2$, triple differentially in $\\xpom$, $Q^2$ and $\\beta = x / \\xpom$, where $x$ is the Bjorken scaling variable. At low $\\xpom$, the data are consistent with a factorisable $\\xpom$ dependence, which can be described by the exchange of an effective pomeron trajectory with intercept $\\alphapom(0)= 1.118 \\pm 0.008 {\\rm (exp.)} ^{+0.029}_{-0.010} {\\rm (model)}$. Diffractive parton distribution functions and their uncertainties are determined from a next-to-leading order DGLAP QCD analysis of the $Q^2$ and $\\beta$ dependences of the cross section. The res...

  6. Integral test of neutron cross section data for future reactor materials through measurement and analysis of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takamasa

    1985-05-01

    In order to assess the cross section data for future reactor materials, such as molybdenum, niobium, titanium, lithium and fluorine, the angular neutron spectra in test piles of these materials or their chemical compounds have been measured in the energy range from a few keV to a few MeV by the linac time-of-flight method. The results have been compared with those theoretically calculated from the evaluated cross section data in such as JENDL-2 (or JENDL-1, JENDL-3PR1) and ENDF/B-IV. For both of molybdenum and niobium, it has been found that the energy distribution of inelastically scattered neutrons plays an important role in the analysis, and the JENDL library gives better predictions of spectrum shapes than ENDF/B-IV for both cases. In the case of niobium, however, it appears that the values of inelastic scattering cross section in JENDL-2 are too small around 2 MeV. It has been also found for niobium that the cross section data below 100 keV in ENDF/B-IV are inadequate. In a titanium pile, a discrepancy between the measured spectrum and the calculated one from ENDF/B-IV has been found in the energy range from about 60 keV to a few 100 keV. In order to investigate the cause of this discrepancy, the total cross sections for titanium have been measured by the transmission method. In the case of lithium, the discrepancy between the measured and calculated spectra is considerably reduced by adopting the angular distribution for 7 Li from ENDF/B-IV above about 500 keV. In the case of fluorine, spatial distributions of neutrons and X-rays have been also measured in both piles by the activation method to estimate the influence of photoneutrons generated in the sample material on the neutron distribution, and it has been found that their influence below 1 MeV is not so large as is necessary to be taken into account for the present assessment. (J.P.N)

  7. A CUMULATIVE MIGRATION METHOD FOR COMPUTING RIGOROUS TRANSPORT CROSS SECTIONS AND DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS FOR LWR LATTICES WITH MONTE CARLO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyuan Liu; Kord Smith; Benoit Forget; Javier Ortensi

    2016-05-01

    A new method for computing homogenized assembly neutron transport cross sections and dif- fusion coefficients that is both rigorous and computationally efficient is proposed in this paper. In the limit of a homogeneous hydrogen slab, the new method is equivalent to the long-used, and only-recently-published CASMO transport method. The rigorous method is used to demonstrate the sources of inaccuracy in the commonly applied “out-scatter” transport correction. It is also demonstrated that the newly developed method is directly applicable to lattice calculations per- formed by Monte Carlo and is capable of computing rigorous homogenized transport cross sections for arbitrarily heterogeneous lattices. Comparisons of several common transport cross section ap- proximations are presented for a simple problem of infinite medium hydrogen. The new method has also been applied in computing 2-group diffusion data for an actual PWR lattice from BEAVRS benchmark.

  8. The improvement of the method of equivalent cross section in HTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, J.; Li, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Method of Equivalence Cross-Sections (MECS) is a combined transport-diffusion method. By appropriately adjusting the diffusion coefficient of homogenized absorber region, the diffusion theory could yield satisfactory results for the full core model with strong neutron absorber material, for example the control rod in High temperature gas cooled reactor (HTR). Original implementation of MECS based on 1-D cell transport model has some limitation on accuracy and applicability, a new implementation of MECS based on 2-D transport model are proposed and tested in this paper. This improvement can extend the MECS to the calculation of twin small absorber ball system which have a non-circular boring in graphite reflector and different radial position. A least-square algorithm for the calculation of equivalent diffusion coefficient is adopted, and special treatment for diffusion coefficient for higher energy group is proposed in the case that absorber is absent. Numerical results to adopt MECS into control rod calculation in HTR are encouraging. However, there are some problems left. (authors)

  9. Ground truth methods for optical cross-section modeling of biological aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalter, J.; Thrush, E.; Santarpia, J.; Chaudhry, Z.; Gilberry, J.; Brown, D. M.; Brown, A.; Carter, C. C.

    2011-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) systems have demonstrated some capability to meet the needs of a fastresponse standoff biological detection method for simulants in open air conditions. These systems are designed to exploit various cloud signatures, such as differential elastic backscatter, fluorescence, and depolarization in order to detect biological warfare agents (BWAs). However, because the release of BWAs in open air is forbidden, methods must be developed to predict candidate system performance against real agents. In support of such efforts, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (JHU/APL) has developed a modeling approach to predict the optical properties of agent materials from relatively simple, Biosafety Level 3-compatible bench top measurements. JHU/APL has fielded new ground truth instruments (in addition to standard particle sizers, such as the Aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) or GRIMM aerosol monitor (GRIMM)) to more thoroughly characterize the simulant aerosols released in recent field tests at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG). These instruments include the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), the Ultraviolet Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (UVAPS), and the Aspect Aerosol Size and Shape Analyser (Aspect). The SMPS was employed as a means of measuring smallparticle concentrations for more accurate Mie scattering simulations; the UVAPS, which measures size-resolved fluorescence intensity, was employed as a path toward fluorescence cross section modeling; and the Aspect, which measures particle shape, was employed as a path towards depolarization modeling.

  10. Constraining the cross section of 82Se(n, γ)83Se to validate the β-Oslo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, K.; Liddick, S. N.; Crider, B. P.; Dombos, A. C.; Lewis, R.; Spyrou, A.; Couture, A.; Mosby, S.; Prokop, C. J.; Naqvi, F.; Larsen, A. C.; Guttormsen, M.; Campo, L. C.; Renstrom, T.; Siem, S.; Bleuel, D. L.; Perdikakis, G.; Quinn, S.

    2017-09-01

    Neutron capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei are important for a variety of basic and applied nuclear science problems. However, because of the short half-lives of the nuclei involved and the nonexistence of a neutron target, indirect measurement methods are required. One such method is the β-Oslo method. The nuclear level density and γ strength function of a nucleus are extracted after β-decay and used in a statistical reaction model to constrain the neutron capture cross section. This method has been used previously, but must be validated against a directly measured neutron capture cross section. The neutron capture cross section of 82Se has been measured previously, and 83Se can be accessed by the β-decay of 83As. The β-decay of 83As to 83Se was studied using the SuN detector at the NSCL and the β-Oslo method was utilized to constrain the neutron capture cross section of 82Se, which is compared to the directly measured value.

  11. Multitrajectory eikonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    With the use of reference and distorted transition operators, a time-correlation-function representation of the inelastic differential cross section has recently been used to obtain distorted eikonal cross sections. These cross sections involve straight-line and reference classical translational trajectories that are unaffected by any internal-state changes which have occurred during the collision. This distorted eikonal theory is now extended to include effects of internal-state changes on the translational motion. In particular, a different classical trajectory is associated with each pair of internal states. Expressions for these inelastic cross sections are obtained in terms of time-ordered cosine and sine memory functions using the Zwanzig-Feshbach projection-operator method. Explicit formulas are obtained in the time-disordered perturbation approximation

  12. CARDIAC AUTONOMIC NEUROPATHY AND MICROALBUMINURIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS- A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Padmini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Autonomous neuropathy is one of the least focused complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus in clinical practice. CAN is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality associated with a high risk of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Higher urinary albumin excretion has been suggested as a predicting diabetic nephropathy. This cross-sectional study sought to determine relationship of CAN with early renal decline in type 2 diabetes mellitus. MATERIALS AND METHODS Over a period of two years, patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after careful exclusion of other risk factors for proteinuria, 199 patients were included in this cross-sectional survey. CAN was measured by portable ANSiscope and 24-hour urine microalbumin level was estimated. Correlation was sought between the two variable. RESULTS Out of the 199 patients chosen for the study, 127 were male. The mean age of diabetes was 6.4±3.9 years. 57.8% had late or advanced CAN and there was a significant linear correlation with 24-hour urine microalbumin levels. CONCLUSION Measurement of CAN is an effective way to assess the level of cardiac sympathetic dysfunction due to disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of more than 5 years duration. Urine microalbumin levels correlate with the degree of CAN. There is a strong need to conduct more studies about CAN to fully understand its pathology and develop treatment strategies to reduce cardiac mortality.

  13. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Methods Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. Results The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23–.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29–.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30–.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13–0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10–0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). Limitations All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Conclusions Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work. PMID:26305785

  14. Study of the surrogate-reaction method applied to neutron-induced capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutoux, G.; Jurado, B.; Méot, V.; Roig, O.; Mathieu, L.; Aïche, M.; Barreau, G.; Capellan, N.; Companis, I.; Czajkowski, S.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Burke, J.T.; Bail, A.; Daugas, J.M.; Faul, T.; Morel, P.; Pillet, N.; Théroine, C.; Derkx, X.; Sérot, O.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-decay probabilities of 173 Yb and 176 Lu have been measured using the surrogate reactions 174 Yb( 3 He,αγ) 173 Yb* and 174 Yb( 3 He,pγ) 176 Lu*, respectively. For the first time, the gamma-decay probabilities have been obtained with two independent experimental methods based on the use of C 6 D 6 scintillators and Germanium detectors. Our results for the radiative-capture cross sections are several times higher than the corresponding neutron-induced data. To explain these differences, we have used our gamma-decay probabilities to extract rather direct information on the spin distributions populated in the transfer reactions used. They are about two times wider and the mean values are 3 to 4 ℏ higher than the ones populated in the neutron-induced reactions. As a consequence, in the transfer reactions neutron emission to the ground and first excited states of the residual nucleus is strongly suppressed and gamma-decay is considerably enhanced.

  15. Development of a code FITWR for nuclear cross section statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alrwashdeh, Mohammad; Kan, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We used the weighted least square with nonlinear regression method to fit experimental nuclear data. • The FITWR code has been successful applied for both light and heavy nuclei with many resonance points. • More improvements will be applied in the future, by including a new methods for nuclear data fitting. - Abstract: A computer program named FITWR has been developed and applied to the experimental total cross sections for MEV incident energy particles such as neutron and proton. The computer program FITWR adapted the weighted least square method with weighted mathematical models with nonlinear regression applied to high order fitting polynomial, in order to meet the growing demands of the experimental nuclear data. The computer program FITWR deals with variance and covariance data provided along with experimental data and yields those for the evaluated ones

  16. Prevalence of Smokeless Tobacco among Low Socioeconomic Populations: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurul Azam

    Full Text Available Cost, social acceptability and non-stringent regulations pertaining to smokeless tobacco (SLT product sales have made people choose and continue using SLT. If disaggregated data on smokeless forms and smoked practices of tobacco are reviewed, the incidence of SLT remains static. There is a strong positive correlation of SLT intake with the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular disease, particularly in the low socioeconomic populations.To investigate the prevalence of smokeless tobacco, its initiation influence and risk factors associated with the practice among lower socioeconomic populations of Bangladesh. In this study, we explore the utilization of SLT among lower socioeconomic populations in industrialized zone of Bangladesh.A cross-sectional analysis using both quantitative and categorical approaches was employed. Using systematic random sampling method, four focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted and 459 participants were interviewed. Multiple logistic regression model was applied to distinguish the significant factors among the SLT users.Almost fifty percent of the respondents initiated SLT usage at the age of 15-24 years and another 22 percent respondents were smoking and using SLT concurrently. The bulk of the women respondents used SLT during their pregnancy. Nearly twenty five percent of the respondents tried to quit the practice of SLT and one-quarter had a plan to quit SLT in the future. More than twenty percent respondents were suffering from dental decay. A noteworthy correlation was found by gender (p<0.01, sufferings from SLT related disease (p<0.05. The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that, males were 2.7 times more knowledgeable than that of females (p<0.01 about the adversative health condition of SLT usage. The respondents suffering from SLT related diseases were 3.7 times as more knowledgeable about the effect of the practice of SLT than the respondents without diseases (p<0.01. Regarding the knowledge

  17. A cross-sectional analysis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among heterosexual HIV-1 serodiscordant African couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochner, Aaron F; Baeten, Jared M; Rustagi, Alison S; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Lingappa, Jairam R; Mugo, Nelly R; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Kapiga, Saidi; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Celum, Connie; Barnabas, Ruanne V

    2017-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent curable STI worldwide and has been associated with adverse health outcomes and increased HIV-1 transmission risk. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among couples to assess how characteristics of both individuals in sexual partnerships are associated with the prevalence of male and female T. vaginalis infection. African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples were concurrently tested for trichomoniasis at enrolment into two clinical trials. T. vaginalis testing was by nucleic acid amplification or culture methods. Using Poisson regression with robust standard errors, we identified characteristics associated with trichomoniasis. Among 7531 couples tested for trichomoniasis, 981 (13%) couples contained at least one infected partner. The prevalence was 11% (n=857) among women and 4% (n=319) among men, and most infected individuals did not experience signs or symptoms of T. vaginalis . Exploring concordance of T. vaginalis status within sexual partnerships, we observed that 61% (195/319) of T. vaginalis -positive men and 23% (195/857) of T. vaginalis -positive women had a concurrently infected partner. In multivariable analysis, having a T. vaginalis -positive partner was the strongest predictor of infection for women (relative risk (RR) 4.70, 95% CI 4.10 to 5.38) and men (RR 10.09, 95% CI 7.92 to 12.85). For women, having outside sex partners, gonorrhoea, and intermediate or high Nugent scores for bacterial vaginosis were associated with increased risk of trichomoniasis, whereas age 45 years and above, being married, having children and injectable contraceptive use were associated with reduced trichomoniasis risk. Additionally, women whose male partners were circumcised, had more education or earned income had lower risk of trichomoniasis. We found that within African HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual couples, the prevalence of trichomoniasis was high among partners of T. vaginalis -infected individuals, suggesting

  18. SHAMSI, 48 group cross-section library for fusion nucleonics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponti, C.; Abbas, Tayyab.

    1982-01-01

    A P 3 48 group coupled neutron gamma-ray (34 N - 14 G) cross-section library is produced and validated for neutronic studies in fusion reactor blanket/shield. This report describes the library content, the procedure adopted and the results of the calculations performed for testing the cross sections

  19. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour: analysis of cross sectional data from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lis Hentze; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking. DESIGN: Logistic regression analysis of cross sectional data...... from students in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 1515 grade 9 students (mean age 15.8) from 90 classes in 48 Danish schools. Outcome measure: Self reported smoking behaviour; daily smoking and heavy smoking, defined as those smoking more than 20 cigarettes per week. RESULTS: Of the students in this study, 62...... that they had seen other students smoking outdoors on the school premises. Adolescents' perceived exposure to teachers smoking outdoors on the school premises was significantly associated with daily smoking, having adjusted for sex, exposure to teachers smoking indoors at school and pupils smoking outdoors...

  20. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries: Cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel causality analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazlioglu, Saban; Lebe, Fuat; Kayhan, Selim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the direction causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in OECD countries. The empirical model that includes capital and labor force as the control variables is estimated for the panel of fourteen OECD countries during the period 1980-2007. Apart from the previous studies in the nuclear energy consumption and economic growth relationship, this study utilizes the novel panel causality approach, which allows both cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity across countries. The findings show that there is no causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in eleven out of fourteen cases, supporting the neutrality hypothesis. As a sensitivity analysis, we also conduct Toda-Yamamoto time series causality method and find out that the results from the panel causality analysis are slightly different than those from the time-series causality analysis. Thereby, we can conclude that the choice of statistical tools in analyzing the nature of causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth may play a key role for policy implications. - Highlights: → Causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth is examined for OECD countries. → Panel causality method, which allows cross-sectional dependency and heterogeneity, is utilized. → The neutrality hypothesis is supported.

  1. Cross-section studies of relativistic deuteron reactions on copper by activation method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchopár, Martin; Wagner, Vladimír; Svoboda, Ondřej; Vrzalová, Jitka; Chudoba, Petr; Kugler, Andrej; Adam, Jindřich; Závorka, L.; Baldine, A.; Furman, W.; Kadykov, M. G.; Khushvaktov, J.; Solnyshkin, A. A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V. V.; Tyutyunnikov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 344, FEB (2015), s. 63-69 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : relativistic deuteron reactions * cross-sections * copper Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear , Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.389, year: 2015

  2. Kernel reconstruction methods for Doppler broadening — Temperature interpolation by linear combination of reference cross sections at optimally chosen temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducru, Pablo; Josey, Colin; Dibert, Karia; Sobes, Vladimir; Forget, Benoit; Smith, Kord

    2017-01-01

    This paper establishes a new family of methods to perform temperature interpolation of nuclear interactions cross sections, reaction rates, or cross sections times the energy. One of these quantities at temperature T is approximated as a linear combination of quantities at reference temperatures (T_j). The problem is formalized in a cross section independent fashion by considering the kernels of the different operators that convert cross section related quantities from a temperature T_0 to a higher temperature T — namely the Doppler broadening operation. Doppler broadening interpolation of nuclear cross sections is thus here performed by reconstructing the kernel of the operation at a given temperature T by means of linear combination of kernels at reference temperatures (T_j). The choice of the L_2 metric yields optimal linear interpolation coefficients in the form of the solutions of a linear algebraic system inversion. The optimization of the choice of reference temperatures (T_j) is then undertaken so as to best reconstruct, in the L∞ sense, the kernels over a given temperature range [T_m_i_n,T_m_a_x]. The performance of these kernel reconstruction methods is then assessed in light of previous temperature interpolation methods by testing them upon isotope "2"3"8U. Temperature-optimized free Doppler kernel reconstruction significantly outperforms all previous interpolation-based methods, achieving 0.1% relative error on temperature interpolation of "2"3"8U total cross section over the temperature range [300 K,3000 K] with only 9 reference temperatures.

  3. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM experience at LOTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, the LOTUS fusion blanket facility at IGA-EPF in Lausanne provided a series of irradiation experiments with the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM). The LBM has both realistic fusion blanket and materials and configuration. It is approximately an 80-cm cube, and the breeding material is Li 2 . Using as the D-T neutron source the Haefely Neutron Generator (HNG) with an intensity of about 5·10 12 n/s, a series of experiments with the bare LBM as well as with the LBM preceded by Pb, Be and ThO 2 multipliers were carried out. In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S n -transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S n -transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. For the nucleonic transport calculations, three 187-neutron-group libraries are presently available: MATXS8A and MATXS8F based on ENDF/B-V evaluations and MAT187 based on JEF/EFF evaluations. COVFILS-2, a 74-group library of neutron cross-sections, scattering matrices and covariances, is the data source for SENSIBL; the 74-group structure of COVFILS-2 is a subset of the Los Alamos 187-group structure. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed

  4. Collidoscope: An Improved Tool for Computing Collisional Cross-Sections with the Trajectory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Simon A.; Donor, Micah T.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Prell, James S.

    2017-04-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) can be a powerful tool for determining structural information about ions in the gas phase, from small covalent analytes to large, native-like or denatured proteins and complexes. For large biomolecular ions, which may have a wide variety of possible gas-phase conformations and multiple charge sites, quantitative, physically explicit modeling of collisional cross sections (CCSs) for comparison to IMS data can be challenging and time-consuming. We present a "trajectory method" (TM) based CCS calculator, named "Collidoscope," which utilizes parallel processing and optimized trajectory sampling, and implements both He and N2 as collision gas options. Also included is a charge-placement algorithm for determining probable charge site configurations for protonated protein ions given an input geometry in pdb file format. Results from Collidoscope are compared with those from the current state-of-the-art CCS simulation suite, IMoS. Collidoscope CCSs are within 4% of IMoS values for ions with masses from 18 Da to 800 kDa. Collidoscope CCSs using X-ray crystal geometries are typically within a few percent of IM-MS experimental values for ions with mass up to 3.5 kDa (melittin), and discrepancies for larger ions up to 800 kDa (GroEL) are attributed in large part to changes in ion structure during and after the electrospray process. Due to its physically explicit modeling of scattering, computational efficiency, and accuracy, Collidoscope can be a valuable tool for IM-MS research, especially for large biomolecular ions.

  5. Prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents: A meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiande; Dong, Yonghai; Chen, Xiaodan; Liu, Yun; Ma, Dongyang; Liu, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Ruizhi; Mao, Xiangqun; Chen, Ting; He, Wei

    2015-08-01

    According to World Health Organization, for every committed suicide there were 20 suicide attempts at least. In the last decade, despite the increasing awareness on suicide attempts among adolescents in China, there has been no comprehensive system reporting vital statistics. Consequently, the prevalence of suicide attempts reported in some studies ranged variedly. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to provide the first meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts to fill this gap. Two reviewers independently screened potentially relevant cross-sectional studies of suicide attempts through PubMed-Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, Chongqing VIP and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases using the core terms 'suicid*'/'suicide attempt*'/'attempted suicide' and 'adolescen*'/'youth'/'child*'/'student*' and 'China'/'Chinese' in the article titles, abstracts and keywords. Chi-square based Q test and I(2) statistic assessed the heterogeneity. Forest plot was used to display results graphically. Potential publication bias was assessed by the funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's test. In total, 43 studies with 200,124 participants met the eligibility criteria. The pooled prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was 2.94% (95% CI: 2.53%-3.41%). Substantial heterogeneity in prevalence estimates was revealed. Subgroup analyses showed that the prevalence for males was 2.50% (95% CI: 2.08%-3.01%), and for females was 3.17% (95% CI: 2.56%-3.91%). In sum, abstracting across the literatures, the prevalence of suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents was moderate compared with other countries around the world. Necessary measures should be set out prevent them in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tandem-method for measurement of destruction cross-sections of neutral projectiles at intermediate and high velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, M.M.; Magnani, B.F.; Correa, R.S.; Coelho, L.F.S.

    2007-01-01

    We have recently presented destruction cross-section data for negative ions obtained with a technique that uses the gas stripper of a tandem accelerator as the collision target. In this work, we develop an extension of that technique to measure destruction cross-sections for neutral projectiles, important parameters to estimate neutral beam attenuation in Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Measurements for the H+N 2 collision system are used to exemplify and discuss the capabilities and limitations of the proposed experimental method

  7. A Computer Model for the Hydraulic Analysis of Open Channel Cross Sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Shayya

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation and hydraulic engineers are often faced with the difficulty of tedious trial solutions of the Manning equation to determine the various geometric elements of open channels. This paper addresses the development of a computer model for the design of the most commonly used channel-sections. The developed model is intended as an educational tool. It may be applied to the hydraulic design of trapezoidal , rectangular, triangular, parabolic, round-concered rectangular, and circular cross sections. Two procedures were utilized for the solution of the encountered implicit equations; the Newton-Raphson and the Regula-Falsi methods.  In order to initiate the solution process , these methods require one and two initial guesses, respectively. Tge result revealed that the Regula-Flasi method required more iterations to coverage to the solution compared to the Newton-Raphson method, irrespective of the nearness of the initial guess to the actual solution. The average number of iterations for the Regula-Falsi method was approximately three times that of the Newton-Raphson method.

  8. Quasinormal modes, stability analysis and absorption cross section for 4-dimensional topological Lifshitz black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, P.A.; Moncada, Felipe; Vasquez, Yerko

    2012-01-01

    We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. (orig.)

  9. Quasinormal modes, stability analysis and absorption cross section for 4-dimensional topological Lifshitz black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, P.A. [Universidad Central de Chile, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil en Obras Civiles, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Santiago (Chile); Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago (Chile); Moncada, Felipe; Vasquez, Yerko [Universidad de La Frontera, Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Facultad de Ingenieria, Ciencias y Administracion, Temuco (Chile)

    2012-12-15

    We study scalar perturbations in the background of a topological Lifshitz black hole in four dimensions. We compute analytically the quasinormal modes and from these modes we show that topological Lifshitz black hole is stable. On the other hand, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section and we show that there is a range of modes with high angular momentum which contributes to the absorption cross section in the low frequency limit. Furthermore, in this limit, we show that the absorption cross section decreases if the scalar field mass increases, for a real scalar field mass. (orig.)

  10. Mapping of global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity: A cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Matthew J.; Hutton, Brian; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Background The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. Methods and findings This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science. Searches were run from inception until November 8, 2016. We included research articles or reviews with no restrictions by language or publication date. Data abstraction was done by one researcher. A process of standardization was conducted by two researchers to unify different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription, and/or indexing errors. All potential discrepancies were resolved via discussion. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of papers, citations, signatures, most prolific authors, countries, journals and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words were presented. During the period 1970–2016, 85994 papers (64.0% in 2010–2016) were published in 3500 journals. There was wide diversity in the specialty of the journals, with psychiatry (16558 papers; 19.3%), surgery (9570 papers; 11.1%), clinical neurology (9275 papers; 10.8%), and general and internal medicine (7622 papers; 8.9%) the most common. PLOS One (1223 papers; 1.4%), the Journal of Affective Disorders (1154 papers; 1.3%), the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (727 papers; 0.8%), the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (634 papers; 0.7%) and Obesity Surgery (588 papers; 0.7%) published the largest number of papers. 168 countries were involved in the production of papers. The global productivity ranking was headed by the United States (37624 papers), followed by the United Kingdom (7355 papers), Germany (6899 papers) and Canada (5706 papers). Twenty

  11. Advances in methods of commercial FBR core characteristics analyses. Investigations of a treatment of the double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugino, Kazuteru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Iwai, Takehiko

    1998-07-01

    A standard data base for FBR core nuclear design is under development in order to improve the accuracy of FBR design calculation. As a part of the development, we investigated an improved treatment of double-heterogeneity and a method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections in a commercial reactor geometry, for the betterment of the analytical accuracy of commercial FBR core characteristics. As an improvement in the treatment of double-heterogeneity, we derived a new method (the direct method) and compared both this and conventional methods with continuous energy Monte-Carlo calculations. In addition, we investigated the applicability of the reaction rate ratio preservation method as a advanced method to calculate homogenized control rod cross sections. The present studies gave the following information: (1) An improved treatment of double-heterogeneity: for criticality the conventional method showed good agreement with Monte-Carlo result within one sigma standard deviation; the direct method was consistent with conventional one. Preliminary evaluation of effects in core characteristics other than criticality showed that the effect of sodium void reactivity (coolant reactivity) due to the double-heterogeneity was large. (2) An advanced method to calculate homogenize control rod cross sections: for control rod worths the reaction rate ratio preservation method agreed with those produced by the calculations with the control rod heterogeneity included in the core geometry; in Monju control rod worth analysis, the present method overestimated control rod worths by 1 to 2% compared with the conventional method, but these differences were caused by more accurate model in the present method and it is considered that this method is more reliable than the conventional one. These two methods investigated in this study can be directly applied to core characteristics other than criticality or control rod worth. Thus it is concluded that these methods will

  12. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westert Gert P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations between mortality and factors amenable to public health. These amenable factors included addictive and nutritional lifestyle, air quality, public health spending, healthcare coverage, and immunizations. Methods We used a pooled cross-sectional, time series analysis with corrected fixed effects regression models in an ecological design involving eighteen member countries of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development during the period 1970 to 1999. Results Alcohol, tobacco, and fat consumption, and sometimes, air pollution were significantly associated with higher all-cause mortality and premature death. Immunizations, health care coverage, fruit/vegetable and protein consumption, and collective health expenditure had negative effects on mortality and premature death, even after controlling for the elderly, density of practicing physicians, doctor visits and per capita GDP. However, tobacco, air pollution, and fruit/vegetable intake were sometimes sensitive to adjustments. Conclusion Mortality and premature deaths could be improved by focusing on factors that are amenable to public health policies. Tackling these issues should be reflected in the ongoing assessments of health system performance.

  13. [Development of the Coparental Regulation Inventory and cross-sectional analysis of mothers' encouragement and criticism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiyo; Kurosawa, Tai; Kamiya, Tetsuji

    2014-02-01

    We developed the Coparental Regulation Inventory to assess the regulatory behavior of the mothers in involving fathers with child rearing. We translated and modified the short form of the Parental Regulation Inventory (PRI) for Japanese couples in different stages of child rearing. An online questionnaire was conducted with mothers (n = 500) and fathers (n = 500) whose youngest child was less than 21-years-old. Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors, which were labeled "encouragement" and "criticism". The resulting Coparental Regulation Inventory (the modified PRI) had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The construct validity of the scale was supported by its correlation with parenting alliance, marital satisfaction, and the father's involvement. These findings suggest that the scale is an adequate instrument for identifying the behaviors of mothers related to coparenting. In addition, we examined the frequency of encouragement and criticism used by the mother in relation to the child-rearing stage using cross-sectional analysis. In the mothers' reports, mothers with infants and children encouraged fathers more than mothers with early and late adolescents. Mothers with late adolescents criticized fathers less than mothers with infants. In the fathers' reports, mothers gave more encouragement to fathers who had infants than at any other age, whereas the child's age was not related to mothers' criticism perceived by the fathers.

  14. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu YT

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Yen-Tze Liu,1 Pei-Yu Yang,2 Yu-Wen Yang,1 Hung-Yu Sun,1 I-Ching Lin1,3,4 1Department of Family Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, 2Department of Laboratory, Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua City, 3School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung City, 4School of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan Background: Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide disorder and also the major risk factor of several systemic diseases. Evidence identifying the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis is lacking, especially in Taiwan.Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components.Design and setting: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Health Examination Department of a medical center in Changhua, Taiwan, from January 2010 to December 2010.Methods: We reviewed the medical records of patients who had visited the Health Examination Center of Changhua Christian Hospital in 2010. A total of 3,886 individuals were enrolled. According to the exclusion criteria, those with an age <20 years and an abnormal renal function were excluded. A total of 3,793 subjects were included. All P-values are two tailed, and P<0.05 was defined as statistically significant.Results: The results showed a correlation between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval [CI] of metabolic syndrome for nephrolithiasis was 1.318 (1.083–1.604, with a P-value of 0.006. Larger waist circumference (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.338; 95% CI 1.098–1.631; P=0.004, higher blood pressure (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.106–1.607; P=0.003, and increased fasting glucose (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.276; 95% CI 1.054–1.546; P=0.01 were associated with nephrolithiasis.Conclusion: This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between metabolic

  15. Spatial reliability analysis of a wind turbine blade cross section subjected to multi-axial extreme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Bitsche, Robert; Blasques, José Pedro Albergaria Amaral

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for structural reliability analysis of wind turbine blades. The study introduces several novel elements by taking into account loading direction using a multiaxial probabilistic load model, considering random material strength, spatial correlation between material...... properties, progressive material failure, and system reliability effects. An example analysis of reliability against material failure is demonstrated for a blade cross section. Based on the study we discuss the implications of using a system reliability approach, the effect of spatial correlation length......, type of material degradation algorithm, and reliability methods on the system failure probability, as well as the main factors that have an influence on the reliability. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  16. A cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on fusion reactor blankets with SAD/SED effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Kazuo; Oka, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Shunsuke

    1986-01-01

    A cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on four types of fusion reactor blankets has been performed, based on cross-section covariance matrices. The design parameters investigated in the analysis include the tritium breeding ratio, the neutron heating and the fast neutron leakage flux from the inboard shield. Uncertainities in Secondary Angular Distribution (SAD) and Secondary Energy Distribution (SED) of scattered neutrons have been considered for lithium. The collective standard deviation, due to uncertainties in the evaluated cross-section data presently available, is 2-4% in the tritium breeding ratio, 2-3% in the neutron heating, and 10-20% in the fast neutron leakage flux. Contributions from SAD/SED uncertainties are significant for some parameters, such as those investigated in the present study. SAD/SED uncertainties should be considered in the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis on nuclear design of fusion reactors. (orig.)

  17. Effect of activation cross section uncertainties in transmutation analysis of realistic low-activation steels for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabellos, O.; Garcya-Herranz, N.; Sanz, J. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Cabellos, O.; Garcya-Herranz, N.; Fernandez, P.; Fernandez, B. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, UPM, Madrid (Spain); Sanz, J. [Dept. of Power Engineering, UNED, Madrid (Spain); Reyes, S. [Safety, Environment and Health Group, ITER Joint Work Site, Cadarache Center (France)

    2008-07-01

    We address uncertainty analysis to draw conclusions on the reliability of the activation calculation in the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) under the potential impact of activation cross section uncertainties. The Monte Carlo methodology implemented in ACAB code gives the uncertainty estimates due to the synergetic/global effect of the complete set of cross section uncertainties. An element-by-element analysis has been demonstrated as a helpful tool to easily analyse the transmutation performance of irradiated materials.The uncertainty analysis results showed that for times over about 24 h the relative error in the contact dose rate can be as large as 23 per cent. We have calculated the effect of cross section uncertainties in the IFMIF activation of all different elements. For EUROFER, uncertainties in H and He elements are 7.3% and 5.6%, respectively. We have found significant uncertainties in the transmutation response for C, P and Nb.

  18. Gender differences in the use of health care in China: cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yan; Bian, Ying

    2014-01-30

    Differences between women and men in education, employment, political and economic empowerment have been well-documented in China due to the long traditional culture that male is superior to female. This study is to explore whether the similar gender differences exist in the use of health care by analyzing hospital admission, duration of hospitalization and medical expense of both genders in a Chinese hospital. This cross-sectional study evaluated the gender differences in clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients who were admitted for any reason to hospital in Zhuhai Special Economic Zone, Southern China, from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2009. Chi-square test was used to calculate differences between proportions and the t test was used to test differences between means. A total of 156,887 patients were recruited in the analysis, with a male/female ratio of 1.1:1.0. The average age and the duration of hospitalization were significantly greater among men (p women were not significant (p > 0.05). Among all the self-paid patients, men were also superior in all investigating variables compared with women. Gender differences in the use of health care do occur in China. Despite of demographic factors, the differences between female and male can be in part explained by social power relations. China should increase attention to gender and equity in health.

  19. Analysis of Asset Growth Anomaly on Cross-Section Stock Returns: Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Assorted types of market anomalies occur when stock prices deviate from the prediction of classical asset pricing theories. This study aims to examine asset growth anomaly where stocks with high asset growth will be followed by low returns in the subsequent periods. This study, using Indonesia Stock Exchanges data, finds that an equally-weighted low-growth portfolio outperforms high-growth portfolio by average 0.75% per month (9% per annum, confirming existence of asset growth anomaly. The analysis is extended at individual stock-level using fixed-effect panel regression in which asset growth effect remains significant even with controlling other variables of stock return determinants. This study also explores further whether asset growth can be included as risk factor. Employing two-stage cross-section regression in Fama and Macbeth (1973, the result aligns with some prior studies that asset growth is not a new risk factor; instead the anomaly is driven by mispricing due to investors’ overreaction and psychological bias. This result imply that asset growth anomaly is general phenomenon that can be found at mostly all stock market but in Indonesia market asset growth anomaly rise from investors’ overreaction, instead of  playing as a factor of risk.

  20. Analysis of Asset Growth Anomaly on Cross-Section Stock Returns: Evidence from Indonesia Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Iqbal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Assorted types of market anomalies occur when stock prices deviate from the prediction of classical asset pricing theories. This study aims to examine asset growth anomaly where stocks with high asset growth will be followed by low returns in the subsequent periods. This study, using Indonesia Stock Exchanges data, finds that an equally-weighted low-growth portfolio outperforms high-growth portfolio by average 0.75% per month (9% per annum, confirming existence of asset growth anomaly. The analysis is extended at individual stock-level using fixed-effect panel regression in which asset growth effect remains significant even with controlling other variables of stock return determinants. This study also explores further whether asset growth can be included as risk factor. Employing two-stage cross-section regression in Fama and Macbeth (1973, the result aligns with some prior studies that asset growth is not a new risk factor; instead the anomaly is driven by mispricing due to investors’ overreaction and psychological bias. This result imply that asset growth anomaly is general phenomenon that can be found at mostly all stock market but in Indonesia market asset growth anomaly rise from investors’ overreaction, instead of  playing as a factor of risk.

  1. Repeat participation in annual cross-sectional surveys of drug users and its implications for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agius, P A; Aitken, C K; Breen, C; Dietze, P M

    2018-06-04

    We sought to establish the extent of repeat participation in a large annual cross-sectional survey of people who inject drugs and assess its implications for analysis. We used "porn star names" (the name of each participant's first pet followed by the name of the first street in which they lived) to identify repeat participation in three Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System surveys. Over 2013-2015, 2468 porn star names (96.2%) appeared only once, 88 (3.4%) twice, and nine (0.4%) in all 3 years. We measured design effects, based on the between-cluster variability for selected estimates, of 1.01-1.07 for seven key variables. These values indicate that the complex sample is (e.g.) 7% less efficient in estimating prevalence of heroin use (ever) than a simple random sample, and 1% less efficient in estimating number of heroin overdoses (ever). Porn star names are a useful means of tracking research participants longitudinally while maintaining their anonymity. Repeat participation in the Australian Illicit Drug Reporting System is low (less than 5% per annum), meaning point-prevalence and effect estimation without correction for the lack of independence in observations is unlikely to seriously affect population inference.

  2. Cross-sectional analysis of fouled SWRO membranes by STEM-EDS

    KAUST Repository

    Aubry, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    The intact cross-section of two fouled reverse osmosis membranes was characterized using a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) equipped with an electron energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS). Focused ion beam (FIB) was used to prepare a thin lamella of each membrane. These lamellas were then attached to a TEM grid for further STEM/EDS analysis. The foulant in sample A was mainly inorganic in nature and predominantly composed of alumino-silicate particles. These particles were surrounded by carbon at high concentrations, indicating the presence of organic materials. Iron was diffusely present in the cake layer and this could have enhanced the fouling process. The cake layer of membrane B was mainly consisted of organic matter (C, O, and N representing 95% of the total elemental composition) and organized in thin parallel layers. Small concentrations of Si, F, Na, Mg, and Cl were detected inside the active layer and support layer of the membrane. Due to the high sensitivity of the cake layer of membrane A to the electron beam, STEM/EDS line analyses might have been performed on large areas. On the other hand, the cake layer of sample B was resistant to the electron beam and the resolution of STEM/EDS was gradually improved until obtaining a resolution of 25. nm. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Absolute high-resolution Se+ photoionization cross-section measurements with Rydberg-series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, D. A.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Sterling, N. C.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Aguilar, A.

    2011-01-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements for Se + ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the photo-ion merged-beams technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 5.5 meV from 17.75 to 21.85 eV spanning the 4s 2 4p 3 4 S 3/2 o ground-state ionization threshold and the 2 P 3/2 o , 2 P 1/2 o , 2 D 5/2 o , and 2 D 3/2 o metastable state thresholds. Extensive analysis of the complex resonant structure in this region identified numerous Rydberg series of resonances and obtained the Se 2+ 4s 2 4p 23 P 2 and 4s 2 4p 21 S 0 state energies. In addition, particular attention was given to removing significant effects in the measurements due to a small percentage of higher-order undulator radiation.

