WorldWideScience

Sample records for methods community organization

  1. What's Pragmatic about Community Organizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, educational researchers and scholars have turned new attention to the theory and practice of community organizing as a method for addressing education injustices. While there are diverse traditions of community organizing work, by far the most influential model in US contexts is that of Saul Alinsky, whose "Rules for Radicals"…

  2. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  3. Teaching Community Organizing in a BSW Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodofsky, Merav Moshe; Bakun-Mazor, Hagar

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a community organizing course that was as dynamic as community organizing itself. By employing a combination of teaching approaches, community organizing philosophy, and pedagogical and andragogical techniques for student training, the course challenged students to discover their beliefs and the role of the community and the…

  4. Community Organizing and Educational Change: A Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago community organizing as a form of educational change had only begun to challenge traditional models of school reform. Yet a decade later, community organizing has led to important changes in school and community relationships that have been documented by scholars in the areas of education, sociology, social work, and political…

  5. A Case Study in Organizing for Livable and Sustainable Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Marx

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Citizens in the U.S. are making organized efforts to demand a new approach to planning urban communities, one that results in more sustainable and livable communities. The profession of social work in the U.S. once had a primary role in organizing urban residents to advocate for healthier environments in their neighborhoods. Yet, recent research documents the diminishing emphasis on community organization as an intervention method in social work. This paper offers a descriptive case study of a successful community organizing effort to promote a more livable city in Portland, Maine (USA. Data was collected by the authors using in-depth personal interviews; archival records (census data, architect models; documents (e-mails, newspaper clippings as well as direct observation of the impacted community and development site. Implications for social work practitioners and educators involved in community organization promoting healthy communities are presented.

  6. Community Organizing as an Education Reform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renee, Michelle; McAlister, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing for school reform offers an urgently needed alternative to traditional approaches to school change. Many current reforms fail to thrive due to lack of trust, understanding, or cultural relevance to the community being targeted. The high turnover of reformers (superintendents, principals, or outside organizations) in high-need…

  7. Working with Emotions in Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggett, Paul; Miller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The emotional life of community organizations and their members has been neglected in community development, although it can have an impact at individual, societal, and micro-social levels. Both the instrumental tasks and the emotions of organizations must be addressed. Understanding group dynamics can create awareness of this dimension. (Contains…

  8. Tillage practices and straw-returning methods affect topsoil bacterial community and organic C under a rice-wheat cropping system in central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijin; Zheng, Shixue; Cao, Cougui; Li, Chengfang

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate how the relationships between bacterial communities and organic C (SOC) in topsoil (0-5 cm) are affected by tillage practices [conventional intensive tillage (CT) or no-tillage (NT)] and straw-returning methods [crop straw returning (S) or removal (NS)] under a rice-wheat rotation in central China. Soil bacterial communities were determined by high-throughput sequencing technology. After two cycles of annual rice-wheat rotation, compared with CT treatments, NT treatments generally had significantly more bacterial genera and monounsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids (MUFA/STFA), but a decreased gram-positive bacteria/gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+/G-). S treatments had significantly more bacterial genera and MUFA/STFA, but had decreased G+/G- compared with NS treatments. Multivariate analysis revealed that Gemmatimonas, Rudaea, Spingomonas, Pseudomonas, Dyella, Burkholderia, Clostridium, Pseudolabrys, Arcicella and Bacillus were correlated with SOC, and cellulolytic bacteria (Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea and Bacillus) and Gemmationas explained 55.3% and 12.4% of the variance in SOC, respectively. Structural equation modeling further indicated that tillage and residue managements affected SOC directly and indirectly through these cellulolytic bacteria and Gemmationas. Our results suggest that Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Rudaea, Bacillus and Gemmationas help to regulate SOC sequestration in topsoil under tillage and residue systems.

  9. Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community Based Organizations in HIV/AIDS Prevention, Patient. ... behavioral change communication methods that may contribute significantly to overcoming ... Towards that objective, CBOs need both internal strengthening of programs and ...

  10. Urgency of Community Supervision Organization by Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Wibowo Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Urgency Surveillance Study of Social Organization aims to describe the reality of the problems in the a real of Social Organization; describe the implementation of the role of government (including local government in controlling the Social Organization; and provider recommendations on matters that need to be regulated in the draft regulations on the supervision of organizations. This study used a qualitative approach, with the aim that can be obtained in-depth and complete information about matters relating to the existence and dynamics in regional organizations. The study results presented can be: that on the one hand the existence of organizations that do not contribute little in development, but on the other hand there are many community organizations that act an archaic and disturbing in society; for the entire operational provisions for the implementation of Social Organization must be available; things that need to be arranged substantially in the surveillance by the government.

  11. Community Strategic Relationship and Marketing to Foster the Development of communities and the sustainability of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Juárez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to define community strategic relationship and marketing (CSRM as a relevant tool to foster the development of communities and the sustainability of organizations. The method was rationalist, theoretical, and conceptual; it comprised the analysis of a propositional structure. Articulated propositions provided a framework for analysis, discussion, and conclusions. After giving a definition of CSRM, several analyses were conducted that determined the uniqueness and usefulness of this approach. These analyses were: 1 the usefulness of the community concepts and strategies in CSRM, 2 the existence of a community approach to different strategic areas or marketing, and 3 the relevance of the use of community concepts and strategies to foster the development of communities and the sustainability of organizations. The conclusion was that CSRM and the use of these concepts and strategies have the potential to be a fruitful research and strategic approach in marketing and in all of organization activities

  12. Method of doping organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloc, Christian Leo [Constance, DE; Ramirez, Arthur Penn [Summit, NJ; So, Woo-Young [New Providence, NJ

    2012-02-28

    A method includes the steps of forming a contiguous semiconducting region and heating the region. The semiconducting region includes polyaromatic molecules. The heating raises the semiconducting region to a temperature above room temperature. The heating is performed in the presence of a dopant gas and the absence of light to form a doped organic semiconducting region.

  13. Mixed Methods for Implementation Research: Application to Evidence-Based Practice Implementation and Staff Turnover in Community Based Organizations Providing Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A.; Fettes, Danielle L.; Sommerfeld, David H.; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Many public sector services systems and provider organizations are in some phase of learning about or implementing evidence-based interventions. Child welfare service systems represent a context where implementation spans system, management, and organizational concerns. Research utilizing mixed methods that combine qualitative and quantitative design, data collection, and analytic approaches are particularly well-suited to understanding both the process and outcomes of dissemination and implementation efforts in child welfare systems. This paper describes the process of using mixed methods in implementation research and provides an applied example of an examination of factors impacting staff retention during an evidence-based intervention implementation in a statewide child welfare system. We integrate qualitative data with previously published quantitative analyses of job autonomy and staff turnover during this statewide implementation project in order to illustrate the utility of mixed method approaches in providing a more comprehensive understanding of opportunities and challenges in implementation research. PMID:22146861

  14. Mixed methods for implementation research: application to evidence-based practice implementation and staff turnover in community-based organizations providing child welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; Fettes, Danielle L; Sommerfeld, David H; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-02-01

    Many public sector service systems and provider organizations are in some phase of learning about or implementing evidence-based interventions. Child welfare service systems represent a context where implementation spans system, management, and organizational concerns. Research utilizing mixed methods that combine qualitative and quantitative design, data collection, and analytic approaches are particularly well suited to understanding both the process and outcomes of dissemination and implementation efforts in child welfare systems. This article describes the process of using mixed methods in implementation research and provides an applied example of an examination of factors impacting staff retention during an evidence-based intervention implementation in a statewide child welfare system. The authors integrate qualitative data with previously published quantitative analyses of job autonomy and staff turnover during this statewide implementation project in order to illustrate the utility of mixed method approaches in providing a more comprehensive understanding of opportunities and challenges in implementation research.

  15. Organizing a community advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigsfeld, Carrie Foust; Tice, Angela L

    2006-02-15

    Setting up a community advanced pharmacy practice experience can be an overwhelming task for many pharmacy preceptors. This article provides guidance to pharmacist preceptors in developing a complete and effective community advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE). When preparing for the APPE, initial discussions with the college or school of pharmacy are key. Benefits, training, and requirements should be addressed. Site preparation, including staff education, will assist in the development process. The preceptor should plan orientation day activities and determine appropriate evaluation and feedback methods. With thorough preparation, the APPE will be rewarding for both the student and the pharmacy site.

  16. Saul Alinsky, community organizing and rules for Radicals

    OpenAIRE

    Seal, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Saul Alinsky's work is an important reference point for thinking about community organizing and community development. His books Reveille for Radicals (1946) and Rules for Radicals (1971) were both classic explorations of organizing and remain popular today. Mike Seal examines Alinsky's continuing relevance to the activities of informal educators, community organizers and animateurs.

  17. Appreciative Organizing: Charting a Course for Community Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly A. Parini-Runge

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of Appreciative Organizing (AO, a term coined by the author in her graduate work to describe the roles that dialogue, listening, storytelling, community networks, social bonding, and leadership play in designing and leading meaningful community engagement initiatives that result in transformative partnerships. It offers constructive steps and a real-life example of how AO was used to strengthen relationships between an institution of higher learning and the community it serves. AO posits that in order to strengthen America’s sense of community, public engagement practices must become more inclusive and innovative, and better networked. It illustrates how this community-centered method, grounded in the philosophical principles of partnership, appreciation, hope, and imagination, transformed an administration and built a culture of continuous engagement that helped the college meet and exceed its institutional goals. Further, through this example, the article’s larger objective is to share ways in which this method, when broadly applied, can be used to build trust and strengthen working relationships within a community setting.

  18. Method of distilling organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1921-11-11

    In the distillation of organic materials, by means of coursing heated gases through the distillation chamber, that can be heated by other means also, a method is given by which the hot gases coming from the distillation chamber are cooled in one or more heat-absorbent devices (for example, in spray coolers, condensers and/or water). The greater part of the products or constituents condensable at ordinary temperature are separated from the vapors and gases, and thereafter the gases should be passed through the distillation chamber after the necessary additional heating in special heaters, as one or more heat producers, suitably of the same construction as the heat absorbers, for heating and saturation with steam by means of warm condensate and/or water obtained fully or partly from the heat absorbers, possibly after separation of tar or oil from them. The patent has 11 other claims.

  19. Using mixed methods when researching communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha M N; Meetoo, Danny

    2015-09-01

    To argue for the use of mixed methods when researching communities. Although research involving minority communities is now advanced, not enough effort has been made to formulate methodological linkages between qualitative and quantitative methods in most studies. For instance, the quantitative approaches used by epidemiologists and others in examining the wellbeing of communities are usually empirical. While the rationale for this is sound, quantitative findings can be expanded with data from in-depth qualitative approaches, such as interviews or observations, which are likely to provide insights into the experiences of people in those communities and their relationships with their wellbeing. Academic databases including The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, INTERNURSE, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge and PubMed. An iterative process of identifying eligible literature was carried out by comprehensively searching electronic databases. Using mixed-methods approaches is likely to address any potential drawbacks of individual methods by exploiting the strengths of each at the various stages of research. Combining methods can provide additional ways of looking at a complex problem and improve the understanding of a community's experiences. However, it is important for researchers to use the different methods interactively during their research. The use of qualitative and quantitative methods is likely to enrich our understanding of the interrelationship between wellbeing and the experiences of communities. This should help researchers to explore socio-cultural factors and experiences of health and healthcare practice more effectively.

  20. Community Perspective of Alternative Methods of keeping ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UNIBEN

    methods of keeping childhood immunization records based on community's .... An alternative home-based record keeping ... coded before computer entry. Data was managed using the Statistical ..... encounter and also work to ensure accurate.

  1. CONTEMPORARY CONDITION OF THE PROBLEM OF PROFESSIONAL-METHODICAL FORMATION COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS BY ONLINE COMMUNITIES TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Smirnova

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article the questions of the present stage of development of professional education in the Russian Federation during the consideration of which, it is evident that one of the most important component of professional competence of future teachers of pre-school education is the extent of his readiness to use modern information technologies in their professional activities. One of the main means of formation of the psychological basis of the study competence should be allocated to a network community. Today it is impossible to imagine educational space without modern information technologies and means of telecommunication. They open up entirely new possibilities of education and communication, and, therefore, have considerable educational potential.

  2. Community Social Organization: A Conceptual Linchpin in Examining Families in the Context of Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Bowen, Gary L.; Martin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of social organization provides an important framework for understanding families in the context of communities and focuses our attention on norms, networks, and associated processes that typify community life. We discuss the significance of community for understanding family outcomes, discuss challenges in defining community context,…

  3. Detection of communities with Naming Game-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Henrique Costa

    2017-01-01

    Complex networks are often organized in groups or communities of agents that share the same features and/or functions, and this structural organization is built naturally with the formation of the system. In social networks, we argue that the dynamic of linguistic interactions of agreement among people can be a crucial factor in generating this community structure, given that sharing opinions with another person bounds them together, and disagreeing constantly would probably weaken the relationship. We present here a computational model of opinion exchange that uncovers the community structure of a network. Our aim is not to present a new community detection method proper, but to show how a model of social communication dynamics can reveal the (simple and overlapping) community structure in an emergent way. Our model is based on a standard Naming Game, but takes into consideration three social features: trust, uncertainty and opinion preference, that are built over time as agents communicate among themselves. We show that the separate addition of each social feature in the Naming Game results in gradual improvements with respect to community detection. In addition, the resulting uncertainty and trust values classify nodes and edges according to role and position in the network. Also, our model has shown a degree of accuracy both for non-overlapping and overlapping communities that are comparable with most algorithms specifically designed for topological community detection. PMID:28797097

  4. Chapter 11. Community analysis-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Y.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Holden, P.A.

    2010-05-01

    Microbial communities are each a composite of populations whose presence and relative abundance in water or other environmental samples are a direct manifestation of environmental conditions, including the introduction of microbe-rich fecal material and factors promoting persistence of the microbes therein. As shown by culture-independent methods, different animal-host fecal microbial communities appear distinctive, suggesting that their community profiles can be used to differentiate fecal samples and to potentially reveal the presence of host fecal material in environmental waters. Cross-comparisons of microbial communities from different hosts also reveal relative abundances of genetic groups that can be used to distinguish sources. In increasing order of their information richness, several community analysis methods hold promise for MST applications: phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), cloning/sequencing, and PhyloChip. Specific case studies involving TRFLP and PhyloChip approaches demonstrate the ability of community-based analyses of contaminated waters to confirm a diagnosis of water quality based on host-specific marker(s). The success of community-based MST for comprehensively confirming fecal sources relies extensively upon using appropriate multivariate statistical approaches. While community-based MST is still under evaluation and development as a primary diagnostic tool, results presented herein demonstrate its promise. Coupled with its inherently comprehensive ability to capture an unprecedented amount of microbiological data that is relevant to water quality, the tools for microbial community analysis are increasingly accessible, and community-based approaches have unparalleled potential for translation into rapid, perhaps real-time, monitoring platforms.

  5. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes - responses at various levels of microbial community organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widenfalk, Anneli; Bertilsson, Stefan; Sundh, Ingvar; Goedkoop, Willem

    2008-01-01

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology. - Molecular techniques revealed pesticide-induced changes at lower levels of microbial community organization that were not detected by community-level end points

  6. Effects of pesticides on community composition and activity of sediment microbes - responses at various levels of microbial community organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widenfalk, Anneli [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: anneli.widenfalk@kemi.se; Bertilsson, Stefan [Limnology/Department of Ecology and Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvaegen 20, SE-752 36 Uppsala (Sweden); Sundh, Ingvar [Department of Microbiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7025, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Goedkoop, Willem [Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7050, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-04-15

    A freshwater sediment was exposed to the pesticides captan, glyphosate, isoproturon, and pirimicarb at environmentally relevant and high concentrations. Effects on sediment microorganisms were studied by measuring bacterial activity, fungal and total microbial biomass as community-level endpoints. At the sub-community level, microbial community structure was analysed (PLFA composition and bacterial 16S rRNA genotyping, T-RFLP). Community-level endpoints were not affected by pesticide exposure. At lower levels of microbial community organization, however, molecular methods revealed treatment-induced changes in community composition. Captan and glyphosate exposure caused significant shifts in bacterial community composition (as T-RFLP) at environmentally relevant concentrations. Furthermore, differences in microbial community composition among pesticide treatments were found, indicating that test compounds and exposure concentrations induced multidirectional shifts. Our study showed that community-level end points failed to detect these changes, underpinning the need for application of molecular techniques in aquatic ecotoxicology. - Molecular techniques revealed pesticide-induced changes at lower levels of microbial community organization that were not detected by community-level end points.

  7. Thoracic organ transplantation: laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jignesh K; Kobashigawa, Jon A

    2013-01-01

    Although great progress has been achieved in thoracic organ transplantation through the development of effective immunosuppression, there is still significant risk of rejection during the early post-transplant period, creating a need for routine monitoring for both acute antibody and cellular mediated rejection. The currently available multiplexed, microbead assays utilizing solubilized HLA antigens afford the capability of sensitive detection and identification of HLA and non-HLA specific antibodies. These assays are being used to assess the relative strength of donor specific antibodies; to permit performance of virtual crossmatches which can reduce the waiting time to transplantation; to monitor antibody levels during desensitization; and for heart transplants to monitor antibodies post-transplant. For cell mediated immune responses, the recent development of gene expression profiling has allowed noninvasive monitoring of heart transplant recipients yielding predictive values for acute cellular rejection. T cell immune monitoring in heart and lung transplant recipients has allowed individual tailoring of immunosuppression, particularly to minimize risk of infection. While the current antibody and cellular laboratory techniques have enhanced the ability to manage thoracic organ transplant recipients, future developments from improved understanding of microchimerism and graft tolerance may allow more refined allograft monitoring techniques.

  8. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized community-based activities, which, in turn, protects against community violence exposure. Second, at the neighborhood level, we tested the hypothesis that lower violent crime rates explain the inverse relation between neighborhood youth organization variety and community violence exposure. Our findings supported the latter of these two mechanisms. PMID:21666761

  9. Research advances in theories and methods of community assembly and succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Community succession refers to the regular and predictable process of species replacement in the environment that all species had been eliminated or that had been disturbed. Community assembly is the process that species growth and interact to establish a community. Community assembly stresses the change of community over a single phase. So far a lot of theories and methods have been proposed for community assembly and succession. In present article I introduced research advances in theories and methods of community assembly and succession. Finally, continuing my past propositions, I further proposed the unified theory and methodology on community assembly and succession. I suggested that community assembly and succession is a process of self-organization. It follows the major principles and mechanisms of self-organization. Agentbased modeling was suggested being used to describe the dynamics of community assembly and succession.

  10. Ecological assessments of effluent impacts on communities of indigenous aquatic organisms (symposium), 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, J.M.; Weber, C.I.

    1981-01-01

    This conference proceedings contains 17 papers, of which 4 are indexed separately. All papers deal with the effects of chemical, radioactive, and thermal effluents on aquatic organisms. The emphasis is on the methods of evaluating the effects of effluents on the standing crop, community structure, and community function

  11. Community organizing and community health: piloting an innovative approach to community engagement applied to an early intervention project in south London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Matthew; Moore, Imogen; Ferreira, Ana; Day, Crispin; Bolton, Derek

    2016-03-01

    The importance of community engagement in health is widely recognized, and key themes in UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) recommendations for enhancing community engagement are co-production and community control. This study reports an innovative approach to community engagement using the community-organizing methodology, applied in an intervention of social support to increase social capital, reduce stress and improve well-being in mothers who were pregnant and/or with infants aged 0-2 years. Professional community organizers in Citizens-UK worked with local member civic institutions in south London to facilitate social support to a group of 15 new mothers. Acceptability of the programme, adherence to principles of co-production and community control, and changes in the outcomes of interest were assessed quantitatively in a quasi-experimental design. The programme was found to be feasible and acceptable to participating mothers, and perceived by them to involve co-production and community control. There were no detected changes in subjective well-being, but there were important reductions in distress on a standard self-report measure (GHQ-12). There were increases in social capital of a circumscribed kind associated with the project. Community organizing provides a promising model and method of facilitating community engagement in health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  12. Role of Women Organizations in Community Development: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper analysed the role of women organizations in the development of rural communities in Orlu Agricultural zone of Imo state. Six communities were purposively selected from three Local Government Areas of the Zone for the study. Semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 120 randomly selected ...

  13. Participatory Democracy, Community Organizing and the Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague Martinez, Linda; Reisner, Ellin; Campbell, Maria; Brugge, Doug

    2017-02-04

    Background: Conflicting interests, power imbalance and relationships characterized by distrust are just a few of the many challenges community-academic research partnerships face. In addition, the time it takes to build relationships is often overlooked, which further complicates matters and can leave well-intentioned individuals re-creating oppressive conditions through inauthentic partnerships. This paper presents a novel approach of using meeting minutes to explore partnership dynamics. The Community Assessment of Freeway Exposure and Health (CAFEH) partnership is used as an illustrative case study to identify how community academic partnerships overcome the challenges associated with community-based participatory research (CBPR). CAFEH is a study of ultrafine particle exposure (UFP) near highways in the Boston, MA area. Methods: Qualitative analysis was applied to meeting minutes and process evaluation reports from the first three years of the CAFEH study ( n = 73 files). In addition, a group meeting was held with project partners in order to contextualize the findings from the document analysis. Results: The three most commonly referenced challenges included language barriers, the overall project structure and budgetary constraints. Meanwhile, a heavy emphasis on process and an approach steeped in participatory democracy facilitated CAFEH's ability to overcome these challenges, as well as sustain and augment strong partnership ties. Conclusions: This experience suggests that leadership that incorporates an organizing approach and a transformational style facilitates CBPR processes and helps teams surmount challenges.

  14. A Public Policy for Neighborhood and Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Milton

    1979-01-01

    It is in the interest of federal and local governments to enlarge the power of community and neighborhood organizations for the sake of effective governing. During this era of budgetary and tax restraint, these organizations must be brought into the process of service delivery and development. (Author/RLV)

  15. Community Organizing for Healthier Communities: Environmental and Policy Outcomes of a National Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published

  16. The effectiveness of international development assistance from American organizations to deaf communities in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Amy T

    American organizations bringing assistance to deaf people in developing countries unintentionally create relationships of dependency or oppression rather than relationships of support. Using qualitative methods, the author examined the effectiveness of development assistance provided to the Jamaican Deaf community by two American churches, one American nongovernmental organization, and one U.S. federal agency. Documents were reviewed and observations were made. Interviews were conducted with more than 60 deaf and hearing people involved with the American organizations, the Jamaican organizations, and deaf Jamaican beneficiaries. The author concludes that the Jamaican Deaf community was often excluded in planning, designing, or evaluating programs, and was unsatisfied with the American assistance it received. Results also indicate that the American organizations were poorly prepared to work with the Deaf community. Suggestions for American organizations wishing to strengthen and empower deaf people through development assistance in developing countries are proposed.

  17. Treatment of radioactive liquid organic waste using bacteria community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael Vicente de Padua Ferreira; Solange Kazumi Sakata; Maria Helena Bellini; Julio Takehiro Marumo; Fernando Dutra; Patricia Busko Di Vitta; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Waste management plays an important role in radioactive waste volume reduction as well as lowering disposal costs and minimizing the environment-detrimental impact. The employment of biomass in the removal of heavy metals and radioisotopes has a significant potential in liquid waste treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactive waste treatment by using three different bacterial communities (BL, BS, and SS) isolated from impacted areas, removing radioisotopes and organic compounds. The best results were obtained in the BS and BL community, isolated from the soil and a lake of a uranium mine, respectively. BS community was able to remove 92% of the uranium and degraded 80% of tributyl phosphate and 70% of the ethyl acetate in 20 days of experiments. BL community removed 81% of the uranium and degraded nearly 60% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. SS community collected from the sediment of Sao Sebastiao channel removed 76% of the uranium and 80% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. Both americium and cesium were removed by all communities. In addition, the BS community showed to be more resistant to radioactive liquid waste than the other communities. These results indicated that the BS community is the most viable for the treatment of large volumes of radioactive liquid organic waste. (author)

  18. Iodine removing method in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takeo; Sakurai, Manabu

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively remove iodine in an organic solvent to thereby remove iodine in the solvent that can be re-used or put to purning treatment. Method: Organic solvent formed from wastes of nuclear facilities is mixed with basic lead acetate, or silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with such a compound to adsorb iodine in the organic solvent to the basic lead acetate. Then, iodine in the organic solvent is removed by separating to eliminate the basic lead acetate adsorbing iodine from the organic solvent or by passing the organic solvent through a tower or column charged or pre-coated with silica gel or activated carbon incorporated with lead acetate. By using basic lead acetate as the adsorbents, iodine can effective by adsorbed and eliminated. Thus, the possibility of circumstantial release of iodine can be reduced upon reusing or burning treatment of the organic solvent. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. ADOLESCENTS’ EXPOSURE TO COMMUNITY VIOLENCE: ARE NEIGHBORHOOD YOUTH ORGANIZATIONS PROTECTIVE?

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents’ exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual level, we tested the hypothesis that access to a greater variety of neighborhood youth organizations predicts adolescents’ participation in organized co...

  20. Becoming a health literate organization: Formative research results from healthcare organizations providing care for undeserved communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsul, Prajakta; Wray, Ricardo; Gautam, Kanak; Jupka, Keri; Weaver, Nancy; Wilson, Kristin

    2017-11-01

    Background Integrating health literacy into primary care institutional policy and practice is critical to effective, patient centered health care. While attributes of health literate organizations have been proposed, approaches for strengthening them in healthcare systems with limited resources have not been fully detailed. Methods We conducted key informant interviews with individuals from 11 low resourced health care organizations serving uninsured, underinsured, and government-insured patients across Missouri. The qualitative inquiry explored concepts of impetus to transform, leadership commitment, engaging staff, alignment to organization wide goals, and integration of health literacy with current practices. Findings Several health care organizations reported carrying out health literacy related activities including implementing patient portals, selecting easy to read patient materials, offering community education and outreach programs, and improving discharge and medication distribution processes. The need for change presented itself through data or anecdotal staff experience. For any change to be undertaken, administrators and medical directors had to be supportive; most often a champion facilitated these changes in the organization. Staff and providers were often resistant to change and worried they would be saddled with additional work. Lack of time and funding were the most common barriers reported for integration and sustainability. To overcome these barriers, managers supported changes by working one on one with staff, seeking external funding, utilizing existing resources, planning for stepwise implementation, including members from all staff levels and clear communication. Conclusion Even though barriers exist, resource scarce clinical settings can successfully plan, implement, and sustain organizational changes to support health literacy.

  1. Method and Theory of Intergroups in Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-29

    Relations and Organizational Diagnosis " (T.R. #3) identified the philosophical formulations of clinical methods for studying organizations, reviewed the...earliest clinical studies of organizations that 4- took a group and intergroup perspective, and critiqued existing approaches to organizational diagnosis . This

  2. Community Preferences for the Allocation &Donation of Organs - The PAraDOx Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving Michelle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. Methods/Design The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1 determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2 determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted. Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative

  3. Method of decomposing radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Appreciative Organizing: Charting a Course for Community Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Shelly A. Parini-Runge

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview of Appreciative Organizing (AO), a term coined by the author in her graduate work to describe the roles that dialogue, listening, storytelling, community networks, social bonding, and leadership play in designing and leading meaningful community engagement initiatives that result in transformative partnerships. It offers constructive steps and a real-life example of how AO was used to strengthen relationships between an institution of higher learning and...

  5. Community Preferences for the Allocation & Donation of Organs--the PAraDOx Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kirsten; Jan, Stephen; Rose, John; Chadban, Steven; Allen, Richard D M; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison; Wong, Germaine; Craig, Jonathan C; Cass, Alan

    2011-05-25

    Transplantation is the treatment of choice for people with severe organ failure. However, demand substantially exceeds supply of suitable organs; consequently many people wait months, or years to receive an organ. Reasons for the chronic shortage of deceased organ donations are unclear; there appears to be no lack of 'in principle' public support for organ donation. The PAraDOx Study examines community preferences for organ donation policy in Australia. The aims are to 1) determine which factors influence decisions by individuals to offer their organs for donation and 2) determine the criteria by which the community deems the allocation of donor organs to be fair and equitable. Qualitative and quantitative methods will be used to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation.Focus group participants from the general community, aged between 18-80, will be purposively sampled to ensure a variety of cultural backgrounds and views on organ donation. Each focus group will include a ranking exercise using a modified nominal group technique. Focus groups of organ recipients, their families, and individuals on a transplant waiting list will also be conducted.Using the qualitative work, a discrete choice study will be designed to quantitatively assess community preferences. Discrete choice methods are based on the premise that goods and services can be described in terms of a number of separate attributes. Respondents are presented with a series of choices where levels of attributes are varied, and a mathematical function is estimated to describe numerically the value respondents attach to different options. Two community surveys will be conducted in approximately 1000 respondents each to assess community preferences for organ donation and allocation. A mixed logit model will be used; model results will be expressed as parameter estimates (β) and the odds of choosing one option over an alternative. Trade-offs between attributes will also be calculated. By

  6. Creating "communicative spaces": a case of NGO community organizing for HIV/AIDS prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study uses the case study method to investigate the processes used by a local nongovernmental organization called the Society for People's Action for Development to organize sex workers in the slums of Bangalore, India, for HIV/AIDS prevention. The nongovernmental organization-facilitated HIV/AIDS program is based on the new paradigm of community organizing that encourages community participation and capacity building. Grounded in the culture-centered approach, this study documents the processes used to organize the women, while highlighting the role of communication in these processes. The study identifies 4 primary processes used to mobilize the community, namely collectivization, community awareness and sensitization, capacity building, and providing legal education and support. Each of these processes highlights the importance of attending to the economic, social, and political realities that shape the health of women. The common thread linking these processes together is the notion of "voice." More specifically, each process serves as a catalyst to produce discursive practices that enable women to provide support to each other, increase awareness in the community about the problems that they face, build self-reliance through financial skills training and communication training, and defend their legal rights. In addition, the study suggests that the primary role of nongovernmental organizations should be the creation of "communicative spaces," which are discursive and material spaces within marginalized communities and mainstream society where cultural participants can identify problems (oftentimes beyond the realm of health), manage solutions to those problems, and advocate for health and social change.

  7. Methods of dosimetry for aquatic organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.S.

    1979-01-01

    The importance is emphasized of accurate estimates of radiation doses or dose rates that must be made for experiments to investigate the effects of irradiation on aquatic organisms. Computational methods are described which provide the best estimate of radiation dose or dose rates received by aquatic organisms when living in contaminated water. Also, techniques appropriate to the determination of radiation doses from external sources are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Network analysis as a tool for community capacity measurement and assessing partnerships between community-based organizations in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2012-01-01

    The community partnership is a foundation laid by the local community that has been historically and geographically formed to develop itself. This article, an exploratory community network survey for capacity building, assessed collaborations among community-based organizations (CBOs) in the S-district, Republic of Korea, and evaluated methods for the reconstruction of a resident-governing healthy network. Using CBOs' evaluation questionnaire, the author surveyed 83 CBOs that were collected by snowball sampling. The CBOs in the S-district had formed community networks based on vocational associations established in the 1980s and the 1990s. The entire network evidenced a cooperative partnership, in which women's organizations and civic groups carried out essential functions. In the capacity-building process through CBOs, community collaboration can be naturally cultivated, and health promotion programs to improve the residents' health will tend to be more systematic than the current approach and yield higher compliance and practice rates. Thus, it will be necessary to construct an effective partnership of community networks by reorganizing existing exclusive relations.

  9. Organizing graduate medical education programs into communities of practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bing-You

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four ‘Communities of Practice’ (CoOPs based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME. The goal of this project was to assess the impact on those most affected by the change. Methods: This was a mixed methods study that utilized structured interviews and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI. Eleven members of the newly formed CoOPs participated in the study. Results: Three major themes emerged after review and coding of the interview transcripts: improved group identity, improved availability of resources, and increased opportunity for professional growth. OCAI results indicated that respondents are committed to the DME and perceived the culture to be empowering. The ‘preferred culture’ was very similar to the culture at the time of the study, with some indication that DME employees are ready for more creativity and innovation in the future. Conclusion: Reorganization within the DME of residency programs into CoOPs was overwhelmingly perceived as a positive change. Improved resources and accountability may position our DME to better handle the increasing complexity of graduate medical education.

  10. Organizing graduate medical education programs into communities of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-You, Robert G; Varaklis, Kalli

    2016-01-01

    Background A new organizational model of educational administrative support was instituted in the Department of Medical Education (DME) to better meet increasing national accreditation demands. Residency and fellowship programs were organized into four 'Communities of Practice' (CoOPs) based on discipline similarity, number of learners, and geographic location. Program coordinator reporting lines were shifted from individual departments to a centralized reporting structure within the DME. The goal of this project was to assess the impact on those most affected by the change. Methods This was a mixed methods study that utilized structured interviews and the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI). Eleven members of the newly formed CoOPs participated in the study. Results Three major themes emerged after review and coding of the interview transcripts: improved group identity, improved availability of resources, and increased opportunity for professional growth. OCAI results indicated that respondents are committed to the DME and perceived the culture to be empowering. The 'preferred culture' was very similar to the culture at the time of the study, with some indication that DME employees are ready for more creativity and innovation in the future. Conclusion Reorganization within the DME of residency programs into CoOPs was overwhelmingly perceived as a positive change. Improved resources and accountability may position our DME to better handle the increasing complexity of graduate medical education.

  11. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  12. Building Community: The Neighborhood Context of Social Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaroop, Sapna; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how neighborhood context influences participation in local social organization through a multilevel-spatial analysis of residents in Chicago neighborhoods. We construct a typology of community participation based on two dimensions: instrumental vs. expressive motivations for participation and formal vs. informal modes of…

  13. Adolescents' Exposure to Community Violence: Are Neighborhood Youth Organizations Protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), we identified a significant inverse association between the variety of youth organizations available at the neighborhood level and adolescents' exposure to community violence. We examined two non-competing explanations for this finding. First, at the individual…

  14. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  15. Measuring and controlling method for organic impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Motohiro; Igarashi, Hiroo

    1995-01-01

    The present invention concerns measurement and control for organic impurities contained in ultrapurified water for use in a nuclear power plant. A specimen containing organic impurities leached out of anionic exchange resins and cationic exchange resins is introduced to an organic material decomposing section to decompose organic impurities into organic carbon and other decomposed products. Sulfate ions, nitrate ions, nitrite ions and carbon dioxide are produced by the decomposition of the organic impurities. As a next step, carbon dioxide in the decomposed products is separated by deaerating with a nitrogen gas or an argon gas and then a TOC concentration is measured by a non-dispersion-type infrared spectrometer. Further, a specimen from which carbon dioxide was separated is introduced to a column filled with ion exchange resins and, after concentrating inorganic ion impurities, the inorganic ion impurities are identified by using a measuring theory of an ion chromatographic method of eluting and separating inorganic ion impurities and detecting them based on the change of electroconductivity depending on the kinds of the inorganic ion impurities. Organic impurities can be measured and controlled, to improve the reliability of water quality control. (N.H.)

  16. Weighted Evolving Networks with Self-organized Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zhou; Wang Xiaofan; Li Xiang

    2008-01-01

    In order to describe the self-organization of communities in the evolution of weighted networks, we propose a new evolving model for weighted community-structured networks with the preferential mechanisms functioned in different levels according to community sizes and node strengths, respectively. Theoretical analyses and numerical simulations show that our model captures power-law distributions of community sizes, node strengths, and link weights, with tunable exponents of ν ≥ 1, γ > 2, and α > 2, respectively, sharing large clustering coefficients and scaling clustering spectra, and covering the range from disassortative networks to assortative networks. Finally, we apply our new model to the scientific co-authorship networks with both their weighted and unweighted datasets to verify its effectiveness

  17. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  18. Millennials, Technology and Perceived Relevance of Community Service Organizations: Is Social Media Replacing Community Service Activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, August John

    2017-01-01

    This mixed-methods qualitative study examined the relationship between perceptions of the importance of social media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter) with community service projects and volunteerism. Participants (n = 80) were interviewed and surveyed regarding their experiences in participating in a variety of community service work (CSW) projects…

  19. Integrating Medication Therapy Management (MTM Services Provided by Community Pharmacists into a Community-Based Accountable Care Organization (ACO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Isetts

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: As the U.S. healthcare system evolves from fee-for-service financing to global population-based payments designed to be accountable for both quality and total cost of care, the effective and safe use of medications is gaining increased importance. The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of integrating medication therapy management (MTM services provided by community pharmacists into the clinical care teams and the health information technology (HIT infrastructure for Minnesota Medicaid recipients of a 12-county community-based accountable care organization (ACO. (2 Methods: The continuous quality improvement evaluation methodology employed in this project was the context + mechanism = outcome (CMO model to account for the fact that programs only work insofar as they introduce promising ideas, solutions and opportunities in the appropriate social and cultural contexts. Collaborations between a 12-county ACO and 15 community pharmacies in Southwest Minnesota served as the social context for this feasibility study of MTM referrals to community pharmacists. (3 Results: All 15 community pharmacy sites were integrated into the HIT infrastructure through Direct Secure Messaging, and there were 32 recipients who received MTM services subsequent to referrals from the ACO at 5 of the 15 community pharmacies over a 1-year implementation phase. (4 Conclusion: At the conclusion of this project, an effective electronic communication and MTM referral system was activated, and consideration was given to community pharmacists providing MTM in future ACO shared savings agreements.

  20. A new hierarchical method to find community structure in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saoud, Bilal; Moussaoui, Abdelouahab

    2018-04-01

    Community structure is very important to understand a network which represents a context. Many community detection methods have been proposed like hierarchical methods. In our study, we propose a new hierarchical method for community detection in networks based on genetic algorithm. In this method we use genetic algorithm to split a network into two networks which maximize the modularity. Each new network represents a cluster (community). Then we repeat the splitting process until we get one node at each cluster. We use the modularity function to measure the strength of the community structure found by our method, which gives us an objective metric for choosing the number of communities into which a network should be divided. We demonstrate that our method are highly effective at discovering community structure in both computer-generated and real-world network data.

  1. Developing an integrated organ/system curriculum with community-orientation for a new medical college in Jazan, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa M El-Naggar

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: The new curriculum adopted by the Jazan Faculty of Medicine is an integrated, organ/ system based, community-oriented, with early clinical skills, elective modules, and innovative methods of instructions.

  2. Partnership Among Peers: Lessons Learned From the Development of a Community Organization-Academic Research Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett-Tennant, Jeri; Collins, Cyleste; Matloub, Jacqueline; Patrick, Alison; Chupp, Mark; Werner, James J; Borawski, Elaine A

    2016-01-01

    Community engagement and rigorous science are necessary to address health issues. Increasingly, community health organizations are asked to partner in research. To strengthen such community organization-academic partnerships, increase research capacity in community organizations, and facilitate equitable partnered research, the Partners in Education Evaluation and Research (PEER) program was developed. The program implements an 18-month structured research curriculum for one mid-level employee of a health-focused community-based organization with an organizational mentor and a Case Western Reserve University faculty member as partners. The PEER program was developed and guided by a community-academic advisory committee and was designed to impact the research capacity of organizations through didactic modules and partnered research in the experiential phase. Active participation of community organizations and faculty during all phases of the program provided for bidirectional learning and understanding of the challenges of community-engaged health research. The pilot program evaluation used qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques, including experiences of the participants assessed through surveys, formal group and individual interviews, phone calls, and discussions. Statistical analysis of the change in fellows' pre-test and post-test survey scores were conducted using paired sample t tests. The small sample size is recognized by the authors as a limitation of the evaluation methods and would potentially be resolved by including more cohort data as the program progresses. Qualitative data were reviewed by two program staff using content and narrative analysis to identify themes, describe and assess group phenomena and determine program improvements. The objective of PEER is to create equitable partnerships between community organizations and academic partners to further research capacity in said organizations and develop mutually beneficial research

  3. Design theory methods and organization for innovation

    CERN Document Server

    Le Masson, Pascal; Hatchuel, Armand

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents the core of recent advances in design theory and its implications for design methods and design organization. Providing a unified perspective on different design methods and approaches, from the most classic (systematic design) to the most advanced (C-K theory), it offers a unique and integrated presentation of traditional and contemporary theories in the field. Examining the principles of each theory, this guide utilizes numerous real life industrial applications, with clear links to engineering design, industrial design, management, economics, psychology and creativity. Containing a section of exams with detailed answers, it is useful for courses in design theory, engineering design and advanced innovation management. "Students and professors, practitioners and researchers in diverse disciplines, interested in design, will find in this book a rich and vital source for studying fundamental design methods and tools as well as the most advanced design theories that work in practice". Pro...

  4. Communities of clinical practice: the social organization of clinical learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Tony; Jaye, Chrystal

    2009-01-01

    The social organization of clinical learning is under-theorized in the sociological literature on the social organization of health care. Professional scopes of practice and jurisdictions are formally defined by professional principles and standards and reflected in legislation; however, these are mediated through the day-to-day clinical activities of social groupings of clinical teams. The activities of health service providers typically occur within communities of clinical practice. These are also major sites for clinical curriculum delivery, where clinical students learn not only clinical skills but also how to be health professionals. In this article, we apply Wenger's model of social learning within organizations to curriculum delivery within a health service setting. Here, social participation is the basis of learning. We suggest that it offers a powerful framework for recognizing and explaining paradox and incongruence in clinical teaching and learning, and also for recognizing opportunities, and devising means, to add value to students' learning experiences.

  5. COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE AS ONE OF THE COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE OF ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Veronica

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many organizations in the world realize that to maintain the stability of an organization within a lot of turnover in human resources, Knowledge Management (KM is a matter that cannot be forgotten. Since by storing the knowledge, organizations can continue to distribute the knowledge to people and to develop it into a practice of learning, problem solving, and then at the end it becomes a “Best Practice”. Sharing knowledge becomes the main reference in KM in large and small organizations. By multiplying the activities of knowledge sharing among employees in an organization, it can improve the competitiveness of the organization. All activities in knowledge sharing will be easier if it is formed in a Community of Practice (CoP. CoP can be regarded as a best method. In addition there are many benefits that can be spawned by it, such as in the development, dissemination of knowledge to the development of culture in an organization. The method in this paper uses literature study by describing best practices and case studies in a private bank in Indonesia. By forming the CoP, it is expected to motivate employees to share knowledge for the improvement of organizational performance.Keywords: organization, knowledge management, community of practice

  6. Conceptual hierarchical modeling to describe wetland plant community organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, A.M.; Guntenspergen, G.R.; Allen, T.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    Using multivariate analysis, we created a hierarchical modeling process that describes how differently-scaled environmental factors interact to affect wetland-scale plant community organization in a system of small, isolated wetlands on Mount Desert Island, Maine. We followed the procedure: 1) delineate wetland groups using cluster analysis, 2) identify differently scaled environmental gradients using non-metric multidimensional scaling, 3) order gradient hierarchical levels according to spatiotem-poral scale of fluctuation, and 4) assemble hierarchical model using group relationships with ordination axes and post-hoc tests of environmental differences. Using this process, we determined 1) large wetland size and poor surface water chemistry led to the development of shrub fen wetland vegetation, 2) Sphagnum and water chemistry differences affected fen vs. marsh / sedge meadows status within small wetlands, and 3) small-scale hydrologic differences explained transitions between forested vs. non-forested and marsh vs. sedge meadow vegetation. This hierarchical modeling process can help explain how upper level contextual processes constrain biotic community response to lower-level environmental changes. It creates models with more nuanced spatiotemporal complexity than classification and regression tree procedures. Using this process, wetland scientists will be able to generate more generalizable theories of plant community organization, and useful management models. ?? Society of Wetland Scientists 2009.

  7. Geography of community health information organization activity in the United States: Implications for the effectiveness of health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R

    The United States has invested nearly a billion dollars in creating community health information organizations (HIOs) to foster health information exchange. Community HIOs provide exchange services to health care organizations within a distinct geographic area. While geography is a key organizing principle for community HIOs, it is unclear if geography is an effective method for organization or what challenges are created by a geography-based approach to health information exchange. This study describes the extent of reported community HIO coverage in the United States and explores the practical and policy implications of overlaps and gaps in HIO service areas. Furthermore, because self-reported service areas may not accurately reflect the true extent of HIOs activities, this study maps the actual markets for health services included in each HIO. An inventory of operational community HIOs that included self-reported geographic markets and participating organizations was face-validated using a crowd-sourcing approach. Aggregation of the participating hospitals' individual health care markets provided the total geographic market served by each community HIO. Mapping and overlay analyses using geographic information system methods described the extent of community HIO activity in the United States. Evidence suggests that community HIOs may be inefficiently distributed. Parts of the United States have multiple, overlapping HIOs, while others do not have any providing health information exchange services. In markets served by multiple community HIOs, 45% of hospitals were participants of only one HIO. The current geography of community HIO activity does not provide comprehensive patient information to providers, nor community-wide information for public health agencies. The discord between the self-reported and market geography of community HIOs raises concerns about the potential effectiveness of health information exchange, illustrates the limitations of geography as

  8. A divisive spectral method for network community detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Li, Longjie; Yao, Yukai; Chen, Xiaoyun; Leng, Mingwei; Lu, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Community detection is a fundamental problem in the domain of complex network analysis. It has received great attention, and many community detection methods have been proposed in the last decade. In this paper, we propose a divisive spectral method for identifying community structures from networks which utilizes a sparsification operation to pre-process the networks first, and then uses a repeated bisection spectral algorithm to partition the networks into communities. The sparsification operation makes the community boundaries clearer and sharper, so that the repeated spectral bisection algorithm extract high-quality community structures accurately from the sparsified networks. Experiments show that the combination of network sparsification and a spectral bisection algorithm is highly successful, the proposed method is more effective in detecting community structures from networks than the others. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  9. Bioavailability of autochthonous dissolved organic nitrogen in marine plankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Helle; Markager, Svend Stiig; Søndergaard, Morten

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) produced during a phytoplankton bloom. The experiments were conducted with natural plankton communities as batch growth experiments over approximately 30 days with nitrogen limitation. Five to six...... times during the exponential and stationary phases of each experimental bloom the bioavailability of DON was measured over 60 days together with DOC and oxygen consumption. The overall aim was to quantify remineralization of the added nitrate. The results showed that maximum 33 % of the added nitrate...

  10. A methodology for selecting optimum organizations for space communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    This paper suggests that a methodology exists for selecting optimum organizations for future space communities of various sizes and purposes. Results of an exploratory study to identify an optimum hypothetical organizational structure for a large earth-orbiting multidisciplinary research and applications (R&A) Space Base manned by a mixed crew of technologists are presented. Since such a facility does not presently exist, in situ empirical testing was not possible. Study activity was, therefore, concerned with the identification of a desired organizational structural model rather than the empirical testing of it. The principal finding of this research was that a four-level project type 'total matrix' model will optimize the effectiveness of Space Base technologists. An overall conclusion which can be reached from the research is that application of this methodology, or portions of it, may provide planning insights for the formal organizations which will be needed during the Space Industrialization Age.

  11. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Fodelianakis, S.; Guerrero-Meseguer, L.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Highlights: • We examined the effect of organic enrichment on assemblages of marine biofilms. • Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution. • Diatom and bacterial assemblages were affected under high level of organic enrichment. • Successional patterns were similar to other communities inhabiting hard substrata. • Assemblage modifications induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. - Organic pollution modifies the assemblages of biofilm communities which may affect important ecological functions

  12. Recruitment Methods for a Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo, Artemio; Murray, Steve

    1979-01-01

    Among the most effective tools of recruitment found in this survey were the college catalog, newspaper publicity, and brochures. "Word of mouth" from friends such as alumni, students, and the community, and publicity materials in newspapers, including advertising, were found to be the best sources of information about the college. (Author)

  13. Integrating Community Health Workers (CHWs) into Health Care Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Julianne; Razi, Sima; Emery, Kyle; Quattrone, Westleigh; Tardif-Douglin, Miriam

    2017-10-01

    Health care organizations increasingly employ community health workers (CHWs) to help address growing provider shortages, improve patient outcomes, and increase access to culturally sensitive care among traditionally inaccessible or disenfranchised patient populations. Scholarly interest in CHWs has grown in recent decades, but researchers tend to focus on how CHWs affect patient outcomes rather than whether and how CHWs fit into the existing health care workforce. This paper focuses on the factors that facilitate and impede the integration of the CHWs into health care organizations, and strategies that organizations and their staff develop to overcome barriers to CHW integration. We use qualitative evaluation data from 13 awardees that received Health Care Innovation Awards from the Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Innovation to enhance the quality of health care, improve health outcomes, and reduce the cost of care using programs involving CHWs. We find that organizational capacity, support for CHWs, clarity about health care roles, and clinical workflow drive CHW integration. We conclude with practical recommendations for health care organizations interested in employing CHWs.

  14. Results from the Data & Democracy initiative to enhance community-based organization data and research capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Toy, Peggy; Wyn, Roberta; Zane, Jazmin I; Wallace, Steven P

    2012-07-01

    In an era of community-based participatory research and increased expectations for evidence-based practice, we evaluated an initiative designed to increase community-based organizations' data and research capacity through a 3-day train-the-trainer course on community health assessments. We employed a mixed method pre-post course evaluation design. Various data sources collected from 171 participants captured individual and organizational characteristics and pre-post course self-efficacy on 19 core skills, as well as behavior change 1 year later among a subsample of participants. Before the course, participants reported limited previous experience with data and low self-efficacy in basic research skills. Immediately after the course, participants demonstrated statistically significant increases in data and research self-efficacy. The subsample reported application of community assessment skills to their work and increased use of data 1 year later. Results suggest that an intensive, short-term training program can achieve large immediate gains in data and research self-efficacy in community-based organization staff. In addition, they demonstrate initial evidence of longer-term behavior change related to use of data and research skills to support their community work.