  4. Sports Practice and Bone Mass in Prepubertal Adolescents and Young Adults: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Madia Mantovani

    Full Text Available Abstract AIM To compare bone mass and body composition variables between adolescents engaged in high-impact sports and adults who were sedentary during early life. METHOD A cross-sectional study with 155 participants (64 adolescents and 91 adults aged between 11 and 50 years old. Among the adults, history of sports was evaluated during face-to-face interviews, and information regarding the adolescents' training routines was provided by their coaches. Body composition was evaluated using Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry which provided data about bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, fat mass (FM, and free fat mass (FFM. RESULTS Adults who engaged in sports practice during early life had higher values of BMC (ES-r = 0.063, FFM (ES-r = 0.391, and lower values of FM (ES-r = 0.396 than sedentary adults. Higher values of BMC (ES-r = 0.063 and BMD in lower limbs (ES-r = 0.091 were observed in active adolescents. Adolescents engaged in sports and adults who were sedentary in early life presented similar values in all bone variables, FM, and FFM. CONCLUSIONS Sports involvement in early life is related to higher bone mass in adulthood. Adolescents engaged in sports presented similar bone mass to adults who had been sedentary in early life.

  5. Ego defense mechanisms in Pakistani medical students: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Roha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ego defense mechanisms (or factors, defined by Freud as unconscious resources used by the ego to reduce conflict between the id and superego, are a reflection of how an individual deals with conflict and stress. This study assesses the prevalence of various ego defense mechanisms employed by medical students of Karachi, which is a group with higher stress levels than the general population. Methods A questionnaire based cross-sectional study was conducted on 682 students from five major medical colleges of Karachi over 4 weeks in November 2006. Ego defense mechanisms were assessed using the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40 individually and as grouped under Mature, Immature, and Neurotic factors. Results Lower mean scores of Immature defense mechanisms (4.78 were identified than those for Neurotic (5.62 and Mature (5.60 mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. Immature mechanisms were more commonly employed by males whereas females employed more Neurotic mechanisms than males. Neurotic and Immature defenses were significantly more prevalent in first and second year students. Mature mechanisms were significantly higher in students enrolled in Government colleges than Private institutions (p Conclusions Immature defense mechanisms were less commonly employed than Neurotic and Mature mechanisms among medical students of Karachi. The greater employment of Neurotic defenses may reflect greater stress levels than the general population. Employment of these mechanisms was associated with female gender, enrollment in a private medical college, and students enrolled in the first 2 years of medical school.

  6. Measurement of 14 MeV neutron cross section of {sup 129}I with foil activation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, Isao; Nakano, Daisuke; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The {sup 129}I, which is one of the most famous fission products (FPs), is of very important concern from the standpoint of waste transmutation due to its extremely long half life. The accurate reaction cross section data of {sup 129}I induced by 14 MeV neutrons are indispensable when evaluating the performance to transmute it in a fusion reactor. However, there was no available experimental data reported until now. We measured 14 MeV neutron induced reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I to give the reference cross section data for evaluation of transmutation performance and nuclear data, using OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka university, Japan. Since the available amount of {sup 129}I as a sample is quite small, probably less than 1 mg, the foil activation method was adopted in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I and the {gamma}-rays from the irradiated sample were measured with a Hp-Ge detector. Several {gamma}-rays peaks which could be expected to be caused by two nuclear reactions of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) were observed. We confirmed that these peaks corresponded to those of {sup 128}I and {sup 130}I through ascertaining each energy and half life. From the measurement, the cross section of {sup 129}I(n,2n) and the effective production cross section of {sup 130}I produced by the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction including the contribution of {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction, that were estimated to be 1.1{+-}0.1 b and 0.032{+-}0.003 b, respectively at 14.8 MeV, were obtained with an acceptable accuracy of about 10 %, though the errors caused by the uncertainty of {gamma} decay scheme data still existed. The measured cross sections were compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2 and ENDF/B-VI. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n) reaction, the evaluations overestimate the cross section by 30-40 %, while for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the evaluations underestimate by at least one order of magnitude

  7. Combined SERS and Raman analysis for the identification of red pigments in cross-sections from historic oil paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frano, Kristen A; Mayhew, Hannah E; Svoboda, Shelley A; Wustholz, Kristin L

    2014-12-21

    The analysis of paint cross-sections can reveal a remarkable amount of information about the layers and materials in a painting without visibly altering the artwork. Although a variety of analytical approaches are used to detect inorganic pigments as well as organic binders, proteins, and lipids in cross-sections, they do not provide for the unambiguous identification of natural, organic colorants. Here, we develop a novel combined surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), light microscopy, and normal Raman scattering (NRS) approach for the identification of red organic and inorganic pigments in paint cross-sections obtained from historic 18th and 19th century oil paintings. In particular, Ag nanoparticles are directly applied to localized areas of paint cross-sections mounted in polyester resin for SERS analysis of the organic pigments. This combined extractionless non-hydrolysis SERS and NRS approach provides for the definitive identification of carmine lake, madder lake, and vermilion in multiple paint layers. To our knowledge, this study represents the first in situ identification of natural, organic pigments within paint cross-sections from oil paintings. Furthermore, the combination of SERS and normal Raman, with light microscopy provides conservators with a more comprehensive understanding of a painting from a single sample and without the need for sample pretreatment.

  8. Analysis of fusion neutronics calculations and appraisal of UW cross-section library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Jianping; Li Xingzhong; Ying Chuntong

    1989-01-01

    A series of calculations for different cases (especially for the values of tritium breeding ratio T, and the fuel breeding ratio F in the blanket of a hybrid reactor) were carried out by using ANISN program and UW cross-section library. The comparison with other results in China and abroad kalso was done. It was shownwn that the installation and execution of ANISN program on ELXSI machine at Tsinghua University are successful, and the UW cross-section library is reliable. It may be used for fusion neutronics calculation in the future. The paper also points out that the difference between the calculations and by the authors are due to jthe different in cross-section data used

  9. The effects of workplace flexibility on health behaviors: a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Casey, Patrick R; Jones, Fiona A

    2007-12-01

    To examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between workplace flexibility and health behaviors, and estimate the potential importance of flexibility for effective worksite health promotion programs. Cross-sectional and longitudinal health risk appraisal data were obtained from US based employees of a multinational pharmaceutical company (n = 3193). Examined health behaviors were hours of sleep, physical activity frequency, health education seminar attendance, frequency of practicing personal resilience techniques, and self-appraised lifestyle. Self-reported flexibility in the workplace was the primary independent variable. Each health behavior, except regular attendance in health education seminars, was positively related to perceived flexibility in cross-sectional analyses. Sleep and self-appraised lifestyle were significantly related to changes in perceived flexibility over time. Workplace flexibility may contribute to positive lifestyle behaviors, and may play an important role in effective worksite health promotion programs.

  10. Trends in nursing research in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupin, C M; Chami, K; Petit dit Dariel, O; Debout, C; Rothan-Tondeur, M

    2013-06-01

    To examine the engagement of French registered nurses with the Ministry of Health's initiative to spur scientific inquiry in the community. French nursing research has suffered from a lack of dedicated funding. Positive signs of change have recently appeared, with the launch of the first national public funding programme dedicated to nursing research. This initiative, begun in 2010, was launched by the French Ministry of Health. Through this initiative, 149 registered nurses, serving as principal investigators, and their teams submitted research proposals between 2010 and 2011. The administrative guidelines of the funding programme are clearly oriented towards producing quantitative and exogenous nursing research. A cross-sectional analysis of 149 nursing research projects submitted during the first and second years of a French national funding programme for hospital-based nursing research was conducted. Research proposals were included in the analysis whether they received funding or not. Data collection took place in 2011. The categories used in the analysis were the following: (1) the socio-demographic data on the registered nurse principal investigators, (2) the research teams and (3) the research proposals (methodologies, bibliography, focus of the research, output, the status of the research proposals). This study highlights the presence of methodological homogeneity among the research proposals submitted for funding. Clear tendencies were towards interventional and quantitative studies and those with an exogenous factor research objective. Between 2010 and 2011, 25 projects were funded out of 149 submitted. They were mostly quantitative and/or focused on the exogenous factors in patient care. The socio-political context of a funding programme designed to encourage nursing research has had an implicit influence on the type of research to which French nurses have committed themselves to and the scientific positions with which these nurse researchers align

  11. Analysis of moderately thin-walled beam cross-sections by cubic isoparametric elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsberg, Jan Becker; Krenk, Steen

    2014-01-01

    In technical beam theory the six equilibrium states associated with homogeneous tension, bending, shear and torsion are treated as individual load cases. This enables the formulation of weak form equations governing the warping from shear and torsion. These weak form equations are solved...... numerically by introducing a cubic-linear two-dimensional isoparametric element. The cubic interpolation of this element accurately represents quadratic shear stress variations along cross-section walls, and thus moderately thin-walled cross-sections are effectively discretized by these elements. The ability...

  12. Combined measurement and QCD analysis of the inclusive e{sup {+-}}p scattering cross sections at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaron, F.D. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Bucharest Univ. (Romania). Faculty of Physics; Abramowicz, H. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics; Max-Planck-Institute, Muenchen (Germany); Abt, I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (DE)] (and others)

    2009-10-15

    A combination is presented of the inclusive deep inelastic cross sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in neutral and charged current unpolarised e{sup {+-}}p scattering at HERA during the period 1994-2000. The data span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, Q{sup 2}, and in Bjorken x. The combination method used takes the correlations of systematic uncertainties into account, resulting in an improved accuracy. The combined data are the sole input in a NLO QCD analysis which determines a new set of parton distributions HERAPDF1.0 with small experimental uncertainties. This set includes an estimate of the model and parametrisation uncertainties of the fit result. (orig.)

  13. Wind Turbine Cross-Sectional Stiffness Analysis Using Internally Layered Solid Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    An efficient finite element modeling approach is presented for analyzing the general cross-sectional stiffness properties and stress distribution of thin- and thick-walled sections with isotropic and general anisotropic materials. The procedure is based on discretizing the walls of the section...

  14. GP registrar consultations addressing menopause-related symptoms: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Giovanni, Jasmine M; Tapley, Amanda; Druce, Penny L; Davey, Andrew R; van Driel, Mieke L; Henderson, Kim M; Catzikiris, Nigel F; Mulquiney, Katie J; Morgan, Simon; Spike, Neil A; Kerr, Rohan H; Magin, Parker J

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the prevalence and associations of general practitioner registrars' (trainees') management of women with menopause-related symptoms. A cross-sectional analysis from the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) cohort study. In ReCEnT registrars collected data of 60 consecutive consultations on three occasions during training. The outcome factor was menopause-related problems/diagnoses (compared with other problems/diagnoses). Associations of registrar, patient, practice, and consultation-independent variables were assessed by univariate and multivariable logistic regression. In all, 1,333 registrars conducted 189,774 consultations involving 295,017 problems/diagnoses. Of these, there were 1,291 problems/diagnoses (0.44% of all problems/diagnoses) relating to menopause. Significant multivariable independent associations of a problem being menopause-related were registrar female sex (odds ratio [OR] 2.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.30-3.26) and registrars working part-time (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72-0.98 for full-time work). Consultation-related associations included an increased number of problems addressed in the consultation (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21-1.37), and menopause-related problems/diagnoses not being new (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). Significant educational associations were increased odds of recourse to in-consultation sources of information or assistance (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.80-2.44) and of generating learning goals (OR 3.15, 95% CI 2.66-3.72). Registrars seek more assistance and further knowledge about menopause compared with other problems. Thus, they may find the area particularly challenging and could benefit from further education regarding managing menopause. Our findings may help inform the design of measures aimed at improving the delivery of menopause training for general practice registrars.

  15. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason L Rucker

    Full Text Available Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT. Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI.Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group.Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  16. Newer anti-epileptic drugs, vitamin status and neuropathy: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, V; McCorry, D; Soryal, I; Rajabally, Y A

    Whether new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may result in neuropathy is unknown but possible given their effects on vitamin metabolism. This analysis aimed to determine frequency and correlates of neuropathy in subjects treated with new AEDs in relation to drug used, length of exposure and serum vitamin B12 and folate levels. We performed a cross-sectional study of 52 consecutive epileptic subjects. Presence of neuropathy was determined using the Utah Early Neuropathy Score (UENS). Exposure to anti-epileptic drugs was quantified. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were measured. Commonly used AEDs were levetiracetam (28/52), carbamazepine (20/52), lamotrigine (20/52), sodium valproate (10/52) and zonisamide (10/52). Eight of 52 (15.4%) patients had neuropathy. There was no association with any particular AED. Neuropathy correlated with age (P=0.038) and total exposure to AEDs (P=0.032). UENS correlated with age (P=0.001), total AED exposure (P=0.001) and serum vitamin B12L (P=0.018). Independent association of neuropathy was found with total AED exposure (P=0.032), but not age. UENS was independently associated with total exposure to AEDs (Pvitamin B12L (P=0.002), but not age. Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels were highly inter-correlated (Pvitamin B12 and folate metabolism. Although further research from controlled studies is needed and despite the presence of other possible confounding factors, monitoring for neuropathy and vitamin B12 and folate levels merits consideration in patients on long-term treatment with new AEDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Association of metabolic risks with subclinical hypothyroidism: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sikandar Hayat; Manzoor, Syed Mohsin; Niazi, Najumusaquib Khan; Asif, Naveed; Ijaz, Aamir; Fazal, Nadeem

    2018-01-01

    To compare lipid parameters, HbA1c, uric acid and albumin creatinine ratio (UACR) among subjects having euthyroidism, Sub-Clinical Hypothyroidism (SCH) and overt hypothyroidism. This comparative cross-sectional analysis was carried out from Dec-2015 to Oct-2016 in collaboration between PNS HAFEEZ hospital and department of chemical pathology and endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi. Biochemical parameters including lipid indices, HbA1c and UACR were compared between euthyroidism (TSH: 0.5 to 4.0 mIU/L, n=163), subclinical hypothyroidism (TSH: 4.0 to 10 mIU/L, n=16) and overt hypothyroidism (TSH:≥ 10.0 mIU/L, n=9). LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and UACR results were as: [(Euthyroid: 2.66 ± 0.73), (SCH: 2.68 ± 0.51) and (Overt hypothyroidism: 3.23 ± 0.59), p-value=0.063], [(Euthyroid: 3.49 ± 0.64), (SCH: 3.35 ± 0.59) and (Overt hypothyroidism: 4.01 ± 0.30), p-value=0.033] and [{Euthyroid: 2.48 (95% CI: 1.63-3.33)}, {SCH: 2.27 (95% CI: 0.37-4.90)} and {Overt hypothyroidism: 14.95 (95% CI: 10.71-19.14){, (p-value< 0.001)] Results for total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol though increased in overt hypothyroid group were not found to be statistically significant. LDL-cholesterol, non-HDL-cholesterol and UACR increased from euthyroid subjects to overt hypothyroidism group. However, these changes were found to be more subtle in the subclinical hypothyroid subjects than cases with overt hypothyroidism.

  18. Multitasking in older adults with type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Jason L; McDowd, Joan M; Mahnken, Jonathan D; Burns, Jeffrey M; Sabus, Carla H; Britton-Carpenter, Amanda J; Utech, Nora B; Kluding, Patricia M

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in the ability to multitask contribute to gait abnormalities and falls in many at-risk populations. However, it is unclear whether older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) also demonstrate impairments in multitasking. The purpose of this study was to compare multitasking performance in cognitively intact older adults with and without DM and explore its relationship to measures of gait and functional ability. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 40 individuals aged 60 and older with type 2 DM and a matched group of 40 cognitively intact older adults without DM. Multitasking was examined via the ambulatory Walking and Remembering Test (WART) and seated Pursuit Rotor Test (PRT). Self-selected normal and fast walking speed and stride length variability were quantitatively measured, and self-reported functional ability was assessed via the Late Life Function and Disability Index (LLFDI). Participants with DM walked slower and took more steps off path when multitasking during the WART. No between-group differences in multitasking performance were observed on the PRT. Multitasking performance demonstrated little correlation with gait and functional ability in either group. Older adults with DM appear to perform poorly on an ambulatory measure of multitasking. However, we analyzed a relatively small, homogenous sample of older adults with and without type 2 DM and factors such as peripheral neuropathy and the use of multiple comparisons complicate interpretation of the data. Future research should explore the interactions between multitasking and safety, fall risk, and function in this vulnerable population. Clinicians should recognize that an array of factors may contribute to gait and physical dysfunction in older adults with type 2 diabetes, and be prepared to assess and intervene appropriately.

  19. Responses to clinical uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Georga; Tapley, Amanda; Holliday, Elizabeth; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Ball, Jean; van Driel, Mieke; Spike, Neil; Kerr, Rohan; Magin, Parker

    2017-12-01

    Tolerance for ambiguity is essential for optimal learning and professional competence. General practice trainees must be, or must learn to be, adept at managing clinical uncertainty. However, few studies have examined associations of intolerance of uncertainty in this group. The aim of this study was to establish levels of tolerance of uncertainty in Australian general practice trainees and associations of uncertainty with demographic, educational and training practice factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on the Registrar Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT) project, an ongoing multi-site cohort study. Scores on three of the four independent subscales of the Physicians' Reaction to Uncertainty (PRU) instrument were analysed as outcome variables in linear regression models with trainee and practice factors as independent variables. A total of 594 trainees contributed data on a total of 1209 occasions. Trainees in earlier training terms had higher scores for 'Anxiety due to uncertainty', 'Concern about bad outcomes' and 'Reluctance to disclose diagnosis/treatment uncertainty to patients'. Beyond this, findings suggest two distinct sets of associations regarding reaction to uncertainty. Firstly, affective aspects of uncertainty (the 'Anxiety' and 'Concern' subscales) were associated with female gender, less experience in hospital prior to commencing general practice training, and graduation overseas. Secondly, a maladaptive response to uncertainty (the 'Reluctance to disclose' subscale) was associated with urban practice, health qualifications prior to studying medicine, practice in an area of higher socio-economic status, and being Australian-trained. This study has established levels of three measures of trainees' responses to uncertainty and associations with these responses. The current findings suggest differing 'phenotypes' of trainees with high 'affective' responses to uncertainty and those reluctant to disclose uncertainty to patients. More

  20. Variations in cardiovascular disease under-diagnosis in England: national cross-sectional spatial analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walford Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is under-diagnosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD in the English population, despite financial incentives to encourage general practices to register new cases. We compared the modelled (expected and diagnosed (observed prevalence of three cardiovascular conditions- coronary heart disease (CHD, hypertension and stroke- at local level, their geographical variation, and population and healthcare predictors which might influence diagnosis. Methods Cross-sectional observational study in all English local authorities (351 and general practices (8,372 comparing model-based expected prevalence with diagnosed prevalence on practice disease registers. Spatial analyses were used to identify geographic clusters and variation in regression relationships. Results A total of 9,682,176 patients were on practice CHD, stroke and transient ischaemic attack, and hypertension registers. There was wide spatial variation in observed: expected prevalence ratios for all three diseases, with less than five per cent of expected cases diagnosed in some areas. London and the surrounding area showed statistically significant discrepancies in observed: expected prevalence ratios, with observed prevalence much lower than the epidemiological models predicted. The addition of general practitioner supply as a variable yielded stronger regression results for all three conditions. Conclusions Despite almost universal access to free primary healthcare, there may be significant and highly variable under-diagnosis of CVD across England, which can be partially explained by persistent inequity in GP supply. Disease management studies should consider the possible impact of under-diagnosis on population health outcomes. Compared to classical regression modelling, spatial analytic techniques can provide additional information on risk factors for under-diagnosis, and can suggest where healthcare resources may be most needed.

  1. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey : a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, SS; Dias, JG; Willekens, FJ

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  2. Shape analysis of single and stacked InAs quantum dots at the atomic level by cross-sectional STM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruls, D.M.; Vugs, J.W.A.M.; Koenraad, P.M.; Skolnick, M.S.; Hopkinson, M.; Wolter, J.H.; Miura, N.; Ando, T.

    2001-01-01

    We present a study of InAs self-assembled quantum dots in GaAs by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM). Our results shows that the dots consist of an JnGaAs alloy and that the indium content increases towards the top. The analysis of the height versus base length relation obtained

  3. Disentangling women's responses on complex dietary intake patterns from an Indian cross-sectional survey: a latent class analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padmadas, S.; Dias, J.; Willekens, F.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the degree of individual heterogeneity related to complex dietary behaviour and to further examine the associations of different dietary compositions with selected characteristics. Design Latent class analysis was applied to data from the recent cross-sectional National

  4. Measurement method of activation cross-sections of reactions producing short-lived nuclei with 14 MeV neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kawade, K; Kasugai, Y; Shibata, M; Iida, T; Takahashi, A; Fukahori, T

    2003-01-01

    We describe a method for obtaining reliable activation cross-sections in the neutron energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV for the reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 30 min. We noted neutron irradiation fields and measured induced activities, including (1) the contribution of scattered low-energy neutrons, (2) the fluctuation of the neutron fluence rate during the irradiation, (3) the true coincidence sum effect, (4) the random coincidence sum effect, (5) the deviation in the measuring position due to finite sample thickness, (6) the self-absorption of the gamma-ray in the sample material and (7) the interference reactions producing the same radionuclides or the ones emitting the gamma-ray with the same energy of interest. The cross-sections can be obtained within a total error of 3.6%, when good counting statistics are achieved, including an error of 3.0% for the standard cross-section of sup 2 sup 7 Al (n, alpha) sup 2 sup 4 Na. We propose here simple methods for measuri...

  5. Level Densities in the actinide region and indirect n,y cross section measurements using the surrogate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiedeking M.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Results from a program of measurements of level densities and gamma ray strength functions in the actinide region are presented. Experiments at the Oslo cyclotron involving the Cactus/Siri detectors and 232Th(d,x and 232Th(3He,x reactions were carried out to help answer the question of which level density model is the most appropriate for actinide nuclei, since it will have an impact on cross section calculations important for reactor physics simulations. A new technique for extracting level densities and gamma ray strength functions from particle-gamma coincidence data is proposed and results from the development of this technique are presented. In addition, simultaneous measurements of compound nuclear gamma decay probabilities have been performed for the key thorium cycle nuclei 233Th, 231Th and 232Pa up to around 1MeV above the neutron binding energy and have enabled extraction of indirect neutron induced capture cross sections for the 232Th, 231Pa and 230Th nuclei using the surrogate reaction method. Since the neutron capture cross section for 232Th is already well known from direct measurements a comparison provides a stringent test of the applicability of the surrogate technique in the actinide region.

  6. The LAW Library -- A multigroup cross-section library for use in radioactive waste analysis calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, N.M.; Arwood, J.W.; Wright, R.Q.; Parks, C.V.

    1994-08-01

    The 238-group LAW Library is a new multigroup neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-V data, with five sets of data taken from ENDF/B-VI ( 14 N 7 , 15 N 7 , 16 O 8 , 154Eu 63 , and 155 Eu 63 ). These five nuclides are included because the new evaluations are thought to be superior to those in Version 5. The LAW Library contains data for over 300 materials and will be distributed by the Radiation Shielding Information Center, located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It was generated for use in neutronics calculations required in radioactive waste analyses, although it has equal utility in any study requiring multigroup neutron cross sections

  7. Analysis of variation in few-group cross section behavior subjected to burnup and boron concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zongyao; Li Dongsheng.

    1986-01-01

    The paper analyzes the variations of few-group cross section behavior in neutron diffusion subjected to fuel burnup and critical boron concentration in a core. The influences of the behavior on the core excess reactivity, crirical boron concentration, power distribution and the yield of isotopes are also analyzed. A reactor core of samll-medium-sized nuclear power plant is analyzed as an example

  8. MODELING AND ANALYSIS OF COUPLED FLEXURAL-TORSIONAL SPINNING BEAMS WITH UNSYMMETRICAL CROSS SECTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jie; Li, Dongxu; Jiang, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    The structural modeling and dynamic properties of a spinning beam with an unsymmetrical cross section are studied. Due to the eccentricity and spinning, transverse deflections along the two principal directions and the torsional motion about the longitudinal axis are coupled. The structural model of the beam is established based on the Hamilton principle and by incorporating the torsional inertia. Moreover, because of its significant influence on characteristics for the non-circular cross-sec...

  9. Predicting Children's Media Use in the USA: Differences in Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sook-Jung; Bartolic, Silvia; Vandewater, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the predictors of children's media use in the USA, comparing cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Data come from Waves 1 and 2 of the Child Development Supplement (CDS-I; CDS-II), a nationally representative sample of American children aged 0-12 in 1997 and 5-18 in 2002. Twenty-four hour time use…

  10. Cross section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for European INTOR and U.S. FED designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.

    1982-06-01

    The European Community International Tokamak Reactor (INTOR-EC) and U.S. Fusion Engineering Device (FED) were used as a basis to investigate the uncertainties of several neutronics performance parameters such as tritium breeding ratio in the blanket, atomic displacement rate in the copper stabilizer, and nuclear heating in the epoxy-based insulator that arise due to nuclear data uncertainties and data processing discrepancies. Neutronics calculations were performed and reaction rates estimated for the recent INTOR-EC using the DLC-37 and DLC-41 cross section libraries. In general, the basic cross section data are known accurately enough to determine the tritium breeding ratio of the INTOR-EC within +-2%. The atomic displacement rate and nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnet of FED (and presumably also INTOR-EC), however, can be predicted to only about +-12% to 24%. If additional accuracy is required, improved measurements of the iron, chromium, and nickel cross sections in the energy range between 12 and 14 MeV will be needed. (Auth.)

  11. Nominal power density analysis of thermoelectric pins with non-constant cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yaoguang; Mei, Deqing; Yao, Zhehe; Wang, Yancheng; Liu, Haiyan; Chen, Zichen

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nominal power density of TEGs with non-constant cross sections pins is analyzed. • An analytical model of nominal power density (NPD) is developed. • Influences of shape parameter on NPD for different geometric pins are investigated. • Effects of dimensionless efficiency and the temperature ratio on NPD are examined. - Abstract: The investigation of the geometric structure of TEG (thermoelectric generator) pins is essential, as their geometry determines the performance of devices. In this study, nominal power density (NPD) is used to find a better geometric structure of thermoelectric pins of TEGs, since a comparison of maximum dimensionless efficiencies for different geometric pins cannot be used to identify the optimum geometry. The influence of shape parameter on NPD for TEG pins in linear, quadratic and exponential cross-sectional functions is studied. The NPD decreases when the shape parameter increases for different geometric pins, while the maximum values of NPD are the same. Then, the effects of dimensionless efficiency and the temperature ratio on the NPD are analyzed. The NPD decreases with the increase in dimensionless efficiency and temperature ratio. Pins with linear variation in cross section have the highest NPD among the three geometries of pins evaluated

  12. Application of the vibration method for damage identification of a beam with a variable cross-sectional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamorska Izabela

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is an application of the non-destructive vibration method for identifying the location of two cracks occurring in a beam. The vibration method is based on knowledge of a certain number of vibration frequencies of an undamaged element and the knowledge of the same number of vibration frequencies of an element with a defect. The analyzed beam, with a variable cross-sectional area, has been described according to the Bernoulli-Euler theory. To determine the values of free vibration frequencies the analytical solution, with the help of the Green’s function method, has been used.

  13. Criticality and safety parameter studies for upgrading 3 MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor and validation of generated cross section library and computational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuiyan, S.I.; Mondal, M.A.W.; Sarker, M.M.; Rahman, M.; Shahdatullah, M.S.; Huda, M.Q.; Chakrroborty, T.K.; Khan, M.J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study deals with the neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis of the 3MW TRIGA MARK II research reactor to upgrade it to a higher flux. The upgrading will need a major reshuffling and reconfiguration of the current core. To reshuffle the current core configuration, the chain of NJOY94.10 - WIMSD-5A - CITATION - PARET - MCNP4B2 codes has been used for the overall analysis. The computational methods, tools and techniques, customisation of cross section libraries, various models for cells and super cells, and a lot of associated utilities have been standardised and established/validated for the overall core analysis. Analyses using the 4-group and 7-group libraries of macroscopic cross sections generated from the 69-group WIMSD-5 library showed that a 7-group structure is more suitable for TRIGA calculations considering its LEU fuel composition. The MCNP calculations established that the CITATION calculations and the generated cross section library are reasonably good for neutronic analysis of TRIGA reactors. Results obtained from PARET demonstrated that the flux upgrade will not cause the temperature limit on the fuel to be exceeded. Also, the maximum power density remains, by a substantial margin below the level at which the departure from nucleate boiling could occur. A possible core with two additional irradiation channels around the CT is projected where almost identical thermal fluxes as in the CT are obtained. The reconfigured core also shows 7.25% thermal flux increase in the Lazy Susan. (author)

  14. Caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation: cross-sectional analysis from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Stanley, James; Cormack, Donna

    2018-03-23

    Children's exposure to racism via caregiver experience (vicarious racism) is associated with poorer health and development. However, the relationship with child healthcare utilisation is unknown. We aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of vicarious racism by child ethnicity; (2) the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation; and (3) the contribution of caregiver socioeconomic position and psychological distress to this association. Cross-sectional analysis of two instances of the New Zealand Health Survey (2006/2007: n=4535 child-primary caregiver dyads; 2011/2012: n=4420 dyads). Children's unmet need for healthcare, reporting no usual medical centre and caregiver-reported dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre. The prevalence of reporting 'any' experience of racism was higher among caregivers of indigenous Māori and Asian children (30.0% for both groups in 2006/2007) compared with European/Other children (14.4% in 2006/2007). Vicarious racism was independently associated with unmet need for child's healthcare (OR=2.30, 95% CI 1.65 to 3.20) and dissatisfaction with their child's medical centre (OR=2.00, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.16). Importantly, there was a dose-response relationship between the number of reported experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation (eg, unmet need: 1 report of racism, OR=1.89, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.67; 2+ reports of racism, OR=3.06, 95% CI 1.27 to 7.37). Adjustment for caregiver psychological distress attenuated the association between caregiver experiences of racism and child healthcare utilisation. Vicarious racism is a serious health problem in New Zealand disproportionately affecting Māori and Asian children and significantly impacting children's healthcare utilisation. Tackling racism may be an important means of improving inequities in child healthcare utilisation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All

  15. Factors influencing women's preference for health facility deliveries in Jharkhand state, India: a cross sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sanghita; Srivastava, Aradhana; Roy, Reetabrata; Avan, Bilal I

    2016-03-07

    Expanding institutional deliveries is a policy priority to achieve MDG5. India adopted a policy to encourage facility births through a conditional cash incentive scheme, yet 28% of deliveries still occur at home. In this context, it is important to understand the care experience of women who have delivered at home, and also at health facilities, analyzing any differences, so that services can be improved to promote facility births. This study aims to understand women's experience of delivery care during home and facility births, and the factors that influence women's decisions regarding their next place of delivery. A community-based cross-sectional survey was undertaken in a district of Jharkhand state in India. Interviews with 500 recently delivered women (210 delivered at facility and 290 delivered at home) included socio-demographic characteristics, experience of their recent delivery, and preference of future delivery site. Data analysis included frequencies, binary and multiple logistic regressions. There is no major difference in the experience of care between home and facility births, the only difference in care being with regard to pain relief through massage, injection and low cost of delivery for those having home births. 75% women wanted to deliver their next child at a facility, main reasons being availability of medicine (29.4%) and perceived health benefits for mother and baby (15%). Women with higher education (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.04-3.07), women who were above 25 years (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.26-3.64), who currently delivered at facility (AOR = 5.19, 95% CI = 2.97-9.08) and had health problem post-delivery (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.08-3.19) were significant predictors of future facility-based delivery. The predictors for facility deliveries include, availability of medicines and supplies, potential health benefits for the mother and newborn and the perception of good care from the providers. There is a growing

  16. Work and family roles of Soviet women: historical trends and cross-section analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofer, G; Vinokur, A

    1985-01-01

    Changes in the way of life of USSR women over the last 2 generations are very similar to those experienced by women in most industrialized and industializing societies. The rate of participation of women in the labor force increased substantially, and this movement was accompanied by a marked rise in the level of women's general and professional education. As a result, women occupy more white collar positions than they did in older generations, but these developments have created a double burden for most women who complain that increased resonsibilities outside the home have not been synchronized with an adequate increase in men's sharing household responsibilities. Historical explanations for changes in women's role particularly emphasize the nature of relationships between participation, wages, incomes, fertility, education and labor market conditions. The long term changes of these major variables, since the 1920s, along with an investigation based on an income survey of 1000 immigrant families, are studied in this paper. Cross sectional analysis examines a longer life cycle, participation decisions, and relates them to decisions on fertility and education. Fertility rates among the Jewish immigrants are much higher and labor participation rates of women much lower than for the rest of the population. Some of the main features of the long trends since 1926 are: 1) of the overall measures of participation of women, only those in the 15-54 and 20-54 age ranges show some increase over the 1926-1980 period, 2) sharp rises in specific participation rates for 25-44 and 45-54 age groups since 1950, and for urban women overall, 3) only a small fraction of the total increase in participation can be attributed to the increase in the proportion of single women, and 4) by 1980 the overall female participation figure rose to 80%--and 88% for the 20-54 age group--the difference reflecting the sharp decline in 15-19 age group participation. While the short run decision about

  17. A cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the regionalization of complex surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studnicki, James; Craver, Christopher; Blanchette, Christopher M; Fisher, John W; Shahbazi, Sara

    2014-08-16

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system has assigned a surgical complexity level to each of its medical centers by specifying requirements to perform standard, intermediate or complex surgical procedures. No study to similarly describe the patterns of relative surgical complexity among a population of United States (U.S) civilian hospitals has been completed. single year, retrospective, cross-sectional. the study used Florida Inpatient Discharge Data from short-term acute hospitals for calendar year 2009. Two hundred hospitals with 2,542,920 discharges were organized into four quartiles (Q 1, 2, 3, 4) based on the number of complex procedures per hospital. The VHA surgical complexity matrix was applied to assign relative complexity to each procedure. The Clinical Classification Software (CCS) system assigned complex procedures to clinically meaningful groups. For outcome comparisons, propensity score matching methods adjusted for the surgical procedure, age, gender, race, comorbidities, mechanical ventilator use and type of admission. in-hospital mortality and length-of-stay (LOS). Only 5.2% of all inpatient discharges involve a complex procedure. The highest volume complex procedure hospitals (Q4) have 49.8% of all discharges but 70.1% of all complex procedures. In the 133,436 discharges with a primary complex procedure, 374 separate specific procedures are identified, only about one third of which are performed in the lowest volume complex procedure (Q1) hospitals. Complex operations of the digestive, respiratory, integumentary and musculoskeletal systems are the least concentrated and proportionately more likely to occur in the lower volume hospitals. Operations of the cardiovascular system and certain technology dependent miscellaneous diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are the most concentrated in high volume hospitals. Organ transplants are only done in Q4 hospitals. There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality rates and the

  18. Cardiovascular risk profile: Cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiers Henri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. Methods In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62 were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2 were measured. Results For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population, social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intentsity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p 2 = .06, p 2 = .23, p For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, 39.9% had positive intentions to engage in physical activity and were also physically active, and 10.5% had a low intentions but were physically active. 37.7% had low intentions and were physically inactive, and about 11.9% had high intentions but were physically inactive. Conclusions This study contributes to our ability to optimize cardiovascular risk profiles by demonstrating an important association between physical fitness and social-cognitive variables. Physical fitness can be predicted by physical active behavior as well as by self-efficacy and the intensity of

  19. Mapping of global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-López, Ferrán; Alonso-Arroyo, Adolfo; Page, Matthew J; Hutton, Brian; Tabarés-Seisdedos, Rafael; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    The management of comorbidity and multimorbidity poses major challenges to health services around the world. Analysis of scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity is limited in the biomedical literature. This study aimed to map global scientific research in comorbidity and multimorbidity to understand the maturity and growth of the area during the past decades. This was a cross-sectional analysis of the Web of Science. Searches were run from inception until November 8, 2016. We included research articles or reviews with no restrictions by language or publication date. Data abstraction was done by one researcher. A process of standardization was conducted by two researchers to unify different terms and grammatical variants and to remove typographical, transcription, and/or indexing errors. All potential discrepancies were resolved via discussion. Descriptive analyses were conducted (including the number of papers, citations, signatures, most prolific authors, countries, journals and keywords). Network analyses of collaborations between countries and co-words were presented. During the period 1970-2016, 85994 papers (64.0% in 2010-2016) were published in 3500 journals. There was wide diversity in the specialty of the journals, with psychiatry (16558 papers; 19.3%), surgery (9570 papers; 11.1%), clinical neurology (9275 papers; 10.8%), and general and internal medicine (7622 papers; 8.9%) the most common. PLOS One (1223 papers; 1.4%), the Journal of Affective Disorders (1154 papers; 1.3%), the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (727 papers; 0.8%), the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (634 papers; 0.7%) and Obesity Surgery (588 papers; 0.7%) published the largest number of papers. 168 countries were involved in the production of papers. The global productivity ranking was headed by the United States (37624 papers), followed by the United Kingdom (7355 papers), Germany (6899 papers) and Canada (5706 papers). Twenty authors who published 100 or more

  20. Analysis and reevaluation of the neutron cross sections for 23Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trykov, E.L.; Svinin, I.R.

    2000-05-01

    The reaction model calculations of the cross sections of neutron-induced reactions on 23 Na have been carried out for incident energies up to 20 MeV. The results of the calculations are compared to all available experimental data, including the most recent ones, and also to the previous evaluations. The discrepancies between the data and the present evaluation and also between evaluations themselves were analyzed. The probable reasons of these discrepancies were considered. On the whole, the calculation results agree well enough with the experimental data. (author)

  1. Qualification of the calculational methods of the fluence in the pressurised water reactors. Improvement of the cross sections treatment by the probability table method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, S.H.

    1994-01-01

    It is indispensable to know the fluence on the nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The cross sections and their treatment have an important rule to this problem. In this study, two ''benchmarks'' have been interpreted by the Monte Carlo transport program TRIPOLI to qualify the calculational method and the cross sections used in the calculations. For the treatment of the cross sections, the multigroup method is usually used but it exists some problems such as the difficulty to choose the weighting function and the necessity of a great number of energy to represent well the cross section's fluctuation. In this thesis, we propose a new method called ''Probability Table Method'' to treat the neutron cross sections. For the qualification, a program of the simulation of neutron transport by the Monte Carlo method in one dimension has been written; the comparison of multigroup's results and probability table's results shows the advantages of this new method. The probability table has also been introduced in the TRIPOLI program; the calculational results of the iron deep penetration benchmark has been improved by comparing with the experimental results. So it is interest to use this new method in the shielding and neutronic calculation. (author). 42 refs., 109 figs., 36 tabs

  2. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Verkuil

    Full Text Available A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations.Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health.The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783 showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23-.34, anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29-.40 and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30-.44. Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450 showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13-0.21. Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10-0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028.All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias.Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work.

  3. Workplace Bullying and Mental Health: A Meta-Analysis on Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Bart; Atasayi, Serpil; Molendijk, Marc L

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has confirmed that workplace bullying is a source of distress and poor mental health. Here we summarize the cross-sectional and longitudinal literature on these associations. Systematic review and meta-analyses on the relation between workplace bullying and mental health. The cross-sectional data (65 effect sizes, N = 115.783) showed positive associations between workplace bullying and symptoms of depression (r = .28, 95% CI = .23-.34), anxiety (r = .34, 95% CI = .29-.40) and stress-related psychological complaints (r = .37, 95% CI = .30-.44). Pooling the literature that investigated longitudinal relationships (26 effect sizes, N = 54.450) showed that workplace bullying was related to mental health complaints over time (r = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.13-0.21). Interestingly, baseline mental health problems were associated with subsequent exposure to workplace bullying (r = 0.18, 95% CI = 0.10-0.27; 11 effect sizes, N = 27.028). All data were self-reported, raising the possibility of reporting- and response set bias. Workplace bullying is consistently, and in a bi-directional manner, associated with reduced mental health. This may call for intervention strategies against bullying at work.