  15. Adoption of an evidence-based colorectal cancer screening promotion program by community organizations serving Filipino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Filipino Americans have low rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and high CRC mortality. To reduce this disparity, we conducted a dissemination trial in which we offered two levels of technical assistance to community organizations to disseminate an evidence-based CRC screening promotion program among their Filipino American members. This report describes the recruitment of organizations and adoption – the proportion and representativeness of organizations that decided to implement the program. Methods During the recruitment phase, we completed organizational assessments with 44 community-based organizations (previous partners in research, organizations that were referred to us, or new organizations) to assess their eligibility to participate (having ≥ 150 Filipino American members age 50+). We compared organizational characteristics of organizations that did and did not adopt our CRC screening promotion program. Results Twenty two of the 44 community organizations that completed the assessment adopted the CRC screening promotion program (50%). Adoption was highest among organizations that had previously partnered with us (11/14 = 79%) and among organizations that were referred to us by community partners (5/10 = 50%) and lowest among new organizations (6/20 = 30%). Few organizational differences were found between adopters and non-adopters. Conclusions The high rate of adoption among organizations that were referred by community partners or had partnered with us in the past underscores the importance of community resources, community-academic relationships, and partnership in the dissemination process. However, the moderate rate of adoption among new organizations and the demands of completing documentation and assessments in our trial to advance dissemination research raise questions regarding the generalizability of study findings. PMID:24618267

  16. Scenarios as methods of Community Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    The significance of the scenario workshop is the combination of creativity, reflection and action helping the participants to imaging and realise desirable futures. It can contribute to fill the gaps between visions of the future and the present situation, giving the participants knowledge and po...... and power to act themselves instead of just being passively adjusted to the ongoing changes of their organisation or community....

  17. Screening of the pelvic organ prolapse without a physical examination; (a community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehrani Fahimeh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a silent disorder with a huge impact on women's quality of life. There is limited data from community-based studies conducted to determine the prevalence of POP as its assessment needs a pelvic examination. We aimed to develop a simple screening inventory for identification of pelvic organ prolapse and then evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. Methods This study had two phases. In the first phase in order to develop a simple inventory for assessment of POP, the Pelvic Floor Disorder Inventory (PFDI was completed for a convenience sample of 200 women, aged 18-45 years, referred for annual gynecologic examination, and their pelvic organ prolapse was assessed using the standard protocol. The most sensitive and specific questions were selected as pelvic organ prolapse simple screening inventory (POPSSI. In the second phase, using a stratified multistage probability cluster sampling method, the sensitivity and specificity of the POPSSI was investigated in a non selected sample of 954 women recruited from among reproductive aged women living in four randomly selected provinces of Iran. Results The sensitivity and specificity of POPSSI for identification of pelvic organ prolapse in the general population were 45.5 and 87.4% respectively; these values were 96.7 and 20% among those women who were aware of their pelvic dysfunction. Conclusion Community based screening studies on pelvic organ prolapse could be facilitated by using the POPSSI, the sensitivity of which would be enhanced through conducting of public awareness programs.

  18. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: Organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Karen; Cutchin, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background. Increasing incidence of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation......-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions. Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight...... in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods. Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups...

  19. Community Engagement in Youth Violence Prevention: Crafting Methods to Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrel-Samuels, Susan; Bacallao, Martica; Brown, Shelli; Bower, Meredith; Zimmerman, Marc

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the Youth Violence Prevention Centers (YVPC) Program at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is to reduce youth violence in defined high-risk communities through the implementation and evaluation of comprehensive, evidence based prevention strategies. Within this common framework, each YVPC varies in its structure and methods, however all engage communities in multiple ways. We explore aspects of community engagement employed by three centers that operate in very different contexts: a rural county in North Carolina; a suburban area of Denver, Colorado; and an urban setting in Flint, Michigan. While previous research has addressed theories supporting community involvement in youth violence prevention, there has been less attention to the implementation challenges of achieving and sustaining participation. In three case examples, we describe the foci and methods for community engagement in diverse YVPC sites and detail the barriers and facilitating factors that have influenced implementation. Just as intervention programs may need to be adapted in order to meet the needs of specific populations, methods of community engagement must be tailored to the context in which they occur. We discuss case examples of community engagement in areas with varying geographies, histories, and racial and ethnic compositions. Each setting presents distinct challenges and opportunities for conducting collaborative violence prevention initiatives and for adapting engagement methods to diverse communities. Although approaches may vary depending upon local contexts, there are certain principles that appear to be common across cultures and geography: trust, transparency, communication, commitment. We also discuss the importance of flexibility in community engagement efforts.

  20. Intersections of Critical Systems Thinking and Community Based Participatory Research: A Learning Organization Example with the Autistic Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymaker, Dora M

    2016-10-01

    Critical systems thinking (CST) and community based participatory research (CBPR) are distinct approaches to inquiry which share a primary commitment to holism and human emancipation, as well as common grounding in critical theory and emancipatory and pragmatic philosophy. This paper explores their intersections and complements on a historical, philosophical, and theoretical level, and then proposes a hybrid approach achieved by applying CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice to traditional systems thinking frameworks and practices. This hybrid approach is illustrated in practice with examples drawn from of the implementation of the learning organization model in an action research setting with the Autistic community. Our experience of being able to actively attend to, and continuously equalize, power relations within an organizational framework that otherwise has great potential for reinforcing power inequity suggests CBPR's principles and considerations for operationalizing emancipatory practice could be useful in CST settings, and CST's vocabulary, methods, and clarity around systems thinking concepts could be valuable to CBPR practioners.

  1. The Affinity between Qualitative Methods and Community Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Jarg Bergold

    2000-01-01

    Basically community psychology is not associated with a certain methodology but there are good reasons why qualitative methods are chosen in many investigations in community psychology. Characteristic features of the community psychology approach are nearness to everyday life, multiperspectivity, partiality, and process orientation. These characteristics become relevant if complex psycho-social processes like empowerment, social networks etc. are investigated. In this contribution I will disc...

  2. Community Organizing as Educational Leadership: Lessons from Chicago on the Politics of Racial Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Anjalé D.; Freelon, Rhoda

    2018-01-01

    The collective power of community members has the potential to shape education reform efforts through activism and community organizing. In this article, we present two cases where community organizers exhibited key leadership strategies designed to influence district decision-making about school closures in Chicago. Employing a mix of interviews,…

  3. The Organic Food Method and Movement: An Interdisciplinary Reference Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Elizabeth E.

    2011-01-01

    From popular movies to New York Times bestsellers, organic food is widely acknowledged to be of growing importance. Many community college students are asking: How is organic food different from everything else in the grocery store? What impact does farming have on the environment? How safe is our food? A survey of reference works introduces…

  4. Speaking for ourselves: feminist methods and community psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, L; McHugh, M C

    2000-12-01

    Although feminist and community psychology share a number of epistemological and methodological perspectives that guide their respective theories and research practices, it has been argued that community psychology has not fully integrated a feminist perspective into the discipline. This paper examines how community psychology and feminist research methods might combine to help us better understand women's experiences without essentializing or universalizing those experiences. The authors offer a series of suggested directions for feminist research that may also prove promising for community psychology. Particular attention is paid to feminist social constructionist approaches insofar as they address the complex relationship between epistemology and methodology.

  5. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF TOTAL ORGANIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic matter in soils and sediments is widely distributed over the earth's surface occurring in almost all terrestrial and aquatic environments (Schnitzer, 1978). Soils and sediments contain a large variety of organic materials ranging from simple sugars and carbohydrates to the more complex proteins, fats, waxes, and organic acids. Important characteristics of the organic matter include their ability to: form water-soluble and water- insoluble complexes with metal ions and hydrous oxides; interact with clay minerals and bind particles together; sorb and desorb both naturally-occurring and anthropogenically-introduced organic compounds; absorb and release plant nutrients; and hold water in the soil environment. As a result of these characteristics, the determination of total organic carbon (a measure of one of the chemical components of organic matter that is often used as an indicator of its presence in a soil or sediment) is an essential part of any site characterization since its presence or absence can markedly influence how chemicals will react in the soil or sediment. Soil and sediment total organic carbon (TOC) determinations are typically requested with contaminant analyses as part of an ecological risk assessment data package. TOC contents may be used qualitatively to assess the nature of the sampling location (e.g., was it a depositional area) or may be used to normalize portions of the analytical chemistry data set (e.g., equilibrium partitioning).

  6. Engaging community organizations in falls prevention for older adults: Moving from research to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen F; Dykeman, Catherine S; Reimer, Holly D; Boratto, Lorna J; Goodall, Carol E; McGugan, Jennifer L

    2015-04-29

    Falls prevention (FP) evidence abounds but falls rates remain relatively unaffected. This study aimed to explore community service providers' use of evidence-based FP interventions, attitudes toward implementation, knowledge and capacity for FP engagement, collaboration in FP, and organizational readiness to implement evidence. To our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the potential for broader integration of FP throughout communities. A purposive sampling of providers (n = 84), in varied roles within diverse senior-serving community organizations (both health and non-health sectors) across disparate geographies, completed a structured survey as part of a larger mixed methods study. Nearly all (90%) reported already implementing at least one evidence-based FP practice. The majority indicated that falls were preventable (82%) and a top concern for older adults (75%), and that FP would be beneficial to their clients (75%). There were, however, notable differences between health and non-health sectors in their: confidence in providing FP activities (86% vs. 47%), desire for future collaboration (86% vs. 56%) and already knowing how best to provide FP activities (49% vs. 36%). Only some (21%) perceived that staff to a great extent had the necessary knowledge and skills, and few (10%) perceived that available resources could support FP activities. Community service providers generally supported FP, but resources limited implementation, particularly in non-health sectors. Translating FP evidence to better fit community settings, and fostering collaboration to bridge resource gaps, suggest a public health role in the broader integration of FP within and across community sectors.

  7. Using evaluation to adapt health information outreach to the complex environments of community-based organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Cynthia A

    2005-10-01

    After arguing that most community-based organizations (CBOs) function as complex adaptive systems, this white paper describes the evaluation goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important at different stages of community-based health information outreach. This paper presents the basic characteristics of complex adaptive systems and argues that the typical CBO can be considered this type of system. It then presents evaluation as a tool for helping outreach teams adapt their outreach efforts to the CBO environment and thus maximize success. Finally, it describes the goals, questions, indicators, and methods most important or helpful at each stage of evaluation (community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment). Literature from complex adaptive systems as applied to health care, business, and evaluation settings is presented. Evaluation models and applications, particularly those based on participatory approaches, are presented as methods for maximizing the effectiveness of evaluation in dynamic CBO environments. If one accepts that CBOs function as complex adaptive systems-characterized by dynamic relationships among many agents, influences, and forces-then effective evaluation at the stages of community assessment, needs assessment and planning, process evaluation, and outcomes assessment is critical to outreach success.

  8. Deterministic and fuzzy-based methods to evaluate community resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammouh, Omar; Noori, Ali Zamani; Taurino, Veronica; Mahin, Stephen A.; Cimellaro, Gian Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Community resilience is becoming a growing concern for authorities and decision makers. This paper introduces two indicator-based methods to evaluate the resilience of communities based on the PEOPLES framework. PEOPLES is a multi-layered framework that defines community resilience using seven dimensions. Each of the dimensions is described through a set of resilience indicators collected from literature and they are linked to a measure allowing the analytical computation of the indicator's performance. The first method proposed in this paper requires data on previous disasters as an input and returns as output a performance function for each indicator and a performance function for the whole community. The second method exploits a knowledge-based fuzzy modeling for its implementation. This method allows a quantitative evaluation of the PEOPLES indicators using descriptive knowledge rather than deterministic data including the uncertainty involved in the analysis. The output of the fuzzy-based method is a resilience index for each indicator as well as a resilience index for the community. The paper also introduces an open source online tool in which the first method is implemented. A case study illustrating the application of the first method and the usage of the tool is also provided in the paper.

  9. Immigrant Workers Centers in Eastern Massachusetts, USA: Fostering Services, Support, Advocacy, and Community Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Reynoso-Vallejo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigrant Workers Centers (IWCs are community-based organizations that have been developed in the United States to promote and protect workers’ rights through support, services, advocacy, and organizing initiatives. The purpose of this research study was to examine how IWCs in the Eastern part of the state of Massachusetts are structured along twelve dimensions of organizational development and community organizing. Qualitative research methods were used to identify shared themes within the six IWCs and three immigrant support organizations, as well as their organizational responses to the current anti-immigrant environment. IWCs constituted a convenience sample which enabled the researchers to gather data utilizing a case study methodology. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted between the months of July and September of 2009 to answer the following research questions: 1What are the shared themes for the development of Immigrant Workers Centers?, and 2 How do Immigrant Workers Centers respond to current anti-immigrant sentiment, intolerant immigration policies, and increased exploitation in this troubled economy? Shared themes among the IWCs include prioritizing community organizing for workers’ rights and collective empowerment. Sub-modalities such as education, training and leadership development area common feature. While some individual support is provided, and in some cases, programming, it always is offered within a context that emphasizes the need for collective action to overcome injustice. Issues addressed include health/safety, sexual harassment, discrimination, and various problems associated with wages (underpayment, missed payments, collecting back wages, and lack of overtime pay. IWCs respond to antiimmigrant policies and practices by supporting larger efforts for immigration reformat the municipal, state, and federal levels. Coalitions of IWCS and their allies attempt to make state wide and federal policy changes

  10. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  11. Methodical Problems in Organic Farming Research

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, Winfried

    2002-01-01

    Workshop presentation with particular focus on values, transferability and praxis relevance of organic farming research. Examples from agricultural engineering lead to the conclusion, that prototype farming, goal oriented project management, participative decision making and funding, coaching of co-operation, and coaching of conflict management may enhance long term, holistic and interdisciplinary research.

  12. Method for obtaining more precise measures of excreted organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    A new method for concentrating and measuring excreted organic carbon by lyophilization and scintillation counting is efficient, improves measurable radioactivity, and increases precision for estimates of organic carbon excreted by phytoplankton and macrophytes

  13. Give Water a Hand. Community Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation within a community, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  14. A new method for identifying the types of organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Chunhan; Li Guodong

    1991-01-01

    A new method for dividing the types of organic matter according to V and Ni contents in soluble organic matter determined by NAA is introduced. The research site was an oil-gas field in northeastern China. The type of organic matter is an important parameter in evaluating an oil or a gas field. The conventional organic geochemistry methods will meet unsurmountable difficulties when the maturity of organic matter is high. The method described in this paper can solve the problem. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 2 tabs

  15. A novel community detection method in bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cangqi; Feng, Liang; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2018-02-01

    Community structure is a common and important feature in many complex networks, including bipartite networks, which are used as a standard model for many empirical networks comprised of two types of nodes. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method for detecting community structure in bipartite networks. Firstly, we extend the widely-used Louvain algorithm to bipartite networks. The effectiveness and efficiency of the Louvain algorithm have been proved by many applications. However, there lacks a Louvain-like algorithm specially modified for bipartite networks. Based on bipartite modularity, a measure that extends unipartite modularity and that quantifies the strength of partitions in bipartite networks, we fill the gap by developing the Bi-Louvain algorithm that iteratively groups the nodes in each part by turns. This algorithm in bipartite networks often produces a balanced network structure with equal numbers of two types of nodes. Secondly, for the balanced network yielded by the first algorithm, we use an agglomerative clustering method to further cluster the network. We demonstrate that the calculation of the gain of modularity of each aggregation, and the operation of joining two communities can be compactly calculated by matrix operations for all pairs of communities simultaneously. At last, a complete hierarchical community structure is unfolded. We apply our method to two benchmark data sets and a large-scale data set from an e-commerce company, showing that it effectively identifies community structure in bipartite networks.

  16. Source Materials for the Healthy Communities Toolkit: A Resource Guide for Community and Faith-Based Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Joie; Chandra, Anita; Williams, Malcolm; Davis, Lois M

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act places significant emphasis on the role of community-based health promotion initiatives; within this focus, community and faith-based organizations (CFBOs) are seen as critical partners for improving community well-being. This article describes a report that provides the content for a toolkit that will prepare community and faith-based organizations to take advantage of opportunities presented in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and engage faith and community leaders in promoting health in their communities. This includes key facts and figures about health topics, handouts for community groups, and web links for resources and other information in the following areas: healthcare reform; community health centers and development of the community health workforce; promotion of healthy families; mental health; violence and trauma; prevention of teen and unintended pregnancy and HIV/AIDS; and chronic disease prevention. The report also includes recommendations for testing the content of the toolkit with communities and considerations for its implementation.

  17. Developing community based rehabilitation for cancer survivors: organizing for coordination and coherence in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing incidences of cancer combined with prolonged survival have raised the need for developing community based rehabilitation. The objectives of the analysis were to describe and interpret the key issues related to coordination and coherence of community-based cancer rehabilitation in Denmark and to provide insights relevant for other contexts. Methods Twenty-seven rehabilitation managers across 15 municipalities in Denmark comprised the sample. The study was designed with a combination of data collection methods including questionnaires, individual interviews, and focus groups. A Grounded Theory approach was used to analyze the data. Results A lack of shared cultures among health care providers and systems of delivery was a primary barrier to collaboration which was essential for establishing coordination of care. Formal multidisciplinary steering committees, team-based organization, and informal relationships were fundamental for developing coordination and coherence. Conclusions Coordination and coherence in community-based rehabilitation relies on increased collaboration, which may best be optimized by use of shared frameworks within and across systems. Results highlight the challenges faced in practical implementation of community rehabilitation and point to possible strategies for its enhancement. PMID:24004881

  18. Community-based organizations in the health sector: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Michael G

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Community-based organizations are important health system stakeholders as they provide numerous, often highly valued programs and services to the members of their community. However, community-based organizations are described using diverse terminology and concepts from across a range of disciplines. To better understand the literature related to community-based organizations in the health sector (i.e., those working in health systems or more broadly to address population or public health issues, we conducted a scoping review by using an iterative process to identify existing literature, conceptually map it, and identify gaps and areas for future inquiry. We searched 18 databases and conducted citation searches using 15 articles to identify relevant literature. All search results were reviewed in duplicate and were included if they addressed the key characteristics of community-based organizations or networks of community-based organizations. We then coded all included articles based on the country focus, type of literature, source of literature, academic discipline, disease sector, terminology used to describe organizations and topics discussed. We identified 186 articles addressing topics related to the key characteristics of community-based organizations and/or networks of community-based organizations. The literature is largely focused on high-income countries and on mental health and addictions, HIV/AIDS or general/unspecified populations. A large number of different terms have been used in the literature to describe community-based organizations and the literature addresses a range of topics about them (mandate, structure, revenue sources and type and skills or skill mix of staff, the involvement of community members in organizations, how organizations contribute to community organizing and development and how they function in networks with each other and with government (e.g., in policy networks. Given the range of terms used to

  19. Encapsulation methods for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D.; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijian

    2013-06-18

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device encapsulated by alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The encapsulation methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  20. 76 FR 7855 - Patient Safety Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Organizations: Voluntary Delisting From Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety AGENCY: Agency for... Medical Foundation for Patient Safety, of its status as a Patient Safety Organization (PSO). The Patient... notification from Community Medical Foundation for Patient Safety, PSO number P0029, to voluntarily relinquish...

  1. Effects of organic pollution on biological communities of marine biofilm on hard substrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C; Fodelianakis, S; Guerrero-Meseguer, L; Marín, A; Karakassis, I

    2015-06-01

    We examined the effect of organic enrichment on diatom and bacterial assemblages of marine epilithic biofilms on two locations in the Mediterranean, one situated in Spain and the other in Greece. Total organic carbon, total organic nitrogen, stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) and chlorophyll a indicated significant incorporation of organic wastes, increased primary production and trophic niche modifications on the biofilms close to the organic enrichment source. In Spain, where the organic load was higher than in Greece, diatom and, to some extent, bacterial assemblages varied following the organic enrichment gradient. The taxonomic richness of diatom and bacterial communities was not influenced by organic enrichment. Classical community parameters showed consistent patterns to organic pollution in both locations, whereas community assemblages were only influenced when organic pollution was greatest. The successional patterns of these communities were similar to other epilithic communities. The modification of community assemblages induced by organic pollution may affect ecological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Community Mining Method of Label Propagation Based on Dense Pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WENG Wei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the popularity of handheld Internet equipments like mobile phones, increasing numbers of people are becoming involved in the virtual social network. Because of its large amount of data and complex structure, the network faces new challenges of community mining. A label propagation algorithm with low time complexity and without prior parameters deals easily with a large networks. This study explored a new method of community mining, based on label propagation with two stages. The first stage involved identifying closely linked nodes according to their local adjacency relations that gave rise to a micro-community. The second stage involved expanding and adjusting this community through a label propagation algorithm (LPA to finally obtain the community structure of the entire social network. This algorithm reduced the number of initial labels and avoided the merging of small communities in general LPAs. Thus, the quality of community discovery was improved, and the linear time complexity of the LPA was maintained.

  3. Community health needs assessment with precede-proceed model: a mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yang

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community health services in China have developed over the last few decades. In order to use limited health resources more effectively, we conducted a community health needs assessment. This aimed to provide an understanding of the community's health problems and the range of potential factors affecting risk behaviours for the priority health problems. Methods We used the precede-proceed model for the needs assessment. Triangulation of data, methods and researchers were employed in data collection. Results Main findings include: cardiovascular diseases (CVDs were identified as the priority health problems in the study communities; risk factors associated with CVDs included smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours, particularly amongst male residents with low education level; factors negatively affecting behaviours were classified into predisposing factors (limited knowledge, beliefs and lack of perceived needs, enabling factors (limited access to health promotion activities, unawareness of health promotion, lack of work-site and school health promotion, absence of health promotion related policy and reinforcing factors (culture. Policies and organization were not perfect; there were limited staff skilled in providing health promotion in the community. Conclusion CVDs were identified by the communities as priority health problems. Future health programs should focus on smoking, physical inactivity and unhealthy eating behaviours. Behaviour change strategies should take predisposing factors, enabling factors and reinforcing factors into consideration. Policies, organization and human resource need strengthening.

  4. Traditions and Management Perspectives of Community and Non-Profit Organizations in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiukynas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.

  5. The Community Mental Health Center as a Matrix Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen L.

    1978-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the literature on matrix organizational designs and discusses the ways in which the matrix design might be applied to the special features of a community mental health center. The phases of one community mental health center's experience in adopting a matrix organizational structure are described. (Author)

  6. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A; Pratte, Zoe A; Kellogg, Christina A

    2013-02-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), DMSO-EDTA-salt (DESS), FTA(®) cards, and FTA Elute(®) cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA(®) cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Polar ecosystem dynamics: recovery of communities from organic enrichment in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Stacy; Hammerstom, Kamille K; Conlan, Kathleen E; Thurber, Andrew R

    2010-12-01

    Community structure and diversity are influenced by patterns of disturbance and input of food. In Antarctica, the marine ecosystem undergoes highly seasonal changes in availability of light and in primary production. Near research stations, organic input from human activities can disturb the regular productivity regime with a consistent input of sewage. McMurdo Sound has both high-productivity and low-productivity habitats, thereby providing an ideal test bed for community recovery dynamics under polar conditions. We used experimental manipulations of the subtidal communities to test the hypotheses that (1) benthic communities respond differently to disturbance from organic enrichment versus burial and (2) community response also varies in areas with different natural patterns of food supply. Both in low- and high-food habitats, the strongest community response was to organic enrichment and resulted in dominance of typical organic-enrichment specialists. In habitats with highly seasonal productivity, community response was predictable and recovery was rapid. In habitats with low productivity, community variability was high and caging treatments suggested that inconsistencies were due to patchy impacts by scavengers. In areas normally subject to regular organic enrichment, either from primary production or from further up the food web (defecation by marine mammals), recovery of benthic communities takes only years even in a polar system. However, a low-productivity regime is as common in near shore habitats around the continent; under these conditions, recovery of benthic communities from disturbance is likely to be much slower and follow a variable ecological trajectory.

  8. Methods and systems for chemoautotrophic production of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Curt R.; Che, Austin J.; Shetty, Reshma P.; Kelly, Jason R.

    2018-02-27

    The present disclosure identifies pathways, mechanisms, systems and methods to confer chemoautotrophic production of carbon-based products of interest, such as sugars, alcohols, chemicals, amino acids, polymers, fatty acids and their derivatives, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, and intermediates thereof, in organisms such that these organisms efficiently convert inorganic carbon to organic carbon-based products of interest using inorganic energy, such as formate, and in particular the use of organisms for the commercial production of various carbon-based products of interest.

  9. Methods for Determining Organic Matter and Colour in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramunė Albrektienė

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article examines different methods for determining organic matter and colour in water. Most of organic compounds in water have a humic substance. These substances frequently form complexes with iron. Humic matter gives water a yellow-brownish colour. Water filtration through conventional sand filters does not remove colour and organic compounds, and therefore complicated water treatment methods shall be applied. The methods utilized for organic matter determination in water included research on total organic carbon, permanganate index and the bichromate number of UV absorption of 254 nm wave length. The obtained results showed the greatest dependence between water colour and permanganate index. However, UV adsorption could be used for organic matter determination during the operation of a water treatment plant and the start-up of plants as easy and fast methods.Article in Lithuanian

  10. Dynamic functional connectivity using state-based dynamic community structure: method and application to opioid analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lucy F; Atlas, Lauren Y; Wager, Tor D

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method, State-based Dynamic Community Structure, that detects time-dependent community structure in networks of brain regions. Most analyses of functional connectivity assume that network behavior is static in time, or differs between task conditions with known timing. Our goal is to determine whether brain network topology remains stationary over time, or if changes in network organization occur at unknown time points. Changes in network organization may be related to shifts in neurological state, such as those associated with learning, drug uptake or experimental conditions. Using a hidden Markov stochastic blockmodel, we define a time-dependent community structure. We apply this approach to data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment examining how contextual factors influence drug-induced analgesia. Results reveal that networks involved in pain, working memory, and emotion show distinct profiles of time-varying connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. An improved high throughput sequencing method for studying oomycete communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapkota, Rumakanta; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    the usefulness of the method not only in soil DNA but also in a plant DNA background. In conclusion, we demonstrate a successful approach for pyrosequencing of oomycete communities using ITS1 as the barcode sequence with well-known primers for oomycete DNA amplification....... communities. Thewell-known primer sets ITS4, ITS6 and ITS7were used in the study in a semi-nested PCR approach to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of ribosomal DNA in a next generation sequencing protocol. These primers have been used in similar studies before, butwith limited success.......Wewere able to increase the proportion of retrieved oomycete sequences dramaticallymainly by increasing the annealing temperature during PCR. The optimized protocol was validated using three mock communities and the method was further evaluated using total DNA from 26 soil samples collected from different...

  12. The Role of Soil Organic Matter, Nutrients, and Microbial Community Structure on the Performance of Microbial Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Dunaj, S. J.; Vallino, J. J.; Hines, M. E.; Gay, M.; Kobyljanec, C.

    2011-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) offer the potential for generating electricity, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, and bioremediating pollutants through utilization of a plentiful, natural, and renewable resource: soil organic carbon. In the current study, we analyzed microbial community structure, MFC performance, and soil characteristics in different microhabitats (bulk soil, anode, and cathode) within MFCs constructed from agricultural or forest soils in order to determine how soil type and microbial dynamics influence MFC performance. MFCs were constructed with soils from agricultural and hardwood forest sites at Harvard Forest (Petersham, MA). The bulk soil characteristics were analyzed, including polyphenols, short chain fatty acids, total organic C and N, abiotic macronutrients, N and P mineralization rates, CO2 respiration rates, and MFC power output. Microbial community structure of the anodes, cathodes, and bulk soils was determined with molecular fingerprinting methods, which included terminal restriction length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Our results indicated that MFCs constructed from agricultural soil had power output about 17 times that of forest soil-based MFCs and respiration rates about 10 times higher than forest soil MFCs. Agricultural soil MFCs had lower C:N ratios, polyphenol content, and acetate concentrations than forest soil MFCs, suggesting that active agricultural MFC microbial communities were supported by higher quality organic carbon. Microbial community profile data indicate that the microbial communities at the anode of the high power MFCs were less diverse than in low power MFCs and were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria, Geobacter, and, to a lesser extent, Clostridia, while low-power MFC anode communities were dominated by Clostridia. These data suggest that the presence of organic carbon substrate (acetate) was not the major limiting factor in selecting for highly electrogenic microbial

  13. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  14. Community Based Distribution of Child Spacing Methods at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uses volunteer CBD agents. Mrs. E.F. Pelekamoyo. Service Delivery Officer. National Family Welfare Council of Malawi. Private Bag 308. Lilongwe 3. Malawi. Community Based Distribution of. Child Spacing Methods ... than us at the Hospital; male motivators by talking to their male counterparts help them to accept that their ...

  15. Community of Inquiry Method and Language Skills Acquisition: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Abdul Shakhour Duncan

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the effectiveness of community of inquiry method in preparing students to develop listening and speaking skills in a sample of junior secondary school students in Borno state, Nigeria. A sample of 100 students in standard classes was drawn in one secondary school in Maiduguri metropolis through stratified random sampling…

  16. Self-organizing expert communities in educational projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennadiy P. Vinogradov

    2018-01-01

    principles of its functioning as an active multi-agent system when forming a specialist knowledge model. It is proposed to consider the construction of specialist’s knowledge model in the context of corporate knowledge management strategies in organizations to increase competitiveness, as the established support systems for organization knowledge lifecycle and specialist’s integral knowledge model are used to integrate strategic corporate tasks with strategic tasks of developing employees’ corporate knowledge. They consider a specialist as an element of a company production system. His purpose is to give a product specified quantitative and qualitative parameters that ensure its competitive advantages. To carry out production activities, a specialist uses a complex of abilities, knowledge and skills that should be considered as models of his production and technological activities. At each moment, this complex should be considered as a subjective model of its production and technological activity. This creates a basis for a university self-development process by involving advanced consumers using network technologies in the innovative process of improving educational services, receiving ideas or content by referring to their creative abilities in exchange for a reward that corresponds to a contribution. The paper proposes a system that provides a direction for finding solutions and ideas, as well as filtering, summarizing information, determining its value and prospects. It is shown that the method of improving the quality of solutions on an educational project is the synthesis of crowdsourcing technologies, network expertise and the methodology of the active systems theory.Conclusions. The proposed approach allows considering the process of extracting new ideas and knowledge when forming a specialist’s knowledge model as an active system with heterogeneous agents with a counter way of sharing information and active influence of the center in the form of queries to

  17. The European Community ITER Home Team Organization: January 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, W.R.

    1994-01-01

    The European Community (EC) Fusion Programme embraces all work carried out in the field of thermonuclear fusion by magnetic confinement in the 12 Member States and in two extra-Community countries, Sweden and Switzerland (which are fully associated with this Programme). The long-term objective of the EC Fusion Programme is the joint creation of safe, environmentally sound prototype reactors. This Programme presents itself as a single body in its relation with other Fusion Programmes in the world

  18. Development of the Community Impact Scale Measuring Community Organization Perceptions of Partnership Benefits and Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Tejaswinhi; Meenan, Chelsea E.; Drogin, Elizabeth; DePrince, Anne P.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the Community Impact Scale (CIS), a measure of benefits and costs of community-university partnerships across a range of outcomes as perceived by community partners. Scale development was carried out in two phases: (a) item generation, through which the research team, in close…

  19. Review on methods for determination of metallothioneins in aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Fatemeh; Shariati, Shahab

    2011-06-01

    One aspect of environmental degradation in coastal areas is pollution from toxic metals, which are persistent and are bioaccumulated by marine organisms, with serious public health implications. A conventional monitoring system of environmental metal pollution includes measuring the level of selected metals in the whole organism or in respective organs. However, measuring only the metal content in particular organs does not give information about its effect at the subcellular level. Therefore, the evaluation of biochemical biomarker metallothionein may be useful in assessing metal exposure and the prediction of potential detrimental effects induced by metal contamination. There are some methods for the determination of metallothioneins including spectrophotometric method, electrochemical methods, chromatography, saturation-based methods, immunological methods, electrophoresis, and RT-PCR. In this paper, different methods are discussed briefly and the comparison between them will be presented.

  20. Community assessment in a suburban Hispanic community: a description of method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig-Beymer, P; Blankemeier, J R; Casas-Byots, C; Suarez-Balcazar, Y

    1996-01-01

    The Hispanic population is growing rapidly and is composed of individuals from many countries with varying levels of acculturation, education, income, and citizenship status. The Genesis Health and Empowerment Program was developed locally in 1993 to improve the health status of Hispanics living in Des Plaines, Illinois, USA. Understanding the quality of life and its cultural patterning for the community is an essential aspect of planning and implementing a health care delivery program. Using Leininger's Theory of Culture Care: Diversity and Universality as a framework, adapted the Concerns Report Method was essential for data collection. This paper describes the method used for learning about the Hispanic community. Steps included conducting three focus groups, constructing a structured interview guide, collecting data, analyzing data, and reporting the findings to the community. Some very preliminary findings are presented and implications for transcultural health care are described.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of organic compounds estimation methods, principles and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Janz, George J

    1967-01-01

    Thermodynamic Properties of Organic Compounds: Estimation Methods, Principles and Practice, Revised Edition focuses on the progression of practical methods in computing the thermodynamic characteristics of organic compounds. Divided into two parts with eight chapters, the book concentrates first on the methods of estimation. Topics presented are statistical and combined thermodynamic functions; free energy change and equilibrium conversions; and estimation of thermodynamic properties. The next discussions focus on the thermodynamic properties of simple polyatomic systems by statistical the

  2. Organizations as professional communities in the post/modern era.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. ing. Adriaan Oosterloo

    2011-01-01

    What is the meaning of social context for the connection between Psychologists and Social Workers with the organization they work for? Many professionals are searching for both professional space, and a fitting connectedness to the organization. This connection seems to be greatly influenced by

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF ESTIMATION METHODS OF PHARMACY ORGANIZATION BANKRUPTCY PROBABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Adzhienko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A purpose of this study was to determine the probability of bankruptcy by various methods in order to predict the financial crisis of pharmacy organization. Estimating the probability of pharmacy organization bankruptcy was conducted using W. Beaver’s method adopted in the Russian Federation, with integrated assessment of financial stability use on the basis of scoring analysis. The results obtained by different methods are comparable and show that the risk of bankruptcy of the pharmacy organization is small.

  4. A license to mine?: Community organizing against multinational corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Krämer, Romy

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how does this discourse matter for social movement repression? First, I argue, based on a literature review, that responsiveness to local community needs has become an important factor influencing the ab...

  5. Utilizing Strategic and Operational Methods for Whole-Community Disaster Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Stevee; Seaton, Ellen

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of response and recovery efforts to disasters over the past 2 decades has identified a consistent gap that plagues the nation in regard to persons with access and functional needs. This gap can be highlighted by Hurricane Katrina, where the majority of those killed were a part of the access and functional needs population. After a disaster, many individuals with access and functional needs require assistance recovering but often have difficulty accessing services and resources. These difficulties are due to a combination of issues, such as health problems and the disruption of community support services. We sought to help bridge this gap by focusing on strategic and operational methods used while planning for the whole community. This article highlights the many partnerships that must be fostered for successful whole-community planning. These partnerships include, but are not limited to, local government departments, health agencies, nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, and other volunteer organizations. We showcase these methods by using a developmental Post-Disaster Canvassing Plan to highlight planning methods that may aid jurisdictions across the United States in disaster planning for the whole community. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:741-746).

  6. Service-Learning from the Perspective of Community Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    As a central construct in the theory of service-learning, reciprocity for community partners is not often the subject of scholarship, especially scholarship that seeks to understand the benefits and opportunity costs of service-learning. This article explores how reciprocity works in higher education service-learning from the perspective of…

  7. A license to mine? : Community organizing against multinational corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Krämer (Romy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWhat does it mean when a corporation claims to have a ‘license to operate’ in a local community? How does a member of an indigenous tribe make it to London to protest against a multinational mining company? How do managers perceive and speak about protest against their company and how

  8. EarthCube: A Community Organization for Geoscience Cyberinfrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, K.; Allison, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Science Foundation's (NSF) EarthCube initiative is a community-driven approach to building cyberinfrastructure for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information to better address today's grand-challenge science questions. The EarthCube Test Enterprise Governance project is a two-year effort seeking to engage diverse geo- and cyber-science communities in applying a responsive approach to the development of a governing system for EarthCube. During Year 1, an Assembly of seven stakeholder groups representing the broad EarthCube community developed a draft Governance Framework. Finalized at the June 2014 EarthCube All Hands Meeting, this framework will be tested during the demonstration phase in Year 2, beginning October 2014. A brief overview of the framework: Community-elected members of the EarthCube Leadership Council will be responsible for managing strategic direction and identifying the scope of EarthCube. Three Standing Committees will also be established to oversee the development of technology and architecture, to coordinate among new and existing data facilities, and to represent the academic geosciences community in driving development of EarthCube cyberinfrastructure. An Engagement Team and a Liaison Team will support communication and partnerships with internal and external stakeholders, and a central Office will serve a logistical support function to the governance as a whole. Finally, ad hoc Working Groups and Special Interest Groups will take on other issues related to EarthCube's goals. The Year 2 demonstration phase will test the effectiveness of the proposed framework and allow for elements to be changed to better meet community needs. It will begin by populating committees and teams, and finalizing leadership and decision-making processes to move forward on community-selected priorities including identifying science drivers, coordinating emerging technical elements, and coming to convergence on system architecture. A

  9. Health politics meets post-modernism: its meaning and implications for community health organizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenau, P V

    1994-01-01

    In this article, post-modern theory is described and applied to health politics with examples from community health organizing, social movements, and health promotion. Post-modernism questions conventional assumptions about concepts such as representation, participation, empowerment, community, identity, causality, accountability, responsibility, authority, and roles in community health promotion (those of expert, leader, and organizer). I compare post-modern social movements with their modern counterparts: the organizational forms, leadership styles, and substantive intellectual orientations of the two differ. I explain the social planning, community development, and social action models of community health organizing, comparing them with the priorities of post-modern social movements, and show the similarities and differences between them as to structural preferences, process, and strategies. Finally, and most importantly, I present the implicit lessons that post-modernism offers to health politics and outline the strengths and weaknesses of this approach to health politics.

  10. A new method used to evaluate organic working fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinxin; He, Maogang; Wang, Jingfu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a method named “Weight Classification-Hasse Dominance” to evaluate organic working fluids. This new method combines the advantages of both the method of weight determination and the Hasse Diagram Technique (HDT). It can be used to evaluate the thermodynamic performance, environmental protection indicator, and safety requirement of organic working fluid simultaneously. This evaluation method can offer good reference for working fluid selection. Using this method, the organic working fluids which have been phased out and will be phased out by the Montreal Protocol including CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons), HCFCs (hydrochlorofluorocarbons), and HFCs (hydrofluorocarbons) were evaluated. Moreover, HCs (hydrocarbons) can be considered as a completely different kind of organic working fluid from CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs according to the comparison based on this new evaluation method. - Highlights: • We propose a new method used to evaluate organic working fluids. • This evaluation method can offer good reference for working fluid selection. • CFC, HCFC, and HFC working fluids were evaluated using this evaluation method. • HC can be considered as a totally different working fluid from CFC, HCFC, and HFC

  11. Communities with Source Separated Organics Programs, United States, 2015, EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains polygon features that represent communities with residential organics collection programs in the United States. EPA used US Census Bureau...

  12. The Organization and Structure of Community Education Offerings in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael; Grover, Kenda S.; Kacirek, Kit

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services community colleges provide is community education, meaning those programs and activities that are often offered for leisure or self-improvement and not for credit. Programs of this nature are increasingly challenged to be self-financing, whether through user fees or externally funded grants. The current study explored 75…

  13. Community Based Learning and Civic Engagement: Informal Learning among Adult Volunteers in Community Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundel, Karsten; Schugurensky, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Many iterations of community based learning employ models, such as consciousness raising groups, cultural circles, and participatory action research. In all of them, learning is a deliberate part of an explicit educational activity. This article explores another realm of community learning: the informal learning that results from volunteering in…

  14. Application of the holistic methods in analysis of organic milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Popović-Vranješ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming has advantages in terms of environmental protection, biodiversity, soil quality, animal welfare and pesticide residues. Unlike conventional production “organic chain” means that healthy soil leads to healthy animal feed, leading to healthy cows with normal milk, which eventually leads to healthy consumers. Since this must be scientifically proven, there is an increasing need for scientific methods that will reveal the benefits of organic food. For this purpose holistic methods such as biocrystallization and methods of rising picture are introduced. Biocrystallization shows that organic milk is systematically more “balanced” and that there is more “ordered structure” and better “integration and coordination.” Previous studies using biocrystallization method were performed on the raw milk produced in different conditions, differently treated milk (heat treatment and homogenization and on butter. Pictures of biocrystallization are firstly visually assessed and then by the computer analysis of texture images, which are used to estimate the density of images. Rising picture method which normally works in parallel with biocrystallization can differentiate samples of Demeter, and organic milk from conventional production and milk treated differently during processing. Organic milk in relation to conventional shows better result in terms of impact on the health of consumers when using both the conventional and holistic methods.

  15. The Cooperative Organization And Rural Passenger Transportation: An Approach to Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stommes, Eileen S.

    The need for passenger transportation is widely recognized by rural communities. Shrinking federal funding has led many communities and human service agencies to experiment with innovative approaches to provide transportation services. One such approach is the use of cooperative organizations to provide needed services. A study conducted by the…

  16. Root-derived organic matter confines sponge community composition in mangrove ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunting, E.R.; Ubels, S.M.; Kraak, M.H.S.; van der Geest, H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Caribbean mangrove-associated sponge communities are very distinct from sponge communities living on nearby reefs, but the mechanisms that underlie this distinction remain uncertain. It has been hypothesized that dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from mangrove roots and the

  17. Microbial community responses in forest mineral soil to compaction, organic matter removal, and vegetation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Samual E. Beattie; Robert F. Powers; Filpe G. Sanchez; Allan E. Tiarks

    2006-01-01

    We tested three disturbance hypotheses in young conifer plantations: H1: soil compaction and removal of surface organic matter produces sustained changes in microbial community size, activity, and structure in mineral soil; H2: microbial community characteristics in mineral soil are linked to the recovery of plant diversity...

  18. Pastoral community organization, livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in Mongolia's Southern Gobi Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine M. Schmidt

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I describe processes and impacts of collective action by mobile pastoralist communities, and of external support strategies to strengthen local institutions and cooperation in Mongolia’s southern Gobi. The need for pastoral mobility triggered the processes leading to community organization, and the emergence, or re-emergence, of local informal...

  19. Organizing for Change: A Case Study of Grassroots Leadership at a Kentucky Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borregard, Andrea Rae

    2016-01-01

    Community colleges constitute a special type of higher education organization: their complex mission, dynamics, personnel structures, and values require a distinct set of understandings and skills to lead and manage them well. Most of the research on leadership in community colleges focuses on leaders in positions of power (presidents, provosts,…

  20. Perspectives of Community- and Faith-Based Organizations about Partnering with Local Health Departments for Disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Stajura

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way “push” model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  1. Perspectives of community- and faith-based organizations about partnering with local health departments for disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stajura, Michael; Glik, Deborah; Eisenman, David; Prelip, Michael; Martel, Andrea; Sammartinova, Jitka

    2012-07-01

    Public health emergency planners can better perform their mission if they develop and maintain effective relationships with community- and faith-based organizations in their jurisdictions. This qualitative study presents six themes that emerged from 20 key informant interviews representing a wide range of American community- and faith-based organizations across different types of jurisdictions, organizational types, and missions. This research seeks to provide local health department public health emergency planners with tools to assess and improve their inter-organizational community relationships. The themes identified address the importance of community engagement, leadership, intergroup dynamics and communication, and resources. Community- and faith-based organizations perceive that they are underutilized or untapped resources with respect to public health emergencies and disasters. One key reason for this is that many public health departments limit their engagement with community- and faith-based organizations to a one-way "push" model for information dissemination, rather than engaging them in other ways or improving their capacity. Beyond a reprioritization of staff time, few other resources would be required. From the perspective of community- and faith-based organizations, the quality of relationships seems to matter more than discrete resources provided by such ties.

  2. Development of Methods of Innovative Projects’ Management in Developer Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papelniuk Oksana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the author studies the conceptual scheme of life cycle of innovative developer project and offers methods of innovative projects' management according to the stages of its lifecycle. The author describes algorithm of the organization of management system of innovative projects in the developer organization representing set of stages and methods. The offered algorithm allows developer organizations achieve one of the main of their objectives, which is the creation of a special environment of comfortable accommodation with the emphasis on ecological compatibility and energy efficiency.

  3. A simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qian-Qian; An Qiao-Shi; Zhang Fu-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The performances of organic optoelectronic devices, such as organic light emitting diodes and polymer solar cells, have rapidly improved in the past decade. The stability of an organic optoelectronic device has become a key problem for further development. In this paper, we report one simple encapsulation method for organic optoelectronic devices with a parafilm, based on ternary polymer solar cells (PSCs). The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of PSCs with and without encapsulation decrease from 2.93% to 2.17% and from 2.87% to 1.16% after 168-hours of degradation under an ambient environment, respectively. The stability of PSCs could be enhanced by encapsulation with a parafilm. The encapsulation method is a competitive choice for organic optoelectronic devices, owing to its low cost and compatibility with flexible devices. (atomic and molecular physics)

  4. Selection criteria for oxidation method in total organic carbon measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, GeunSeok; Park, Sang-Min; Yang, Heuiwon; Tsang, Daniel C W; Alessi, Daniel S; Baek, Kitae

    2018-05-01

    During the measurement of total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon is converted into CO 2 by using high temperature combustion (HTC) or wet chemical oxidation (WCO). However, the criteria for selecting the oxidation methods are not clear. In this study, the chemical structures of organic material were considered as a key factor to select the oxidation method used. Most non-degradable organic compounds showed a similar oxidation efficiency in both methods, including natural organic compounds, dyes, and pharmaceuticals, and thus both methods are appropriate to measure TOC in waters containing these compounds. However, only a fraction of the carbon in the halogenated compounds (perfluorooctanoic acid and trifluoroacetic acid) were oxidized using WCO, resulting in measured TOC values that are considerably lower than those determined by HTC. This result is likely due to the electronegativity of halogen elements which inhibits the approach of electron-rich sulfate radicals in the WCO, and the higher bond strength of carbon-halogen pairs as compared to carbon-hydrogen bonds, which results in a lower degree of oxidation of the compounds. Our results indicate that WCO could be used to oxidize most organic compounds, but may not be appropriate to quantify TOC in organic carbon pools that contain certain halogenated compounds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Novel Method for Analyzing Microbially Affiliated Volatile Organic Compounds in Soil Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhs, C. V.; McNeal, K. S.

    2010-12-01

    A concerted, international effort by citizens, governments, industries and educational systems is necessary to address the myriad environmental issues that face us today. The authors of this paper concentrate on soil environments and, specifically, the methods currently used to characterize them. The ability to efficiently and effectively monitor and characterize various soils is desired, allows for the study, supervision, and protection of natural and cultivated ecosystems, and may assist stakeholders in meeting governmentally-imposed environmental standards. This research addresses soil characterization by a comparison of four methods that emphasize a combination of microbial community and metabolic measures: BIOLOG, fatty acid methyl-ester analysis (FAME), descriptive physical and chemical analysis (moisture content, pH, carbon content, nutrient content, and grain size), and the novel soil-microbe volatile organic compound analysis (SMVOC) presented in this work. In order to achieve the method comparison, soils were collected from three climatic regions (Bahamas, Michigan, and Mississippi), with three samples taken from niche ecosystems found at each climatic region (a total of nine sites). Of interest to the authors is whether or not an investigation of microbial communities and the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by microbial communities from nine separate soil ecosystems provides useful information about soil dynamics. In essence, is analysis of soil-derived VOCs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) an effective method for characterizing microbial communities and their metabolic activity of soils rapidly and accurately compared with the other three traditional characterization methods? Preliminary results suggest that VOCs in each of these locales differ with changes in soil types, soil moisture, and bacterial community. Each niche site shows distinct patterns in both VOCs and BIOLOG readings. Results will be presented to show the

  6. Does Social Capital Explain Community-Level Differences in Organ Donor Designation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Keren; Wang, Rui; Fleishman, Aaron; Boger, Matthew; Rodrigue, James R

    2015-09-01

    The growing shortage of life-saving organs has reached unprecedented levels, with more than 120,000 Americans waiting for them. Despite national attempts to increase organ donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, geographic disparities remain. A better understanding of the contextual determinants of organ donor designation, including social capital, may enhance efforts to increase organ donation by raising the probability of collective action and fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. Because community-level factors, including social capital, predict more than half the variation in donor designation, future interventions should tailor strategies to specific communities as the unit of intervention. The growing shortage of organs has reached unprecedented levels. Despite national attempts to increase donation and federal laws mandating the equitable allocation of organs, their availability and waiting times vary significantly nationwide. Organ donor designation is a collective action problem in public health, in which the regional organ supply and average waiting times are determined by the willingness of individuals to be listed as organ donors. Social capital increases the probability of collective action by fostering norms of reciprocity and cooperation while increasing costs to defectors. We examine whether social capital and other community-level factors explain geographic variation in organ donor designation rates in Massachusetts. We obtained a sample of 3,281,532 registered drivers in 2010 from the Massachusetts Department of Transportation Registry of Motor Vehicles (MassDOT RMV). We then geocoded the registry data, matched them to 4,466 census blocks, and linked them to the 2010 US Census, the American Community Survey (ACS), and other sources to obtain community-level sociodemographic, social capital (residential segregation, voter registration and participation, residential

  7. Methods of soil organic carbon determination in Brazilian savannah soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Hiromi Sato

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Several methods exist for determining soil organic carbon, and each one has its own advantages and limitations. Consequently, a comparison of the experimental results obtained when these methods are employed is hampered, causing problems in the comparison of carbon stocks in soils. This study aimed at evaluating the analytical procedures used in the determination of carbon and their relationships with soil mineralogy and texture. Wet combustion methods, including Walkley-Black, Mebius and Colorimetric determination as well as dry combustion methods, such as Elemental and Gravimetric Analysis were used. Quantitative textural and mineralogical (kaolinite, goethite and gibbsite analyses were also carried out. The wet digestion methods underestimated the concentration of organic carbon, while the gravimetric method overestimated. Soil mineralogy interfered with the determination of carbon, with emphasis on the gravimetric method that was greatly influenced by gibbsite.

  8. Interweaving Youth Development, Community Development, and Social Change through Youth Organizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christens, Brian D.; Dolan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Community organizing groups that have built coalitions for local change over the past few decades are now involving young people as leaders in efforts to improve quality of life. The current study explores a particularly effective youth organizing initiative through review of organizational documents and collection and analysis of qualitative…

  9. Technology in Community-Based Organizations that Serve Older People: High Tech Meets High Touch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renold, Carl; Meronk, Cheryl; Kelly, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Appropriate implementation of information technology (IT) can help create a more efficient, less costly, and higher-quality service-delivery environment for community-based organizations that serve older people. Relevant studies and reports on technology in healthcare can be compared and applied to these organizations. This study is the result of…

  10. Designing Multidimensional Policing Strategy And Organization: Towards A Synthesis Of Professional And Community Police Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suve Priit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyse professional police and community policing in view of professionalism, strategy and structures. We aim to find ways for synthesizing these models that are usually seen as incompatible. Unlike many earlier studies of police organizations or strategies, we view strategies in the organization at the corporate, functional and operational levels, and argue that by combining them with functional and divisional principles of structuring, it is possible to place professional strategy at the core of policing, while using the community policing strategy mainly as a component part of the strategy in the framework of divisional organization. This way it is possible to avoid the risk of alienating police from the community and to ensure the successful implementation of corporate strategy through providing professional police units that perform the narrow functions, with quick and adequate information from the community.

  11. Factors limiting deceased organ donation: focus groups' perspective from culturally diverse community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, L P

    2010-06-01

    In-depth understanding of cultural and religious factors limiting organ donation of three ethnic populations (Malay, Chinese, and Indian) in Southeast Asia is lacking. Identification of factors limiting organ donation among these three ethnic groups will provide insights into culturally appropriate strategies to promote acceptance of organ donation in a multiethnic Asian community. A total of 17 focus group discussions (105 participants) were conducted between September and December 2008. Participants were members of the general public aged 18 to 60 years, recruited through convenient sampling around the Klang Valley area of Malaysia. Although the majority had favorable attitudes toward deceased organ donation and transplantation, a diversity of myths and misinformation were unearthed from the discussions across the ethnic groups. These include perceived religious prohibition, cultural myths and misperceptions, fear of disfigurement, fear of surgery, distrust of the medical system, and family disapproval. Culture and religious beliefs played important prohibitive roles among those opposed to organ donations. There were distinctive ethnic differences in cultural and religious concerns regarding organ donation. Less-educated and rural groups appeared to have more misconceptions than the well-educated and the urban groups. Our findings may assist organ donation and transplantation organizations to reach diverse sociodemographic and ethnic communities with culture-specific information about organ donation. The involvement of community and religious leaders is critical in organ donation requests.

  12. Crucial Dimension in Organization Management of Indonesian Islamic Almsgiving (Zakah Institutions: Insights for Community Economic Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Viciawati Machdum

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the crucial management dimensions or key elements oforganizations that have been managed as Islamic almsgiving institutions (zakahfunds in Indonesia. Zakah funds are traditionally managed for a limited number ofbeneficiaries. Zakah funds are now collected and managed by professional Islamicor faith-based organizations and institutions at the national or regional level toachieve a wider range of beneficiaries. This article examines how two Islamicor faith-based organizations, herein named CV (commanditaire vennootschap“X” and “Y” Foundation, manage small enterprise programs based on zakah toreach a wider range of beneficiaries. Using qualitative methods, the researchidentifies crucial dimensions in the management of organizational dynamics ofthese Islamic or faith-based organizations, i.e., organizational systems, humanresources, and organizational climate. Those elements are used to manageeconomic empowerment activities with faith as a supra structure or contextualunderlying factor. Field findings also demonstrated the usefulness of religiousvalues in managing sustainable community-empowerment practices in smallenterprise programs. 

  13. [Community-based organizations and the aids epidemic in Amazonas state, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Michele Rocha; Schweickardt, Julio Cesar

    2015-05-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perception of community-based organizations and their contributions to the history of tackling Aids in Amazonas State. It involved qualitative research with the use of oral and documental sources. Data were collected between June and September 2013 by means of semi-structured interviews with the leaders of eight organizations that work or worked with more vulnerable communities. Based on Discourse Analysis the conclusion drawn is that that the organizations perceive two distinct phases since the decentralization of funds from the Sexually-Transmitted Diseases Aids and Viral Hepatitis Department to the local leaders. The first phase was marked by the strengthening of organizations, collective empowerment and active political participation. The current phase has seen the distancing between organizations, a loss of political momentum and weakening of common response and organization.

  14. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 4, Organic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This interim notice covers the following: extractable organic halides in solids, total organic halides, analysis by gas chromatography/Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, hexadecane extracts for volatile organic compounds, GC/MS analysis of VOCs, GC/MS analysis of methanol extracts of cryogenic vapor samples, screening of semivolatile organic extracts, GPC cleanup for semivolatiles, sample preparation for GC/MS for semi-VOCs, analysis for pesticides/PCBs by GC with electron capture detection, sample preparation for pesticides/PCBs in water and soil sediment, report preparation, Florisil column cleanup for pesticide/PCBs, silica gel and acid-base partition cleanup of samples for semi-VOCs, concentrate acid wash cleanup, carbon determination in solids using Coulometrics` CO{sub 2} coulometer, determination of total carbon/total organic carbon/total inorganic carbon in radioactive liquids/soils/sludges by hot persulfate method, analysis of solids for carbonates using Coulometrics` Model 5011 coulometer, and soxhlet extraction.

  15. Reframing cooperation: Challenges in overcoming tensions between professional services and volunteer organizations providing parenting support in immigrant communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzoni, E.

    2015-01-01

    Volunteer organizations can potentially partner with mainstream professional services to provide better parenting support to immigrant parents. This qualitative study of cooperation between professional agencies and volunteer organizations known as migrant volunteer and community organizations

  16. Organic fertilization alters the community composition of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, L.; Nicolaisen, M.; Ravnskov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Organic fertilization is well known to affect individual functional groups of root associated fungi such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and root pathogens, but limited information is available on the effect of organic fertilization at the fungal community composition level. The main objective...... of the present study was to examine the response of communities of root associated fungi in Pisum sativum to Protamylasse, an organic fertilizer used in pea production. Plants were grown in pots with field soil amended with four different levels of Protamylasse. 454 pyrosequencing was employed to examine......, the organic fertilizer Protamylasse clearly affects communities of root associated fungi, which seems to be linked to the life strategy of the different functional groups of root associated fungi. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------...

  17. Liposomes: structure, properties and methods of curative administration in organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Kisyakova

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A review of data from scientific sources, devoted to problems of liposomes’ structure, properties and processes of formation was made. Advantages of liposomes used for medical purposes are shown. Methods of liposomes administration in an organism are characterised. Data on mechanisms of interaction between liposomes and cells, peculiarities of liposomes’ lipids composition and dependence of its tropism to definite organs and tissues are generalised.

  18. The Activities of Community Organizations in Providing Assistance to Prisoners of World War I

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva; Ryskeldy S. Myrzabekova; Moldakhmet S. Myrzabekov

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this article is to examine the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other community organizations in providing assistance to prisoners of the World War I. According to Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 1907, organizations that assist the prisoners of war, as well as their representatives can use all the benefits from the authorities of the warring countries. Representatives of these organizations are allowed to distribute benefits to places of...

  19. Social Capital and Educational Organizing in Low Income, Minority, and New Immigrant Communities: Can the University Strengthen Community Organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Michael Alan; Pierre-Louis, Francois

    2009-01-01

    A college-based program that combines training, direct support, and technical assistance was found to produce significant gains in bonding and bridging social capital and key political attributes among low-income, minority, and immigrant groups organizing to enhance their power to influence public school politics and policies in New York City.…

  20. Method of decomposing treatment for radioactive organic phosphate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose the organic phosphoric-acid ester wastes containing radioactive material, which is produced from spent fuel reprocessing facilities, into inorganic materials using a simple device, under moderate conditions and at high decomposing ratio. Method: Radioactive organic phosphate wates are oxidatively decomposed by H 2 O 2 in an aqueous phosphoric-acid solution of metal phosphate salts. Copper phosphates are used as the metal phosphate salts and the decomposed solution of the radioactive organic phosphate wastes is used as the aqueous solution of the copper phosphate. The temperature used for the oxidizing decomposition ranges from 80 to 100 0 C. (Ikeda, J.)

  1. Organic carbon and nitrogen availability determine bacterial community composition in paddy fields of the Indo-Gangetic plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Rai, Lal Chand

    2017-07-01

    Soil quality is an important factor and maintained by inhabited microorganisms. Soil physicochemical characteristics determine indigenous microbial population and rice provides food security to major population of the world. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the impact of physicochemical variables on bacterial community composition and diversity in conventional paddy fields which could reflect a real picture of the bacterial communities operating in the paddy agro-ecosystem. To fulfill the objective; soil physicochemical characterization, bacterial community composition and diversity analysis was carried out using culture-independent PCR-DGGE method from twenty soils distributed across eight districts. Bacterial communities were grouped into three clusters based on UPGMA cluster analysis of DGGE banding pattern. The linkage of measured physicochemical variables with bacterial community composition was analyzed by canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). CCA ordination biplot results were similar to UPGMA cluster analysis. High levels of species-environment correlations (0.989 and 0.959) were observed and the largest proportion of species data variability was explained by total organic carbon (TOC), available nitrogen, total nitrogen and pH. Thus, results suggest that TOC and nitrogen are key regulators of bacterial community composition in the conventional paddy fields. Further, high diversity indices and evenness values demonstrated heterogeneity and co-abundance of the bacterial communities.

  2. Hawai‘i in Public Health: Community Strengthening Through Canoe Culture: Ho'omana'o Mau as Method and Metaphor

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Lastimosa, Ilima; Hwang, Phoebe W; Lastimosa, Bob

    2014-01-01

    Historical trauma occurs across generations and is evidenced by indigenous disparities. Efforts made to address this issue commonly utilize European ethnocentric methods. Rather, a community-based approach should be used to empower indigenous communities. God's Country Waimanalo (GCW) is a grassroots organization developed by Native Hawaiians for Native Hawaiians. Its wa‘a (canoe) project, Ho‘omana‘o Mau (everlasting memories; abbreviated Ho‘o) is meant to perpetuate pre-colonial Hawaiian pra...

  3. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  4. Structural-functional organization of the littoral zooplankton communities of the Kremenchutskiy reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Burian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To find out the present state of the structural and functional organization of the littoral zooplankton communities of the upper Kremenchuk reservoir in the area of ​​the Kaniv Nature Reserve. Methodology. The material was collected in the summer time of 2016 at six stations of the littoral zone of the upper Kremenchug reservoir. The collection and analysis were carried out using generally accepted methods. The objects of the research were representatives of three main groups of zooplankton (rotifers, cladocerans, copepods, as well as ostracods and larvae of bivalve molluscs. Statistical data processing was done in MS Excel 2013. Findings. The results of the study represent the present state and organisation of littoral zooplankton. The species richness of the littoral zooplankton of the upper Kremenchug reservoir was presented by 48 species. There are 20 species of monogonont rotifers, 18 cladocerans species and copepods – 10. The representatives of the rotifer-cladoceran complex dominated in the taxonomic composition that can be explained by the preservation of the river regime and the rheophilic conditions in this part of the reservoir. The analysis showed that according to the ecological spectrum of zooplankton groups, the representatives of the pelagic group dominated – 47.92%. As for the feeding type, the largest share was represented by the non-predatory group – 64.58%. After analyzing of the quantitative indices (density and biomass of zooplankton, it was found that they were lower than average for overgrown biotopes (112580 ± 129914 ind./m³ і 1.83 ± 2.07 g/m³ and low for open water (26160 ± 19161 ind./m³ і 0,82 ± 0,86 g/m³. Originality. The present state of structural and functional organization of the littoral zooplankton communities of the upper Kremenchug reservoir has been revealed. Practical significance. The conducted studies give the information about the structural and functional organization of the

  5. Community College Program Planning: A Method to Measure and Meet Community Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vergara, Kelly; Lathrop, Rachel; Orlowski, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Offering academic programs that meet community need has long been a core mission of community colleges. However, determining which job skills and credentials are needed for employment in the community is challenging. In order to facilitate a holistic and community-based perspective, our 2-year community college developed a structured curricular…

  6. New methods for the geometrical analysis of tubular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grélard, Florent; Baldacci, Fabien; Vialard, Anne; Domenger, Jean-Philippe

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents new methods to study the shape of tubular organs. Determining precise cross-sections is of major importance to perform geometrical measurements, such as diameter, wall-thickness estimation or area measurement. Our first contribution is a robust method to estimate orthogonal planes based on the Voronoi Covariance Measure. Our method is not relying on a curve-skeleton computation beforehand. This means our orthogonal plane estimator can be used either on the skeleton or on the volume. Another important step towards tubular organ characterization is achieved through curve-skeletonization, as skeletons allow to compare two tubular organs, and to perform virtual endoscopy. Our second contribution is dedicated to correcting common defects of the skeleton by new pruning and recentering methods. Finally, we propose a new method for curve-skeleton extraction. Various results are shown on different types of segmented tubular organs, such as neurons, airway-tree and blood vessels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Network communities as a new form of social organization in conditions of postmodern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Burmaha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the approach to interpretation of essence of the network community concept in which we propose to consider it as a new form of social organization that is substantiated by the specificity of how our society is functioning in conditions of Postmodern. There were explored two main approaches to network communities studying: the first approach considers social networks in a classic, traditional interpretation of modernity as a special kind of social structure, and the second one represents social networks as a specific virtual formation, a social structure of virtual Internet reality. There were revealed some common features of a social organization and a network community: presence of permanent communication between members of the group, united by certain common interests and goals, as well as presence of the certain hierarchy among all members of the community, and the rules of conduct, implementation of communication. Distinctive features: network community is more informal, offers its members considerable leeway in the implementation of their own goals and satisfying the needs, full virtualization of communication absence of direct interaction during communication, under conditions where the main resource for the interchange in network communities is information. It was shown that in the process of emergence, development and distribution of network communities, the fundamental role is played by modern communications - namely, unification them in a stable set of interconnected networks and, in particular network communities.

  8. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC. The method was created as a result of implementing the project “Measuring performance in the Organization of the future” of 1990, completed by a team under the supervision of David Norton (Kaplan, Norton 2002. The developed method was used first of all to evaluate performance by decomposition of a strategy into four perspectives and identification of measures of achievement. In the middle of 1990s the method was improved by enriching it, first of all, with a strategy map, in which the process of transition of intangible assets into tangible financial effects is reflected (Kaplan, Norton 2001. Strategy map enables illustration of cause and effect relationship between processes in all four perspectives and performance indicators at the level of organization. The purpose of the study being prepared is to present methodical conditions of using strategy maps in the strategy implementation process in organizations of different nature.

  9. Cross-organism learning method to discover new gene functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domeniconi, Giacomo; Masseroli, Marco; Moro, Gianluca; Pinoli, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of gene and protein functions is paramount for the understanding of physiological and pathological biological processes, as well as in the development of new drugs and therapies. Analyses for biomedical knowledge discovery greatly benefit from the availability of gene and protein functional feature descriptions expressed through controlled terminologies and ontologies, i.e., of gene and protein biomedical controlled annotations. In the last years, several databases of such annotations have become available; yet, these valuable annotations are incomplete, include errors and only some of them represent highly reliable human curated information. Computational techniques able to reliably predict new gene or protein annotations with an associated likelihood value are thus paramount. Here, we propose a novel cross-organisms learning approach to reliably predict new functionalities for the genes of an organism based on the known controlled annotations of the genes of another, evolutionarily related and better studied, organism. We leverage a new representation of the annotation discovery problem and a random perturbation of the available controlled annotations to allow the application of supervised algorithms to predict with good accuracy unknown gene annotations. Taking advantage of the numerous gene annotations available for a well-studied organism, our cross-organisms learning method creates and trains better prediction models, which can then be applied to predict new gene annotations of a target organism. We tested and compared our method with the equivalent single organism approach on different gene annotation datasets of five evolutionarily related organisms (Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, Gallus gallus and Dictyostelium discoideum). Results show both the usefulness of the perturbation method of available annotations for better prediction model training and a great improvement of the cross-organism models with respect to the single-organism ones

  10. Teaching organization theory for healthcare management: three applied learning methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Peter C

    2006-01-01

    Organization theory (OT) provides a way of seeing, describing, analyzing, understanding, and improving organizations based on patterns of organizational design and behavior (Daft 2004). It gives managers models, principles, and methods with which to diagnose and fix organization structure, design, and process problems. Health care organizations (HCOs) face serious problems such as fatal medical errors, harmful treatment delays, misuse of scarce nurses, costly inefficiency, and service failures. Some of health care managers' most critical work involves designing and structuring their organizations so their missions, visions, and goals can be achieved-and in some cases so their organizations can survive. Thus, it is imperative that graduate healthcare management programs develop effective approaches for teaching OT to students who will manage HCOs. Guided by principles of education, three applied teaching/learning activities/assignments were created to teach OT in a graduate healthcare management program. These educationalmethods develop students' competency with OT applied to HCOs. The teaching techniques in this article may be useful to faculty teaching graduate courses in organization theory and related subjects such as leadership, quality, and operation management.

  11. Method of processing radiation-contaminated organic polymer materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshii.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To process radiation contaminated organic high polymer materials with no evolution of toxic gases, at low temperature and with safety by hot-acid immersion process using sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide. Method: Less flammable or easily flammable organic polymers contaminated with radioactive substances, particularly with long life actinoid are heated and carbonized in concentrated sulfuric acid. Then, aqueous 30% H 2 O 2 solution is continuously added dropwise as an oxidizing agent till the solution turns colourless. If the carbonization was insufficient, addition of H 2 O 2 solution is stopped temporarily and the carbonization is conducted again. Thus, the organic polymers are completely decomposed by the wet oxidization. Then, the volume of the organic materials to be discharged is decreased and the radioactive substances contained are simultaneously concentrated and collected. (Seki, T.)

  12. Team Organization Method Using Salary Auction Game for Sustainable Motivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangkyun Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In performing team-based projects in engineering class, students usually face many problems, such as free-riding, lack of responsibility, boredom, and insufficient initiative. This papers proposes a new method for performing team-based projects in engineering class—specifically, a gamified method for team organization using a salary auction game. On the description of the design and use of a salary auction game in engineering class, a case study conducted using a survey method is reported to validate the practical value of the proposed auction game. The salary auction game proposed in this paper demonstrates that a gamified team organization method in engineering class could be used as an effective tool to enhance motivation and to improve learning outcomes of engineering students.

  13. Faith and Health: Past and Present of Relations between Faith Communities and the World Health Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The Rev. Canon Ted Karpf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between faith communities and international multi-lateral organizations can be complicated. While there is potential for synergy between the two, different values often characterize the approach of each. The history of these relationships is illustrative. This review describes collaboration between the World Health Organization (WHO and faith-based organizations (FBOs in the implementation of primary health care, the role of spirituality in health, community responses to the HIV pandemic, and definitions of Quality of Life containing spiritual dimensions. However, important gaps persist in the appreciation and measurement of the contribution of faith communities to health assets on the part of governments and the WHO. FBOs can still draw from the nine points developed in the 1960s as a time-tested viable agenda for current and future operations.

  14. How community environment shapes physical activity: perceptions revealed through the PhotoVoice method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Ana Paula; Nieuwendyk, Laura M; Vallianatos, Helen; Nykiforuk, Candace I J

    2014-09-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that community environment plays an important role in individuals' physical activity engagement. However, while attributes of the physical environment are widely investigated, sociocultural, political, and economic aspects of the environment are often neglected. This article helps to fill these knowledge gaps by providing a more comprehensive understanding of multiple dimensions of the community environment relative to physical activity. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore how people's experiences and perceptions of their community environments affect their abilities to engage in physical activity. A PhotoVoice method was used to identify barriers to and opportunities for physical activity among residents in four communities in the province of Alberta, Canada, in 2009. After taking pictures, the thirty-five participants shared their perceptions of those opportunities and barriers in their community environments during individual interviews. Using the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO) framework, themes emerging from these photo-elicited interviews were organized in four environment types: physical, sociocultural, economic, and political. The data show that themes linked to the physical (56.6%) and sociocultural (31.4%) environments were discussed more frequently than the themes of the economic (5.9%) and political (6.1%) environments. Participants identified nuanced barriers and opportunities for physical activity, which are illustrated by their quotes and photographs. The findings suggest that a myriad of factors from physical, sociocultural, economic, and political environments influence people's abilities to be physically active in their communities. Therefore, adoption of a broad, ecological perspective is needed to address the barriers and build upon the opportunities described by participants to make communities more healthy and active. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  15. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety

  16. Forging community partnerships to improve health care: the experience of four Medicaid managed care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silow-Carroll, Sharon; Rodin, Diana

    2013-04-01

    Some managed care organizations (MCOs) serving Medicaid beneficiaries are actively engaging in community partnerships to meet the needs of vulnerable members and nonmembers. We found that the history, leadership, and other internal factors of four such MCOs primarily drive that focus. However, external factors such as state Medicaid policies and competition or collaboration among MCOs also play a role. The specific strat­egies of these MCOs vary but share common goals: (1) improve care coordination, access, and delivery; (2) strengthen the community and safety-net infrastructure; and (3) prevent illness and reduce disparities. The MCOs use data to identify gaps in care, seek community input in designing interventions, and commit resources to engage community organiza­tions. State Medicaid programs can promote such work by establishing goals, priorities, and guidelines; providing data analysis and technical assistance to evaluate local needs and community engagement efforts; and convening stakeholders to collaborate and share best practices.

  17. Mineral and organic growing media have distinct community structure, stability and functionality in soilless culture systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Perneel, Maaike; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Reheul, Dirk; Boon, Nico

    2016-01-05

    The choice of soilless growing medium for plant nutrition, growth and support is crucial for improving the eco-sustainability of the production in horticultural systems. As our current understanding of the functional microbial communities inhabiting this ecosystem is still limited, we examined the microbial community development of the two most important growing media (organic and mineral) used in open soilless horticultural systems. We aimed to identify factors that influence community composition over time, and to compare the distribution of individual taxa across growing media, and their potential functionality. High throughput sequencing analysis revealed a distinctive and stable microbial community in the organic growing medium. Humidity, pH, nitrate-N, ammonium-N and conductivity were uncovered as the main factors associated with the resident bacterial communities. Ammonium-N was correlated with Rhizobiaceae abundance, while potential competitive interactions among both Methylophilaceae and Actinobacteridae with Rhizobiaceae were suggested. Our results revealed that soilless growing media are unique niches for diverse bacterial communities with temporal functional stability, which may possibly impact the resistance to external forces. These differences in communities can be used to develop strategies to move towards a sustainable horticulture with increased productivity and quality.

  18. The Community-based Organizations Working Group of the Space Science Education Support Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, J. H.; Lowes, L. L.; Asplund, S.

    2004-12-01

    The NASA Space Science Support Network Community-based Organizations Working Group (CBOWG) has been working for the past two years on issues surrounding afterschool programs and programs for youth (e.g., Girl Scouts, Boy Scouts, Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, summer camps, afterschool and weekend programs for various ages, programs with emphases on minority youth). In this session the co-leaders of the CBOWG will discuss the challenges of working with community-based organizations on a regional or national level. We will highlight some ties that we have forged with the National Institute for Out of School Time (NIOST) and the National Afterschool Association (NAA). We will also talk about efforts to coordinate how various entities within NASA cooperate with community-based organizations to serve the best interests of these groups. We will give a couple of examples of how NASA space science organizations have partnered with community-based organizations. The session will include some handouts of information and resources that the CBOWG has found useful in developing an understanding of this segment of informal education groups. We would like to thank NASA for providing resources to support the work of the CBOWG.

  19. Associations between the social organization of communities and psychiatric disorders in rural Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axinn, William G; Ghimire, Dirgha J; Williams, Nathalie E; Scott, Kate M

    2015-10-01

    We provide rare evidence of factors producing psychiatric variation in a general population sample from rural South Asia. The setting is particularly useful for demonstrating that variations in the social organization of communities, often difficult to observe in rich countries, are associated with important variations in mental health. Clinically validated survey measures are used to document variation in psychiatric disorders among 401 adults. This sample is chosen from a systematic sample of the general population of rural Nepal, in a community-level-controlled comparison design. Multilevel logistic regression is used to estimate multivariate models of the association between community-level nonfamily social organization and individual-level psychiatric disorders. Schools, markets, health services and social support groups each substantially reduce the odds of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), intermittent explosive disorder and anxiety disorders. Associations between schools, health services and social support groups and depression are statistically significant and independent of each other. The association between access to markets and PTSD is statistically significant and independent of other social organization and support groups. Community integration of some nonfamily social organizations promotes mental health in ways that may go unobserved in settings with many such organizations. More research on the mechanisms producing these associations is likely to reveal potential avenues for public policy and programs to improve mental health in the general population.

  20. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  1. Modern leadership and management methods for development organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samosudova Natalia V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article represents an overview of the basic theoretical concepts of leadership and management in the framework of the organization. The main scientific approaches to leadership are described in conjunction with various leadership styles and their correlation with different levels of effectiveness as a result of the organization’s activity. Certain characteristics applicable to leaders and managers are mentioned. Attitude and obligations of a modern construction project manager are discussed, along with the challenges the construction industry represents these days. Ideas about methods of complex analysis for further research and identifying leadership tactics and their impact on the success of the development organization are suggested.

  2. Adopting of Agile methods in Software Development Organizations: Systematic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Abdalhamid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Adoption of agile methods in the software development organization is considered as a powerful solution to deal with the quickly changing and regularly developing business environment and fully-educated customers with constantly rising expectation, such as shorter time periods and an extraordinary level of response and service. This study investigates the adoption of agile approaches in software development organizations by using systematic mapping. Six research questions are identified, and to answer these questions a number of research papers have been reviewed in electronic databases. Finally, 25 research papers are examined and answers to all research questions are provided.

  3. Organic matter processing by microbial communities throughout the Atlantic water column as revealed by metaproteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergauer, Kristin; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Garcia, Juan A L

    2018-01-01

    The phylogenetic composition of the heterotrophic microbial community is depth stratified in the oceanic water column down to abyssopelagic layers. In the layers below the euphotic zone, it has been suggested that heterotrophic microbes rely largely on solubilized particulate organic matter...... as a carbon and energy source rather than on dissolved organic matter. To decipher whether changes in the phylogenetic composition with depth are reflected in changes in the bacterial and archaeal transporter proteins, we generated an extensive metaproteomic and metagenomic dataset of microbial communities...... collected from 100- to 5,000-m depth in the Atlantic Ocean. By identifying which compounds of the organic matter pool are absorbed, transported, and incorporated into microbial cells, intriguing insights into organic matter transformation in the deep ocean emerged. On average, solute transporters accounted...

  4. Evaluating the Mental Health Training Needs of Community-based Organizations Serving Refugees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Anne Simmelink

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This exploratory study examines the mental health knowledge and training needs of refugee-serving community based organizations in a Midwestern state. A survey was administered to 31 staff members at 27 community based organizations (CBOs to assess the ability of staff to recognize and screen for mental health symptoms that may interfere with successful resettlement. Of the 31 respondents 93.5% (n=29 see refugees with mental health issues and 48.4% (n=15 assess refugees for mental health symptoms – primarily through informal assessment. Mainstream organizations were more likely than ethnic organizations to have received training related to the mental health needs of refugees. Results indicate that while refugee led CBOs recognize mental health symptoms of refugees they may be less likely to assess mental health symptoms and refer for treatment. Policy recommendations for improving CBO services to refugees are offered.

  5. The organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozachyn, Karen P.

    Community colleges are struggling financially due to underfunding. Recent state budget cuts coupled with the elimination of federal stimulus money has exacerbated the issue as these funding streams had contributed to operating costs (Moltz, 2011). In response to these budget cuts, community colleges are challenged to improve, increase, and develop revenue producing programs. These factors heighten the need for community colleges to examine their non-credit workforce organizations. The community college units charged with delivering non-credit workforce education and training programs are historically ancillary to the academic divisions that deliver certificate, technical degree, and transfer degree programs. The perceptions of these units are that they are the community college's 'step child' (Grubb, Bradway, and Bell, 2002). This case study examined the organization and administration of community college non-credit workforce education and training units, utilizing observation, interviews, and document analysis. Observational data focused on the physical campus and the unit. Interviews were conducted onsite with decision-making personnel of the division units that deliver non-credit workforce education and training within each community college. Document analysis included college catalogues, program guides, marketing material, and website information. The study was grounded in the review of literature associated with the evolution of the community college, as well as the development of workforce education and training including funding, organizational structure and models, management philosophies, and effectiveness. The findings of the study report that all five units were self-contained and were organized and operated uniquely within the organization. Effectiveness was measured differently by each institution. However, two common benchmarks were revenue and student evaluations. Another outcome of this study is the perceived lack of college-wide alignment between

  6. Microbial Interactions With Dissolved Organic Matter Drive Carbon Dynamics and Community Succession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqin Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of dynamic interactions between natural organic matter (NOM and microbial communities is critical not only to delineate the routes of NOM degradation/transformation and carbon (C fluxes, but also to understand microbial community evolution and succession in ecosystems. Yet, these processes in subsurface environments are usually studied independently, and a comprehensive view has been elusive thus far. In this study, we fed sediment-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM to groundwater microbes and continually analyzed microbial transformation of DOM over a 50-day incubation. To document fine-scale changes in DOM chemistry, we applied high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS. We also monitored the trajectory of microbial biomass, community structure and activity over this time period. Together, these analyses provided an unprecedented comprehensive view of interactions between sediment-derived DOM and indigenous subsurface groundwater microbes. Microbial decomposition of labile C in DOM was immediately evident from biomass increase and total organic carbon (TOC decrease. The change of microbial composition was closely related to DOM turnover: microbial community in early stages of incubation was influenced by relatively labile tannin- and protein-like compounds; while in later stages the community composition evolved to be most correlated with less labile lipid- and lignin-like compounds. These changes in microbial community structure and function, coupled with the contribution of microbial products to DOM pool affected the further transformation of DOM, culminating in stark changes to DOM composition over time. Our study demonstrates a distinct response of microbial communities to biotransformation of DOM, which improves our understanding of coupled interactions between sediment-derived DOM, microbial processes, and community structure in

  7. Printing method for organic light emitting device lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Hyun Chul; Kim, Seon Hoon; Kim, Doo-Gun; Kim, Tae-Un; Kim, Snag-Gi; Hong, Kyung-Jin; So, Soon-Yeol

    2013-03-01

    Organic Light Emitting Device (OLED) has a characteristic to change the electric energy into the light when the electric field is applied to the organic material. OLED is currently employed as a light source for the lighting tools because research has extensively progressed in the improvement of luminance, efficiency, and life time. OLED is widely used in the plate display device because of a simple manufacture process and high emitting efficiency. But most of OLED lighting projects were used the vacuum evaporator (thermal evaporator) with low molecular. Although printing method has lower efficiency and life time of OLED than vacuum evaporator method, projects of printing OLED actively are progressed because was possible to combine with flexible substrate and printing technology. Printing technology is ink-jet, screen printing and slot coating. This printing method allows for low cost and mass production techniques and large substrates. In this research, we have proposed inkjet printing for organic light-emitting devices has the dominant method of thick film deposition because of its low cost and simple processing. In this research, the fabrication of the passive matrix OLED is achieved by inkjet printing, using a polymer phosphorescent ink. We are measured optical and electrical characteristics of OLED.

  8. PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO STUDY OF OPTIMAL MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES IN LEADERS OF ETHNIC COMMUNITY ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N T Kolesnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main psychological approaches, and in particular, the system-synergetic approach to the study of the management activities of the leaders of ethnic community organizations. It also discusses the concept and essence of social self-organization of the ethnic group. It presents the methodological framework of the synergetic approach to the consideration of the study of complex self-organizing systems. The analysis of conditions of effectiveness of the process of self-organization of ethnic public associations is given. The basic principles of modern psychology of labor, which form the basis for the research of the optimal management activity of the leaders of ethnic community organizations, are highlighted. The presented theoretical analysis led to the conclusion that the integral research of the management activities of the heads of ethnic community organizations may be based on the psychological system-synergetic approach, from the point of which the management activities could be presented as a psychologically complex and open system.

  9. Associations between soil bacterial community structure and nutrient cycling functions in long-term organic farm soils following cover crop and organic fertilizer amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural management practices can produce changes in soil microbial populations whose functions are crucial to crop production and may be detectable using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA. To apply sequencing-derived bacterial community structure data to on-farm decision-making will require a better understanding of the complex associations between soil microbial community structure and soil function. Here 16S rRNA sequencing was used to profile soil bacterial communities following application of cover crops and organic fertilizer treatments in certified organic field cropping systems. Amendment treatments were hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter rye (Secale cereale), oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), beef manure, pelleted poultry manure, Sustane(®) 8-2-4, and a no-amendment control. Enzyme activities, net N mineralization, soil respiration, and soil physicochemical properties including nutrient levels, organic matter (OM) and pH were measured. Relationships between these functional and physicochemical parameters and soil bacterial community structure were assessed using multivariate methods including redundancy analysis, discriminant analysis, and Bayesian inference. Several cover crops and fertilizers affected soil functions including N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase and β-glucosidase activity. Effects, however, were not consistent across locations and sampling timepoints. Correlations were observed among functional parameters and relative abundances of individual bacterial families and phyla. Bayesian analysis inferred no directional relationships between functional activities, bacterial families, and physicochemical parameters. Soil functional profiles were more strongly predicted by location than by treatment, and differences were largely explained by soil physicochemical parameters. Composition of soil bacterial communities was predictive of soil functional profiles. Differences in soil function were

  10. Differential paths to activism: a study of social movement organizations in Three Mile Island communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cable, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    This project compares political activists from four community protest organizations in Three Mile Island (TMI) communities that were formed as a response of the March 1979 accident at the TMI nuclear power plant. These organizations constituted four separate groups of activists concerned with the same set of grievances. The purpose of the study was to compare the activists across groups to assess differential paths to activism. The data were gathered over a three-year period from March 1979 to March 1982 and included monthly newsletters published by the organizations, newspaper accounts of relevant events; and a systematic survey of 149 of the most active participants. The thesis of differential paths to activism was supported by the data; two relatively distinct paths were found to dominate the TMI communities. In the path that dominated in communities within five miles of the plant, activists tended to be older, more conservative, and less ideologically inclined to protest prior to the accident. In the path to activism that dominated in communities further from the plant site, activists tended to be younger, more liberal, and more experienced in protests

  11. Microbial Community Response to Terrestrially Derived Dissolved Organic Matter in the Coastal Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Sipler

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Warming at nearly twice the global rate, higher than average air temperatures are the new ‘normal’ for Arctic ecosystems. This rise in temperature has triggered hydrological and geochemical changes that increasingly release carbon-rich water into the coastal ocean via increased riverine discharge, coastal erosion, and the thawing of the semi-permanent permafrost ubiquitous in the region. To determine the biogeochemical impacts of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (tDOM on marine ecosystems we compared the nutrient stocks and bacterial communities present under ice-covered and ice-free conditions, assessed the lability of Arctic tDOM to coastal microbial communities from the Chukchi Sea, and identified bacterial taxa that respond to rapid increases in tDOM. Once thought to be predominantly refractory, we found that ∼7% of dissolved organic carbon and ∼38% of dissolved organic nitrogen from tDOM was bioavailable to receiving marine microbial communities on short 4 – 6 day time scales. The addition of tDOM shifted bacterial community structure toward more copiotrophic taxa and away from more oligotrophic taxa. Although no single order was found to respond universally (positively or negatively to the tDOM addition, this study identified 20 indicator species as possible sentinels for increased tDOM. These data suggest the true ecological impact of tDOM will be widespread across many bacterial taxa and that shifts in coastal microbial community composition should be anticipated.

  12. Roles of organizers and champions in building campus-community prevention partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakocs, Ronda C; Tiwari, Rashmi; Vehige, Tamara; DeJong, William

    2008-01-01

    A campus-community partnership can be an effective vehicle for launching environmental strategies to prevent college alcohol-related problems. In this study, the authors' primary aim was identifying key factors that facilitate or impede colleges' efforts to build campus-community partnerships. From fall 2004 to summer 2006, administrators at five 4-year colleges participated in a multisite case study. Level of partnership development was the primary outcome. Three interrelated factors facilitated higher-developed partnerships: college staff assigned to facilitate the partnerships who worked as community organizers, higher-level college administrators who served as aggressive champions, and community initiation of the partnership. The authors did not observe this trio of factors among the less-developed partnerships. A lack of administrative support made it more difficult for a champion to emerge, a college administrator who staunchly advocated for a campus-community partnership, and for those assigned to facilitate the partnership to carry out their work. Colleges should appoint higher-level administrators to serve as champions, while also ensuring that those assigned to facilitate a partnership can apply community organizing skills.

  13. The formation of community-based organizations : an analysis of a quasi-experiment in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barr, A.; Dekker, M.; Fafchamps, M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous analyses of the formation and composition of community-based organizations (CBOs) have used cross section data. So, causal inference has been compromised. We obviate this problem by using data from a quasi-experiment in which villages were formed by government officials selecting and

  14. A specter of coexistence: Is centrifugal community organization haunted by the ghost of competition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2006-01-01

    In a centrifugally organized community species prefer the same habitat (called "core") but differ in their secondary habitat preferences. The first model of centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicted that optimally foraging, symmetrically competing species would share use of the core habitat at all density combinations. But one might also assume that the competition in the core habitat is asymmetrical, that is, that one of the species (the dominant) has a behavioral advantage therein. In this study, we asked how should habitat use evolve in a centrifugally organized community if its species compete asymmetrically in the core habitat? To address this question we developed an "isoleg model". The model predicts that in a centrifugally organized community, asymmetric competition promotes the use of the core habitat exclusively by the dominant species at most points in the state space. The separation of the core habitat use by the species ("the ghost of competition past") may be either complete or partial ("partial ghost"), and behavior at the stable competitive equilibrium between the species could determine whether coexistence should occur at the "complete-" or the "partial ghost" regions. This version of CCO should be a common feature of competitive systems.

  15. Metaphorical Duality: High School Subject Departments as Both Communities and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne; Wallace, John

    2007-01-01

    This article investigates the metaphorical duality that exists when school subject departments are concurrently conceptualized as both communities and organizations. Employing a narrative methodology, we use the metaphorical duality to examine the manner in which science teachers negotiate two key aspects of their work; professional learning and…

  16. Opening the Door: How Community Organizations Address the Youth Unemployment Crisis. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Adria; Almeida, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Few Americans know the importance of community-based organizations, or CBOs, in helping tens of thousands of undereducated, underemployed young people find a job or go back to school. But the role of CBOs is growing more critical as the business, education, and philanthropic sectors increasingly recognize the need to enable the nation's millions…

  17. Opening the Door: How Community Organizations Address the Youth Unemployment Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Adria; Almeida, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    At this moment, the role of community-based organizations (CBOs) has never been more important. The country is facing a dual crisis in youth unemployment and low postsecondary completion rates. Both are especially prevalent among low-income and minority young people. Across the nation, nearly 7 million young people are neither in school nor part…

  18. A View of Professional Learning Communities through Three Frames: Leadership, Organization, and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Carol A.; Schunk, Dale H.

    2010-01-01

    In this discussion of professional learning communities (PLCs) in North American public schools, we examine three theoretical frames--leadership, organization, and culture. Issues related to learning are infused throughout our presentation of the frames. Based on our analysis of the current literature on this topic, PLCs offer a promising tool for…

  19. Understanding Program Planning Theory and Practice in a Feminist Community-Based Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Susan J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss feminist-program-planning issues, drawing from a critical ethnographic study of a Latin American feminist community-based organization. The research findings discuss the centrality of feminist identity to understanding and analyzing day-to-day program-planning process issues within a feminist…

  20. Infusing Financial Capability and Asset Building Content into a Community Organizing Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Joanna K.; Bagdasaryan, Sofya

    2018-01-01

    As social work's fight for social and economic justice returns to its historical attention to finances, faculty are called to infuse financial capability and asset building (FCAB) content into their classes. Given few published models, this study contributes a redesign that infuses FCAB in a community organization course, with additional attention…

  1. Mexican Americans on the Home Front: Community Organizations in Arizona during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Christine

    During World War II Arizona's Mexican-American communities organized their own patriotic activities and worked, in spite of racism, to support the war effort. In Phoenix the Lenadores del Mundo, an active fraternal society, began this effort by sponsoring a festival in January 1942. Such "mutualistas" provided an essential support system…

  2. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  3. Community participation in international health: practical recommendations for donor and recipient organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akukwe Chinua

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the need for donor agencies and recipient organizations to involve target communities in the conceptualization, development, monitoring, and implementation of health services and programs in international health. This paper assumes that most donor organizations are based in industrialized countries. Given that resources are finite in both developing and developed countries, the article briefly reviews the current trend of declining public funds for health systems and an increasing role for privately funded health services worldwide. The article calls for community-based international health services that reflect the priorities of target populations, and it also discusses practi cal steps to involve local populations in community-based health planning and management in international health.

  4. How community organizations moderate the effect of armed conflict on migration in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathalie E.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an analytical study of systematic micro-level variability in migration during conflict. The study is based on a multi-dimensional model of individual out-migration that examines the economic, social, and political consequences of conflict and how community organizations condition the experience of these consequences and systematically alter migration patterns. A unique combination of detailed data on violent events and individual behaviours during the Maoist insurrection in Nepal and multi-level event-history models were used to empirically test the model. Results indicate that community organizations dampened the effect of conflict on out-migration by providing resources that helped people to cope with the danger as well as economic, social and political consequences of conflict. This evidence suggests a systematic redistribution of population, partially contingent upon specific resources available in each community, which will likely affect the socio-demographic context of post-conflict Nepal into the future. PMID:23356735

  5. Organized Communities as a Hybrid Form of Data Sharing: Experiences from the Global STEP Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabell Stamm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With this article, I explore a new way of how social scientists can share primary qualitative data with each other. More specifically, I examine organized research communities, which are small membership groups of scholars. This hybrid form of data sharing is positioned between informal sharing through collaboration and institutionalized sharing through accessing research archives. Using the global "Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices" (STEP project as an example, I draw attention to the pragmatic practices of data sharing in such communities. Through ongoing negotiations, organized communities can, at least temporarily, put forward sharing policies and create a culture of data sharing that elevates the re-use of qualitative data while being mindful of the data's intersubjective and processual character.

  6. Structure of bacterial communities in soil following cover crop and organic fertilizer incorporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Adria L; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Staley, Christopher; Gould, Trevor J; Sadowsky, Michael J

    2016-11-01

    Incorporation of organic material into soils is an important element of organic farming practices that can affect the composition of the soil bacterial communities that carry out nutrient cycling and other functions crucial to crop health and growth. We conducted a field experiment to determine the effects of cover crops and fertilizers on bacterial community structure in agricultural soils under long-term organic management. Illumina sequencing of 16S rDNA revealed diverse communities comprising 45 bacterial phyla in corn rhizosphere and bulk field soil. Community structure was most affected by location and by the rhizosphere effect, followed by sampling time and amendment treatment. These effects were associated with soil physicochemical properties, including pH, moisture, organic matter, and nutrient levels. Treatment differences were apparent in bulk and rhizosphere soils at the time of peak corn growth in the season following cover crop and fertilizer application. Cover crop and fertilizer treatments tended to lower alpha diversity in early season samples. However, winter rye, oilseed radish, and buckwheat cover crop treatments increased alpha diversity in some later season samples compared to a no-amendment control. Fertilizer treatments and some cover crops decreased relative abundance of members of the ammonia-oxidizing family Nitrosomonadaceae. Pelleted poultry manure and Sustane® (a commercial fertilizer) decreased the relative abundance of Rhizobiales. Our data point to a need for future research exploring how (1) cover crops influence bacterial community structure and functions, (2) these effects differ with biomass composition and quantity, and (3) existing soil conditions and microbial community composition influence how soil microbial populations respond to agricultural management practices.

  7. The participation of community-based organizations on waste management in the city municipal of Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimurni, Februati; Dayana

    2018-03-01

    Waste is currently main problem experienced by cities all over the world. The waste has brought negative impacts on public health, environment, development and social of the cities. However, there must be solutions to overcome the piles of waste in case the individual citizens or community-based organization wisely deal with the problem. In the municipal area of Medan in the Province of North Sumatra, there is sort of organization established by community-based organization (CBO) so-called Bank Sampah or Waste Bank which is placed as a flatform for the member to do business of waste materials by collecting them from households around, sorting the materials into waste categories and ended up by purchasing and selling them to make some money. The organization is not merely a flatform for doing a business of waste materials yet the media for other social activities and efforts of reaching social and family welfare. The study is conducted in some sites of such organization activities in the city, and there are some observations of how the community run the business and in the same time arranging other social activities. The study tries to portray the activities and analyzes the means and the significancy of the CBO on reducing waste problems in the city.

  8. Using Interdisciplinary Research Methods to Revise and Strengthen the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C.; Gregg, C. E.; Ritchie, L.; Stephen, M.; Farnham, C.; Fraser, S. A.; Gill, D.; Horan, J.; Houghton, B. F.; Johnson, V.; Johnston, D.

    2013-12-01

    The National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP) partnered with the National Weather Service (NWS) in early 2000 to create the TsunamiReadyTM Community Recognition program. TsunamiReadyTM, modeled after the older NWS StormReadyTM program, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami-related consequences. To achieve TsunamiReadyTM recognition, communities must meet certain criteria aimed at better preparing a community for tsunami, including specific actions within the following categories: communications and coordination, tsunami warning reception, local warning dissemination, community preparedness, and administration. Using multidisciplinary research methods and strategies from Public Health; Psychology; Political, Social and Physical Sciences and Evaluation, our research team is working directly with a purposive sample of community stakeholders in collaboration and feedback focus group sessions. Invitation to participate is based on a variety of factors including but not limited to an individual's role as a formal or informal community leader (e.g., in business, government, civic organizations), or their organization or agency affiliation to emergency management and response. Community organizing and qualitative research methods are being used to elicit discussion regarding TsunamiReadyTM requirements and the division of requirements based on some aspect of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk, such as proximity to active or passive plate margins or subduction zone generated tsunamis versus earthquake-landslide generated tsunamis . The primary aim of this research is to use social science to revise and refine the NWS TsunamiReadyTM Guidelines in an effort to better prepare communities to reduce risk to tsunamis.

  9. A simple method to prepare self-assembled organic-organic heterobilayers on metal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. D. Sun

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a self-assembly based simple method to prepare organic-organic heterobilayers on a metal substrate. By either sequential- or co-deposition of para-sexiphenyl (p-6P and pentacene molecules onto the Cu(110 surface in ultrahigh vacuum, p-6P/pentacene/Cu(110 heterobilayer is synthesized at room temperature. The layer sequence of the heterostructure is independent of the growth scenario indicating the p-6P/pentacene/Cu(110 is a self-assembled structure with lowest energy. Besides, the bilayer shows a very high orientational ordering and is thermally stable up to 430K.

  10. "It's Like Moving the Titanic:" Community Organizing to Address Food (In)Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kristen E

    2017-08-01

    Health communication scholars are uniquely positioned to examine the ways in which individuals organize to address current and future exigencies related to social ills. In particular, organizations are key sites in understanding our health decisions related to food choice. From a young age, children develop habits of eating that stay with them throughout their life. More specifically, food insecurity impacts childhood nutrition. Children from low-income homes experience disproportional negative health outcomes. Appalachian Ohio is an area within the United States that experiences severe poverty. In 2013, community members in a small public school district in Appalachian Ohio formed the Appalachian Nutrition Advisory Council to address the nutritional needs of students in schools. This project stories the ways in which community members creatively organized to supplement existing structures in place designed to address school nutrition and food security.

  11. Exploring barriers to organ donation in the African-American communities of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Debra R; McNiesh, Susan

    2012-07-01

    There are a disproportionate number of African-Americans on transplant waiting lists across the country. The outcomes of a transplant are greatly improved when the donor and the recipient are from the same ethnic group. Sadly, the demand for cadaver organs in the African-American community exceeds the supply. Researchers in the past have sought to identify barriers to organ and tissue donation. To date, the studies have been conducted in the eastern and southern regions of the United States. This study examines whether the previously identified barriers are applicable in the African-American communities of California. A revised version of the Bone Marrow Donation Intention Tool was administered both in person and online. A t-test was used for analysis. The findings revealed statistically significant agreement/disagreement statements. These statements indicated that the barriers to organ donation from other areas of the United States were not representative of the respondents on the west coast.