  4. FEMA DFIRM Cross Sections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA Cross Sections are required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally...

  5. Determinants of job satisfaction of healthcare professionals in public hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia - cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuburović Nina B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The quality of health care significantly depends on the satisfaction of the employees. Objective. The objective of this study was to establish the level of professional satisfaction of healthcare professionals in state hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia, and to determine and to rank the factors which impact on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Method. Professional satisfaction survey was designed and conducted as a cross-sectional study in 2008. Completed questionnaires were returned by 6,595 healthcare professionals from Belgrade’s hospitals. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student’s t-test, χ2 test and ANOVA. Factor analysis was applied in order to define determinants of professional satisfaction, i.e. dissatisfaction. Results. This study showed that the degree of professional satisfaction of Serbian healthcare professionals was low. The main causes of professionals’ dissatisfaction were wages, equipment, the possibility of continuous medical education/training and the opportunities for professional development. Healthcare professionals with university education were more satisfied with all the individual aspects of job satisfaction than those with secondary school and college education. Conclusion. There were significantly more healthcare professionals satisfied with their job among males, older than 60 years, in the age group 50-59 years, with managerial function, and with 30 or more years of service. Development strategy of human resources in the Serbian health care system would significantly improve the professional satisfaction and quality of the provided health care.

  6. Analysis of heparanase isoforms and cathepsin B in the plasma of patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas: analytical cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Mucciolo Melo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Heparanase-1 degrades heparan sulfate and has been correlated with tumor progression. Although the isoform heparanase-2 has no catalytic activity, it seems to be important for modulating heparanase-1 activity. Cathepsin B is a proteinase involved in tumor metastasis. The aim of this study was to analyze heparanase isoform expression and cathepsin B activity in plasma samples from patients with gastrointestinal carcinomas, compared with healthy individuals (control group. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was an analytical cross-sectional study. Peripheral blood samples were collected at a Brazilian public hospital, from 21 patients with histopathological diagnoses of gastrointestinal carcinomas and from 43 healthy individuals. The analyses were performed in two Brazilian medical schools. METHODS: Heparanase isoforms were identified and quantified in plasma samples by means of Western blot. The enzymatic activities of heparanase-1 and cathepsin B were also measured. RESULTS: The results demonstrated that the expression of both heparanase isoforms was significantly greater in plasma samples from gastrointestinal carcinoma patients, compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed that increased heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression was exclusively dependent on the tumor. There was a significant increase in heparanase-1 and cathepsin B activity in the patients' plasma. CONCLUSION: Overexpression of heparanase-1 and heparanase-2, along with increased heparanase-1 and cathepsin B activity in plasma, is associated with the diagnosis of gastrointestinal carcinoma. These findings provide support for using non-invasive assays (plasma samples as an auxiliary method for diagnosing gastrointestinal tumors.

  7. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study - Evaluation of a sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-09-15

    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling

  8. QCD analysis of first b cross section data at 1.96 TeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciari, M.; Frixione, S.; Nason, P.; Ridolfi, G.; Mangano, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    The first data on bottom quark production in pp-bar collisions at 1.96 TeV have recently been obtained by the CDF collaboration. These data probe the region of p T ∼ 0, providing a new invaluable input on the issue of the compatibility between next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD and data. We reconsider the evaluation of the b cross section, in view of recent theoretical developments, and of the latest inputs on structure function fits. We show that the new CDF measurements are in good agreement with NLO QCD. If CDF preliminary data are confirmed, a long-standing discrepancy between NLO QCD predictions and hadron-collider data can be settled. (author)

  9. QCD analysis of first b cross section data at 1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Cacciari, M; Mangano, Michelangelo L; Nason, P; Ridolfi, G

    2004-01-01

    The first data on bottom quark production in p-pbar collisions at 1.96 TeV have recently been obtained by the CDF collaboration. These data probe the region of pt~0, providing a new invaluable input on the issue of the compatibility between next-to-leading-order (NLO) QCD and data. We reconsider the evaluation of the $b$ cross section, in view of recent theoretical developments, and of the latest inputs on structure function fits. We show that the new CDF measurements are in good agreement with NLO QCD. If CDF preliminary data are confirmed, a long-standing discrepancy between NLO QCD predictions and hadron-collider data can be settled.

  10. Double photoionization: 2. Analysis of experimental triple differential cross sections in helium and neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malegat, L.; Selles, P.; Mazeau, J.; Huetz, A.; Lablanquie, P.

    1997-01-01

    We use the general formalism established in the companion paper 1 to analyse recent measurements of the triple differential cross sections for double photoionization of He and Ne, for equal energy sharing and for 1 S e symmetry of the residual ion. A dynamical factor, which depends on the energy and on the mutual angle between the two electrons, is extracted from the experiments without relying on nay dynamical approximation. This factor is expanded with respect to the one-electron angular momentum l, up to a maximum value l max , which measures the degree of angular correlation attained by the electron pair. We discuss the physical meaning of l max , and the dependence of the dynamical factor on the target, which is observed when comparing helium and neon results. (author)

  11. Experimental analysis of bidirectional reflectance distribution function cross section conversion term in direction cosine space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Samuel D; Nauyoks, Stephen E; Marciniak, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Of the many classes of bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) models, two popular classes of models are the microfacet model and the linear systems diffraction model. The microfacet model has the benefit of speed and simplicity, as it uses geometric optics approximations, while linear systems theory uses a diffraction approach to compute the BRDF, at the expense of greater computational complexity. In this Letter, nongrazing BRDF measurements of rough and polished surface-reflecting materials at multiple incident angles are scaled by the microfacet cross section conversion term, but in the linear systems direction cosine space, resulting in great alignment of BRDF data at various incident angles in this space. This results in a predictive BRDF model for surface-reflecting materials at nongrazing angles, while avoiding some of the computational complexities in the linear systems diffraction model.

  12. Quantitative analysis of length-diameter distribution and cross-sectional properties of fibers from three-dimensional tomographic images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Arttu; Joffe, Roberts; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    obtained from optical microscopy of polished cross-sections of a composite. This approach gives accurate yet local results, but a rather large number of optical images have to be processed to achieve a representative description of the morphology of the material. In this work a fully automatic algorithm......A number of rule-of-mixture micromechanical models have been successfully used to predict the mechanical properties of short fiber composites. However, in order to obtain accurate predictions, a detailed description of the internal structure of the material is required. This information is often...... for estimating the length-diameter distribution of solid or hollow fibers, utilizing three-dimensional X-ray tomographic images, is presented. The method is based on a granulometric approach for fiber length distribution measurement, combined with a novel algorithm that relates cross-sectional fiber properties...

  13. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  14. Estimation of neutron cross-sections for 16O up to 5.2 MeV through R-matrix analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunieda, Satoshi; Kawano, Toshihiko; Shibata, Keiichi; Fukahori, Tokio; Paris, Mark; Hale, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    There are differences among experimental cross-sections for 16 O, which make the evaluated data still uncertain. R-matrix is rigorous and straightforward to the quantum mechanical theory. We estimate the neutron cross-sections for 16 O up to 5.2 MeV through R-matrix analysis. In this work, particular attention is paid to issues in the scale of (n,α) reaction cross-sections and hydrogen contents in some of the experimental total cross-sections. Our preliminary results suggest that those problems could be solved/reduced due to the physical constraints imposed by the theory. (authors)

  15. User's manual for BECAS. A cross section analysis tool for anisotropic and inhomogeneous beam sections of arbitrary geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasques, J.P.

    2012-02-15

    The BEam Cross section Analysis Software - BECAS - is a group of Matlab functions used for the analysis of the stiffness and mass properties of beam cross sections. The report presents BECAS' code and user's guide. (LN)

  16. Mammographic density and ageing: A collaborative pooled analysis of cross-sectional data from 22 countries worldwide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya Burton

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mammographic density (MD is one of the strongest breast cancer risk factors. Its age-related characteristics have been studied in women in western countries, but whether these associations apply to women worldwide is not known.We examined cross-sectional differences in MD by age and menopausal status in over 11,000 breast-cancer-free women aged 35-85 years, from 40 ethnicity- and location-specific population groups across 22 countries in the International Consortium on Mammographic Density (ICMD. MD was read centrally using a quantitative method (Cumulus and its square-root metrics were analysed using meta-analysis of group-level estimates and linear regression models of pooled data, adjusted for body mass index, reproductive factors, mammogram view, image type, and reader. In all, 4,534 women were premenopausal, and 6,481 postmenopausal, at the time of mammography. A large age-adjusted difference in percent MD (PD between post- and premenopausal women was apparent (-0.46 cm [95% CI: -0.53, -0.39] and appeared greater in women with lower breast cancer risk profiles; variation across population groups due to heterogeneity (I2 was 16.5%. Among premenopausal women, the √PD difference per 10-year increase in age was -0.24 cm (95% CI: -0.34, -0.14; I2 = 30%, reflecting a compositional change (lower dense area and higher non-dense area, with no difference in breast area. In postmenopausal women, the corresponding difference in √PD (-0.38 cm [95% CI: -0.44, -0.33]; I2 = 30% was additionally driven by increasing breast area. The study is limited by different mammography systems and its cross-sectional rather than longitudinal nature.Declines in MD with increasing age are present premenopausally, continue postmenopausally, and are most pronounced over the menopausal transition. These effects were highly consistent across diverse groups of women worldwide, suggesting that they result from an intrinsic biological, likely hormonal, mechanism common to

  17. Analysis of reaction cross-section production in neutron induced fission reactions on uranium isotope using computer code COMPLET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asres, Yihunie Hibstie; Mathuthu, Manny; Birhane, Marelgn Derso

    2018-04-22

    This study provides current evidence about cross-section production processes in the theoretical and experimental results of neutron induced reaction of uranium isotope on projectile energy range of 1-100 MeV in order to improve the reliability of nuclear stimulation. In such fission reactions of 235 U within nuclear reactors, much amount of energy would be released as a product that able to satisfy the needs of energy to the world wide without polluting processes as compared to other sources. The main objective of this work is to transform a related knowledge in the neutron-induced fission reactions on 235 U through describing, analyzing and interpreting the theoretical results of the cross sections obtained from computer code COMPLET by comparing with the experimental data obtained from EXFOR. The cross section value of 235 U(n,2n) 234 U, 235 U(n,3n) 233 U, 235 U(n,γ) 236 U, 235 U(n,f) are obtained using computer code COMPLET and the corresponding experimental values were browsed by EXFOR, IAEA. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR Data Bank. Computer code COMPLET has been used for the analysis with the same set of input parameters and the graphs were plotted by the help of spreadsheet & Origin-8 software. The quantification of uncertainties stemming from both experimental data and computer code calculation plays a significant role in the final evaluated results. The calculated results for total cross sections were compared with the experimental data taken from EXFOR in the literature, and good agreement was found between the experimental and theoretical data. This comparison of the calculated data was analyzed and interpreted with tabulation and graphical descriptions, and the results were briefly discussed within the text of this research work. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Data Analysis of Minima Total Cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 on JENDL-3.2Nuclear Data File

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwoto; Pandiangan, Tumpal; Ferhat-Aziz

    2000-01-01

    The integral tests of neutron cross-section for shielding material suchas nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file have been performed. Analysis ofthe calculation for nitrogen-14 was based on the MAEKER's ORNL-BroomstickExperiment at ORNL-USA. For the data comparison, the calculation analysiswith JENDL-3.1 file, ENDF/B-IV file, ENDF/B-VI file and JEF2.2 have also beencarried out. The overall calculation results by using JENDL-3.2 evaluationshowed good agreement with the experimental data, as well as those with theENDF/B-VI evaluation. In particular, the JENDL-3.2 evaluation gave betterresults than JENDL-3.1 evaluation and ENDF/B-IV. It was been concluded thatthe total cross-sections of Nitrogen-14 contained in JENDL-3.2 file is invery good agreement with the experimental results, although the totalcross-section in the energy range between 0.5 MeV and 0.9 MeV on fileJENDL-3.2 was small (about 4% lower), and minima of total cross-sections wasdeeper. (author)

  19. Numerical Integration Methods for the Takagi-Taupin Equations for Crystals of Rectangular Cross Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolosov, S.I.; Punegov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Two independent methods for calculation of the rocking curves for laterally bounded crystals are developed. Numerical simulation of diffraction for crystals of different sizes is performed. The results obtained using the dynamical theory of diffraction are compared to those obtained in the kinematic approximation

  20. The background cross section method for calculating the epithermal neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    We have developed a new methodology to the multigroup constants calculations, for thermal and fast reactors. The method to obtain the constants is extremely fast and simple, and it avoid repeated computations of the detailed neutron spectrum for different cell configurations (composition, geometry and temperature). (author) [pt

  1. Cross Sectional Study of Agile Software Development Methods and Project Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Agile software development methods, characterized by delivering customer value via incremental and iterative time-boxed development processes, have moved into the mainstream of the Information Technology (IT) industry. However, despite a growing body of research which suggests that a predictive manufacturing approach, with big up-front…

  2. Total photoionization cross-sections of excited electronic states by the algebraic diagrammatic construction-Stieltjes-Lanczos method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberti, M; Yun, R; Gokhberg, K; Kopelke, S; Cederbaum, L S; Tarantelli, F; Averbukh, V

    2014-05-14

    Here, we extend the L2 ab initio method for molecular photoionization cross-sections introduced in Gokhberg et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 130, 064104 (2009)] and benchmarked in Ruberti et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 139, 144107 (2013)] to the calculation of total photoionization cross-sections of molecules in electronically excited states. The method is based on the ab initio description of molecular electronic states within the many-electron Green's function approach, known as algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC), and on the application of Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory to Lanczos pseudospectra of the ADC electronic Hamiltonian. The intermediate state representation of the dipole operator in the ADC basis is used to compute the transition moments between the excited states of the molecule. We compare the results obtained using different levels of the many-body theory, i.e., ADC(1), ADC(2), and ADC(2)x for the first two excited states of CO, N2, and H2O both at the ground state and the excited state equilibrium or saddle point geometries. We find that the single excitation ADC(1) method is not adequate even at the qualitative level and that the inclusion of double electronic excitations for description of excited state photoionization is essential. Moreover, we show that the use of the extended ADC(2)x method leads to a substantial systematic difference from the strictly second-order ADC(2). Our calculations demonstrate that a theoretical modelling of photoionization of excited states requires an intrinsically double excitation theory with respect to the ground state and cannot be achieved by the standard single excitation methods with the ground state as a reference.

  3. Methodology to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections using a coupled model Trace-Parcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes F, M. C.; Del Valle G, E.; Gomez T, A. M.; Sanchez E, V.

    2015-09-01

    A methodology was implemented to carry out a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for cross sections used in a coupled model for Trace/Parcs in a transient of control rod fall of a BWR-5. A model of the reactor core for the neutronic code Parcs was used, in which the assemblies located in the core are described. Thermo-hydraulic model in Trace was a simple model, where only a component type Chan was designed to represent all the core assemblies, which it was within a single vessel and boundary conditions were established. The thermo-hydraulic part was coupled with the neutron part, first for the steady state and then a transient of control rod fall was carried out for the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. To carry out the analysis of cross sections used in the coupled model Trace/Parcs during the transient, the Probability Density Functions for 22 parameters selected from the total of neutronic parameters that use Parcs were generated, obtaining 100 different cases for the coupled model Trace/Parcs, each one with a database of different cross sections. All these cases were executed with the coupled model, obtaining in consequence 100 different output files for the transient of control rod fall doing emphasis in the nominal power, for which an uncertainty analysis was realized at the same time generate the band of uncertainty. With this analysis is possible to observe the ranges of results of the elected responses varying the selected uncertainty parameters. The sensitivity analysis complements the uncertainty analysis, identifying the parameter or parameters with more influence on the results and thus focuses on these parameters in order to better understand their effects. Beyond the obtained results, because is not a model with real operation data, the importance of this work is to know the application of the methodology to carry out the sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. (Author)

  4. X-ray analysis of residual stress gradients in TiN coatings by a Laplace space approach and cross-sectional nanodiffraction: a critical comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefenelli, Mario; Todt, Juraj; Riedl, Angelika; Ecker, Werner; Müller, Thomas; Daniel, Rostislav; Burghammer, Manfred; Keckes, Jozef

    2013-10-01

    Novel scanning synchrotron cross-sectional nanobeam and conventional laboratory as well as synchrotron Laplace X-ray diffraction methods are used to characterize residual stresses in exemplary 11.5 µm-thick TiN coatings. Both real and Laplace space approaches reveal a homogeneous tensile stress state and a very pronounced compressive stress gradient in as-deposited and blasted coatings, respectively. The unique capabilities of the cross-sectional approach operating with a beam size of 100 nm in diameter allow the analysis of stress variation with sub-micrometre resolution at arbitrary depths and the correlation of the stress evolution with the local coating microstructure. Finally, advantages and disadvantages of both approaches are extensively discussed.

  5. Cross-sectional analysis of Dutch repatriated service members from Southern Afghanistan (2003–2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, Eelco; Hoencamp, Rigo; Van Dongen, Thijs; Leenen, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background: A systematic analysis of the complete medical support organization of the Dutch Armed Forces regarding repatriated service members from Afghanistan has not been performed so far. Methods: All information were collated in a specifically designed electronic database and gathered from the

  6. Ethnicity and self-perceived oral health in Colombia: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Martínez-Herrera, Eliana; Posada-López, Adriana; Sánchez-Patiño, Danilo; Viñas-Sarmiento, Yomaira

    2014-02-01

    To estimate the association between self-perceived oral health indicators and ethnic origin in Colombia, a cross-sectional study (Information from the 2007 National Public Health Survey) was conducted. belonging to an ethnic group (Exposure); oral health indicators (Outcomes); sex, age, education and self-rated health (control). Analyses were carried out separately for men (M) and women (W). The association between the exposure variable and the outcomes was estimated by means of adjusted odds ratio (OR) with confidence intervals (95% CI) using logistic regression. Men were more likely to report gum bleeding (aOR 1.78; 95% CI 1.44-2.23) and dental caries (aOR 1.69; 95% CI 1.42-2.02), while women were more likely to report unmet dental needs (aOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.27-1.49) and dental caries (aOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.22-1.47). Indigenous and Palenquero were more likely to report most of the indicators analyzed. Minority ethnic groups in Colombia were at risk to report oral health problems.

  7. Sex disparities in tuberculosis suspect evaluation: a cross-sectional analysis in rural Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C R; Davis, J L; Katamba, A; Sserwanga, A; Kakeeto, S; Kizito, F; Cattamanchi, A

    2013-04-01

    Six primary health care centers in rural Uganda. To compare the quality of tuberculosis (TB) evaluation for men and women presenting to primary health care facilities in high-burden settings. Cross-sectional study using indicators derived from the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC) to compare the quality of TB evaluation services provided to men and women. Of 161 230 patient visits between January 2009 and December 2010, 112 329 (69.7%) were women. We considered 3308 (2.1%) patients with cough ≥2 weeks as TB suspects, of whom 1871 (56.6%) were women. Female TB suspects were less likely to be referred for sputum smear examination (45.9% vs. 61.6%, P ISTC (33.0% vs. 45.6%, P ISTC-recommended care (RR 0.79, 95%CI 0.72-0.86, P < 0.001). Strategies to ensure that women receive appropriate TB evaluation could provide a valuable opportunity for increasing case detection while also promoting equitable and universal access to care.

  8. 232Th and 238U neutron emission cross section calculations and analysis of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tel, E.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, pre-equilibrium neutron-emission spectra produced by (n,xn) reactions on nuclei 2 32Th and 2 38U have been calculated. Angle-integrated cross sections in neutron induced reactions on targets 2 32Th and 2 38U have been calculated at the bombarding energies up to 18 MeV. We have investigated multiple pre-equilibrium matrix element constant from internal transition for 2 32Th (n,xn) neutron emission spectra. In the calculations, the geometry dependent hybrid model and the cascade exciton model including the effects of pre-equilibrium have been used. In addition, we have described how multiple pre-equilibrium emissions can be included in the Feshbach-Kerman-Koonin (FKK) fully quantum-mechanical theory. By analyzing (n,xn) reaction on 232 T h and 2 38U, with the incident energy from 2 Me V to 18 Me V, the importance of multiple pre-equilibrium emission can be seen cleady. All calculated results have been compared with experimental data. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data and found agreement with each other

  9. Job satisfaction and leaving intentions of midwives: analysis of a multinational cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosova, Darja; Gurkova, Elena; Palese, Alvisa; Godeas, Gloria; Ziakova, Katarina; Song, Mi Sook; Lee, Jongwon; Cordeiro, Raul; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi; Babiarczyk, Beata; Fras, Malgorzata; Nedvedova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between turnover intentions and job satisfaction among hospital midwives from seven countries and to determine how the related variables differ between countries. Studies investigating professional turnover and job satisfaction among midwives are limited in scope. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was used to investigate the intended turnover and job satisfaction relationship among 1190 hospital midwives in European and Asian countries. Data were collected using a set of questionnaires that included questions regarding the leaving intentions of midwives and the McCloskey/Mueller satisfaction scale. Midwives were least satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and professional opportunities and with the balance between family and work. Significant differences were found in all domains of job satisfaction according to midwives' intentions to leave their current workplace in hospital or profession of midwife, and to work abroad. There are some general satisfying and dissatisfying elements for the profession of midwife across different countries. The results highlight the importance of understanding midwives' leaving intentions and related factors across different countries. To prevent midwife turnover, health-care managers should gain greater insight into the early stage of midwives' turnover intention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The development of a collapsing method for the mixed group and point cross sections and its application on multi-dimensional deep penetration calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor-Jing Chang; Yen-Wan H. Liu

    1992-01-01

    The HYBRID, or mixed group and point, method was developed to solve the neutron transport equation deterministically using detailed treatment at cross section minima for deep penetration calculations. Its application so far is limited to one-dimensional calculations due to the enormous computing time involved in multi-dimensional calculations. In this article, a collapsing method is developed for the mixed group and point cross section sets to provide a more direct and practical way of using the HYBRID method in the multi-dimensional calculations. A testing problem is run. The method is then applied to the calculation of a deep penetration benchmark experiment. It is observed that half of the window effect is smeared in the collapsing treatment, but it still provide a better cross section set than the VITAMIN-C cross sections for the deep penetrating calculations

  11. Using the DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation Method in Determining the Extinction Cross Section of Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupski Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BC (Black Carbon, which can be found in the atmosphere, is characterized by a large value of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index and, therefore, might have an impact on the global warming effect. To study the interaction of BC with light often computer simulations are used. One of the methods, which are capable of performing light scattering simulations by any shape, is DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation. In this work its accuracy was estimated in respect to BC structures using the latest stable version of the ADDA (vr. 1.2 algorithm. As the reference algorithm the GMM (Generalized Multiparticle Mie-Solution code was used. The study shows that the number of volume elements (dipoles is the main parameter that defines the quality of results. However, they can be improved by a proper polarizability expression. The most accurate, and least time consuming, simulations were observed for IGT_SO. When an aggregate consists of particles composed of ca. 750 volume elements (dipoles, the averaged relative extinction error should not exceed ca. 4.5%.

  12. Motion state analysis of space target based on optical cross section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qichen; Li, Zhi; Xu, Can; Liu, Chenghao

    2017-10-01

    In order to solve the problem that the movement state analysis method of the space target based on OCS is not related to the real motion state. This paper proposes a method based on OCS for analyzing the state of space target motion. This paper first establish a three-dimensional model of real STSS satellite, then change the satellite's surface into element, and assign material to each panel according to the actual conditions of the satellite. This paper set up a motion scene according to the orbit parameters of STSS satellite in STK, and the motion states are set to three axis steady state and slowly rotating unstable state respectively. In these two states, the occlusion condition of the surface element is firstly determined, and the effective face element is selected. Then, the coordinates of the observation station and the solar coordinates in the satellite body coordinate system are input into the OCS calculation program, and the OCS variation curves of the three axis steady state and the slow rotating unstable state STSS satellite are obtained. Combining the satellite surface structure and the load situation, the OCS change curve of the three axis stabilized satellite is analyzed, and the conclude that the OCS curve fluctuates up and down when the sunlight is irradiated to the load area; By using Spectral analysis method, autocorrelation analysis and the cross residual method, the rotation speed of OCS satellite in slow rotating unstable state is analyzed, and the rotation speed of satellite is successfully reversed. By comparing the three methods, it is found that the cross residual method is more accurate.

  13. On predicting quantal cross sections by interpolation: Surprisal analysis of j/sub z/CCS and statistical j/sub z/ results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldflam, R.; Kouri, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    New methods for predicting the full matrix of integral cross sections are developed by combining the surprisal analysis of Bernstein and Levine with the j/sub z/-conserving coupled states method (j/sub z/CCS) of McGuire, Kouri, and Pack and with the statistical j/sub z/ approximation (Sj/sub z/) of Kouri, Shimoni, and Heil. A variety of approaches is possible and only three are studied in the present work. These are (a) a surprisal fit of the j=0→j' column of the j/sub z/CCS cross section matrix (thereby requiring only a solution of the lambda=0 set of j/sub z/CCS equations), (b) a surprisal fit of the lambda-bar=0 Sj/sub z/ cross section matrix (again requiring solution of the lambda=0 set of j/sub z/CCS equations only), and (c) a surprisal fit of a lambda-bar not equal to 0 Sj/sub z/ submatrix (involving input cross sections for j,j'> or =lambda-bar transitions only). The last approach requires the solution of the lambda=lambda-bar set of j/sub z/CCS equations only, which requires less computation effort than the effective potential method. We explore three different choices for the prior and two-parameter (i.e., linear) and three-parameter (i.e., parabolic) fits as applied to Ar--N 2 collisions. The results are in general very encouraging and for one choice of prior give results which are within 20% of the exact j/sub z/CCS results

  14. The international performance of healthcare systems in population health: capabilities of pooled cross-sectional time series methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reibling, Nadine

    2013-09-01

    This paper outlines the capabilities of pooled cross-sectional time series methodology for the international comparison of health system performance in population health. It shows how common model specifications can be improved so that they not only better address the specific nature of time series data on population health but are also more closely aligned with our theoretical expectations of the effect of healthcare systems. Three methodological innovations for this field of applied research are discussed: (1) how dynamic models help us understand the timing of effects, (2) how parameter heterogeneity can be used to compare performance across countries, and (3) how multiple imputation can be used to deal with incomplete data. We illustrate these methodological strategies with an analysis of infant mortality rates in 21 OECD countries between 1960 and 2008 using OECD Health Data. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro

    1997-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  16. Neutron Cross Sections for Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, Leif

    1963-08-15

    Total, elastic, inelastic, (n, 2n), (n, {alpha}), (n, p), and (n, {gamma}) cross sections for aluminium have been compiled from thermal to 100 MeV based upon literature search and theoretical interpolations and estimates. Differential elastic cross sections in the centre of mass system are represented by the Legendre coefficients. This method was chosen in order to obtain the best description of the energy dependence of the anisotropy.

  17. Correlates of susceptibility to smoking among Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokhorov Alexander V

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survey data suggest that in Texas Latino youth exhibit higher rates of susceptibility to smoking than youth from other ethnic groups. In this analysis we examined the relationship between susceptibility to smoking and well-known risk factors associated with smoking initiation among a cohort of 11 to 13 year old Mexican origin youth residing in Houston, Texas. Methods We analyzed cross-sectional survey data from 1,187 participants who reported they had never smoked, even a puff of a cigarette. The survey assessed peer and family social influence, school and neighborhood characteristics, level of family acculturation and socioeconomic status, and attitudes toward smoking. Bivariate associations, Student's t-tests, and logistic regression analysis were used to examine predictors of susceptibility. Results Overall, 22.1% of the never-smokers were susceptible to smoking. Boys were more likely to be susceptible than girls (25.6% vs. 18.9%, and susceptible children were slightly older than non-susceptible children (12.1 vs. 11.8 years. In addition, multivariate analyses revealed that positive expectations about smoking exerted the strongest influence on susceptibility status (odds ratio = 4.85. Multivariate analyses further revealed that compared to non-susceptible participants, susceptibles were more likely to report peer influences supportive of smoking, lower subjective social status and more detentions at school, more temptations to try smoking and to have a mother and a brother who smokes. Conclusion Our findings suggest that interventions that target positive expectations about smoking may be useful in this population. Furthermore, because youth encounter smoking-initiation risk factors in different social environments, our results underscore the continued need for both family- and school-based primary prevention programs to adequately combat their influence. The results also can be used to inform the development of culturally

  18. Association between anterior corneal astigmatism and posterior corneal astigmatism across age groups: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Shetty

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess the anterior corneal astigmatism(ACAand posterior corneal astigmatism(PCApatterns across various age groups. We also evaluated the association between magnitudes and axes of the ACA and PCA across these age groups. METHODS: The present study was a cross-sectional analysis of clinical data of 381 eyes. We converted the clinical astigmatic notation to vector notation for analysis of ACA and PCA. We estimated the correlation between magnitude and axes of the ACA and PCA in the whole population and in four age groups(5-19, 20-39, 40-59, and ≥ 60y. We used random effects linear regression models for estimating the association between the magnitudes of ACA and PCA.RESULTS: The mean of the magnitude of the ACA(3.59Dand the PCA(0.50Dwas highest in children(5 to 9y. Overall, the magnitude of the ACA ranged from 0D to 10.0 Diopters(Dand the magnitude of the PCA ranged from 0 to 3.5 D. There was a significant correlation between the ACA and the PCA in the younger age group(r=0.85, PP=0.03with each unit increase in the ACA, the increase was the smallest in this age group.CONCLUSION: It will be prudent to measure the both the magnitude and axis of the PCA, particularly in those above 60y rather than rely on rule-of-thumb calculations based on ACA parameters for IOL power calculation.

  19. Ground-state inversion method applied to calculation of molecular photoionization cross-sections by atomic extrapolation: Interference effects at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, P.R.; Nordholm, S.; Hush, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-state inversion method, which we have previously developed for the calculation of atomic cross-sections, is applied to the calculation of molecular photoionization cross-sections. These are obtained as a weighted sum of atomic subshell cross-sections plus multi-centre interference terms. The atomic cross-sections are calculated directly for the atomic functions which when summed over centre and symmetry yield the molecular orbital wave function. The use of the ground-state inversion method for this allows the effect of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections to be calculated. Multi-centre terms are estimated on the basis of an effective plane-wave expression for this contribution to the total cross-section. Finally the method is applied to the range of photon energies from 0 to 44 eV where atomic extrapolation procedures have not previously been tested. Results obtained for H 2 , N 2 and CO show good agreement with experiment, particularly when interference effects and effects of the molecular environment on the atomic cross-sections are included. The accuracy is very much better than that of previous plane-wave and orthogonalized plane-wave methods, and can stand comparison with that of recent more sophisticated approaches. It is a feature of the method that calculation of cross-sections either of atoms or of large molecules requires very little computer time, provided that good quality wave functions are available, and it is then of considerable potential practical interest for photoelectorn spectroscopy. (orig.)

  20. Appropriate use of medical imaging in two Spanish public hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Palop, Jorge; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor-Valero, María; Vilar, José; González-Alvarez, Isabel; Lumbreras, Blanca

    2018-01-01

    Objectives To determine the appropriateness of medical imaging examinations involving radiation and to estimate the effective radiation dose and costs associated. Design Cross-sectional retrospective study. Setting Two Spanish public tertiary hospitals. Participants 2022 medical imaging tests were extracted from the radiology information system in February and March of 2014. MRI and ultrasound examinations were excluded. Primary and secondary outcome measures Five outcomes were set independently by at least two researchers according to four guidelines: (1) appropriate; (2) inappropriate; (3) inappropriate due to repetition, if the timing to carry out next diagnostic tests was incorrect according to guidelines; (4) not adequately justified, if the referral form did not include enough clinical information to allow us to understand the patient’s clinical condition; and (5) not included in the guidelines, if the referral could not be matched to a clinical scenario described in the guidelines. We estimated the prevalence of the five categories according to relevant clinical and sociodemographic variables and the effective radiation dose and costs for each category. Results Approximately half of the imaging tests were deemed as appropriate (967, 47.8%) while one-third (634, 31.4%) were considered inappropriate. 19.6% of the effective dose and 25.2% of the cost were associated with inappropriate tests. Women were less likely than men to have an imaging test classified as appropriate (adjusted OR 0.70,95% CI 0.57 to 0.86). Imaging tests requested by general practitioners were less likely to be considered appropriate than those requested by central services (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93). Mammography and CT were more likely to be appropriate than conventional X-rays. Conclusion There was a significant frequency of inappropriateness, which resulted in a high percentage of associated effective radiation dose. Percentage of inappropriateness depends on

  1. Trial publication after registration in ClinicalTrials.Gov: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph S Ross

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ClinicalTrials.gov is a publicly accessible, Internet-based registry of clinical trials managed by the US National Library of Medicine that has the potential to address selective trial publication. Our objectives were to examine completeness of registration within ClinicalTrials.gov and to determine the extent and correlates of selective publication.We examined reporting of registration information among a cross-section of trials that had been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov after December 31, 1999 and updated as having been completed by June 8, 2007, excluding phase I trials. We then determined publication status among a random 10% subsample by searching MEDLINE using a systematic protocol, after excluding trials completed after December 31, 2005 to allow at least 2 y for publication following completion. Among the full sample of completed trials (n = 7,515, nearly 100% reported all data elements mandated by ClinicalTrials.gov, such as intervention and sponsorship. Optional data element reporting varied, with 53% reporting trial end date, 66% reporting primary outcome, and 87% reporting trial start date. Among the 10% subsample, less than half (311 of 677, 46% of trials were published, among which 96 (31% provided a citation within ClinicalTrials.gov of a publication describing trial results. Trials primarily sponsored by industry (40%, 144 of 357 were less likely to be published when compared with nonindustry/nongovernment sponsored trials (56%, 110 of 198; p<0.001, but there was no significant difference when compared with government sponsored trials (47%, 57 of 122; p = 0.22. Among trials that reported an end date, 75 of 123 (61% completed prior to 2004, 50 of 96 (52% completed during 2004, and 62 of 149 (42% completed during 2005 were published (p = 0.006.Reporting of optional data elements varied and publication rates among completed trials registered within ClinicalTrials.gov were low. Without greater attention to reporting of all data

  2. Improvement of Axial Reflector Cross Section Generation Model for PWR Core Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Cheon Bo; Lee, Kyung Hoon; Cho, Jin Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper covers the study for improvement of axial reflector XS generation model. In the next section, the improved 1D core model is represented in detail. Reflector XS generated by the improved model is compared to that of the conventional model in the third section. Nuclear design parameters generated by these two XS sets are also covered in that section. Significant of this study is discussed in the last section. Two-step procedure has been regarded as the most practical approach for reactor core designs because it offers core design parameters quite rapidly within acceptable range. Thus this approach is adopted for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced Reac- Tor) core design in KAERI with the DeCART2D1.1/ MASTER4.0 (hereafter noted as DeCART2D/ MASTER) code system. Within the framework of the two-step procedure based SMART core design, various researches have been studied to improve the core design reliability and efficiency. One of them is improvement of reflector cross section (XS) generation models. While the conventional FA/reflector two-node model used for most core designs to generate reflector XS cannot consider the actual configuration of fuel rods that intersect at right angles to axial reflectors, the revised model reflects the axial fuel configuration by introducing the radially simplified core model. The significance of the model revision is evaluated by observing HGC generated by DeCART2D, reflector XS, and core design parameters generated by adopting the two models. And it is verified that about 30 ppm CBC error can be reduced and maximum Fq error decreases from about 6 % to 2.5 % by applying the revised model. Error of AO and axial power shapes are also reduced significantly. Therefore it can be concluded that the simplified 1D core model improves the accuracy of the axial reflector XS and leads to the two-step procedure reliability enhancement. Since it is hard for core designs to be free from the two-step approach, it is necessary to find

  3. Appropriate use of medical imaging in two Spanish public hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar-Palop, Jorge; Hernandez-Aguado, Ildefonso; Pastor-Valero, María; Vilar, José; González-Alvarez, Isabel; Lumbreras, Blanca

    2018-03-16

    To determine the appropriateness of medical imaging examinations involving radiation and to estimate the effective radiation dose and costs associated. Cross-sectional retrospective study. Two Spanish public tertiary hospitals. 2022 medical imaging tests were extracted from the radiology information system in February and March of 2014. MRI and ultrasound examinations were excluded. Five outcomes were set independently by at least two researchers according to four guidelines: (1) appropriate; (2) inappropriate; (3) inappropriate due to repetition, if the timing to carry out next diagnostic tests was incorrect according to guidelines; (4) not adequately justified, if the referral form did not include enough clinical information to allow us to understand the patient's clinical condition; and (5) not included in the guidelines, if the referral could not be matched to a clinical scenario described in the guidelines. We estimated the prevalence of the five categories according to relevant clinical and sociodemographic variables and the effective radiation dose and costs for each category. Approximately half of the imaging tests were deemed as appropriate (967, 47.8%) while one-third (634, 31.4%) were considered inappropriate. 19.6% of the effective dose and 25.2% of the cost were associated with inappropriate tests. Women were less likely than men to have an imaging test classified as appropriate (adjusted OR 0.70,95% CI 0.57 to 0.86). Imaging tests requested by general practitioners were less likely to be considered appropriate than those requested by central services (adjusted OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.93). Mammography and CT were more likely to be appropriate than conventional X-rays. There was a significant frequency of inappropriateness, which resulted in a high percentage of associated effective radiation dose. Percentage of inappropriateness depends on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics such as sex, age, referral physician and medical imaging test

  4. Association between traditional oral hygiene methods with tooth wear, gingival bleeding, and recession: A descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Naseem; Mathur, Vijay Prakash; Jain, Veena; Logani, Ajay

    2018-01-01

    Oral hygiene maintenance is crucial for prevention of various oral diseases. Oral hygiene practices across the country vary largely and people in peri-urban and rural areas use traditional methods of oral hygiene like powders, bark, oil and salt etc. Their effect on oral soft and hard tissues need to be studied to understand their beneficial and/ or harmful effects on maintenance of oral hygiene and prevention or causation of oral diseases. This study aimed to assess the plaque-cleaning efficacy, gingival bleeding, recession and tooth wear with different traditional oral hygiene methods as compared to use of toothpaste-toothbrush, the most accepted method of oral hygiene practice. Hospital based cross sectional analytical study. Results: Total 1062 traditional oral hygiene method users were compared with same number of toothpaste-brush users. The maximum number in the former group used tooth powder (76%) as compared to other indigenous methods, such as use of bark of trees etc and out of tooth powder users; almost 75% reported using red toothpowder. The plaque scores and gingival bleeding & recession were found to be more in traditional oral hygiene method users. The toothwear was also more severe among the toothpowder users. Traditional methods were found to be inferior in plaque control as was documented by increased bleeding and gingival recession. Its effect on hard tissues of teeth was very damaging with higher tooth wear scores on all surfaces.