  12. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes `IAEA Handbook`, which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author).

  13. A study on international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang Seok; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Byung Wook; Cho, Il Hoon; Lee, Jae Sung; Choi, Young Rok; Ko, Han Seok; Ham, Chul Hoon; Lee, Byung Woon

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze the current status of international nuclear organizations and conventions in systems perspective and suggest national strategies for utilizing them for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. This study analyzes the current status of international nuclear organizations such as IAEA(International Atomic Energy Agency) and international nuclear conventions related to nuclear accidents, nuclear liability, physical protection or nuclear safety. Based on the analysis, this study suggests national strategies, in general and specific terms, to utilize international nuclear organizations and conventions for the globalization of Korean nuclear community. Separately from this report this study publishes 'IAEA Handbook', which contains all about IAEA such as statute, membership, organizational structure, main activities, finance and budget, etc.. 9 tabs., 2 figs., 35 refs. (Author)

  14. Ensemble method: Community detection based on game theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Xia, Zhengyou; Xu, Shengwu; Wang, J. D.

    2014-08-01

    Timely and cost-effective analytics over social network has emerged as a key ingredient for success in many businesses and government endeavors. Community detection is an active research area of relevance to analyze online social network. The problem of selecting a particular community detection algorithm is crucial if the aim is to unveil the community structure of a network. The choice of a given methodology could affect the outcome of the experiments because different algorithms have different advantages and depend on tuning specific parameters. In this paper, we propose a community division model based on the notion of game theory, which can combine advantages of previous algorithms effectively to get a better community classification result. By making experiments on some standard dataset, it verifies that our community detection model based on game theory is valid and better.

  15. Effects of organic amendments and mulches on soil microbial communities in quarry restoration under semiarid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Pastorelli, Roberta; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Fabiani, Arturo; Bastida López, Felipe; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2015-04-01

    Mining activities generate loss of the quality of the environment and landscape specially in arid and semiarid Mediterranean regions. A precondition for ecosystem reclamation in such highly disturbed mining areas is the development of functional soils with appropriate levels of organic matter. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, 9 plots 15 x 5 m were prepared to test organic amendments (compost from solid urban residues-DOW-, sludge from urban water treatment-SS-, control-NA-) and different mulches (fine gravel-GM-, wood chips-WM-, control-NM-) with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot, 75 native plants (Macrochloa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. After 5 years from the start of the experiment, we evaluated how microbial community composition responded to the organic amendments and mulches. Microbial community composition of both bacteria and fungi was determined by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting. The results of the two-way ANOVA showed that PLFAs were significantly affected by organic amendments but not by the mulches or interaction of both factors. Experimental plots with DOW showed significantly higher level of fungal PLFAs than those with SS and NA, even higher than the reference undisturbed soil. However, any plot with organic amendments did not reach the content of bacterial PLFAs of the reference soils. The bacterial diversity (evaluated by diversity indices calculated from DGGE profiles) was greater in soil samples taken under NA and GM. Comparing these indices in fungal DGGE, we found greater values for soil samples taken under DOW and without mulches. Results from UPGMA analysis showed significant differences in the structure of soil bacterial communities from the different treatments

  16. IMPACT OF SRI ORGANIC AS COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM OF PT MEDCO E&P INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lita Ayudia Fitriyani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia is an agricultural country that has majority occupation as farmer. Unfortunately, farmers still become the biggest contributor to poverty in Indonesia around 62.25% in 2012. As a country that has a vision to become an independent country, Indonesia should be able to meet the welfare of its people, including farmers. This can be achieved if the cooperation between the government and the perpetrators of activities in Indonesia; such as natural resource companies that perform social responsibility programs as a contribution to society. One form of social responsibility is a community development program which is considered to be more useful. System of Rice Intensification or SRI Organic Organic is one of the community development programs that were developed to improve the welfare of farmers. The aim of this study were 1 to evaluate the impact of a given Organic SRI as a community development programs; 2 measuring the level of Organic SRI farmers' income; 3 Organic SRI analyze opportunities in the future as an independent and sustainable program. By doing a case study on community development programs conducted by PT Medco E & P Indonesia in the dusun parit 9, Banyuasin District, the authors analyze and evaluate the impact of using SEAGA to 20 respondents. The results of these studies are intended to provide input in order to make the community development program more effective in the future.Keywords: welfare, corporate social responsibility, community development, SRI organic, SEAGAABSTRAKIndonesia adalah negara agraris dimana petani merupakan mayoritas pekerjaan namun menjadi penyumbang kemiskinan terbesar di Indonesia sekitar 62,25% pada 2012.  Sebagai negara yang memiliki visi untuk menjadi negara mandiri, Indonesia harus mampu memenuhi kesejahteraan rakyatnya termasuk petani. Hal tersebut dapat tercapai jika adanya kerjasama antara pemerintah dan pelaku aktivitas di Indonesia; seperti perusahaan sumber daya alam yang melakukan

  17. METHOD 415.3 - MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL ORGANIC ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2.0 SUMMARY OF METHOD2.1 In both TOC and DOC determinations, organic carbon in the water sample is oxidized to form carbon dioxide (CO2), which is then measured by a detection system. There are two different approaches for the oxidation of organic carbon in water samples to carbon dioxide gas: (a) combustion in an oxidizing gas and (b) UV promoted or heat catalized chemical oxidation with a persulfate solution. Carbon dioxide, which is released from the oxidized sample, is detected by a conductivity detector or by a nondispersive infrared (NDIR) detector. Instruments using any combination of the above technologies may be used in this method.2.2. Setteable solids and floating matter may cause plugging of valves, tubing, and the injection needle port. The TOC procedure allows the removal of settleable solids and floating matter. The suspended matter is considered part of the sample. The resulting water sample is then considered a close approximation of the original whole water sample for the purpose of TOC measurement.2.3. The DOC procedure requires that the sample be passed through a 0.45 um filter prior to analysis.2.4. The TOC and DOC procedures require that all inorganic carbon be removed from the sample before the sample is analyzed for organic carbon content. If the inorganic carbon (IC) is not completely removed, significant error will occur. The inorganic carbon interference is removed by converting the mineralized IC to CO2 by acidification and

  18. Incineration method for plutonium recovery from alpha contaminated organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahata, Taneaki; Abe, Jiro; Kato, Michiharu; Kurihara, Masayoshi

    1985-01-01

    An incineration method for plutonium recovery from α contaminated organic compounds in a flow of controlled oxygen gas is stated. The species of such thermal decomposition products as hydrocarbons, free carbon, carbon monoxide and hydrogen were determined by mass spectrography. The mixture of the products which are the source of tar or soot was converted to CO 2 and H 2 O in contact with copper oxide catalyst without flaming. This incineration method is composed of two stages. The first stage is the decomposition of organic compounds in the streams of gas mixtures containing oxygen in low ratios. The second stage is the incineration of the decomposition products by catalytic reaction in the streams of gas with higher oxygen ratios. Plutonium was recovered as the form of plutonium dioxide from the incineration residues of the first stage. The behavior of oil was examined as a representative of liquid organic compounds. It was found to evaporate below ca. 500 0 C, but was completely incinerated by the catalytic reaction with copper oxide catalyst in the flow of gas with controlled oxygen amount and was changed to CO 2 and H 2 O. (author)

  19. Diel changes in stream periphyton extracellular enzyme activity throughout community development on inert and organic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rier, S. T.; Francoeur, S. N.; Kuehn, K. A.

    2005-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that algal photosynthesis in stream periphyton communities would influence the activities of extracellular enzymes produced by associated heterotrophic bacteria and fungi to acquire organic compounds and inorganic nutrients. We approached this question by looking for diurnal variation in activities of four extracellular enzymes in periphyton communities that were grown on either inert (glass fiber filters) or organic (leaves) substrata that there were incubated in stream-side channels that were either open to full sun or shaded. Substrata were subsampled for β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphotase, leucine-aminopeptidase, and phenol oxidase activities at 3-5 hr. intervals over two consecutive diurnal cycles that were repeated at an early and later stage of periphyton community development. Activities of all enzymes displayed diurnal periodicity but the strength of the diurnal effects depended largely on the substrate type and stage of community development. The most consistent diurnal change was observed with phenol oxidase activity with significantly greater (p<0.05) activities being observed in during the day for both stages of community development and for both substrate types. It is likely that oxygen produced by algal photosynthesis is driving the activity of this oxidative enzyme and that algae might indirectly influence the decomposition of phenolic compounds.

  20. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    warned; if transgressions continued, male community members punished the ... lynching is a spontaneous reaction to deviance and vigilantism is an organised activity. ... Violence in this context is a collective community action arising against individuals or small groups ..... stealing and did not move away, he would be killed.

  1. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  2. Exploring the role of intermediary organizations in firm and user community collaborations: Resolving or multiplying paradoxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsdahl Lauritzen, Ghita

    2015-01-01

    Research on user innovation shows that innovation can be impeded by the conflicting demands that arise in the context of collaborations between firms and their user communities. One stream of research, however, applies a paradox lens to argue that intermediary organizations can help to resolve...... these conflicts, by bridging the opposing logics in which they originate. On the basis of an embedded case study, this article suggests that instead of resolving a paradox of innovation, intermediaries create new paradoxical tensions. Further, I argue that mediating firm-community collaboration is not a matter...

  3. Collaborative Research with Parents and Local Communities: Organizing Against Racism and Education Privatization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Lipman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The author discusses her collaborative research with parents and communities against neoliberal education policies in Chicago. The paper summarizes several projects that challenge racism and educational privatization: using social science data to challenge public school closings, collaboration with a community organization to tell the story of the effects of school closings and disinvestment on African American students and schools from their own perspective, and research for a city-wide coalition for an elected school governance board. The author uses these projects to illustrate multiple forms of activist scholarship and some of their complexities and contradictions.

  4. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 77 - DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation C Appendix C to Part 77 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY..., App. C Appendix C to Part 77—DD Form 2581-1, Public and Community Service Organization Validation...

  5. Quantifying the Importance of the Rare Biosphere for Microbial Community Response to Organic Pollutants in a Freshwater Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanqi; Hatt, Janet K; Tsementzi, Despina; Rodriguez-R, Luis M; Ruiz-Pérez, Carlos A; Weigand, Michael R; Kizer, Heidi; Maresca, Gina; Krishnan, Raj; Poretsky, Rachel; Spain, Jim C; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T

    2017-04-15

    A single liter of water contains hundreds, if not thousands, of bacterial and archaeal species, each of which typically makes up a very small fraction of the total microbial community (biosphere." How often, and via what mechanisms, e.g., clonal amplification versus horizontal gene transfer, the rare taxa and genes contribute to microbial community response to environmental perturbations represent important unanswered questions toward better understanding the value and modeling of microbial diversity. We tested whether rare species frequently responded to changing environmental conditions by establishing 20-liter planktonic mesocosms with water from Lake Lanier (Georgia, USA) and perturbing them with organic compounds that are rarely detected in the lake, including 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), and caffeine. The populations of the degraders of these compounds were initially below the detection limit of quantitative PCR (qPCR) or metagenomic sequencing methods, but they increased substantially in abundance after perturbation. Sequencing of several degraders (isolates) and time-series metagenomic data sets revealed distinct cooccurring alleles of degradation genes, frequently carried on transmissible plasmids, especially for the 2,4-D mesocosms, and distinct species dominating the post-enrichment microbial communities from each replicated mesocosm. This diversity of species and genes also underlies distinct degradation profiles among replicated mesocosms. Collectively, these results supported the hypothesis that the rare biosphere can serve as a genetic reservoir, which can be frequently missed by metagenomics but enables community response to changing environmental conditions caused by organic pollutants, and they provided insights into the size of the pool of rare genes and species. IMPORTANCE A single liter of water or gram of soil contains hundreds of low-abundance bacterial and archaeal species, the so called rare biosphere. The

  6. Gross community production and metabolic balance in the South Pacific Gyre, using a non intrusive bio-optical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Claustre

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The very clear waters of the South Pacific Gyre likely constitute an end-member of oligotrophic conditions which remain essentially unknown with respect to its impact on carbon fixation and exportation. We describe a non-intrusive bio-optical method to quantify the various terms of a production budget (Gross community production, community losses, net community production in this area. This method is based on the analysis of the diel cycle in Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, derived from high frequency measurements of the particle attenuation coefficient cp. We report very high integrated rates of Gross Community Production within the euphotic layer (average of 846±484 mg C m−2 d−1 for 17 stations that are far above any rates determined using incubation techniques for such areas. Furthermore we show that the daily production of POC is essentially balanced by the losses so that the system cannot be considered as net heterotrophic. Our results thus agree well with geochemical methods, but not with incubation studies based on oxygen methods. We stress to the important role of deep layers, below the euphotic layer, in contributing to carbon fixation when incident irradiance at the ocean surface is high (absence of cloud coverage. These deep layers, not considered up to know, might fuel part of the heterotrophic processes in the upper layer, including through dissolved organic carbon. We further demonstrate that, in these extremely clear and stratified waters, integrated gross community production is proportional to the POC content and surface irradiance via an efficiency index ψ GCP*, the water column cross section for Gross Community Production. We finally discuss our results in the context of the role of oligotrophic gyre in the global carbon budget and of the possibility of using optical proxies from space for the development of growth community rather than primary production

  7. Government dependence of Chinese and Vietnamese community organizations and fiscal politics of immigrant services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Winston

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the impact of government support and policies on immigrant services within ethnic enclaves. This paper seeks to address this gap and examines the structure and challenges of ethnic community based organizations (CBOs) that serve low income immigrant populations and the impact of government support and policies on these CBOs. The study utilized case study and ethnographic methodologies and examined 2 Chinese and 2 Vietnamese CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area. The findings show that ethnic CBOs critically depend on government fiscal support for survival. In exchange for fiscal support, ethnic CBOs represent public assistance and legitimacy interests for government in immigrant communities. However, culturally proficient and community leadership resources of ethnic CBOs can serve as bargaining chips to secure government funding, reduce compliance to government demands, and advance immigrant community interests. Nevertheless, in times of government fiscal crisis, ethnic CBOs and immigrant services tend to be most vulnerable to budget cuts due to lack of political voice. In sum, government-community collaboration through ethnic CBOs has a central role to play in facilitating and strengthening health and human services for rapidly growing, culturally diverse immigrant populations. These collaborative efforts in immigrant services are vital to cultivating healthy immigrant human capital and multicultural communities across the United States.

  8. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with 14 C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques

  9. Radiometric method for the rapid detection of Leptospira organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manca, N.; Verardi, R.; Colombrita, D.; Ravizzola, G.; Savoldi, E.; Turano, A.

    1986-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive radiometric method for detection of Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona and Leptospira interrogans serovar copenhageni is described. Stuart's medium and Middlebrook TB (12A) medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin, catalase, and casein hydrolysate and labeled with /sup 14/C-fatty acids were used. The radioactivity was measured in a BACTEC 460. With this system, Leptospira organisms were detected in human blood in 2 to 5 days, a notably shorter time period than that required for the majority of detection techniques.

  10. Safety assessment and detection methods of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Zheng, Zhe; Jiao, Guanglian

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are gaining importance in agriculture as well as the production of food and feed. Along with the development of GMOs, health and food safety concerns have been raised. These concerns for these new GMOs make it necessary to set up strict system on food safety assessment of GMOs. The food safety assessment of GMOs, current development status of safety and precise transgenic technologies and GMOs detection have been discussed in this review. The recent patents about GMOs and their detection methods are also reviewed. This review can provide elementary introduction on how to assess and detect GMOs.

  11. Method for Selection of Solvents for Promotion of Organic Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Jiménez-González, Concepción; Constable, David J.C.

    2005-01-01

    is to produce, for a given reaction, a short list of chemicals that could be considered as potential solvents, to evaluate their performance in the reacting system, and, based on this, to rank them according to a scoring system. Several examples of application are given to illustrate the main features and steps......A method to select appropriate green solvents for the promotion of a class of organic reactions has been developed. The method combines knowledge from industrial practice and physical insights with computer-aided property estimation tools for selection/design of solvents. In particular, it employs...... estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction, solvent and environment related properties that directly or indirectly influence the rate and/or conversion of a given reaction. Solvents are selected using a rules-based procedure where the estimated reaction-solvent properties...

  12. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  13. Handbook of soil analysis. Mineralogical, organic and inorganic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pansu, M. [Centre IRD, 34 - Montpellier (France); Gautheyrou, J.

    2006-07-01

    This handbook is a reference guide for selecting and carrying out numerous methods of soil analysis. It is written in accordance with analytical standards and quality control approaches.It covers a large body of technical information including protocols, tables, formulae, spectrum models, chromatograms and additional analytical diagrams. The approaches are diverse, from the simplest tests to the most sophisticated determination methods in the physical chemistry of mineralogical and organic structures, available and total elements, soil exchange complex, pesticides and contaminants, trace elements and isotopes.As a basic reference, it will be particularly useful to scientists, engineers, technicians, professors and students, in the areas of soil science, agronomy, earth and environmental sciences as well as in related fields such as analytical chemistry, geology, hydrology, ecology, climatology, civil engineering and industrial activities associated with soil. (orig.)

  14. Native Fluorescence Detection Methods, Devices, and Systems for Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hug, William F. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Lane, Arthur L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Naphthalene, benzene, toluene, xylene, and other volatile organic compounds VOCs have been identified as serious health hazards. Embodiments of the invention are directed to methods and apparatus for near-real-time in-situ detection and accumulated dose measurement of exposure to naphthalene vapor and other hazardous gaseous VOCs. The methods and apparatus employ excitation of fluorophors native or endogenous to compounds of interest using light sources emitting in the ultraviolet below 300 nm and measurement of native fluorescence emissions in distinct wavebands above the excitation wavelength. The apparatus of some embodiments are cell-phone-sized sensor/dosimeter "badges" to be worn by personnel potentially exposed to hazardous VOCs. The badge sensor of some embodiments provides both real time detection and data logging of exposure to naphthalene or other VOCs of interest from which both instantaneous and accumulated dose can be determined.

  15. Organizing heterogeneous samples using community detection of GIMME-derived resting state functional networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Gates

    Full Text Available Clinical investigations of many neuropsychiatric disorders rely on the assumption that diagnostic categories and typical control samples each have within-group homogeneity. However, research using human neuroimaging has revealed that much heterogeneity exists across individuals in both clinical and control samples. This reality necessitates that researchers identify and organize the potentially varied patterns of brain physiology. We introduce an analytical approach for arriving at subgroups of individuals based entirely on their brain physiology. The method begins with Group Iterative Multiple Model Estimation (GIMME to assess individual directed functional connectivity maps. GIMME is one of the only methods to date that can recover both the direction and presence of directed functional connectivity maps in heterogeneous data, making it an ideal place to start since it addresses the problem of heterogeneity. Individuals are then grouped based on similarities in their connectivity patterns using a modularity approach for community detection. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that using GIMME in combination with the modularity algorithm works exceptionally well--on average over 97% of simulated individuals are placed in the accurate subgroup with no prior information on functional architecture or group identity. Having demonstrated reliability, we examine resting-state data of fronto-parietal regions drawn from a sample (N = 80 of typically developing and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -diagnosed children. Here, we find 5 subgroups. Two subgroups were predominantly comprised of ADHD, suggesting that more than one biological marker exists that can be used to identify children with ADHD based from their brain physiology. Empirical evidence presented here supports notions that heterogeneity exists in brain physiology within ADHD and control samples. This type of information gained from the approach presented here can assist in

  16. Soil mineral assemblage influences on microbial communities and carbon cycling under fresh organic matter input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, B. K.; Schwartz, E.; Koch, B.; Dijkstra, P.; Hungate, B. A.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between soil mineral assemblages and microbial communities are important drivers of soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling and storage, although the mechanisms driving these interactions remain unclear. There is increasing evidence supporting the importance of associations with poorly crystalline, short-range order (SRO) minerals in protection of SOC from microbial utilization. However, how the microbial processing of SRO-associated SOC may be influenced by fresh organic matter inputs (priming) remains poorly understood. The influence on SRO minerals on soil microbial community dynamics is uncertain as well. Therefore, we conducted a priming incubation by adding either a simulated root exudate mixture or conifer needle litter to three soils from a mixed-conifer ecosystem. The parent material of the soils were andesite, basalt, and granite and decreased in SRO mineral content, respectively. We also conducted a parallel quantitative stable isotope probing incubation by adding 18O-labelled water to the soils to isotopically label microbial DNA in situ. This allowed us to characterize and identify the active bacterial and archaeal community and taxon-specific growth under fresh organic matter input. While the granite soil (lowest SRO content), had the largest total mineralization, the least priming occurred. The andesite and basalt soils (greater SRO content) had lower total respiration, but greater priming. Across all treatments, the granite soil, while having the lowest species richness of the entire community (249 taxa, both active and inactive), had a larger active community (90%) in response to new SOC input. The andesite and basalt soils, while having greater total species richness of the entire community at 333 and 325 taxa, respectively, had fewer active taxa in response to new C compared to the granite soil (30% and 49% taxa, respectively). These findings suggest that the soil mineral assemblage is an important driver on SOC cycling under fresh

  17. Social media use by community-based organizations conducting health promotion: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramanadhan, Shoba; Mendez, Samuel R; Rao, Megan; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2013-12-05

    Community-based organizations (CBOs) are critical channels for the delivery of health promotion programs. Much of their influence comes from the relationships they have with community members and other key stakeholders and they may be able to harness the power of social media tools to develop and maintain these relationships. There are limited data describing if and how CBOs are using social media. This study assesses the extent to which CBOs engaged in health promotion use popular social media channels, the types of content typically shared, and the extent to which the interactive aspects of social media tools are utilized. We assessed the social media presence and patterns of usage of CBOs engaged in health promotion in Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester, Massachusetts. We coded content on three popular channels: Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube. We used content analysis techniques to quantitatively summarize posts, tweets, and videos on these channels, respectively. For each organization, we coded all content put forth by the CBO on the three channels in a 30-day window. Two coders were trained and conducted the coding. Data were collected between November 2011 and January 2012. A total of 166 organizations were included in our census. We found that 42% of organizations used at least one of the channels of interest. Across the three channels, organization promotion was the most common theme for content (66% of posts, 63% of tweets, and 93% of videos included this content). Most organizations updated Facebook and Twitter content at rates close to recommended frequencies. We found limited interaction/engagement with audience members. Much of the use of social media tools appeared to be uni-directional, a flow of information from the organization to the audience. By better leveraging opportunities for interaction and user engagement, these organizations can reap greater benefits from the non-trivial investment required to use social media well. Future research should

  18. The Activities of Community Organizations in Providing Assistance to Prisoners of World War I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to examine the activities of the International Committee of the Red Cross and other community organizations in providing assistance to prisoners of the World War I. According to Article 15 of the Hague Convention of 1907, organizations that assist the prisoners of war, as well as their representatives can use all the benefits from the authorities of the warring countries. Representatives of these organizations are allowed to distribute benefits to places of detention of POWs, provided that a nominal permit is issued by the military authorities. During the World War I, the community organizations played a significant role in providing material and moral support to prisoners of war of belligerent countries. The role of the Red Cross in the protection of war victims and providing assistance to the POWs during the World War I is undeniable, international and national organizations interacted as natural mediators and influenced their own governments, in order to further alleviate the plight of the prisoners of war.

  19. Organic Matter Loading Modifies the Microbial Community Responsible for Nitrogen Loss in Estuarine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbin, Andrew R; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B

    2016-04-01

    Coastal marine sediments, as locations of substantial fixed nitrogen loss, are very important to the nitrogen budget and to the primary productivity of the oceans. Coastal sediment systems are also highly dynamic and subject to periodic natural and anthropogenic organic substrate additions. The response to organic matter by the microbial community involved in nitrogen loss processes was evaluated using mesocosms of Chesapeake Bay sediments. Over the course of a 50-day incubation, rates of anammox and denitrification were measured weekly using (15)N tracer incubations, and samples were collected for genetic analysis. Rates of both nitrogen loss processes and gene abundances associated with them corresponded loosely, probably because heterogeneities in sediments obscured a clear relationship. The rates of denitrification were stimulated more, and the fraction of nitrogen loss attributed to anammox slightly reduced, by the higher organic matter addition. Furthermore, the large organic matter pulse drove a significant and rapid shift in the denitrifier community composition as determined using a nirS microarray, indicating that the diversity of these organisms plays an essential role in responding to anthropogenic inputs. We also suggest that the proportion of nitrogen loss due to anammox in these coastal estuarine sediments may be underestimated due to temporal dynamics as well as from methodological artifacts related to conventional sediment slurry incubation approaches.

  20. The effects of organic inputs to estuaries on overwintering bird populations and communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, P.T.; Hill, D.A.; Clark, N.A.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between changes in organic inputs to river estuaries and other coastal intertidal areas, and changes in the populations of waterfowl in these habitats. This is done in the context of tidal barrage construction, where barrage construction and operation may coincide with the cleaning of estuarine water. A thorough review of the literature is undertaken to determine the current status of knowledge of bird/organic-enrichment interactions. The use of multivariate statistics for identifying gradients in similarity between bird communities (specifically waders) of different estuaries, irrespective of geographic locations is investigated. (UK)

  1. Comparative responses of river biofilms at the community level to common organic solvent and herbicide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paule, A; Roubeix, V; Swerhone, G D W; Roy, J; Lauga, B; Duran, R; Delmas, F; Paul, E; Rols, J L; Lawrence, J R

    2016-03-01

    Residual pesticides applied to crops migrate from agricultural lands to surface and ground waters. River biofilms are the first aquatic non-target organisms which interact with pesticides. Therefore, ecotoxicological experiments were performed at laboratory scale under controlled conditions to investigate the community-level responses of river biofilms to a chloroacetanilide herbicide (alachlor) and organic solvent (methanol) exposure through the development referenced to control. Triplicate rotating annular bioreactors, inoculated with river water, were used to cultivate river biofilms under the influence of 1 and 10 μg L(-1) of alachlor and 25 mg L(-1) of methanol. For this purpose, functional (thymidine incorporation and carbon utilization spectra) and structural responses of microbial communities were assessed after 5 weeks of development. Structural aspects included biomass (chlorophyll a, confocal laser scanning microscopy) and composition (fluor-conjugated lectin binding, molecular fingerprinting, and diatom species composition). The addition of alachlor resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial biomass at 1 μg L(-1), whereas at 10 μg L(-1), it induced a significant reduction of exopolymer lectin binding, algal, bacterial, and cyanobacterial biomass. However, there were no changes in biofilm thickness or thymidine incorporation. No significant difference between the bacterial community structures of control and alachlor-treated biofilms was revealed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses. However, the methanol-treated bacterial communities appeared different from control and alachlor-treated communities. Moreover, methanol treatment resulted in an increase of bacterial biomass and thymidine incorporation as well. Changes in dominant lectin binding suggested changes in the exopolymeric substances and community composition. Chlorophyll a and cyanobacterial biomass were also altered by methanol. This study suggested

  2. Effect of organic acids production and bacterial community on the possible mechanism of phosphorus solubilization during composting with enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuquan; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Mingzi; Cao, Zhenyu; Lu, Qian; Yang, Tianxue; Fan, Yuying; Wei, Zimin

    2018-01-01

    Enriched phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) agent were acquired by domesticated cultivation, and inoculated into kitchen waste composting in different stages. The effect of different treatments on organic acids production, tricalcium phosphate (TCP) solubilization and their relationship with bacterial community were investigated during composting. Our results pointed out that inoculation affected pH, total acidity and the production of oxalic, lactic, citric, succinic, acetic and formic acids. We also found a strong advantage in the solubilization of TCP and phosphorus (P) availability for PSB inoculation especially in the cooling stage. Redundancy analysis and structural equation models demonstrated inoculation by different methods changed the correlation of the bacterial community composition with P fractions as well as organic acids, and strengthened the cooperative function related to P transformation among species during composting. Finally, we proposed a possible mechanism of P solubilization with enriched PSB inoculation, which was induced by bacterial community and organic acids production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge-Marie Birkedal; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... produced cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and viridicatin on the artificially infected berries, while Altemaria arborescens produced tenuazonic acid, Alternaria tenuissima produced altertoxin land altenuene, and Trichoderma spp. produced several peptaibols. In conclusion, native strawberry microbiotas are highly...

  4. The effect of increased loads of dissolved organic matter on estuarine microbial community composition and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traving, Sachia J.; Rowe, Owen; Jakobsen, Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Increased river loads are projected as one of the major consequences of climate change in the northern hemisphere, leading to elevated inputs of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) and inorganic nutrients to coastal ecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of ele...... supply to the Baltic Sea will be efficiently mineralized by microbes. This will have consequences for bacterioplankton and phytoplankton community composition and function, and significantly affect nutrient biogeochemistry....

  5. Volatile organic chemicals of a shore-dwelling cyanobacterial mat community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W G

    1994-02-01

    The main components of a cyanobacterial mat community of a hypersaline lake shore consist of edaphic, mat-forming strains (ecophenes), and littoral strains ofOscillatoria animalis Agardh andO. subbrevis Schmidle, other microorganisms associated with these cyanobacteria, several species ofBembidion (Carabidae: Coleoptera), and two halophytic flowering plants:Puccinellia nuttalliana (salt meadow grass) andSalicornia europaea rubra (samphire). The volatile organic compounds of this community are a blend of those emitted by each of these components such as the C17 alka(e)nes, geosmin, 2-methylisoborneol,β-cyclocitral,β-ionone, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide of cyanobacteria and associated microorganisms; alcohols, esters, and aldehydes usually associated with flowering plants; and possibly some insect-derived esters, particularly isopropyl tetradecanoate. The dominant compounds were: C11, C13, C15, and C17 alka(e)nes, methyl esters of C16 and C18:2 acids, isopropyl tetradecanoate, heptanal, 3-octanone and 2-nonanone, the acyclic terpene linalool, and the alcohols 1-heptanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 3-hexen-1-ol, and 2-octen-1-ol. It is concluded that this community may be distinguished from related communities by its repertoire of volatile organic compounds.

  6. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Veronica; Lopes, Isabel [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rocha-Santos, Teresa [ISEIT/Viseu, Instituto Piaget, Estrada do Alto do Gaio, Galifonge, 3515-776 Lordosa, Viseu (Portugal); Santos, Ana L. [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Rasteiro, Graca M.; Antunes, Filipe [CIEPQPF, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Polo II, University of Coimbra, 3030-290 Coimbra (Portugal); Goncalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Gomes, Newton N.C.M., E-mail: gomesncm@ua.pt [Department of Biology, University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, P-3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Pereira, Ruth [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus de Santiago 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2012-05-01

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6-V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO{sub 4}), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO{sub 2}, CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the organic nanomaterials, TiO{sub 2} and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  7. A novel self-organizing E-Learner community model with award and exchange mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Shen, Rui-min; Han, Peng

    2004-11-01

    How to share experience and resources among learners is becoming one of the hottest topics in the field of E-Learning collaborative techniques. An intuitive way to achieve this objective is to group learners which can help each other into the same community and help them learn collaboratively. In this paper, we proposed a novel community self-organization model based on multi-agent mechanism, which can automatically group learners with similar preferences and capabilities. In particular, we proposed award and exchange schemas with evaluation and preference track records to raise the performance of this algorithm. The description of learner capability, the matchmaking process, the definition of evaluation and preference track records, the rules of award and exchange schemas and the self-organization algorithm are all discussed in this paper. Meanwhile, a prototype has been built to verify the validity and efficiency of the algorithm. Experiments based on real learner data showed that this mechanism can organize learner communities properly and efficiently; and that it has sustainable improved efficiency and scalability.

  8. Sense of community, psychological empowerment, and civic participation inworkers of cultural organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ramos-Vidal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evalute the sense of community, psychological empowerment, and communityparticipation of 120 workers of performing arts organizations in Andalusia. By means of three concurrentregression models we show that the sense of community and psychological empowerment are stronglyrelated, while social participation is not significantly associated to the other two processes. Cluster analysisbased on the three dimensions of interest classify participants in three different groups. In half of theparticipants a positive, mutual association between participation, empowerment, and a sense ofcommunity is observed. In addition, we have documented a passive profile, with low levels of participation,and a paradoxical profile, in which social participation seems to occur regardless of involvement in theorganization of reference. The three profiles differ in commitment to the organization and evaluation oflabor issues. The positive profile is also more likely to occur in smaller organizations. Finally, we discuss therelationship between the organizational dynamics of the performing arts groups and their potential to beinvolved in the community.

  9. Impact of organic and inorganic nanomaterials in the soil microbial community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, Verónica; Lopes, Isabel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa; Santos, Ana L.; Rasteiro, Graça M.; Antunes, Filipe; Gonçalves, Fernando; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Cunha, Angela; Almeida, Adelaide; Gomes, Newton N.C.M.; Pereira, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    In this study the effect of organic and inorganic nanomaterials (NMs) on the structural diversity of the soil microbial community was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis, after amplification with universal primers for the bacterial region V6–V8 of 16S rDNA. The polymers of carboxylmethyl-cellulose (CMC), of hydrophobically modified CMC (HM-CMC), and hydrophobically modified polyethylglycol (HM-PEG); the vesicles of sodium dodecyl sulphate/didodecyl dimethylammonium bromide (SDS/DDAB) and of monoolein/sodium oleate (Mo/NaO); titanium oxide (TiO 2 ), titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO 4 ), CdSe/ZnS quantum dots, gold nanorods, and Fe/Co magnetic fluid were the NMs tested. Soil samples were incubated, for a period of 30 days, after being spiked with NM suspensions previously characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) or by an ultrahigh-resolution scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) of DGGE profiles showed that gold nanorods, TiO 2 , CMC, HM-CMC, HM-PEG, and SDS/DDAB have significantly affected the structural diversity of the soil bacterial community. - Highlights: ► Organic and inorganic nanomaterials on soil microbial community. ► Structural diversity was investigated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. ► All the organic nanomaterials, TiO 2 and gold nanorods significantly affected the structural diversity.

  10. Procedures and Methods for Cross-community Online Deliberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Velikanov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce our model of self-regulated mass online deliberation, and apply it to a context of cross-border deliberation involving translation of contributions between participating languages, and then to a context of cross-community online deliberation for dispute resolution, e.g. between opposing ethnic or religious communities. In such a cross-border or cross-community context, online deliberation should preferably progress as a sequence of segmented phases each followed by a combining phase. In a segmented phase, each community deliberates separately, and selects their best contributions for being presented to all other communities. Selection is made by using our proposed mechanism of mutual moderation and appraisal of contributions by participants themselves. In the subsequent combining phase, the selected contributions are translated (by volunteering or randomly selected participants among those who have specified appropriate language skills and presented to target segments for further appraisal and commenting. Our arguments in support of the proposed mutual moderation and appraisal procedures remain mostly speculative, as the whole subject of mass online self-regulatory deliberation still remains largely unexplored, and there exist no practical realisation of it .

  11. Jog Your Mind: methodology and challenges of conducting evaluative research in partnership with community organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bier, Nathalie; Lorthios-Guilledroit, Agathe; Nour, Kareen; Parisien, Manon; Ellemberg, Dave; Laforest, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Jog Your Mind is a community-based program aiming at empowering elderly people to maintain their cognitive abilities using a multi-strategic approach including cognitively stimulating activities, mnemonic strategies, and strategies to promote healthy behaviors. It is offered to elderly individuals without known or diagnosed cognitive impairment by volunteers or community practitioners over ten weekly sessions. This paper describes the protocol of a quasi-experimental study designed to evaluate Jog Your Mind. Community responsible to recruit participants were either assigned to the experimental group (participating in the Jog Your Mind program) or to the control group (one-year waiting list). All participants were interviewed at baseline (T1), after the program (T2), and 12 months after the baseline (T3). Primary outcomes were the use of everyday memory strategies and aids and subjective memory functioning in daily life. Secondary outcomes included attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors related to cognitive vitality and cognitive abilities (memory and executive functions). Program delivery, organizational and environmental variables were recorded to document the implementation process. Twenty-three community organizations recruited 294 community-dwelling elderly individuals in total at T1. Between T1 and T3, an attrition rate of 15.2% was obtained. Jog Your Mind is one of the only programs targeting cognition among older adults being offered in community settings by community practitioners. The protocol described was designed with a focus on maximizing broad generalizations of the results while achieving scientific rigor. It can serve as an example to guide future research aiming to evaluate health interventions under natural conditions.

  12. Labor Migration, Drug Trafficking Organizations, and Drug Use: Major Challenges for Transnational Communities in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Laura

    2009-01-01

    In our article, we present the recent findings of our ethnographic field study on drug use and the emergence of a drug use culture in transnational communities in Mexico. Transnational communities are part of a larger migratory labor circuit that transcends political borders and are not restricted to a single locality. Transnational migrants and returning immigrants link the multiple localities through their social networks. In southern Guanajuato, Mexico, using a transnational migration paradigm, we examined the manner in which transnational migration and drug trafficking organizations are contributing to a growing drug problem in these communities. We found that transnational migrants and returning immigrants, including deported workers, introduce drugs and drug use practices, and contribute to the creation of a drug use culture within the communities. The social conditions in the community that foster and proliferate drug use are many: the erosion of the traditional family, truncated kinship bases, and new social formations. These conditions are all consequences of migration and emigration. Recent drug cartel activities are also contributing to this growing drug problem. The cartels have aggressively targeted these communities because of availability of money, existing drug use, a drug use culture, and the breakdown of traditional deterrents to substance abuse. Although a number of communities in three municipalities were part of our study, we focus on two: Lindavista, a rancho, Progreso, a municipal seat. Our field study in Mexico, one of four sequential ethnographic field studies conducted in Guanajuato and Pennsylvania, was completed over a six month period, from September, 2008, through February, 2009, using traditional ethnography. The four field studies are part of a larger, ongoing, three-year bi-national study on drug use among transnational migrants working in southeastern Pennsylvania. This larger study, near its third and final year, is funded by the

  13. Bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell fabricated by the electrospray deposition method using mixed organic solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Takeshi; Takagi, Kenji; Asano, Takashi [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Honda, Zentaro; Kamata, Norihiko; Ueno, Keiji; Shirai, Hajime [Department of Functional Materials Science, Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Ju, Jungmyoung; Yamagata, Yutaka; Tajima, Yusuke [RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wakou-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    A high-efficiency bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) was achieved by the electrospray deposition method. The surface roughness of the P3HT:PCBM thin film can be reduced using the mixed solvent consisting of o-dichlorobenzene (o-DCB) and acetone. The effect of acetone concentration is related to its dielectric constant. Under an optimized concentration of acetone in o-DCB (20 vol%), the P3HT/PCBM active layer with a smooth surface can be formed, and the power conversion efficiency of the OPV was 1.9%. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Towards a Knowledge Building Community: From Guided to Self-Organized Inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cacciamani

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Over four academic years a design experiment was conducted involving four online university courses with the goal of shifting from Guided to Self-Organized Inquiry to foster Knowledge Building communities in the classroom. Quantitative analyses focused on notes contributed to collective knowledge spaces, as well as reading and building-on notes of others. All team members, including teachers, contributed at high levels. Students tended to produce more notes in the guided-inquiry approach but read more and demonstrated more even distribution of work as part of self-organized inquiry. Qualitative data focused on strategies students reported as new to their school experience. Strategies fell into three categories common to both guided and self-organizing inquiry: elaborating course content for depth of understanding, collaboration in an online environment, and metacognition, with greater reflection on idea development. Distinctive aspects of self-organized inquiry, according to student reports, included going beyond given information, linking new understandings and personal experiences, attention to the collective works of the community, and learning from instructor’s strategies.

  15. Some methods for labelling organic compounds by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, C.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid growth of knowledge in the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology reflects to a considerable degree the utilization of stable isotopes (specially deuterium) in the study of chemical reactions and fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry, as well as in the pharmacological and biological studies. Organic compounds maybe labelled by deuterium through classic organic reactions by using special deuterated solvents and reagents. This article discusses some reactions, with examples on how to prepare labelled compounds with high isotopic purety. These reactions are: exchange reactions in acid and alkaline media (the exchange in the chromatographic column in liquid and gas phases, the exchange in homogenous medium), reduction reactions of functional groups as well as saturation of the double bounds by deuterium using hydrogenation catalystes, electrochemical reactions using KOLBE, and photochemical reactions. This article also deals with spectroscopic properties of deuterium and the methods which are used to identify its compounds such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. 37 refs., 2 figs

  16. Evaluating the Impacts of Professional Development: A Mixed Method Study of Adult Education Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilworth, Jessica S.

    2010-01-01

    Adult education programs providing classes to students preparing for high school equivalency and learning English that demonstrate characteristics of learning organizations may be better able to thrive when confronted with less-than-ideal circumstances. Many of these programs organize adult educators into learning communities as the context for…

  17. Etiology and anti-microbial sensitivity of organisms causing community acquired pneumonia: A single hospital study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi U Menon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to identify the common etiological pathogens causing community acquired pneumonia (CAP in our hospital and sensitivity patterns to the common antibiotics used. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken in a 750 bedded multi-specialty referral hospital in Kerala catering to both urban and semi-urban populations. It is a prospective study of patients who attended the medical out-patient department and those admitted with a clinical diagnosis of CAP, during the year 2009. Data were collected based on detailed patient interview, clinical examination and laboratory investigations. The latter included sputum culture and sensitivity pattern. These were tabulated and percentage incidence of etiological pathogens calculated. The antimicrobial sensitivity pattern was also classified by percentage and expressed as bar diagram. Results: The study showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be the most common etiological agent for CAP, in our hospital setting. The other organisms isolated in order of frequency were Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alpha hemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli, Beta hemolytic streptococci and atypical coli. S. pneumoniae was most sensitive to linezolid, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, cloxacillin and ceftriaxone. Overall, the common pathogens causing CAP showed highest sensitivity to amikacin, followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, amoxicillin-clavulanate (augmentin, ceftriaxone and linezolid. The least sensitivity rates were shown to amoxicillin and cefoperazone. Conclusion: In a hospital setting, empirical management for cases of CAP is not advisable. The present study has shown S. pneumoniae as the most likely pathogen and either linezolid or amikacin as the most likely effective antimicrobial in cases of CAP, in our setting.

  18. The Healing Land : Research Methods in Kalahari Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Healing Land (Isaacson, 2001a) is a vivid, experiential account of Rupert Isaacson's journey towards personal and community healing among the Khomani Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert in South Africa. This paper provides a detailed analysis of The Healing Land in relation to Isaacson's research methodology and ...

  19. Community violence in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: A mixed methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most homicide deaths in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (DSM) are a result of violence arising from within the community. This type of violence is commonly called, by perpetrators and victims, “mob justice”. Unilateral non-state collective violence can take four forms: lynching, vigilantism, rioting, and terrorism. The purpose of this ...

  20. A new cell primo-culture method for freshwater benthic diatom communities

    OpenAIRE

    Debenest, Timothée; Silvestre, Jérôme; Coste, Michel; Delmas, François; Pinelli, Eric

    2009-01-01

    A new cell primo-culture method was developed for the benthic diatom community isolated from biofilm sampled in rivers. The approach comprised three steps: (1) scraping biofilm from river pebbles, (2) diatom isolation from biofilm, and (3) diatom community culture. With a view to designing a method able to stimulate the growth of diatoms, to limit the development of other microorganisms, and to maintain in culture a community similar to the original natural one, different factors were test...

  1. Attitudes and beliefs within the Sikh community regarding organ donation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Sim, J; Reid, N; Jackson, S; West, N

    1996-07-01

    The current shortage of organs for transplantation is a matter of considerable concern in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Whilst issues of histocompatibility create particular problems in this respect for the Asian population in the U.K., it is sometimes suggested that there is also a resistance to the idea of organ transplantation among this community. To explore this issue, a small-scale interview study was conducted in Coventry among members of the Sikh community. A judgemental sample of 22 individuals, from different strata of the local Sikh community, were interviewed either in one-to-one interviews or in a focus group. These interviews had two broad aims: to determine the prevailing attitudes towards organ transplantation, and to gauge the impact and acceptability of the current Department of Health campaign literature. It was found that, whilst there were a number of misgivings to do with notions of mutilation and reincarnation, and anxieties as to technical or clinical aspects of the transplantation process, the prevailing view was supportive of transplantation, and organ donation was seen as a highly appropriate means of exhibiting the altruistic tradition within Sikhism. Such barriers that exist to the idea of transplantation seem to have more to do with knowledge and understanding than with cultural or religious factors. Concerning the campaign literature, informants identified a number of shortcomings, and indicated ways in which the impact of the leaflets and posters might be enhanced. Although the generalizability of these findings is limited, and despite possible threats to the validity of the data collected, this study has produced findings with significant implications for future policy in this area.

  2. Sourdough microbial community dynamics: An analysis during French organic bread-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lhomme, Emilie; Urien, Charlotte; Legrand, Judith; Dousset, Xavier; Onno, Bernard; Sicard, Delphine

    2016-02-01

    Natural sourdoughs are commonly used in bread-making processes, especially for organic bread. Despite its role in bread flavor and dough rise, the stability of the sourdough microbial community during and between bread-making processes is debated. We investigated the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeast communities in traditional organic sourdoughs of five French bakeries during the bread-making process and several months apart using classical and molecular microbiology techniques. Sourdoughs were sampled at four steps of the bread-making process with repetition. The analysis of microbial density over 68 sourdough/dough samples revealed that both LAB and yeast counts changed along the bread-making process and between bread-making runs. The species composition was less variable. A total of six LAB and nine yeast species was identified from 520 and 1675 isolates, respectively. The dominant LAB species was Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, found for all bakeries and each bread-making run. The dominant yeast species changed only once between bread-making processes but differed between bakeries. They mostly belonged to the Kazachstania clade. Overall, this study highlights the change of population density within the bread-making process and between bread-making runs and the relative stability of the sourdough species community during bread-making process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluating Michigan's community hospital access: spatial methods for decision support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varnakovida Pariwate

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community hospital placement is dictated by a diverse set of geographical factors and historical contingency. In the summer of 2004, a multi-organizational committee headed by the State of Michigan's Department of Community Health approached the authors of this paper with questions about how spatial analyses might be employed to develop a revised community hospital approval procedure. Three objectives were set. First, the committee needed visualizations of both the spatial pattern of Michigan's population and its 139 community hospitals. Second, the committee required a clear, defensible assessment methodology to quantify access to existing hospitals statewide, taking into account factors such as distance to nearest hospital and road network density to estimate travel time. Third, the committee wanted to contrast the spatial distribution of existing community hospitals with a theoretical configuration that best met statewide demand. This paper presents our efforts to first describe the distribution of Michigan's current community hospital pattern and its people, and second, develop two models, access-based and demand-based, to identify areas with inadequate access to existing hospitals. Results Using the product from the access-based model and contiguity and population criteria, two areas were identified as being "under-served." The lower area, located north/northeast of Detroit, contained the greater total land area and population of the two areas. The upper area was centered north of Grand Rapids. A demand-based model was applied to evaluate the existing facility arrangement by allocating daily bed demand in each ZIP code to the closest facility. We found 1,887 beds per day were demanded by ZIP centroids more than 16.1 kilometers from the nearest existing hospital. This represented 12.7% of the average statewide daily bed demand. If a 32.3 kilometer radius was employed, unmet demand dropped to 160 beds per day (1

  4. The community dynamics of major bioleaching microorganisms during chalcopyrite leaching under the effect of organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qihou; Tian, Ye; Fu, Xian; Yin, Huaqun; Zhou, Zhijun; Liang, Yiting; Qiu, Guanzhou; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hongwei; Liang, Yili; Shen, Li; Cong, Jing; Liu, Xueduan

    2011-08-01

    To determine the effect of organics (yeast extract) on microbial community during chalcopyrite bioleaching at different temperature, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to analyze community dynamics of major bacteria applied in bioleaching. The results showed that yeast extract exerted great impact on microbial community, and therefore influencing bioleaching rate. To be specific, yeast extract was adverse to this bioleaching process at 30°C due to decreased proportion of important chemolithotrophs such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. However, yeast extract could promote bioleaching rate at 40°C on account of the increased number and enhanced work of Ferroplasma thermophilum, a kind of facultative bacteria. Similarly, bioleaching rate was enhanced under the effect of yeast extract at 50°C owing to the work of Acidianus brierleyi. At 60°C, bioleaching rate was close to 100% and temperature was the dominant factor determining bioleaching rate. Interestingly, the existence of yeast extract greatly enhanced the relative competitiveness of Ferroplasma thermophilum in this complex bioleaching microbial community.

  5. Probabilistic atlas-guided eigen-organ method for simultaneous bounding box estimation of multiple organs in volumetric CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Cong; Wada, Takashige; Shimizu, Akinobu; Kobatake, Hidefumi; Nawano, Shigeru

    2006-01-01

    We propose an approach for the simultaneous bounding box estimation of multiple organs in volumetric CT images. Local eigen-organ spaces are constructed for different types of training organs, and a global eigen-space, which describes the spatial relationships between the organs, is also constructed. Each volume of interest in the abdominal CT image is projected into the local eigen-organ spaces, and several candidate locations are determined. The final selection of the organ locations is made by projecting the set of candidate locations into the global eigen-space. A probabilistic atlas of organs is used to eliminate locations with low probability and to guide the selection of candidate locations. Evaluation by the leave-one-out method using 10 volumetric abdominal CT images showed that the proposed method provided an average accuracy of 80.38% for 11 different organ types. (author)

  6. Biodegradation of ethyl acetate in radioactive liquid organic waste by bacterial communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael V.P.; Sakata, Solange K.; Borba, Tania R.; Bellini, Maria H.; Marumo, Julio T.; Dutra, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab -scale hot cell, known as CELESTE located at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's and part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored at the Waste Management Laboratory. Among various types of radioactive waste generated, the organic liquid represents a major problem for its management, because it can not be directly solidified with cement. The objective of this work is to develop a pretreatment methodology to degrade the ethyl acetate present in organic liquid waste so that it can subsequently be immobilized in cement. This work was divided into two parts: selection and adaptation of three bacterial communities for growth in medium containing ethyl acetate and degradation experiments of ethyl acetate present in radioactive organic liquid waste. The results showed that from bacterial communities the highest biodegradation level observed was 77%. (author)

  7. Community exposure to asbestos in Casale Monferrato: from research on psychological impact to a community needs-centered healthcare organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Granieri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asbestos exposure has a negative impact on both the physical health of the population, and on its psychological and community components. Usually such issues are addressed via top-down strategies, but this approach is unable to address the interpersonal processes connected to living in a specific context. METHOD: The work carried on in Casale Monferrato since 2006 proceeds in the opposite direction: promoting a different interaction between health system policy-makers and administrators, field actions, and system thinking. Our goal was to create a reliable model that could fit into other contexts, while being flexible and adapting to specific backgrounds. Starting from the results obtained during a first assessment phase, a psychoanalytic group was arranged, aimed at promoting the symbolization and signification of the emotions related to the ill-fated prognosis. RESULTS: The clinical work offers a space for handling the illness and its psychological impact, in order to achieve: 1 a subjective perception of themselves as not impotent and alone; 2 improved abilities of caregivers to manage the disease; 3 enhanced quality of residual life. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated multidimensional intervention promotes resilience in the community, but it requires time, for patients, relatives, and the professionals involved. Only with the combined support of oncologists and the entire ward staff will an internal trust be free to grow within a somato-psychic space able to accommodate and sustain the participants during the final stages of their own life, or that of someone close to them.

  8. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  9. Nutrient gradients in a granular activated carbon biofilter drives bacterial community organization and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, Nico; Pycke, Benny F G; Marzorati, Massimo; Hammes, Frederik

    2011-12-01

    The quality of drinking water is ensured by hygienic barriers and filtration steps, such as ozonation and granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration. Apart from adsorption, GAC filtration involves microbial processes that remove biodegradable organic carbon from the ozonated ground or surface water and ensures biological stability of the treated water. In this study, microbial community dynamics in were monitored during the start-up and maturation of an undisturbed pilot-scale GAC filter at 4 depths (10, 45, 80 and 115 cm) over a period of 6 months. New ecological tools, based on 16S rRNA gene-DGGE, were correlated to filter performance and microbial activity and showed that the microbial gradients developing in the filter was of importance. At 10 cm from the top, receiving the freshly ozonated water with the highest concentration of nutrients, the microbial community dynamics were minimal and the species richness remained low. However, the GAC samples at 80-115 cm showed a 2-3 times higher species richness than the 10-45 cm samples. The highest biomass densities were observed at 45-80 cm, which corresponded with maximum removal of dissolved and assimilable organic carbon. Furthermore, the start-up period was clearly distinguishable using the Lorenz analysis, as after 80 days, the microbial community shifted to an apparent steady-state condition with increased evenness. This study showed that GAC biofilter performance is not necessarily correlated to biomass concentration, but rather that an elevated functionality can be the result of increased microbial community richness, evenness and dynamics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. McNeill's research is on the elimination of cancer-related health disparities in minority populations. Her research has particular emphasis on understanding the influence of social contextual determinants of cancer in minorities, with a special focus of the role of physical activity as a key preventive behavior and obesity as a major cancer determinant. Her research takes place in minority and underserved communities such as public housing developments, black churches, community-based clinics and low-income neighborhoods-communities with excess cancer death rates. She has been continuously funded, receiving grants from various funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, etc.), to better understand and design innovative solutions to address obesity in racial/ethnic minority communities. Dr. McNeill is PI of several community-based studies, primarily working with African American churches. One is a called Project CHURCH, an academic-faith-based partnership established to: 1) identify underlying reasons for health disparities in cancer and cancer risk factors (e.g., screening, diet) among AAs using a cohort study (N=2400), 2) engage AAs as partners in the research process, and 3) to ultimately eliminate disparities among AAs. In 2014 Dr. McNeill furthered her partnership through the Faith, Health, and Family (FHF) Collaborative. The goals of FHF are to enhance the Project CHURCH partnership to address family obesity in African Americans, strengthen the partnership by developing a larger coalition of organizations and stakeholders to address the problem, assess church and community interest in family obesity and develop an agenda to address obesity in faith settings. To date we have 50 churches as members. Dr. McNeill is also director of the Center for Community

  11. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Valerio

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. Methods In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1 snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2 purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community. Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities’ stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Results Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 % consented, 52 (95 % attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 % attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 % consented, 36 (58 % attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 % attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P < 0.05. Despite differing recruitment strategies, stakeholders from the two communities identified largely similar ideas for research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045 which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements

  12. COMMUNITY LEVEL ORGANIC WASTE COLLECTION SYSTEM IN A DEVELOPING COUNTRY: CASE STUDY OF FLORIANÓPOLIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Tognato de Oliveira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to set an organic waste collection system which is accessible to the community group of the "Revolução dos baldinhos"(Revolution of the buckets, located in the neighborhood called Chico Mendes, in Florianópolis, Brazil. The focus is the geographical identification of voluntary delivery points and routing the collection of organic waste through low cost material and procedures and high degree of accessibility. Therefore, we define the routing problem and shared the methodological procedures in three steps. The first step was the geographical location of the voluntary delivery points and check the current collection - verifying collected and route volume. The second step was to propose routes and the third step was the comparison between the performed route and the proposal route. By comparing the route performed by empirical method and the computational method, we came to 12.76% by reducing distances. The question regarding the volume of collected organic waste, we have identified that reducing the 50 liters container volume to 30 liters, reduces the route.

  13. Conflict Resolution in Africa: Challenges for the International Community, The Organization of African Unity and the Sub- Regional Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wamala, Edward

    2000-01-01

    .... It will discuss in detail the common causes of the conflicts, highlight the roles of external players, the challenges and roles of the international community, the Organization of African Unity (OAU...

  14. Use of Modern Birth Control Methods Among Rural Communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    elearning

    ABSTRACT. This paper studied the extent of utilization of Modern Birth Control Methods (MBCM) among rural dwellers in ... respondents used MBCM while 57% of them used the traditional birth control methods. ..... School of Public Health.

  15. Effects of Didymosphenia geminata massive growth on stream communities: Smaller organisms and simplified food web structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrera, Rubén; Gomà, Joan; Prat, Narcís

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the impact of Didymosphenia geminata massive growths upon river ecosystem communities' composition and functioning. This is the first study to jointly consider the taxonomic composition and functional structure of diatom and macroinvertebrate assemblages in order to determine changes in community structure, and the food web alterations associated with this invasive alga. This study was carried out in the Lumbreras River (Ebro Basin, La Rioja, Northern Spain), which has been affected by a considerable massive growth of D. geminata since 2011. The study shows a profound alteration in both the river community composition and in the food web structure at the sites affected by the massive growth, which is primarily due to the alteration of the environmental conditions, thus demonstrating that D. geminata has an important role as an ecosystem engineer in the river. Thick filamentous mats impede the movement of large invertebrates-especially those that move and feed up on it-and favor small, opportunistic, herbivorous organisms, mainly chironomids, that are capable of moving between filaments and are aided by the absence of large trophic competitors and predators -prey release effect-. Only small predators, such as hydra, are capable of surviving in the new environment, as they are favored by the increase in chironomids, a source of food, and by the reduction in both their own predators and other midge predators -mesopredator release-. This change in the top-down control affects the diatom community, since chironomids may feed on large diatoms, increasing the proportion of small diatoms in the substrate. The survival of small and fast-growing pioneer diatoms is also favored by the mesh of filaments, which offers them a new habitat for colonization. Simultaneously, D. geminata causes a significant reduction in the number of diatoms with similar ecological requirements (those attached to the substrate). Overall, D

  16. Comparing two sampling methods to engage hard-to-reach communities in research priority setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Melissa A; Rodriguez, Natalia; Winkler, Paula; Lopez, Jaime; Dennison, Meagen; Liang, Yuanyuan; Turner, Barbara J

    2016-10-28

    Effective community-partnered and patient-centered outcomes research needs to address community priorities. However, optimal sampling methods to engage stakeholders from hard-to-reach, vulnerable communities to generate research priorities have not been identified. In two similar rural, largely Hispanic communities, a community advisory board guided recruitment of stakeholders affected by chronic pain using a different method in each community: 1) snowball sampling, a chain- referral method or 2) purposive sampling to recruit diverse stakeholders. In both communities, three groups of stakeholders attended a series of three facilitated meetings to orient, brainstorm, and prioritize ideas (9 meetings/community). Using mixed methods analysis, we compared stakeholder recruitment and retention as well as priorities from both communities' stakeholders on mean ratings of their ideas based on importance and feasibility for implementation in their community. Of 65 eligible stakeholders in one community recruited by snowball sampling, 55 (85 %) consented, 52 (95 %) attended the first meeting, and 36 (65 %) attended all 3 meetings. In the second community, the purposive sampling method was supplemented by convenience sampling to increase recruitment. Of 69 stakeholders recruited by this combined strategy, 62 (90 %) consented, 36 (58 %) attended the first meeting, and 26 (42 %) attended all 3 meetings. Snowball sampling recruited more Hispanics and disabled persons (all P research, focusing on non-pharmacologic interventions for management of chronic pain. Ratings on importance and feasibility for community implementation differed only on the importance of massage services (P = 0.045) which was higher for the purposive/convenience sampling group and for city improvements/transportation services (P = 0.004) which was higher for the snowball sampling group. In each of the two similar hard-to-reach communities, a community advisory board partnered with researchers

  17. Relating microbial community structure to functioning in forest soil organic carbon transformation and turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yeming; Wang, Juan; Huang, Xueman; Tang, Zuoxin; Liu, Shirong; Sun, Osbert J

    2014-03-01

    Forest soils store vast amounts of terrestrial carbon, but we are still limited in mechanistic understanding on how soil organic carbon (SOC) stabilization or turnover is controlled by biotic and abiotic factors in forest ecosystems. We used phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) as biomarker to study soil microbial community structure and measured activities of five extracellular enzymes involved in the degradation of cellulose (i.e., β-1,4-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase), chitin (i.e., β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase), and lignin (i.e., phenol oxidase and peroxidase) as indicators of soil microbial functioning in carbon transformation or turnover across varying biotic and abiotic conditions in a typical temperate forest ecosystem in central China. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was performed to determine the interrelationship between individual PFLAs and biotic and abiotic site factors as well as the linkage between soil microbial structure and function. Path analysis was further conducted to examine the controls of site factors on soil microbial community structure and the regulatory pathway of changes in SOC relating to microbial community structure and function. We found that soil microbial community structure is strongly influenced by water, temperature, SOC, fine root mass, clay content, and C/N ratio in soils and that the relative abundance of Gram-negative bacteria, saprophytic fungi, and actinomycetes explained most of the variations in the specific activities of soil enzymes involved in SOC transformation or turnover. The abundance of soil bacterial communities is strongly linked with the extracellular enzymes involved in carbon transformation, whereas the abundance of saprophytic fungi is associated with activities of extracellular enzymes driving carbon oxidation. Findings in this study demonstrate the complex interactions and linkage among plant traits, microenvironment, and soil physiochemical properties in affecting SOC via microbial regulations.

  18. Interactive effects of solar radiation and dissolved organic matter on bacterial activity and community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, María Teresa; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2007-09-01

    We studied the interactive effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and solar radiation on the activity and community structure of bacteria from an alpine lake. Activity was assessed both at the community level as leucine incorporation rates and at the single-cell level by microautoradiography. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and signal amplification by catalysed reporter deposition (CARD-FISH) was used to track changes in the bacterial community composition. Bacteria-free filtrates of different DOM sources (lake, algae or soil) were incubated either in the dark or exposed to solar radiation. Afterwards, the natural bacterial assemblage was inoculated and the cultures incubated in the dark for 24-48 h. Bacterial activity was enhanced in the first 24 h in the soil and algal DOM amendments kept in the dark. After 48 h, the enhancement effect was greatly reduced. The initial bacterial community was dominated by Betaproteobacteria followed by Actinobacteria. The relative abundance (expressed as a percentage of DAPI-stained cells) of Betaproteobacteria increased first in dark incubated DOM amendments, but after 48 h no significant differences were detected among treatments. In contrast, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased in pre-irradiated DOM treatments. Although Betaproteobacteria dominated at the end of the experiment, the relative abundance of their R-BT subgroup differed among treatments. Changes in bacterial community activity were significantly correlated with those of the relative abundance and activity of Betaproteobacteria, whereas the contribution of Actinobacteria to the bulk activity was very modest. Our results indicate a negative effect of DOM photoalteration on the bulk bacterial activity. The magnitude of this effect was time-dependent and related to rapid changes in the bacterial assemblage composition.

  19. Assessing the impacts of international volunteer tourism in host communities: A new approach to organizing and prioritizing indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Anthony Lupoli; Wayde C. Morse; Conner Bailey; John Schelhas

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the use of indicators to evaluate the impacts of volunteer tourism in host communities, based on an online questionnaire sent to 183 volunteer tourism organizations. Little research exists demonstrating how volunteer tourism programs impact host communities or how impacts can be assessed, but the literature suggests the use of indicators to do so....

  20. The Socialization Process of Street Children in the Youth Gangs and Groups of Organized Crime in Local Community. Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michel

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the research report on the socialization process of children in the street, youth gangs, and organized criminal groups in local communities. The author has analysed the signs and communication codes located on walls in local communities. This is very important to the socialization process of the youth street gangs.

  1. The Evolution of Community Self-Organization in Interaction With Government Institutions: Cross-Case Insights From Three Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Edelenbos (Jurian); I.F. van Meerkerk (Ingmar); Schenk, T. (Todd)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractThis article deals with the evolution of community self-organization in public administration. Within the literature of interactive governance, increasing attention is being paid to how communities take initiative in dealing with societal issues. However, we know little about the factors

  2. A portable and inexpensive method for quantifying ambient intermediate volatility organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvier-Brown, Nicole C.; Carrasco, Erica; Karz, James; Chang, Kylee; Nguyen, Theodore; Ruiz, Daniel; Okonta, Vivian; Gilman, Jessica B.; Kuster, William C.; de Gouw, Joost A.

    2014-09-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and intermediate volatility VOCs (IVOCs) are gas-phase organic compounds which may participate in chemical reactions affecting air quality and climate. The development of an inexpensive, field-portable quantification method for higher molecular weight VOCs and IVOCs utilizing commercially available components could be used as a tool to survey aerosol precursors or identify and monitor air quality in various communities. We characterized the performance characteristics for the HayeSep-Q adsorbent with a representative selection of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC standards and optimized experimental conditions and procedures for field collections followed by laboratory analysis. All VOCs were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Precision (average 22%) and accuracy were reasonable and the limit of detection ranged from 10 to 80 pmol/mol (ppt) for the studied compounds. The method was employed at the Los Angeles site during the CalNex campaign in summer 2010 and ambient mixing ratios agreed well (slope 0.69-1.06, R2 0.67-0.71) with measurements made using an in-situ GC-MS - a distinctly different sampling and quantification method. This new technique can be applied to quantify ambient biogenic and anthropogenic C8-C15 VOCs and IVOCs.

  3. Method and apparatus for detecting micro-organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsky, J.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus is described for determining the presence and quantity of microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi and yeast, in a given sample. The apparatus includes two sealed containers, a portion of which may be penetrated by a sharp instrument, as for example, glass vials with flexible septum tops. One container includes a radioactive nutrient medium which is capable of supporting the life process of the microorganism whose presence is being tested. The second container includes a liquid scintillation solution which absorbs the product of metabolism of the organisms. The sample is introduced into the first sealed container, for example, by means of a standard syringe. Any microorganisms present will consume the radioactive nutrient and as a result produce radioactive waste. Means are then applied to penetrate the containers and allow the flow of the radioactive metabolic product from the first container to the second container while preventing any contamination from the ambient. The liquid scintillation solution will emit light in proportion to the amount of the product of metabolism collected from the first container. This light may be detected by standard liquid scintillation counters, thus providing a qualitative and quantitative measure of the microorganism in the tested sample

  4. PZT Films Fabricated by Metal Organic Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir; Ishchuk, Valeriy

    2014-03-01

    High quality lead zirconate titanate films have been fabricated on different substrates by metal organic decomposition method and their ferroelectric properties have been investigated. Main attention was paid to studies of the influence of the buffer layer with conditional composition Pb1.3(Zr0.5Ti0.5) O3 on the properties of Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5) O3 films fabricated on the polycrystalline titanium and platinum substrates. It is found that in the films on the Pt substrate (with or without the buffer layer) the dependencies of the remanent polarization and the coercivity field on the number of switching cycles do not manifest fatigue up to 109 cycles. The remanent polarization dependencies for films on the Ti substrate with the buffer layer containing an excess of PbO demonstrate an fundamentally new feature that consists of a remanent polarization increase after 108 switching cycles. The increase of remanent polarization is about 50% when the number of cycles approaches 1010, while the increase of the coercivity field is small. A monotonic increase of dielectric losses has been observed in all cases.

  5. OPPORTUNITIES TO IMPROVE THE MANAGEMENT METHODS OF ROMANIAN ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Gabriela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information Technology has responded to the crisis by change and innovation. Competitive organizations are permanently prepared to identify the cutting-edge technologies which will change the future in business by using the concept of Business Intelligence. Information Technology is developing rapidly and providing decision makers with large amounts of information that require processing and analysis. Business Intelligence are critical decisions support applications, their role being to provide to management, based on information from the company, a landscape of its situation at some time, but also predictions on the medium and long term. This paper describes the architecture of the Business Intelligence Platform and highlights the benefits of using decision support systems for business applications. Nowadays, company executives require relevant and accurate business information in real-time to take strategic decisions. It is also essential to have freedom to access this information anywhere and anytime. There is a real need to extend this functionality beyond the office and on the fingertips of the decision makers. After a presentation of the concept of Data mining with examples from a case study, the paper focuses on the potential of the IT&C decisional sector, which embeds simulation and assistance tools for managerial decisions. Developing new methods for predictive modelling and application of existing techniques in many areas will be a permanent concern for both researchers and companies that are interested to gain competitive advantages.

  6. HIV Testing and Care in Canadian Aboriginal Youth: A community based mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myers Ted

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV infection is a serious concern in the Canadian Aboriginal population, particularly among youth; however, there is limited attention to this issue in research literature. The purpose of this national study was to explore HIV testing and care decisions of Canadian Aboriginal youth. Methods A community-based mixed-method design incorporating the Aboriginal research principles of Ownership, Control, Access and Possession (OCAP was used. Data were collected through surveys (n = 413 and qualitative interviews (n = 28. Eleven community-based organizations including urban Aboriginal AIDS service organizations and health and friendship centres in seven provinces and one territory assisted with the recruitment of youth (15 to 30 years. Results Average age of survey participants was 21.5 years (median = 21.0 years and qualitative interview participants was 24.4 years (median = 24.0. Fifty-one percent of the survey respondents (210 of 413 youth and 25 of 28 interview participants had been tested for HIV. The most common reason to seek testing was having sex without a condom (43.6% or pregnancy (35.4% while common reasons for not testing were the perception of being low HIV risk (45.3% or not having had sex with an infected person (34.5%. Among interviewees, a contributing reason for not testing was feeling invulnerable. Most surveyed youth tested in the community in which they lived (86.5% and 34.1% visited a physician for the test. The majority of surveyed youth (60.0% had tested once or twice in the previous 2 years, however, about one-quarter had tested more than twice. Among the 26 surveyed youth who reported that they were HIV-positive, 6 (23.1% had AIDS at the time of diagnosis. Delays in care-seeking after diagnosis varied from a few months to seven years from time of test. Conclusion It is encouraging that many youth who had tested for HIV did so based on a realistic self-assessment of HIV risk behaviours; however, for others

  7. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. The latter group was dominated by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger was also isolated. As expected, bacteria were the most abundant and diverse group of the strawberry...... microbiota followed by yeasts and filamentous fungi. No obvious correlation between grower practice and the strawberry microbiota was observed. Differences between microbiotas on strawberries from conventional systems with up to 10 fungicide spray treatments and organic production systems were insignificant...

  8. Comparability of slack water and Lagrangian flow respirometry methods for community metabolic measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C Shaw

    Full Text Available Coral reef calcification is predicted to decline as a result of ocean acidification and other anthropogenic stressors. The majority of studies predicting declines based on in situ relationships between environmental parameters and net community calcification rate have been location-specific, preventing accurate predictions for coral reefs globally. In this study, net community calcification and production were measured on a coral reef flat at One Tree Island, Great Barrier Reef, using Lagrangian flow respirometry and slack water methods. Net community calcification, daytime net photosynthesis and nighttime respiration were higher under the flow respirometry method, likely due to increased water flow relative to the slack water method. The two methods also varied in the degrees to which they were influenced by potential measurement uncertainties. The difference in the results from these two commonly used methods implies that some of the location-specific differences in coral reef community metabolism may be due to differences in measurement methods.

  9. First Evidence of an Important Organic Matter Trophic Pathway between Temperate Corals and Pelagic Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J A Fonvielle

    Full Text Available Mucus, i.e., particulate and dissolved organic matter (POM, DOM released by corals, acts as an important energy carrier in tropical ecosystems, but little is known on its ecological role in temperate environments. This study assessed POM and DOM production by the temperate coral Cladocora caespitosa under different environmental conditions. The subsequent enzymatic degradation, growth of prokaryotes and virus-like particles (VLPs as well as changes in the structure of the prokaryotic communities were also monitored. C. caespitosa produced an important quantity of mucus, which varied according to the environmental conditions (from 37.8 to 67.75 nmol carbon h-1 cm-2, but remained higher or comparable to productions observed in tropical corals. It has an important nutritional value, as highlighted by the high content in dissolved nitrogen (50% to 90% of the organic matter released. Organic matter was rapidly degraded by prokaryotes' enzymatic activities, and due to its nitrogen content, aminopeptidase activity was 500 fold higher than the α-glucosidase activity. Prokaryotes, as well as VLPs, presented a rapid growth in the mucus, with prokaryote production rates as high as 0.31 μg h-1 L-1. Changes in bacterial and archaeal communities were observed in the ageing mucus and between mucus and the water column, suggesting a clear impact of mucus on microorganism diversity. Overall, our results show that the organic matter released by temperate corals, such as C. caespitosa, which can form reef structures in the Mediterranean Sea, stimulates microbial activity and thereby functions as a significant carbon and nitrogen supplier to the microbial loop.

  10. Methods for isolation and viability assessment of biological organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letant, Sonia Edith; Baker, Sarah Elyse; Bond, Tiziana; Chang, Allan Shih-Ping

    2015-02-03

    Isolation of biological or chemical organisms can be accomplished using a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) system. The SERS system can be a single or a stacked plurality of photonic crystal membranes with noble-metal lined through pores for flowing analyte potentially containing the biological or chemical organisms. The through pores can be adapted to trap individual biological or chemical organisms and emit SERS spectra, which can then be detected by a detector and further analyzed for viability of the biological or chemical organism.

  11. Species Richness, Community Organization, and Spatiotemporal Distribution of Earthworms in the Pineapple Agroecosystems of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Animesh Dey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact that plant communities may have on underground faunal diversity is unclear. Therefore, understanding the links between plants and organisms is of major interest. Earthworm population dynamics were studied in the pineapple agroecosystems of Tripura to evaluate the impact of monoculture plantation on earthworm communities. A total of thirteen earthworm species belonging to four families and five genera were collected from different sampling sites. Application of sample-based rarefaction curve and nonparametric richness estimators reveal 90–95% completeness of sampling. Earthworm community of pineapple agroecosystems was dominated by endogeic earthworms and Drawida assamensis was the dominant species with respect to its density, biomass, and relative abundance. Vertical distribution of earthworms was greatly influenced by seasonal variations. Population density and biomass of earthworms peaked during monsoon and postmonsoon period, respectively. Overall density and biomass of earthworms were in increasing trend with an increase in plantation age and were highest in the 30–35-year-old plantation. Significant decrease in the Shannon diversity and evenness index and increase in Simpson’s dominance and spatial aggregation index with an increase in the age of pineapple plantation were recorded. Soil temperature and soil moisture were identified as the most potent regulators of earthworm distribution in the pineapple plantation.

  12. Soil Rhizosphere Microbial Communities and Enzyme Activities under Organic Farming in Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary Senwo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the soil rhizosphere has been limited by the lack of robust assessments that can explore the vast complex structure and diversity of soil microbial communities. Our objective was to combine fatty acid methyl ester (FAME and pyrosequencing techniques to evaluate soil microbial community structure and diversity. In addition, we evaluated biogeochemical functionality of the microbial communities via enzymatic activities of nutrient cycling. Samples were taken from a silt loam at 0–10 and 10–20 cm in an organic farm under lettuce (Lactuca sativa, potato (Solanum tuberosum, onion (Allium cepa L, broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Tall fescue pasture grass (Festuca arundinacea. Several FAMEs (a15:0, i15:0, i15:1, i16:0, a17:0, i17:0, 10Me17:0, cy17:0, 16:1ω5c and 18:1ω9c varied among the crop rhizospheres. FAME profiles of the soil microbial community under pasture showed a higher fungal:bacterial ratio compared to the soil under lettuce, potato, onion, and broccoli. Soil under potato showed higher sum of fungal FAME indicators compared to broccoli, onion and lettuce. Microbial biomass C and enzyme activities associated with pasture and potato were higher than the other rhizospheres. The lowest soil microbial biomass C and enzyme activities were found under onion. Pyrosequencing revealed significant differences regarding the maximum operational taxonomic units (OTU at 3% dissimilarity level (roughly corresponding to the bacterial species level at 0–10 cm (581.7–770.0 compared to 10–20 cm (563.3–727.7 soil depths. The lowest OTUs detected at 0–10 cm were under broccoli (581.7; whereas the lowest OTUs found at 10–20 cm were under potato (563.3. The predominant phyla (85% in this soil at both depths were Bacteroidetes (i.e., Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Flavobacteriaceae and Xanthomonadaceae were predominant under broccoli. Rhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, and Acidobacteriaceae were more

  13. Peracetic acid disinfection kinetics for combined sewer overflows: indicator organisms, antibiotic resistance genes, and microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eramo, Alessia; Medina, William Morales; Fahrenfeld, Nicole L

    2017-01-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) degrade water quality and end-of-pipe treatment is one potential solution for retrofitting this outdated infrastructure. The goal of this research was to evaluate peracetic acid (PAA) as a disinfectant for CSOs using viability based molecular methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), indicator organism marker gene BacHum, and 16S rRNA genes. Simulated CSO effluent was prepared using 23-40% wastewater, representing the higher end of the range of wastewater concentrations reported in CSO effluent. PAA residual following disinfection was greatest for samples with the lowest initial COD. Treatment of simulated CSO effluent (23% wastewater) with 100 mg∙min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 20 min) was needed to reduce viable cell sul 1, tet (G), and BacHum (1.0±0.63-3.2±0.25-log) while 25 to 50 mg•min/L PAA (5 mg/L PAA, 5-10 min) was needed to reduce viable cell loads (0.62±0.56-1.6±0.08-log) in 40% wastewater from a different municipal treatment plant. Increasing contact time after the initial decrease in viable cell gene copies did not significantly improve treatment. A much greater applied Ct of 1200 mg∙min/L PAA (20 mg/L PAA, 60 min) was required for significant log reduction of 16S rRNA genes (3.29±0.13-log). No significant losses of mex B were observed during the study. Data were fitted to a Chick-Watson model and resulting inactivation constants for sul 1 and tet (G) > BacHum > 16S rRNA. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene indicated the initial viable and total microbial communities were distinct and that treatment with PAA resulted in marked increases of the relative abundance of select phyla, particularly Clostridia which increased by 1-1.5 orders of magnitude. Results confirm that membrane disruption is a mechanism for PAA disinfection and further treatment is needed to reduce total ARGs in CSO effluent.

  14. Micro-organisms behind the pollination scenes: microbial imprint on floral nectar sugar variation in a tropical plant community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, A; Herrera, C M

    2012-11-01

    Variation in the composition of floral nectar reflects intrinsic plant characteristics as well as the action of extrinsic factors. Micro-organisms, particularly yeasts, represent one extrinsic factor that inhabit the nectar of animal-pollinated flowers worldwide. In this study a 'microbial imprint hypothesis' is formulated and tested, in which it is proposed that natural community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition will partly depend on the presence of yeasts in flowers. Occurrence and density of yeasts were studied microscopically in single-flower nectar samples of 22 animal-pollinated species from coastal xeric and sub-humid tropical habitats of the Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico. Nectar sugar concentration and composition were concurrently determined on the same samples using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods. Microscopical examination of nectar samples revealed the presence of yeasts in nearly all plant species (21 out of 22 species) and in about half of the samples examined (51·8 % of total, all species combined). Plant species and individuals differed significantly in nectar sugar concentration and composition, and also in the incidence of nectar yeasts. After statistically controlling for differences between plant species and individuals, nectar yeasts still accounted for a significant fraction of community-wide variance in all nectar sugar parameters considered. Significant yeast × species interactions on sugar parameters revealed that plant species differed in the nectar sugar correlates of variation in yeast incidence. The results support the hypothesis that nectar yeasts impose a detectable imprint on community-wide variation in nectar sugar composition and concentration. Since nectar sugar features influence pollinator attraction and plant reproduction, future nectar studies should control for yeast presence and examine the extent to which microbial signatures on nectar characteristics ultimately have some influence on

  15. Adaptive Management and Social Learning in Collaborative and Community-Based Monitoring: a Study of Five Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the western USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Fernandez-Gimenez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Collaborative and community-based monitoring are becoming more frequent, yet few studies have examined the process and outcomes of these monitoring approaches. We studied 18 collaborative or community-based ecological assessment or monitoring projects undertaken by five community-based forestry organizations (CBFs, to investigate the objectives, process, and outcomes of collaborative ecological monitoring by CBF organizations. We found that collaborative monitoring can lead to shared ecological understanding among diverse participants, build trust internally and credibility externally, foster social learning and community-building, and advance adaptive management. The CBFs experienced challenges in recruiting and sustaining community participation in monitoring, building needed technical capacity for monitoring, and communicating monitoring results back to the broader community. Our results suggest that involving diverse and sometimes adversarial interests at key points in the monitoring process can help resolve conflicts and advance social learning, while also strengthening the link between social and ecological systems by improving the information base for management and increasing collective awareness of the interdependence of human and natural forest communities.

  16. A Comparison of Didactic and Inquiry Teaching Methods in a Rural Community College Earth Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Margery Elizabeth

    The combination of increasing enrollment and the importance of providing transfer students a solid foundation in science calls for science faculty to evaluate teaching methods in rural community colleges. The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the effectiveness of two teaching methods, inquiry teaching methods and didactic teaching methods, applied in a rural community college earth science course. Two groups of students were taught the same content via inquiry and didactic teaching methods. Analysis of quantitative data included a non-parametric ranking statistical testing method in which the difference between the rankings and the median of the post-test scores was analyzed for significance. Results indicated there was not a significant statistical difference between the teaching methods for the group of students participating in the research. The practical and educational significance of this study provides valuable perspectives on teaching methods and student learning styles in rural community colleges.

  17. Managing a new collaborative entity in business organizations: understanding organizational communities of practice effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkman, Bradley L; Mathieu, John E; Cordery, John L; Rosen, Benson; Kukenberger, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Companies worldwide are turning to organizational communities of practice (OCoPs) as vehicles to generate learning and enhance organizational performance. OCoPs are defined as groups of employees who share a concern, a set of problems, or a passion about a topic and who strengthen their knowledge and expertise by interacting on a consistent basis. To date, OCoP research has drawn almost exclusively from the community of practice (CoP) literature, even though the organizational form of CoPs shares attributes of traditional CoPs and of organizational teams. Drawing on Lave and Wenger's (1991) original theory of legitimate peripheral participation, we integrate theory and research from CoPs and organizational teams to develop and empirically examine a model of OCoP effectiveness that includes constructs such as leadership, empowerment, the structure of tasks, and OCoP relevance to organizational effectiveness. Using data from 32 OCoPs in a U.S.-based multinational mining and minerals processing firm, we found that external community leaders play an important role in enhancing OCoP empowerment, particularly to the extent that task interdependence is high. Empowerment, in turn, was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We also found that OCoPs designated as "core" by the organization (e.g., working on critical issues) were more effective than those that were noncore. Task interdependence also was positively related to OCoP effectiveness. We provide scholars and practitioners with insights on how to effectively manage OCoPs in today's organizations. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Content and Method Trends in the "Journal of Community Psychology" between 2003 and 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Tanya M.; Ismail, Tasneem

    2011-01-01

    Ongoing inquiry into the characteristics of published work and its synergy with community psychology's core principles is an important reflexive endeavour in the field's continuing development. This study examined topic and method trends within the "Journal of Community Psychology" during a 5-year period (January 2003-December 2007).…

  19. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.

    2012-07-13

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  20. Dissolved Organic Carbon Influences Microbial Community Composition and Diversity in Managed Aquifer Recharge Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, D.; Sharp, J. O.; Saikaly, Pascal; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, M.; Alarawi, M. S.; Keller, S.; Hoppe-Jones, C.; Drewes, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  1. Dissolved organic carbon influences microbial community composition and diversity in managed aquifer recharge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Sharp, Jonathan O; Saikaly, Pascal E; Ali, Shahjahan; Alidina, Mazahirali; Alarawi, Mohammed S; Keller, Stephanie; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Drewes, Jörg E

    2012-10-01

    This study explores microbial community structure in managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems across both laboratory and field scales. Two field sites, the Taif River (Taif, Saudi Arabia) and South Platte River (Colorado), were selected as geographically distinct MAR systems. Samples derived from unsaturated riverbed, saturated-shallow-infiltration (depth, 1 to 2 cm), and intermediate-infiltration (depth, 10 to 50 cm) zones were collected. Complementary laboratory-scale sediment columns representing low (0.6 mg/liter) and moderate (5 mg/liter) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used to further query the influence of DOC and depth on microbial assemblages. Microbial density was positively correlated with the DOC concentration, while diversity was negatively correlated at both the laboratory and field scales. Microbial communities derived from analogous sampling zones in each river were not phylogenetically significantly different on phylum, class, genus, and species levels, as determined by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, suggesting that geography and season exerted less sway than aqueous geochemical properties. When field-scale communities derived from the Taif and South Platte River sediments were grouped together, principal coordinate analysis revealed distinct clusters with regard to the three sample zones (unsaturated, shallow, and intermediate saturated) and, further, with respect to DOC concentration. An analogous trend as a function of depth and corresponding DOC loss was observed in column studies. Canonical correspondence analysis suggests that microbial classes Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria are positively correlated with DOC concentration. Our combined analyses at both the laboratory and field scales suggest that DOC may exert a strong influence on microbial community composition and diversity in MAR saturated zones.

  2. The role of community-based and philanthropic organizations in meeting cancer patient and caregiver needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, Rebecca A; Taylor, Kathryn L; Kerner, Jon F; Coleman, Ellen; Blum, Diane

    2002-01-01

    We examined information from community-based and philanthropic organizations to document the cancer-related services that are currently available, establish which services are still needed, and determine who utilizes these formal support networks. In Phase I, 32 of 41 eligible organizations participated in a survey conducted from December 1999 to March 2000. The most common mission focus among participating organizations was information/referral-centered. The most common services provided were referrals to information resources and provision of cancer-related information. Only two of the organizations in Phase I provided client demographic information and both indicated that client populations were predominantly white, female, and over age 40. Phase II of the study involved analyzing patient data from Cancer Care, Inc., a national service organizations for cancer patients. Between 1983 and 1997, there were 2,714 prostate cancer patients and 9,451 breast cancer patients included in the Cancer Care database. Their most commonly reported problems were related to personal adjustment to illness, financial, home care, and transportation needs. There were significant differences in problems reported depending upon age and disease status. In addition, the results of this study support the idea that those at highest risk for developing and dying of cancer are the least likely to utilize formal support networks. Further, a gap in service provision for assistance with practical needs (e.g., transportation, home care, child care, psychosocial support) was identified. Due to the increasing use of outpatient care for cancer patients, a greater demand for practical assistance can be expected in the future. The availability of practical services will need to be increased in order to effectively meet cancer patient needs.

  3. Design and Methods of the Korean Organ Transplantation Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseok Yang, MD, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Conclusions. KOTRY, as a systematic Korean transplant cohort, is expected to provide important information on Asian organ transplantation. The processes used to establish KOTRY provide a good model for launching new nationwide transplant cohort studies.

  4. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Nitrogen Effects on Organic Dynamics and Soil Communities in Forest and Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, S.; Neff, J.; Sinsabaugh, B.; Wickings, K.

    2008-12-01

    Human activities have doubled the global flux of biologically available N to terrestrial ecosystems but the effects of N on soil organic matter dynamics and soil communities remain difficult to predict. We examined soil organic matter chemistry and enzyme kinetics in three soil fractions (>250, 63-250, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, we found striking, ecosystem-specific effects of N deposition on carbohydrate abundance. Furfural, the dominant pyrolysis product of polysaccharides, was significantly decreased by simulated N deposition in the sugar maple/basswood system (15.87 versus 4.99%) but increased by N in the black oak/white oak system (8.83 versus 24.01%). There were ca. 3-fold increases in the ratio of total lignin derivatives to total polysaccharides in the >250 μm fraction of the sugar maple/basswood system but there were no changes in other size classes or in the black oak/white oak system. We also measured significant increases in the ratio of lignin derivatives to N-bearing compounds in the 63-250 and >250 μm fractions in both ecosystems but not in the corn-based cropping system. Our results demonstrate that changes in soil organic matter chemistry resulting from atmospheric N deposition or fertilization are directly linked to variation in enzyme responses to increased N availability across ecosystems and soil size fractions.

  6. METHODS OF DIAGNOSTIC EFFECTIVENESS ORGANIZATIONAL CHANGES IN CARGO MOTOR TRANSPORTATION ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Sergeevich Antipov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article propose methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. The article contain the main results approbation of the developed methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations in 37 cargo motor transportation organizations of Saint-Petersburg and the Leningrad Region. Constructed diagrams of conformity specific weights resulting from organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations. Presents diagrams effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations at every stages of the life cycle. The goal of the present paper is to development methods of diagnostic effectiveness organizational changes in cargo motor transportation organizations.

  7. Method of cell transplantation promoting the organization of intraarterial thrombus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Koji; Shimono, Takatsugu; Imanaka-Yoshida, Kyoko; Miyamoto, Keiichi; Fujinaga, Kazuya; Kajimoto, Masaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Yoshida, Toshimichi; Uchida, Atsumasa; Shimpo, Hideto; Yada, Isao; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2005-08-30

    Endovascular aortic repairs have been developed as less invasive treatments for aortic aneurysms. Some aneurismal cavities, however, remain without organization, causing a re-expansion of the aneurysms. We studied cell transplantation into the aneurismal sac to promote the organization of thrombus for the complete healing of aneurysms. Skin fibroblasts and skeletal myoblasts were isolated from rats for cell transplantation. An intraarterial thrombus model was made by ligation of the carotid artery. Culture medium (medium group, n=11), collagen gel (gel group, n=11), fibroblasts with collagen gel (F group, n=15), myoblasts with collagen gel (M group, n=12), or mixture of fibroblasts and myoblasts with collagen gel (F+M group, n=14) were injected into the thrombus. After 28 days, histologically, the arterial lumens of the F and M groups were partly filled with fibrous tissues, whereas in the F+M group organization was almost completed and luminal sizes diminished. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive cells were more abundantly contained in the organized area of the F+M group than in the other groups. We also analyzed cellular function in vitro with immunofluorescence; coculture of fibroblasts and myoblasts showed that the fraction of alpha-smooth muscle actin-positive fibroblasts increased. This phenomenon accounts for the rapid organization of thrombus in the F+M group in vivo. Cell transplantation accelerated thrombus organization. Especially, myoblasts enhanced differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, contributing to rapid thrombus organization. Cell transplantation into unorganized spaces seems applicable to endovascular treatment of aneurysms.

  8. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Conclusions Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving ‘gift’, representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. PMID:26787253

  9. Lessons from the Labor Organizing Community and Health Project: Meeting the Challenges of Student Engagement in Community Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Juliann Emmons; Khan, Tabassum; Reese, Ellen; Dobias, Becca Spence; Struna, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) provides opportunities for scholars and students to respond directly to community needs; students also practice critical thinking, problem-solving, and conflict-resolution skills necessary for professional life and engaged citizenship. The challenges of involving undergraduate students in CBPR include…

  10. An Improved Conceptually-Based Method for Analysis of Communication Network Structure of Large Complex Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, William D., Jr.

    Previous methods for determining the communication structure of organizations work well for small or simple organizations, but are either inadequate or unwieldy for use with large complex organizations. An improved method uses a number of different measures and a series of successive approximations to order the communication matrix such that…

  11. Organic management and cover crop species steer soil microbial community structure and functionality along with soil organic matter properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-García, Laura B.; Korthals, Gerard; Brussaard, Lijbert; Jørgensen, Helene Bracht; Deyn, de Gerlinde B.

    2018-01-01

    It is well recognized that organic soil management stimulates bacterial biomass and activity and that including cover crops in the rotation increases soil organic matter (SOM). Yet, to date the relative impact of different cover crop species and organic vs. non-organic soil management on soil

  12. Method-centered digital communities on protocols.io for fast-paced scientific innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Lori; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Teytelman, Leonid; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has enabled online social interaction for scientists beyond physical meetings and conferences. Yet despite these innovations in communication, dissemination of methods is often relegated to just academic publishing. Further, these methods remain static, with subsequent advances published elsewhere and unlinked. For communities undergoing fast-paced innovation, researchers need new capabilities to share, obtain feedback, and publish methods at the forefront of scientific development. For example, a renaissance in virology is now underway given the new metagenomic methods to sequence viral DNA directly from an environment. Metagenomics makes it possible to "see" natural viral communities that could not be previously studied through culturing methods. Yet, the knowledge of specialized techniques for the production and analysis of viral metagenomes remains in a subset of labs.  This problem is common to any community using and developing emerging technologies and techniques. We developed new capabilities to create virtual communities in protocols.io, an open access platform, for disseminating protocols and knowledge at the forefront of scientific development. To demonstrate these capabilities, we present a virology community forum called VERVENet. These new features allow virology researchers to share protocols and their annotations and optimizations, connect with the broader virtual community to share knowledge, job postings, conference announcements through a common online forum, and discover the current literature through personalized recommendations to promote discussion of cutting edge research. Virtual communities in protocols.io enhance a researcher's ability to: discuss and share protocols, connect with fellow community members, and learn about new and innovative research in the field.  The web-based software for developing virtual communities is free to use on protocols.io. Data are available through public APIs at protocols.io.

  13. Insights into the Regulation of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities by Application of Bio-organic Fertilizer in Pseudostellaria heterophylla Monoculture Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linkun Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biomass and quality of Pseudostellariae heterophylla suffers a significant decline under monoculture. Since rhizosphere microbiome plays crucial roles in soil health, deep pyrosequencing combined with qPCR was applied to characterize the composition and structure of soil bacterial community under monoculture and different amendments. The results showed compared with the first-year planted (FP, second-year monoculture of P. heterophylla (SP led to a significant decline in yield and resulted in a significant increase in Fusarium oxysporum but a decline in Burkholderia spp. Bio-organic fertilizer (MT formulated by combining antagonistic bacteria with organic matter could significantly promote the yield by regulating rhizosphere bacterial community. However, organic fertilizer (MO without antagonistic bacteria could not suppress Fusarium wilt. Multivariate statistics analysis showed a distinct separation between the healthy samples (FP and MT and the unhealthy samples (SP and MO, suggesting a strong relationship between soil microbial community and plant performance. Furthermore, we found the application of bio-organic fertilizer MT could significantly increase the bacterial community diversity and restructure microbial community with relatively fewer pathogenic F. oxysporum and more beneficial Burkholderia spp. In conclusion, the application of novel bio-organic fertilizer could effectively suppress Fusarium wilt by enriching the antagonistic bacteria and enhancing the bacterial diversity.

  14. Community Organization of Siberian Coachmen in Late XVI – XVII Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg V. Semenov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on the wide range of archival data, mostly introduced into scientific use for the first time, studies communal (secular and church organization of Siberian coachmen in late XVI – XVII centuries. The paper touches upon the issue, concerning the time of its establishment, thoroughly characterizes the structure, functions and officials. The features of interrelation between coachmen ‘world’ and state and other corporate communities of the region are showed. The conclusion that, despite the dependence on the authorities, the processes of bureaucratization and the growth of the villeinage trends, common for the country, coachmen played significant role in the social life of Siberia is made. They intensively protected their interests and forced the government to consider them.

  15. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha; Wei, Chunhai; Wang, Nan; Amy, Gary L.; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  16. Organic micropollutants in aerobic and anaerobic membrane bioreactors: Changes in microbial communities and gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Harb, Moustapha

    2016-07-09

    Organic micro-pollutants (OMPs) are contaminants of emerging concern in wastewater treatment due to the risk of their proliferation into the environment, but their impact on the biological treatment process is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the presence of OMPs on the core microbial populations of wastewater treatment. Two nanofiltration-coupled membrane bioreactors (aerobic and anaerobic) were subjected to the same operating conditions while treating synthetic municipal wastewater spiked with OMPs. Microbial community dynamics, gene expression levels, and antibiotic resistance genes were analyzed using molecular-based approaches. Results showed that presence of OMPs in the wastewater feed had a clear effect on keystone bacterial populations in both the aerobic and anaerobic sludge while also significantly impacting biodegradation-associated gene expression levels. Finally, multiple antibiotic-type OMPs were found to have higher removal rates in the anaerobic MBR, while associated antibiotic resistance genes were lower.

  17. Methodical Aspects of Applying Strategy Map in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Markiewicz

    2013-01-01

    One of important aspects of strategic management is the instrumental aspect included in a rich set of methods and techniques used at particular stages of strategic management process. The object of interest in this study is the development of views and the implementation of strategy as an element of strategic management and instruments in the form of methods and techniques. The commonly used method in strategy implementation and measuring progress is Balanced Scorecard (BSC). The method was c...

  18. Effects of toxic organic flotation reagent (aniline aerofloat) on an A/O submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR): Microbial community dynamics and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weixiong; Sun, Shuiyu; Wu, Chun; Xu, Pingting; Ye, Ziwei; Zhuang, Shengwei

    2017-08-01

    Bio-treatment of flotation wastewater has been proven to be both effective and economical, as a treatment method. Despite this, little is known regarding the effects of toxic organic floatation reagents such as Dianilinodithiophosphoric acid (DDA), on the microbial community performance or dynamics, which are critical to the effective performance of the bio-treatment reactor. A submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) was constructed to continuously treat simulated wastewater contaminated with DDA, an organic flotation reagent that is now considered a significant pollutant. The performance of the sMBR system was investigated at different DDA loading concentrations, with assessment of the effects of DDA on the microbial communities within the sMBR, in particular the biodiversity and succession within the microbial community. Results showed that, with increased DDA loadings, the performance of the sMBR was initially negatively affected, but the system adapted efficiently and consistently reached a COD removal rate of up to 80%. Increased DDA loading concentrations had an adverse effect on the activity of both the activated sludge and microbial communities, resulting in a large alteration in microbial dynamics, especially during the start-up stage and the high DDA loading stage. Strains capable of adapting to the presence of DDA, capable of degrading DDA or utilizing its byproducts, were enriched within the sMBR community, such as Zoogloea, Clostridium, Sideroxydans lithotrophicus, Thiobacillus, Thauera amino aromatica and Alicycliphilus denitrificans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Novel collection method for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host derived chemical cues are an important aspect of arthropod attraction to potential hosts. Host cues that act over longer distances include CO2, heat, and water vapor, while cues such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) act over closer distances. Domestic dogs are important hosts for disease cy...

  20. A New Prediction Method for Organic Liquids Sorption into Polymers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Randová, A.; Bartovská, L.; Izák, Pavel; Friess, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 475, FEB 1 (2015), s. 545-551 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0569; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14094 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : organic liquids * liquid non-solvents * polymers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 5.557, year: 2015

  1. Soil microbial communities as affected by organic fertilizer and sunn hemp as a cover crop in organic sweet pepper production in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic production in Puerto Rico is at an early stage and research is needed to validate the sustainability of different management practices. This research initiated evaluation of selected soil properties including the microbial communities to evaluate the effects of Tropic sunn (Crotalaria juncea...