  5. A comparison of three time-dependent wave packet methods for calculating electron--atom elastic scattering cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, R.S.; McGarrah, D.B.; Sharafeddin, O.A.; Kouri, D.J.; Hoffman, D.K.

    1991-01-01

    We compare three time-dependent wave packet methods for performing elastic scattering calculations from screened Coulomb potentials. The three methods are the time-dependent amplitude density method (TDADM), what we term a Cayley-transform method (CTM), and the Chebyshev propagation method of Tal-Ezer and Kosloff. Both the TDADM and the CTM are based on a time-dependent integral equation for the wave function. In the first, we propagate the time-dependent amplitude density, |ζ(t)right-angle=U|ψ(t)right-angle, where U is the interaction potential and |ψ(t)right-angle is the usual time-dependent wave function. In the other two, the wave function is propagated. As a numerical example, we calculate phase shifts and cross sections using a screened Coulomb, Yukawa type potential over the range 200--1000 eV. One of the major advantages of time-dependent methods such as these is that we get scattering information over this entire range of energies from one propagation. We find that in most cases, all three methods yield comparable accuracy and are about equally efficient computationally. However for l=0, where the Coulomb well is not screened by the centrifugal potential, the TDADM requires smaller grid spacings to maintain accuracy

  6. Method of determining the partial cross sections in a heavy liquid. Application to the production of strange particles by high energy π"-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, Antonio

    1964-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study if the measurement of cross sections on proton, and more particularly the development of a method of determination of cross sections which takes problems raised by a heavy liquid into account. This method is applied with sufficiently high energies for the Fermi momentum to have no influence on cross sections. The author first presents the general method of determination of partial cross sections in a heavy liquid: case of a hydrogen chamber, ideal case of a heavy liquid chamber without possibility of secondary interactions nor evaporations, search for a formula removing secondary interactions, correction due to the fact that the number of neutrons is not equal to the number of protons in the mixture nuclei, application to cross sections of production of high energy strange particles, calculation of the number of produced high energy particles. The experiment is then presented with its chamber, its measurement and calculation techniques. The author then reports and discusses cross section calculations and compares results with those of previous experiments. The last part addresses the study of secondary interactions in nuclei

  7. Program package for calculation of cross sections of neutron scattering on deformed nuclei by the coupled-channel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloss, Yu.Yu.

    1985-01-01

    Program package and numerical solution of the problem for a system of coupled equations used in optical model to solve a problem on low and mean energy neutron scattering on deformed nuclei, is considered. With these programs differnet scattering cross sections depending on the incident neutron energy on even-even and even-odd nuclei were obtained. The programm permits to obtain different scattering cross sections (elastic, inelastic), excitation cross sections of the first three energy levels of rotational band depending on the energy, angular distributions and neutron polarizations including excited channels. In the program there is possibility for accounting even-even nuclei octupole deformation

  8. Aboriginal premature mortality within South Australia 1999-2006: a cross-sectional analysis of small area results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Robyn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper initially describes premature mortality by Aboriginality in South Australia during 1999 to 2006. It then examines how these outcomes vary across area level socio-economic disadvantage and geographic remoteness. Methods The retrospective, cross-sectional analysis uses estimated resident population by sex, age and small areas based on the 2006 Census, and Unit Record mortality data. Premature mortality outcomes are measured using years of life lost (YLL. Subsequent intrastate comparisons are based on indirect sex and age adjusted YLL results. A multivariate model uses area level socio-economic disadvantage rank, geographic remoteness, and an interaction between the two variables to predict premature mortality outcomes. Results Aboriginal people experienced 1.1% of total deaths but 2.2% of YLL and Aboriginal premature mortality rates were 2.65 times greater than the South Australian average. Premature mortality for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people increased significantly as area disadvantage increased. Among Aboriginal people though, a significant main effect for area remoteness was also observed, together with an interaction between disadvantage and remoteness. The synergistic effect shows the social gradient between area disadvantage and premature mortality increased as remoteness increased. Conclusions While confirming the gap in premature mortality rates between Aboriginal South Australians and the rest of the community, the study also found a heterogeneity of outcomes within the Aboriginal community underlie this difference. The results support the existence of relationship between area level socio-economic deprivation, remoteness and premature mortality in the midst of an affluent society. The study concludes that vertically equitable resourcing according to population need is an important response to the stark mortality gap and its exacerbation by area socio-economic position and remoteness.

  9. Concurrent acute illness and comorbid conditions poorly predict antibiotic use in upper respiratory tract infections: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perencevich Eli N

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inappropriate antibiotic use promotes resistance. Antibiotics are generally not indicated for upper respiratory infections (URIs. Our objectives were to describe patterns of URI treatment and to identify patient and provider factors associated with antibiotic use for URIs. Methods This study was a cross-sectional analysis of medical and pharmacy claims data from the Pennsylvania Medicaid fee-for-service program database. We identified Pennsylvania Medicaid recipients with a URI office visit over a one-year period. Our outcome variable was antibiotic use within seven days after the URI visit. Study variables included URI type and presence of concurrent acute illnesses and chronic conditions. We considered the associations of each study variable with antibiotic use in a logistic regression model, stratifying by age group and adjusting for confounders. Results Among 69,936 recipients with URI, 35,786 (51.2% received an antibiotic. In all age groups, acute sinusitis, chronic sinusitis, otitis, URI type and season were associated with antibiotic use. Except for the oldest group, physician specialty and streptococcal pharyngitis were associated with antibiotic use. History of chronic conditions was not associated with antibiotic use in any age group. In all age groups, concurrent acute illnesses and history of chronic conditions had only had fair to poor ability to distinguish patients who received an antibiotic from patients who did not. Conclusion Antibiotic prevalence for URIs was high, indicating that potentially inappropriate antibiotic utilization is occurring. Our data suggest that demographic and clinical factors are associated with antibiotic use, but additional reasons remain unexplained. Insight regarding reasons for antibiotic prescribing is needed to develop interventions to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance.

  10. Cross sectional analysis of respiratory symptoms in an injection drug user cohort: the impact of obstructive lung disease and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Shruti H

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug use is associated with an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection and with obstructive lung diseases (OLD. Understanding how HIV and OLD may impact respiratory symptoms among injection drug users (IDUs is important to adequately care for this high-risk population. We characterized the independent and joint effects of HIV and OLD on respiratory symptoms of a cohort of inner-city IDUs. Methods Demographics, risk behavior and spirometric measurements were collected from a cross-sectional analysis of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Link to the IntraVenous Experience study, an observational cohort of IDUs followed in Baltimore, MD since 1988. Participants completed a modified American Thoracic Society respiratory questionnaire and the Medical Research Council (MRC dyspnea score to assess respiratory symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheezing and dyspnea. Results Of 974 participants, 835 (86% were current smokers and 288 (29.6% were HIV-infected. The prevalence of OLD (FEV1/FVC ≤ 0.70 was 15.5%, and did not differ by HIV status. OLD, but not HIV, was associated with increased frequency of reported respiratory symptoms. There was a combined effect of OLD and HIV on worsening of MRC scores. OLD and HIV were independently associated with an increased odds of reporting an MRC ≥ 2 (OR 1.83 [95%CI 1.23-2.73] and 1.50 [95%CI 1.08-2.09], respectively. COPD, but not HIV, was independently associated with reporting an MRC ≥ 3 (OR 2.25 [95%CI 1.43-3.54] and 1.29 [95%CI 0.87-1.91], respectively. Conclusions While HIV does not worsen cough, phlegm or wheezing, HIV significantly increases moderate but not severe dyspnea in individuals of similar OLD status. Incorporating the MRC score into routine evaluation of IDUs at risk for OLD and HIV provides better assessment than cough, phlegm and wheezing alone.

  11. Isolation facilities for highly infectious diseases in Europe--a cross-sectional analysis in 16 countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schilling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Highly Infectious Diseases (HIDs are (i easily transmissible form person to person; (ii cause a life-threatening illness with no or few treatment options; and (iii pose a threat for both personnel and the public. Hence, even suspected HID cases should be managed in specialised facilities minimizing infection risks but allowing state-of-the-art critical care. Consensus statements on the operational management of isolation facilities have been published recently. The study presented was set up to compare the operational management, resources, and technical equipment among European isolation facilities. Due to differences in geography, population density, and national response plans it was hypothesized that adherence to recommendations will vary. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Until mid of 2010 the European Network for Highly Infectious Diseases conducted a cross-sectional analysis of isolation facilities in Europe, recruiting 48 isolation facilities in 16 countries. Three checklists were disseminated, assessing 44 items and 148 specific questions. The median feedback rate for specific questions was 97.9% (n = 47/48 (range: n = 7/48 (14.6% to n = 48/48 (100%. Although all facilities enrolled were nominated specialised facilities' serving countries or regions, their design, equipment and personnel management varied. Eighteen facilities fulfilled the definition of a High Level Isolation Unit'. In contrast, 24 facilities could not operate independently from their co-located hospital, and five could not ensure access to equipment essential for infection control. Data presented are not representative for the EU in general, as only 16/27 (59.3% of all Member States agreed to participate. Another limitation of this study is the time elapsed between data collection and publication; e.g. in Germany one additional facility opened in the meantime. CONCLUSION: There are disparities both within and between European countries regarding the design

  12. Determination of the interatomic potential from elastic differential cross sections at fixed energy: Functional sensitivity analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, T.; Rabitz, H.

    1989-01-01

    Elastic differential cross sections in atomic crossed beam experiments contain detailed information about the underlying interatomic potentials. The functional sensitivity density of the cross sections with respect to the potential δσ(θ)/δV(R) reveals such information and has been implemented in an iterative inversion procedure, analogous to that of the Newton--Raphson technique. The stability of the inversion is achieved with the use of the regularization method of Tikhonov and Miller. It is shown that given a set of well resolved and noise-free differential cross section data within a limited angular range and given a reasonable starting reference potential, the recovered potential accurately resembles the desired one in the important region, i.e., the region to which the scattering data are sensitive. The region of importance depends upon the collision energy relative to the well depth of the potential under study; usually a higher collision energy penetrates deeper into the repulsive part of the potential and thus accordingly yields a more accurate potential in that part. The inversion procedure produces also a quality function indicating the well determined radial region. Moreover, the extracted potential is quite independent of the functional form of the reference potential in contrast to curve fitting approaches. As illustrations, the model inert gas systems He--Ne and Ne--Ar have been considered. For collision energies within an order of magnitude of the associated potential well depth, the attractive part of the potential can be determined to high precision provided that scattering data at small enough angles are available

  13. Cardiovascular risk profile: cross-sectional analysis of motivational determinants, physical fitness and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, Barbara; Kok, Gerjo; Schaalma, Herman; Kiers, Henri; Vanhees, Luc

    2010-10-07

    Cardiovascular risk factors are associated with physical fitness and, to a lesser extent, physical activity. Lifestyle interventions directed at enhancing physical fitness in order to decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases should be extended. To enable the development of effective lifestyle interventions for people with cardiovascular risk factors, we investigated motivational, social-cognitive determinants derived from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and other relevant social psychological theories, next to physical activity and physical fitness. In the cross-sectional Utrecht Police Lifestyle Intervention Fitness and Training (UP-LIFT) study, 1298 employees (aged 18 to 62) were asked to complete online questionnaires regarding social-cognitive variables and physical activity. Cardiovascular risk factors and physical fitness (peak VO2) were measured. For people with one or more cardiovascular risk factors (78.7% of the total population), social-cognitive variables accounted for 39% (p < .001) of the variance in the intention to engage in physical activity for 60 minutes every day. Important correlates of intention to engage in physical activity were attitude (beta = .225, p < .001), self-efficacy (beta = .271, p < .001), descriptive norm (beta = .172, p < .001) and barriers (beta = -.169, p < .01). Social-cognitive variables accounted for 52% (p < .001) of the variance in physical active behaviour (being physical active for 60 minutes every day). The intention to engage in physical activity (beta = .469, p < .001) and self-efficacy (beta = .243, p < .001) were, in turn, important correlates of physical active behavior.In addition to the prediction of intention to engage in physical activity and physical active behavior, we explored the impact of the intensity of physical activity. The intensity of physical activity was only significantly related to physical active behavior (beta = .253, p < .01, R2 = .06, p < .001). An important goal of our study was to

  14. Evaluation of the association between acne and smoking: systematic review and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies

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    Alice Mannocci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin diseases with a multifactorial pathogenesis. Examination of the literature regarding the contribution of smoking to acne shows contradictory results. The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis about the association between acne and smoking.

    Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis, when possible were performed. The literature review was based on Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar searches using the keywords “(smoking OR tobacco OR nicotine OR cigarettes AND acne”. Only cross-sectional studies were included. Meta-analyses were performed using the RevMan software version 5 for Windows. Four different meta-analyses were carried out: one evaluating the association between smoking habit and acne, one including data stratified by gender, one for studies with a quality score > 6, and one relating to acne classification.

    Results: Six studies were selected. The first meta-analysis, including all studies, showed a non significant role of smoke in the development of acne: OR 1.05 (95% CI: 0.66–1.67 with random effect estimate. The second meta-analyses, including data stratified by gender, showed a OR=0.99 (95% CI: 0.57–1.73 for males and a OR of 1.45 (95% CI: 0.08–24.64 for females, using random effect for the heterogeneity in both cases. The third meta-analysis, included studies with a quality score >6 resulted in an estimated OR= 0.69 (95% CI: 0.55–0.85: in this case it was possible to use the fixed effect estimate. The last meta-analysis, concerning the severity grading, showed a non-significant result: OR=1.09 (95% CI: 0.61–1.95 using the random effect approach.

    Conclusions: The first two meta-analyses found no signification association between smoking and

  15. Representation of Tinnitus in the US Newspaper Media and in Facebook Pages: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratinaud, Pierre; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-01-01

    Background When people with health conditions begin to manage their health issues, one important issue that emerges is the question as to what exactly do they do with the information that they have obtained through various sources (eg, news media, social media, health professionals, friends, and family). The information they gather helps form their opinions and, to some degree, influences their attitudes toward managing their condition. Objective This study aimed to understand how tinnitus is represented in the US newspaper media and in Facebook pages (ie, social media) using text pattern analysis. Methods This was a cross-sectional study based upon secondary analyses of publicly available data. The 2 datasets (ie, text corpuses) analyzed in this study were generated from US newspaper media during 1980-2017 (downloaded from the database US Major Dailies by ProQuest) and Facebook pages during 2010-2016. The text corpuses were analyzed using the Iramuteq software using cluster analysis and chi-square tests. Results The newspaper dataset had 432 articles. The cluster analysis resulted in 5 clusters, which were named as follows: (1) brain stimulation (26.2%), (2) symptoms (13.5%), (3) coping (19.8%), (4) social support (24.2%), and (5) treatment innovation (16.4%). A time series analysis of clusters indicated a change in the pattern of information presented in newspaper media during 1980-2017 (eg, more emphasis on cluster 5, focusing on treatment inventions). The Facebook dataset had 1569 texts. The cluster analysis resulted in 7 clusters, which were named as: (1) diagnosis (21.9%), (2) cause (4.1%), (3) research and development (13.6%), (4) social support (18.8%), (5) challenges (11.1%), (6) symptoms (21.4%), and (7) coping (9.2%). A time series analysis of clusters indicated no change in information presented in Facebook pages on tinnitus during 2011-2016. Conclusions The study highlights the specific aspects about tinnitus that the US newspaper media and Facebook

  16. Policies on Conflicts of Interest in Health Care Guideline Development: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Cristina; Basevi, Vittorio; Faralli, Carla; Hilton Boon, Michele; Tonon, Sabina; Taruscio, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether organisations that develop health care guidelines have conflict of interest (COI) policies and to review the content of the available COI policies. Methods Survey and content analysis of COI policies available in English, French, Spanish, and Italian conducted between September 2014 and June 2015. A 24-item data abstraction instrument was created on the basis of guideline development standards. Results The survey identified 29 organisations from 19 countries that met the inclusion criteria. From these organisations, 19 policies were eligible for inclusion in the content analysis. Over one-third of the policies (7/19, 37%) did not report or did not clearly report whether disclosure was a prerequisite for membership of the guideline panel. Strategies for the prevention of COI such as divestment were mentioned by only two organisations. Only 21% of policies (4/19) used criteria to determine whether an interest constitutes a COI and to assess the severity of the risk imposed. Conclusions The finding that some organisations, in contradiction of widely available standards, still do not have COI policies publicly available is concerning. Also troubling were the findings that some policies did not clearly report critical steps in obtaining, managing and communicating disclosure of relationships of interest. This in addition to the variability encountered in content and accessibility of COI policies may cause confusion and distrust among guideline users. It is in the interest of guideline users and developers to design an agreed-upon, comprehensive, clear, and accessible COI policy. PMID:27846255

  17. Dietary habits and physical activity patterns among Slovenian elderly: cross-sectional survey with cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joca Zurc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity and a healthy diet are significant predictors of healthy ageing—they help the elderly maintain their physical and mental health, and prevent chronic diseases. Methods: The data for the empirical quantitative survey were collected on the sample of 218 elderly community-dwelling participants (aged 65 years or more, using a structured questionnaire for self-reporting. Data analyses were proceed with the bivariate statistics, and multivariate hierarchical cluster analysis. Results: Most respondents reported good dietary habits (83.1% and a satisfactory physical activity level (60.5%. On average, the elderly eat 3-4 meals per day (59.8% and engage in physical activity at least three times a week (58.6%, with interventions lasting 15 minutes or more (84.4 % and non-organized activity prevailing (96.2%. Ward’s method yielded three clusters with homogenous dietary and physical activity patterns: ‘Health Conscious’ (30.8%, ‘At Risk’ (42.7% and ‘Special Requirements’ (26.5%. Significant differences were identified between clusters and educational level (p = 0.001. Discussion and conclusions: In the future, special attention should be placed on the elderly group with a lower educational level and special dietary and physical activity requirements. Additional studies on representative samples are required for a comprehensive investigation into the lifestyle behaviours of elderly individuals.

  18. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  19. Jet inclusive cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons

  20. Complex Correlation Kohn-T Method of Calculating Total and Elastic Cross Sections. Part 1; Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Temkin, A.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We report on the first part of a study of electron-hydrogen scattering, using a method which allows for the ab initio calculation of total and elastic cross sections at higher energies. In its general form the method uses complex 'radial' correlation functions, in a (Kohn) T-matrix formalism. The titled method, abbreviated Complex Correlation Kohn T (CCKT) method, is reviewed, in the context of electron-hydrogen scattering, including the derivation of the equation for the (complex) scattering function, and the extraction of the scattering information from the latter. The calculation reported here is restricted to S-waves in the elastic region, where the correlation functions can be taken, without loss of generality, to be real. Phase shifts are calculated using Hylleraas-type correlation functions with up to 95 terms. Results are rigorous lower bounds; they are in general agreement with those of Schwartz, but they are more accurate and outside his error bounds at a couple of energies,

  1. Improvement of Modeling HTGR Neutron Physics by Uncertainty Analysis with the Use of Cross-Section Covariance Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarinov, V. F.; Grol, A. V.; Fomichenko, P. A.; Ternovykh, M. Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work is aimed at improvement of HTGR neutron physics design calculations by application of uncertainty analysis with the use of cross-section covariance information. Methodology and codes for preparation of multigroup libraries of covariance information for individual isotopes from the basic 44-group library of SCALE-6 code system were developed. A 69-group library of covariance information in a special format for main isotopes and elements typical for high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR) was generated. This library can be used for estimation of uncertainties, associated with nuclear data, in analysis of HTGR neutron physics with design codes. As an example, calculations of one-group cross-section uncertainties for fission and capture reactions for main isotopes of the MHTGR-350 benchmark, as well as uncertainties of the multiplication factor (k∞) for the MHTGR-350 fuel compact cell model and fuel block model were performed. These uncertainties were estimated by the developed technology with the use of WIMS-D code and modules of SCALE-6 code system, namely, by TSUNAMI, KENO-VI and SAMS. Eight most important reactions on isotopes for MHTGR-350 benchmark were identified, namely: 10B(capt), 238U(n,γ), ν5, 235U(n,γ), 238U(el), natC(el), 235U(fiss)-235U(n,γ), 235U(fiss).

  2. Validation of multigroup neutron cross sections and calculational methods for the advanced neutron source against the FOEHN critical experiments measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.A.; Gallmeier, F.X.; Gehin, J.C.

    1995-05-01

    The FOEHN critical experiment was analyzed to validate the use of multigroup cross sections and Oak Ridge National Laboratory neutronics computer codes in the design of the Advanced Neutron Source. The ANSL-V 99-group master cross section library was used for all the calculations. Three different critical configurations were evaluated using the multigroup KENO Monte Carlo transport code, the multigroup DORT discrete ordinates transport code, and the multigroup diffusion theory code VENTURE. The simple configuration consists of only the fuel and control elements with the heavy water reflector. The intermediate configuration includes boron endplates at the upper and lower edges of the fuel element. The complex configuration includes both the boron endplates and components in the reflector. Cross sections were processed using modules from the AMPX system. Both 99-group and 20-group cross sections were created and used in two-dimensional models of the FOEHN experiment. KENO calculations were performed using both 99-group and 20-group cross sections. The DORT and VENTURE calculations were performed using 20-group cross sections. Because the simple and intermediate configurations are azimuthally symmetric, these configurations can be explicitly modeled in R-Z geometry. Since the reflector components cannot be modeled explicitly using the current versions of these codes, three reflector component homogenization schemes were developed and evaluated for the complex configuration. Power density distributions were calculated with KENO using 99-group cross sections and with DORT and VENTURE using 20-group cross sections. The average differences between the measured values and the values calculated with the different computer codes range from 2.45 to 5.74%. The maximum differences between the measured and calculated thermal flux values for the simple and intermediate configurations are ∼ 13%, while the average differences are < 8%

  3. The Trojan Horse Method application on the 10B(p,α0)7Be reaction cross section measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetinović, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Spartá, R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Puglia, S. M.; La Cognata, M.; Cherubini, S.; Guardo, G. L.; Gulino, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.

    2018-01-01

    The 10B(p,α0)7Be reaction cross section has been measured in an wide energy range from 2.2 MeV down to 3 keV in a single experiment applying THM. Optimized experimental set-up ensured good energy resolution leading to a good separation of α0 and α1 contributions to the cross section coming from the 7Be ground and first excited state, respectively.

  4. REM Sleep Behavior and Motor Findings in Parkinson's Disease: A Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mahajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Parkinson's disease (PD represents a major public health challenge that will only grow in our aging population. Understanding the connection between PD and associated prodromal conditions, such as rapid eye movement sleep behavioral disorder (RBD, is critical to identifying prevention strategies. However, the relationship between RBD and severity of motor findings in early PD is unknown. This study aims to examine this relationship. Methods: The study population consisted of 418 PD patients who completed the Movement Disorders Society‐United Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS‐UPDRS and rapid eye movement sleep (REM disorder questionnaires at the baseline visit of the Michael J. Fox's Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI. Cross‐sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between REM Sleep Behavior Screening Questionnaire score and MDS UPDRS‐3 (motor score categories. Correlation with a higher score category was described as “worse motor findings”. A score of 5 on the REM disorder questionnaire was defined as predictive of RBD.Results: Out of the 418 PD patients, 113 (27.0% had RBD. With univariate logistic regression analysis, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.66 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.028. Even with age, gender, and Geriatric Depression Scale scores taken into account, individuals with scores predictive of RBD were 1.69 times more likely to have worse motor findings (p = 0.025.Discussion: PD patients with RBD symptoms had worse motor findings than those unlikely to have RBD. This association provides further evidence for the relationship between RBD and PD.

  5. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  6. Barriers to women's participation in inter-conceptional care: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hogan Vijaya K

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe participation rates in a special interconceptional care program that addressed all commonly known barriers to care, and identify predictors of the observed levels of participation in this preventive care service. Methods A secondary analysis of data from women in the intervention arm of an interconceptional care clinical trial in Philadelphia (n = 442. Gelberg-Andersen Behavioral Model for Vulnerable Populations to Health Services (herein called Andersen model was used as a theoretical base. We used a multinomial logit model to analyze the factors influencing women's level of participation in this enhanced interconceptional care program. Results Although common barriers were addressed, there was variable participation in the interconceptional interventions. The Andersen model did not explain the variation in interconceptional care participation (Wald ch sq = 49, p = 0.45. Enabling factors (p = 0.058, older maternal age (p = 0.03 and smoking (p = were independently associated with participation. Conclusions Actively removing common barriers to care does not guarantee the long-term and consistent participation of vulnerable women in preventive care. There are unknown factors beyond known barriers that affect participation in interconceptional care. New paradigms are needed to identify the additional factors that serve as barriers to participation in preventive care for vulnerable women.

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of how young adults perceive tobacco brands: implications for FCTC signatories

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    Gendall Philip

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for the elimination of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship. To test whether tobacco packaging functions as advertising by communicating attractive and distinctive brand attributes, we explored how young adult smokers and non-smokers interpreted familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands. Methods We conducted an on-line survey of 1035 young adult smokers and non-smokers aged 18–30. Participants evaluated eight tobacco brands using ten attributes based on brand personality scales. We used factor analysis and ANOVA to examine patterns in brand-attribute associations. Results Young adults distinguished between brands on the basis of their packaging alone, associated each brand with specific attributes, and were equally able to interpret familiar and unfamiliar brands. Contrary to our expectations, non-smokers made more favourable brand-attribute associations than smokers, but both groups described Basic, a near generic brand, as ‘plain’ or ‘budget’. There were no significant gender or ethnicity differences. Conclusions Tobacco packaging uses logos, colours and imagery to create desirable connotations that promote and reinforce smoking. By functioning in the same way as advertising, on-pack branding breaches Article 13 of the FCTC and refutes tobacco companies’ claims that pack livery serves only as an indentifying device that simplifies smokers’ decision-making. Given this evidence, signatories should see plain packaging policies as a priority consistent with their FCTC obligations to eliminate all tobacco advertising and promotion.

  8. Benchmarking the evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the EBS analysis of natSi and 16O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkoris, M.; Dede, S.; Kantre, K.; Lagoyannis, A.; Ntemou, E.; Paneta, V.; Preketes-Sigalas, K.; Provatas, G.; Vlastou, R.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Siketić, Z.; Obajdin, N.

    2017-08-01

    The evaluated proton differential cross sections suitable for the Elastic Backscattering Spectroscopy (EBS) analysis of natSi and 16O, as obtained from SigmaCalc 2.0, have been benchmarked over a wide energy and angular range at two different accelerator laboratories, namely at N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece and at Ruđer Bošković Institute (RBI), Zagreb, Croatia, using a variety of high-purity thick targets of known stoichiometry. The results are presented in graphical and tabular forms, while the observed discrepancies, as well as, the limits in accuracy of the benchmarking procedure, along with target related effects, are thoroughly discussed and analysed. In the case of oxygen the agreement between simulated and experimental spectra was generally good, while for silicon serious discrepancies were observed above Ep,lab = 2.5 MeV, suggesting that a further tuning of the appropriate nuclear model parameters in the evaluated differential cross-section datasets is required.

  9. Measurement and analysis of the 241Am(n,γ) cross section at the CERN nTOF facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraval, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the current nuclear technology, the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel of a typical PWR reactor is dominated by minor actinides for times greater than 10 4 years. In particular, 241 Am and its 432 years half-life is responsible for about half of the minor actinide content of a PWR spent fuel. This thesis work consisted in measuring and analysing the 241 Am(n,γ) cross section at the CERN n T OF facility. After selecting exclusively the events obtained with lead shielding in front of the C 6 D 6 detectors, the amplitude-energy calibration has to be adjusted with time, by using a photon coming from the 27 Al(α,p) 30 Si * reaction. Histogram extraction included applying a weighting function (obtained by MCNP simulation), a dead time correction, and a normalization to the compound nucleus excitation energy. The background corrected spectra were normalized relatively to the 4.9 eV resonance on 197 Au. Finally, the resonance analysis was performed using the SAMMY code. The extracted thermal value is 678±68 barns, the uncertainty being mostly due to the large background level. The resolved range was extended from 150 eV to 320 eV, with a total of 192 resonances that had to be added of heavily modified. The unresolved region was analysed up to 150 keV, yielding a larger average cross section than previously evaluated below 20 keV. (author) [fr

  10. Oral health conditions and frailty in Mexican community-dwelling elderly: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrejón-Pérez Roberto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral health is an important component of general well-being for the elderly. Oral health-related problems include loss of teeth, nonfunctional removable dental prostheses, lesions of the oral mucosa, periodontitis, and root caries. They affect food selection, speaking ability, mastication, social relations, and quality of life. Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that confers vulnerability to negative health-related outcomes. The association between oral health and frailty has not been explored thoroughly. This study sought to identify associations between the presence of some oral health conditions, and frailty status among Mexican community-dwelling elderly. Methods Analysis of baseline data of the Mexican Study of Nutritional and Psychosocial Markers of Frailty, a cohort study carried out in a representative sample of people aged 70 and older residing in one district of Mexico City. Frailty was defined as the presence of three or more of the following five components: weight loss, exhaustion, slowness, weakness, and low physical activity. Oral health variables included self-perception of oral health compared with others of the same age; utilization of dental services during the last year, number of teeth, dental condition (edentate, partially edentate, or completely dentate, utilization and functionality of removable partial or complete dentures, severe periodontitis, self-reported chewing problems and xerostomia. Covariates included were gender, age, years of education, cognitive performance, smoking status, recent falls, hospitalization, number of drugs, and comorbidity. The association between frailty and dental variables was determined performing a multivariate logistic regression analysis. Final models were adjusted by socio-demographic and health factors Results Of the 838 participants examined, 699 had the information needed to establish the criteria for diagnosis of frailty. Those who had a higher probability of being

  11. Thick-target method in the measurement of inner-shell ionization cross-sections by low-energy electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Z.; Wu, Y.; Liu, M.T.; Duan, Y.M.; Tang, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied the thick-target method for the measurements of atomic inner-shell ionization cross-section or X-ray production cross-section by keV electron impact. We find that in the processes of electron impact on the thick targets, the ratios of the characteristic X-ray yields of photoelectric ionization by bremsstrahlung to the total characteristic X-ray yields are Z-dependent and shell-dependent, and the ratios also show the weak energy-dependence. In addition, in the lower incident energy region (i.e. U < 5-6), the contribution from the rediffusion effect and the secondary electrons can be negligible. In general, the thick-target method can be appropriately applied to the measurements of atomic inner-shell ionization cross-sections or X-ray production cross-sections by electron impact for low and medium Z elements in the lower incident electron energy (i.e. U < 5-6). The experimental accuracies by the thick-target method can reach to the level equivalent or superior to the accuracies of experimental data based on the thin-target method. This thick-target method has been applied to the measurement of K-shell ionization cross-sections of Ni element by electron impact in this paper

  12. Neutronic calculation and cross section sensitivity analysis of the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ku, L.P.; Price, W.G. Jr.

    1977-08-01

    The neutronic calculation for the Livermore mirror fusion/fission hybrid reactor blanket was performed using the PPPL cross section library. Significant differences were found in the tritium breeding and plutonium production in comparison to the results of the LLL calculation. The cross section sensitivity study for tritium breeding indicates that the response is sensitive to the cross section of 238 U in the neighborhood of 14 MeV and 1 MeV. The response is also sensitive to the cross sections of iron in the vicinity of 14 MeV near the first wall. Neutron transport in the resonance region is not important in this reactor model

  13. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane L. Cortez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees’ length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n=107 who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent’s length of stay and social connectedness (r=0.224, p=0.021, α=0.05. On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1 Taking-In, (2 Taking-Hold, and (3 Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals.

  14. Eliciting Challenges on Social Connectedness among Filipino Nurse Returnees: A Cross-Sectional Mixed-Method Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Mary Jane L; Del Rosario, Christian V; Diño, Michael Joseph S

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study utilized a nested concurrent design to determine the association of Filipino nurse returnees' length of stay since they returned and their social connectedness as well as the essence of communication from their perspective. The respondents, who are Filipino nurses (n = 107) who worked abroad and returned to the Philippines for good, were employed from June to July of 2015 via referrals from colleges and institutions in Metro Manila and Bulacan areas in the Philippines. The quantitative results revealed, in one hand, significant but weak correlation between the respondent's length of stay and social connectedness (r = 0.224, p = 0.021, α = 0.05). On the other hand, three themes were generated from the qualitative analysis, namely, (1) Taking-In, (2) Taking-Hold, and (3) Letting-Go. The Social Connection System (SCS) provides a visual depiction of the social connectedness of a person. This research is geared towards the understanding of the interesting phenomenon of migration and social coherence of Filipino professionals.

  15. ESTIMATION OF WIDE BAND RADAR CROSS SECTION (RCS OF REGULAR SHAPED OBJECTS USING METHOD OF MOMENTS (MOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Madheswaran

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern fighter aircrafts, ships, missiles etc need to be very low Radar Cross Section (RCS designs, to avoid detection by hostile radars. Hence accurate prediction of RCS of complex objects like aircrafts is essential to meet this requirement. A simple and efficient numerical procedure for treating problems of wide band RCS prediction Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC objects is developed using Method of Moment (MoM. Implementation of MoM for prediction of RCS involves solving Electric Field Integral Equation (EFIE for electric current using the vector and scalar potential solutions, which satisfy the boundary condition that the tangential electric field at the boundary of the PEC body is zero. For numerical purposes, the objects are modeled using planar triangular surfaces patches. Set of special sub-domain type basis functions are defined on pairs of adjacent triangular patches. These basis functions yield a current representation free of line or point charges at sub-domain boundaries. Once the current distribution is obtained, dipole model is used to find Scattering field in free space. RCS can be calculated from the scattered and incident fields. Numerical results for a square plate, a cube, and a sphere are presented over a bandwidth.

  16. Seasonality in Violent and Nonviolent Methods of Suicide Attempts: A Cross-Sectional Study on Systematic Registry Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veisani, Yousef; Delpisheh, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh; Moradi, Ghobad; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2017-08-01

    Little attention has been paid to seasonality in suicide in Iran. Time pattern in suicide deaths and suicide attempts for some related factors such as gender, mental disorders has been found. In present study, we focus on suicide methods and the association with seasonality and other putative covariates such as gender. Through a cross-sectional study, overall identified suicide attempts and suicide deaths in the province of Ilam from 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014 were enrolled. We used Edwards' test for test of seasonality in suicide methods. Seasonal effect (peak/trough seasons) and (deaths/attempts suicide) was explored by ratio statistics, the null hypothesis being that the attempted suicides in each method group are evenly distributed over a year. More suicide attempts by hanging 29.4% and self-immolation 41.4% were observed in spring and differ by season pattern in both genders. The overall distribution of suicides by violent and non-violent methods was (males x2=6.3, P=0.041, females x2=7.7, P=0.021) and (males x2=44.5, P=0.001, females x2=104.7, P=0.001), respectively. The peak and trough seasons was observed in taking medications and self-poisoning for spring and winter. Suicide with alcohol was no differ by season pattern (x2=1.0, P=0.460). Suicide in Ilam illustrates a significant seasonality for both violent and non-violent methods of suicide, in both genders, the two peaks were observed in spring and autumn for violent suicides, and spring and summer in non-violent suicides.

  17. Attentional bias toward suicide-relevant information in suicide attempters: A cross-sectional study and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard-Devantoy, Stéphane; Ding, Yang; Turecki, Gustavo; Jollant, Fabrice

    2016-05-15

    Previous studies using a modified Stroop test suggested that suicide attempters, in contrast to depressed patients with no suicidal history, display a particular attentional bias toward suicide-related cues. However, negative results have also been reported. In the present study, we collected new data and pooled them as part of a meta-analysis intended to shed further light on this question. We conducted 1) a cross-sectional study comparing performance on the modified Stroop task for suicide-related, positively-valenced and negatively-valenced words in 33 suicide attempters and 46 patient controls with a history of mood disorders; 2) a systematic review and a meta-analysis of studies comparing performance on the modified Stroop task among patients with vs. without a history of suicidal acts in mood disorders. The cross-sectional study showed no significant difference in interference scores for any type of words between suicide attempters and patient controls. A meta-analysis of four studies, including 233 suicide attempters and 768 patient controls, showed a significant but small attentional bias toward suicide-related words (Hedges'g=0.22, 95%CI [0.06-0.38], Z=2.73, p=0.006), but not negatively-valenced words (Hedges'g=0.06, 95%CI [-0.09-0.22], Z=0.77, p=0.4) in suicide attempters compared to patient controls. Positively-valenced words and healthy controls could not be assessed in the meta-analysis. Our data support a selective information-processing bias among suicide attempters. Indirect evidence suggests that this effect would be state-related and may be a cognitive component of the suicidal crisis. However, we could not conclude about the clinical utility of this Stroop version at this stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Odds Ratio or Prevalence Ratio? An Overview of Reported Statistical Methods and Appropriateness of Interpretations in Cross-sectional Studies with Dichotomous Outcomes in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models

  19. Floodplain Cross Section Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required for any Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map database where cross sections are shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally any FIRM...

  20. Economic impacts of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic : a cross-sectional analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Braeton J.; Shaneyfelt, Calvin R.

    2010-06-01

    A NISAC study on the economic effects of a hypothetical H1N1 pandemic was done in order to assess the differential impacts at the state and industry levels given changes in absenteeism, mortality, and consumer spending rates. Part of the analysis was to determine if there were any direct relationships between pandemic impacts and gross domestic product (GDP) losses. Multiple regression analysis was used because it shows very clearly which predictors are significant in their impact on GDP. GDP impact data taken from the REMI PI+ (Regional Economic Models, Inc., Policy Insight +) model was used to serve as the response variable. NISAC economists selected the average absenteeism rate, mortality rate, and consumer spending categories as the predictor variables. Two outliers were found in the data: Nevada and Washington, DC. The analysis was done twice, with the outliers removed for the second analysis. The second set of regressions yielded a cleaner model, but for the purposes of this study, the analysts deemed it not as useful because particular interest was placed on determining the differential impacts to states. Hospitals and accommodation were found to be the most important predictors of percentage change in GDP among the consumer spending variables.

  1. Technical note: A stereological analysis of the cross-sectional variability of the femoral osteon population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Unbiased selection of regions of interest (ROIs) and unbiased definition of histological structures are needed to improve the repeatability of microscopic methods for age at death determination and to reduce operator subjectivity. We present results obtained by selecting ROIs according to stereol...

  2. Analysis of inelastic neutron scattering cross-sections to 2{sup +} states in even mass palladium nuclides. Final report. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, A

    1994-09-01

    Starting from experimental {gamma}-ray emission cross sections, measured recently at IRMM Geel, the (n, n`) cross sections for the isolated states are derived. The neutron energy range is extended from the reaction threshold up to 1.3 MeV, when cascade {gamma}-ray emissions complicate the analysis. In the case of Pd-110 it was possible to deduce the (n, n`) excitation function from the experimental data up to a neutron energy of 3.3 MeV. The experimental cross sections are corrected for anisotropy of {gamma}-ray emission. The analysis of the cross sections is carried out by compound nucleus reaction theory and vibrational excitations. The coupled channels code ECIS88 is used. The theoretical description of the experimental data for the first and second 2+ states is accurate; without doing any special adjustments of parameters. (orig.).

  3. A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rabinowitz Terry; Chan Philip A

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students...

  4. Analysis of basic cross-section σ0 and blackness parameter α for antiproton-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, V.; Kumar, A.; Singh, S.V.; Kumar, Y.; Gupta, L.K.; Gupta, J.P.; Giri, M.

    2005-01-01

    The absorption cross section of antiproton have been studied and the values of basic cross section σ 0 and the blackness parameter α are found. An attempt has been made to study the variation of these parameter with the incident energy

  5. Assessment of tumor heterogeneity by CT texture analysis: Can the largest cross-sectional area be used as an alternative to whole tumor analysis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Francesca; Kozarski, Robert; Ganeshan, Balaji; Goh, Vicky

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there is a difference between contrast enhanced CT texture features from the largest cross-sectional area versus the whole tumor, and its effect on clinical outcome prediction. Methods: Entropy (E) and uniformity (U) were derived for different filter values (1.0–2.5: fine to coarse textures) for the largest primary tumor cross-sectional area and the whole tumor of the staging contrast enhanced CT in 55 patients with primary colorectal cancer. Parameters were compared using non-parametric Wilcoxon test. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to determine the relationship between CT texture and 5-year overall survival. Results: E was higher and U lower for the whole tumor indicating greater heterogeneity at all filter levels (1.0–2.5): median (range) for E and U for whole tumor versus largest cross-sectional area of 7.89 (7.43–8.31) versus 7.62 (6.94–8.08) and 0.005 (0.004–0.01) versus 0.006 (0.005–0.01) for filter 1.0; 7.88 (7.22–8.48) versus 7.54 (6.86–8.1) and 0.005 (0.003–0.01) versus 0.007 (0.004–0.01) for filter 1.5; 7.88 (7.17–8.54) versus 7.48 (5.84–8.25) and 0.005 (0.003–0.01) versus 0.007 (0.004–0.02) for filter 2.0; and 7.83 (7.03–8.57) versus 7.42 (5.19–8.26) and 0.005 (0.003–0.01) versus 0.006 (0.004–0.03) for filter 2.5 respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated better separation of E and U for whole tumor analysis for 5-year overall survival. Conclusion: Whole tumor analysis appears more representative of tumor heterogeneity

  6. Validity of autorefractor based screening method for irregular astigmatism compared to the corneal topography- a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To present a method of screening for irregular astigmatism with an autorefractor and its determinants compared to corneal topography. METHODS: This cross-sectional validity study was conducted in 2013 at an eye hospital in Spain. A tabletop autorefractor (test 1 was used to measure the refractive status of the anterior surface of the cornea at two corneal meridians of each eye. Then corneal topography (test 2 and Bogan’s classification was used to group eyes into those with regular or no astigmatism (GRI and irregular astigmatism (GRII. Test 1 provided a single absolute value for the greatest cylinder difference (Vr. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC were plotted for the Vr values measured by test 1 for GRI and GRII eyes. On the basis a Vr value of 1.25 D as cut off, sensitivity, specificity were also calculated. RESULTS: The study sample was comprised of 260 eyes (135 patients. The prevalence of irregular astigmatism was 42% [95% confidence interval (CI: 36, 48]. Based on test 2, there were 151 eyes in GRI and 109 eyes in GRII. The median Vr was 0.75 D (25% quartile, 0.5 D for GRI and 1.75 D (25% quartile, 1.25 D for GRII. The area under curve was 0.171 for GRI and 0.83 for GRII. The sensitivity of test I was 78.1% and the specificity was 76.1%. CONCLUSION: A conventional autorefractor can be effective as a first level screening method to detect irregular corneal astigmatism in places where corneal topography facilities are not available.

  7. A cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and blood pressure: a multilevel analysis at Japanese manufacturing companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Kunimoto, Masamizu; Tabata, Hidetoshi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Kadowaki, Koji; Nakamura, Takehiro; Oyama, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    We examined the contextual effect of workplace social capital on systolic blood pressure (SBP). Cross-sectional. A conglomerate from 58 workplaces in Japan. Of the 5844 workers at a Japanese conglomerate from 58 workplaces, 5368 were recruited. Individuals who received drugs for hypertension (n=531) and who lacked information on any variable (n=167) were excluded from the analyses, leaving 4735 individuals (3281 men and 1454 women) for inclusion. Systolic blood pressure. The contextual effect of workplace social capital on SBP was examined using a multilevel regression analysis with a random intercept. Coworker support had a contextual effect at the workplace level (coefficient=-1.97, p=0.043), while a lack of trust for coworkers (coefficient=0.27, p=0.039) and lack of helpfulness from coworkers were associated with SBP (coefficient=0.28, p=0.002). The present study suggested that social capital at the workplace level has beneficial effects on SBP.

  8. Measurements of neutron capture cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yutaka

    1984-01-01

    A review of measurement techniques for the neutron capture cross sections is presented. Sell transmission method, activation method, and prompt gamma-ray detection method are described using examples of capture cross section measurements. The capture cross section of 238 U measured by three different prompt gamma-ray detection methods (large liquid scintillator, Moxon-Rae detector, and pulse height weighting method) are compared and their discrepancies are resolved. A method how to derive the covariance is described. (author)

  9. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Noel Vergnes

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. METHODS: A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. RESULTS: 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8. Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45], lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23] and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]. The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. DISCUSSION: The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  10. Tobacco use in 3 billion individuals from 16 countries: an analysis of nationally representative cross-sectional household surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovino, Gary A; Mirza, Sara A; Samet, Jonathan M; Gupta, Prakash C; Jarvis, Martin J; Bhala, Neeraj; Peto, Richard; Zatonski, Witold; Hsia, Jason; Morton, Jeremy; Palipudi, Krishna M; Asma, Samira

    2012-08-18

    Despite the high global burden of diseases caused by tobacco, valid and comparable prevalence data for patterns of adult tobacco use and factors influencing use are absent for many low-income and middle-income countries. We assess these patterns through analysis of data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Between Oct 1, 2008, and March 15, 2010, GATS used nationally representative household surveys with comparable methods to obtain relevant information from individuals aged 15 years or older in 14 low-income and middle-income countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Mexico, Philippines, Poland, Russia, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, Uruguay, and Vietnam). We compared weighted point estimates and 95% CIs of tobacco use between these 14 countries and with data from the 2008 UK General Lifestyle Survey and the 2006-07 US Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. All these surveys had cross-sectional study designs. In countries participating in GATS, 48·6% (95% CI 47·6-49·6) of men and 11·3% (10·7-12·0) of women were tobacco users. 40·7% of men (ranging from 21·6% in Brazil to 60·2% in Russia) and 5·0% of women (0·5% in Egypt to 24·4% in Poland) in GATS countries smoked a tobacco product. Manufactured cigarettes were favoured by most smokers (82%) overall, but smokeless tobacco and bidis were commonly used in India and Bangladesh. For individuals who had ever smoked daily, women aged 55-64 years at the time of the survey began smoking at an older age than did equivalently aged men in most GATS countries. However, those individuals who had ever smoked daily and were aged 25-34-years when surveyed started to do so at much the same age in both sexes. Quit ratios were very low (<20% overall) in China, India, Russia, Egypt, and Bangladesh. The first wave of GATS showed high rates of smoking in men, early initiation of smoking in women, and low quit ratios, reinforcing the view that efforts to prevent initiation and promote

  11. Discovering the Impact of ICT, FDI and Human Capital on GDP: a Cross-sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Campisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis and Stray Capacitance of Helical Flux Compression Generator with Multi Layer Filamentary Conductor in Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Mosleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance (SC of n-turn of the helical flux compression generator (HFCG coil with multi layer conductor wire filaments (MLCWF in the form of rectangular cross-section. This approach is based on vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH model. In this method, wire filaments of the generator coil are separated into many very small similar elementary cells. By the expanded explosion in the liner and move explosion to the end of the liner, the coil turns number will be reduced. So, the equivalent SC of the HFCG will increase. The results show that by progress of explosion and decrease of the turns’ number in the generator coil total capacitance of the generator increases until the explosion reaches to the second turn. When only one turn remains in the circuit, a decrease occurs in the total capacitance of the generator.

  13. Financial Literacy and Credit Card Behaviors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis by Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Allgood

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we use a measure of financial literacy that includes both a test score of actual financial literacy and a self-rating of perceived financial literacy to investigate how financial literacy affects five credit card behaviors: (1 always paying a credit card balance in full; (2 carrying over a credit card balance and being charged interest; (3 making only a minimum payment on a credit card balance; (4 being charged a fee for a late payment; and (5 being charged a fee for exceeding a credit limit. Probit analysis was used to assess each behavior with a large nationally representative sample of U.S. adults (N = 28,146 divided into groups to reflect the five major decades in the adult life cycle (18–29; 30–39; 40–49; 50–59; and 60–69 and older. Perceived financial literacy was found to be a stronger predictor of less costly practices in credit card use than actual financial literacy for the five credit card behaviors and across each of the five age groups. The study also shows that the combination of the subjective assessment with the objective assessment of financial literacy provides a more comprehensive analysis of how financial literacy affects each credit card behavior. This combined approach to assessment produced the largest estimates of the effects of financial literacy on credit card behavior. The findings hold across the five credit card behaviors and the five age groups.

  14. Fish consumption and depressive symptoms in undergraduate students: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamazaki, K; Natori, T; Kurihara, S; Murata, N; Cui, Z-G; Kigawa, M; Morozumi, R; Inadera, H

    2015-11-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fish consumption may have beneficial effects on mood disorders. However, no study has been reported on this issue in young adults to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between fish consumption and depressive symptoms in Japanese undergraduate students. The 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to measure depressive symptoms with a cut-off score of 16. A total of 4190 completed questionnaires (from 2124 men and 2066 women) were received for analysis. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that fish intake was inversely associated with risk of depressive symptoms in undergraduate students. After adjustment for possible confounders, the odds-ratios (95% confidence intervals) for fish intake 1-2 times/month, 1-2 times/week, 3-4 times/week, and almost every day (compared with "almost never") were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.70 (0.56-0.87), 0.67 (0.53-0.85) and 0.65 (0.46-0.92), respectively. This association tended to be stronger in women than in men. Frequent fish consumption in undergraduate students seems to moderate depressive symptoms. Further research is warranted to clarify the causality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Cross-section data uncertainty and how such information is used in fusion analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodeli, I.

    1999-01-01

    A sensitivity and uncertainty computer code package has been developed and already extensively used in the analyses for pressure vessel dosimetry and benchmark experiments. The procedure is based on the SUSD3D code and the VITAMIN-J/COVA covariance matrix library. The complete covariance matrices of secondary angular distribution (SAD-file MF=34), as available in the EFF-2 evaluation in ENDF/B-6 format can be treated. SAD effects can be important in particular for the fusion applications. An option to perform three-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is included in the SUSD3D code. Use of angular moment files instead of bulky angular flux files produced by the discrete ordinates transport codes reduces considerably the size of the files required and represents an acceptable approximation for the problem types analysed here. The underlying perturbation theory is reviewed and some examples on the use are listed.(author)

  16. Mental health related Internet use among psychiatric patients: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalckreuth, Sophie; Trefflich, Friederike; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2014-12-24

    The Internet is of great importance in today's health sector, as most Internet users utilize online functions for health related purposes. Concerning the mental health care sector, little data exist about the Internet use of psychiatric patients. It is the scope of this current study to analyze the quantity and pattern of Internet usage among mental health patients. Patients from all services of the Department of Psychiatry at a university hospital were surveyed by completing a 29-item questionnaire. The data analysis included evaluation of frequencies, as well as group comparisons. 337 patients participated in the survey, of whom 79.5% were Internet users. Social media was utilized by less than half of the users: social networks (47.8%), forums (19.4%), chats (18.7%), blogs (12.3%). 70.9% used the Internet for mental health related reasons. The contents accessed by the patients included: information on mental disorders (57.8%), information on medication (43.7%), search for mental health services (38.8%), platforms with other patients (19.8%) and platforms with mental health professionals (17.2%). Differences in the pattern of use between users with low, medium and high frequency of Internet use were statistically significant for all entities of social media (p mental health services (p = 0.017) and usage of platforms with mental health professionals (p = 0. 048). The analysis of differences in Internet use depending on the participants' type of mental disorder revealed no statistically significant differences, with one exception. Regarding the Internet's role in mental health care, the participants showed differing opinions: 36.2% believe that the Internet has or may have helped them in coping with their mental disorder, while 38.4% stated the contrary. Most psychiatric patients are Internet users. Mental health related Internet use is common among patients, mainly for information seeking. The use of social media is generally less frequent. It varies

  17. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Levels and Patterns of Objectively Measured Sedentary Time in Adolescent Females

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrington, Deirdre M.

    2011-10-28

    Abstract Background Adolescent females have been highlighted as a particularly sedentary population and the possible negative effects of a sedentary lifestyle are being uncovered. However, much of the past sedentary research is based on self-report or uses indirect methods to quantity sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary and the possible intricate sedentary patterns of adolescent females have not been described using objective and direct measure of body inclination. The objectives of this article are to examine the sedentary levels and patterns of a group of adolescent females using the ActivPAL™ and to highlight possible differences in sedentary levels and patterns across the week and within the school day. A full methodological description of how the data was analyzed is also presented. Methods One hundred and eleven adolescent females, age 15-18 yrs, were recruited from urban and rural areas in the Republic of Ireland. Participants wore an ActivPAL physical activity monitor for a 7.5 day period. The ActivPAL directly reports total time spent sitting\\/lying every 15 seconds and accumulation (frequency and duration) of sedentary activity was examined using a customized MATLAB ® computer software programme. Results While no significant difference was found in the total time spent sitting\\/lying over the full 24 hour day between weekday and weekend day (18.8 vs. 18.9 hours; p = .911), significantly more sedentary bouts of 1 to 5 minutes and 21 to 40 minutes in duration were accumulated on weekdays compared to weekend days (p < .001). The mean length of each sedentary bout was also longer (9.8 vs. 8.8 minutes; p < .001). When school hours (9 am-3 pm) and after school hours (4 pm-10 pm) were compared, there was no difference in total time spent sedentary (3.9 hours; p = .796) but the pattern of accumulation of the sedentary time differed. There were a greater number of bouts of > 20 minutes duration during school hours than after school hours (4.7 vs. 3

  18. Person-job fit: an exploratory cross-sectional analysis of hospitalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinami, Keiki; Whelan, Chad T; Miller, Joseph A; Wolosin, Robert J; Wetterneck, Tosha B

    2013-02-01

    Person-job fit is an organizational construct shown to impact the entry, performance, and retention of workers. Even as a growing number of physicians work under employed situations, little is known about how physicians select, develop, and perform in organizational settings. Our objective was to validate in the hospitalist physician workforce features of person-job fit observed in workers of other industries. The design was a secondary survey data analysis from a national stratified sample of practicing US hospitalists. The measures were person-job fit; likelihood of leaving practice or reducing workload; organizational climate; relationships with colleagues, staff, and patients; participation in suboptimal patient care activities. Responses to the Hospital Medicine Physician Worklife Survey by 816 (sample response rate 26%) practicing hospitalists were analyzed. Job attrition and reselection improved job fit among hospitalists entering the job market. Better job fit was achieved through hospitalists engaging a variety of personal skills and abilities in their jobs. Job fit increased with time together with socialization and internalization of organizational values. Hospitalists with higher job fit felt they performed better in their jobs. Features of person-job fit for hospitalists conformed to what have been observed in nonphysician workforces. Person-job fit may be a useful complementary survey measure related to job satisfaction but with a greater focus on function. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  19. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Weeks, John R; Appiah Otoo, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water-sealed single-use plastic sleeves-has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa.

  20. A cross-sectional content analysis of Android applications for asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Hossain, Nassif; Jamal, Amr; Zakaria, Nasriah; Elmetwally, Ashraf; Alsalamah, Majid; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2017-06-01

    Providing patients opportunities for self-management and education about their disease, asthma applications designed for use on an Android operating system can have positive health outcomes across the range of demographics who use mHealth applications. This study provides a content analysis of freely available Google Android Platform Mobile Applications for Asthma. A list of applications was collected on 26 October 2014, using the search feature of the Google Play Android platform and using the words and phrases "Asthma," "Lung Function" and "Peak Flow." Each application was coded for its approach to asthma self-management, based on categories adapted by Huckvale et al., which are based on the Global Initiative for Asthma and the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. The characteristics of the 15 asthma applications are described. Most of the asthma applications' primary function focused on patient self-monitoring and self-assessment. Using the HON Code, we found low health information quality across all asthma applications. Android asthma applications can have positive outcomes in helping patients as they provide opportunities for self-management and education about their disease. Future research should continue to monitor and evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications. Based on these findings, and their indication of a gap in existing research, subsequent studies can continue to evaluate the development and use of mHealth Asthma Applications with increasing methodological consistency to improve the quality of in-app health information.

  1. Drinking Water in Transition: A Multilevel Cross-sectional Analysis of Sachet Water Consumption in Accra.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Stoler

    Full Text Available Rapid population growth in developing cities often outpaces improvements to drinking water supplies, and sub-Saharan Africa as a region has the highest percentage of urban population without piped water access, a figure that continues to grow. Accra, Ghana, implements a rationing system to distribute limited piped water resources within the city, and privately-vended sachet water-sealed single-use plastic sleeves-has filled an important gap in urban drinking water security. This study utilizes household survey data from 2,814 Ghanaian women to analyze the sociodemographic characteristics of those who resort to sachet water as their primary drinking water source. In multilevel analysis, sachet use is statistically significantly associated with lower overall self-reported health, younger age, and living in a lower-class enumeration area. Sachet use is marginally associated with more days of neighborhood water rationing, and significantly associated with the proportion of vegetated land cover. Cross-level interactions between rationing and proxies for poverty are not associated with sachet consumption after adjusting for individual-level sociodemographic, socioeconomic, health, and environmental factors. These findings are generally consistent with two other recent analyses of sachet water in Accra and may indicate a recent transition of sachet consumption from higher to lower socioeconomic classes. Overall, the allure of sachet water displays substantial heterogeneity in Accra and will be an important consideration in planning for future drinking water demand throughout West Africa.

  2. Measurement and analysis of cross sections for (p,x) reactions on natural molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Challan, M. B.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Abou-Zeid, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Excitation functions (EFs) for the reactions n atMo(p,x) 92m Nb, and n atMo(p,x) 94 , 95m , 95g , 96 m, +g , 99m Tc up to 18 MeV from threshold have been measured employing the stacked foil activation technique, and using high resolution HPGe gamma spectrometry. Utilizing the simultaneous measurement of the excitation function of n atCu(p,x) 62 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 63 Zn, n atCu(p,x) 65 Zn, and n atTi(p,x) 48 V monitor reactions. The theoretical analysis of the EFs has been done using both the semi-classical as well as quantum mechanical codes which include compound nucleus and pre-equilibrium (PE) emission into consideration. In general, theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data. Effect of various free parameters used in the calculations has also been discussed. A significant contribution of pre-equilibrium component has been observed at these energies

  3. A new determination of cross sections in methane and silane by using an exact method of solution ot the Boltzmann equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segur, P.; Balaguer, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We use a modified form of the SN method to solve the Boltzmann equation. We are then able to take into account the strong anisotropy of the distribution function which is known to occur in methane and silane. For a given set of cross-sections, the swarm parameters calculated with this method are very different from these published by previous authors (obtained with the standard two term Legendre expansion of the distribution function). The cross sections which we deduce by comparing experimental and calculated values for drift velocity and transversal diffusion coefficient are very different from these of Pollock or Duncan and Walker. With these two new sets of cross sections we make some calculations in mixtures of methane and silane, methane and argon, silane and argon. We note that our results for swarm parameters (at low E/N) are in good agreement with experimental values when they are available

  4. Cross sections for nuclide production in proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb measured using the inverse kinematics method

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    Nakano Keita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Isotopic production cross sections were measured for proton- and deuteron-induced reactions on 93Nb by means of the inverse kinematics method at RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory. The measured production cross sections of residual nuclei in the reaction 93Nb + p at 113 MeV/u were compared with previous data measured by the conventional activation method in the proton energy range between 46 and 249 MeV. The present inverse kinematics data of four reaction products (90Mo, 90Nb, 88Y, and 86Y were in good agreement with the data of activation measurement. Also, the model calculations with PHITS describing the intra-nuclear cascade and evaporation processes generally well reproduced the measured isotopic production cross sections.

  5. Sense of control and diabetes mellitus among U.S. adults: A cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortolero Susan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the influence of psychosocial factors on diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the association between two psychosocial factors- sense of control and social support- and diabetes mellitus. Methods The authors analyzed data from 2,592 U.S. households in the 1995 survey of the Aging, Status, and the Sense of Control study. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine whether sense of personal control and social support were associated with DM and whether gender, race, and Hispanic ethnicity modified these associations. Results After adjusting for age, obesity, and socioeconomic position, a one point increase in sense of control (i.e., a stronger sense of control was associated a significant reduction in risk of diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 0.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.47, 0.95. A weak social support system was associated with a non-significant risk of diabetes (odds ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 0.93, 1.89. No effect modification was detected. Conclusion Sense of control deserves greater attention as a predictor of diabetes mellitus. Further studies of the contribution of psychosocial factors to diabetes mellitus should assess the temporal nature of this relationship.

  6. Determinants of female sexual function in inflammatory bowel disease: a survey based cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ott Claudia

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual function is impaired in women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD as compared to normal controls. We examined disease specific determinants of different aspects of low sexual function. Methods Women with IBD aged 18 to 65 presenting to the university departments of internal medicine and surgery were included. In addition, a random sample from the national patients organization was used (separate analyses. Sexual function was assessed by the Brief Index of Sexual Function in Women, comprising seven different domains of sexuality. Function was considered impaired if subscores were Results 336 questionnaires were included (219 Crohn's disease, 117 ulcerative colitis. Most women reported low sexual activity (63%; 17% none at all, 20% moderate or high activity. Partnership satisfaction was high in spite of low sexual interest in this group. Depressed mood was the strongest predictor of low sexual function scores in all domains. Urban residency and higher socioecomic status had a protective effect. Disease activity was moderately associated with low desire (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.0 to 3.2. Severity of the disease course impacted most on intercourse frequency (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.7. Lubrication problems were more common in smokers (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.1. Conclusion Mood disturbances and social environment impacted more on sexual function in women with IBD than disease specific factors. Smoking is associated with lubrication problems.

  7. A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowitz Terry

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students in the ninth and tenth grade. Students were administered a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS and asked questions about exercise, grades, work, and school detentions. Parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS and answer questions regarding medical/psychiatric conditions in their child. Results There was a significant association between time spent playing games for more than one hour a day and YIAS (p Conclusion Adolescents who play more than one hour of console or Internet video games may have more or more intense symptoms of ADHD or inattention than those who do not. Given the possible negative effects these conditions may have on scholastic performance, the added consequences of more time spent on video games may also place these individuals at increased risk for problems in school.

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of video games and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Rabinowitz, Terry

    2006-01-01

    Background Excessive use of the Internet has been associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the relationship between video games and ADHD symptoms in adolescents is unknown. Method A survey of adolescents and parents (n = 72 adolescents, 72 parents) was performed assessing daily time spent on the Internet, television, console video games, and Internet video games, and their association with academic and social functioning. Subjects were high school students in the ninth and tenth grade. Students were administered a modified Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) and asked questions about exercise, grades, work, and school detentions. Parents were asked to complete the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS) and answer questions regarding medical/psychiatric conditions in their child. Results There was a significant association between time spent playing games for more than one hour a day and YIAS (p the "Inattention" and "ADHD" components of the CPRS (p ≤ 0.001 and p ≤ 0.020, respectively). No significant association was found between body mass index (BMI), exercise, number of detentions, or the "Oppositional" and "Hyperactivity" components of CPRS and video game use. Conclusion Adolescents who play more than one hour of console or Internet video games may have more or more intense symptoms of ADHD or inattention than those who do not. Given the possible negative effects these conditions may have on scholastic performance, the added consequences of more time spent on video games may also place these individuals at increased risk for problems in school. PMID:17059614

  9. Cross Sections for Inner-Shell Ionization by Electron Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llovet, Xavier, E-mail: xavier@ccit.ub.edu [Centres Científics i Tecnològics, Universitat de Barcelona, Lluís Solé i Sabarís 1-3, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Powell, Cedric J. [Materials Measurement Science Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8370 (United States); Salvat, Francesc [Facultat de Física (ECM and ICC), Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jablonski, Aleksander [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul. Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-03-15

    An analysis is presented of measured and calculated cross sections for inner-shell ionization by electron impact. We describe the essentials of classical and semiclassical models and of quantum approximations for computing ionization cross sections. The emphasis is on the recent formulation of the distorted-wave Born approximation by Bote and Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042701 (2008)] that has been used to generate an extensive database of cross sections for the ionization of the K shell and the L and M subshells of all elements from hydrogen to einsteinium (Z = 1 to Z = 99) by electrons and positrons with kinetic energies up to 1 GeV. We describe a systematic method for evaluating cross sections for emission of x rays and Auger electrons based on atomic transition probabilities from the Evaluated Atomic Data Library of Perkins et al. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, UCRL-ID-50400, 1991]. We made an extensive comparison of measured K-shell, L-subshell, and M-subshell ionization cross sections and of Lα x-ray production cross sections with the corresponding calculated cross sections. We identified elements for which there were at least three (for K shells) or two (for L and M subshells) mutually consistent sets of cross-section measurements and for which the cross sections varied with energy as expected by theory. The overall average root-mean-square deviation between the measured and calculated cross sections was 10.9% and the overall average deviation was −2.5%. This degree of agreement between measured and calculated ionization and x-ray production cross sections was considered to be very satisfactory given the difficulties of these measurements.

  10. Do Robotic Surgical Systems Improve Profit Margins? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of California Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Shen, Chan; Hu, Jim C

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and hospital profit margins. This study used hospital annual utilization data, annual financial data, and discharge data for year 2011 from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We first performed bivariate analysis to compare mean profit margin by hospital and market characteristics and to examine whether these characteristics differed between hospitals that had one or more robotic surgical systems in 2011 and those that did not. We applied the t test and the F test to compare mean profit margin between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. We then conducted multilevel logistic regression to determine the association between ownership of robotic surgical systems and having a positive profit margin after controlling for other hospital and market characteristics and accounting for possible correlation among hospitals located within the same market. The study sample included 167 California hospitals with valid financial information. Hospitals with robotic surgical systems tended to report more favorable profit margins. However, multilevel logistic regression showed that this relationship (an association, not causality) became only marginally significant (odds ratio [OR] = 6.2; P = 0.053) after controlling for other hospital characteristics, such as ownership type, teaching status, bed size, and surgical volumes, and market characteristics, such as total number of robotic surgical systems owned by other hospitals in the same market area. As robotic surgical systems become widely disseminated, hospital decision makers should carefully evaluate the financial and clinical implications before making a capital investment in this technology. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A cross-sectional analysis of reported corporate environmental sustainability practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Dallas M; Dopart, Pamela; Ferracini, Tyler; Sahmel, Jennifer; Merryman, Kimberly; Gaffney, Shannon; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2010-12-01

    The concept of sustainability evolved throughout the 1970s and 1980s, but was formally described by the 27 principles of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in 1992. Despite the passage of nearly 20years, to date there are no uniform set of federal rules, regulations, or guidelines specifically governing the environmental aspects of sustainability practices or related requirements in the United States. In this benchmark analysis, we have collected information on the sustainability programs of the five largest US companies in each of the 26 industrial sectors [based on the Forbes Global 2000 through 2009 (n=130)]. For each company, we reviewed the most recent corporate sustainability, citizenship, or responsibility report, limiting our scope to environmental components, if available. Ten criteria were identified and analyzed, including leadership, reporting, external review, certification, and individual components of environmental sustainability programs. With respect to the prevalence of sustainability components between various business sectors, we found that the Drugs and Biotechnology (87%), Household and Personal Products (87%) and Oil and Gas Operations (87%) industries had the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. Using the nine components of environmental sustainability as a benchmark, we identified four key components as the characteristics of the most comprehensive environmental sustainability programs. These were (1) empowering leadership with a commitment to sustainability (80%), (2) standardized reporting (87%), (3) third-party evaluation of the sustainability programs (73%), and (4) obtaining ISO 14001 certification (73%). We found that many firms shaped their own definition of sustainability and developed their associated sustainability programs based on their sector, stakeholder interests, products or services, and business model. We noted an emerging area that we have called product sustainability - one in which

  12. Metrics for Electronic-Nursing-Record-Based Narratives: Cross-sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kidong; Jeong, Suyeon; Lee, Kyogu; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Min, Yul Ha; Lee, Joo Yun; Kim, Yekyung; Yoo, Sooyoung; Doh, Gippeum

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objectives We aimed to determine the characteristics of quantitative metrics for nursing narratives documented in electronic nursing records and their association with hospital admission traits and diagnoses in a large data set not limited to specific patient events or hypotheses. Methods We collected 135,406,873 electronic, structured coded nursing narratives from 231,494 hospital admissions of patients discharged between 2008 and 2012 at a tertiary teaching institution that routinely uses an electronic health records system. The standardized number of nursing narratives (i.e., the total number of nursing narratives divided by the length of the hospital stay) was suggested to integrate the frequency and quantity of nursing documentation. Results The standardized number of nursing narratives was higher for patients aged 70 years (median = 30.2 narratives/day, interquartile range [IQR] = 24.0–39.4 narratives/day), long (8 days) hospital stays (median = 34.6 narratives/day, IQR = 27.2–43.5 narratives/day), and hospital deaths (median = 59.1 narratives/day, IQR = 47.0–74.8 narratives/day). The standardized number of narratives was higher in “pregnancy, childbirth, and puerperium” (median = 46.5, IQR = 39.0–54.7) and “diseases of the circulatory system” admissions (median = 35.7, IQR = 29.0–43.4). Conclusions Diverse hospital admissions can be consistently described with nursing-document-derived metrics for similar hospital admissions and diagnoses. Some areas of hospital admissions may have consistently increasing volumes of nursing documentation across years. Usability of electronic nursing document metrics for evaluating healthcare requires multiple aspects of hospital admissions to be considered. PMID:27901174

  13. Burnout among Swedish school teachers – a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Arvidsson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teachers are at high risk of stress-related disorders. This study aimed to examine the occurrence of burnout in a sample of Swedish school-teachers, to test a combined measure of three burnout dimensions on the individual level, to characterize associations between burnout and factors encountered during work and leisure time, and to explore any differences between the genders. Methods A questionnaire of occupational, sociodemographic and life-style factors was answered by 490 teachers in school years 4–9. Outcome measures were (a the single burnout dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy (Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, and (b a combined measure based on high or low values in the three dimensions. The combined measure was used to stratify the study population into four levels (0–3 of burnout. Multivariable Poisson regression was applied on level 2 + 3 vs. level 0 + 1, for variables that we considered as relevant risk factors for burn out. Results Half of the teachers reported low values in all three dimensions (level 0, whereas 15 were classified as having high burnout in at least two out of the three dimensions (level 2 + 3, and 4 % in all three dimensions (level 3. Almost all psychosocial factors were incrementally more unfavourably reported through the rising levels of burnout, and so were dissatisfaction with the computer workstation, pain, sleep problems and lack of personal recovery. There was no association between gender and rising levels of overall burnout (p > 0.30. Low self-efficacy, poor leadership, high job demands and teaching in higher grades were the variables most clearly associated with burnout in multivariable Poisson regression. Conclusions Even if circa 50 % of the teachers appear do well with respect to burnout, the results points to the need of implementing multifaceted countermeasures that may serve to reduce burnout.

  14. Direct-to-consumer advertising for urological pharmaceuticals: a cross-sectional analysis of print media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Craig; Fesperman, Susan F; Tojuola, Bayo; Sultan, Shahnaz; Dahm, Philipp

    2010-05-01

    To investigate direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs that are relevant to urological conditions. Evidence suggests that DTCA of prescription drugs increase pharmaceutical sales. Concern about such advertising methods has recently increased owing to the market withdrawal of heavily marketed drugs that were found to have serious health risks. Three consecutive issues of 26 popular magazines during a 3-month period were screened for urology-related DTCA. Advertisements were abstracted using a standardized evaluation form that was pilot-tested in a separate sample of nonurological advertisements. Variables analyzed included the type of advertisement, claims of effectiveness, references of research studies, inducements, and use of tables, figures, and pictures. We identified 8 unique DTCA in 4 different magazines (Ladies Home Journal, Golf Digest, Sports Illustrated, and Good Housekeeping). All advertisements were disease-specific and targeted patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia-related symptoms (n = 3), incontinence (n = 3), or erectile dysfunction (n = 2). The median number of claims made per DTCA was 3 (range, 2-6). None of the claims made were supported by research data, as presented in tables or figures, or referenced peer-reviewed publications. The most common types of appeals addressed symptom control (8/8), lifestyle improvement (7/8), effectiveness (4/8), and dependability (3/8), while none addressed drug safety. DTCA of prescription drugs for urological conditions are found in select journals and focus on few highly prevalent conditions. None of the advertisement claims identified in this study were supported by research data. There seems to be significant room for improvement in the quality of information provided by urological advertisements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An analysis of online health information on schizophrenia or related conditions: a cross-sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Around 20% of those who seek health information online, search specifically for mental health. However, little is known about the nature of the online health information offered by two European countries, Finland and Greece, which are characterized by markedly differing levels of Internet access and online health information seeking. This study aims to assess, describe and compare websites, written in two European, non-English languages (Finnish and Greek) that appear first after performing an online search concerning schizophrenia or related conditions. Methods The first 20 results from four search terms (searched in Finnish and Greek) in the Web search engine ‘Google’ were screened. A total of 160 websites were retrieved (80 Finnish, 80 Greek) and evaluated using a preformulated coding system which consisted of websites’ indicators, such as: types, characteristics, accountability, interactivity, aesthetics and content. Differences between websites were evaluated with Chi-Square or Fisher’s Exact tests for categorical data and independent t-tests for parametric data. Results Twenty-four Finnish and thirty-four Greek websites (36% in total) were included. Almost two-thirds (62%, n=36) were owned by an organization, compared to 17% (n=10) by an individual. In both countries, aesthetics had the highest score (possible range 0–4, mean = 2.6, SD = .62), while interactivity the lowest (range 0–5, mean = 1.79, SD = .87). There were no statistically significant differences among the accountability, interactivity and aesthetics scores of the Finnish and Greek websites. Conclusions All assessed indicators suggest there is a need to improve Finnish and Greek online information about schizophrenia or related conditions. The poor website interactivity is of particular concern given the challenges faced by the target group. The findings can be used to guide the development and dissemination of online mental health information aimed at Finnish and Greek

  16. Internet Searches and Their Relationship to Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Johanna; Hollingshead, Kristy; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2017-09-06

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is a very challenging experience for all those affected. Unfortunately, detection of Alzheimer disease in its early stages when clinical treatments may be most effective is challenging, as the clinical evaluations are time-consuming and costly. Recent studies have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and everyday behavior, an avenue of research that holds great promise for the early detection of cognitive decline. One area of behavior that changes with cognitive decline is language use. Multiple groups have demonstrated a close relationship between cognitive function and vocabulary size, verbal fluency, and semantic ability, using conventional in-person cognitive testing. An alternative to this approach which is inherently ecologically valid may be to take advantage of automated computer monitoring software to continually capture and analyze language use while on the computer. The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between Internet searches as a measure of language and cognitive function in older adults. We hypothesize that individuals with poorer cognitive function will search using fewer unique terms, employ shorter words, and use less obscure words in their searches. Computer monitoring software (WorkTime, Nestersoft Inc) was used to continuously track the terms people entered while conducting searches in Google, Yahoo, Bing, and Ask.com. For all searches, punctuation, accents, and non-ASCII characters were removed, and the resulting search terms were spell-checked before any analysis. Cognitive function was evaluated as a z-normalized summary score capturing five unique cognitive domains. Linear regression was used to determine the relationship between cognitive function and Internet searches by controlling for variables such as age, sex, and education. Over a 6-month monitoring period, 42 participants (mean age 81 years [SD 10.5], 83% [35/42] female) conducted 2915 searches using these top search

  17. #Globalhealth Twitter Conversations on #Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS: a Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Isaac Chun-Hai; Jackson, Ashley M; Ahweyevu, Jennifer O; Grizzle, Jordan H; Yin, Jingjing; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho; Liang, Hai; Sekandi, Juliet N; Fu, King-Wa

    Advocates use the hashtag #GlobalHealth on Twitter to draw users' attention to prominent themes on global health, to harness their support, and to advocate for change. We aimed to describe #GlobalHealth tweets pertinent to given major health issues. Tweets containing the hashtag #GlobalHealth (N = 157,951) from January 1, 2014, to April 30, 2015, were purchased from GNIP Inc. We extracted 5 subcorpora of tweets, each with 1 of 5 co-occurring disease-specific hashtags (#Malaria, #HIV, #TB, #NCDS, and #NTDS) for further analysis. Unsupervised machine learning was applied to each subcorpus to categorize the tweets by their underlying topics and obtain the representative tweets of each topic. The topics were grouped into 1 of 4 themes (advocacy; epidemiological information; prevention, control, and treatment; societal impact) or miscellaneous. Manual categorization of most frequent users was performed. Time zones of users were analyzed. In the entire #GlobalHealth corpus (N = 157,951), there were 40,266 unique users, 85,168 retweets, and 13,107 unique co-occurring hashtags. Of the 13,087 tweets across the 5 subcorpora with co-occurring hashtag #malaria (n = 3640), #HIV (n = 3557), #NCDS (noncommunicable diseases; n = 2373), #TB (tuberculosis; n = 1781), and #NTDS (neglected tropical diseases; n = 1736), the most prevalent theme was prevention, control, and treatment (4339, 33.16%), followed by advocacy (3706, 28.32%), epidemiological information (1803, 13.78%), and societal impact (1617, 12.36%). Among the top 10 users who tweeted the highest number of tweets in the #GlobalHealth corpus, 5 were individual professionals, 3 were news media, and 2 were organizations advocating for global health. The most common users' time zone was Eastern Time (United States and Canada). This study highlighted the specific #GlobalHealth Twitter conversations pertinent to malaria, HIV, tuberculosis, noncommunicable diseases, and neglected tropical diseases. These

  18. A cross-sectional analysis of green space prevalence and mental wellbeing in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Houlden

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With urbanisation increasing, it is important to understand how to design changing environments to promote mental wellbeing. Evidence suggests that local-area proportions of green space may be associated with happiness and life satisfaction; however, the available evidence on such associations with more broadly defined mental wellbeing in still very scarce. This study aimed to establish whether the amount of neighbourhood green space was associated with mental wellbeing. Methods Data were drawn from Understanding Society, a national survey of 30,900 individuals across 11,096 Census Lower-Layer Super Output Areas (LSOAs in England, over the period 2009–2010. Measures included the multi-dimensional Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS and LSOA proportion of green space, which was derived from the General Land Use Database (GLUD, and were analysed using linear regression, while controlling for individual, household and area-level factors. Results Those living in areas with greater proportions of green space had significantly higher mental wellbeing scores in unadjusted analyses (an expected increase of 0.17 points (95% CI 0.11, 0.23 in the SWEMWBS score for a standard deviation increase of green space. However, after adjustment for confounding by respondent sociodemographic characteristics and urban/rural location, the association was attenuated to the null (regression coefficient B = − 0.01, 95% CI -0.08, 0.05, p = 0.712. Conclusions While the green space in an individual’s local area has been shown through other research to be related to aspects of mental health such as happiness and life satisfaction, the association with multidimensional mental wellbeing is much less clear from our results. While we did not find a statistically significant association between the amount of green space in residents’ local areas and mental wellbeing, further research is needed to understand whether other features of

  19. Determinants and gaps in preventive care for Indigenous Australians: a cross sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Stewart Bailie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPotentially preventable chronic diseases are the greatest contributor to the health gap between Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples and non-Indigenous Australians. Preventive care is important for earlier detection and control of chronic disease, and a number of recent policy initiatives have aimed to enhance delivery of preventive care. We examined documented delivery of recommended preventive services for Indigenous peoples across Australia, and investigated the influence of health center and client level factors on adherence to best practice guidelines. MethodsClinical audit data from 2012-2014 for 3623 well adult clients (aged 15-54 of 101 health centers from four Australian states and territories were analyzed to determine adherence to delivery of 26 recommended preventive services classified into five different modes of care on the basis of the way in which they are delivered (eg. basic measurement; laboratory tests and imaging; assessment and brief interventions, eye, ear and oral checks; follow-up of abnormal findings. Summary statistics were used to describe the delivery of each service item across jurisdictions. Multilevel regression models were used to quantify the variation in service delivery attributable to health center and client level factors and to identify factors associated with higher quality care.ResultsDelivery of recommended preventive care varied widely between service items, with good delivery of most basic measurements but poor follow-up of abnormal findings. Health center characteristics were associated with most variation. Higher quality care was associated with Northern Territory location, urban services and smaller service population size. Client factors associated with higher quality care included age between 25-34 years, female sex and more regular attendance. ConclusionsWide variation in documented preventive care delivery, poor follow-up of abnormal findings, and system factors that

  20. Determinants of changes in dietary patterns among Chinese immigrants: a cross-sectional analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidell Jaap

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chinese individuals who have immigrated to a Western country initially tend to have a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD compared to people who are already living there. Some studies have found, however, that CVD risk increases over time in immigrants and that immigration to a western country is associated with changes in dietary patterns. This could have unfavourable effects on the risk of CVD. There is limited knowledge on the food patterns, awareness and knowledge about healthy nutrition among Chinese immigrants. The objective for this study is to explore changes in food patterns, and levels of awareness and knowledge of healthy nutrition by length of residence among Chinese immigrants to Canada. Methods 120 Chinese individuals born in China but currently living in Canada completed an assessment on socio-demographic characteristics, changes in dietary patterns and variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods. With ordinal logistic regression the associations between the quartiles of length of residence and dietary patterns, variables of awareness and knowledge about healthy foods were explored, adjusting for age, sex, education and body mass index. Results More than 50% of the participants reported increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, decreasing the use of deep-frying after immigration. Increased awareness and knowledge about healthy foods was reported by more than 50% of the participants. Ordinal regression indicated that Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the longest, compared to Chinese immigrants who lived in Canada the shortest, consumed significant greater portion sizes (OR: 9.9; 95% CI: 3.11 - 31.15, dined out more frequently (OR: 15.8; 95% CI: 5.0 - 49.85, and consumed convenience foods more often (OR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.23 - 10.01. Conclusions Chinese immigrants reported some favourable changes in their dietary intake and greater awareness and more knowledge about healthy foods after

  1. Use of the Green function method for calculation of cross section of x-ray photoabsorption for solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhakhmetov, S.K.

    1996-01-01

    Possibility of Green formalism use for calculation of photoabsorption of high-energy x-ray radiation is shown. Analytical expression for photoabsorption cross section is carried out. It does not contains wave functions in explicit form responding to finite states of photoelectron. 5 refs

  2. Urethral pressure reflectometry. A method for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area in the female urethra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Niels

    2012-01-01

    A novel technique for simultaneous measurements of pressure and cross-sectional area (CA) in the female urethra, denoted Urethral Pressure Reflectometry (UPR), was devised. A very thin and highly flexible polyurethane-bag was placed in the urethra. A pump applied increasing and decreasing pressur...

  3. An analysis of few-body cross sections in pp and πp interactions in terms of the two-component picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimaeki, V.

    1975-01-01

    The energy behaviour of total cross sections of exclusive channel with one, two or three produced pions has been studied in pp and πp interactions. Two components, interpreted as diffractive and non-diffractive, have been fitted to the cross section data assuming an asymptotic power law dependence in psub(lab) for both. Isotopic spin factors were used as constraints to fit different charge channels simultaneously as well as for determining diffractive cross sections for non-observable few-body channels. The diffractive component for fixed multiplicity is found to decrease as psub(lab)sup(-0.16+-0.04). Results are compared with the predictions of factorization and semilocal factorization hypotheses. Total diffractive cross sections derived by the analysis are 5.1+-0.6 mb in pp and 2.2+-0.3 mb in πp interactions at psub(lab)=10 GeV/c. (author)

  4. Cross sections for hadron and lepton production processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, R.

    1976-01-01

    Charged heavy lepton production in proton-proton collisions is studied. Motivated by recent experimental results from the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center a parton model analysis is given of the reaction p + p → L + + L - + x → μ +- + e/ -+ / + neutrinos + x. Results are presented for the total cross section and the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the final charged leptons and the transverse momenta of each one of them. The two-photon mechanism for pair production in colliding beam exeriments is considered. Through the use of mapped invariant integration variables, a reliable exact numerical calculation of the cross section for the production of muon and pion pairs by the two-photon mechanism is provided. Results are given for the exact total cross sections and also the differential cross sections with respect to the invariant mass squared of the pair. These are compared to the results obtained from the equivalent photon approximation method

  5. Burnout prevalence in New Zealand's public hospital senior medical workforce: a cross-sectional mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Christopher M A; Barclay, Murray; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the prevalence of, and associated factors contributing to burnout among senior doctors and dentists working in the New Zealand's public health system. Design Cross-sectional, mixed methods study. Setting New Zealand's 20 district health boards (DHBs). Participants A total of 1487 of 3740 senior doctors and dentists who are members of the Association of Salaried Medical Specialists working in DHBs were recruited (response rate 40%). Primary and secondary outcome measures Gender, age, self-rated health status, vocation and hours of work per week were obtained from an electronic questionnaire. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Qualitative data taken from an open-ended comments section was coded using grounded theory and used for contextual data. Results The overall prevalence of high personal burnout was 50%. Women aged burnout. Prevalence of high work-related burnout and patient-related burnout was 42% and 16%, respectively. Those working in emergency medicine and psychiatry had significantly higher mean work-related burnout than other specialties (pburnout. Personal burnout rates decreased with age (age 30–39 OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.78 to 4.59, age 40–49 OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.70 to 3.55, age 50–59 OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.17 to 2.46, compared with age>60). Qualitative data emphasised intense and unrelenting workloads, under-staffing, onerous on-call duties and frustrations with management as factors contributing to burnout. Conclusions High burnout appears prevalent in New Zealand's senior doctors and dentists. Many attribute their feelings of burnout to work conditions. These findings may assist with understanding contributors to burnout and with developing strategies to ameliorate the high burnout found across this cohort. PMID:27881531

  6. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Andreeva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. Methods A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of “no compulsory redundancy”. Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A, Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD6 and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS. Data were analyzed using logistic regression. Results We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. Conclusions The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological

  7. Teaching research methods in nursing using Aronson's Jigsaw Technique. A cross-sectional survey of student satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Riu Camps, Marta

    2016-05-01

    To adapt nursing studies to the European Higher Education Area, new teaching methods have been included that assign maximum importance to student-centered learning and collaborative work. The Jigsaw Technique is based on collaborative learning and everyone in the group must play their part because each student's mark depends on the other students. Home group members are given the responsibility to become experts in a specific area of knowledge. Experts meet together to reach an agreement and improve skills. Finally, experts return to their home groups to share all their findings. The aim of this study was to evaluate nursing student satisfaction with the Jigsaw Technique used in the context of a compulsory course in research methods for nursing. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered anonymous questionnaire administered to students who completed the Research Methods course during the 2012-13 and 2013-14 academic years. The questionnaire was developed taking into account the learning objectives, competencies and skills that should be acquired by students, as described in the course syllabus. The responses were compared by age group (younger or older than 22years). A total of 89.6% of nursing students under 22years believed that this methodology helped them to develop teamwork, while this figure was 79.6% in older students. Nursing students also believed it helped them to work independently, with differences according to age, 79.7% and 58% respectively (p=0.010). Students disagreed with the statement "The Jigsaw Technique involves little workload", with percentages of 88.5% in the group under 22years and 80% in older students. Most believed that this method should not be employed in upcoming courses, although there were differences by age, with 44.3% of the younger group being against and 62% of the older group (p=0.037). The method was not highly valued by students, mainly by those older than 22years, who concluded that they did not learn

  8. Pion-nucleus cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barashenkov, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    The tables of inelastic and total cross sections of π ± mesons interactions with nuclei 4 He- 238 U are presented. The tables are obtained by theoretical analysis of known experimental data for energies higher some tens of MeV. 1 ref.; 1 tab

  9. Measurements of fission cross-sections. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    The steps involved in the measurement of fission cross sections are summarized and the range of techniques available are considered. Methods of fission detection are described with particular emphasis on the neutron energy dependent properties of the fission process and the details of fragment energy loss which can lead to energy-dependent changes in detector efficiency. Selected examples of fission cross-section measurements are presented and methods of data reduction, storage, analysis and evaluation, are examined. Finally requested accuracies for fission cross section data are compared to estimated available accuracies. (U.K.)

  10. Recent joint developments in cross-section uncertainty analysis at Los Alamos and EIR [Eidgenoessiches Institut fuer Reaktorforschung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Muir, D.W.; Stepanek, J.; Higgs, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses recent developments and future plans for the SENSIBL code (the successor to the SENSIT[6] and SENSIT-2D[7] codes), along with associated covariance data and cross section libraries. 34 refs

  11. Two-dimensional cross-section sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the LBM [Lithium Blanket Module] experiments at LOTUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, J.W.; Dudziak, D.J.; Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.

    1988-01-01

    In a recent common Los Alamos/PSI effort, a sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty path for the modular code system AARE (Advanced Analysis for Reactor Engineering) was developed. This path includes the cross-section code TRAMIX, the one-dimensional finite difference S/sub N/-transport code ONEDANT, the two-dimensional finite element S/sub N/-transport code TRISM, and the one- and two-dimensional sensitivity and nuclear data uncertainty code SENSIBL. Within the framework of the present work a complete set of forward and adjoint two-dimensional TRISM calculations were performed both for the bare, as well as for the Pb- and Be-preceeded, LBM using MATXS8 libraries. Then a two-dimensional sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for all cases was performed. The goal of this analysis was the determination of the uncertainties of a calculated tritium production per source neutron from lithium along the central Li 2 O rod in the LBM. Considered were the contributions from 1 H, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, /sup nat/C, 14 N, 16 O, 23 Na, 27 Al, /sup nat/Si, /sup nat/Cr, /sup nat/Fe, /sup nat/Ni, and /sup nat/Pb. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  12. Extended phenotype and clinical subgroups in unilateral Meniere disease: A cross-sectional study with cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frejo, L; Martin-Sanz, E; Teggi, R; Trinidad, G; Soto-Varela, A; Santos-Perez, S; Manrique, R; Perez, N; Aran, I; Almeida-Branco, M S; Batuecas-Caletrio, A; Fraile, J; Espinosa-Sanchez, J M; Perez-Guillen, V; Perez-Garrigues, H; Oliva-Dominguez, M; Aleman, O; Benitez, J; Perez, P; Lopez-Escamez, J A

    2017-12-01

    To define clinical subgroups by cluster analysis in patients with unilateral Meniere disease (MD) and to compare them with the clinical subgroups found in bilateral MD. A cross-sectional study with a two-step cluster analysis. A tertiary referral multicenter study. Nine hundred and eighty-eight adult patients with unilateral MD. best predictors to define clinical subgroups with potential different aetiologies. We established five clusters in unilateral MD. Group 1 is the most frequently found, includes 53% of patients, and it is defined as the sporadic, classic MD without migraine and without autoimmune disorder (AD). Group 2 is found in 8% of patients, and it is defined by hearing loss, which antedates the vertigo episodes by months or years (delayed MD), without migraine or AD in most of cases. Group 3 involves 13% of patients, and it is considered familial MD, while group 4, which includes 15% of patients, is linked to the presence of migraine in all cases. Group 5 is found in 11% of patients and is defined by a comorbid AD. We found significant differences in the distribution of AD in clusters 3, 4 and 5 between patients with uni- and bilateral MD. Cluster analysis defines clinical subgroups in MD, and it extends the phenotype beyond audiovestibular symptoms. This classification will help to improve the phenotyping in MD and facilitate the selection of patients for randomised clinical trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Measurements of secondary electron cross sections by the pulsed electron beam time-of-flight method. I. Molecular nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goruganthu, R.R.; Wilson, W.G.; Bonham, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The secondary electron cross sections for gaseous molecular nitrogen are reported at ejection angles of 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135 and 150 0 , for the energy range 1.5 eV to 20 eV and incident electron energy of 1 keV. The pulsed electron beam time-of-flight methd was employed. The results were placed on an absolute scale by normalization to the elastic scattering. They were compared, where possible, with those reported by Opal, Beaty, and Peterson (OBP). The agreement is somewhat better when the OBP data are divided by 0.53 + 0.47 sintheta as suggested by Rudd and DuBois. Fits of our data by Legendre-polynomial expansions are used to estimate the low-energy portion of the cross-section, dsigma/dE. This work suggests that existing experimental cross sections for secondary electron ejection as a function of angle and ejected energy may be no better known than +-40%, especially in the low energy region. 7 references, 14 figures, 2 tables

  14. The PSIMECX medium-energy neutron activation cross-section library. Part III: Calculational methods for heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    The PSIMECX library contains calculated nuclide production cross-sections from neutron-induced reactions in the energy range about 2 to 800 MeV in the following 72 stable isotopes of 24 elements: {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, {sup 23}Na, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 29}Si, {sup 30}Si, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 33}S, {sup 34}S, {sup 36}S, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 42}Ca, {sup 43}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 46}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 49}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 50}V, {sup 51}V, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 53}Cr, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 68}Zn, {sup 70}Zn, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 94}Mo, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 96}Mo, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 121}Sb, {sup 123}Sb, {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. The energy range covers essentially all transmutation channels other than capture. The majority of the selected elements are main constituents of normal materials of construction used in and around accelerator facilities and the library is, first and foremost, designed to be a tool for the estimation of their activation in wide-band neutron fields. This third report describes and discusses the calculational methods used for the heavy nuclei. The library itself has been described in the first report of this series and the treatment for the medium and light mass nuclei is given in the second. (author)

  15. Activation cross-section measurements of some proton induced reactions on Ni, Co and Mo for proton activation analysis (PAA) purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alharbi, A.A.; Alzahrani, J.; Azzam, A.; Nuclear Research Center, Cairo

    2011-01-01

    The experimental proton induced reaction cross sections on some elements of the Havar alloy were measured using the activation method and the well established stacked-foil technique combined with high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy. They included the reactions nat Ni(p,x) 57 Ni, nat Co(p,x) 58(m+g) Co and nat Mo(p,x) 94g,95g,96(m+g) Tc, the aim being to obtain reliable data in the proton energy range up to 26 MeV for some important reactions to be used in the proton activation analysis of steel or other alloys. Irradiations were performed using the CS-30 Cyclotron at KFSH and RC, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The activity measurements were carried out in PNU laboratories, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The experimental excitation functions for the investigated reactions were constructed and compared with the performed computed theoretical nuclear model calculations using two different codes: ALICE-IPPE and TALYS. A comparison between our measured cross-section values and the available published data is also presented, with a view to checking the consistency of the reported experimental work from various laboratories.

  16. Considering sampling strategy and cross-section complexity for estimating the uncertainty of discharge measurements using the velocity-area method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despax, Aurélien; Perret, Christian; Garçon, Rémy; Hauet, Alexandre; Belleville, Arnaud; Le Coz, Jérôme; Favre, Anne-Catherine

    2016-02-01

    Streamflow time series provide baseline data for many hydrological investigations. Errors in the data mainly occur through uncertainty in gauging (measurement uncertainty) and uncertainty in the determination of the stage-discharge relationship based on gaugings (rating curve uncertainty). As the velocity-area method is the measurement technique typically used for gaugings, it is fundamental to estimate its level of uncertainty. Different methods are available in the literature (ISO 748, Q + , IVE), all with their own limitations and drawbacks. Among the terms forming the combined relative uncertainty in measured discharge, the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals often includes a large part of the relative uncertainty. It should therefore be estimated carefully. In ISO 748 standard, proposed values of this uncertainty component only depend on the number of verticals without considering their distribution with respect to the depth and velocity cross-sectional profiles. The Q + method is sensitive to a user-defined parameter while it is questionable whether the IVE method is applicable to stream-gaugings performed with a limited number of verticals. To address the limitations of existing methods, this paper presents a new methodology, called FLow Analog UnceRtainty Estimation (FLAURE), to estimate the uncertainty component relating to the limited number of verticals. High-resolution reference gaugings (with 31 and more verticals) are used to assess the uncertainty component through a statistical analysis. Instead of subsampling purely randomly the verticals of these reference stream-gaugings, a subsampling method is developed in a way that mimicks the behavior of a hydrometric technician. A sampling quality index (SQI) is suggested and appears to be a more explanatory variable than the number of verticals. This index takes into account the spacing between verticals and the variation of unit flow between two verticals. To compute the

  17. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CRITICAL STATE OF THIN-WALLED STRUCTURE WITH Z-PROFILE CROSS SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk Różyło

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study was the thin-walled profile with Z-shaped cross section made of the carbon-epoxy composite. Material model was prepared based on the implemented orthotropic properties. The purpose of study was to determine the value of the critical load at which buckling occurs, the form of buckling and operating characteristics in critical condition. In order to achieve this numerical analysis were carried out. Additionally, the effects of the modification in arrangement of layers of the laminate to the stability and strength of thin-walled composite structures was presented. Numerical studies were carried out using commercial simulation software - ABAQUS®. Within the FEM research, both forms of buckling and the associated critical load, dependent on the configuration the layers of the composite were achieved. Analysis of the obtained results, allowed the evaluation of the structure's work in relation to the level of energy consumption or rigidity estimation. In the paper only numerical simulations of the critical state were conducted.

  18. Determinants of job satisfaction of healthcare professionals in public hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia--Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuburović, Nina B; Dedić, Velimir; Djuricić, Slavisa; Kuburović, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The quality of health care significantly depends on the satisfaction of the employees. The objective of this study was to establish the level of professional satisfaction of healthcare professionals in state hospitals in Belgrade, Serbia, and to determine and to rank the factors which impact on their satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Professional satisfaction survey was designed and conducted as a cross-sectional study in 2008. Completed questionnaires were returned by 6,595 healthcare professionals from Belgrade's hospitals. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student's t-test, χ² test and ANOVA. Factor analysis was applied in order to define determinants of professional satisfaction, i.e. dissatisfaction. This study showed that the degree of professional satisfaction of Serbian healthcare professionals was low. The main causes of professionals'dissatisfaction were wages, equipment, the possibility of continuous medical education/training and the opportunities for professional development. Healthcare professionals with university education were more satisfied with all the individual aspects of job satisfaction than those with secondary school and college education. There were significantly more healthcare professionals satisfied with their job among males, older than 60 years, in the age group 50-59 years, with managerial function, and with 30 or more years of service. Development strategy of human resources in the Serbian health care system would significantly improve the professional satisfaction and quality of the provided health care.

  19. The nutritional content of supermarket beverages: a cross-sectional analysis of New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepulis, Lynne; Mearns, Gael; Hill, Shaunie; Wu, Jason Hy; Crino, Michelle; Alderton, Sarah; Jenner, Katharine

    2018-02-07

    To compare the nutritional content, serving size and taxation potential of supermarket beverages from four different Western countries. Cross-sectional analysis. Multivariate regression analysis and χ 2 comparisons were used to detect differences between countries. Supermarkets in New Zealand (NZ), Australia, Canada and the UK. Supermarket beverages in the following categories: fruit juices, fruit-based drinks, carbonated soda, waters and sports/energy drinks. A total of 4157 products were analysed, including 749 from NZ, 1738 from Australia, 740 from Canada and 930 from the UK. NZ had the highest percentage of beverages with sugar added to them (52 %), while the UK had the lowest (9 %, P8 % sugar) categories. There is substantial difference between countries in the mean energy, serving size and proportion of products eligible for fiscal sugar taxation. Current self-regulatory approaches used in these countries may not be effective to reduce the availability, marketing and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and subsequent intake of free sugars.

  20. Verification of rapid method for estimation of added food colorant type in boiled sausages based on measurement of cross section color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, J.; Petronijević, R. B.; Lukić, M.; Karan, D.; Parunović, N.; Branković-Lazić, I.

    2017-09-01

    During the previous development of a chemometric method for estimating the amount of added colorant in meat products, it was noticed that the natural colorant most commonly added to boiled sausages, E 120, has different CIE-LAB behavior compared to artificial colors that are used for the same purpose. This has opened the possibility of transforming the developed method into a method for identifying the addition of natural or synthetic colorants in boiled sausages based on the measurement of the color of the cross-section. After recalibration of the CIE-LAB method using linear discriminant analysis, verification was performed on 76 boiled sausages, of either frankfurters or Parisian sausage types. The accuracy and reliability of the classification was confirmed by comparison with the standard HPLC method. Results showed that the LDA + CIE-LAB method can be applied with high accuracy, 93.42 %, to estimate food color type in boiled sausages. Natural orange colors can give false positive results. Pigments from spice mixtures had no significant effect on CIE-LAB results.

  1. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myagmarjav Odsuren

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  2. Scattering cross section for various potential systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odsuren, Myagmarjav; Khuukhenkhuu, Gonchigdorj; Davaa, Suren [Nuclear Research Center, School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Kato, Kiyoshi [Nuclear Reaction Data Centre, Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    We discuss the problems of scattering in this framework, and show that the applied method is very useful in the investigation of the effect of the resonance in the observed scattering cross sections. In this study, not only the scattering cross sections but also the decomposition of the scattering cross sections was computed for the α–α system. To obtain the decomposition of scattering cross sections into resonance and residual continuum terms, the complex scaled orthogonality condition model and the extended completeness relation are used. Applying the present method to the α–α and α–n systems, we obtained good reproduction of the observed phase shifts and cross sections. The decomposition into resonance and continuum terms makes clear that resonance contributions are dominant but continuum terms and their interference are not negligible. To understand the behavior of observed phase shifts and the shape of the cross sections, both resonance and continuum terms are calculated.

  3. Does metformin affect ovarian morphology in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome? A retrospective cross-sectional preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Angela; Orio, Francesco; Venturella, Roberta; Rania, Erika; Materazzo, Caterina; Tolino, Achille; Zullo, Fulvio; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-05-31

    The significance of polycystic ovarian morphology and its relation to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear, but probably it is associated with higher androgen and insulin levels and lower sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in absence of identifiable differences in gonadotropin dynamics. The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian morphology in patients affected by PCOS with different ovulatory responses to metformin. In this cross-sectional analysis, we studied 20 young normal-weight PCOS patients who had received a six-month course of metformin treatment. Ten of these patients remained anovulatory (anovulatory group), whereas other ten became ovulatory, but failed to conceive (ovulatory group). Other ten age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched PCOS subjects were also enrolled as controls and observed without any treatment (control group). After six months of metformin, in both PCOS treated groups, a similar improvement in testosterone (T) and insulin resistance indexes was observed. Moreover, in one (10.0%) and nine (90.0%) subjects from anovulatory and ovulatory PCOS groups, respectively, ovarian morphology changed, whereas a significant reduction in ovarian dimension was observed in the PCOS ovulatory group only. PCOS patients under metformin administration demonstrate a change in ovarian morphology closely related to ovulatory response.

  4. Current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents: analysis of a national cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jae

    2014-02-06

    To examine the association between cigarette smoke exposure and depression among Korean adolescents using the seventh Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS). Cross-sectional study. A nationally representative sample of middle and high school students across South Korea. 75 643 eligible participants across the country. Current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression. Data were analysed from a nationally representative survey of 75 643 participants (37 873 men and 37 770 women). Data were gathered on extensive information including current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in adolescence. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the association between current smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and depression in Korean adolescents. Among those who had never smoked, secondhand smoke exposure was positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents in a dose-response relation (OR 1.27, OR 1.52 in males; OR 1.25, OR 1.72 in females). Similar associations were observed among currently smoking men and women in a dose-response manner (OR 1.29, OR 1.55 in males; OR 1.22, OR 1.41 in females). These significant trends were consistently observed even after adjustments. We suggested that current smoking and secondhand smoke exposure were positively associated with depression in male and female adolescents. Efforts to encourage no smoking and no secondhand smoke exposure will be established for adolescents.

  5. Measurement and analysis of the $^{241}$Am(n,$\\gamma$) cross section at the CERN n_TOF facility.

    CERN Document Server

    Fraval, Kevin

    In the context of the current nuclear technology, the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel of a typical PWR reactor is dominated by minor actinides for times greater than 104 years. In particular, 241Am and its 432 years half-life is responsible for about half of the minor actinide content of a PWR spent fuel. This thesis work consisted in measuring and analysing the 241Am(n, ) cross section at the CERN n TOF facility. After selecting exclusively the events obtained with lead shielding in front of the C6D6 detectors, the amplitude-energy calibration has to be adjusted with time, by using a photon coming from the 27Al(,,p)30Si reaction. Histogram extraction included applying a weighting function (obtained by MCNP simulation), a dead time correction, and a normalization to the compound nucleus excitation energy. The background corrected spectra were normalized relatively to the 4.9 eV resonance on 197Au. Finally, the resonance analysis was performed using the SAMMY code. The extracted thermal value is 678±68 barns,...

  6. 2D Cross Sectional Analysis and Associated Electrochemistry of Composite Electrodes Containing Dispersed Agglomerates of Nanocrystalline Magnetite, Fe₃O₄.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Kirshenbaum, Kevin C; Wang, Jiajun; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Wang, Jun; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-06-24

    When electroactive nanomaterials are fully incorporated into an electrode structure, characterization of the crystallite sizes, agglomerate sizes, and dispersion of the electroactive materials can lend insight into the complex electrochemistry associated with composite electrodes. In this study, composite magnetite electrodes were sectioned using ultramicrotome techniques, which facilitated the direct observation of crystallites and agglomerates of magnetite (Fe3O4) as well as their dispersal patterns in large representative sections of electrode, via 2D cross sectional analysis by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Further, the electrochemistry of these electrodes were recorded, and Transmission X-ray Microscopy (TXM) was used to determine the distribution of oxidation states of the reduced magnetite. Unexpectedly, while two crystallite sizes of magnetite were employed in the production of the composite electrodes, the magnetite agglomerate sizes and degrees of dispersion in the two composite electrodes were similar to each other. This observation illustrates the necessity for careful characterization of composite electrodes, in order to understand the effects of crystallite size, agglomerate size, and level of dispersion on electrochemistry.

  7. Cross-sectional analysis of Quality-of-Life of patients undergoing reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Kimata, Yasuhiro; Kurita, Tomoyuki

    2009-01-01

    Organs with important functions for daily life are concentrated in the head and neck area, and maintaining post-treatment Quality-of-Life (QOL) is also important when treating cancers of the head and neck, in addition to improving survival rate. Free flap reconstruction techniques are expected to contribute to maintaining post-treatment QOL, but these techniques have not been adequately evaluated in Japan. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of QOL, using the Japanese version of the UWQOL (version 4) from the University of Washington in the United States, with 202 patients from 10 institutions who had undergone reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer. In addition to the survey form, we collected clinical information (age, sex, time since surgery, flap donor site, whether radiotherapy was administered, and other factors), and analyzed whether differences in postoperative QOL were seen depending on each of these factors and the hospital at which the surgery was performed. Although a relationship was found between QOL following reconstructive surgery for tongue cancer and the extent of resection, age and whether radiotherapy was administered, fairly good QOL was maintained overall. (author)

  8. A cross-sectional analysis of dioxins and health effects in municipal and private waste incinerator workers in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAMAMOTO, Kenya; KUDO, Mitsuhiro; ARITO, Heihachiro; OGAWA, Yasutaka; TAKATA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was intended to examine health effects of 678 male workers employed during an 8-yr period from 2000 to 2007 at 36 municipal and private waste incineration plants in Japan. Blood samples were obtained for analysis of concentrations of dioxins including coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) and evaluation of health effects. Health effects including diabetes were surveyed via a physician’s interview or clinical data from blood samples. There was a certain difference in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) between the incinerator workers and Japanese general population, although no differences in the concentrations of total dioxins or polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) were found between the two groups. A few positive correlations between serum levels of PCDDs and PCDFs and the results of laboratory and physiological tests were found, but coplanar PCBs showed significant relations with 14 parameters of the tests. The background serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and total dioxins were significantly associated with the prevalence of diabetes. No essential differences in serum concentrations of total dioxins and in prevalence of diabetes between our subjects and the general population suggested that the incinerator workers were marginally exposed to dioxins in the workplace without any recognizable adverse health effects. PMID:26212412

  9. New method for evaluation of bendability based on three-point-bending and the evolution of the cross-section moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troive, L.

    2017-09-01

    Friction-free 3-point bending has become a common test-method since the VDA 238-100 plate-bending test [1] was introduced. According to this test the criterion for failure is when the force suddenly drops. It was found by the author that the evolution of the cross-section moment is a more preferable measure regarding the real material response instead of the force. Beneficially, the cross-section moment gets more or less a constant maximum steady-state level when the cross-section becomes fully plastified. An expression for the moment M is presented that fulfils the criteria for energy of conservation at bending. Also an expression calculating the unit-free moment, M/Me, i.e. current moment to elastic-moment ratio, is demonstrated specifically proposed for detection of failures. The mathematical expressions are simple making it easy to transpose measured force F and stroke position S to the corresponding cross-section moment M. From that point of view it’s even possible to implement, e.g. into a conventional measurement system software, studying the cross-section moment in real-time during a test. It’s even possible to calculate other parameters such as flow-stress and shape of curvature at every stage. It has been tested on different thicknesses and grades within the range from 1.0 to 10 mm with very good results. In this paper the present model is applied on a 6.1 mm hot-rolled high strength steel from the same batch at three different conditions, i.e. directly quenched, quenched and tempered, and a third variant quench and tempered with levelling. It will be shown that very small differences in material-response can be predicted by this method.

  10. Measuring the performance of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys: a likelihood framework and retrospective analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Lessler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of routine and supplemental immunization activities is usually measured by the administrative method: dividing the number of doses distributed by the size of the target population. This method leads to coverage estimates that are sometimes impossible (e.g., vaccination of 102% of the target population, and are generally inconsistent with the proportion found to be vaccinated in Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS. We describe a method that estimates the fraction of the population accessible to vaccination activities, as well as within-campaign inefficiencies, thus providing a consistent estimate of vaccination coverage.We developed a likelihood framework for estimating the effective coverage of vaccination programs using cross-sectional surveys of vaccine coverage combined with administrative data. We applied our method to measles vaccination in three African countries: Ghana, Madagascar, and Sierra Leone, using data from each country's most recent DHS survey and administrative coverage data reported to the World Health Organization. We estimate that 93% (95% CI: 91, 94 of the population in Ghana was ever covered by any measles vaccination activity, 77% (95% CI: 78, 81 in Madagascar, and 69% (95% CI: 67, 70 in Sierra Leone. "Within-activity" inefficiencies were estimated to be low in Ghana, and higher in Sierra Leone and Madagascar. Our model successfully fits age-specific vaccination coverage levels seen in DHS data, which differ markedly from those predicted by naïve extrapolation from country-reported and World Health Organization-adjusted vaccination coverage.Combining administrative data with survey data substantially improves estimates of vaccination coverage. Estimates of the inefficiency of past vaccination activities and the proportion not covered by any activity allow us to more accurately predict the results of future activities and provide insight into the ways in which vaccination programs are failing to meet their

  11. Analysis of proton-induced fragment production cross sections by the Quantum Molecular Dynamics plus Statistical Decay Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Osamu; Fukahori, Tokio; Niita, Koji; Maruyama, Toshiki; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The production cross sections of various fragments from proton-induced reactions on {sup 56}Fe and {sup 27}Al have been analyzed by the Quantum Molecular Dynamics (QMD) plus Statistical Decay Model (SDM). It was found that the mass and charge distributions calculated with and without the statistical decay have very different shapes. These results also depend strongly on the impact parameter, showing an importance of the dynamical treatment as realized by the QMD approach. The calculated results were compared with experimental data in the energy region from 50 MeV to 5 GeV. The QMD+SDM calculation could reproduce the production cross sections of the light clusters and intermediate-mass to heavy fragments in a good accuracy. The production cross section of {sup 7}Be was, however, underpredicted by approximately 2 orders of magnitude, showing the necessity of another reaction mechanism not taken into account in the present model. (author)

  12. Analysis of benchmark experiments for testing the IKE multigroup cross-section libraries based on ENDF/B-III and IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keinert, J.; Mattes, M.

    1975-01-01

    Benchmark experiments offer the most direct method for validation of nuclear cross-section sets and calculational methods. For 16 fast and thermal critical assemblies containing uranium and/or plutonium of different compositions we compared our calculational results with measured integral quantities, such as ksub(eff), central reaction rate ratios or fast and thermal activation (dis)advantage factors. Cause of the simple calculational modelling of these assemblies the calculations proved as a good test for the IKE multigroup cross-section libraries essentially based on ENDF/B-IV. In general, our calculational results are in excellent agreement with the measured values. Only with some critical systems the basic ENDF/B-IV data proved to be insufficient in calculating ksub(eff), probably due to Pu neutron data and U 238 fast capture cross-sections. (orig.) [de

  13. Interleukin-6 Level among Shift and Night Workers in Japan: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the J-HOPE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hoichi; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Yokoo, Takashi; Yamaoka, Kazue

    2018-03-27

    Shift workers have a high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Systemic inflammation measured has been associated with the risk of CVD onset, in addition to classical risk factors. However, the association between work schedule and inflammatory cytokine levels remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between work schedule and interleukin-6 (IL-6)/high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels among Japanese workers. The present cross-sectional study was a part of the Japanese Study of Health, Occupation and Psychosocial Factors Related Equity (J-HOPE). A total of 5259 persons who measured inflammatory cytokine were analyzed in this study. One-way analysis of variance was used to test log-transformed IL-6/hs-CRP differences by work schedule. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the difference adjusted for other possible CVD risk factors. There were 3660 participants who had a regular work schedule; the remaining schedules were shift work without night work for 181 participants, shift work with night work for 1276 participants, and only night work for 142 participants. The unadjusted model showed that only night workers were significantly related to high levels of IL-6 compared with regular workers. Even in the multiple regression analysis, the higher level of IL-6 among only night workers remained significant (β=0.058, P=0.01). On the contrary, hs-CRP was not. The present study revealed that only night shift work is significantly associated with high levels of IL-6 in Japanese workers. These observations help us understand the mechanism for the association between work schedule and CVD onset.

  14. Background-cross-section-dependent subgroup parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Toshihisa

    2003-01-01

    A new set of subgroup parameters was derived that can reproduce the self-shielded cross section against a wide range of background cross sections. The subgroup parameters are expressed with a rational equation which numerator and denominator are expressed as the expansion series of background cross section, so that the background cross section dependence is exactly taken into account in the parameters. The advantage of the new subgroup parameters is that they can reproduce the self-shielded effect not only by group basis but also by subgroup basis. Then an adaptive method is also proposed which uses fitting procedure to evaluate the background-cross-section-dependence of the parameters. One of the simple fitting formula was able to reproduce the self-shielded subgroup cross section by less than 1% error from the precise evaluation. (author)

  15. Effects of filtering methods on muscle and fat cross-sectional area measurement by pQCT: a technical note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherk, Vanessa D; Bemben, Michael G; Palmer, Ian J; Bemben, Debra A

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) is most commonly used for bone density and morphology assessment of the limbs, but it can also be used for soft tissue area quantification by segmenting regions representing different tissues. Scanning and analyzing cross-sectional areas of larger thighs present a special challenge due to increased statistical noise created from fewer detected x-ray photons. The purpose of this technical note is to compare total, muscle and fat cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the midthigh with Stratec 3000 pQCT scans using no filter, a weak smoothing filter and a strong smoothing filter to CSA measurements of midthigh MRI scans analyzed by Image J, a public domain image processing program. Nine healthy men and women participated in this study. CSAs did not differ significantly between MRI and strongly filtered pQCT images with per cent differences ranging from −3.1% for muscle to +6.5% for fat. The per cent difference in muscle CSA values between MRI and pQCT with the weak filter (−24.0 ± 38.0%) or no filter (−44.9 ± 22.7%) was strongly related to total thigh CSA (r = 0.78–0.92, p < 0.05). We propose that the midthigh can be assessed for soft tissue area measurements with pQCT, provided that strong smoothing filter is utilized. (note)

  16. Total neutron cross section of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanda, K.; Aizawa, O.

    1976-01-01

    The total thermal-neutron cross section of natural lead under various physical conditions was measured by the transmission method. It became clear that the total cross section at room temperature previously reported is lower than the present data. The total cross section at 400, 500, and 600 0 C, above the melting point of lead, 327 0 C, was also measured, and the changes in the cross section as a function of temperature were examined, especially near and below the melting point. The data obtained for the randomly oriented polycrystalline state at room temperature were in reasonable agreement with the theoretical values calculated by the THRUSH and UNCLE-TOM codes

  17. An algorithm for the analysis of inductive antennas of arbitrary cross-section for heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehrman, I.S.; Colestock, P.L.

    1986-10-01

    The application of Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating to near ignited plasmas will require launching structures that will be capable of withstanding the harsh plasma environment. The recessed antenna configuration is expected to provide sufficient protection for the structure, but to date no analysis has been done to determine if adequate coupling can be achieved in such a configuration. In this work we present a method for determining the current distribution for the antenna in the direction transverse to current flow and predict antenna loading in the presence of plasma. Antennas of arbitrary cross section are analyzed above ground planes of arbitrary shape. Results from ANDES, the ANtenna DESign code, are presented and compared to experimental results

  18. Time From Smoking Cessation and Inflammatory Markers: New Evidence From a Cross-Sectional Analysis of ELSA-Brasil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Flávia Soares; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Camelo, Lidyane V; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz P; Vidigal, Pedro Guatimosim; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow; Giatti, Luana

    2017-07-01

    The time for inflammatory markers of former smokers to revert to never smoker levels is still controversial, ranging from 5 to 20 years. We aimed to determine the time from smoking cessation for white blood cell (WBC) count and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels to return to those of never-smokers, after adjusting for confounding factors and for secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-sectional analysis of baseline participants of ELSA-Brasil. We used linear regression analysis and generalized linear models with gamma distribution and logarithmic link function to estimate the association of WBC count and CRP levels with time from smoking cessation. The following confounding factors were considered: sex, age, education, SHS, alcohol consumption, leisure-time physical activity, BMI, total cholesterol/HDL ratio, hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Results: After all adjustments, time from smoking cessation <10 years remained associated with higher WBC count (eg, time from smoking cessation ≥ 5 and <10 years: β: 167.92; 95%CI: 23.52 312.31), while only time from smoking cessation <1 year remained associated with higher arithmetic mean of CRP (AMR: 1.26, 95%CI: 1.03‒1.54). Levels of inflammatory markers were similar to those of never-smokers 1 year after smoking cessation for CRP and 10 years after for WBC. The results may add to the arsenal health professionals have to encourage their patients to quit smoking, as some harms from smoking appear to revert to never-smokers' level sooner than previously reported. Longitudinal studies should confirm our findings. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. A cross-sectional study of chiropractic students' research readiness using the Academic Self-Concept Analysis Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillier, Stephney; Au, Kent; Feng, Louie; Su, Helen

    2017-10-01

    The shift toward evidence-based health care has reoriented tertiary clinical education in a way that necessitates and incorporates research. This study assesses the inclination and suitability of chiropractic students for research over a 5-year educational program. Research attributes of chiropractic students were assessed in this cross-sectional study using a validated and modified academic self-concept analysis scale. Students in first and final year were assessed in 4 domains: creativity, motivation, self-regulation, and general intellectual ability. Univariable differences were assessed using Welch 2-sample t tests, and multivariable analysis was carried out with multiple linear regression models. The response rate was 71% (n = 165). First- and fifth-year students scored highly on all 4 domains (80% to 96%). Compared to first-year students, fifth-year students rated themselves significantly lower in 3 of the domains: general intellectual abilities (t[126] = -2.01; p = 0.047), motivation (t[115] = -4.82; p < 0.001), and creativity (t[136] = -3.00; p = 0.003). Research suitability is high in chiropractic students. Both cohorts scored high in all domains despite the disparity between first and fifth years. First-year students outperformed fifth-year students in 3 domains, indicating a potential decline in the inclination to do research over time. However, unaccounted factors, such as the Dunning-Kruger effect, life changes, and "burnout," may have contributed to these differences. Future studies should include questions about stress, fatigue, clinical orientation, and educational environment to inform the interpretation of findings.

  20. Summary Report of Consultants' Meeting on Accuracy of Experimental and Theoretical Nuclear Cross-Section Data for Ion Beam Analysis and Benchmarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abriola, Daniel; Dimitriou, Paraskevi; Gurbich, Alexander F.

    2013-11-01

    A summary is given of a Consultants' Meeting assembled to assess the accuracy of experimental and theoretical nuclear cross-section data for Ion Beam Analysis and the role of benchmarking experiments. The participants discussed the different approaches to assigning uncertainties to evaluated data, and presented results of benchmark experiments performed in their laboratories. They concluded that priority should be given to the validation of cross- section data by benchmark experiments, and recommended that an experts meeting be held to prepare the guidelines, methodology and work program of a future coordinated project on benchmarking.

  1. The Awareness and Educational Status on Oral Health of Elite Athletes: A Cross-Sectional Study with Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Bahar Odabas

    2016-01-01

    In this cross-sectional survey, this study aimed to determine the factors associated with oral health of elite athletes and to determine the clustering tendency of the variables by dendrogram, and to determine the relationship between predefined clusters and see how these clusters can converge. A total of 97 elite (that is, top-level performing)…

  2. Measurement and analysis of the 241Am neutron capture cross section at the n_TOF facility at CERN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, E.; Cano-Ott, D.; Altstadt, S.; Andriamonje, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Balibrea, J.; Bécares, V.; Barbagallo, M.; Bečvář, F.; Belloni, F.; Berthier, B.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Carrapiço, C.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Chin, M.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Dillmann, I.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Durán, I.; Dzysiuk, N.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Ferrari, A.; Fraval, K.; Furman, V.; Gómez-Hornillos, M. B.; Ganesan, S.; García, A. R.; Giubrone, G.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Gramegna, F.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Gurusamy, P.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Hernández-Prieto, A.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Karadimos, D.; Katabuchi, T.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Koehler, P.; Kokkoris, M.; Kroll, J.; Krtička, M.; Lampoudis, C.; Langer, C.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Leong, L. S.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Licata, M.; López, D.; Losito, R.; Manousos, A.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Mondelaers, W.; Paradela, C.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Robles, M.; Roman, F.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Sarmento, R.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tarrío, D.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vermeulen, M. J.; Versaci, R.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Ware, T.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    The 241Am(n ,γ ) cross section has been measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN with the n_TOF BaF2 Total Absorption Calorimeter in the energy range between 0.2 eV and 10 keV. Our results are analyzed as resolved resonances up to 700 eV, allowing a more detailed description of the cross section than in the current evaluations, which contain resolved resonances only up to 150-160 eV. The cross section in the unresolved resonance region is perfectly consistent with the predictions based on the average resonance parameters deduced from the resolved resonances, thus obtaining a consistent description of the cross section in the full neutron energy range under study. Below 20 eV, our results are in reasonable agreement with JEFF-3.2 as well as with the most recent direct measurements of the resonance integral, and differ up to 20-30% with other experimental data. Between 20 eV and 1 keV, the disagreement with other experimental data and evaluations gradually decreases, in general, with the neutron energy. Above 1 keV, we find compatible results with previously existing values.

  3. Integrating imaging FTIR and secondary ion mass spectrometry for the analysis of embedded paint cross-sections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heeren, Ron M.A.; Boon, Jaap J.; Noble, Petria

    1999-01-01

    Novel chemical imaging techniques provide new insight in the organic chemistry of embedded paint cross-sections. FTIR imaging microscopy delivers a two-dimensional image of the functional group distribution, revealing chemical aspects of the binding medium in each individual paint layer. Secondar...... and identity of various lead soaps and lead hydroxychloride in these inclusions....

  4. Measurement and analysis of cross-section for some residues produced in 16O + 27Al system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Unnati; Singh, Devendra P.; Singh, Pushpendra P.; Singh, B.P.; Prasad, R.; Rakesh Kumar; Golda, K.S.; Bhardwaj, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    In the present work, the theoretical estimate of the cross-section for the evaporation residues has been determined using code ALICE-91 which is based on statistical approach and considers the population of the residues only through CF channels, including PE emission

  5. Anti-Bullying/Harassment Legislation and Educator Perceptions of Severity, Effectiveness, and School Climate: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Heather E.; Nickerson, Amanda B.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we examined a matched sample of 924 educators' perceptions of severity of bullying and harassment and school climate prior to (Wave 1 n = 435) and following (Wave 2 n = 489) the implementation of New York's anti-bullying and harassment legislation, the Dignity for All Students Act (DASA). Alignment with DASA mandates…

  6. Risk factors and pre-travel healthcare of international travellers attending a Dutch travel clinic: a cross-sectional analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieten, Rosanne W.; van der Schalie, Maurice; Visser, Benjamin J.; Grobusch, Martin P.; van Vugt, Michèle

    2014-01-01

    The number of international travellers is currently estimated to exceed one billion annually. To address travel related health risks and facilitate risk reduction strategies, detailed knowledge of travellers' characteristics is important. In this cross-sectional study, data of a 20% sample of

  7. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A; Westert, Gert P; Delnoij, Diana M; Klazinga, Niek S

    2005-01-01

    Background Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  8. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, O.A.; Westert, G.; Delnoij, D.M.; Klazinga, N.S.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  9. Health system outcomes and determinants amenable to public health in industrialized countries: a pooled, cross-sectional time series analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Westert, Gert P.; Delnoij, Diana M.; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Few studies have tried to assess the combined cross-sectional and temporal contributions of a more comprehensive set of amenable factors to population health outcomes for wealthy countries during the last 30 years of the 20th century. We assessed the overall ecological associations

  10. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Auais, Mohammad; Guralnik, Jack; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context. A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil), Manizales (Colombia), Tirana (Albania), Kingston (Ontario, Canada), and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada). We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated) using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles. In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03-1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01-1.88, respectively) or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18-2.12, respectively). Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant. Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to assess the mediation pathways through which gender-stereotyped traits influence functional limitations and to investigate the longitudinal nature of these relationships.

  11. Frequency and risk indicators of tooth decay among pregnant women in France: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Little is known on the prevalence of tooth decay among pregnant women. Better knowledge of tooth decay risk indicators during pregnancy could help to develop follow-up protocols for women at risk, along with better prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth per woman in a large sample of pregnant women in France, and to study associated risk indicators. A secondary cross-sectional analysis of data from a French multicentre case-control study was performed. The sample was composed of 1094 at-term women of six maternity units. A dental examination was carried out within 2 to 4 days post-partum. Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics were obtained through a standardised interview with the women. Medical characteristics were obtained from the women's medical records. Risk indicators associated with tooth decay were identified using a negative binomial hurdle model. 51.6% of the women had tooth decay. The mean number of decayed teeth among women having at least one was 3.1 (s.d. = 2.8). Having tooth decay was statistically associated with lower age (aOR = 1.58, 95%CI [1.03,2.45]), lower educational level (aOR = 1.53, 95%CI [1.06,2.23]) and dental plaque (aOR = 1.75, 95%CI [1.27,2.41]). The number of decayed teeth was associated with the same risk indicators and with non-French nationality and inadequate prenatal care. The frequency of tooth decay and the number of decayed teeth among pregnant women were high. Oral health promotion programmes must continue to inform women and care providers about the importance of dental care before, during and after pregnancy. Future research should also assess the effectiveness of public policies related to oral health in target populations of pregnant women facing challenging social or economic situations.

  12. A cross-sectional analysis of variation in charges and prices across California for percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee Y Hsia

    Full Text Available Though past studies have shown wide variation in aggregate hospital price indices and specific procedures, few have documented or explained such variation for distinct and common episodes of care.We sought to examine the variability in charges for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI with a drug-eluting stent and without major complications (MS-DRG-247, and determine whether hospital and market characteristics influenced these charges.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of adults admitted to California hospitals in 2011 for MS-DRG-247 using patient discharge data from the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. We used a two-part linear regression model to first estimate hospital-specific charges adjusted for patient characteristics, and then examine whether the between-hospital variation in those estimated charges was explained by hospital and market characteristics.Adjusted charges for the average California patient admitted for uncomplicated PCI ranged from $22,047 to $165,386 (median: $88,350 depending on which hospital the patient visited. Hospitals in areas with the highest cost of living, those in rural areas, and those with more Medicare patients had higher charges, while government-owned hospitals charged less. Overall, our model explained 43% of the variation in adjusted charges. Estimated discounted prices paid by private insurers ranged from $3,421 to $80,903 (median: $28,571.Charges and estimated discounted prices vary widely between hospitals for the average California patient undergoing PCI without major complications, a common and relatively homogeneous episode of care. Though observable hospital characteristics account for some of this variation, the majority remains unexplained.

  13. A cross sectional analysis of the role of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin in lung function impairment within the ALIVE cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison A Lambert

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency is associated with reduced lung function. Cathelicidin, an antimicrobial peptide regulated by vitamin D, plays a role within the innate immune system. The association of cathelicidin with lung function decrement and respiratory infection is undefined. We determined the independent relationship of cathelicidin with lung function.In a cross-sectional analysis of 650 participants in an urban observational cohort with high smoking prevalence, plasma 25(OH-vitamin D and cathelicidin levels were measured from stored samples obtained within 6 months of spirometry study visits. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the independent association between low cathelicidin (defined as the lowest quartile of the cohort and absolute forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1.The mean age of the cohort was 49 years; 91% were black, 35% female and 41% HIV-infected. Participants with low cathelicidin had a 183 mL lower FEV1 compared to higher cathelicidin (p = 0.009; this relationship was maintained (115 ml lower; p = 0.035 after adjusting for demographics, BMI, and smoking. Neither HIV serostatus, heavy smoking history, nor 25(OH-vitamin D levels were associated with cathelicidin levels. Participants with low cathelicidin had a greater prevalence of prior bacterial pneumonia (21% versus 14%; p = 0.047. Inclusion of pneumonia in adjusted models did not substantially reduce the FEV1 decrement observed with low cathelicidin (104 mL lower FEV1; p = 0.05. Lung function decrements associated with low cathelicidin were greatest among individuals with lower 25(OH-vitamin D levels.In a cohort at risk for airflow obstruction, low cathelicidin was independently associated with lower FEV1. These clinical data support a mechanistic link between 25(OH-vitamin D deficiency and lung function impairment, independent of pneumonia risk.

  14. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  15. Representation of Tinnitus in the US Newspaper Media and in Facebook Pages: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Secondary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Ratinaud, Pierre; Andersson, Gerhard

    2018-05-08

    When people with health conditions begin to manage their health issues, one important issue that emerges is the question as to what exactly do they do with the information that they have obtained through various sources (eg, news media, social media, health professionals, friends, and family). The information they gather helps form their opinions and, to some degree, influences their attitudes toward managing their condition. This study aimed to understand how tinnitus is represented in the US newspaper media and in Facebook pages (ie, social media) using text pattern analysis. This was a cross-sectional study based upon secondary analyses of publicly available data. The 2 datasets (ie, text corpuses) analyzed in this study were generated from US newspaper media during 1980-2017 (downloaded from the database US Major Dailies by ProQuest) and Facebook pages during 2010-2016. The text corpuses were analyzed using the Iramuteq software using cluster analysis and chi-square tests. The newspaper dataset had 432 articles. The cluster analysis resulted in 5 clusters, which were named as follows: (1) brain stimulation (26.2%), (2) symptoms (13.5%), (3) coping (19.8%), (4) social support (24.2%), and (5) treatment innovation (16.4%). A time series analysis of clusters indicated a change in the pattern of information presented in newspaper media during 1980-2017 (eg, more emphasis on cluster 5, focusing on treatment inventions). The Facebook dataset had 1569 texts. The cluster analysis resulted in 7 clusters, which were named as: (1) diagnosis (21.9%), (2) cause (4.1%), (3) research and development (13.6%), (4) social support (18.8%), (5) challenges (11.1%), (6) symptoms (21.4%), and (7) coping (9.2%). A time series analysis of clusters indicated no change in information presented in Facebook pages on tinnitus during 2011-2016. The study highlights the specific aspects about tinnitus that the US newspaper media and Facebook pages focus on, as well as how these aspects change

  16. Analysis of quality of life among asthmatic individuals with obesity and its relationship with pulmonary function: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Baltieri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The combined effect of obesity and asthma may lead to significant impairment of quality of life (QOL. The aim here was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma among obese individuals, characterize the severity of impairment of quality of life and measure its relationship with pulmonary function. DESIGN AND SETTING: Observational cross-sectional study in public university hospital. METHODS: Morbidly obese individuals (body mass index > 40 kg/m2 seen in a bariatric surgery outpatient clinic and diagnosed with asthma, were included. Anthropometric data were collected, the Standardized Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ(S was applied and spirometry was performed. The subjects were divided into two groups based on the median of the score in the questionnaire (worse < 4 and better > 4 and were compared regarding anthropometric data and pulmonary function. RESULTS: Among the 4791 individuals evaluated, 219 were asthmatic; the prevalence of asthma was 4.57%. Of these, 91 individuals were called to start multidisciplinary follow-up during the study period, of whom 82 answered the questionnaire. The median score in the AQLQ(S was 3.96 points and, thus, the individuals were classified as having moderate impairment of their overall QOL. When divided according to better or worse QOL, there was a statistically difference in forced expiratory flow (FEF 25-75%, with higher values in the better QOL group. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma was 4.57% and QOL was impaired among the asthmatic obese individuals. The worst QOL domain related to environmental stimuli and the best QOL domain to limitations of the activities. Worse QOL was correlated with poorer values for FEF 25-75%.

  17. Gender analysis of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia - cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenovic, B; Donev, D; Spasovski, M

    2009-07-01

    (Full text is available at http://www.manu.edu.mk/prilozi). The aim of the study was to assess the gender influence on the main determinants of sexual behaviour of senior high-school students in Skopje, R. Macedonia (prevalence and age of onset of sexual activity, duration of the relationship before and the contraceptive method used during the first sexual intercourse, and number of lifetime sexual partners). After ensuring privacy and confidentiality, a cross-sectional study was carried out in Skopje by enrolling 310 high-school students (49.7% males, 49% females, 1.3% unknown) from 5 randomly selected high-schools, from the 4th grade, using a 32-item paper-and-pencil self administered questionnaire. The prevalence of sexual activity was higher among boys than girls (when reaching grade 4 of the study 62.7% of the boys and 26.7% of the girls are sexually active) (p boys and 17 years for girls; concerning the duration of the relationship before the first sexual intercourse 33% of the boys and 2.5% of the girls had experienced one-night stand relationship (p boys and 5% of the girls (p boys and 15.5% of the girls did not start with sexual activity because they did not have a chance (p boys and 79.1% of the girls felt unprepared (p Boys and girls are vulnerable at different times in their development and hence need to be reached with different public health interventions for improving their sexual and reproductive health, adapted to local cultural and gender norms. Key words: Macedonia, high-school students, sexual behaviour, gender.

  18. A cross-sectional analysis of barriers to health-care seeking among medical students across training period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Very little information is available on how needs and perceptions to service utilization may change with duration of medical training. Our objective was to compare the self-reported barriers to health-care seeking for mental and physical health services separately between 1st year and final year medical students. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we invited all medical students of the concerned cohorts to complete a prevalidated checklist and 28-item self-reported questionnaire about perceived barriers to health-care seeking. The questionnaire had separate items pertaining to usage of mental and physical health-care services. Results: The response rate of the 1st year and final year cohorts were 83.8% and 86.6%, respectively. Lack of time, unawareness about where to seek help, cost issues, and fear of future academic jeopardy were more common concerns among 1st year students to the usage of mental health services (odds ratio [OR] 0.27, 0.45,0.09, and 0.49, respectively whereas issues of stigma were more commonly reported by final year students for using mental health services (OR = 2.87. In contrast, the barriers in using physical health services were broadly comparable between the two cohorts. Conclusion: Differences exist between medical students in various years of training particularly with regard to self-reported barriers and perceptions particularly about using mental health-care services. This may have key implications for designing and delivery of service provisions in this group.

  19. Analysis of sexual function of patients with dermatomyositis and polymyositis through self-administered questionnaires: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Henrique Carlos de Souza

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: To date, there are no descriptions in the literature on gynecologic and sexual function evaluation in female patients with dermatomyositis (DM and polymyositis (PM. Objective: To assess sexual function in female patients with DM/PM. Patients and methods: This is a monocentric, cross-sectional study in which 23 patients (16 DM and 7 PM, with ages between 18 and 40 years, were compared to 23 healthy women of the same age group. Characteristics on sexual function were obtained by applying the questionnaires Female Sexual Quotient (FSQ and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI validated for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Results: The mean age of patients was comparable to controls (32.7 ± 5.3 vs. 31.7 ± 6.7 years, as well as the distribution of ethnicity and socioeconomic class. As for gynecological characteristics, patients and healthy controls did not differ with respect to age at menarche and percentages of dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, premenstrual syndrome, pain at mid-cycle, mucocervical secretion, and vaginal discharge. The FSQ score, as well as all domains of the FSFI questionnaire (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm and satisfaction, were significantly decreased in patients vs. controls, with 60.9% of patients showing some degree of sexual dysfunction. Conclusions: This was the first study to identify sexual dysfunction in patients with DM/PM. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is essential for patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, in order to provide prevention and care for their sexual life, providing a better quality of life, both for patients and their partners.

  20. Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarette use in a southeast London adult sample: a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, Mohammed; Power, Gerald

    2016-06-01

    Waterpipe tobacco and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) share several features: rising popularity, use of product flavourings and concerns about marketing to youth. We sought to compare prevalence and predictors of waterpipe tobacco and e-cigarette use, and explore knowledge of waterpipe tobacco and support for interventions. We used convenience sampling methods to conduct a cross-sectional survey among adults in the ethnically diverse southeast London area. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of waterpipe and e-cigarette use. Predictor variables were age, gender, ethnicity and current (past 30-day) cigarette use. Of 1176 respondents (23.0% aged 25-34 years, 56.0% male, 57.4% white ethnicity and 30.4% current cigarette smokers), 31.0% had tried waterpipe tobacco and 7.4% had tried e-cigarettes. Both products were significantly associated with younger age groups, non-white ethnicities and use of each other. Waterpipe tobacco was independently associated with consumption of cigarettes while e-cigarettes were not. Among those aware of waterpipe, a third answered incorrectly to knowledge questions. Among those self-identified as coming from a traditional waterpipe-using community, two-thirds supported further legislative and health promotion waterpipe interventions. Waterpipe tobacco was common and more prevalent than e-cigarettes in this population. Interventions to prevent and control waterpipe are unlikely to marginalize traditional waterpipe-using communities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Job satisfaction and motivation of health workers in public and private sectors: cross-sectional analysis from two Indian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra Prasanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ensuring health worker job satisfaction and motivation are important if health workers are to be retained and effectively deliver health services in many developing countries, whether they work in the public or private sector. The objectives of the paper are to identify important aspects of health worker satisfaction and motivation in two Indian states working in public and private sectors. Methods Cross-sectional surveys of 1916 public and private sector health workers in Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh, India, were conducted using a standardized instrument to identify health workers' satisfaction with key work factors related to motivation. Ratings were compared with how important health workers consider these factors. Results There was high variability in the ratings for areas of satisfaction and motivation across the different practice settings, but there were also commonalities. Four groups of factors were identified, with those relating to job content and work environment viewed as the most important characteristics of the ideal job, and rated higher than a good income. In both states, public sector health workers rated "good employment benefits" as significantly more important than private sector workers, as well as a "superior who recognizes work". There were large differences in whether these factors were considered present on the job, particularly between public and private sector health workers in Uttar Pradesh, where the public sector fared consistently lower (P P Conclusion There are common areas of health worker motivation that should be considered by managers and policy makers, particularly the importance of non-financial motivators such as working environment and skill development opportunities. But managers also need to focus on the importance of locally assessing conditions and managing incentives to ensure health workers are motivated in their work.

  2. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2......A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list...... of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However...

  3. A boundary integral method for numerical computation of radar cross section of 3D targets using hybrid BEM/FEM with edge elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodig, H.

    2017-11-01

    This contribution presents the boundary integral formulation for numerical computation of time-harmonic radar cross section for 3D targets. Method relies on hybrid edge element BEM/FEM to compute near field edge element coefficients that are associated with near electric and magnetic fields at the boundary of the computational domain. Special boundary integral formulation is presented that computes radar cross section directly from these edge element coefficients. Consequently, there is no need for near-to-far field transformation (NTFFT) which is common step in RCS computations. By the end of the paper it is demonstrated that the formulation yields accurate results for canonical models such as spheres, cubes, cones and pyramids. Method has demonstrated accuracy even in the case of dielectrically coated PEC sphere at interior resonance frequency which is common problem for computational electromagnetic codes.

  4. Approximate method of calculation of non-equilibrium flow parameters of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channels with energy exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhin, M.A.; Fedosenko, G.Eh.; Shiryaeva, N.M.; Mal'ko, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that adiabatic non-equilibrium chemically reacting gas flow with energy exchange in a variable cross-section channel may be subdivided into five possible types: 1) quasi-equilibrium flow; 2) flow in the linear region of deviation from equilibrium state; 3) quasi-frozen flow; 4) flow in the linear region of deviation from frozen state; 5) non-equilibrium flow. Criteria of quasi-equilibrium and quazi-frozen flows, including factors of external action of chemically reacting gas on flow, allow to obtain simple but sufficiently reliable approximate method of calculation of flow parameters. The considered method for solving the problem of chemically reacting nitrogen tetroxide in the variable cross-section channel with energy exchange can be used for evaluation of chemical reaction kinetics on the flow parameter in the stages of axial-flow and radial-flow turbines and in another practical problems

  5. Application of a generalisation of the Kohn variational method to the calculation of cross sections for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, E.A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The phaseshift corresponding to the lowest partial wave and the associated approximation to the total cross section are calculated for low-energy positron-hydrogen-molecule scattering using a generalisation of the Kohn variational method. The trial wavefunction is expressed in terms of confocal elliptical coordinates. Except at incident positron energies below about 2 eV, reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained below the positronium formation threshold at 8.63 eV. (author)

  6. Radar cross section

    CERN Document Server

    Knott, Gene; Tuley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This is the second edition of the first and foremost book on this subject for self-study, training, and course work. Radar cross section (RCS) is a comparison of two radar signal strengths. One is the strength of the radar beam sweeping over a target, the other is the strength of the reflected echo sensed by the receiver. This book shows how the RCS ?gauge? can be predicted for theoretical objects and how it can be measured for real targets. Predicting RCS is not easy, even for simple objects like spheres or cylinders, but this book explains the two ?exact? forms of theory so well that even a

  7. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR=1.72, 95%CI=1.02-3.05), women's occupation (AOR=2.01, 95% CI=1.11-3.58), number of live children (AOR=2.42, 95% CI: 1.46-4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR=6.11, 95% CI: 2.29-16.30), having radio/TV (AOR=2.31, 95% CI: 1.40-3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR=13.72, 95% CI: 8.37-22.47). Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples.

  8. Cynical hostility, socioeconomic position, health behaviors, and symptom load: a cross-sectional analysis in a Danish population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...

  9. Recommended evaluation procedure for photonuclear cross section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Ouk; Chang, Jonghwa; Fukahori, Tokio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In order to generate photonuclear cross section library for the necessary applications, data evaluation is combined with theoretical evaluation, since photonuclear cross sections measured cannot provide all necessary data. This report recommends a procedure consisting of four steps: (1) analysis of experimental data, (2) data evaluation, (3) theoretical evaluation and, if necessary, (4) modification of results. In the stage of analysis, data obtained by different measurements are reprocessed through the analysis of their discrepancies to a representative data set. In the data evaluation, photonuclear absorption cross sections are evaluated via giant dipole resonance and quasi-deutron mechanism. With photoabsorption cross sections from the data evaluation, theoretical evaluation is applied to determine various decay channel cross sections and emission spectra using equilibrium and preequilibrium mechanism. After this, the calculated results are compared with measured data, and in some cases the results are modified to better describe measurements. (author)

  10. Shifting tides in the emigration patterns of Canadian physicians to the United States: a cross-sectional secondary data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Thomas R; Petterson, Stephen; Finnegan, Sean; Bazemore, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources. This analysis was undertaken to re-examine the issue of Canadian physician migration to the US. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the 2015 American Medical Association (AMA) Masterfile to identify and locate any graduates of Canadian schools of medicine (CMGs) working in the United States in direct patient care. We reviewed annual reports of the Canadian Resident Matching Service (CaRMS); the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry (CAPER); and the Canadian Collaborative Centre for Physician Resources (C3PR). Beginning in the early 1990s the number of CMGs locating in the U.S. reached an all-time high and then abruptly dropped off in 1995. CMGs are going to the US for post-graduate training in smaller numbers and, are less likely to remain than at any time since the 1970's. This four decade retrospective found considerable variation in the migration pattern of CMGs to the US. CMGs' decision to emigrate to the U.S. may be influenced by both 'push' and 'pull' factors. The relative strength of these factors changed and by 2004, more CMGs were returning from abroad than were leaving and the current outflow is negligible. This study supports the need for medical human resource planning to assume a long-term view taking into account national and international trends to avoid the rapid changes that were observed. These results are of importance to medical

  11. The Influence of Various Factors on High School Football Helmet Face Mask Removal: A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Erik E; Decoster, Laura C; Norkus, Susan A; Cappaert, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    Context: Most research on face mask removal has been performed on unused equipment. Objective: To identify and compare factors that influence the condition of helmet components and their relationship to face mask removal. Design: A cross-sectional, retrospective study. Setting: Five athletic equipment reconditioning/recertification facilities. Participants: 2584 helmets from 46 high school football teams representing 5 geographic regions. Intervention(s): Helmet characteristics (brand, model, hardware components) were recorded. Helmets were mounted and face mask removal was attempted using a cordless screwdriver. The 2004 season profiles and weather histories were obtained for each high school. Main Outcome Measure(s): Success and failure (including reason) for removal of 4 screws from the face mask were noted. Failure rates among regions, teams, reconditioning year, and screw color (type) were compared. Weather histories were compared. We conducted a discriminant analysis to determine if weather variables, region, helmet brand and model, reconditioning year, and screw color could predict successful face mask removal. Metallurgic analysis of screw samples was performed. Results: All screws were successfully removed from 2165 (84%) helmets. At least 1 screw could not be removed from 419 (16%) helmets. Significant differences were found for mean screw failure per helmet among the 5 regions, with the Midwest having the lowest failure rate (0.08 ± 0.38) and the Southern (0.33 ± 0.72), the highest. Differences were found in screw failure rates among the 46 teams (F1,45 = 9.4, P < .01). Helmets with the longest interval since last reconditioning (3 years) had the highest failure rate, 0.47 ± 0.93. Differences in success rates were found among 4 screw types (χ21,4 = 647, P < .01), with silver screws having the lowest percentage of failures (3.4%). A discriminant analysis (Λ = .932, χ214,n=2584 = 175.34, P < .001) revealed screw type to be the strongest predictor of

  12. Urban sprawl, obesity, and cancer mortality in the United States: cross-sectional analysis and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrigan, David; Tatalovich, Zaria; Pickle, Linda W; Ewing, Reid; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2014-01-06

    Urban sprawl has the potential to influence cancer mortality via direct and indirect effects on obesity, access to health services, physical activity, transportation choices and other correlates of sprawl and urbanization. This paper presents a cross-sectional analysis of associations between urban sprawl and cancer mortality in urban and suburban counties of the United States. This ecological analysis was designed to examine whether urban sprawl is associated with total and obesity-related cancer mortality and to what extent these associations differed in different regions of the US. A major focus of our analyses was to adequately account for spatial heterogeneity in mortality. Therefore, we fit a series of regression models, stratified by gender, successively testing for the presence of spatial heterogeneity. Our resulting models included county level variables related to race, smoking, obesity, access to health services, insurance status, socioeconomic position, and broad geographic region as well as a measure of urban sprawl and several interactions. Our most complex models also included random effects to account for any county-level spatial autocorrelation that remained unexplained by these variables. Total cancer mortality rates were higher in less sprawling areas and contrary to our initial hypothesis; this was also true of obesity related cancers in six of seven U.S. regions (census divisions) where there were statistically significant associations between the sprawl index and mortality. We also found significant interactions (p urban sprawl for total and obesity related cancer mortality in both sexes. Thus, the association between urban sprawl and cancer mortality differs in different regions of the US. Despite higher levels of obesity in more sprawling counties in the US, mortality from obesity related cancer was not greater in such counties. Identification of disparities in cancer mortality within and between geographic regions is an ongoing public

  13. Analysis of a Novel Transverse Flux Machine with a Tubular Cross-section for Free Piston Energy Converter Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosic, Alija

    2010-07-01

    Constantly growing need for oil, all over the world, has caused oil price to rise rapidly during the last decade. High oil prices have made fuel economy as one of the most important factors when consumers are buying their cars today. Realizing this, many car manufacturers have developed or are looking for some alternative solutions in order to decrease fuel consumption. Combining two different technologies in a vehicle, the so called hybrid vehicle, can be seen as the first step toward a better and more sustainable development.There are several different solutions for hybrid vehicles today, among the best known are the Serie Electric Hybrid Vehicle (SEHV), the Parallel Electric Hybrid Vehicle (PEHV) and the Serie-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (SPEHV). By integrating a combustion engine with a linear electric machine into one unit, a system that is called Free Piston Energy Converter (FPEC) is achieved. The FPEC is suitable for use in a SEHV. Other application areas like stand alone generator are also possible. In this report a novel Transverse Flux Machine (TFM) with a tubular cross section of the translator has been investigated. Application of the machine in a FPEC has put tough requirement on the translator weight, specific power and force density. Different configurations of the winding arrangements as well as the magnet arrangement have been investigated. It has been concluded that the buried magnet design suffers from high leakage flux and is thus not a suitable TFM concept. Instead the surface mounted magnet design has been chosen for further investigation. An analytical model has been developed and a prototype machine has been built based on the analytical results. In order to have a better understanding of the machine characteristic a 3D-FEM analysis has been performed. The results from the analytical model, FEM model and measurements are analyzed and compared. The comparison between the measured and FEM-simulated results shows very good agreement

  14. Comparison the diagnostic value of serological and molecular methods for screening and detecting Chlamydia trachomatis in semen of infertile men: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Khoshakhlagh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (CT with damaging effects on sperm quality parameters can often cause infertility in men. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic value of polymerase chain reaction (PCR and enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA for screening and detecting CT in semen samples of infertile men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 465 men referring to the clinical laboratory of Royan Institute were chosen for primary screening and detection of the presence of CT. 93 samples were normozoospermia with normal sperm parameters i.e. sperm number, motility and morphology (Asymptomatic and 372 had abnormal sperm parameters (Symptomatic in semen analysis. ELISA test was performed as the screening test. Samples with optical density (OD >0.200 were selected as the case and asymptomatic samples with OD 0.400 as the ELISA positive, the diagnostic value of CT-ELISA positive in symptomatic and asymptomatic infertile patients were 0.019 (7 of 372 and 0.021 (2 of 93, respectively. There was no relationship between the presence of CT infection and different sperm abnormalities. Conclusion: The anti-CT IgA ELISA test may be introduced as an appropriate tool for screening purpose in the seminal plasma to select suspicious samples for PCR confirmatory tests.

  15. Experimental Measurement of the Ratio of the Reaction Cross Section (n,2n) for the Natural Mixtures of Lead and Iron Isotopes with 14 MeV Neutrons by the Method of Moderated Neutron-Neutron Coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleev, Ts.Ts.; Penchev, O.I.; Trifonov, A.I.; Troshev, T.M.; Christov, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron data are widely applied in nuclei physics and into practice as well. Data obtained by means of different measurement methods are of interest for increasing the accuracy and reliability of the recommended values for the cross sections of neutron interactions, with substance. The activation analysis method gives a possibility to obtain data about cross section interactions of 14 MeV neutrons with the nuclei σ (n,2n), σ( n,p), σ (n,pn), σ (n,α), etc. A serious shortcoming of this measuring method is the necessity of applying express methods of analysis of induced activities - restrictions connected with the life-times of the reaction products. It is also necessary to comply with the requirements for high accuracy in the data about the decay schemes and the absolute intensities of the γ-transitions in the investigated nuclei. The investigations directly measuring the output of the reaction, products from the targets, placed into the neutron beam, do not possess the shortcomings of the activation method but require serious demands toward the detecting apparatuses (ionization chambers, semiconducting and scintillation detectors, proportional counters, etc.). These demands are connected with the heavy background conditions of work at the beams for measurements of whatever partial cross sections. During the experimental measurements of the reactions by neutron emission for registration, it is necessary to slow them down to thermal energies, since only in this energy interval there exist sufficiently effective without threshold detectors. We have elaborated the experimental set-up allowing to measure the neutron multiplicity in an interaction. In the present work we have also used it for a relative measurement the the reaction cross section σ (n,2n) for Pe and Pb nuclei in their natural isotope mixtures. As it is known, this reaction has an important application for the blanket materials of thermonuclear reactors and for tritium fuel regeneration problem. The

  16. Cross-Sectional Analysis of Late HAART Initiation in Latin America and the Caribbean: Late Testers and Late Presenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree-Ramírez, Brenda; Caro-Vega, Yanink; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Wehbe, Firas; Cesar, Carina; Cortés, Claudia; Padgett, Denis; Koenig, Serena; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Cahn, Pedro; McGowan, Catherine; Masys, Daniel; Sierra-Madero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    Background Starting HAART in a very advanced stage of disease is assumed to be the most prevalent form of initiation in HIV-infected subjects in developing countries. Data from Latin America and the Caribbean is still lacking. Our main objective was to determine the frequency, risk factors and trends in time for being late HAART initiator (LHI) in this region. Methodology Cross-sectional analysis from 9817 HIV-infected treatment-naïve patients initiating HAART at 6 sites (Argentina, Chile, Haiti, Honduras, Peru and Mexico) from October 1999 to July 2010. LHI had CD4+ count ≤200cells/mm3 prior to HAART. Late testers (LT) were those LHI who initiated HAART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Late presenters (LP) initiated after 6 months of diagnosis. Prevalence, risk factors and trends over time were analyzed. Principal Findings Among subjects starting HAART (n = 9817) who had baseline CD4+ available (n = 8515), 76% were LHI: Argentina (56%[95%CI:52–59]), Chile (80%[95%CI:77–82]), Haiti (76%[95%CI:74–77]), Honduras (91%[95%CI:87–94]), Mexico (79%[95%CI:75–83]), Peru (86%[95%CI:84–88]). The proportion of LHI statistically changed over time (except in Honduras) (p≤0.02; Honduras p = 0.7), with a tendency towards lower rates in recent years. Males had increased risk of LHI in Chile, Haiti, Peru, and in the combined site analyses (CSA). Older patients were more likely LHI in Argentina and Peru (OR 1.21 per +10-year of age, 95%CI:1.02–1.45; OR 1.20, 95%CI:1.02–1.43; respectively), but not in CSA (OR 1.07, 95%CI:0.94–1.21). Higher education was associated with decreased risk for LHI in Chile (OR 0.92 per +1-year of education, 95%CI:0.87–0.98) (similar trends in Mexico, Peru, and CSA). LHI with date of HIV-diagnosis available, 55% were LT and 45% LP. Conclusion LHI was highly prevalent in CCASAnet sites, mostly due to LT; the main risk factors associated were being male and older age. Earlier HIV-diagnosis and earlier treatment initiation

  17. Gender Roles and Physical Function in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Ahmed

    Full Text Available To examine the relationships between physical function and gender-stereotyped traits and whether these relationships are modified by sex or social context.A total of 1995 community-dwelling older adults from the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS aged 65 to 74 years were recruited in Natal (Brazil, Manizales (Colombia, Tirana (Albania, Kingston (Ontario, Canada, and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec, Canada. We performed a cross-sectional analysis. Study outcomes were mobility disability, defined as having difficulty in walking 400 meters without assistance or climbing a flight of stairs without resting, and low physical performance, defined as a score < 8 on the Short Physical Performance Battery. The 12-item Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI was used to classify participants into four gender roles (Masculine, Feminine, Androgynous, and Undifferentiated using site-specific medians of femininity and masculinity as cut-off points. Poisson regression models were used to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR of mobility disability and poor physical performance according to gender roles.In models adjusted for sex, marital status, education, income, and research site, when comparing to the androgynous role, we found higher prevalence of mobility disability and poor physical performance among participants endorsing the feminine role (PRR = 1.20, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-1.39 and PRR = 1.37, CI 1.01-1.88, respectively or the undifferentiated role (PRR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.07-1.42 and PRR = 1.58, CI 1.18-2.12, respectively. Participants classified as masculine did not differ from androgynous participants in prevalence rates of mobility disability or low physical performance. None of the multiplicative interactions by sex and research site were significant.Feminine and undifferentiated gender roles are independent risk factors for mobility disability and low physical performance in older adults. Longitudinal research is needed to assess the mediation

  18. Comorbidities in adults with asthma: Population-based cross-sectional analysis of 1.4 million adults in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherburn, C J; Guthrie, B; Mercer, S W; Morales, D R

    2017-10-01

    Comorbidity in people with asthma can significantly increase asthma morbidity and lower adherence to asthma guidelines. The objective of this study was to comprehensively measure the prevalence of physical and mental health comorbidities in adults with asthma using a large nationally representative population. Cross-sectional analysis of routine primary care electronic medical records for 1 424 378 adults in the UK, examining the prevalence of 39 comorbidities in people with and without asthma, before and after adjustment for age, sex, social deprivation and smoking status using logistic regression. Of 39 comorbidities measured, 36 (92%) were significantly more common in adults with asthma; 62.6% of adults with asthma had ≥1 comorbidity vs 46.2% of those without, and 16.3% had ≥4 comorbidities vs 8.7% of those without. Comorbidities with the largest absolute increase in prevalence in adults with asthma were as follows: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (13.4% vs 3.1%), depression (17.3% vs 9.1%), painful conditions (15.4% vs 8.4%) and dyspepsia (10.9% vs 5.2%). Comorbidities with the largest relative difference in adults with asthma compared to those without were as follows: COPD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 5.65, 95% CI 5.52-5.79), bronchiectasis (aOR 4.65, 95% CI 4.26-5.08), eczema/psoriasis (aOR 3.30, 95% CI 3.14-3.48), dyspepsia (aOR 2.20, 95% CI 2.15-2.25) and chronic sinusitis (aOR 2.12, 95% CI 1.99-2.26). Depression and anxiety were more common in adults with asthma (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1.57-1.63, and aOR 1.53, 95% CI 1.48-1.57, respectively). Physical and mental health comorbidities are the norm in adults with asthma. Appropriate recognition and management should form part of routine asthma care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parenting stress, anxiety, and depression in mothers with visually impaired infants: a cross-sectional and longitudinal cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkalou, Elena; Sakki, Hanna; O'reilly, Michelle A; Salt, Alison T; Dale, Naomi J

    2018-03-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal patterns of parenting stress, adult anxiety, and depression in mothers of children with profound or severe visual impairment (PVI or SVI) at 1 year and 2 years of age. Mothers of a national longitudinal cohort (OPTIMUM Project) of infants with congenital disorders of the peripheral visual system and PVI (light perception at best) or SVI (basic 'form' vision of non-light reflecting objects) participated. Infant age at baseline (T 1 ) was 8 to 16 months. Mothers completed the Parenting Stress Index - Short Form and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at T 1 (n=79) and at follow-up 12 months later (T 2 ) (n=73). Mothers of the total group had higher parenting stress levels (34.6% in clinical range) than community normative data at T 1 (p=0.017). Mothers of infants in the PVI subgroup had elevated stress at T 1 (p=0.014) and T 2 (p=0.009). The PVI subgroup was also elevated in the Difficult Child subscale at T 2 (p=0.001). Within-sample differences in parenting stress between the visual impairment subgroups were found at T 2 only: the PVI subgroup scored higher than the SVI subgroup (p=0.029). Adult anxiety and depression in the total group were not elevated compared with community normative data at T 1 and T 2 ; however, higher parenting stress was related to raised adult anxiety and depression levels at T 1 and T 2 (p=0.001). Regression analysis found parenting stress and lower child vision level (T 1 ) predicted parenting stress (T 2 ) (p=0.001; 42% variance). Mothers of 1-year-old infants with visual impairment showed raised risk for parenting stress, which continued to be elevated for children with PVI and those perceived as 'difficult' at 2 years. This was also a psychological risk, with greater adult anxiety and depression in those mothers with raised parenting stress. The clinical significance is that identification of parenting stress and targeted parenting, and behavioural support of the child in

  20. Activation cross section data file, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Nobuhiro; Iijima, Shungo.

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate the radioisotope productions due to the neutron irradiation in fission of fusion reactors, the data for the activation cross sections ought to be provided. It is planning to file more than 2000 activation cross sections at final. In the current year, the neutron cross sections for 14 elements from Ni to W have been calculated and evaluated in the energy range 10 -5 to 20 MeV. The calculations with a simplified-input nuclear cross section calculation system SINCROS were described, and another method of evaluation which is consistent with the JENDL-3 were also mentioned. The results of cross section calculation are in good agreement with experimental data and they were stored in the file 8, 9 and 10 of ENDF/B format. (author)

  1. Risk of psychological ill health and methods of organisational downsizing: a cross-sectional survey in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Elena; Brenner, M Harvey; Theorell, Töres; Goldberg, Marcel

    2017-09-29

    The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can make a substantial difference as to whether the exposed workers will suffer from psychological ill health. Surprisingly, little research has directly investigated this issue. We examined the likelihood of psychological ill health associated with strategic and reactive downsizing. A cross-sectional survey included 1456 respondents from France, Sweden, Hungary and the United Kingdom: 681 employees in stable workplaces (reference group) and 775 workers from downsized companies. Reactive downsizing was exemplified by the exposures to compulsory redundancies of medium to large scale resulting in job loss or surviving a layoff while staying employed in downsized organizations. The workforce exposed to strategic downsizing was represented by surplus employees who were internally redeployed and supported through their career change process within a policy context of "no compulsory redundancy". Symptoms of anxiety, depression and emotional exhaustion were assessed in telephone interviews with brief subscales from Hospital Anxiety Scale (HADS-A), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-CD 6 ) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS). Data were analyzed using logistic regression. We observed no increased risk of psychological ill health in the case of strategic downsizing. The number of significant associations with psychological ill health was the largest for the large-scale reactive downsizing: surviving a layoff was consistently associated with all three outcome measures; returning to work after the job loss experience was related to anxiety and depression, while persons still unemployed at interview had elevated odds of anxiety. After reactive medium-scale downsizing, unemployment at interview was the only exposure associated with anxiety and depression. The manner in which organizational downsizing is implemented can be important for the psychological wellbeing of workers. If downsizing is unavoidable, it should be

  2. Comparison of fatigue accumulated during and after prolonged robotic and laparoscopic surgical methods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Manuel; González-Poveda, Ivan; Mera-Velasco, Santiago; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the fatigue experienced by surgeons during and after performing robotic and laparoscopic surgery and to analyse muscle function, self-perceived fatigue and postural balance. Cross-sectional study considering two surgical protocols (laparoscopic and robotic) with two different roles (chief and assistant surgeon). Fatigue was recorded in two ways: pre- and post-surgery using questionnaires [Profile of Mood States (POMS), Quick Questionnaire Piper Fatigue Scale and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS)-related fatigue] and parametrising functional tests [handgrip and single-leg balance test (SLBT)] and during the intervention by measuring the muscle activation of eight different muscles via surface electromyography and kinematic measurement (using inertial sensors). Each surgery profile intervention (robotic/laparoscopy-chief/assistant surgeon) was measured three times, totalling 12 measured surgery interventions. The minimal duration of surgery was 180 min. Pre- and post-surgery, all questionnaires showed that the magnitude of change was higher for the chief surgeon compared with the assistant surgeon, with differences of between 10 % POMS and 16.25 % VAS (robotic protocol) and between 3.1 % POMS and 12.5 % VAS (laparoscopic protocol). In the inter-profile comparison, the chief surgeon (robotic protocol) showed a lower balance capacity during the SLBT after surgery. During the intervention, the kinematic variables showed significant differences between the chief and assistant surgeon in the robotic protocol, but not in the laparoscopic protocol. Regarding muscle activation, there was not enough muscle activity to generate fatigue. Prolonged surgery increased fatigue in the surgeon; however, the magnitude of fatigue differed between surgical profiles. The surgeon who experienced the greatest fatigue was the chief surgeon in the robotic protocol.

  3. Wind Turbine Radar Cross Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Jenn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The radar cross section (RCS of a wind turbine is a figure of merit for assessing its effect on the performance of electronic systems. In this paper, the fundamental equations for estimating the wind turbine clutter signal in radar and communication systems are presented. Methods of RCS prediction are summarized, citing their advantages and disadvantages. Bistatic and monostatic RCS patterns for two wind turbine configurations, a horizontal axis three-blade design and a vertical axis helical design, are shown. The unique electromagnetic scattering features, the effect of materials, and methods of mitigating wind turbine clutter are also discussed.

  4. Empirical continuation of the differential cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely, I.

    1978-12-01

    The theoretical basis as well as the practical methods of empirical continuation of the differential cross section into the nonphysical region of the cos theta variable are discussed. The equivalence of the different methods is proved. A physical applicability condition is given and the published applications are reviewed. In many cases the correctly applied procedure turns out to provide nonsignificant or even incorrect structure information which points to the necessity for careful and statistically complete analysis of the experimental data with a physical understanding of the analysed process. (author)

  5. Measurement and QCD analysis of double-differential inclusive jet cross sections in pp collisions at √s=8 TeV and cross section ratios to 2.76 and 7 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A.M.; Tumasyan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Adam, W. [Institut für Hochenergiephysik der OeAW, Wien (Austria); Collaboration: The CMS collaboration; and others

    2017-03-29

    A measurement of the double-differential inclusive jet cross section as a function of the jet transverse momentum p{sub T} and the absolute jet rapidity |y| is presented. Data from LHC proton-proton collisions at √s=8 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb{sup −1}, have been collected with the CMS detector. Jets are reconstructed using the anti-k{sub T} clustering algorithm with a size parameter of 0.7 in a phase space region covering jet p{sub T} from 74 GeV up to 2.5 TeV and jet absolute rapidity up to |y|=3.0. The low-p{sub T} jet range between 21 and 74 GeV is also studied up to |y|=4.7, using a dedicated data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 pb{sup −1}. The measured jet cross section is corrected for detector effects and compared with the predictions from perturbative QCD at next-to-leading order (NLO) using various sets of parton distribution functions (PDF). Cross section ratios to the corresponding measurements performed at 2.76 and 7 TeV are presented. From the measured double-differential jet cross section, the value of the strong coupling constant evaluated at the Z mass is α{sub S}(M{sub Z})=0.1164{sub −0.0043}{sup +0.0060}, where the errors include the PDF, scale, nonperturbative effects and experimental uncertainties, using the CT10 NLO PDFs. Improved constraints on PDFs based on the inclusive jet cross section measurement are presented.

  6. Standard cross-section data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The accuracy of neutron cross-section measurement is limited by the uncertainty in the standard cross-section and the errors associated with using it. Any improvement in the standard immediately improves all cross-section measurements which have been made relative to that standard. Light element, capture and fission standards are discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Statistical methods and errors in family medicine articles between 2010 and 2014-Suez Canal University, Egypt: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour-Eldein, Hebatallah

    2016-01-01

    With limited statistical knowledge of most physicians it is not uncommon to find statistical errors in research articles. To determine the statistical methods and to assess the statistical errors in family medicine (FM) research articles that were published between 2010 and 2014. This was a cross-sectional study. All 66 FM research articles that were published over 5 years by FM authors with affiliation to Suez Canal University were screened by the researcher between May and August 2015. Types and frequencies of statistical methods were reviewed in all 66 FM articles. All 60 articles with identified inferential statistics were examined for statistical errors and deficiencies. A comprehensive 58-item checklist based on statistical guidelines was used to evaluate the statistical quality of FM articles. Inferential methods were recorded in 62/66 (93.9%) of FM articles. Advanced analyses were used in 29/66 (43.9%). Contingency tables 38/66 (57.6%), regression (logistic, linear) 26/66 (39.4%), and t-test 17/66 (25.8%) were the most commonly used inferential tests. Within 60 FM articles with identified inferential statistics, no prior sample size 19/60 (31.7%), application of wrong statistical tests 17/60 (28.3%), incomplete documentation of statistics 59/60 (98.3%), reporting P value without test statistics 32/60 (53.3%), no reporting confidence interval with effect size measures 12/60 (20.0%), use of mean (standard deviation) to describe ordinal/nonnormal data 8/60 (13.3%), and errors related to interpretation were mainly for conclusions without support by the study data 5/60 (8.3%). Inferential statistics were used in the majority of FM articles. Data analysis and reporting statistics are areas for improvement in FM research articles.

  8. Mechanical design and analysis of the 2D cross-section of the SSC collider dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Kerby, J.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the two dimensional cross-section of the base-line collider dipole magnet for the Superconducting Super Collider. The components described here are the collar laminations, the tapered keys that lock the upper and lower collars, the yoke laminations, the cold mass shell. We describe in detail the shape of the outer surface of the collars which defines the yoke-collar interface, and the shape of the collar interior, which defines the conductor placement. Other features of the collar and yoke will be described in somewhat less detail. 20 refs., 12 figs. , 6 tabs

  9. Out-of-pocket Cost Burden in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Cross-sectional Cohort Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Aaron T; Damman, Jennifer L; Ziring, David A; Gleghorn, Elizabeth E; Garcia-Careaga, Manuel G; Gugig, Roberto R; Hunter, Anna K; Burgis, Jennifer C; Bass, Dorsey M; Park, K T

    2015-06-01

    Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), consisting of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), can result in significant morbidity requiring frequent health care utilization. Although it is known that the overall financial impact of pediatric IBD is significant, the direct out-of-pocket (OOP) cost burden on the parents of children with IBD has not been explored. We hypothesized that affected children with a more relapsing disease course and families in lower income strata, ineligible for need-based assistance programs, disparately absorb ongoing financial stress. We completed a cross-sectional analysis among parents of children with IBD residing in California using an online HIPAA-secure Qualtrics survey. Multicenter recruitment occurred between December 4, 2013 and September 18, 2014 at the point-of-care from site investigators, informational flyers distributed at regional CCFA conferences, and social media campaigns equally targeting Northern, Central, and Southern California. IBD-, patient-, and family-specific information were collected from the parents of pediatric patients with IBD patients younger than 18 years of age at time of study, carry a confirmed diagnosis of CD or UC, reside in and receive pediatric gastroenterology care in California, and do not have other chronic diseases requiring ongoing medical care. We collected 150 unique surveys from parents of children with IBD (67 CD; 83 UC). The median patient age was 14 years for both CD and UC, with an overall 3.7 years (SD 2.8 yr) difference between survey completion and time of IBD diagnosis. Annually, 63.6%, 28.6%, and 5.3% of families had an OOP cost burden >$500, >$1000, and >5000, respectively. Approximately one-third (36.0%) of patients had emergency department (ED) visits over the past year, with 59.2% of these patients spending >$500 on emergency department copays, including 11.1% who spent >$5000. Although 43.3% contributed $2000 in the past year. Families with household income

  10. Measurement of the nitrogen total cross section from 0.5 eV to 50 MeV, and analysis of the 433-keV resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Larson, N.M.; Larson, D.C.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution neutron transmission measurements have been made on several thicknesses of nitrogen gas samples from 0.5 eV to 50 MeV at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). A preliminary R-matrix analysis has been done for resonances up to 800 keV. An R-matrix analysis of previous data was done by LANL and ENDF/B-VI, including the lowest energy resonance in 14 N at 433 keV. They found a spin of 3/2 (with ell = 1) and a peak cross section of 7.0 b. Analysis of the present data yield a spin of 7/2 (requiring ell ≥ 2) and a peak cross section of 11.5 b for this resonance. These results are important for transport calculations of neutrons through air. Scattering measurements are planned to determine the parity of this resonance. 6 refs., 2 figs

  11. A cross-sectional study on prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in India: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Prabu; Pattabi, Kamaraj; Vadivoo, Selvaraj; Bhome, Arvind; Brashier, Bill; Bhattacharya, Prashanta; Mehendale, Sanjay M

    2017-05-29

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common preventable and treatable chronic respiratory disease, which affects 210 million people globally. Global and national guidelines exist for the management of COPD. Although evidence-based, they are inadequate to address the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity in India. Co-existence of other chronic respiratory diseases can adversely influence the prognosis of COPD.India has a huge burden of COPD with various risk factors and comorbid conditions. However, valid prevalence estimates employing spirometry as the diagnostic tool and data on important comorbid conditions are not available. This study protocol is designed to address this knowledge gap and eventually to build a database to undertake long-term cohort studies to describe the phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity among COPD patients in India. The primary objective is to estimate the prevalence of COPD among adults aged ≥25 years for each gender in India. The secondary objective is to identify the risk factors for COPD and important comorbid conditions such as asthma and post-tuberculosis sequelae. It is also proposed to validate the currently available definitions for COPD diagnosis in India. A cross-sectional study will be undertaken among the populations of sub-urban areas of Chennai and Shillong cities, which represent the Southern and Northeastern regions of India. We will collect data on sociodemographic variables, economic characteristics, risk factors of COPD and comorbidities. The Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) and Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) definitions will be used for the diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Data will be analysed for estimation of the prevalence of COPD, asthma and associated factors. This study proposal was approved by the respective institutional ethics committees of participating institutions. The results will be disseminated through publications in the peer-reviewed journals and a report

  12. RootAnalyzer: A Cross-Section Image Analysis Tool for Automated Characterization of Root Cells and Tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Chopin

    Full Text Available The morphology of plant root anatomical features is a key factor in effective water and nutrient uptake. Existing techniques for phenotyping root anatomical traits are often based on manual or semi-automatic segmentation and annotation of microscopic images of root cross sections. In this article, we propose a fully automated tool, hereinafter referred to as RootAnalyzer, for efficiently extracting and analyzing anatomical traits from root-cross section images. Using a range of image processing techniques such as local thresholding and nearest neighbor identification, RootAnalyzer segments the plant root from the image's background, classifies and characterizes the cortex, stele, endodermis and epidermis, and subsequently produces statistics about the morphological properties of the root cells and tissues. We use RootAnalyzer to analyze 15 images of wheat plants and one maize plant image and evaluate its performance against manually-obtained ground truth data. The comparison shows that RootAnalyzer can fully characterize most root tissue regions with over 90% accuracy.

  13. Analysis of Proton Induced Material Damage Using the DPA Cross-sections Based on NRT and BCA-MD Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-O; Roh, Gyuhong; Lee, Byungchul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The level of radiation induced material damage is mainly quantified by using the unit of Displacements Per Atom (DPA), and particularly, the displacement cross-section is used for characterizing/analyzing the radiation damage from incident neutrons and charged particles. Not long ago, the standard Norgett-Robinson-Torrens (NRT) model had been applied to produce the nuclear data due to its simplicity and implementation in commonly used codes, such as NJOY and MCNP codes. However, the evaluations based on NRT model represent the severe disagreement with experimental data and more accurate calculations. Hence, the evaluations with existing and new nuclear data are performed/compared in this study. It is assumed that a high energy proton beam is directly moved to the target, and a series of calculations are performed by using MCNPX code. The proton induced material damage is evaluated by using the displacement cross-sections, and the effect of nuclear data on the evaluation is specifically analyzed with MCNPX code. First, there is significant difference between the nuclear data from existing and new models, and the new evaluated data is generally lower than the existing one. Second, the position of maximum DPA is slightly differed with the position of maximum energy deposition, and the evaluation using new evaluated data is lower about 2 times than the other.

  14. Combination of Measurements of Inclusive Deep Inelastic $e^{\\pm}p$ Scattering Cross Sections and QCD Analysis of HERA Data

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Adamczyk, L.; Adamus, M.; Andreev, V.; Antonelli, S.; Antunovic, B.; Aushev, V.; Aushev, Y.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Begzsuren, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt Dubak, A.; Behrens, U.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Bertolin, A.; Bloch, I.; Boos, E.G.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Brock, I.; Brook, N.H.; Brugnera, R.; Bruni, A.; Buniatyan, A.; Bussey, P.J.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Caldwell, A.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Capua, M.; Catterall, C.D.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Chwastowski, J.; Ciborowski, J.; Ciesielski, R.; Contreras, J.G.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Dementiev, R.K.; Devenish, R.C.E.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dolinska, G.; Dusini, S.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Figiel, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Foster, B.; Gabathuler, E.; Gach, G.; Gallo, E.; Garfagnini, A.; Gayler, J.; Geiser, A.; Ghazaryan, S.; Gizhko, A.; Gladilin, L.K.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Golubkov, Yu. A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Grebenyuk, J.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregor, I.; Grindhammer, G.; Grzelak, G.; Gueta, O.; Guzik, M.; Gwenlan, C.; Haidt, D.; Hain, W.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henkenjohann, P.; Hladky, J.; Hochman, D.; Hoffmann, D.; Hori, R.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Ibrahim, Z.A.; Iga, Y.; Ishitsuka, M.; Iudin, A.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Januschek, F.; Jomhari, N.Z.; Jung, H.; Kadenko, I.; Kananov, S.; Kapichine, M.; Karshon, U.; Kaur, M.; Kaur, P.; Kiesling, C.; Kisielewska, D.; Klanner, R.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kondrashova, N.; Kononenko, O.; Korol, Ie.; Korzhavina, I.A.; Kostka, P.; Kotanski, A.; Kotz, U.; Kovalchuk, N.; Kowalski, H.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Krupa, B.; Kuprash, O.; Kuze, M.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levchenko, B.B.; Levonian, S.; Levy, A.; Libov, V.; Limentani, S.; Lipka, K.; Lisovyi, M.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lohr, B.; Lohrmann, E.; Longhin, A.; Lontkovskyi, D.; Lukina, O.Yu.; Makarenko, I.; Malinovski, E.; Malka, J.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Mergelmeyer, S.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Idris, F.Mohamad; Morozov, A.; Nasir, N.Muhammad; Muller, K.; Myronenko, V.; Nagano, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nobe, T.; Notz, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, R.J.; Olsson, J.E.; Onishchuk, Yu.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Paul, E.; Perez, E.; Perlanski, W.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Pokorny, B.; Pokrovskiy, N.S.; Polifka, R.; Przybycien, M.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roloff, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Rubinsky, I.; Rusakov, S.; Ruspa, M.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Saxon, D.H.; Schioppa, M.; Schmidke, W.B.; Schmitt, S.; Schneekloth, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Sefkow, F.; Shcheglova, L.M.; Shevchenko, R.; Shkola, O.; Shushkevich, S.; Shyrma, Yu.; Singh, I.; Skillicorn, I.O.; Slominski, W.; Solano, A.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Stanco, L.; Steder, M.; Stefaniuk, N.; Stella, B.; Stern, A.; Stopa, P.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Sztuk-Dambietz, J.; Szuba, D.; Szuba, J.; Tassi, E.; Thompson, P.D.; Tokushuku, K.; Tomaszewska, J.; Traynor, D.; Trofymov, A.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Tsurugai, T.; Turcato, M.; Turkot, O.; Turnau, J.; Tymieniecka, T.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Verbytskyi, A.; Viazlo, O.; Walczak, R.; Wan Abdullah, W.A.T.; Wegener, D.; Wichmann, K.; Wing, M.; Wolf, G.; Wunsch, E.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zacek, J.; Zakharchuk, N.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zawiejski, L.; Zenaiev, O.; Zhang, Z.; Zhautykov, B.O.; Zhmak, N.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zotkin, D.S.

    2015-12-08

    A combination is presented of all inclusive deep inelastic cross sections previously published by the H1 and ZEUS collaborations at HERA for neutral and charged current $e^{\\pm}p$ scattering for zero beam polarisation. The data were taken at proton beam energies of 920, 820, 575 and 460 GeV and an electron beam energy of 27.5 GeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of about 1 fb$^{-1}$ and span six orders of magnitude in negative four-momentum-transfer squared, $Q^2$, and Bjorken $x$. The correlations of the systematic uncertainties were evaluated and taken into account for the combination. The combined cross sections were input to QCD analyses at leading order, next-to-leading order and at next-to-next-to-leading order, providing a new set of parton distribution functions, called HERAPDF2.0. In addition to the experimental uncertainties, model and parameterisation uncertainties were assessed for these parton distribution functions. Variants of HERAPDF2.0 with an alternative gluon parameterisatio...

  15. Diagnostic timeliness in adolescents and young adults with cancer: a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Annie; Lyratzopoulos, Georgios; Whelan, Jeremy; Taylor, Rachel M; Barber, Julie; Gibson, Faith; Fern, Lorna A

    2018-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) are thought to experience prolonged intervals to cancer diagnosis, but evidence quantifying this hypothesis and identifying high-risk patient subgroups is insufficient. We aimed to investigate diagnostic timeliness in a cohort of AYAs with incident cancers and to identify factors associated with variation in timeliness. We did a cross-sectional analysis of the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, which included AYAs aged 12-24 years recruited within an average of 6 months from new primary cancer diagnosis from 96 National Health Service hospitals across England between July 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015. Participants completed structured, face-to-face interviews to provide information on their diagnostic experience (eg, month and year of symptom onset, number of consultations before referral to specialist care); demographic information was extracted from case report forms and date of diagnosis and cancer type from the national cancer registry. We analysed these data to assess patient interval (time from symptom onset to first presentation to a general practitioner [GP] or emergency department), the number of prereferral GP consultations, and the symptom onset-to-diagnosis interval (time from symptom onset to diagnosis) by patient characteristic and cancer site, and examined associations using multivariable regression models. Of 1114 participants recruited to the BRIGHTLIGHT cohort, 830 completed a face-to-face interview. Among participants with available information, 204 (27%) of 748 had a patient interval of more than a month and 242 (35%) of 701 consulting a general practitioner had three or more prereferral consultations. The median symptom onset-to-diagnosis interval was 62 days (IQR 29-153). Compared with male AYAs, female AYAs were more likely to have three or more consultations (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·6 [95% CI 1·1-2·3], p=0·0093) and longer median symptom onset-to-diagnosis intervals (adjusted median interval longer by 24 days [95

  16. Paramedic self-reported exposure to violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace: a mixed-methods cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Blair L; Jensen, Jan L; Tavares, Walter; Drennan, Ian R; Saleem, Humaira; Dainty, Katie N; Munro, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Studies from Australia, Sweden, the United States, and elsewhere have found that paramedics experience violence in the emergency medical services (EMS) workplace. The objective of this study was to describe and explore violence experienced by paramedics in the ground ambulance setting, including types of violence experienced, by whom the violence was perpetrated, actions taken by paramedics, and effects of these episodes. A cross-sectional study utilizing a mixed-methods paper survey was provided to a convenience sample of rural, suburban, and urban-based ground ambulance paramedics in two Canadian provinces. Paramedics were asked to describe episodes of verbal assault, intimidation, physical assault, sexual harassment, and sexual assault they were exposed to during the past 12 months. Qualitative questions inquired about the impact of these experiences. Response selections were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis, and qualitative data was analyzed using descriptive content analysis. A total of 1,884 paramedics were invited to participate and 1,676 responded (89.0%). Most participants (75%) reported experiencing violence in the past 12 months. The most common form of violence reported was verbal assault (67%), followed by intimidation (41%), physical assault (26%), sexual harassment (14%), and sexual assault (3%). Patients were identified as the most common perpetrators of violence. Serious sequellae were qualitatively reported. The majority of Canadian paramedics surveyed experience violence in the workplace, which can lead to serious personal and professional sequellae. Strategies should be devised and studied to reduce violent events toward paramedics and to mitigate the impact such events have on the wellbeing of paramedics.

  17. Cross sections for atmospheric corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.P.; Casse, M.; Westergaard, N.

    1975-01-01

    A set of cross sections for spallation of relativistic nuclei is proposed based on (i) the best available proton cross sections, (ii) an extrapolation to heavier nuclei of the dependence on the number of nucleons lost of the 'target factor' observed for C 12 and O 16 by Lindstrom et al. (1975), in analogy with Rudstam's formalism, and (iii) on a normalization of all cross sections to the total cross sections for production of fragments with Asub(f) >= 6. The obtained cross sections for peripheral interactions are not inconsistent with simple geometrical considerations. (orig.) [de

  18. Comparing dietary patterns derived by two methods and their associations with obesity in Polish girls aged 13-21 years: the cross-sectional GEBaHealth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadolowska, Lidia; Kowalkowska, Joanna; Czarnocinska, Jolanta; Jezewska-Zychowicz, Marzena; Babicz-Zielinska, Ewa

    2017-05-01

    To compare dietary patterns (DPs) derived by two methods and their assessment as a factor of obesity in girls aged 13-21 years. Data from a cross-sectional study conducted among the representative sample of Polish females ( n = 1,107) aged 13-21 years were used. Subjects were randomly selected. Dietary information was collected using three short-validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) regarding fibre intake, fat intake and overall food intake variety. DPs were identified by two methods: a priori approach (a priori DPs) and cluster analysis (data-driven DPs). The association between obesity and DPs and three single dietary characteristics was examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Four data-driven DPs were obtained: 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' (21.2%), 'Low-fibre' (29.1%), 'Low-fat' (25.0%) and 'High-fat-Varied' (24.7%). Three a priori DPs were pre-defined: 'Non-healthy' (16.6%), 'Neither-pro-healthy-nor-non-healthy' (79.1%) and 'Pro-healthy' (4.3%). Girls with 'Low-fibre' DP were less likely to have central obesity (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.17, 0.75) than girls with 'Low-fat-Low-fibre-Low-varied' DP (reference group, OR = 1.00). No significant associations were found between a priori DPs and overweight including obesity or central obesity. The majority of girls with 'Non-healthy' DP were also classified as 'Low-fibre' DP in the total sample, in girls with overweight including obesity and in girls with central obesity (81.7%, 80.6% and 87.3%, respectively), while most girls with 'Pro-healthy' DP were classified as 'Low-fat' DP (67.8%, 87.6% and 52.1%, respectively). We found that the a priori approach as well as cluster analysis can be used to derive opposite health-oriented DPs in Polish females. Both methods have provided disappointing outcomes in explaining the association between obesity and DPs. The cluster analysis, in comparison with the a priori approach, was more useful for finding any

  19. Measurement of graphite and aluminium absorption cross sections via reactor period by danger coefficient method; Merenje apsorpcionih preseka grafita i aluminijuma preko periode reaktora metodom koeficijenta opasnosti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, M; Markovic, V; Velickovic, Lj [Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences, Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1963-07-01

    Full text: This activity is a logical continuation of the experiment at the RA reactor during 1962 which was based on compensating the effect by means of control rod. Since results are given with significant errors, new method for measuring the absorption cross sections via reactor period. Experiment was done at the RB reactor which was particularly prepared for this type of experiments. Reactor power was from 50 mW to 2 W. Absorption cross sections were measured for two types of material: domestic graphite No.3 and French graphite 'Pachiney', and two types of aluminium. Total errors in applying this method are {+-} 5%, where the source of major part of error comes from uncertainty of the standard absorption power (previous method gave {+-} 10 do 55% ). Comparison of French graphite absorption cross section obtained via reactor period and via control rod showed approximate agreement with discrepancy of 5.4% which is considered within the precision of this method. Considering the accuracy of measurement results and reactor economy it is concluded that measuring absorption cross sections of samples via period of RB reactor is more favourable than measurements by control rod at the RA reactor. Pun tekst: Ovaj rad predstavlja logican nastavak eksperimenta na reaktoru RA u toku 1962. godine, koji je bazirao na kompenzaciji efekta pomocu kontrolne sipke. Kako su rezultati dati sa velikim greskama, to se prislo novom nacinu merenja apsorpsionih preseka preko periode reaktora. Eksperiment je radjen na reaktoru RB koji je specijalno pripremljen za ovu vrstu eksperimenta. Snaga reaktora se kretala od 50 mW do 2 W. Preko periode reaktora RB odredjeni su apsorpcioni preseci za dve vrste materijala i to: domaci grafit No.3 i francuski 'Pachiney', i dve vrste aluminijuma. Ukupne greske pri ovom nacimu merenja iznose oko {+-} 5%, gde glavni deo greske nosi neodredjenost apsorpcione moci standarda (ranija metoda je dala {+-} 10 do 55% ). Poredjenjem vrednosti apsorpcionih preseka

  20. Fission cross section measurements for minor actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fursov, B. [IPPE, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-03-01

    The main task of this work is the measurement of fast neutron induced fission cross section for minor actinides of {sup 238}Pu, {sup 242m}Am, {sup 243,244,245,246,247,248}Cm. The task of the work is to increase the accuracy of data in MeV energy region. Basic experimental method, fissile samples, fission detectors and electronics, track detectors, alpha counting, neutron generation, fission rate measurement, corrections to the data and error analysis are presented in this paper. (author)

  1. Determinants of fracture risk in a UK-population-based cohort of older women: a cross-sectional analysis of the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA)

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Emma M.; Gould, Virginia C.; Morrison, Leigh; Masud, Tahir; Tobias, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Background: identification of individuals with high fracture risk from within primary care is complex. It is likely that the true contribution of falls to fracture risk is underestimated. Methods: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort of 3,200 post-menopausal women aged 73???4 years. Self-reported data were collected on fracture, osteoporosis clinical risk factors and falls/mobility risk factors. Self-reported falls were compared with recorded falls on GP computerised records....

  2. R-matrix analysis of 235U neutron transmission and cross sections in the energy range 0 to 2.25 keV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, L.C.; Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Wright, R.Q.

    1997-11-01

    This document describes a new R-matrix analysis of 235 U cross section data in the energy range from 0 to 2,250 eV. The analysis was performed with the computer code SAMMY, that has recently been updated to permit, for the first time, inclusion of both differential and integral data within the analysis process. Fourteen differential data sets and six integral quantities were used in this evaluation: two measurements of fission plus capture, one of fission plus absorption, six of fission alone, two of transmission, and one of eta, plus standard values of thermal cross sections for fission, capture, and scattering, and of K1 and the Westcott g-factors for both fission and absorption. An excellent representation was obtained for the high-resolution transmission, fission, and capture cross-section data as well as for the integral quantities. The result is a single set of resonance parameters spanning the entire range up to 2,250 eV, a decided improvement over the present ENDF/VI evaluation, in which eleven discrete resonance parameter sets are required to cover that same energy range. This new evaluation is expected to greatly improve predictability of the criticality safety margins for nuclear systems in which 235 U is present

  3. Finite-difference time-domain analysis on radar cross section of conducting cube scatterer covered with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shaobin; Zhang Guangfu; Yuan Naichang

    2004-01-01

    A PLJERC-FDTD algorithm is applied to the study of the scattering of perfectly conducting cube covered with homogeneous isotropic plasmas. The effects of plasma thickness, density and collision frequency on the radar cross section (RCS) of the conducting cube scatterer have been obtained. The results illustrate that the plasma cloaking can greatly reduce the RCS of radar targets, and the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer decreases with increasing plasma thickness when the plasma frequency is greatly less than the electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency; the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer decreases with increasing plasma thickness and plasma collision frequency when the plasma frequency is almost half as much as the EM wave frequency; the effects of plasma thickness and collision frequency on the RCS of the perfectly conducting cube scatterer is small when the plasma frequency is close to the EM wave frequency

  4. Application of an iterative methodology for cross-section and variance/covariance data adjustment to the analysis of fast spectrum systems accounting for non-linearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, Sandro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Our data adjustment is based on a Generalized Linear Least-Squares approach. • The computed sensitivity coefficients are converged within an iterative procedure. • The corresponding multistep adjustment thus accounts for non-linearity. • It provides a more accurate simulation of fast-spectrum experiments. - Abstract: The data assimilation benchmark launched by the “Subgroup 33” on “Methods and issues for the combined use of integral experiments and covariance data” of the Working Party on Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency Nuclear Science Committee is recalculated by means of a multistep adjustment procedure using the deterministic code system ERANOS in conjunction with a dedicated Generalized Linear Least-Squares approach based on the Bayesian parameter estimation method. Nuclear data in terms of multi-group cross-sections as well as their variances and covariances, are adjusted for 11 nuclides, namely 10 B, 16 O, 23 Na, 56 Fe, 52 Cr, 58 Ni, 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 240 Pu and 241 Pu and 6 nuclear reactions which are elastic and inelastic scattering, lumped (n,2n) and (n,3n), capture, fission and ν ¯ . The adjustment is carried out by making use of experimental data for 19 integral parameters obtained in 7 different fast spectrum systems. In the determination of a posteriori values for these integral parameters including effective multiplication factors, spectral indices and void effects, along with their nuclear data uncertainty, the required adjusted data for these nuclides and reactions are generated in conjunction with pre-computed sensitivity coefficients of the analytical integral parameters to the nuclear data to adjust. The suggested multistep scheme aims at accounting for non-linear effects. Correspondingly, the sensitivity coefficients are recalculated within an iterative procedure on the basis of the a posteriori analytical values and adjusted cross-sections. The adjustment is thus repeated

  5. Neutron integral test of graphite cross sections in MeV energy region for the JENDL-3T through an analysis of WINFRITH shielding experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueki, Kohtaro; Sakurai, Kiyoshi.

    1988-01-01

    The neutron integral tests of graphite cross sections in MeV neutron energy region for the ENDF/B-IV, JENDL-2, JENDL-3PR1 and -3T were performed through the Monte Carlo analysis of the graphite shielding experiment at the WINFRITH. The measured values were on the reaction rates of 115 In(n,n') 115m In, 27 Al(n,α) 24 Na, 32 S(n,p) 32 P, and 103 Rh(n,n') 103m Rh threshold detectors located in the graphite slabs, so that the experiment on the graphite was good at the integral test of neutron cross sections in MeV energy resion. (author)

  6. Alcohol consumption and low-risk drinking guidelines among adults: a cross-sectional analysis from Alberta's Tomorrow Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Darren R; Haig, Tiffany R; Poirier, Abbey E; Akawung, Alianu; Friedenreich, Christine M; Robson, Paula J

    2017-12-01

    Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for all-cause mortality and cancer incidence. Although cross-sectional data are available through national surveys, data on alcohol consumption in Alberta from a large prospective cohort were not previously available. The goal of these analyses was to characterize the levels of alcohol consumption among adults from the Alberta's Tomorrow Project in the context of cancer prevention guidelines. Furthermore, we conducted analyses to examine the relationships between alcohol consumption and other high-risk or risk-related behaviours. Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 men and women aged 35 to 69 years were enrolled into Alberta's Tomorrow Project, a large provincial cohort study. Data concerning alcohol consumption in the past 12 months were obtained from 26 842 participants who completed self-administered health and lifestyle questionnaires. We conducted cross-sectional analyses on daily alcohol consumption and cancer prevention guidelines for alcohol use in relation to sociodemographic factors. We also examined the combined prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco use, obesity and comorbidities. Approximately 14% of men and 12% of women reported alcohol consumption exceeding recommendations for cancer prevention. Higher alcohol consumption was reported in younger age groups, urban dwellers, those with higher incomes and those who consumed more red meat. Moreover, volume of daily alcohol consumption was positively associated with current tobacco use in both men and women. Overall, men were more likely to fall in the moderate and high-risk behavioural profiles and show higher daily alcohol consumption patterns compared to women. Despite public health messages concerning the adverse impact of alcohol consumption, a sizeable proportion of Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants consumed alcohol in excess of cancer prevention recommendations. Continued strategies to promote low-risk drinking among those who choose to

  7. Exploring the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir: an international cross-sectional mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hilary; Lynch, Julie; O'Donoghue, Jessica

    2018-05-01

    This mixed-methods exploratory study investigates the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir from an international sample of choristers. An online questionnaire including demographic information, 28 quantitative statements and two qualitative questions relating to the perceived health benefits of singing in a choir was distributed via email and social media over a period of 4 months to a sample of 1,779 choristers. Basic descriptives and comparisons between subgroups of the sample are presented along with thematic analysis of qualitative comments. Basic descriptives suggest an overwhelmingly positive response. Females scored significantly higher than males on physical benefits, social benefits and emotional benefits. Professional singers reported significantly more physical, social and spiritual benefits than amateur singers. Bias may be present in these findings as the results were entirely self-reported by people who already sing in choirs. Qualitative thematic analysis identified six key themes which may counter this bias by providing deeper understanding of the perceived benefits for choir singers. These include social connection, physical and physiological benefits (specifically respiratory