  2. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  3. Partnering with American Indian communities in health using methods of strategic collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shireen S; Grimm, Brandon; Giroux, Jennifer; Peck, Magda; Ramos, Athena

    2014-01-01

    The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research (APTR) sponsored six regional workshops in 2010 on community engagement and community-engaged research. One of the six workshops was a collaborative effort between the Great Plains Tribal Chairman's Health Board (GPTCHB)-Northern Plains Tribal Epidemiology Center and the College of Public Health at the University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC-COPH). To create a meaningful and dynamic forum for the exchange of ideas and co-learning between researchers from urban, tribal and nontribal communities and to build the groundwork for development of sustainable partnerships between researchers and American Indian (AI) communities to eliminate health disparities. To enhance meaningful community engagement, we utilized methods of Strategic Collaboration using the Appreciative Inquiry, 4D Change Process Model and designed several interactive group activities including Collaborative Learning and Understanding Exercises (CLUE) and the Research Café. The key themes that emerged from the interactive sessions stressed the importance of building relationships and trust; mutual use and sharing of data; and acquiring knowledge, skills, and abilities to enable sustainable research partnerships with AI communitiesConclusions: Innovative, dynamic, and strategic collaborative methods of Appreciative Inquiry and the World Café can served to engage people in a constructive dialogue to create a shared vision and plan for more meaningful research partnerships based on principles of equity and social justice, essential for the elimination of health disparities. These collaborative methods can be replicated and adapted in diverse communities, locally, nationally, and globally.

  4. Recombinant cells and organisms having persistent nonstandard amino acid dependence and methods of making them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, George M.; Mandell, Daniel J.; Lajoie, Marc J.

    2017-12-05

    Recombinant cells and recombinant organisms persistently expressing nonstandard amino acids (NSAAs) are provided. Methods of making recombinant cells and recombinant organisms dependent on persistently expressing NSAAs for survival are also provided. These methods may be used to make safe recombinant cells and recombinant organisms and/or to provide a selective pressure to maintain one or more reassigned codon functions in recombinant cells and recombinant organisms.

  5. Barriers to the routine collection of health outcome data in an Australian community care organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancarrow SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Susan A NancarrowSchool of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, East Lismore, NSW, AustraliaAbstract: For over a decade, organizations have attempted to include the measurement and reporting of health outcome data in contractual agreements between funders and health service providers, but few have succeeded. This research explores the utility of collecting health outcomes data that could be included in funding contracts for an Australian Community Care Organisation (CCO. An action-research methodology was used to trial the implementation of outcome measurement in six diverse projects within the CCO using a taxonomy of interventions based on the International Classification of Function. The findings from the six projects are presented as vignettes to illustrate the issues around the routine collection of health outcomes in each case. Data collection and analyses were structured around Donabedian's structure–process–outcome triad. Health outcomes are commonly defined as a change in health status that is attributable to an intervention. This definition assumes that a change in health status can be defined and measured objectively; the intervention can be defined; the change in health status is attributable to the intervention; and that the health outcomes data are accessible. This study found flaws with all of these assumptions that seriously undermine the ability of community-based organizations to introduce routine health outcome measurement. Challenges were identified across all stages of the Donabedian triad, including poor adherence to minimum dataset requirements; difficulties standardizing processes or defining interventions; low rates of use of outcome tools; lack of value of the tools to the service provider; difficulties defining or identifying the end point of an intervention; technical and ethical barriers to accessing data; a lack of standardized processes; and time lags for the collection of data. In no case was

  6. An Improved Method for Preventing Data Leakage in an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Neetu Bose; Dr. N. Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    Data is one of the most important assets an organisation has since it denes each organisations unique- ness.It includes data on members and prospects, their inter- ests and purchases, your events, speakers, your content, social media, press, your staff, budget, strategic plan, and much more. As organizations open their doors to employees, part- ners, customers and suppliers to provide deeper access to sensitive information, the risk sassociated with business increase. Now, more th...

  7. Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie

    2016-01-01

    Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.

  8. Method to determine transcriptional regulation pathways in organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Timothy S.; Collins, James J.; Hayete, Boris; Faith, Jeremiah

    2012-11-06

    The invention relates to computer-implemented methods and systems for identifying regulatory relationships between expressed regulating polypeptides and targets of the regulatory activities of such regulating polypeptides. More specifically, the invention provides a new method for identifying regulatory dependencies between biochemical species in a cell. In particular embodiments, provided are computer-implemented methods for identifying a regulatory interaction between a transcription factor and a gene target of the transcription factor, or between a transcription factor and a set of gene targets of the transcription factor. Further provided are genome-scale methods for predicting regulatory interactions between a set of transcription factors and a corresponding set of transcriptional target substrates thereof.

  9. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF OFFICIAL MILK CONTROL IN VALENCIA COMMUNITY (SPAIN BY SELF ORGANIZING MAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Javier Fernandez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Breeding programs in dairy goats are mainly based on milk production and composition. Murciano-Granadina goats are located principally in the central and southern regions of Spain. This study is focused in Valencia Community (Spain and the objective is to study the Murciano-Granadina livestock based on the database from Murciano-Granadina Goat Breeders Association of Valencia (AMURVAL.  The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship among different variables related with milk production; milk yield, fat, protein, lactose, SCC, the number of births, lactation number and season. This analysis is carried out by using the Self Organizing Map. This tool allows mapping high-dimensional input spaces into much lower-dimensional spaces, thus making much more straightforward to understand any representation of data. These representations enable to visually extract qualitative relationships among variables (Visual Data Mining. A total of 3221 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats from AMURVAL were chosen. Self Organizing Maps (SOM were used to analyze data with the system identification toolbox of MATLAB v7. Data were obtained from Official Milk Control during 2006 campaign. SOM considered in this study is formed by 21´14 neurons (294 neurons; the chosen architecture is given by the range of the input variables used. The map shown that more than 70% of the goats has milk yield greater than 300 kg per lactation and goat, indicating good performance of farms. Besides, the SOM obtained indicate a group of neurons that included goats with high SSC (2%. The use of Self Organizing Maps in the descriptive analysis of this kind of data sets has proven to be highly valuable in extracting qualitative conclusions and guiding in improving the performance of farms.

  10. Evaluating the effects of community-based organization engagement on HIV and AIDS-related risk behavior in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehman, Kara S; Kakietek, Jakub; Manteuffel, Brigitte A; Rodriguez-García, Rosalía; Bonnel, Rene; N'Jie, N'Della; Godoy-Garraza, Lucas; Orago, Alloys; Murithi, Patrick; Fruh, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    International donors have increasingly shifted AIDS funding directly to community-based organizations (CBOs) with the assumption that responding to the epidemic is best achieved at the community level. The World Bank, ICF Macro, and the National Council for Population and Development in Kenya, conducted a study to evaluate the community response in Kenya. The study used a quasi-experimental design comparing seven study communities and seven comparison communities in Nyanza Province and Western Province. We examined the impact of CBO activity on individual and community-level outcomes, including HIV knowledge, awareness and perceptions, sexual risk behavior, and social transformation (gender ideology and social capital). The study consisted of two components: a household survey conducted in all 14 communities, and qualitative data collected in a subset of communities. Individuals in communities with higher CBO engagement were significantly more likely to have reported consistent condom use. Higher CBO engagement was associated with some measures of social capital, including participation in local and national elections, and participation in electoral campaigns. CBOs provide added value in addressing the HIV and AIDS epidemic in very targeted and specific ways that are closely tied to the services they provide (e.g., prevention education); thus, increasing CBO engagement can be an effective measure in scaling up prevention efforts in those areas.

  11. Diaspora organizations, imagined communities and the versatility of diaspora : The case of former Yugoslav organizations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorp, Jasmijn; Smets, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    This article takes the case of Former Yugoslav organizations in the Netherlands to investigate how diaspora organizations are central in constructing identities. Contributing to the growing field of studies about Former Yugoslav diasporas, it explores how diaspora organizations play a role as

  12. Ordination of self-organizing feature map neural networks and its application to the study of plant communities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jintun ZHANG; Dongping MENG; Yuexiang XI

    2009-01-01

    A self-organizing feature map (SOFM) neural network is a powerful tool in analyzing and solving complex, non-linear problems. According to its features, a SOFM is entirely compatible with ordination studies of plant communities. In our present work, mathematical principles, and ordination techniques and procedures are introduced. A SOFM ordination was applied to the study of plant communities in the middle of the Taihang mountains. The ordination was carried out by using the NNTool box in MATLAB. The results of 68 quadrats of plant communities were distributed in SOFM space. The ordination axes showed the ecological gradients clearly and provided the relationships between communities with ecological meaning. The results are consistent with the reality of vegetation in the study area. This suggests that SOFM ordination is an effective technique in plant ecology. During ordination procedures, it is easy to carry out clustering of communities and so it is beneficial for combining classification and ordination in vegetation studies.

  13. Community Phylogenetics: Assessing Tree Reconstruction Methods and the Utility of DNA Barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Elizabeth E.; Adamowicz, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Studies examining phylogenetic community structure have become increasingly prevalent, yet little attention has been given to the influence of the input phylogeny on metrics that describe phylogenetic patterns of co-occurrence. Here, we examine the influence of branch length, tree reconstruction method, and amount of sequence data on measures of phylogenetic community structure, as well as the phylogenetic signal (Pagel’s λ) in morphological traits, using Trichoptera larval communities from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. We find that model-based tree reconstruction methods and the use of a backbone family-level phylogeny improve estimations of phylogenetic community structure. In addition, trees built using the barcode region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) alone accurately predict metrics of phylogenetic community structure obtained from a multi-gene phylogeny. Input tree did not alter overall conclusions drawn for phylogenetic signal, as significant phylogenetic structure was detected in two body size traits across input trees. As the discipline of community phylogenetics continues to expand, it is important to investigate the best approaches to accurately estimate patterns. Our results suggest that emerging large datasets of DNA barcode sequences provide a vast resource for studying the structure of biological communities. PMID:26110886

  14. Bacterial community dynamics and activity in relation to dissolved organic matter availability during sea-ice formation in a mesocosm experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Lyra, Christina; Autio, Riitta; Kuosa, Harri; Dieckmann, Gerhard S; Thomas, David N

    2014-02-01

    The structure of sea-ice bacterial communities is frequently different from that in seawater. Bacterial entrainment in sea ice has been studied with traditional microbiological, bacterial abundance, and bacterial production methods. However, the dynamics of the changes in bacterial communities during the transition from open water to frozen sea ice is largely unknown. Given previous evidence that the nutritional status of the parent water may affect bacterial communities during ice formation, bacterial succession was studied in under ice water and sea ice in two series of mesocosms: the first containing seawater from the North Sea and the second containing seawater enriched with algal-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). The composition and dynamics of bacterial communities were investigated with terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and cloning alongside bacterial production (thymidine and leucine uptake) and abundance measurements (measured by flow cytometry). Enriched and active sea-ice bacterial communities developed in ice formed in both unenriched and DOM-enriched seawater (0-6 days). γ-Proteobacteria dominated in the DOM-enriched samples, indicative of their capability for opportunistic growth in sea ice. The bacterial communities in the unenriched waters and ice consisted of the classes Flavobacteria, α- and γ-Proteobacteria, which are frequently found in natural sea ice in polar regions. Furthermore, the results indicate that seawater bacterial communities are able to adapt rapidly to sudden environmental changes when facing considerable physicochemical stress such as the changes in temperature, salinity, nutrient status, and organic matter supply during ice formation. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Exploration on Planning Methods for Rural Communities in the Local Economic and Institutional Contexts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; WANG; Xin; PAN; Zhilun; XIAO; Xiangwei; CHENG; Caige; LI

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the wave of rural community construction, compares the urban and rural areas on the aspects of land property right, financing channels, construction management procedures, and the user-builder difference, and examines the unique characteristics of rural communities. On the basis of that, it proposes some planning methods for the rural community planning and construction, such as encouraging public participation, conducting public facility-oriented planning, and providing house-design menu, and further puts forward some supporting measures and policies.

  16. [Soil organic carbon fractionation methods and their applications in farmland ecosystem research: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Hu, Chan-juan

    2011-07-01

    Soil organic carbon is of heterogeneity in components. The active components are sensitive to agricultural management, while the inert components play an important role in carbon fixation. Soil organic carbon fractionation mainly includes physical, chemical, and biological fractionations. Physical fractionation is to separate the organic carbon into active and inert components based on the density, particle size, and its spatial distribution; chemical fractionation is to separate the organic carbon into various components based on the solubility, hydrolizability, and chemical reactivity of organic carbon in a variety of extracting agents. In chemical fractionation, the dissolved organic carbon is bio-available, including organic acids, phenols, and carbohydrates, and the acid-hydrolyzed organic carbon can be divided into active and inert organic carbons. Simulated enzymatic oxidation by using KMnO4 can separate organic carbon into active and non-active carbon. Biological fractionation can differentiate microbial biomass carbon and potential mineralizable carbon. Under different farmland management practices, the chemical composition and pool capacity of soil organic carbon fractions will have different variations, giving different effects on soil quality. To identify the qualitative or quantitative relationships between soil organic carbon components and carbon deposition, we should strengthen the standardization study of various fractionation methods, explore the integrated application of different fractionation methods, and sum up the most appropriate organic carbon fractionation method or the appropriate combined fractionation methods for different farmland management practices.

  17. Application of PCR-DGGE method for identification of nematode communities in pepper growing soil

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong; Ha, Duy Ngo; Nguyen, Huu Hung; Duong, Duc Hieu

    2017-01-01

    Soil nematodes play an important role in indication for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous studies of nematode community analyses based on molecular identification have shown to be useful for assessing soil environments. Here we applied PCR-DGGE method for molecular analysis of five soil nematode communities (designed as S1 to S5) collected from four provinces in Southeastern Vietnam (Binh Duong, Ba Ria Vung Tau, Binh Phuoc and Dong Nai) based on SSU gene. By sequencing DNA ...

  18. An integrated miRNA functional screening and target validation method for organ morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebustini, Ivan T; Vlahos, Maryann; Packer, Trevor; Kukuruzinska, Maria A; Maas, Richard L

    2016-03-16

    The relative ease of identifying microRNAs and their increasing recognition as important regulators of organogenesis motivate the development of methods to efficiently assess microRNA function during organ morphogenesis. In this context, embryonic organ explants provide a reliable and reproducible system that recapitulates some of the important early morphogenetic processes during organ development. Here we present a method to target microRNA function in explanted mouse embryonic organs. Our method combines the use of peptide-based nanoparticles to transfect specific microRNA inhibitors or activators into embryonic organ explants, with a microRNA pulldown assay that allows direct identification of microRNA targets. This method provides effective assessment of microRNA function during organ morphogenesis, allows prioritization of multiple microRNAs in parallel for subsequent genetic approaches, and can be applied to a variety of embryonic organs.

  19. Test Methods for Effects on Organisms:Springtails

    OpenAIRE

    Krogh, P. H.

    1997-01-01

    NORD-UTTE er Nordisk koordineringsgrupp för utvekling av testmetoder inom toxicologi och ekotoxicology. The Nordic Co-ordination Group for the Development of Test Methods for Toxicology and Ecotoxicology

  20. A Two-Step Method to Identify Positive Deviant Physician Organizations of Accountable Care Organizations with Robust Performance Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimperl, Alexander F; Rodriguez, Hector P; Schmittdiel, Julie A; Shortell, Stephen M

    2018-06-01

    To identify positive deviant (PD) physician organizations of Accountable Care Organizations (ACOs) with robust performance management systems (PMSYS). Third National Survey of Physician Organizations (NSPO3, n = 1,398). Organizational and external factors from NSPO3 were analyzed. Linear regression estimated the association of internal and contextual factors on PMSYS. Two cutpoints (75th/90th percentiles) identified PDs with the largest residuals and highest PMSYS scores. A total of 65 and 41 PDs were identified using 75th and 90th percentiles cutpoints, respectively. The 90th percentile more strongly differentiated PDs from non-PDs. Having a high proportion of vulnerable patients appears to constrain PMSYS development. Our PD identification method increases the likelihood that PD organizations selected for in-depth inquiry are high-performing organizations that exceed expectations. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  1. Encapsulation methods and dielectric layers for organic electrical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Yigal D; Chu, William Siu-Keung; MacQueen, David Brent; Shi, Yijan

    2013-07-02

    The disclosure provides methods and materials suitable for use as encapsulation barriers and dielectric layers in electronic devices. In one embodiment, for example, there is provided an electroluminescent device or other electronic device with a dielectric layer comprising alternating layers of a silicon-containing bonding material and a ceramic material. The methods provide, for example, electronic devices with increased stability and shelf-life. The invention is useful, for example, in the field of microelectronic devices.

  2. Organizational Barriers to Adopting an Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Community-Based Mental Health Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David A; Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, Silver; Dulmus, Catherine N

    2012-06-01

    This paper examines two factors related to successfully implementing a brief alcohol screening throughout all community-based mental health organizations. The first issue is related to an organization's internal structures, such as culture and climate that can impede evidenced-based practice implementation. There is literature suggesting that organizational culture and climate affect decisions about whether evidence-based practices are adopted and implemented within health care agencies. Following this literature review on organizational barriers, the history and successes of adopting an alcohol screening and brief intervention are reviewed. Studying, identifying, and understanding the organizational factors associated with the successful dissemination and implementation of best practices throughout community-based mental health organizations would contribute to increasing the likelihood that an alcohol screening and brief intervention are implemented throughout mental health organizations.

  3. Earthworm Effects without Earthworms: Inoculation of Raw Organic Matter with Worm-Worked Substrates Alters Microbial Community Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, a...

  4. Biochar affects soil organic matter cycling and microbial functions but does not alter microbial community structure in a paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Wang, Jingyuan; Dippold, Michaela; Gao, Yang; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-06-15

    The application of biochar (BC) in conjunction with mineral fertilizers is one of the most promising management practices recommended to improve soil quality. However, the interactive mechanisms of BC and mineral fertilizer addition affecting microbial communities and functions associated with soil organic matter (SOM) cycling are poorly understood. We investigated the SOM in physical and chemical fractions, microbial community structure (using phospholipid fatty acid analysis, PLFA) and functions (by analyzing enzymes involved in C and N cycling and Biolog) in a 6-year field experiment with BC and NPK amendment. BC application increased total soil C and particulate organic C for 47.4-50.4% and 63.7-74.6%, respectively. The effects of BC on the microbial community and C-cycling enzymes were dependent on fertilization. Addition of BC alone did not change the microbial community compared with the control, but altered the microbial community structure in conjunction with NPK fertilization. SOM fractions accounted for 55% of the variance in the PLFA-related microbial community structure. The particulate organic N explained the largest variation in the microbial community structure. Microbial metabolic activity strongly increased after BC addition, particularly the utilization of amino acids and amines due to an increase in the activity of proteolytic (l-leucine aminopeptidase) enzymes. These results indicate that microorganisms start to mine N from the SOM to compensate for high C:N ratios after BC application, which consequently accelerate cycling of stable N. Concluding, BC in combination with NPK fertilizer application strongly affected microbial community composition and functions, which consequently influenced SOM cycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring community gardens in a health disparate population: findings from a mixed methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Zanko, Ashley; Price, Bryan; Bonner, Jennifer; Hill, Jennie L

    2012-01-01

    Despite recommendations, there have been few efforts to apply the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach in the development, implementation, and evaluation of community gardens. As guided by the CBPR approach and grounded in a social-ecological model and behavioral theory, the purpose of this mixed methods study was to understand opinions and interests in developing and implementing a community garden and to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Community and academic members collaborated to develop and execute this study. The qualitative phase- targeting regional key informants-was designed to elicit perceived benefits and challenges of community gardens at the environmental, community, and individual levels. The quantitative phase targeted low resourced youth and parents and included a variety of validated theory-based questionnaires to understand factors impacting fruit, vegetable, and gardening behaviors. Major benefits of community gardens that emerged from the 10 qualitative interviews included increasing community cohesion and improving nutrition and physical activity factors. The quantitative phase included 87 youth and 67 parents. Across 16 items for fruits and vegetables, the average willingness to try was 1.32 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.40) on a 2-point scale. The majority of youth indicated they would work in a garden (n = 59; 68%) and eat food grown in their garden (n = 71; 82%). Among parents, gardening attitude, belief, and self-efficacy scores were all above average; however, gardening intentions were neutral. This research illustrates the successful partnering a community-academic team and has provided the partnership with a clearer lens to conceptualize and launch future regional community garden efforts.

  6. Method for spiking soil samples with organic compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Ulla C; Ekelund, Flemming; Jacobsen, Carsten S

    2002-01-01

    We examined the harmful side effects on indigenous soil microorganisms of two organic solvents, acetone and dichloromethane, that are normally used for spiking of soil with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for experimental purposes. The solvents were applied in two contamination protocols to either...... higher than in control soil, probably due mainly to release of predation from indigenous protozoa. In order to minimize solvent effects on indigenous soil microorganisms when spiking native soil samples with compounds having a low water solubility, we propose a common protocol in which the contaminant...... tagged with luxAB::Tn5. For both solvents, application to the whole sample resulted in severe side effects on both indigenous protozoa and bacteria. Application of dichloromethane to the whole soil volume immediately reduced the number of protozoa to below the detection limit. In one of the soils...

  7. Preparing facilitators from community-based organizations for evidence-based intervention training in Second Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Angel Felix; Aebersold, Michelle; Tschannen, Dana; Villarruel, Antonia Maria

    2014-09-30

    A major barrier to the use and scale-up of evidence-based interventions are challenges related to training and capacity building. A cost-effective and highly interactive multi-user virtual environment, Second Life (SL) is a promising alternative for comprehensive face-to-face facilitator training. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of using SL to train facilitators from community-based organizations to use ¡Cuídate! (Take Care of Yourself), one of the few evidence-based interventions developed and tested with Latino youth to reduce sexual risk behaviors. We recruited 35 participants from community-based organizations throughout the United States to participate in the SL ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. Preparation to use SL consisted of four phases: (1) recruitment and computer capacity screening, (2) enrollment, (3) orientation to the SL program, and (4) technical support throughout the synchronous training sessions. Technical difficulties, the associated cause, and the mitigation strategy implemented were recorded during each session. Participants completed evaluations including perceptions of self-efficacy and confidence to complete the necessary skills to participate in SL training. Overall, participants reported high levels of self-efficacy for all skills necessary to participate in SL training. Based on an 11-point scale (0-10), self-efficacy to download and access the software was rated the highest: mean 8.29 (SD 2.19). Interacting with items in SL had the lowest mean score: mean 7.49 (SD 2.89). The majority of technical difficulties experienced by participants were related to inadequate Internet connections or computer malfunctions. Our findings support the feasibility of using SL for the ¡Cuídate! Training of Facilitators. The process used in this study to prepare participants to use SL can be used as a basis for other evidence-based intervention training in SL. This study is an important contribution to developing cost

  8. The search conference as a method in planning community health promotion actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Magnus

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives.

  9. Can E- Commerce Enable Marketing in an African Rural Women's Community Based Development Organization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Rhodes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available It is suggested by various sources (Worldbank, 2000; Cypher, 1997 that investment in infrastructure and modern technologies such as ITC's may break down some of the barriers of access such as physical remoteness for poor rural communities. However there is little existing research that examines this sce-nario at the micro level. This paper uses a case study- the Rural Women's Association (RWA of Sek-huhkuneland, Northern Province, South Africa to examine if E- commerce can enable access to markets in an impoverished, under resourced rural location. This paper has five parts: Part 1 consists of the background and rationale for this study, Part 2 focuses on the education, business acumen and gender issues. Part 3 discusses the current market environment. Part 4 discusses possible business models that can integrate e-commerce in its implementation. Part 5 provides the research questions and the method-ology for this study. The final discussion in this study provides us with a viable e-commerce model that could be used in a rural setting and could provide greater economic development for this community.

  10. Effects of inoculation with organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria on soybean (Glycine max) growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Li, Yang; Duan, Man-Li

    2017-05-01

    Three different organic-phosphorus-mineralizing bacteria (OPMB) strains were inoculated to soil planted with soybean (Glycine max), and their effects on soybean growth and indigenous bacterial community diversity were investigated. Inoculation with Pseudomonas fluorescens Z4-1 and Brevibacillus agri L7-1 increased organic phosphorus degradation by 22% and 30%, respectively, compared with the control at the mature stage. Strains P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 significantly improved the soil alkaline phosphatase activity, average well color development, and the soybean root activity. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis demonstrated that P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could persist in the soil at relative abundances of 2.0%-6.4% throughout soybean growth. Thus, P. fluorescens Z4-1 and B. agri L7-1 could potentially be used in organic-phosphorus-mineralizing biofertilizers. OPMB inoculation altered the genetic structure of the soil bacterial communities but had no apparent influence on the carbon source utilization profiles of the soil bacterial communities. Principal components analysis showed that the changes in the carbon source utilization profiles of bacterial community depended mainly on the plant growth stages rather than inoculation with OPMB. The results help to understand the evolution of the soil bacterial community after OPMB inoculation.

  11. Predicting community structure in snakes on Eastern Nearctic islands using ecological neutral theory and phylogenetic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbrink, Frank T; McKelvy, Alexander D; Pyron, R Alexander; Myers, Edward A

    2015-11-22

    Predicting species presence and richness on islands is important for understanding the origins of communities and how likely it is that species will disperse and resist extinction. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography (ETIB) and, as a simple model of sampling abundances, the unified neutral theory of biodiversity (UNTB), predict that in situations where mainland to island migration is high, species-abundance relationships explain the presence of taxa on islands. Thus, more abundant mainland species should have a higher probability of occurring on adjacent islands. In contrast to UNTB, if certain groups have traits that permit them to disperse to islands better than other taxa, then phylogeny may be more predictive of which taxa will occur on islands. Taking surveys of 54 island snake communities in the Eastern Nearctic along with mainland communities that have abundance data for each species, we use phylogenetic assembly methods and UNTB estimates to predict island communities. Species richness is predicted by island area, whereas turnover from the mainland to island communities is random with respect to phylogeny. Community structure appears to be ecologically neutral and abundance on the mainland is the best predictor of presence on islands. With regard to young and proximate islands, where allopatric or cladogenetic speciation is not a factor, we find that simple neutral models following UNTB and ETIB predict the structure of island communities. © 2015 The Author(s).

  12. Comparative analysis of methods and sources of financing of the transport organizations activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorshkov, Roman

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the analysis of methods of financing of transport organizations in conditions of limited investment resources. A comparative analysis of these methods is carried out, the classification of investment, methods and sources of financial support for projects being implemented to date are presented. In order to select the optimal sources of financing for the projects, various methods of financial management and financial support for the activities of the transport organization were analyzed, which were considered from the perspective of analysis of advantages and limitations. The result of the study is recommendations on the selection of optimal sources and methods of financing of transport organizations.

  13. Organic farming and social capital building in small holder farmer communities in the Rwenzori region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tibasiima, Thaddeo; Nalunga, Jane; Vaarst, Mette

    uniqueness. The approach also promotes whole household participation. The facilitator who basically guides the learning stirs farmers into developing confidence within and among themselves in the organic production processes, using agro-ecological farming methods and practices which are economically...... learning garden and learning involves the growth cycle of the enterprise in question, the FFLG approach considers each farm as being unique and as a special learning entity. The approach therefore, involves farmers rotating from one farm to another to learn and support the particular farm in respect to its...

  14. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  15. Novel Setting for Addressing Tobacco-Related Disparities: A Survey of Community Welfare Organization Smoking Policies, Practices and Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, B.; O'Brien, J.; Frost, S.; Yiow, L.; Oakes, W.; Barker, D.

    2013-01-01

    Research in the United States and Australia acknowledges the potential of non-government social and community service organizations (SCSOs) for reaching socially disadvantaged smokers. This study aimed to describe SCSO smoking policies and practices, and attitudes of senior staff towards smoking and cessation. It also investigated factors…

  16. Money Management for Women: A Demonstration of the Role of Community Organizations in the Delivery of Consumer Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Barbara R.; Florio, Carol

    The Money Management for Women program was designed and implemented to provide lower-income women with financial planning information geared to their current level of understanding and financial circumstances. Objectives were to develop a model consumer education program and test the efficacy of community-based organizations as agents in…

  17. Give Water a Hand. School Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water, and water conservation at a school site, while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  18. Give Water a Hand. Home Site Action Guide. Organizing Water Conservation and Pollution Prevention Service Projects in Your Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Coll. of Agricultural and Life Sciences.

    Students grades 4-8 can use this guide to explore the topics of water and water conservation within the home while conducting an environmental community service project. Youth groups, led by a group leader, work with local experts from business, government, or environmental organizations to complete the project. Nine activity sections involve…

  19. Latina/o Parent Organizing for Educational Justice: An Ethnographic Account of Community Building and Radical Healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygreen, Kysa

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a parent organizing effort with Latina/o immigrant parents in a large, high-poverty, racially and linguistically diverse urban school district. Drawing from ethnographic research and the theoretical framework of "mujerismo," it examines the relational processes of community building and radical healing that…

  20. Stranger to friend enabler: creating a community of caring in African American research using ethnonursing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, K O; Wenger, A F

    2001-01-01

    African Americans are facing a serious health crisis. They are disproportionately affected by most chronic illnesses. The disparity among ethic groups as it relates to health and illness is related to psychosocial and biological factors within the African American culture. Many African Americans are sometimes reluctant to participate in studies. This article discusses the process of creating a caring community when conducting research within an African American community based on the experience of the authors with two faith communities in a southern metropolitan area in the United States. The process is identified as unknowing, reflection, presence, and knowing. The process is based on Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality and her stranger to friend enabler. When the theory and method are used, the investigator moves from a stranger within the community to a trusted friend and begins to collect rich and valuable data for analysis from the informants' point of view.

  1. Effects of organic loading rate on biogas production from macroalgae: Performance and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng-Ting; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Zhao, Xiao-Xian; Fu, Shan-Fei; He, Shuai; Manasa, M R K; Guo, Rong-Bo

    2017-07-01

    Macroalgae biomass has been considered as a promising feedstock for biogas production. In order to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae, semi-continuous fermentation was conducted to examine the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) on biogas production from Macrocystis pyrifer. Results showed that, under OLRs of 1.37, 2.74, 4.12 and 6.85kgVS substrate /(m 3 ·d), the average unit biogas yields were 438.9, 477.3, 480.1 and 188.7mL/(gVS substrate d), respectively. It indicated that biogas production was promoted by the increased OLR in an appropriate range while inhibited by the OLR beyond the appropriate range. The investigation on physical-chemical parameters revealed that unfavorable VFAs concentration, pH and salinity might be the main causes for system failure due to the overrange OLR, while the total phenols failed to reach the inhibitory concentration. Microbial community analysis demonstrated that several bacterial and archaeal phyla altered with increase in OLR apparently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Impacts of Alterations of Organic Inputs on the Bacterial Community within the sediments of Wind Cave, South Dakota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelius Marisa K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind Cave (WICA in the Black Hills of South Dakota, like many mostly dry caves in temperate regions is an energy-starved system.The biotic communities that reside in these systems are low in diversity and simple in structure, and sensitive to changes in externalinputs of organic matter. Caves open to tourist traffic offer an opportunity to study the impacts of organic matter amendments in theform of human and rodent hair and dander, clothing lint, material from rodent activity (nesting materials and feces, and algal growthin and around artificial lighting. This study reports on the impacts of carbon amendments from humans and rodents on the bacterialand archaeal communities within the sediments of WICA from annual surveys and from a manipulative study that added lint (‘L’;cellulose plus rodent dander and rodent hair, rodent feces (‘F’, and a combination of both (‘LF’. The survey confirmed that bacterialbiomass was higher in regions of the cave with the highest rates of lint (hair and natural clothing fibers input. The manipulative studyfound that organic amendments in the forms of lint (L and rodent feces (F altered the WICA bacterial community structure in bothabundance and diversity, with the combined lint and feces (LF amendment having the most significant response. The high similarityof the LF and L communities suggests that the cave bacterial community is more carbon than nitrogen limited. The implication ofcave development to management practices is immediate and practical. Even small amounts of lint and organic matter foreign tocave bacteria significantly compromise the integrity of the endemic community resulting in the replacement of undescribed speciesby assemblages with at best, unknown impacts to natural cave features.

  3. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  4. DEFINING THE "COMMUNITY" FOR A COMMUNITY-BASED PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTION ADDRESSING LATINO IMMIGRANT HEALTH DISPARITIES: AN APPLICATION OF ETHNOGRAPHIC METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, Mark; Cleary, Sean; Simmons, Lauren B; Cubilla-Batista, Idalina; Andrade, Elizabeth L; Gudger, Glencora

    2015-01-01

    Although Latino and other immigrant populations are the driving force behind population increases in the U.S., there are significant gaps in knowledge and practice on addressing health disparities in these populations. The Avance Center for the Advancement of Immigrant/Refugee Health, a health disparities research center in the Washington, DC area, includes as part of its mission a multi-level, participatory community intervention (called Adelante) to address the co-occurrence of substance abuse, violence and sex risk among Latino immigrant youth and young adults. Research staff and community partners knew that the intervention community had grown beyond its Census-designated place (CDP) boundaries, and that connection and attachment to community were relevant to an intervention. Thus, in order to understand current geographic and social boundaries of the community for sampling, data collection, intervention design and implementation, the research team conducted an ethnographic study to identify self-defined community boundaries, both geographic and social. Beginning with preliminary data from a pilot intervention and the original CDP map, the research included: geo-mapping de-identified addresses of service clients from a major community organization; key informant interviews; and observation and intercept interviews in the community. The results provided an expanded community boundary profile and important information about community identity.

  5. RNA preservation agents and nucleic acid extraction method bias perceived bacterial community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McCarthy

    Full Text Available Bias is a pervasive problem when characterizing microbial communities. An important source is the difference in lysis efficiencies of different populations, which vary depending on the extraction protocol used. To avoid such biases impacting comparisons between gene and transcript abundances in the environment, the use of one protocol that simultaneously extracts both types of nucleic acids from microbial community samples has gained popularity. However, knowledge regarding tradeoffs to combined nucleic acid extraction protocols is limited, particularly regarding yield and biases in the observed community composition. Here, we evaluated a commercially available protocol for simultaneous extraction of DNA and RNA, which we adapted for freshwater microbial community samples that were collected on filters. DNA and RNA yields were comparable to other commonly used, but independent DNA and RNA extraction protocols. RNA protection agents benefited RNA quality, but decreased DNA yields significantly. Choice of extraction protocol influenced the perceived bacterial community composition, with strong method-dependent biases observed for specific phyla such as the Verrucomicrobia. The combined DNA/RNA extraction protocol detected significantly higher levels of Verrucomicrobia than the other protocols, and those higher numbers were confirmed by microscopic analysis. Use of RNA protection agents as well as independent sequencing runs caused a significant shift in community composition as well, albeit smaller than the shift caused by using different extraction protocols. Despite methodological biases, sample origin was the strongest determinant of community composition. However, when the abundance of specific phylogenetic groups is of interest, researchers need to be aware of the biases their methods introduce. This is particularly relevant if different methods are used for DNA and RNA extraction, in addition to using RNA protection agents only for RNA

  6. Teaching methods in community health nursing clerkships: experiences of healthcare staff in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshagh Ildarabadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Healthcare staff educate nursing students during their clerkships at community health nursing programs. Their teaching methods play an important role in nursing students’ acquisition of competencies; however, these methods have not been studied thoroughly. Thus, this study aims to describe, interpret, and understand the experiences of healthcare staff’s teaching methods in clerkships at a community health nursing program. Methods: This study was conducted using purposeful sampling and semi-structured interviews with 13 members of the staff of three urban healthcare centers in Iran. The data were analyzed through qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis. Results: Multiplicity of teaching was identified as the main category of teaching method, and the five subcategories were teaching through lecture, demonstration, doing, visits and field trips, and readiness. The most common method used by the healthcare staff was lecturing. Conclusion: The healthcare staff used multiple methods to teach students in the nursing clerkship of the community health program, which was the strength of the course. However, they should be familiar with, and utilize additional methods, such as discussion rather than lecture.

  7. Concept and Method of Asset-Based Community Development Planning: A Case Study on Minlecun Community in Chongqing’s Yuzhong District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang; Ling; Liu; Yang; Xu; Jianfeng

    2015-01-01

    With the transformation of the Chinese economy from an extensive growth to intensive development, city development is also gradually turning from incremental construction to stock management. Community, as a basic unit of human settlements, is an important platform to build and improve the social governance capability. In 2013, Shiyoulu Jiedao Offi ce of Yuzhong District led the 1st urban community development planning, which was a milestone of Chongqing’s city regeneration and governance innovation. This paper focuses on two key issues: how to understand the community values and make the community development planning based on the above, and how to integrate with the local forces so that the community development planning can be integrated into the action plan. Combined with the practice of Minlecun Community Development Planning, using the concept of asset-based community development, a comprehensive survey is conducted on community assets(including three aspects of physical, human, and social capital), and a community comprehensive planning strategy is formulated which covers two parts: the optimization of community spaces and the upgrading of community governance. The paper explores the local-based community planning theories and methods from such aspects as value attitude, public participation, role transformation of urban planners, and others.

  8. Effects of cow diet on the microbial community and organic matter and nitrogen content of feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, P C J; Reijs, J W; Bloem, J; Dijkstra, J; de Goede, R G M

    2007-11-01

    Knowledge of the effects of cow diet on manure composition is required to improve nutrient use efficiency and to decrease emissions of N to the environment. Therefore, we performed an experiment with nonlactating cows to determine the consequences of changes in cow rations for the chemical characteristics and the traits of the microbial community in the feces. In this experiment, 16 cows were fed 8 diets, differing in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, starch, and net energy content. These differences were achieved by changing dietary ingredients or roughage to concentrate ratio. After an adaptation period of 3 wk, fecal material was collected and analyzed. Observed results were compared with simulated values using a mechanistic model that provides insight into the mechanisms involved in the effect of dietary variation on fecal composition. Feces produced on a high-fiber, low-protein diet had a high C:N ratio (>16) and had lower concentrations of both organic and inorganic N than feces on a low-fiber, high-protein diet. Fecal bacterial biomass concentration was highest in high-protein, high-energy diets. The fraction of inorganic N in the feces was not significantly different between the different feces. Microbial biomass in the feces ranged from 1,200 to 8,000 microg of C/g of dry matter (average: 3,700 microg of C/g of dry matter). Bacterial diversity was similar for all fecal materials, but the different protein levels in the feeding regimens induced changes in the community structure present in the different feces. The simulated total N content (N(total)) in the feces ranged from 1.0 to 1.5 times the observed concentrations, whereas the simulated C:N(total) of the feces ranged from 0.7 to 0.9 times the observed C:N(total). However, bacterial biomass C was not predicted satisfactorily (simulated values being on average 3 times higher than observed), giving rise to further discussion on the definition of microbial C in feces. Based on these observations, it

  9. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N. K.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative—the Community Child Health Network—to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. PMID:26173227

  10. Shedding Light on the Mechanisms Underlying Health Disparities Through Community Participatory Methods: The Stress Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Schafer, Peter; Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Clark-Kauffman, Elizabeth; Raju, Tonse N K; Hillemeier, Marianne M

    2013-11-01

    Health disparities are large and persistent gaps in the rates of disease and death between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status subgroups in the population. Stress is a major pathway hypothesized to explain such disparities. The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development formed a community/research collaborative-the Community Child Health Network-to investigate disparities in maternal and child health in five high-risk communities. Using community participation methods, we enrolled a large cohort of African American/Black, Latino/Hispanic, and non-Hispanic/White mothers and fathers of newborns at the time of birth and followed them over 2 years. A majority had household incomes near or below the federal poverty level. Home interviews yielded detailed information regarding multiple types of stress such as major life events and many forms of chronic stress including racism. Several forms of stress varied markedly by racial/ethnic group and income, with decreasing stress as income increased among Caucasians but not among African Americans; other forms of stress varied by race/ethnicity or poverty alone. We conclude that greater sophistication in studying the many forms of stress and community partnership is necessary to uncover the mechanisms underlying health disparities in poor and ethnic-minority families and to implement community health interventions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Modern contact investigation methods for enhancing tuberculosis control in Aboriginal communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Cook

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The Aboriginal communities in Canada are challenged by a disproportionate burden of TB infection and disease. Contact investigation (CI guidelines exist but these strategies do not take into account the unique social structure of different populations. Because of the limitations of traditional CI, new approaches are under investigation and include the use of social network analysis, geographic information systems and genomics, in addition to the widespread use of genotyping to better understand TB transmission. Guidelines for the routine use of network methods and other novel methodologies for TB CI and outbreak investigation do not exist despite the gathering evidence that these approaches can positively impact TB control efforts, even in Aboriginal communities. The feasibility and efficacy of these novel approaches to CI in Aboriginal communities requires further investigation. The successful integration of these novel methodologies will require community involvement, capacity building and ongoing support at every level. The outcome will not only be the systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of CI data in high-burden communities to assess transmission but the prioritization of contacts who are candidates for treatment of LTBI which will break the cycle of transmission. Ultimately, the measure of success will be a clear and sustained decline in TB incidence in Aboriginal communities.

  12. Projected oriented organizations as development of enterprise management methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Pavlova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic external environment, significant shortage of product life cycle, increase of product technological difficulty, extension of innovative knowledge motivates managers to look for and use in their activities keys that will provide constant, stable development of organizational structures. The methodology of project enterprise management meets the requirements of «preservation through development». The articles researches the integration of methods and procedures of project management into the enterprise management system. Project management philosophy is the efficient way of existence in the competitive environment and the means for internal development of a company. The author conducts an analysis, determines the essence and peculiarities of a project-oriented enterprise, performs comparing characteristics of functional and project management, describes the stages of gradual transformation of an enterprise organizational structure into a project-oriented one. It is defined that a project-oriented enterprise is that one which functions on the base of innovative development and are scientific, creative and widely use the project activity as the means of a steady development. The article describes internal and external instruments of project management, base knowledge systems on project management and possibilities of enterprises on audit of state of system project management in an enterprise according to the IPMA certification program on the territory of Ukraine.

  13. Identifying Effective Methods of Instruction for Adult Emergent Readers through Community-Based Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmer, Rachel; Hayes-Harb, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    We present a community-based research project aimed at identifying effective methods and materials for teaching English literacy skills to adult English as a second language emergent readers. We conducted a quasi-experimental study whereby we evaluated the efficacy of two approaches, one based on current practices at the English Skills Learning…

  14. Effects of slurry application methods on soil faunal communities in permanent grassland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van P.C.J.; Goede, de R.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of two slurry manure application methods, broadcasting manure slurry (MB) and manure slit injection (SMI), on soil faunal communities 1 week and 4 or 5 weeks after application in the spring of 2002 and the summer of 2003. No effect on total numbers of Enchytraeidae and

  15. Perceptions of Organizational Culture of a Multi-Campus Community College District: Mixed Methods in Concert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster Dale, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    This concurrent, mixed-methods case study analyzed perceptions of current and preferred organizational culture within a rural, multi-campus community college district. This phenomenon was examined by analyzing and comparing data collected by surveying all full-time employees utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) and…

  16. Development of a Mixed Methods Investigation of Process and Outcomes of Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Julie; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Alegria, Margarita; Greene-Moton, Ella; Israel, Barbara; Kastelic, Sarah; Magarati, Maya; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Schulz, Amy; Villegas, Malia; White Hat, Emily R.

    2018-01-01

    This article describes a mixed methods study of community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnership practices and the links between these practices and changes in health status and disparities outcomes. Directed by a CBPR conceptual model and grounded in indigenous-transformative theory, our nation-wide, cross-site study showcases the value…

  17. Solidification method for organic solution and processing method of aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamoshida, Mamoru; Fukazawa, Tetsuo; Yazawa, Noriko; Hasegawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    The relative dielectric constant of an organic solution containing polar ingredients is controlled to 13 or less to enable its solidification. The polarity of the organic solution can be evaluated quantitatively by using the relative dielectric constant. If the relative dielectric constant is high, it can be controlled by dilution using a non-polar organic solvent of low relative dielectric constant. With such procedures, solidification can be conducted by using an economical 12-hydroxy stearic acid, process of liquid wastes can be facilitated and the safety can be ensured. (T.M.)

  18. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic......) significant reductions of Salmonella were found, while the die out at low temperatures (below 10°C) was limited. FS was not reduced systematically during storage, and therefore, FS is not usable as indicator organism for the hygienic properties of sludge during storage....

  19. Effects of sludge inoculum and organic feedstock on active microbial communities and methane yield during anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eWilkins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion (AD is a widespread microbial technology used to treat organic waste and recover energy in the form of methane (biogas. While most AD systems have been designed to treat a single input, mixtures of digester sludge and solid organic waste are emerging as a means to improve efficiency and methane yield. We examined laboratory anaerobic cultures of AD sludge from two sources amended with food waste, xylose, and xylan at mesophilic temperatures, and with cellulose at meso- and thermophilic temperatures, to determine whether and how the inoculum and substrate affect biogas yield and community composition. All substrate and inoculum combinations yielded methane, with food waste most productive by mass. Pyrosequencing of transcribed bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA showed that community composition varied across substrates and inocula, with differing ratios of hydrogenotrophic/acetoclastic methanogenic archaea associated with syntrophic partners. While communities did not cluster by either inoculum or substrate, additional sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene in the source sludge revealed that the bacterial communities were influenced by their inoculum. These results suggest that complete and efficient AD systems could potentially be assembled from different microbial inocula and consist of taxonomically diverse communities that nevertheless perform similar functions.

  20. The Search Conference as a Method in Planning Community Health Promotion Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Eva; Knudtsen, Margunn Skjei; Wist, Guri; Weiss, Daniel; Lillefjell, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how the search conference can be used as a method for planning health promotion actions in local communities. Design and methods: The article draws on experiences with using the method for an innovative project in health promotion in three Norwegian municipalities. The method is described both in general and how it was specifically adopted for the project. Results and conclusions: The search conference as a method was used to develop evidence-based health promotion action plans. With its use of both bottom-up and top-down approaches, this method is a relevant strategy for involving a community in the planning stages of health promotion actions in line with political expectations of participation, ownership, and evidence-based initiatives. Significance for public health This article describe and discuss how the Search conference can be used as a method when working with knowledge based health promotion actions in local communities. The article describe the sequences of the conference and shows how this have been adapted when planning and prioritizing health promotion actions in three Norwegian municipalities. The significance of the article is that it shows how central elements in the planning of health promotion actions, as participation and involvements as well as evidence was a fundamental thinking in how the conference were accomplished. The article continue discussing how the method function as both a top-down and a bottom-up strategy, and in what way working evidence based can be in conflict with a bottom-up strategy. The experiences described can be used as guidance planning knowledge based health promotion actions in communities. PMID:27747199

  1. Level of Knowledge of Pregnant women on Sexual Organs, Contraceptive Methods and Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Bozkurt; Aydan Biri; Ümit Korucuoglu; Nur Aksakal; Tuncay Nas; Onur Karabacak; Özdemir Himmetoglu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to determine the level of knowledge of pregnant women on sexual organs, contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. METHOD: 54 pregnant women who applied to Gazi University Obstetrics and Gynecology Department were included. They were applied a questionnaire including questions about their demographic properties and their level of knowledge related to sexual organs,contraceptive methods and sexually transmitted diseases. RESULTS: Mean age of the ...

  2. A METHOD FOR CREATING STRUCTURES OR DEVICES USING AN ORGANIC ICE RESIST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a method for creating an organic resist on a surface of a cooled substrate, the method comprising the steps of condensing a vapour into a solid film on the surface of the cooled substrate; patterning at least part of the solid film by exposing selected portions of said...... solid film to at least one electron beam thereby creating the organic resist on 5 the surface of the cooled substrate in accordance with a predetermined pattern; wherein the created organic resist remains essentially intact at ambient conditions; and using the created organic resist as a mask...... for creating semiconductor structures and/or semiconductor devices....

  3. Feasibility analysis of organic Tea authentication using 15N natural abundance method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Haiqiang; Pan Zhiqiang; Yu Cuiping; Wang Xiaochang

    2011-01-01

    Organic agricultural products were always adulterated by pollutant-free agricultural products in market because of lacking of available authentication technique. Organic tea was one of the largest organic agricultural products in China which are facing the same problem and can not be accepted by consumers. In this paper, based on the newest information of δ 15 N from soil-plant-fertilizer system, a new method was suggested to identify whether N fertilizer was applied to organic tea in producing processing. Meanwhile, the principle of this new method and its feasibility were discussed. (authors)

  4. A field test of the centrifugal community organization model using psammophilic gerbils in Israel's southern coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Gideon; Kotler, B.P.; Morris, D.W.; Abramsky, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An optimal habitat selection model called centrifugal community organization (CCO) predicts that species, although they have the same primary habitat, may co-exist owing to their ability to use different secondary habitats. Goal: Test the predictions of CCO with field experiments. Species: The Egyptian sand gerbil (40 g), Gerbillus pyramidum, and Allenby's gerbil (25 g), G. andersoni allenbyi. Site: Ashdod sand dunes in the southern coastal plain of Israel. Three sandy habitats are present: shifting, semi-stabilized, and stabilized sand. Gerbils occupied all three habitats. Methods: We surveyed rodent abundance, activity levels, and foraging behaviour while experimentally removing G. pyramidum. Results: Three predictions of the CCO model were supported. Both species did best in the semi-stabilized habitat. However, they differed in their secondary habitats. Gerbillus pyramidum preferred the shifting sand habitat, whereas G. a. allenbyi preferred the stabilized habitat. Habitat selection by both species depended on density. However, in contrast to CCO, G. pyramidum dominated the core habitat and excluded G. a. allenbyi. We term this variant of CCO, 'asymmetric CCO'. Conclusions: The fundamental feature of CCO appears valid: co-existence may result not because of what each competing species does best, but because of what they do as a back-up. But in contrast to the prediction of the original CCO model, all dynamic traces of interaction can vanish if the system includes interference competition. ?? 2007 Gideon Wasserberg.

  5. Organic loading rates affect composition of soil-derived bacterial communities during continuous, fermentative biohydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yonghua; Bruns, Mary Ann [Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Zhang, Husen; Salerno, Michael; Logan, Bruce E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Bacterial community composition during steady-state, fermentative H{sub 2} production was compared across a range of organic loading rates (OLRs) of 0.5-19 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} in a 2-l continuous flow reactor at 30 C. The varied OLRs were achieved with glucose concentrations of 2.5-10 g l{sup -1} and hydraulic retention times of 1-10 h. The synthetic wastewater feed was amended with L-cysteine and maintained at a pH of 5.5. For each run at a given glucose concentration, the reactor was inoculated with an aliquot of well-mixed agricultural topsoil that had been heat-treated to reduce numbers of vegetative cells. At OLRs less than 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}, DNA sequences from ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer analysis profiles revealed more diverse and variable populations (Selenomonas, Enterobacter, and Clostridium spp.) than were observed above 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} (Clostridium spp. only). An isolate, LYH1, was cultured from a reactor sample (10 g glucose l{sup -1} at a 10-h HRT) on medium containing L-cysteine. In confirming H{sub 2} production by LYH1 in liquid batch culture, lag periods for H{sub 2} production in the presence and absence of L-cysteine were 5 and 50 h, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence of LYH1 indicated that the isolate was a Clostridium sp. affiliated with RNA subcluster Ic, with >99% similarity to Clostridium sp. FRB1. In fluorescent in situ hybridization tests, an oligonucleotide probe complementary to the 16S rRNA of LYH1 hybridized with 90% of cells observed at an OLR of 2 g COD h{sup -1}, compared to 26% of cells at an OLR of 0.5 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1}. An OLR of 2 g COD l{sup -1} h{sup -1} appeared to be a critical threshold above which clostridia were better able to outcompete Enterobacteriaceae and other organisms in the mixed soil inoculum. Our results are discussed in light of other biohydrogen studies employing pure cultures and mixed inocula. (author)

  6. The Role of Community Organizations in the Transformation of the Social Development Model in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Community organizations have played a major role in the delivery of social services in Québec since the 1970s. Their activities aimed to provide an alternative to the heteronomous, bureaucratic practices of the public sector. But their desire to move away from the public sector did not prevent them from demanding financial support from the state. Historically, these associations' struggles have led to the establishment of an original partnership and a funding mode whereby they could retain their organizations' autonomy. This autonomy was the guarantee of both their specificity and their ability to innovate in terms of social practices. While this state recognition certainly remains in some respects ambivalent, it is nonetheless undeniable that these associations today constitute a significant component of the Québec model of social development. / Les organismes communautaires jouent un rôle important dans la prestation de services sociaux au Québec depuis les années 1970. Leurs activités se sont développées dans l'optique d'apporter une alternative aux pratiques hétéronomes et bureaucratiques du secteur public. Cette volonté de se distancier du secteur public ne les a toutefois pas empêchés de revendiquer le soutien financier de l'État. Historiquement, les luttes menées par ces associations se sont donc traduites par la mise en place d'un partenariat original et l'établissement d'une mode de financement qui leur permet de préserver l'autonomie de leur organisation. Cette autonomie est le gage de leur spécificité et de leur capacité d'innover sur le plan des pratiques sociales. Certes, cette reconnaissance étatique demeure à certains égards ambiguë. Néanmoins, il est indéniable que ces associations constituent aujourd'hui un élément important du modèle québécois du développement social.

  7. Nitrous oxide emission and denitrifier communities in drip-irrigated calcareous soil as affected by chemical and organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rui; Wakelin, Steven A; Liang, Yongchao; Hu, Baowei; Chu, Guixin

    2018-01-15

    The effects of consecutive application of chemical fertilizer with or without organic fertilizer on soil N 2 O emissions and denitrifying community structure in a drip-irrigated field were determined. The four fertilizer treatments were (i) unfertilized, (ii) chemical fertilizer, (iii) 60% chemical fertilizer plus cattle manure, and (iv) 60% chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. The treatments with organic amendments (i.e. cattle manure and biofertilizer) reduced cumulative N 2 O emissions by 4.9-9.9%, reduced the N 2 O emission factor by 1.3-42%, and increased denitrifying enzyme activities by 14.3-56.2%. The nirK gene copy numbers were greatest in soil which received only chemical fertilizer. In contrast, nirS- and nosZ-copy numbers were greatest in soil amended with chemical fertilizer plus biofertilizer. Chemical fertilizer application with or without organic fertilizer significantly changed the community structure of nirK-type denitrifiers relative to the unfertilized soil. In comparison, the nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifier genotypes varied in treatments receiving organic fertilizer but not chemical fertilizer alone. The changes in the denitrifier communities were closely associated with soil organic carbon (SOC), NO 3 - , NH 4 + , water holding capacity, and soil pH. Modeling indicated that N 2 O emissions in this soil were primarily associated with the abundance of nirS type denitrifying bacteria, SOC, and NO 3 - . Overall, our findings indicate that (i) the organic fertilizers increased denitrifying enzyme activity, increased denitrifying-bacteria gene copy numbers, but reduced N 2 O emissions, and (ii) nirS- and nosZ-type denitrifiers were more sensitive than nirK-type denitrifiers to the organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  9. Determinants and Outcomes of Employee Participation in a Strategic Community of Practice: A Mixed-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Joohee; Jacobs, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing investment in building, supporting, and managing communities of practice that meet the strategic business needs of the organization, the literature indicates that little is known about strategic communities of practice in organizational work settings. The purpose of this study was to investigate determinants and outcomes of…

  10. Microbial communities and their potential for degradation of dissolved organic carbon in cryoconite hole environments of Himalaya and Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Aritri; Antony, Runa; Samui, Gautami; Thamban, Meloth

    2018-03-01

    Cryoconite holes (cylindrical melt-holes on the glacier surface) are important hydrological and biological systems within glacial environments that support diverse microbial communities and biogeochemical processes. This study describes retrievable heterotrophic microbes in cryoconite hole water from three geographically distinct sites in Antarctica, and a Himalayan glacier, along with their potential to degrade organic compounds found in these environments. Microcosm experiments (22 days) show that 13-60% of the dissolved organic carbon in the water within cryoconite holes is bio-available to resident microbes. Biodegradation tests of organic compounds such as lactate, acetate, formate, propionate and oxalate that are present in cryoconite hole water show that microbes have good potential to metabolize the compounds tested. Substrate utilization tests on Biolog Ecoplate show that microbial communities in the Himalayan samples are able to oxidize a diverse array of organic substrates including carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amino acids, amines/amides and polymers, while Antarctic communities generally utilized complex polymers. In addition, as determined by the extracellular enzyme activities, majority of the microbes (82%, total of 355) isolated in this study (Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Basidiomycota) had ability to degrade a variety of compounds such as proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, cellulose and lignin that are documented to be present within cryoconite holes. Thus, microbial communities have good potential to metabolize organic compounds found in the cryoconite hole environment, thereby influencing the water chemistry in these holes. Moreover, microbes exported downstream during melting and flushing of cryoconite holes may participate in carbon cycling processes in recipient ecosystems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Methods for assessing the impact of avermectins on the decomposer community of sheep pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K L

    1993-06-01

    This paper outlines methods which can be used in the field assessment of potentially toxic chemicals such as the avermectins. The procedures focus on measuring the effects of the drug on decomposer organisms and the nutrient cycling process in pastures grazed by sheep. Measurements of decomposer activity are described along with methods for determining dry and organic matter loss and mineral loss from dung to the underlying soil. Sampling methods for both micro- and macro-invertebrates are discussed along with determination of the percentage infection of plant roots with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. An integrated sampling unit for assessing the ecotoxicity of ivermectin in pastures grazed by sheep is presented.

  12. EQPlanar: a maximum-likelihood method for accurate organ activity estimation from whole body planar projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, N; Frey, E C; He, B; Wahl, R L

    2011-01-01

    Optimizing targeted radionuclide therapy requires patient-specific estimation of organ doses. The organ doses are estimated from quantitative nuclear medicine imaging studies, many of which involve planar whole body scans. We have previously developed the quantitative planar (QPlanar) processing method and demonstrated its ability to provide more accurate activity estimates than conventional geometric-mean-based planar (CPlanar) processing methods using physical phantom and simulation studies. The QPlanar method uses the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, 3D organ volume of interests (VOIs), and rigorous models of physical image degrading factors to estimate organ activities. However, the QPlanar method requires alignment between the 3D organ VOIs and the 2D planar projections and assumes uniform activity distribution in each VOI. This makes application to patients challenging. As a result, in this paper we propose an extended QPlanar (EQPlanar) method that provides independent-organ rigid registration and includes multiple background regions. We have validated this method using both Monte Carlo simulation and patient data. In the simulation study, we evaluated the precision and accuracy of the method in comparison to the original QPlanar method. For the patient studies, we compared organ activity estimates at 24 h after injection with those from conventional geometric mean-based planar quantification using a 24 h post-injection quantitative SPECT reconstruction as the gold standard. We also compared the goodness of fit of the measured and estimated projections obtained from the EQPlanar method to those from the original method at four other time points where gold standard data were not available. In the simulation study, more accurate activity estimates were provided by the EQPlanar method for all the organs at all the time points compared with the QPlanar method. Based on the patient data, we concluded that the EQPlanar method provided a

  13. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure Estimation Methods for Use in Simulating the Dynamic of Atmospheric Organic Aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Komkoua Mbienda

    2013-01-01

    Lee and Kesler (LK, and Ambrose-Walton (AW methods for estimating vapor pressures ( are tested against experimental data for a set of volatile organic compounds (VOC. required to determine gas-particle partitioning of such organic compounds is used as a parameter for simulating the dynamic of atmospheric aerosols. Here, we use the structure-property relationships of VOC to estimate . The accuracy of each of the aforementioned methods is also assessed for each class of compounds (hydrocarbons, monofunctionalized, difunctionalized, and tri- and more functionalized volatile organic species. It is found that the best method for each VOC depends on its functionality.

  14. Incorporating Traditional Healing Into an Urban American Indian Health Organization: A Case Study of Community Member Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E.; Gone, Joseph P.

    2013-01-01

    Facing severe mental health disparities rooted in a complex history of cultural oppression, members of many urban American Indian (AI) communities are reaching out for indigenous traditional healing to augment their use of standard Western mental health services. Because detailed descriptions of approaches for making traditional healing available for urban AI communities do not exist in the literature, this community-based project convened 4 focus groups consisting of 26 members of a midwestern urban AI community to better understand traditional healing practices of interest and how they might be integrated into the mental health and substance abuse treatment services in an Urban Indian Health Organization (UIHO). Qualitative content analysis of focus group transcripts revealed that ceremonial participation, traditional education, culture keepers, and community cohesion were thought to be key components of a successful traditional healing program. Potential incorporation of these components into an urban environment, however, yielded 4 marked tensions: traditional healing protocols versus the realities of impoverished urban living, multitribal representation in traditional healing services versus relational consistency with the culture keepers who would provide them, enthusiasm for traditional healing versus uncertainty about who is trustworthy, and the integrity of traditional healing versus the appeal of alternative medicine. Although these tensions would likely arise in most urban AI clinical contexts, the way in which each is resolved will likely depend on tailored community needs, conditions, and mental health objectives. PMID:22731113

  15. Applying social science and public health methods to community-based pandemic planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danforth, Elizabeth J; Doying, Annette; Merceron, Georges; Kennedy, Laura

    2010-11-01

    Pandemic influenza is a unique threat to communities, affecting schools, businesses, health facilities and individuals in ways not seen in other emergency events. This paper aims to outline a local government project which utilised public health and social science research methods to facilitate the creation of an emergency response plan for pandemic influenza coincidental to the early stages of the 2009 H1N1 ('swine flu') outbreak. A multi-disciplinary team coordinated the creation of a pandemic influenza emergency response plan which utilised emergency planning structure and concepts and encompassed a diverse array of county entities including schools, businesses, community organisations, government agencies and healthcare facilities. Lessons learned from this project focus on the need for (1) maintaining relationships forged during the planning process, (2) targeted public health messaging, (3) continual evolution of emergency plans, (4) mutual understanding of emergency management concepts by business and community leaders, and (5) regional coordination with entities outside county boundaries.

  16. Organization and staffing barriers to parent involvement in teen pregnancy prevention programs: challenges for community partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Janet E; Montgomery, Susanne; Lee, Jerry W

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate parent involvement in a Southern California teen pregnancy prevention community partnership project. Researchers expected to find parent and family-related participation barriers similar to those described in the family support literature, which they could address with program modifications. Three phases of qualitative evaluation occurred: key informant interviews and focus groups with youth and parents; focus groups with service providers; and key informant interviews with service providers, their supervisor, and the collaborative coordinator. Theory-based, open-ended question guides directed the interviews and focus groups, and transcriptions were coded and themed using grounded theory methods. Parents and youth sought ways to improve connections and communication with each other, and parents welcomed parenting education from the project. Unexpectedly, the major obstacles to parent participation identified in this project were largely organizational, and included the assignment of parent involvement tasks to agencies lacking capacities to work effectively with parents, inadequate administrative support for staff, and the absence of an effective system for communicating concerns and resolving conflicts among collaborative partners. Youth serving agencies may not be the best partners to implement effective parent involvement or family support interventions. Collaborative leadership must identify appropriate partners, engender their cooperation, and support their staff to further the overall goals of the collaborative.

  17. Using growth-based methods to determine direct effects of salinity on soil microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Kristin; Rousk, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Soil salinization is a widespread agricultural problem and increasing salt concentrations in soils have been found to be correlated with decreased microbial activity. A central challenge in microbial ecology is to link environmental factors, such as salinity, to responses in the soil microbial community. That is, it can be difficult to distinguish direct from indirect effects. In order to determine direct salinity effects on the community we employed the ecotoxicological concept of Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance (PICT). This concept is built on the assumption that if salinity had an ecologically relevant effect on the community, it should have selected for more tolerant species and strains, resulting in an overall higher community tolerance to salt in communities from saline soils. Growth-based measures, such as the 3H-leucine incorporation into bacterial protein , provide sensitive tools to estimate community tolerance. They can also provide high temporal resolution in tracking changes in tolerance over time. In our study we used growth-based methods to investigate: i) at what levels of salt exposure and over which time scales salt tolerance can be induced in a non-saline soil, and (ii) if communities from high salinity sites have higher tolerance to salt exposure along natural salinity gradients. In the first part of the study, we exposed a non-saline soil to a range of salinities and monitored the development of community tolerance over time. We found that community tolerance to intermediate salinities up to around 30 mg NaCl per g soil can be induced at relatively short time scales of a few days, providing evidence that microbial communities can adapt rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. In the second part of the study we used soil samples originating from natural salinity gradients encompassing a wide range of salinity levels, with electrical conductivities ranging from 0.1 dS/m to >10 dS/m. We assessed community tolerance to salt by

  18. Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City. Gaming as a method for Urban Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekim Tan

    2014-08-01

    of collective intelligence, derived from the real lives of players to be redeployed in their real urban futures. Vitally, city gaming enables the negotiation of this future, as players with conflicting interests are given an opportunity to develop compatible, even shared, visions. By transforming serious issues into a playful and engaging (although no less serious experience, city gaming unlocks difficult conversations and helps to build communities in the long term. The urban design, policy and action plans generated collaboratively through gaming will increase social coherence and local agency, as well as cutting costs and time in urban development processes. This thesis proposes Generative City Gaming as an innovative urban planning and design method built on the tradition of serious gaming. Going beyond the educational scope of other serious games, the ultimate aim of city gaming is to become operational in urban processes – a goal in the process of making a reality since 2008, when Generative City Gaming was first applied to a real urban questions in the Netherlands, later expanding to Istanbul, Tirana, Brussels, and Cape Town. “Negotiation and Design for the Self-Organizing City” reports on six of the twelve city games played to date which were instrumental in the evolution of the method: Play Almere Haven tested whether a game based on self-organizing mechanisms could provide an urban order; Play Rotterdam questioned whether game-derived design could be implemented in urban renewal of a central Rotterdam neighborhood; Yap-Yaşa was played with real urban stakeholders for transforming Istanbul’s self-built neighbourhoods; Play Noord investigated a masterplan on hold could be fixed by unconventional stakeholders; Play Oosterwold jumped up a scale to test the rules of a flexible urban expansion plan for 4500 hectares; Play Van Gendthallen, was the first to enable stakeholders to make the leap from design to reality within the game process. The Generative

  19. Novel method reveals a narrow phylogenetic distribution of bacterial dispersers in environmental communities exposed to low hydration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, U. S.; Bak, F.; Aamand, J.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we developed a method that provides community-level surface dispersal profiles under controlled hydration conditions from environmental samples and enables us to isolate and uncover the diversity of the fastest bacterial dispersers. The method expands on the Porous Surface Model (PSM...... Pseudomonas putida and Flavobacterium johnsoniae strains from their non-motile mutants. Applying the method to soil and lake water bacterial communities showed that community-scale dispersal declined as conditions became drier. However, for both communities, dispersal was detected even under low hydration...... dispersers were substantially less diverse than the total communities. The dispersing fraction of the soil microbial community was dominated by Pseudomonas which increased in abundance at low hydration conditions, while the dispersing fraction of the lake community was dominated by Aeromonas and, under wet...

  20. Spectral methods for the detection of network community structure: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2010-01-01

    Spectral analysis has been successfully applied to the detection of community structure of networks, respectively being based on the adjacency matrix, the standard Laplacian matrix, the normalized Laplacian matrix, the modularity matrix, the correlation matrix and several other variants of these matrices. However, the comparison between these spectral methods is less reported. More importantly, it is still unclear which matrix is more appropriate for the detection of community structure. This paper answers the question by evaluating the effectiveness of these five matrices against benchmark networks with heterogeneous distributions of node degree and community size. Test results demonstrate that the normalized Laplacian matrix and the correlation matrix significantly outperform the other three matrices at identifying the community structure of networks. This indicates that it is crucial to take into account the heterogeneous distribution of node degree when using spectral analysis for the detection of community structure. In addition, to our surprise, the modularity matrix exhibits very similar performance to the adjacency matrix, which indicates that the modularity matrix does not gain benefits from using the configuration model as a reference network with the consideration of the node degree heterogeneity

  1. Online Contract Training: Applying Organization Theory to Reconcile Competing Missions within Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Rajashi; Githens, Rod P.

    2011-01-01

    Community colleges in the United States have become major providers of human resource development services, particularly through offering workforce development training to local employers. The addition of workforce development services to community colleges is a fairly recent phenomenon. Some see workforce development efforts as diluting community…

  2. Changes in microbial community characteristics and soil organic matter with nitrogen additions in two tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniela F. Cusack; Whendee L. Silver; Margaret S. Torn; Sarah D. Burton; Mary K. Firestone

    2011-01-01

    Microbial communities and their associated enzyme activities affect the amount and chemical quality of carbon (C) in soils. Increasing nitrogen (N) deposition, particularly in N-rich tropical forests, is likely to change the composition and behavior of microbial communities and feed back on ecosystem structure and function. This study presents a novel assessment of...

  3. The improved business valuation model for RFID company based on the community mining method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shugang; Yu, Zhaoxu

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the appetite for the investment and mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in RFID companies is growing rapidly. Although the huge number of papers have addressed the topic of business valuation models based on statistical methods or neural network methods, only a few are dedicated to constructing a general framework for business valuation that improves the performance with network graph (NG) and the corresponding community mining (CM) method. In this study, an NG based business valuation model is proposed, where real options approach (ROA) integrating CM method is designed to predict the company's net profit as well as estimate the company value. Three improvements are made in the proposed valuation model: Firstly, our model figures out the credibility of the node belonging to each community and clusters the network according to the evolutionary Bayesian method. Secondly, the improved bacterial foraging optimization algorithm (IBFOA) is adopted to calculate the optimized Bayesian posterior probability function. Finally, in IBFOA, bi-objective method is used to assess the accuracy of prediction, and these two objectives are combined into one objective function using a new Pareto boundary method. The proposed method returns lower forecasting error than 10 well-known forecasting models on 3 different time interval valuing tasks for the real-life simulation of RFID companies.

  4. Interspecific competition influences the organization of a diverse sessile insect community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Tatiana; de Carvalho Guimarães, Carla Daniele; Rodrigues Viana, João Paulo; Silva, Bárbara

    2013-10-01

    Interspecific competition has played a major role in determining the effects of species interactions in terrestrial communities and the perception of its role on shaping population dynamics and community structure has changed throughout the years. In this study, we evaluated the existence of interspecific competition in the herbivore community of the dioecious plant Baccharis pseudomyriocephala (Asteraceae), which holds a diverse community of gall-forming insects. Sixty plants were studied and gall richness and abundance among plants were evaluated. To address whether a plant already occupied by a gall species is preferred or avoided by another gall species, null models were used for all 60 plants combined and for male and female plants separately. Our results have shown that the 11 species of gall-formers found on B. pseudomyriocephala co-occur less than expected by chance alone, indicating that interspecific competition might be an important force structuring the insect community in this tropical host plant, regardless of plant gender.

  5. Organic photovoltaic device with interfacial layer and method of fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Tobin J.; Hains, Alexander W.

    2013-03-19

    An organic photovoltaic device and method of forming same. In one embodiment, the organic photovoltaic device has an anode, a cathode, an active layer disposed between the anode and the cathode; and an interfacial layer disposed between the anode and the active layer, the interfacial layer comprising 5,5'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]-2,2'-bithiophene (PABTSi.sub.2).

  6. Selective extraction methods for aluminium, iron and organic carbon from montane volcanic ash soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.; Tonneijck, F.H.; Verstraten, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Montane volcanic ash soils contain disproportionate amounts of soil organic carbon and thereby play an often underestimated role in the global carbon cycle. Given the central role of Al and Fe in stabilizing organic matter in volcanic ash soils, we assessed various extraction methods of Al, Fe, and

  7. [Sample preparation methods for chromatographic analysis of organic components in atmospheric particulate matter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Liang; Wu, Dapeng; Guan, Yafeng

    2014-09-01

    The determination of organic composition in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is of great importance in understanding how PM affects human health, environment, climate, and ecosystem. Organic components are also the scientific basis for emission source tracking, PM regulation and risk management. Therefore, the molecular characterization of the organic fraction of PM has become one of the priority research issues in the field of environmental analysis. Due to the extreme complexity of PM samples, chromatographic methods have been the chief selection. The common procedure for the analysis of organic components in PM includes several steps: sample collection on the fiber filters, sample preparation (transform the sample into a form suitable for chromatographic analysis), analysis by chromatographic methods. Among these steps, the sample preparation methods will largely determine the throughput and the data quality. Solvent extraction methods followed by sample pretreatment (e. g. pre-separation, derivatization, pre-concentration) have long been used for PM sample analysis, and thermal desorption methods have also mainly focused on the non-polar organic component analysis in PM. In this paper, the sample preparation methods prior to chromatographic analysis of organic components in PM are reviewed comprehensively, and the corresponding merits and limitations of each method are also briefly discussed.

  8. Nitrogen removal capacity and bacterial community dynamics of a Canon biofilter system at different organic matter concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, María J; Maza-Márquez, Paula; González-López, Jesús; Osorio, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    Three Canon bench-scale bioreactors with a volume of 2 L operating in parallel were configured as submerged biofilters. In the present study we investigated the effects of a high ammonium concentration (320 mgNH 4 + · L -1 ) and different concentrations of organic matter (0, 100 and 400 mgCOD·L -1 ) on the nitrogen removal capacity and the bacterial community structure. After 60 days, the Canon biofilters operated properly under concentrations of 0 and 100 mgCOD·L -1 of organic matter, with nitrogen removal efficiencies up to 85%. However, a higher concentration of organic matter (400 mgCOD·L -1 ) produced a partial inhibition of nitrogen removal (68.1% efficiency). The addition of higher concentrations of organic matter a modified the bacterial community structure in the Canon biofilter, increasing the proliferation of heterotrophic bacteria related to the genera of Thauera, Longilinea, Ornatilinea, Thermomarinilinea, unclassified Chlorobiales and Denitratisoma. However, heterotrophic bacteria co-exist with Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Scalindua. Thus, our study confirms the co-existence of different microbial activities (AOB, Anammox and denitrification) and the adaptation of a fixed-biofilm system to different concentrations of organic matter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Brandón, María; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested. To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles) and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates) of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit) that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus. Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community diversity and

  10. Species-specific effects of epigeic earthworms on microbial community structure during first stages of decomposition of organic matter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gómez-Brandón

    Full Text Available Epigeic earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with microorganisms. The earthworm species and the quality and/or substrate availability are expected to be major factors influencing the outcome of these interactions. Here we tested whether and to what extent the epigeic earthworms Eisenia andrei, Eisenia fetida and Perionyx excavatus, widely used in vermicomposting, are capable of altering the microbiological properties of fresh organic matter in the short-term. We also questioned if the earthworm-induced modifications to the microbial communities are dependent on the type of substrate ingested.To address these questions we determined the microbial community structure (phospholipid fatty acid profiles and microbial activity (basal respiration and microbial growth rates of three types of animal manure (cow, horse and rabbit that differed in microbial composition, after being processed by each species of earthworm for one month. No differences were found between earthworm-worked samples with regards to microbial community structure, irrespective of type of manure, which suggests the existence of a bottleneck effect of worm digestion on microbial populations of the original material consumed. Moreover, in mesocosms containing cow manure the presence of E. andrei resulted not only in a decrease in bacterial and fungal biomass, but also in a reduced bacterial growth rate and total microbial activity, while no such reduction was found with E. fetida and P. excavatus.Our results point to the species of earthworm with its associated gut microbiota as a strong determinant of the process shaping the structure of microbial communities in the short-term. This must nonetheless be weighed against the fact that further knowledge is necessary to evaluate whether the changes in the composition of microbiota in response to the earthworm species is accompanied by a change in the microbial community

  11. Microbial Community Composition of Polyhydroxyalkanoate-Accumulating Organisms in Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plants Operated in Fully Aerobic Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiki, Mamoru; Onuki, Motoharu; Satoh, Hiroyasu; Mino, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The removal of biodegradable organic matter is one of the most important objectives in biological wastewater treatments. Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-accumulating organisms (PHAAOs) significantly contribute to the removal of biodegradable organic matter; however, their microbial community composition is mostly unknown. In the present study, the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was investigated at 8 full-scale wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), operated in fully aerobic mode, by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and post-FISH Nile blue A (NBA) staining techniques. Our results demonstrated that 1) PHAAOs were in the range of 11–18% in the total number of cells, and 2) the microbial community composition of PHAAOs was similar at the bacterial domain/phylum/class/order level among the 8 full-scale WWTPs, and dominant PHAAOs were members of the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria. The microbial community composition of α- and β-proteobacterial PHAAOs was examined by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis and further by applying a set of newly designed oligonucleotide probes targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences of α- or β-proteobacterial PHAAOs. The results demonstrated that the microbial community composition of PHAAOs differed in the class Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, which possibly resulted in a different PHA accumulation capacity among the WWTPs (8.5–38.2 mg-C g-VSS−1 h−1). The present study extended the knowledge of the microbial diversity of PHAAOs in full-scale WWTPs operated in fully aerobic mode. PMID:23257912

  12. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-06-11

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  13. Method for the detection and isolation of traces of organic fluorine compounds in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, R H; Ross, J M; Benedict, H M

    1964-01-01

    A method for the detection and isolation of sub-microgram quantities of organic fluorine compounds from plant materials in the presence of much larger amounts of inorganic fluoride is presented. The procedure consists first of a rapid screening step for use with large numbers of vegetable samples and extracts and, second, of a chromatographic step to isolate and characterize any fluoro-organics found. These methods are developed in light of specific chemical characteristics of organic fluorine compounds as a general class. A modification of SOEP's quantitative sub-micro fluoride analytical method is presented as applicable to these isolation methods. Microgram quantities of organic fluorine compounds were found in the plant materials investigated but at a level too low for isolation and identification.

  14. Kyropoulos method for growth of nonlinear optical organic crystal ABP (4-aminobenzophenone) from the melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shoukui; Okano, Y.; Tsunekawa, S.; Fukuda, T.

    1993-03-01

    The Kyropoulus method was used to grow nonlinear optical organic crystals ABP (4-aminobenzophenone). The crystals were characterized by nonlinear optical measurements and had a large effect of frequency doubling.

  15. Metal-organic Materials (moms) For Co2 Adsorption And Methods Of Using Moms

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Nugent, Patrick; Burd, Stephen D.; Luebke, Ryan; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems that exhibit permanent porosity and using hydrophobic MOMs to separate components in a gas, methods of separating CO.sub.2 from a gas, and the like.

  16. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh

    2017-06-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  17. A surfactant-thermal method to prepare four new three-dimensional heterometal-organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Junkuo; He, Mi; Lee, Zhiyi; Cao, Wenfang; Xiong, Weiwei; Li, Yongxin; Ganguly, Rakesh; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Qichun

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report on a surfactant-thermal method to prepare four new 3-D crystalline heterometal-organic frameworks (HMOFs). The results indicate that our new strategy for growing crystalline materials in surfactant media has great potential

  18. Impact of acclimation methods on microbial communities and performance of anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactors

    KAUST Repository

    Labarge, Nicole

    2016-10-17

    An anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor (AFMBR) is a new and effective method for energy-efficient treatment of low strength wastewater, but the factors that affect performance are not well known. Different inocula and acclimation methods of the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the reactor were examined here to determine their impact on chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal and microbial community composition of domestic wastewater-fed AFMBRs. AFMBRs inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge (D) or domestic wastewater (W) and fed domestic wastewater, or inoculated with a microbiologically diverse anaerobic bog sediment and acclimated using methanol (M), all produced the same COD removal of 63 ± 12% using a diluted wastewater feed (100 ± 21 mg L−1 COD). However, an AFMBR with GAC inoculated with anaerobic digester sludge and acclimated using acetate (A) showed significantly increased wastewater COD removal to 84 ± 6%. In addition, feeding the AFMBR with the M-acclimated GAC with an acetate medium for one week subsequently increased COD removal to 70 ± 6%. Microbial communities enriched on the GAC included Geobacter, sulfur-reducing bacteria, Syntrophaceae, and Chlorobiaceae, with reactor A having the highest relative abundance of Geobacter. These results showed that acetate was the most useful substrate for acclimation of GAC communities, and GAC harbors unique communities relative to those in the AFMBR influent and recirculated solution.

  19. Estimating problem drinking among community pharmacy customers: what did pharmacists think of the method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Janie; Smart, Ros; McCormick, Ross

    2010-10-01

    Community pharmacists have successfully been involved in brief interventions in many areas of health, and also provide services to substance misusers. There has been recent interest in community pharmacists providing screening and brief interventions (SBI) to problem drinkers. The aim of this study was to develop a method for measuring prevalence of risky drinking among community pharmacy customers and to explore acceptability of this method to participating pharmacists. Forty-three pharmacies (from 80 randomly selected) in New Zealand agreed to participate in data collection. On a set, single, randomly allocated day during one week, pharmacies handed out questionnaires about alcohol consumption, and views on pharmacists providing SBI, to their customers. At the end of the data collection period semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out with participating pharmacists. Pharmacists were generally positive about the way the study was carried out, the support and materials they were provided with, and the ease of the data collection process. They reported few problems with customers and the majority of pharmacists would participate again. The method developed successfully collected data from customers and was acceptable to participating pharmacists. This method can be adapted to collecting data on prevalence of other behaviours or medical conditions and assessing customer views on services. © 2010 The Authors. IJPP © 2010 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.

  20. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  1. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ailin; Yao, Zhichao; Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Hongyu

    2014-01-01

    The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%). Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices) and community structure (PCA analysis) varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  2. Bacterial communities in the gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae based on 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Wang

    Full Text Available The citrus fruit fly Bactrocera minax is associated with diverse bacterial communities. We used a 454 pyrosequencing technology to study in depth the microbial communities associated with gut and reproductive organs of Bactrocera minax. Our dataset consisted of 100,749 reads with an average length of 400 bp. The saturated rarefaction curves and species richness indices indicate that the sampling was comprehensive. We found highly diverse bacterial communities, with individual sample containing approximately 361 microbial operational taxonomic units (OTUs. A total of 17 bacterial phyla were obtained from the flies. A phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that Proteobacteria was dominant in all samples (75%-95%. Actinobacteria and Firmicutes were also commonly found in the total clones. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, and Serratia were the major genera. However, bacterial diversity (Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices and community structure (PCA analysis varied across samples. Female ovary has the most diverse bacteria, followed by male testis, and the bacteria diversity of reproductive organs is richer than that of the gut. The observed variation can be caused by sex and tissue, possibly to meet the host's physiological demands.

  3. Increased precipitation accelerates soil organic matter turnover associated with microbial community composition in topsoil of alpine grassland on the eastern Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Conghai; Wang, Zongli; Si, Guicai; Lei, Tianzhu; Yuan, Yanli; Zhang, Gengxin

    2017-10-01

    Large quantities of carbon are stored in alpine grassland of the Tibetan Plateau, which is extremely sensitive to climate change. However, it remains unclear whether soil organic matter (SOM) in different layers responds to climate change analogously, and whether microbial communities play vital roles in SOM turnover of topsoil. In this study we measured and collected SOM turnover by the 14 C method in alpine grassland to test climatic effects on SOM turnover in soil profiles. Edaphic properties and microbial communities in the northwestern Qinghai Lake were investigated to explore microbial influence on SOM turnover. SOM turnover in surface soil (0-10 cm) was more sensitive to precipitation than that in subsurface layers (10-40 cm). Precipitation also imposed stronger effects on the composition of microbial communities in the surface layer than that in deeper soil. At the 5-10 cm depth, the SOM turnover rate was positively associated with the bacteria/fungi biomass ratio and the relative abundance of Acidobacteria, both of which are related to precipitation. Partial correlation analysis suggested that increased precipitation could accelerate the SOM turnover rate in topsoil by structuring soil microbial communities. Conversely, carbon stored in deep soil would be barely affected by climate change. Our results provide valuable insights into the dynamics and storage of SOM in alpine grasslands under future climate scenarios.

  4. Local cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia arising on the background of the reduced resistance of the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Malanicheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research objective: to study the features of the cytokine profile and cytological status in children with community-acquired pneumonia, proceeding against a background of reduced resistance of the organism for improving treatment methods. 53 children aged 3 to 7 years were examined. The main group consisted of 30 children with community-acquired pneumonia, which ran against a background of reduced resistance of the body. The comparison group consisted of 23 children with community-acquired pneumonia who had good resistance. Local immunity was studied on the basis of  valuation of cytokine status parameters (tumor necrotic factor-α, interleukin-8, and interferon-γ and cellular composition with an estimate of destructive changes in neutrophils in induced sputum. It was revealed that in the main group of children there is a depression of the neutrophils’ release into the bronchial secretion and a marked increase in the number of neutrophils with maximum signs of destruction of the nucleus and cytoplasm against the background of cytokine status imbalance, manifested in an increase in the content of the tumor necrotic factor-α and a decrease in interleukin-8 and interferon- γ. Inclusion in the traditional therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in children who have a reduced resistance, anti-inflammatory drug fenspiride, eliminates the imbalance of proinflammatory cytokines and increases the release of functionally complete neutrophils in the bronchial secret.

  5. Organic farming methods affect the concentration of phenolic compounds in sea buckthorn leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Heinäaho, Merja; Pusenius, Jyrki; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta

    2006-01-01

    - Berries, juice and other products of organically cultivated sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Eleagnaceae) are in great demand because of their beneficial health effects. The availability of berries is not sufficient especially for locally growing market. However no research has been done on the effects of farming methods on the quality of sea buckthorn tissues before. We established a field experiment to study the effects of organic farming methods on the concentra-tions of phenolic ...

  6. Estimation of deuterium content in organic compounds by mass spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Goomer, N.C.

    1979-01-01

    Many organic sompounds are finding increasing importance in heavy water enrichment programme. New methods based on quantitative chemical conversion have been developed and standardized in for estimating deuterium contents of the exchanging organic molecules by mass spectrometry. The methods have been selected in such a way that the deuterium contents of both exchangeable as well as total hydrogens in the molecule can be conveniently estimated. (auth.)

  7. Effect of microbial community structure on organic removal and biofouling in membrane adsorption bioreactor used in seawater pretreatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun; Cho, Kyungjin; Bae, Hyokwan; Keshvardoust, Pejhman; Rice, Scott A.; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Lee, Seockheon; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-01-01

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated on-site for 56 d with different powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosages of 0, 1.5 and 5.0 g/L to pretreat seawater for reverse osmosis desalination. It was hypothesized that PAC would stimulate adsorption and biological degradation of organic compounds. The microbial communities responsible for biofouling on microfiltration (MF) membranes and biological organic removal in MBR were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 454-pyrosequencing. The PAC addition improved assimilable organic carbon removal (53-59%), and resulted in reduced biofouling development on MF (> 50%) with only a marginal development in trans-membrane pressure. Interestingly, the bacterial community composition was significantly differentiated by the PAC addition. Cyanobacterium, Pelagibaca and Maricoccus were dominant in the PAC-free conditions, while Thiothrix and Sphingomonas were presumably responsible for the better reactor performances in PAC-added conditions. In contrast, the archaeal communities were consistent with predominance of Candidatus Nitrosopumilus. These data therefore show that the addition of PAC can improve MBR performance by developing different bacterial species, controlling AOC and associated biofouling on the membranes.

  8. Effect of microbial community structure on organic removal and biofouling in membrane adsorption bioreactor used in seawater pretreatment

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-03-03

    Membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated on-site for 56 d with different powdered activated carbon (PAC) dosages of 0, 1.5 and 5.0 g/L to pretreat seawater for reverse osmosis desalination. It was hypothesized that PAC would stimulate adsorption and biological degradation of organic compounds. The microbial communities responsible for biofouling on microfiltration (MF) membranes and biological organic removal in MBR were assessed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting and 454-pyrosequencing. The PAC addition improved assimilable organic carbon removal (53-59%), and resulted in reduced biofouling development on MF (> 50%) with only a marginal development in trans-membrane pressure. Interestingly, the bacterial community composition was significantly differentiated by the PAC addition. Cyanobacterium, Pelagibaca and Maricoccus were dominant in the PAC-free conditions, while Thiothrix and Sphingomonas were presumably responsible for the better reactor performances in PAC-added conditions. In contrast, the archaeal communities were consistent with predominance of Candidatus Nitrosopumilus. These data therefore show that the addition of PAC can improve MBR performance by developing different bacterial species, controlling AOC and associated biofouling on the membranes.

  9. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  10. Using Mixed Methods to Evaluate a Community Intervention for Sexual Assault Survivors: A Methodological Tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Rebecca; Patterson, Debra; Bybee, Deborah

    2011-03-01

    This article reviews current epistemological and design issues in the mixed methods literature and then examines the application of one specific design, a sequential explanatory mixed methods design, in an evaluation of a community-based intervention to improve postassault care for sexual assault survivors. Guided by a pragmatist epistemological framework, this study collected quantitative and qualitative data to understand how the implementation of a Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) program affected prosecution rates of adult sexual assault cases in a large midwestern community. Quantitative results indicated that the program was successful in affecting legal systems change and the qualitative data revealed the mediating mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness. Challenges of implementing this design are discussed, including epistemological and practical difficulties that developed from blending methodologies into a single project. © The Author(s) 2011.

  11. A Robust Analysis Method For Δ13c Signal Of Bulk Organic Matter In Speleothems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, F.; Blyth, A. J.; Smith, C.; Baker, A.

    2017-12-01

    Speleothems preserve organic matter that is derived from both the surface soil and cave environments. This organic matter can be used to understand paleoclimate and paleoenvironments. However, a stable and quick micro-analysis method to measure the δ13C signals from speleothem organic matter separate from the total δ13C remains absent. And speleothem organic geochemistry is still relatively unexplored compared to inorganic geochemistry. In this research, for the organic matter analysis, bulk homogeneous power samples were obtained from one large stalagmite. These were dissolved by phosphoric acid to produce the aqueous solution. Then, the processed solution was degassed through a rotational vacuum concentrator. A liquid chromatograph was coupled to IRMS to control the oxidization and the measurement of analytes. This method is demonstrated to be robust for the analysis of speleothem d13C organic matter analysis under different preparation and instrumental settings, with the low standard deviation ( 0.2‰), and low sample consumption (<25 mg). Considering the complexity of cave environments, this method will be useful in further investigations the δ13C of entrapped organic matter and environmental controls in other climatic and ecological contexts, including the determination of whether vegetation or soil microbial activity is the dominant control on speleothem d13C of organic matter.

  12. Enrichment of the hydrogen-producing microbial community from marine intertidal sludge by different pretreatment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongyan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, Guangce [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Nanhai Road, Shinan District, Qingdao 266071, Shandong (China); College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhu, Daling; Pan, Guanghua [College of Marine Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Tianjin 300457 (China)

    2009-12-15

    To determine the effects of pretreatment on hydrogen production and the hydrogen-producing microbial community, we treated the sludge from the intertidal zone of a bathing beach in Tianjin with four different pretreatment methods, including acid treatment, heat-shock, base treatment as well as freezing and thawing. The results showed that acid pretreatment significantly promoted the hydrogen production by sludge and provided the highest efficiency of hydrogen production among the four methods. The efficiency of the hydrogen production of the acid-pretreated sludge was 0.86 {+-} 0.07 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose (mean {+-} S.E.), whereas that of the sludge treated with heat-shock, freezing and thawing, base method and control was 0.41 {+-} 0.03 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.17 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, 0.11 {+-} 0.01 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose and 0.20 {+-} 0.04 mol H{sub 2}/mol glucose, respectively. The result of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) showed that pretreatment methods altered the composition of the microbial community that accounts for hydrogen production. Acid and heat pretreatments were favorable to enrich the dominant hydrogen-producing bacterium, i.e. Clostridium sp., Enterococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. However, besides hydrogen-producing bacteria, much non-hydrogen-producing Lactobacillus sp. was also found in the sludge pretreated with base, freezing and thawing methods. Therefore, based on our results, we concluded that, among the four pretreatment methods using acid, heat-shock, base or freezing and thawing, acid pretreatment was the most effective method for promoting hydrogen production of microbial community. (author)

  13. An indicator for effects of organic toxicants on lotic invertebrate communities: Independence of confounding environmental factors over an extensive river continuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beketov, Mikhail A.; Liess, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Distinguishing between effects of natural and anthropogenic environmental factors on ecosystems is a fundamental problem in environmental science. In river systems the longitudinal gradient of environmental factors is one of the most relevant sources of dissimilarity between communities that could be confounded with anthropogenic disturbances. To test the hypothesis that in macroinvertebrate communities the distribution of species' sensitivity to organic toxicants is independent of natural longitudinal factors, but depends on contamination with organic toxicants, we analysed the relationship between community sensitivity SPEAR organic (average community sensitivity to organic toxicants) and natural and anthropogenic environmental factors in a large-scale river system, from alpine streams to a lowland river. The results show that SPEAR organic is largely independent of natural longitudinal factors, but strongly dependent on contamination with organic toxicants (petrochemicals and synthetic surfactants). Usage of SPEAR organic as a stressor-specific longitude-independent measure will facilitate detection of community disturbance by organic toxicants. - Indicator for organic toxicants at community level can be independent of natural environmental factors

  14. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Tsapin, A.; Kulleck, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we describe an analytical method for determining the presence of organic compounds in rocks, limestone, and other composite materials. Our preliminary laboratory experiments on different rocks/limestone show that the organic component in mineralogical matrices is a minor phase on order of hundreds of ppm and can be better detected using high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC). The matrix, which is the major phase, plays an important role in embedding and protecting the organic molecules from the harsh Martian environment. Some rocks bear significant amounts of amino acids therefore, it is possible to identify these phases using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) by crystallizing the organic. The method of detection/analysis of organics, in particular amino acids, that have been associated with life will be shown in the next section.

  15. Factors Associated with Falls in Community-Dwelling Older People with Focus on Participation in Sport Organizations: The Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Promoting participation in sport organizations may be a population strategy for preventing falls in older people. In this study, we examined whether participation in sport organizations is associated with fewer falls in older people even after adjusting for multiple individual and environmental factors. Methods. We used the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study data of 90,610 people (31 municipalities who were not eligible for public long-term care. Logistic regression analysis was performed, with multiple falls over the past year as the dependent variable and participation in a sport organization as the independent variable, controlling for 13 factors. These included individual factors related to falls, such as age and sex, and environmental factors such as population density of the habitable area. Results. A total of 6,391 subjects (7.1% had a history of multiple falls. Despite controlling for 13 variables, those who participated in a sport organization at least once a week were approximately ≥20% less likely to fall than those who did not participate at all (once a week; odds ratio = 0.82 and 95% confidence interval = 0.72–0.95. Conclusion. Participation in a sport organization at least once per week might help prevent falls in the community-dwelling older people.

  16. Facilitating Wellness in Urban-Dwelling, Low-Income Older Adults Through Community Mobility: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulry, Claire M; Papetti, Christina; De Martinis, Julian; Ravinsky, Mark

    Community participation is integral to wellness. This study examined the outcomes of Let's Go, a program designed to facilitate community participation of urban-dwelling, low-income older adults. Fifty-two older adults participated in a mixed-methods, single-group pretest-posttest study. The Impact on Participation and Autonomy Questionnaire, participant surveys, and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate self-reported participation in community-based occupations, confidence, isolation, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships. Significant improvement was found in participation, confidence, frequency of community trips, autonomy outdoors, and satisfaction with social life and relationships at 4 wk and 6 mo. Qualitative themes were decreased isolation, importance of peer and community support, increased knowledge of mobility options, and a shift from fear to confidence. Community mobility programming can facilitate the participation of marginalized older adults in community-based occupations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  17. Inpatient Obstetric Care at Irwin Army Community Hospital: A Study to Determine the Most Efficient Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergeron, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    This study attempts to compare, analyze, and recommend the most efficient model with which to deliver inpatient obstetrics and gynecological services to the served population of Irwin Army Community Hospital...

  18. Impact of clay mineral, wood sawdust or root organic matter on the bacterial and fungal community structures in two aged PAH-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cébron, Aurélie; Beguiristain, Thierry; Bongoua-Devisme, Jeanne; Denonfoux, Jérémie; Faure, Pierre; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Ouvrard, Stéphanie; Parisot, Nicolas; Peyret, Pierre; Leyval, Corinne

    2015-09-01

    The high organic pollutant concentration of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated wasteland soils is highly recalcitrant to biodegradation due to its very low bioavailability. In such soils, the microbial community is well adapted to the pollution, but the microbial activity is limited by nutrient availability. Management strategies could be applied to modify the soil microbial functioning as well as the PAH contamination through various amendment types. The impact of amendment with clay minerals (montmorillonite), wood sawdust and organic matter plant roots on microbial community structure was investigated on two aged PAH-contaminated soils both in laboratory and 1-year on-site pot experiments. Total PAH content (sum of 16 PAHs of the US-EPA list) and polar polycyclic aromatic compounds (pPAC) were monitored as well as the available PAH fraction using the Tenax method. The bacterial and fungal community structures were monitored using fingerprinting thermal gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) method. The abundance of bacteria (16S rRNA genes), fungi (18S rRNA genes) and PAH degraders (PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase and catechol dioxygenase genes) was followed through qPCR assays. Although the treatments did not modify the total and available PAH content, the microbial community density, structure and the PAH degradation potential changed when fresh organic matter was provided as sawdust and under rhizosphere influence, while the clay mineral only increased the percentage of catechol-1,2-dioxygenase genes. The abundance of bacteria and fungi and the percentage of fungi relative to bacteria were enhanced in soil samples supplemented with wood sawdust and in the plant rhizospheric soils. Two distinct fungal populations developed in the two soils supplemented with sawdust, i.e. fungi related to Chaetomium and Neurospora genera and Brachyconidiellopsis and Pseudallescheria genera, in H and NM soils respectively. Wood sawdust amendment favoured the

  19. Spatial organization and drivers of the virtual water trade: a community-structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Odorico, Paolo; Carr, Joel; Laio, Francesco; Ridolfi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The trade of agricultural commodities can be associated with a virtual transfer of the local freshwater resources used for the production of these goods. Thus, trade of food products virtually transfers large amounts of water from areas of food production to far consumption regions, a process termed the ‘globalization of water’. We consider the (time-varying) community structure of the virtual water network for the years 1986–2008. The communities are groups of countries with dense internal connections, while the connections are sparser among different communities. Between 1986 and 2008, the ratio between virtual water flows within communities and the total global trade of virtual water has continuously increased, indicating the existence of well defined clusters of virtual water transfers. In some cases (e.g. Central and North America and Europe in recent years) the virtual water communities correspond to geographically coherent regions, suggesting the occurrence of an ongoing process of regionalization of water resources. However, most communities also include countries located on different ‘sides’ of the world. As such, geographic proximity only partly explains the community structure of virtual water trade. Similarly, the global distribution of people and wealth, whose effect on the virtual water trade is expressed through simple ‘gravity models’, is unable to explain the strength of virtual water communities observed in the past few decades. A gravity model based on the availability of and demand for virtual water in different countries has higher explanatory power, but the drivers of the virtual water fluxes are yet to be adequately identified. (letter)

  20. Assessing Health Promotion Interventions: Limitations of Traditional Research Methods in Community-Based Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Anne; Schneider, Robert; DeNomie, Melissa; Kusch, Jennifer; Welch, Whitney; Sosa, Mirtha; Yeldell, Sally; Maida, Tatiana; Wineberg, Jessica; Holt, Keith; Bernstein, Rebecca

    2017-09-01

    Most low-income Americans fail to meet physical activity recommendations. Inactivity and poor diet contribute to obesity, a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases. Health promotion activities have the potential to improve health outcomes for low-income populations. Measuring the effectiveness of these activities, however, can be challenging in community settings. A "Biking for Health" study tested the impact of a bicycling intervention on overweight or obese low-income Latino and African American adults to reduce barriers to cycling and increase physical activity and fitness. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in summer 2015. A 12-week bicycling intervention was implemented at two sites with low-income, overweight, or obese Latino and African American adults. We found that randomized controlled trial methodology was suboptimal for use in this small pilot study and that it negatively affected participation. More discussion is needed about the effectiveness of using traditional research methods in community settings to assess the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. Modifications or alternative methods may yield better results. The aim of this article is to discuss the effectiveness and feasibility of using traditional research methods to assess health promotion interventions in community-based settings.

  1. Contraceptive method choice among women in slum and non-slum communities in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochako, Rhoune; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Okal, Jerry; Askew, Ian; Temmerman, Marleen

    2016-07-12

    Understanding women's contraceptive method choices is key to enhancing family planning services provision and programming. Currently however, very little research has addressed inter and intra-regional disparities in women's contraceptive method choice. Using data from slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi, Kenya, the current study investigates the prevalence of and factors associated with contraceptive method choice among women. Data were from a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among a random sample of 1,873 women (aged 15-49 years) in two non-slum and two slum settlement areas in Nairobi, Kenya. The study locations were purposively sampled by virtue of being part of the Nairobi Urban Health and Demographic Surveillance System. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the association between the outcome variable, contraceptive method choice, and explanatory variables. The prevalence of contraceptive method choice was relatively similar across slum and non-slum settlements. 34.3 % of women in slum communities and 28.1 % of women in non-slum communities reported using short-term methods. Slightly more women living in the non-slum settlements reported use of long-term methods, 9.2 %, compared to 3.6 % in slum communities. Older women were less likely to use short-term methods than their younger counterparts but more likely to use long-term methods. Currently married women were more likely than never married women to use short-term and long-term methods. Compared to those with no children, women with three or more children were more likely to report using long term methods. Women working outside the home or those in formal employment also used modern methods of contraception more than those in self-employment or unemployed. Use of short-term and long-term methods is generally low among women living in slum and non-slum contexts in Nairobi. Investments in increasing women's access to various contraceptive options are urgently

  2. [Methods of coping with musculoskeletal pain among community-dwelling elderly individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzai, Saori; Sato, Miyuki; Ikeda, Shinpei; Shiba, Yoshitaka; Yoshida, Hiroto; Haga, Hiroshi; Ueki, Shouzoh

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Musculoskeletal pain impairs vital function and results in a requirement for long-term care. According to studies in other countries, a program that aims at reducing pain through instructions for pain-coping should be implemented. In Japan, a study on pain-coping has recently been initiated; however, the methods of coping with pain that are implemented by community-dwelling elderly individuals have not been evaluated. This study aimed to clarify the methods currently used for coping with musculoskeletal pain and to examine their association with the state of pain among community-dwelling elderly individuals.Methods A survey was performed by sending questionnaires by mail to 2,281 community-dwelling elderly individuals. Responses were obtained from 1,835 people. The survey items consisted of questions about basic attributes and pain. A total of 16 questionnaire items regarding the methods of coping with pain were used for measuring pain-coping that community-dwelling elderly individuals use. The methods of coping with pain were classified into various types by factor analysis. The scores were calculated by type and their association with the state of pain was analyzed using one-way analysis of variance.Results As a result of the factor analysis, methods of coping with pain were classified into five categories: "treatment in hospitals," "daily active coping," "restriction of daily behavior," "self-therapy," and "rest." From one-way analysis of variance for the site of pain, there was a significant difference between the "treatment in hospitals" and "restriction of daily behavior" categories. Among both scores, a higher score was observed in subjects with pain in both the lower back and the knee, compared to those with only pain in the lower back or the knee. Among the number of the sites, there was a significant difference between the "treatment in hospitals," "restriction of daily behavior," and "self-therapy" categories; subjects exhibiting two or

  3. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghanim Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

  4. Understanding the experience of place: expanding methods to conceptualize and measure community integration of persons with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Kloos, Bret; Wright, Patricia A

    2009-06-01

    Community integration research explores community contexts and factors that encourage or hinder individuals with serious mental illness (SMI) from actively participating in community life. This research agenda can be advanced by using mixed-methods that better document the relationships between contextual factors and individual experience. Two such methods were applied to a mixed-methods study of 40 adults with SMI living in independent housing in the Southeastern United States. Their contextualized experiences of community integration were measured by applying innovative participatory mapping and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping techniques. Use of these methods in conjunction with one another facilitated the creation of activity spaces, which can measure geographic accessibility and help to represent an individual's experience of place and degree of mobility. The utility of these newly applied methods for better understanding community integration for persons with SMI is explored and implications for using these measures in research and practice are discussed.

  5. Though This be Madness: Heritage Methods for Working in Culturally Diverse Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Petersen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the NSW Migration Heritage Centre was conceived by the NSW Government as a virtual heritage centre to help ageing former migrants tell their stories. Migration museums and other organisations interested in heritage are grappling with how to identify, record, preserve and interpret the heritage legacy of migration and settlement in their communities. The distinctions between museum and environmental heritage practices have diminished during the past decade in Australia. The Centre’s methodologies are based on historic method and thematic and typology studies, better known for their application to heritage place identification and archaeological artefact studies than for their more recent use by some Australian museum curators for the survey and documentation of collections and community participation in heritage. The ‘virtual museum’ has enabled the Centre to break away from the centralised museum concept, with the associated trappings of venue management, to pioneer a decentralised and dispersed museum model that works almost entirely in collaborative community history research partnerships to document culturally significant collections, and associated migration memories, held by communities and private individuals. The work is centralised on the Centre’s website as a virtual collection of objects, places and associated memories. They are presented in online exhibitions for student research and as a destination for the mass audiences of the worldwide web.

  6. Application of Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Identifying Relationships Between Microbial Community Structure and Groundwater Geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schryver, Jack C.; Brandt, Craig C.; Pfiffner, Susan M.; Palumbo, A V.; Peacock, Aaron D.; White, David C.; McKinley, James P.; Long, Philip E.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between groundwater geochemistry and microbial community structure can be complex and difficult to assess. We applied nonlinear and generalized linear data analysis methods to relate microbial biomarkers (phospholipids fatty acids, PLFA) to groundwater geochemical characteristics at the Shiprock uranium mill tailings disposal site that is primarily contaminated by uranium, sulfate, and nitrate. First, predictive models were constructed using feedforward artificial neural networks (NN) to predict PLFA classes from geochemistry. To reduce the danger of overfitting, parsimonious NN architectures were selected based on pruning of hidden nodes and elimination of redundant predictor (geochemical) variables. The resulting NN models greatly outperformed the generalized linear models. Sensitivity analysis indicated that tritium, which was indicative of riverine influences, and uranium were important in predicting the distributions of the PLFA classes. In contrast, nitrate concentration and inorganic carbon were least important, and total ionic strength was of intermediate importance. Second, nonlinear principal components (NPC) were extracted from the PLFA data using a variant of the feedforward NN. The NPC grouped the samples according to similar geochemistry. PLFA indicators of Gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotes were associated with the groups of wells with lower levels of contamination. The more contaminated samples contained microbial communities that were predominated by terminally branched saturates and branched monounsaturates that are indicative of metal reducers, actinomycetes, and Gram-positive bacteria. These results indicate that the microbial community at the site is coupled to the geochemistry and knowledge of the geochemistry allows prediction of the community composition

  7. Organizational cultural competence in community health and social service organizations: how to conduct a self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olavarria, Marcela; Beaulac, Julie; Bélanger, Alexandre; Young, Marta; Aubry, Tim

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to address the significant socio-cultural changes in the population demographics of the United States (US) and Canada, organizations are increasingly seeking ways of improving their level of cultural competence. Evaluating organizational cultural competence is essential to address the needs of ethnic and cultural minorities. Yet, research related to organizational cultural competence is relatively new. The purpose of this paper is to review the extant literature with a specific focus on: (1) identifying the key standards that define culturally competent community health and social service organizations; and (2) outlining the core elements for evaluating cultural competence in a health and social service organization. Furthermore, issues related to choosing self-assessment tools and conducting an evaluation will be explored.

  8. Exploring the multiplicity of soil-human interactions: organic carbon content, agro-forest landscapes and the Italian local communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Luca; Barone, Pier Matteo; Ferrara, Carlotta

    2015-05-01

    Topsoil organic carbon (TOC) and soil organic carbon (SOC) are fundamental in the carbon cycle influencing soil functions and attributes. Many factors have effects on soil carbon content such as climate, parent material, land topography and the human action including agriculture, which sometimes caused a severe loss in soil carbon content. This has resulted in a significant differentiation in TOC or SOC at the continental scale due to the different territorial and socioeconomic conditions. The present study proposes an exploratory data analysis assessing the relationship between the spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and selected socioeconomic attributes at the local scale in Italy with the aim to provide differentiated responses for a more sustainable use of land. A strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) analysis contributed to understand the effectiveness of local communities responses for an adequate comprehension of the role of soil as carbon sink.

  9. Integration of Local Ecological Knowledge and Conventional Science: a Study of Seven Community-Based Forestry Organizations in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Ballard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural resource management decisions can be based on incomplete knowledge when they lack scientific research, monitoring, and assessment and/or simultaneously fail to draw on local ecological knowledge. Many community-based forestry organizations in the United States attempt to address these knowledge gaps with an integrated ecological stewardship approach that balances ecological, social, and economic goals. This paper examines the use and integration of local knowledge and conventional science in ecological stewardship and monitoring by seven community-based forestry demonstration projects. Through document reviews and interviews with both participants and partners of all of these community-based organizations, we found that all the community-based forestry groups incorporated local ecological knowledge into many aspects of their management or monitoring activities, such as collaboratively designing monitoring programs with local ranchers, forest workers, and residents; involving local people in collecting data and interpreting results; and documenting the local ecological knowledge of private forest landowners, long-time residents, and harvesters of nontimber forest products. We found that all the groups also used conventional science to design or conduct ecological assessments, monitoring, or research. We also found evidence, in the form of changes in attitudes on the part of local people and conventional scientists and jointly produced reports, that the two types of knowledge were integrated by all groups. These findings imply that community-based forestry groups are redistributing the power of conventional science through the use of diverse knowledge sources. Still, several obstacles prevented some local, traditionally under-represented groups from being significantly involved in monitoring and management decisions, and their knowledge has not yet been consistently incorporated.

  10. Estimation of austral summer net community production in the Amundsen Sea: Self-organizing map analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K.; Hahm, D.; Lee, D. G.; Rhee, T. S.; Kim, H. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Amundsen Sea, Antarctica, has been known for one of the most susceptible region to the current climate change such as sea ice melting and sea surface temperature change. In the Southern Ocean, a predominant amount of primary production is occurring in the continental shelf region. Phytoplankton blooms take place during the austral summer due to the limited sunlit and sea ice cover. Thus, quantifying the variation of summer season net community production (NCP) in the Amundsen Sea is essential to analyze the influence of climate change to the variation of biogeochemical cycle in the Southern Ocean. During the past three years of 2011, 2012 and 2014 in austral summer, we have conducted underway observations of ΔO2/Ar and derived NCP of the Amundsen Sea. Despite the importance of NCP for understanding biological carbon cycle of the ocean, the observations are rather limited to see the spatio-temporal variation in the Amundsen Sea. Therefore, we applied self-organizing map (SOM) analysis to expand our observed data sets and estimate the NCP during the summer season. SOM analysis, a type of artificial neural network, has been proved to be a useful method for extracting and classifying features in geoscience. In oceanography, SOM has applied for the analysis of various properties of the seawater such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, pCO2, and NCP. Especially it is useful to expand a spatial coverage of direct measurements or to estimate properties whose satellite observations are technically or spatially limited. In this study, we estimate summer season NCP and find a variables set which optimally delineates the NCP variation in the Amundsen Sea as well. Moreover, we attempt to analyze the interannual variation of the Amundsen Sea NCP by taking climatological factors into account for the SOM analysis.

  11. Organic acid production from starchy waste by rumen derived microbial communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ayudthaya, S. P. N.; Van De Weijer, Antonius H. P.; Van Gelder, Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons Johannes Maria; De Vos, Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2017-01-01

    Microbiology Centennial Symposium 2017 - Exploring Microbes for the Quality of Life (Book of Abstracts) Converting organic waste to energy carriers and valuable products such as organic acids (OA) using microbial fermentation is one of the sustainable options of renewable energy. Substrate and inoculum are important factors in optimizing the fermentation. In this study, we investigated organic acid production and microbial composition shift during the fermentation of starchy (p...

  12. 24 CFR 92.208 - Eligible community housing development organization (CHDO) operating expense and capacity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... development organization. Such costs include salaries, wages, and other employee compensation and benefits; employee education, training, and travel; rent; utilities; communication costs; taxes; insurance; equipment...

  13. Evaluation of the method for determining organic fertilizer efficiency by indirect labelling of 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Delin; Zhu Zhaomin; Wu Min

    1995-01-01

    By using the A-value method, direct method and differential method respectively, the absorption and utilization of organic fertilizer-N by rice were studied. The results are as follows. The utilization efficiency of organic fertilizer-N was 25.48%∼50.5% by the differential method, 19.70%∼27.17% by the A-value method, and 18.49%∼24.80% by the direct method. The data by the differential method was higher than those by the other two methods, and there was no significant difference between the direct method and the A-value method. Meanwhile, when the ratio of inorganic fertilizer-N to organic fertilizer-N was 1:0.48, the results from above two methods were similar. The nitrogen efficiency of 1,5 x 10 4 kg fresh Astragalus sinicus L. was equivalent to 53.43 kg urea for early rice, and 39.15 kg urea for late rice

  14. UNIVERSAL METHODS OF INFORMATIZATION OF MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS FOR EFFECTIVE DEVELOPMENTOF THE EDUCATIONAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н А Заславская

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with issues related to the development of the external educational institution, which is due to the improvement of quality of its interaction with the target audience. Improving the quality of interaction between educational organization with the target audience is ensured through the use of different types of marketing communications. In view of the development of modern information and communications technology area of information marketing communications is a priority. In addition to the classical definition of marketing communications, we introduce the definition of informatization of educational marketing communications organizations.To form an individual package the most effective for a particular educational organization of marketing communications is necessary not only to eliminate the differences existing strategic objectives of the educational organization and identify the desired long-term effect of the use of marketing tools. We consider a set of universal methods of marketing communication of information, which provide a steady positive development of the educational organization. Among these methods are: infographic summary of the educational organization, the cube -transformer like inforgraphic resume educational organization with a QR-code cards, parents’ meetings in the form of webinars, click “Share” on the website of an educational organization, registration of educational institution official group in the social network. Increasing the efficiency of interaction with the target audience improves its loyalty to a particular educational institution.

  15. Co-deposition methods for the fabrication of organic optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Chao

    2016-09-06

    A method for fabricating an OLED by preparing phosphorescent metal complexes in situ is provided. In particular, the method simultaneously synthesizes and deposits copper (I) complexes in an organic light emitting device. Devices comprising such complexes may provide improved photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties.

  16. Methods of organization of SCORM-compliant teaching materials in electronic format

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Marciniak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of organizing electronic teaching materials based on their role in the teaching process rather than their technical structure. Our method allows SCORM materials stored as e-learning courses („electronic books” to be subdivided and structured so that content can be used in multiple contexts. As a standard, SCORM defines rules for organizing content, but not how to divide and structure it. Our method uses UCTS nomenclature to divide content, define relationships between content entities, and aggregate those entities into courses. This allows content to be shared in different implementations of SCORM while guaranteeing that usability and consistency are maintained.

  17. Job stress among community health workers: a multi-method study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Zafar

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In low income countries, the task of providing primary health care is often the responsibility of community health workers. In Pakistan, community workers called Lady Health Workers (LHW deliver basic health care at the doorstep in the rural areas and urban slums. Evaluations show that it is a successful programme but point out inconsistencies in the quality of service provided. In order achieve this, it would be important to obtain the workers' viewpoint on their job-description, the problems they face and the levels of stress they encounter. Methods We conducted a multi-method study to investigate the aforementioned issues. All LHWs from one typical rural sub-district in Rawalpindi were surveyed. Focus group discussions with a sub-set of these workers were also conducted. Results About a quarter of the LHWs were found to have significant occupational stress. Factors associated with stress included having low socio-economic status and having to travel long distances for work. Inconsistent medical supplies, inadequate stipends, lack of career structure and not being equipped to communicate effectively with families were the main factors for job dissatisfaction among these workers. Recommendations Improvement in remuneration, better administration of supplies and a structured career path should be ensured for better performance of community health workers. In addition, communication skills learning should be an essential part of their training programme.

  18. Local Stakeholder Perception on Community Participation in Marine Protected Area Management: A Q-Method Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megat Jamual Fawaeed, P. S.; Daim, M. S.

    2018-02-01

    Local stakeholder involvement in Marine Protected Area (MPA) management can bring to a successful MPA. Generally, participatory research in marine protected area management is exploring the relationship between marine protected area management approach adopted by the management agencies and the level of participation of local stakeholder whom reside within the marine protected areas. However, the scenario of local community participation in MPA management in Malaysia seems discouraging and does not align with the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020. In order to achieve the International Aichi Biodiversity Target 2020, this paper attempts to explore the methodology on participatory research towards the local stakeholder of Pulau Perhentian Marine Park (PPMP), Terengganu, Malaysia. A Q-methodology is used to investigate the perspective of local stakeholder who represents different stances on the issues, by having participants rank and sort a series of statements by comply quantitative and qualitative method in collecting the data. A structured questionnaire will be employed across this study by means of face-to-face interview. In total, 210 respondents from Kampung Pasir Hantu are randomly selected. Meanwhile, a workshop with the agency (Department of Marine Park) had been held to discuss about the issues faces on behalf of management that manage the PPMP. Using the Q-method, researcher acknowledged wise viewpoints, reflecting how different stakeholders’ perception and opinion about community participation with highlights the current level of community participation in MPA. Thus, this paper describes the phases involved in this study, methodology and analysis used in making a conclusion .

  19. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck O P Stefani

    Full Text Available Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  20. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods Capture Different Microbial Community Fractions in Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Franck O P; Bell, Terrence H; Marchand, Charlotte; de la Providencia, Ivan E; El Yassimi, Abdel; St-Arnaud, Marc; Hijri, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Bioremediation is a cost-effective and sustainable approach for treating polluted soils, but our ability to improve on current bioremediation strategies depends on our ability to isolate microorganisms from these soils. Although culturing is widely used in bioremediation research and applications, it is unknown whether the composition of cultured isolates closely mirrors the indigenous microbial community from contaminated soils. To assess this, we paired culture-independent (454-pyrosequencing of total soil DNA) with culture-dependent (isolation using seven different growth media) techniques to analyse the bacterial and fungal communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. Although bacterial and fungal rarefaction curves were saturated for both methods, only 2.4% and 8.2% of the bacterial and fungal OTUs, respectively, were shared between datasets. Isolated taxa increased the total recovered species richness by only 2% for bacteria and 5% for fungi. Interestingly, none of the bacteria that we isolated were representative of the major bacterial OTUs recovered by 454-pyrosequencing. Isolation of fungi was moderately more effective at capturing the dominant OTUs observed by culture-independent analysis, as 3 of 31 cultured fungal strains ranked among the 20 most abundant fungal OTUs in the 454-pyrosequencing dataset. This study is one of the most comprehensive comparisons of microbial communities from hydrocarbon-contaminated soils using both isolation and high-throughput sequencing methods.

  1. Biomonitoring of coastal pollution status using protozoan communities with a modified PFU method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuidong; Choi, Joong Ki; Yang, Eun Jin; Lee, Kyu Chul; Lei, Yanli

    2002-09-01

    Structural and functional parameters of protozoan communities were assessed as indicators of water quality in Korean coastal waters in the summer of 2000. A modified polyurethane foam unit (PFU) method, named the bottled PFU (BPFU) system, was used in order to carry out the bioassessment. Both parameters suggested that biomonitoring using the BPFU system was more effective than the conventional PFU method in offshore areas. The species number collected by the BPFU system generally decreased as pollution intensity increased at three main stations and was greater than that collected using the PFU method (paired t-test, t = 4.83, p PFU method (paired t-test, t = 5.37, p < 0.0001). Furthermore, the functional parameters, i.e. S(eq),G and T90%, correlated with the pollution status and could thus clearly discriminate the different classes of water quality.

  2. A method for generating large datasets of organ geometries for radiotherapy treatment planning studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Nan; Cerviño, Laura; Segars, Paul; Lewis, John; Shan, Jinlu; Jiang, Steve; Zheng, Xiaolin; Wang, Ge

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly increasing application of adaptive radiotherapy, large datasets of organ geometries based on the patient’s anatomy are desired to support clinical application or research work, such as image segmentation, re-planning, and organ deformation analysis. Sometimes only limited datasets are available in clinical practice. In this study, we propose a new method to generate large datasets of organ geometries to be utilized in adaptive radiotherapy. Given a training dataset of organ shapes derived from daily cone-beam CT, we align them into a common coordinate frame and select one of the training surfaces as reference surface. A statistical shape model of organs was constructed, based on the establishment of point correspondence between surfaces and non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) representation. A principal component analysis is performed on the sampled surface points to capture the major variation modes of each organ. A set of principal components and their respective coefficients, which represent organ surface deformation, were obtained, and a statistical analysis of the coefficients was performed. New sets of statistically equivalent coefficients can be constructed and assigned to the principal components, resulting in a larger geometry dataset for the patient’s organs. These generated organ geometries are realistic and statistically representative

  3. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A + PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems. PMID:19707620

  4. Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Claudia; Conde, Daniel; Pernthaler, Jakob; Sommaruga, Ruben

    2009-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) on bacterial abundance, activity and community composition in a coastal lagoon of the Atlantic Ocean with high dissolved organic carbon concentration. On two occasions during the austral summer, bacteria-free water of the lagoon was exposed to different regions of the solar spectrum (full solar radiation, UV-A+PAR, PAR) or kept in the dark. Subsequently, dilution cultures were established with bacterioplankton from the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity, and community composition of bacterioplankton were assessed before and after incubation in the different treatments. Changes in absorption, fluorescence, and DOC concentration were used as proxies for CDOM photoalteration. We found a significant CDOM photobleaching signal, DOC loss, as well as a stimulation of bacterial activity in the treatments pre-exposed to UV radiation, suggesting increased bioavailability of DOM. Bacterial community analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that this stimulation was mainly accompanied by the specific enrichment of Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria. Thus, our results suggest that CDOM photoalteration not only stimulates bacterioplankton growth, but also induces rapid changes in bacterioplankton composition, which can be of relevance for ecosystem functioning, particularly considering present and future changes in the input of terrestrial CDOM to aquatic systems.

  5. Assessing research activity and capacity of community-based organizations: development and pilot testing of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Debbie L; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Mitchell, Leif; Tian, Terry; Choudhury, Shonali; Fiellin, David A

    2014-01-01

    Although awareness of the importance of the research capacity of community-based organizations (CBOs) is growing, a uniform framework of the research capacity domains within CBOs has not yet been developed. To develop a framework and instrument (the Community REsearch Activity assessment Tool [CREAT]) for assessing the research activity and capacity of CBOs that incorporates awareness of the different data collection and analysis priorities of CBOs. We conducted a review of existing tools for assessing research capacity to identify key capacity domains. Instrument items were developed through an iterative process with CBO representatives and community researchers. The CREAT was then pilot tested with 30 CBOs. The four primary domains of the CREAT framework include 1) organizational support for research, 2) generalizable experiences, 3) research specific experiences, and 4) funding. Organizations reported a high prevalence of activities in the research-specific experiences domain, including conducting literature reviews (70%), use of research terminology (83%), and primary data collection (100%). Respondents see research findings as important to improve program and service delivery, and to seek funds for new programs and services. Funders, board members, and policymakers are the most important dissemination audiences. The work reported herein advances the field of CBO research capacity by developing a systematic framework for assessing research activity and capacity relevant to the work of CBOs, and by developing and piloting an instrument to assess activity in these domains.

  6. Beyond the Biomedical Paradigm: The Formation and Development of Indigenous Community-Controlled Health Organizations in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the formation and development of Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services in Australia, with emphasis on the Redfern Aboriginal Medical Service in Sydney. These organizations were established in the 1970s by Indigenous Australians who were excluded from and denied access to mainstream health services. The aim of this research was to explore notions of Indigenous agency against a historical backdrop of dispossession, colonialism, and racism. Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services act as a primary source of healthcare for many Indigenous communities in rural and urban areas. This study examined their philosophy of healthcare, the range of services provided, their problems with state bureaucracies and government funding bodies, and the imposition of managerialist techniques and strategies on their governance. Essentially, these organizations transcend individualistic, biomedical, and bureaucratic paradigms of health services by conceptualizing and responding to Indigenous health needs at a grassroots level and in a broad social and political context. They are based on a social model of health. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  7. Genetic 'fingerprints' to characterise microbial communities during organic overloading and in large-scale biogas plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleyboecker, A.; Lerm, S.; Vieth, A.; Wuerdemann, H. [GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, Bio-Geo-Engineering, Potsdam (Germany); Miethling-Graff, R. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie; Wittmaier, M. [Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft, Bremen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Since fermentation is a complex process, biogas reactors are still known as 'black boxes'. Mostly they are not run at their maximum loading rate due to the possible failure in the process by organic overloading. This means that there are still unused capacities to produce more biogas in less time. Investigations of different large-scale biogas plants showed that fermenters are operated containing different amounts of volatile fatty acids. These amounts can vary so much that one of two digestors, both possessing the same VFA concentration, does not produce gas anymore while the other is still at work. A reason for this phenomenon might be found in the composition of the microbial communities or in differences in the operation of the plants. To gain a better understanding of the 'black box', structural changes in microbial communities during controlled organic overloading in a laboratory and biocenosis of large-scale reactors were investigated. A genetic fingerprint based on 16S rDNA (PCR-SSCP) was used to characterise the microbial community. (orig.)

  8. Health care: a community concern? : developments in the organization of Canadian health services

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crichton, Anne

    1997-01-01

    ... Canadian Health Care Organizational Policies 1967-86 IV Service Delivery Systems and Their Response to the Need for Change to a Collective Care Organization 9. Care in the Doctor's Office 10. Support Services for Physicians in General Practice 11. Medical Practice Organization: Alternative Medical Care Delivery Models 12. Evolution of Public H...

  9. Innovating Without Information Constraints: Organizations, Communities, and Innovation When Information Costs Approach Zero

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth J. Altman; Frank Nagle; Michael L. Tushman

    2013-01-01

    Innovation traditionally takes place within an organization's boundaries and with selected partners. This Chandlerian approach is rooted in transaction costs, organizational boundaries, and information challenges. Information processing, storage, and communication costs have been an important constraint on innovation and a reason why innovation takes place inside the organization. However, exponential technological progress is dramatically decreasing information constraints, and in many conte...

  10. Microbial community evolution during simulated managed aquifer recharge in response to different biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) concentrations

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the microbial community in laboratory-scale soil columns simulating the infiltration zone of managed aquifer recharge (MAR) systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. Parallel systems were supplemented with either moderate (1.1 mg/L) or low (0.5 mg/L) biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC) for a period of six months during which time, spatial (1 cm, 30 cm, 60 cm, 90 cm, and 120 cm) and temporal (monthly) analyses of sediment-associated microbial community structure were analyzed. Total microbial biomass associated with sediments was positively correlated with BDOC concentration where a significant decline in BDOC was observed along the column length. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated dominance by Bacteria with Archaea comprising less than 1 percent of the total community. Proteobacteria was found to be the major phylum in samples from all column depths with contributions from Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Microbial community structure at all the phylum, class and genus levels differed significantly at 1 cm between columns receiving moderate and low BDOC concentrations; in contrast strong similarities were observed both between parallel column systems and across samples from 30 to 120 cm depths. Samples from 1 cm depth of the low BDOC columns exhibited higher microbial diversity (expressed as Shannon Index) than those at 1 cm of moderate BDOC columns, and both increased from 5.4 to 5.9 at 1 cm depth to 6.7-8.3 at 30-120 cm depths. The microbial community structure reached steady state after 3-4 months since the initiation of the experiment, which also resulted in an improved DOC removal during the same time period. This study suggested that BDOC could significantly influence microbial community structure regarding both composition and diversity of artificial MAR systems and analogous natural aquifer sediment ecosystems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. A new method for developing compassionate communities and cities movement-"Todos Contigo" Programme (We are All With You): experience in Spain and Latin America countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librada Flores, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Todos Contigo (We are All With You) is a programme for social awareness, training, and implementation of care networks for citizens to support, accompany and care for those who face advanced chronic disease and end of life situations. From New Health Foundation this programme collaborates with the Public Health and Palliative Care International Charter of Compassionate Communities. It seeks to promote a new integrated palliative care model in the daily lives of individuals, to make families and health/social professionals the main promoters of compassionate communities and compassionate cities movement. This workshop aims to: (I) describe the methodology of the programme: required tools and steps for building and developing a compassionate city or community; (II) identify stakeholders and organizations to join the compassionate community as networking agents; (III) sharing experiences from the implementation of this project in various contexts while providing specific examples and lessons learned from the perspective of various roles; (IV) explain the process of becoming a part of the project and of getting the official recognition for being a compassionate city. This workshop aims to share a new methodology "Todos Contigo" (We are all with you) Programme for the development of compassionate communities and cities movement. We describe our experiences in Spain and Latin American countries. The method is based on creating community networks, carrying out social awareness and training programmes related to end of life care.

  12. Role Of Non-Governmental Organizations Leadership In The Implementation Of Community Development Projects In Arumeru District Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajabu Ally Mtunge

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the role of leadership in the implementation of community development projects by local non-governmental organizations in Arumeru District Tanzania. The study applied survey design which covered the sample of 46 respondents including District Executive Director District Social Workers Non-Governmental Organization leaders workers and volunteers and community members in Arumeru district Tanzania. The study employed simple random sampling technique in order to ensure equal chance of an individual being involved in this study as inferential statistics considered. Data collected from a sample of 46 NGOs employees using a semi-structured questionnaire with both closed and open-ended questions. The collected data analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistical tools used included frequencies mean and standard deviation while inferential statistical tool used was correlation. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS version 19 used for analyzing the data collected. The study achieved a response of 46 out of a sample of 47 representing a response rate of 97.87. The results show that a significant number of NGOs 34.8 had not completed their projects 21.7 stated that less than five projects were complete and 43.5 of the respondents confirmed that more than five projects not completed over the last one year. Regarding the influence of leadership on implementation of project spearmans rank correlation revealed a very strong positive correlation 0.910 between of leadership vision and implementation of community development projects a strong positive correlation between communication and implementation of community development projects rho 0.730 n 46 p .001 strong positive correlation between commitment and implementation of community developmental projects which was statistically significant rs .601 p .000 and a positive correlation between accountability and

  13. Influence of harvesting and processing methods on organic viability of soybean seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukanović Lana

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic viability of soybean seed for three soybean varieties - elite (Bosa, ZPS 015 and Nena depending on methods of manipulation with seeds during harvesting and processing phase were determined in this paper. Trial was conducted in Zemun Polje during 1999; manual and mechanized harvesting or processing methods were applied. Seed germination was tested using ISTA methods (Standard method and Cold test. Following parameters were evaluated: germination viability, germination, rate-speed of emergence, length of hypocotile and main root Rate-speed of emergence was based on number of emerged plants per day. Length of hypocotile or root and percent of germination determined vigour index. Based on obtained results it maybe concluded that methods of seed manipulation during harvesting or processing phase were influenced on soybean seed quality parameters evaluated. Ways of seed manipulation - methods evaluated were influenced organic viability of soybean seed by decreasing germination viability, total germination and length of main root.

  14. A Novel Method to Evaluate the Community Built Environment Using Photographs – Environmental Profile of a Community Health (EPOCH) Photo Neighbourhood Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K.; Corsi, Daniel J.; Lock, Karen; Madhavan, Manisha; Mackie, Pam; Li, Wei; Yi, Sun; Wang, Yang; Swaminathan, Sumathi; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Avezum, Álvaro; Lear, Scott A.; Dagenais, Gilles; Teo, Koon; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has shown that environments with features that encourage walking are associated with increased physical activity. Existing methods to assess the built environment using geographical information systems (GIS) data, direct audit or large surveys of the residents face constraints, such as data availability and comparability, when used to study communities in countries in diverse parts of the world. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate features of the built environment of communities using a standard set of photos. In this report we describe the method of photo collection, photo analysis instrument development and inter-rater reliability of the instrument. Methods/Principal Findings A minimum of 5 photos were taken per community in 86 communities in 5 countries according to a standard set of instructions from a designated central point of each community by researchers at each site. A standard pro forma derived from reviewing existing instruments to assess the built environment was developed and used to score the characteristics of each community. Photo sets from each community were assessed independently by three observers in the central research office according to the pro forma and the inter-rater reliability was compared by intra-class correlation (ICC). Overall 87% (53 of 60) items had an ICC of ≥0.70, 7% (4 of 60) had an ICC between 0.60 and 0.70 and 5% (3 of 60) items had an ICC ≤0.50. Conclusions/Significance Analysis of photos using a standardized protocol as described in this study offers a means to obtain reliable and reproducible information on the built environment in communities in very diverse locations around the world. The collection of the photographic data required minimal training and the analysis demonstrated high reliability for the majority of items of interest. PMID:25369366

  15. Compositions and methods of making and using metal-organic framework compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Adil, Karim; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Bhatt, Prashant M.

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a metal-organic framework (MOF) composition comprising one or more metal ions, a plurality of organic ligands, and a solvent, wherein the one or more metal ions associate with the plurality of organic ligands sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology. Embodiments of the present disclosure further include a method of making a MOF composition comprising contacting one or more metal ions with a plurality of organic ligands in the presence of a solvent, sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology, wherein the solvent comprises water only. Embodiments of the present disclosure also describe a method of capturing chemical species from a fluid composition comprising contacting a MOF composition with kag topology and pore size of about 3.4Å to 4.8Å with a fluid composition comprising two or more chemical species and capturing one or more captured chemical species from the fluid composition.

  16. Compositions and methods of making and using metal-organic framework compositions

    KAUST Repository

    Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja

    2017-05-04

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include a metal-organic framework (MOF) composition comprising one or more metal ions, a plurality of organic ligands, and a solvent, wherein the one or more metal ions associate with the plurality of organic ligands sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology. Embodiments of the present disclosure further include a method of making a MOF composition comprising contacting one or more metal ions with a plurality of organic ligands in the presence of a solvent, sufficient to form a MOF with kag topology, wherein the solvent comprises water only. Embodiments of the present disclosure also describe a method of capturing chemical species from a fluid composition comprising contacting a MOF composition with kag topology and pore size of about 3.4Å to 4.8Å with a fluid composition comprising two or more chemical species and capturing one or more captured chemical species from the fluid composition.

  17. Generation of organic scintillators response function for fast neutrons using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzaro, A.C.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program (DALP) in Fortran-4-G language, has been developed using the Monte Carlo method to simulate the experimental techniques leading to the distribution of pulse heights due to monoenergetic neutrons reaching an organic scintillator. The calculation of the pulse height distribution has been done for two different systems: 1) Monoenergetic neutrons from a punctual source reaching the flat face of a cylindrical organic scintillator; 2) Environmental monoenergetic neutrons randomly reaching either the flat or curved face of the cylindrical organic scintillator. The computer program has been developed in order to be applied to the NE-213 liquid organic scintillator, but can be easily adapted to any other kind of organic scintillator. With this program one can determine the pulse height distribution for neutron energies ranging from 15 KeV to 10 MeV. (Author) [pt

  18. Shared use of school facilities with community organizations and afterschool physical activity program participation: a cost-benefit assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanters, Michael A; Bocarro, Jason N; Filardo, Mary; Edwards, Michael B; McKenzie, Thomas L; Floyd, Myron F

    2014-05-01

    Partnerships between school districts and community-based organizations to share school facilities during afterschool hours can be an effective strategy for increasing physical activity. However, the perceived cost of shared use has been noted as an important reason for restricting community access to schools. This study examined shared use of middle school facilities, the amount and type of afterschool physical activity programs provided at middle schools together with the costs of operating the facilities. Afterschool programs were assessed for frequency, duration, and type of structured physical activity programs provided and the number of boys and girls in each program. School operating costs were used to calculate a cost per student and cost per building square foot measure. Data were collected at all 30 middle schools in a large school district over 12 months in 2010-2011. Policies that permitted more use of school facilities for community-sponsored programs increased participation in afterschool programs without a significant increase in operating expenses. These results suggest partnerships between schools and other community agencies to share facilities and create new opportunities for afterschool physical activity programs are a promising health promotion strategy. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  19. General scheme for elucidating the structure of organic compounds using spectroscopic and spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Carlos Magno R.; Souza, Nelson Angelo de

    2007-01-01

    This work describes a systematic method to be applied in undergraduate courses of organic chemistry, correlating infrared spectra, hydrogen and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectra. To this end, a scheme and a table were developed to conduct the elucidation of the structure of organic compounds initially using infrared spectra. Interpretation of hydrogen and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and of mass spectra is used to confirm the proposed structure. (author)

  20. Promising ethical arguments for product differentiation in the organic food sector. A mixed methods research approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zander, Katrin; Stolz, Hanna; Hamm, Ulrich

    2013-01-01

    Ethical consumerism is a growing trend worldwide. Ethical consumers’ expectations are increasing and neither the Fairtrade nor the organic farming concept covers all the ethical concerns of consumers. Against this background the aim of this research is to elicit consumers’ preferences regarding organic food with additional ethical attributes and their relevance at the market place. A mixed methods research approach was applied by combining an Information Display Matrix, Focus Group Discuss...

  1. Integrated Organic Farm; a model aimed at contributing to food security for indigenous communities in Talamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salazar-Díaz

    2015-06-01

    Traditional farming in Talamanca comes from the continuous and balanced relationship between humans and their natural environment; however, there is evidence of deterioration in this relationship. As a result of this initiative, this proposal intends to be a model to be replicated in neighboring communities and so contribute to sustainable human development in the region of Talamanca.

  2. Organizing to Use Facebook Advertisements: A Planning Tool for Extension Professionals, Businesses, and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, James

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain how Extension professionals, businesses, and communities can use Facebook advertisements effectively. The article is a planning tool that introduces Facebook's Advertiser Help Center, explains some applicable key concepts, and suggests best practices to apply before launching a Facebook advertising…

  3. Invertebrates and Organ Systems: Science Instruction and "Fostering a Community of Learners"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Stephanie A.; Shulman, Judith H.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is the third in a set of papers that explores the understanding and implementation of the educational system, "Fostering a Community of Learners" (FCL) across subject matters. We examine how FCL is influenced by the discipline of science, the teaching of science, and the conceptions that teachers have surrounding these two topics. We…

  4. Southwestern Avian Community Organization in Exotic Tamarix: Current Patterns and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Walker

    2006-01-01

    Tamarisk (saltcedar: Tamarix), an invasive exotic tree native to the Eastern Hemisphere, is currently the dominant plant species in most southwestern riparian ecosystems at elevations below 1500 m. Tamarisk alters abiotic conditions and the floral composition of native southwestern riparian ecosystems and, in turn, affects native southwestern animal communities....

  5. High organic carbon export precludes eutrophication responses in experimental rocky shore communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrón, C.; Marbu, N.; Duarte, C.M.; Pedersen, M.F.; Lindblad, C.; Kersting, K.; Moy, F.; Bokn, T.

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of nutrient inputs on the carbon (C) budget of rocky shore communities using a set of eight large experimental mesocosms. The mesocosms received a range of inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions, at an N:P ratio of 16. These additions were designed to elevate the

  6. Problem-formulation and problem-solving in self-organized communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai J.; Frederiksen, Lars; Rullani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Building on the problem-solving perspective, we study behaviors related to projects and the communication-based antecedents of such behaviors in the free open-source software (FOSS) community. We examine two kinds of problem/project-behaviors: Individuals can set up projects around the formulation...

  7. The Mercantile Business Coalition: A Narrative Analysis of a Learning Organization in an African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, Alma S.

    2013-01-01

    "A race that is solely dependent upon another for its economic existences sooner or later dies," this quote by Marcus Garvey highlighted the need for African American communities to think about the importance of economic development. This message was also heard by African Americans as early as the 1700s. Not only was the message about…

  8. Organization and startup of The Gambia's new community-based medical programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez, José A; Suárez, Lázaro V; Del Rosario, Odalis; Hechavarría, Suiberto; Quiñones, Judith

    2012-01-01

    The shortage of health professionals in developing countries and especially in their poorest regions imperils the vision of health for all. New training policies and strategies are needed urgently to address these shortages. The Gambia's new Community-Based Medical Programme is one such strategy. KEYWORDS Medical education, access to health care, healthcare disparities, health manpower, rural health, developing countries, The Gambia.

  9. Andragogy, Organization, and Implementation Concerns for Gaming as an Instructional Tool in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Vance S.

    2011-01-01

    As this and previous editions of "New Directions for Community Colleges" have argued, digital skills are necessary. Our future economy will be based on them, but there is no consensus on which skills to teach. Many talk about Web 2.0 skills, familiarity with software, and critical thinking skills, yet few mention the potential of video games in…

  10. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

    2011-01-27

    Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc) and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing). Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects). To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure) with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost) produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%). We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease). These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects). In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  11. Earthworm effects without earthworms: inoculation of raw organic matter with worm-worked substrates alters microbial community functioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Aira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Earthworms are key organisms in organic matter decomposition because of the interactions they establish with soil microorganisms. They enhance decomposition rates through the joint action of direct effects (i.e. effects due to direct earthworm activity such as digestion, burrowing, etc and indirect effects (i.e. effects derived from earthworm activities such as cast ageing. Here we test whether indirect earthworm effects affect microbial community functioning in the substrate, as when earthworms are present (i. e., direct effects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address these questions we inoculated fresh organic matter (pig manure with worm-worked substrates (vermicompost produced by three different earthworm species. Two doses of each vermicompost were used (2.5 and 10%. We hypothesized that the presence of worm-worked material in the fresh organic matter will result in an inoculum of different microorganisms and nutrients. This inoculum should interact with microbial communities in fresh organic matter, thus promoting modifications similar to those found when earthworms are present. Inoculation of worm-worked substrates provoked significant increases in microbial biomass and enzyme activities (β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase and protease. These indirect effects were similar to, although lower than, those obtained in pig manure with earthworms (direct and indirect earthworm effects. In general, the effects were not dose-dependent, suggesting the existence of a threshold at which they were triggered. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data reveal that the relationships between earthworms and microorganisms are far from being understood, and suggest the existence of several positive feedbacks during earthworm activity as a result of the interactions between direct and indirect effects, since their combination produces stronger modifications to microbial biomass and enzyme activity.

  12. Development of new methods in modern selective organic synthesis: preparation of functionalized molecules with atomic precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananikov, V P; Khemchyan, L L; Ivanova, Yu V; Dilman, A D; Levin, V V; Bukhtiyarov, V I; Sorokin, A M; Prosvirin, I P; Romanenko, A V; Simonov, P A; Vatsadze, S Z; Medved'ko, A V; Nuriev, V N; Nenajdenko, V G; Shmatova, O I; Muzalevskiy, V M; Koptyug, I V; Kovtunov, K V; Zhivonitko, V V; Likholobov, V A

    2014-01-01

    The challenges of the modern society and the growing demand of high-technology sectors of industrial production bring about a new phase in the development of organic synthesis. A cutting edge of modern synthetic methods is introduction of functional groups and more complex structural units into organic molecules with unprecedented control over the course of chemical transformation. Analysis of the state-of-the-art achievements in selective organic synthesis indicates the appearance of a new trend — the synthesis of organic molecules, biologically active compounds, pharmaceutical substances and smart materials with absolute selectivity. Most advanced approaches to organic synthesis anticipated in the near future can be defined as 'atomic precision' in chemical reactions. The present review considers selective methods of organic synthesis suitable for transformation of complex functionalized molecules under mild conditions. Selected key trends in the modern organic synthesis are considered including the preparation of organofluorine compounds, catalytic cross-coupling and oxidative cross-coupling reactions, atom-economic addition reactions, methathesis processes, oxidation and reduction reactions, synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, design of new homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic systems, application of photocatalysis, scaling up synthetic procedures to industrial level and development of new approaches to investigation of mechanisms of catalytic reactions. The bibliography includes 840 references

  13. Academic Community Consumer Assessment an Institution of Public Higher Education in Relation to Green it Practices in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.

  14. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  16. Application of isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants sorbed to dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura, E-mail: laura.delgado@eez.csic.es; Wu, Laosheng; Gan, Jay

    2015-08-15

    Natural waters such as surface water and sediment porewater invariably contain dissolved organic matter (DOM). Association of strongly hydrophobic contaminants (HOCs) with DOM leads to decreased toxicity and bioavailability, but bioavailability of DOM-sorbed HOCs is difficult to measure. Current methods to estimate bioavailability of HOCs in water are based on only the freely dissolved concentration (C{sub free}). The ignorance of the exchangeable fraction of HOCs sorbed on DOM may result in an underestimation of the toxicity potential of HOCs to aquatic organisms. Here we explore the applicability of an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measuring the desorption fraction of DOM-sorbed pyrene and bifenthrin and determining their exchangeable pool (E) as an approximation of bioavailability. E values, expressed as percentage of the total concentration, ranged between 0.80 and 0.92% for pyrene and 0.74 and 0.85% for bifenthrin, depending primarily on the amount of chemical in the freely dissolved form. However, between 34 and 78% of the DOM-sorbed pyrene was exchangeable. This fraction ranged between 23% and 82% for bifenthrin. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a significant relationship (r{sup 2} > 0.72, P < 0.0001) between E and bioaccumulation into Daphnia magna. Therefore, IDM may be used to improve the bioavailability measurement and risk assessment of HOCs in aquatic systems.

  17. Application of isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants sorbed to dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Wu, Laosheng; Gan, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Natural waters such as surface water and sediment porewater invariably contain dissolved organic matter (DOM). Association of strongly hydrophobic contaminants (HOCs) with DOM leads to decreased toxicity and bioavailability, but bioavailability of DOM-sorbed HOCs is difficult to measure. Current methods to estimate bioavailability of HOCs in water are based on only the freely dissolved concentration (C free ). The ignorance of the exchangeable fraction of HOCs sorbed on DOM may result in an underestimation of the toxicity potential of HOCs to aquatic organisms. Here we explore the applicability of an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measuring the desorption fraction of DOM-sorbed pyrene and bifenthrin and determining their exchangeable pool (E) as an approximation of bioavailability. E values, expressed as percentage of the total concentration, ranged between 0.80 and 0.92% for pyrene and 0.74 and 0.85% for bifenthrin, depending primarily on the amount of chemical in the freely dissolved form. However, between 34 and 78% of the DOM-sorbed pyrene was exchangeable. This fraction ranged between 23% and 82% for bifenthrin. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a significant relationship (r 2 > 0.72, P < 0.0001) between E and bioaccumulation into Daphnia magna. Therefore, IDM may be used to improve the bioavailability measurement and risk assessment of HOCs in aquatic systems

  18. Application of method of organizational congruences to substitution of organic solvents with vegetable agents for cleaning offset printing machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salerno, S [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Area Energia Ambiente e Salute; Tartaglia, R [Unita Sanitaria Locale 10/D, Firenze (Italy); Garzi, S; Biagioni, A [Istituto tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, Firenze (Italy)

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this research is the application of the method of organizational congruences before and after the substitution of organic solvents with vegetable agents for the cleaning offset printing machine in order to assess the organizational changes. A solvent free process is the goal of the SUBSPRINT project (Technology Transfer Program of the European Community). In this study it is shown how human and environmental health is improved by using vegetable agents through this change may lead to some other organizational constraints such as the time needed, the monotony and repetitiveness of the technical actions involved. The authors underline that the knowledge of the new technology impact of health help for a better understanding of the resistance to the change and help for a further amelioration of it.

  19. A novel method to evaluate the community built environment using photographs--Environmental Profile of a Community Health (EPOCH photo neighbourhood evaluation tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara K Chow

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that environments with features that encourage walking are associated with increased physical activity. Existing methods to assess the built environment using geographical information systems (GIS data, direct audit or large surveys of the residents face constraints, such as data availability and comparability, when used to study communities in countries in diverse parts of the world. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate features of the built environment of communities using a standard set of photos. In this report we describe the method of photo collection, photo analysis instrument development and inter-rater reliability of the instrument.A minimum of 5 photos were taken per community in 86 communities in 5 countries according to a standard set of instructions from a designated central point of each community by researchers at each site. A standard pro forma derived from reviewing existing instruments to assess the built environment was developed and used to score the characteristics of each community. Photo sets from each community were assessed independently by three observers in the central research office according to the pro forma and the inter-rater reliability was compared by intra-class correlation (ICC. Overall 87% (53 of 60 items had an ICC of ≥ 0.70, 7% (4 of 60 had an ICC between 0.60 and 0.70 and 5% (3 of 60 items had an ICC ≤ 0.50.Analysis of photos using a standardized protocol as described in this study offers a means to obtain reliable and reproducible information on the built environment in communities in very diverse locations around the world. The collection of the photographic data required minimal training and the analysis demonstrated high reliability for the majority of items of interest.

  20. Role of primary substrate composition on microbial community structure and function and trace organic chemical attenuation in managed aquifer recharge systems

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Dong; Alidina, Mazahirali; Drewes, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to reveal the microbial community characteristics in simulated managed aquifer recharge (MAR), a natural water treatment system, under different concentrations and compositions of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC